WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly expanding population

  1. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  2. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  3. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of rapid palatal expander screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. Methods Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S”, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S” for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S.P., Target Baby REP Veltri, and Leone A 362113. A test expander with the mean dimensions taken from measurements on a sample of 100 expanders was constructed for each screw. The test expanders were connected to the supports of an Instron 4467 (Instron Corp., USA mechanical testing machine equipped with a 500 N load cell, and the compression force exerted after each activation was measured. The mean forces expressed by the two- and four-arm expanders were then compared. Results After five activations, the forces expressed by the two-arm devices were double than those expressed by the four-arm devices on average (224 ± 59.9 N vs. 103 ± 32.9 N, and such values remained high after subsequent activations. Conclusions The expanders tested demonstrated stiffness characteristics compatible with opening of the palatine sutures in pre-adolescent patients. The stiffness of such devices can be further increased during the construction phase.

  4. Exposing medical students to expanding populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindenthal JJ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available JJ Lindenthal,1,2 JA DeLisa,3 GF Heinrich,4 WS Calderón Gerstein,5 1Department of Psychiatry, Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of New Mexico Health Science Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA; 5Hospital Nacional Ramiro Prialé, EsSalud, Huancayo, Peru Abstract: Physicians are required to advocate for and counsel patients based on the best science and the interests of the individual while avoiding discrimination, ensuring equal access to health and mental services. Nonetheless, the communication gap between physician and patients has long been observed. To this end, the Institute for the Public Understanding of Health and Medicine of the Rutgers University New Jersey Medical School has expanded its efforts. This report describes two new programs: a legacy lecture series for medical students and an international “experience”, in Huancayo, Peru, for medical students and faculty. The MiniMed outreach program, now in its ninth year and first described in this journal in 2012, was designed to empower the powerless to communicate more effectively with clinicians, thus improving both the effectiveness of the physician–patient relationship and health care outcomes. The approach of the two new programs and their effects on patients, particularly the underserved, and medical students and faculty, are outlined in the following article. Keywords: MiniMed program, equal access, underserved populations, Newark Renaissance House, Kintock Group, role modeling 

  5. Critical ignition in rapidly expanding self-similar flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Maxwell, Brian M.

    2010-06-01

    The generic problem of ignition of a particle undergoing an expansion given by a power law rate of decay behind a decaying shock is addressed in the present study. It is demonstrated, using a one-step Arrhenius irreversible reaction, that a sufficiently strong expansion wave can quench the reaction. The critical conditions for extinction are obtained in closed form in terms of the time scale for the expansion process and the thermochemical properties of the gas, yielding a critical Damkohler number, i.e., the ratio of the expansion time scale to the homogeneous ignition time scale, given by (γ -1)(Ea/RT)-1/n, where n is the power law exponent of the self-similar expansion. The critical ignition criteria, which are valid in the asymptotic limit n(γ -1)(Ea/RT)=O(1), were found in excellent agreement with numerical results. The applicability of the results obtained are discussed for ignition in rapidly expanding flows which occur behind decaying shock waves, as encountered in problems of detonation initiation by a Taylor-Sedov blast wave, and reacting jet startup, and for reactions in steady hypersonic flows around projectiles.

  6. India: When cities expand too rapidly | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... “If you walk around Bangalore,” she continues, “the first thing you notice is how much everything is expanding – roads, buildings, everything.” As a result, the inhabitants must gradually change their way of life. “No one wants to stay in agriculture because it's easier to find work in the city,” explains Srinivasan ...

  7. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), pa...

  8. Maxillary ulceration resulting from using a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Maia, Luiz Guilherme [UNESP; Monini, Andre da Costa [UNESP; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-01-01

    One of the characteristics of diabetes mellitus is the exaggerated inflammatory response. The present report shows the reaction from the use of a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient. A 9-year-old child presented an uncommon reaction to the treatment with a rapid maxillary expander, and on follow-up examination, it was discovered that the patient had diabetes mellitus. After controlling the disease, the proposed treatment was used without further incidents. The case calls attention ...

  9. Expanding the Cultural Adaptation Framework for Population-Level Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Attention to cultural diversity and cultural adaptation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) has been a longstanding priority in prevention science. However, EBIs for diverse populations present several challenges for broad dissemination and population impact. The five papers in this special issue underscore some of these challenges and offer new ways of thinking and recommendations for the next generation of type 2 translation research. This commentary underscores three broad recommendations, including the need for a more expanded conceptualization and empirical understanding of the core tension between fidelity and adaptation; greater focus on the systems of care that deliver EBIs to culturally diverse populations, including increased attention to such issues as access and engagement; and greater flexibility in strategies to adapt and evaluate interventions within and across communities and settings that serve diverse populations. By offering exemplars and suggestions to address these challenges, these papers collectively help to realign research on cultural adaptation with its ultimate goal of reducing health disparities by ensuring greater access, impact, and equity of prevention services in a dynamic, multicultural society. However, other fundamental challenges remain unaddressed, including the need to reduce inequalities that exist in the health, education, social service, and justice systems that will ultimately support broad diffusion of EBIs for diverse populations.

  10. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-11-26

    Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012).In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies and Interrupted time series (ITS) studies that

  11. Meeting water requirements of an expanding world population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, M.

    1997-01-01

    Water availability in the root zone (green water) is a critical component of plant production, but is often deficient in many Third World regions. When deficient, runoff water (blue water) can be added. Focusing on ten physiographic regions in Africa and Asia, characterized by mainly or partly dry climates and rapid population growth, this study analyses whether in a 30-years' perspective enough blue water could be provided to allow food self-sufficiency. It is assumed that for food self-sufficiency some 900 cubic metres of water per person per year has to be provided. In judging the realism it is assumed that a maximum 25 per cent increase in water mobilization rate would be manageable in a 30-year period. The study suggests that by 2025, water scarcity will make regions populated by some 55 per cent of the world's population dependent on food imports. For water-wasting regions in Central Asia, water saving might, however, free the water needed. The paper closes by proposing some urgent measures.

  12. Strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Liying; Yuan, Beibei; Huang, Fei; Lu, Ying; Garner, Paul; Meng, Qingyue

    2014-01-01

    Background Health insurance has the potential to improve access to health care and protect people from the financial risks of diseases. However, health insurance coverage is often low, particularly for people most in need of protection, including children and other vulnerable populations. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of strategies for expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable populations. Search methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library. www.thecochranelibrary.com (searched 2 November 2012), PubMed (searched 1 November 2012), EMBASE (searched 6 July 2012), Global Health (searched 6 July 2012), IBSS (searched 6 July 2012), WHO Library Database (WHOLIS) (searched 1 November 2012), IDEAS (searched 1 November 2012), ISI-Proceedings (searched 1 November 2012),OpenGrey (changed from OpenSIGLE) (searched 1 November 2012), African Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), BLDS (searched 1 November 2012), Econlit (searched 1 November 2012), ELDIS (searched 1 November 2012), ERIC (searched 1 November 2012), HERDIN NeON Database (searched 1 November 2012), IndMED (searched 1 November 2012), JSTOR (searched 1 November 2012), LILACS(searched 1 November 2012), NTIS (searched 1 November 2012), PAIS (searched 6 July 2012), Popline (searched 1 November 2012), ProQuest Dissertation &Theses Database (searched 1 November 2012), PsycINFO (searched 6 July 2012), SSRN (searched 1 November 2012), Thai Index Medicus (searched 1 November 2012), World Bank (searched 2 November 2012), WanFang (searched 3 November 2012), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CHKD-CNKI) (searched 2 November 2012). In addition, we searched the reference lists of included studies and carried out a citation search for the included studies via Web of Science to find other potentially relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (NRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA

  13. Population priorities: the challenge of continued rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Adair

    2009-10-27

    Rapid population growth continues in the least developed countries. The revisionist case that rapid population could be overcome by technology, that population density was advantageous, that capital shallowing is not a vital concern and that empirical investigations had not proved a correlation between high population growth and low per capita income was both empirically and theoretically flawed. In the modern world, population density does not play the role it did in nineteenth-century Europe and rates of growth in some of today's least developed nations are four times than those in nineteenth-century Europe, and without major accumulation of capital per capita, no major economy has or is likely to make the low- to middle-income transition. Though not sufficient, capital accumulation for growth is absolutely essential to economic growth. While there are good reasons for objecting to the enforced nature of the Chinese one-child policy, we should not underestimate the positive impact which that policy has almost certainly had and will have over the next several decades on Chinese economic performance. And a valid reticence about telling developing countries that they must contain fertility should not lead us to underestimate the severely adverse impact of high fertility rates on the economic performance and prospects of many countries in Africa and the Middle East.

  14. Expanding the population genetic perspective of cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Scott R

    2014-09-01

    understanding of the current genotypic diversity encompassed within and between populations of their keystone species, the scleractinian corals and dinoflagellate symbionts, as they potentially possess functional variation (either singularly or in combination) that may come under selection due to the ongoing and rapid environmental changes they are experiencing. However, such studies, especially for members of the genus Symbiodinium, are sparse. In this issue, Baums et al. (2014) provide a significant contribution by documenting the range-wide population genetics of Symbiodinium 'fitti' (Fig.1 ) in the context of complementary data from its host, the endangered Caribbean elkhorn coral Acropora palmata (Fig. 2). Notable results of this study include a single S. 'fitti' genotype typically dominates an individual A. palmata colony both spatially and temporally, gene flow among coral host populations is a magnitude higher to that of its symbiont populations, and the partners possess disparate patterns of genetic differentiation across the Greater Caribbean. The implications of such findings are discussed herein. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander (MARPE: the quest for pure orthopedic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Suzuki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The midpalatal suture has bone margins with thick connective tissue interposed between them, and it does not represent the fusion of maxillary palatal processes only, but also the fusion of palatal processes of the jaws and horizontal osseous laminae of palatal bones. Changing it implies affecting neighboring areas. It has got three segments that should be considered by all clinical analyses, whether therapeutic or experimental: the anterior segment (before the incisive foramen, or intermaxillary segment, the middle segment (from the incisive foramen to the suture transversal to the palatal bone and the posterior segment (after the suture transversal to the palatal bone . Rapid palatal expansion might be recommended for patients at the final pubertal growth stage, in addition to adult patients with maxillary constriction. It represents a treatment solution that can potentially avoid surgical intervention. When performed in association with rapid palatal expanders, it might enhance the skeletal effects of the latter. Of the various designs of expansion appliances, MARPE (miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander has been modified in order to allow its operational advantages and outcomes to become familiar in the clinical practice.

  16. Managing the social impacts of the rapidly-expanding extractive industries in Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Vanclay, Frank; Croal, Peter; Skjervedal, Anna Sofie Hurup

    2016-01-01

    The recent rapid expansion of extractive industries in Greenland is both causing high hopes for the future and anxieties among the local population. In the Arctic context, even small projects carry risks of major social impacts at local and national scales, and have the potential to severely affect

  17. Managing the social impacts of the rapidly expanding extractive industries in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Vanclay, Frank; Croal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The recent rapid expansion of extractive industries in Greenland is both causing high hopes for the future and anxieties among the local population. In the Arctic context, even small projects carry risks of major social impacts at local and national scales, and have the potential to severely affect...

  18. Rapid differentiation of sexual signals in invasive toads: call variation among populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiba, Kiyomi; Duffy, Richard L.; Parsons, Scott A.; Alford, Ross A.; Schwarzkopf, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Advertisement calls tend to differ among populations, based on morphological and environmental factors, or simply geographic distance, in many taxa. Invasive cane toads (Rhinella marina) were introduced to Australia in 1935 and their distribution has expanded at increasing rates over time. Rapid evolution occurred in morphological and behavioural characters that accelerate dispersal, but the effects of rapid expansion on sexual signals have not been examined. We collected advertisement calls from four populations of different ages since invasion, and analysed the geographic differentiation of seven call parameters. Our comparisons indicate that the calls of R. marina differ among Australian populations. The signal variation was not simply clinal with respect to population age, climate, or morphological differentiation. We suggest that selection on signalling among populations has been idiosyncratic and may reflect local female preferences or adaptation to environmental factors that are not clinal such as energy availability. PMID:27328666

  19. EXCIMER-LASER ABLATION OF SOFT-TISSUE - A STUDY OF THE CONTENT OF RAPIDLY EXPANDING AND COLLAPSING BUBBLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T. G.; Jansen, E. D.; Motamedi, M.; Welch, A. J.; Borst, C.

    1994-01-01

    Both holmium (lambda = 2.09 mum) and excimer (lambda = 308 nm) lasers are used for ablation of tissue. In a previous study, excimer laser ablation of aorta produced rapidly expanding and collapsing vapor bubbles. To investigate whether the excimer-induced bubble is caused by vaporization of (tissue)

  20. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  1. Rapid cycling genomic selection in a multiparental tropical maize population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic selection (GS) increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is th...

  2. Rapid Population Growth and its Implication for Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worldwide concern has recently focused on the negative aspects of rapid population growth for the' future as regards natural and non-renewable re- sources, energy and the environment. A United. Nations sponsored international conference on. "Environment and Development" was held in Brazil. inJune 1992 to focus ...

  3. Speed of invasion of an expanding population by a horizontally transmitted trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Ortiz, Juan; Allen, Rosalind J; Evans, Martin R

    2014-02-01

    Range expansions are a ubiquitous phenomenon, leading to the spatial spread of genetic, ecological, and cultural traits. While some of these traits are advantageous (and hence selected), other, nonselected traits can also spread by hitchhiking on the wave of population expansion. This requires us to understand how the spread of a hitchhiking trait is coupled to the wave of advance of its host population. Here, we use a system of coupled Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovsky-Piskunov (F-KPP) equations to describe the spread of a horizontally transmitted hitchhiking trait within a population as it expands. We extend F-KPP wave theory to the system of coupled equations to predict how the hitchhiking trait spreads as a wave within the expanding population. We show that the speed of this trait wave is controlled by an intricate coupling between the tip of the population and trait waves. Our analysis yields a new speed selection mechanism for coupled waves of advance and reveals the existence of previously unexpected speed transitions.

  4. Rapid Ultrasound in Shock (RUSH) Velocity-Time Integral: A Proposal to Expand the RUSH Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo; Aguiar, Francisco Miralles; Blaivas, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound assessment of patients in shock is becoming the standard of care in emergency and critical care settings worldwide. One of the most common protocols used for this assessment is the rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) examination. The RUSH protocol is a rapid evaluation of cardiac function, key vascular structures, and likely sources of hypotension. Stroke volume is an established important value to assess in the setting of shock, allowing the provider to predict the patient's response to treatment. However, the calculation of stroke volume or its surrogates is not part of any protocol, including RUSH. We propose the addition of ultrasound calculation of stroke volume or surrogates to the RUSH protocol and provide support for its utility and relative ease of calculation. The resulting product would be the RUSH velocity-time integral protocol. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Camouflage treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion with asymmetry using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    This case report presents the successful use of palatal mini-implants for rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular distalization in a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The patient was a 13-year-old girl with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry and a protruded chin. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was chosen, acknowledging the possibility of need for orthognathic surgery after completion of her growth. A bone-borne rapid expander (BBRME) was used to correct the transverse discrepancy and was then used as indirect anchorage for distalization of the lower dentition with Class III elastics. As a result, a Class I occlusion with favorable inclination of the upper teeth was achieved without any adverse effects. The total treatment period was 25 months. Therefore, BBRME can be considered an alternative treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

  6. The statistics of genetic diversity in rapidly adapting populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Evolutionary adaptation is driven by the accumulation of beneficial mutations, but the sequence-level dynamics of this process are poorly understood. The traditional view is that adaptation is dominated by rare beneficial ``driver'' mutations that occur sporadically and then rapidly increase in frequency until they fix (a ``selective sweep''). Yet in microbial populations, multiple beneficial mutations are often present simultaneously. Selection cannot act on each mutation independently, but only on linked combinations. This means that the fate of any mutation depends on a complex interplay between its own fitness effect, the genomic background in which it arises, and the rest of the sequence variation in the population. The balance between these factors determines which mutations fix, the patterns of sequence diversity within populations, and the degree to which evolution in replicate populations will follow parallel (or divergent) trajectories at the sequence level. Earlier work has uncovered signatures of these effects, but the dynamics of genomic sequence evolution in adapting microbial populations have not yet been directly observed. In this talk, I will describe how full-genome whole-population sequencing can be used to provide a detailed view of these dynamics at high temporal resolution over 1000 generations in 40 adapting Saccharomyces cerevisiaepopulations. This data shows how patterns of sequence evolution are driven by a balance between chance interference and hitchhiking effects, which increase stochastic variation in evolutionary outcomes, and the deterministic action of selection on individual mutations, which favors parallel solutions in replicate populations.

  7. Gardening in the desert: a spatial optimization approach to locating gardens in rapidly expanding urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Elizabeth A; Tong, Daoqin; Credit, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    Food access is a global issue, and for this reason, a wealth of studies are dedicated to understanding the location of food deserts and the benefits of urban gardens. However, few studies have linked these two strands of research together to analyze whether urban gardening activity may be a step forward in addressing issues of access for food desert residents. The Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is used as a case to demonstrate the utility of spatial optimization models for siting urban gardens near food deserts and on vacant land. The locations of urban gardens are derived from a list obtained from the Maricopa County Cooperative Extension office at the University of Arizona which were geo located and aggregated to Census tracts. Census tracts were then assigned to one of three categories: tracts that contain a garden, tracts that are immediately adjacent to a tract with a garden, and all other non-garden/non-adjacent census tracts. Analysis of variance is first used to ascertain whether there are statistical differences in the demographic, socio-economic, and land use profiles of these three categories of tracts. A maximal covering spatial optimization model is then used to identify potential locations for future gardening activities. A constraint of these models is that gardens be located on vacant land, which is a growing problem in rapidly urbanizing environments worldwide. The spatial analysis of garden locations reveals that they are centrally located in tracts with good food access. Thus, the current distribution of gardens does not provide an alternative food source to occupants of food deserts. The maximal covering spatial optimization model reveals that gardens could be sited in alternative locations to better serve food desert residents. In fact, 53 gardens may be located to cover 96.4% of all food deserts. This is an improvement over the current distribution of gardens where 68 active garden sites provide coverage to a scant 8.4% of food desert

  8. Rapid Cycling Genomic Selection in a Multiparental Tropical Maize Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuecai Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic selection (GS increases genetic gain by reducing the length of the selection cycle, as has been exemplified in maize using rapid cycling recombination of biparental populations. However, no results of GS applied to maize multi-parental populations have been reported so far. This study is the first to show realized genetic gains of rapid cycling genomic selection (RCGS for four recombination cycles in a multi-parental tropical maize population. Eighteen elite tropical maize lines were intercrossed twice, and self-pollinated once, to form the cycle 0 (C0 training population. A total of 1000 ear-to-row C0 families was genotyped with 955,690 genotyping-by-sequencing SNP markers; their testcrosses were phenotyped at four optimal locations in Mexico to form the training population. Individuals from families with the best plant types, maturity, and grain yield were selected and intermated to form RCGS cycle 1 (C1. Predictions of the genotyped individuals forming cycle C1 were made, and the best predicted grain yielders were selected as parents of C2; this was repeated for more cycles (C2, C3, and C4, thereby achieving two cycles per year. Multi-environment trials of individuals from populations C0, C1, C2, C3, and C4, together with four benchmark checks were evaluated at two locations in Mexico. Results indicated that realized grain yield from C1 to C4 reached 0.225 ton ha−1 per cycle, which is equivalent to 0.100 ton ha−1 yr−1 over a 4.5-yr breeding period from the initial cross to the last cycle. Compared with the original 18 parents used to form cycle 0 (C0, genetic diversity narrowed only slightly during the last GS cycles (C3 and C4. Results indicate that, in tropical maize multi-parental breeding populations, RCGS can be an effective breeding strategy for simultaneously conserving genetic diversity and achieving high genetic gains in a short period of time.

  9. Severe maternal morbidity: A population-based study of an expanded measure and associated factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lazariu

    Full Text Available Severe maternal morbidity conditions such as sepsis, embolism and cardiac arrest during the delivery hospitalization period can lead to extended length of hospital stays, life-long maternal health problems, and high medical costs. Most importantly, these conditions also contribute to the risk of maternal death. This population-based observational study proposed and evaluated the impact of expanding the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC measure of severe maternal morbidity by including additional comorbidities and intensive care admissions during delivery hospitalizations and examined associated factors. A New York State linked hospitalization and birth record database was used. Study participants included all New York State female residents, ages 10 to 55 years, who delivered a live infant in a New York acute care hospital between 2008 and 2013, inclusive. Incidence trends for both severe maternal morbidity measures were evaluated longitudinally. Associations between covariates and the two severe maternal morbidity measures were examined with logistic regression models, solved using generalized estimating equations and stratified by method of delivery. The New York expanded severe maternal morbidity measure identified 34,478 cases among 1,352,600 hospital deliveries (estimated incidence 2.55% representing a 3% increase in the number of cases compared to the CDC measure. Both estimates increased over the study period (p 1.5 included most measured comorbidities (e.g., pregnancy-induced hypertension, placentation disorder, multiple births, preterm birth, no prenatal care, hospitalization prior to delivery, higher levels of perinatal care birthing facilities and race/ethnicity. Expanding the measure for severe maternal morbidity during delivery to capture intensive care admissions provides a more sensitive estimate of disease burden. Perinatal regionalization in New York appears effective in routing high risk pregnancies to higher

  10. Cryptic population dynamics: rapid evolution masks trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takehito; Ellner, Stephen P; Jones, Laura E; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Lenski, Richard E; Hairston, Nelson G

    2007-09-01

    Trophic relationships, such as those between predator and prey or between pathogen and host, are key interactions linking species in ecological food webs. The structure of these links and their strengths have major consequences for the dynamics and stability of food webs. The existence and strength of particular trophic links has often been assessed using observational data on changes in species abundance through time. Here we show that very strong links can be completely missed by these kinds of analyses when changes in population abundance are accompanied by contemporaneous rapid evolution in the prey or host species. Experimental observations, in rotifer-alga and phage-bacteria chemostats, show that the predator or pathogen can exhibit large-amplitude cycles while the abundance of the prey or host remains essentially constant. We know that the species are tightly linked in these experimental microcosms, but without this knowledge, we would infer from observed patterns in abundance that the species are weakly or not at all linked. Mathematical modeling shows that this kind of cryptic dynamics occurs when there is rapid prey or host evolution for traits conferring defense against attack, and the cost of defense (in terms of tradeoffs with other fitness components) is low. Several predictions of the theory that we developed to explain the rotifer-alga experiments are confirmed in the phage-bacteria experiments, where bacterial evolution could be tracked. Modeling suggests that rapid evolution may also confound experimental approaches to measuring interaction strength, but it identifies certain experimental designs as being more robust against potential confounding by rapid evolution.

  11. Cryptic population dynamics: rapid evolution masks trophic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehito Yoshida

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships, such as those between predator and prey or between pathogen and host, are key interactions linking species in ecological food webs. The structure of these links and their strengths have major consequences for the dynamics and stability of food webs. The existence and strength of particular trophic links has often been assessed using observational data on changes in species abundance through time. Here we show that very strong links can be completely missed by these kinds of analyses when changes in population abundance are accompanied by contemporaneous rapid evolution in the prey or host species. Experimental observations, in rotifer-alga and phage-bacteria chemostats, show that the predator or pathogen can exhibit large-amplitude cycles while the abundance of the prey or host remains essentially constant. We know that the species are tightly linked in these experimental microcosms, but without this knowledge, we would infer from observed patterns in abundance that the species are weakly or not at all linked. Mathematical modeling shows that this kind of cryptic dynamics occurs when there is rapid prey or host evolution for traits conferring defense against attack, and the cost of defense (in terms of tradeoffs with other fitness components is low. Several predictions of the theory that we developed to explain the rotifer-alga experiments are confirmed in the phage-bacteria experiments, where bacterial evolution could be tracked. Modeling suggests that rapid evolution may also confound experimental approaches to measuring interaction strength, but it identifies certain experimental designs as being more robust against potential confounding by rapid evolution.

  12. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Population coding in area V4 during rapid shape detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    While previous studies have suggested that neuronal correlations are common in visual cortex over a range of timescales, the effect of correlations on rapid visually based decisions has received little attention. We trained Macaca mulatta to saccade to a peripherally presented shape embedded in dynamic noise as soon as the shape appeared. While the monkeys performed the task, we recorded from neuronal populations (5–29 cells) using a microelectrode array implanted in area V4, a visual area thought to be involved in form perception. While modest correlations were present between cells during visual stimulation, their magnitude did not change significantly subsequent to the appearance of a shape. We quantified the reliability and temporal precision with which neuronal populations signaled the appearance of the shape and predicted the animals' choices using mutual information analyses. To study the impact of correlations, we shuffled the activity from each cell across observations while retaining stimulus-dependent modulations in firing rate. We found that removing correlations by shuffling across trials minimally affected the reliability or timing with which pairs, or larger groups of cells, signaled the presence of a shape. To assess the downstream impact of correlations, we also studied how shuffling affected the ability of V4 populations to predict behavioral choices. Surprisingly, shuffling created a modest increase in the accuracy of such predictions, suggesting that the reliability of downstream neurons is slightly compromised by activity correlations. Our findings are consistent with neuronal correlations having a minimal effect on the reliability and timing of rapid perceptual decisions. PMID:25787961

  14. Identification of expanded alleles of the FMR1 gene among high-risk population in Indonesia by using blood spot screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarni, Tri Indah; Utari, Agustini; Mundhofir, Farmaditya E P; Tong, Tzuhan; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Faradz, Sultana M H; Tassone, Flora

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is 1 in 4000 in males and 1 in 2500 in males and females, respectively, in the general population. Several screening studies aimed at determining the prevalence of FXS have been conducted in individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) with a prevalence varying from 1.15% to 6.3% across different ethnic groups. A previous study in Indonesia showed an FXS prevalence of 1.9% among the ID population. A rapid, effective, and inexpensive method for FMR1 screening, using dried blood spots capable of detecting an expanded FMR1 allele in both males and females, was recently reported. We used this approach to screen 176 blood spots, collected from Central Java, Indonesia, for the presence of expanded FMR1 gene alleles. Samples were collected from high-risk populations: 112 individuals with ID, 32 obtained from individuals with diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders, and 32 individuals with a known family history of FXS. Fourteen subjects carrying an FMR1 expanded allele were identified including 7 premutations (55-200 CGG repeats) and 7 full mutations (>200 repeats). Of the seven subjects identified with a full mutation, one subject was from a non-fragile X family, and six from were families with a history of FXS.

  15. A cross-sectional survey on the attitudes and interests of rural population towards expanded pharmacist prescribing in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Arief, Mohammad; Ahmad, Akram; Malik, Sadiqa; Gogoi, Lakhya Jyoti; Kalita, Manabendra; Saleem, Fahad; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad

    2017-04-01

    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p < 0.05). Conclusions Most participants had positive attitudes towards pharmacist prescribing and were interested in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services.

  16. High performance bio-based hyperbranched polyurethane/carbon dot-silver nanocomposite: a rapid self-expandable stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarah, Rituparna; Singh, Yogendra P; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B; Karak, Niranjan

    2016-10-27

    Development of a bio-based smart implantable material with multifaceted attributes of high performance, potent biocompatibility and inherent antibacterial property, particularly against drug resistant bacteria, is a challenging task in biomedical domain. Addressing these aspects at the bio-nano interface, we report the in situ fabrication of starch modified hyperbranched polyurethane (HPU) nanocomposites by incorporating different weight percentages of carbon dot-silver nanohybrid during polymerization process. This nanohybrid and its individual nanomaterials (Ag and CD) were prepared by facile hydrothermal approaches and characterized by various instrumental techniques. The structural insight of the nanohybrid, as well as its nanocomposites was evaluated by TEM, XRD, FTIR, EDX and thermal studies. The significant improvement in the performance in terms of tensile strength (1.7 fold), toughness (1.5 fold) and thermal stability (20 °C) of the pristine HPU was observed by the formation of nanocomposite with 5 wt.% of nanohybrid. They also showed notable shape recovery (99.6%) and nearly complete self-expansion (>99%) just within 20s at (37 ± 1) °C. Biological assessment established in vitro cytocompatibility of the HPU nanocomposites. The fabricated nanocomposites not only assisted the growth and proliferation of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells that exhibited reduced platelet adhesion but also displayed in vitro hemocompatibility of mammalian RBCs. Significantly, the antibacterial potency of the nanocomposites against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 3160 bacterial strains vouched for their application to countercheck bacterial growth, often responsible for biofilm formation. Thus, the present work forwards the nanocomposites as potential tough infection-resistant rapid self-expandable stents for possible endoscopic surgeries.

  17. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygala, Frank; Korablev, Nikolay; Ansorge, Hermann; Fickel, Joerns; Isomursu, Marja; Elmeros, Morten; Kowalczyk, Rafał; Baltrunaite, Laima; Balciauskas, Linas; Saarma, Urmas; Schulze, Christoph; Borkenhagen, Peter; Frantz, Alain C

    2016-01-01

    The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.

  18. Effect of bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance on the craniofacial structures using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Cheon; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Ki Beom; Araujo, Eustaquio A; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze stress distribution and displacement of the craniofacial structures resulting from bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance using finite element analysis. Five designs of rapid maxillary expanders were made: a tooth-borne hyrax expander (type A); a bone-borne expander (type B); and 3 bone-borne surgically assisted modalities: separation of the midpalatal suture (type C), added separation of the pterygomaxillary sutures (type D), and added LeFort I corticotomy (type E). The geometric nonlinear theory was applied to evaluate the Von Mises stress distribution and displacement. The surgical types C, D, and E demonstrated more transverse movement than did the nonsurgical types A and B. The amounts of expansion were greater in the posterior teeth in types A and B, but in types C, D, and E, the amounts of expansion were greater in the anterior teeth. At the midpalatal suture, the nonsurgical types showed more anterior expansion than did the posterior region, and higher stresses than with the surgical types. Type B showed the highest stresses at the infraorbital margin, anterior and posterior nasal spines, maxillary tuberosity, and pterygoid plate and hamulus. The 3 surgical models showed similar amounts of stress and displacement along the teeth, midpalatal sutures, and craniofacial sutures. Therefore, when using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander in an adult, it is recommended to assist it with midpalatal suture separation, which requires minimal surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 51273 - Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately Affected Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Announcement CDC-RFA-PS10-10138, ``Expanded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Testing for Disproportionately... Assistance Number: 93.523 The Affordable Care Act: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention and Public... Number 93.523 The Affordable Care Act: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention and Public Health...

  20. A prospective study of the short-term treatment effects of the acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expander combined with the lower Schwarz appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Lisa K; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2005-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated the short-term treatment effects of acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expander in conjunction with lower Schwarz appliance (RME-Sz) therapy to the acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expansion alone (RME-only group). Pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were analyzed for 25 RME patients and 19 RME-Sz patients. The average time between films ranged between nine and 12 months. Statistical comparisons of the treatment changes in the RME-only and RME-Sz groups were performed by means of independent sample t-tests (P appliance prevented the mesial movement of the lower molars during the treatment period.

  1. The Rapid Reproducers Paradox: Population Control and Individual Procreative Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wissenburg, M.L.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this article, I consider the impact of population policies on individual rights (in a very broad sense of the word), a topic that has received disproportionately little attention in debates on the legitimacy of population rights. I first concentrate on arguments in favour of very radical

  2. Dentoskeletal outcomes of a rapid maxillary expander with differential opening in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela; Lauris, Rita De Cássia Moura Carvalho; Calil, Louise Resti; Alves, Arthur César De Medeiros; Janson, Guilherme; De Almeida, Araci Malagodi; Cevidanes, Lúcia Helena Soares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm parallel study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal effects of rapid maxillary expansion with differential opening (EDO) compared with the hyrax expander in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. A sample of patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate was prospectively and consecutively recruited. Eligibility criteria included participants in the mixed dentition with lip and palate repair performed during early childhood and maxillary arch constriction with a need for maxillary expansion before the alveolar bone graft procedure. The participants were consecutively divided into 2 study groups. The experimental and control groups comprised patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using EDO and the hyrax expander, respectively. Cone-beam computed tomography examinations and digital dental models of the maxillary dental arches were obtained before expansion and 6 months postexpansion. Standardized cone-beam computed tomography coronal sections were used for measuring maxillary transverse dimensions and posterior tooth inclinations. Digital dental models were used for assessing maxillary dental arch widths, arch perimeters, arch lengths, palatal depths, and posterior tooth inclinations. Blinding was used only during outcome assessment. The chi-square test was used to compare the sex ratios between groups (P variables before expansion. No significant differences were found between the EDO and the hyrax expander groups regarding skeletal changes. The EDO promoted significantly greater increases of intercanine width (difference, 3.63 mm) and smaller increases in canine buccal tipping than the conventional hyrax expander. No serious harm was observed other than transitory variable pressure sensations on the maxillary alveolar process in both groups. The EDO produced skeletal changes similar to the conventional hyrax expander. The differential expander is an adequate alternative to conventional rapid maxillary

  3. The expanding spectrum of neurological phenotypes in children with ATP1A3 mutations, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood, Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism, CAPOS and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweney, Matthew T; Newcomb, Tara M; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    ATP1A3 mutations have now been recognized in infants and children presenting with a diverse group of neurological phenotypes, including Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP), Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC), and most recently, Cerebellar ataxia, Areflexia, Pes cavus, Optic atrophy, and Sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) syndrome. Existing literature on ATP1A3-related disorders in the pediatric population were reviewed, with attention to clinical features and associated genotypes among those with RDP, AHC, or CAPOS syndrome phenotypes. While classically defined phenotypes associated with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes are distinct, common elements among ATP1A3-related neurological disorders include characteristic episodic neurological symptoms and signs that vary in severity, duration, and frequency of occurrence. Affected children typically present in the context of an acute onset of paroxysmal, episodic neurological symptoms ranging from oculomotor abnormalities, hypotonia, paralysis, dystonia, ataxia, seizure-like episodes, or encephalopathy. Neurodevelopmental delays or persistence of dystonia, chorea, or ataxia after resolution of an initial episode are common, providing important clues for diagnosis. The phenotypic spectrum of ATP1A3-related neurological disorders continues to expand beyond the distinct yet overlapping phenotypes in patients with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes. ATP1A3 mutation analysis is appropriate to consider in the diagnostic algorithm for any child presenting with episodic or fluctuating ataxia, weakness or dystonia whether they manifest persistence of neurological symptoms between episodes. Additional work is needed to better identify and classify affected patients and develop targeted treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Is the population of Crotalus durissus (Serpentes, Viperidae) expanding in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Marcelo Ribeiro; Menezes, Frederico Alcântara

    2013-12-05

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise a plausible method of dispersal as inferred for some North American rattlesnakes. Based on the literature, it seems plausible that Crotalus durissus expanded their natural distribution in Brazil due to floods, but only in a few municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. Data entries of Butantan Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2012 show a declining tendency of snakes brought by donors. In addition, research shows no evidence of Crotalus durissus being an expanding species in the Brazilian territory.

  5. Is the population of Crotalus durissus (Serpentes, Viperidae) expanding in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Crotalus durissus are found from Mexico to northern Argentina in a highly disjunct distribution. According to some studies, this species is prone to occupy areas disturbed by human activities and floods comprise a plausible method of dispersal as inferred for some North American rattlesnakes. Based on the literature, it seems plausible that Crotalus durissus expanded their natural distribution in Brazil due to floods, but only in a few municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State. Data entries of Butantan Institute, in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1998 to 2012 show a declining tendency of snakes brought by donors. In addition, research shows no evidence of Crotalus durissus being an expanding species in the Brazilian territory. PMID:24314146

  6. Balancing ecosystem function, services and disservices resulting from expanding goose populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buij, Ralph; Melman, Theodorus C.P.; Loonen, Maarten J.J.E.; Fox, Anthony D.

    2017-01-01

    As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in

  7. Communication and The Challenges of Rapid Population Growth in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These factors include religious beliefs, customs and traditions, among others. The discourse also examined the various communication types in Africa and their appropriateness in educating Africans and their governments on the need to control high rate of population growth. Ironically, medical facilities available in African ...

  8. Homogenous Population Genetic Structure of the Non-Native Raccoon Dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in Europe as a Result of Rapid Population Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Drygala

    Full Text Available The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species' dispersal capabilities led to high population connectivity and maintenance of genetic diversity throughout the invaded range. We genotyped 332 tissue samples from seven European countries using 16 microsatellite loci. Different algorithms identified three genetic clusters corresponding to Finland, Denmark and a large 'central' population that reached from introduction areas in western Russia to northern Germany. Cluster assignments provided evidence of long-distance dispersal. The results of an Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis supported a scenario of equal effective population sizes among different pre-defined populations in the large central cluster. Our results are in line with strong gene flow and secondary admixture between neighbouring demes leading to reduced genetic structuring, probably a result of its fairly rapid population expansion after introduction. The results presented here are remarkable in the sense that we identified a homogenous genetic cluster inhabiting an area stretching over more than 1500km. They are also relevant for disease management, as in the event of a significant rabies outbreak, there is a great risk of a rapid virus spread among raccoon dog populations.

  9. Rapid three dimensional two photon neural population scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Renaud; Quicke, Peter; Copeland, Caroline; Garasto, Stefania; Annecchino, Luca A; Hwang, June Kyu; Schultz, Simon R

    2015-08-01

    Recording the activity of neural populations at high sampling rates is a fundamental requirement for understanding computation in neural circuits. Two photon microscopy provides one promising approach towards this. However, neural circuits are three dimensional, and functional imaging in two dimensions fails to capture the 3D nature of neural dynamics. Electrically tunable lenses (ETLs) provide a simple and cheap method to extend laser scanning microscopy into the relatively unexploited third dimension. We have therefore incorporated them into our Adaptive Spiral Scanning (SSA) algorithm, which calculates kinematically efficient scanning strategies using radially modulated spiral paths. We characterised the response of the ETL, incorporated its dynamics using MATLAB models of the SSA algorithm and tested the models on populations of Izhikevich neurons of varying size and density. From this, we show that our algorithms can theoretically at least achieve sampling rates of 36.2Hz compared to 21.6Hz previously reported for 3D scanning techniques.

  10. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  11. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of BLAD in Cattle Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena Ilie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD is an autosomal recessive disorder with negative impact on dairy cattle breeding. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (A→G, resulting in a single amino acid substitution (aspartic acid → glycine at amino acid 128 in the adhesion molecule CD18. The object of this study was to establish a fast and sensitive molecular genotyping assay to detect BLAD carriers using high-resolution melting (HRM curve analysis. We tested animals with known genotypes for BLAD that were previously confirmed by PCR-RFLP method, and then examined the sensitivity of mutation detection using PCR followed by HRM curve analysis. BLAD carriers were readily detectable using HRM assay. Thus, the PCR-HRM genotyping method is a rapid, easily interpretable, reliable and cost-effective assay for BLAD mutant allele detection. This assay can be useful in cattle genotyping and genetic selection.

  12. Overview of efforts to expand the range of the Rocky Mountain population of trumpeter swans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Near extinction in 1900, by 1992 the Rocky Mountain Population (RMP) of Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) contained +2200 swans. The foremost problem facing the...

  13. Expanding the Frontiers of Population Nutrition Research: New Questions, New Methods, and New Approaches12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L.; Porter, Christine M.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Wuehler, Sara E.; Neufeld, Lynnette M.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition research, ranging from molecular to population levels and all points along this spectrum, is exploring new frontiers as new technologies and societal changes create new possibilities and demands. This paper defines a set of frontiers at the population level that are being created by the increased societal recognition of the importance of nutrition; its connection to urgent health, social, and environmental problems; and the need for effective and sustainable solutions at the population level. The frontiers are defined in terms of why, what, who, and how we study at the population level and the disciplinary foundations for that research. The paper provides illustrations of research along some of these frontiers, an overarching framework for population nutrition research, and access to some of the literature from outside of nutrition that can enhance the intellectual coherence, practical utility, and societal benefit of population nutrition research. The frontiers defined in this paper build on earlier forward-looking efforts by the American Society for Nutrition and extend these efforts in significant ways. The American Society for Nutrition and its members can play pivotal roles in advancing these frontiers by addressing a number of well-recognized challenges associated with transdisciplinary and engaged research. PMID:23319128

  14. Expanding the frontiers of population nutrition research: new questions, new methods, and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, David L; Porter, Christine M; Aarons, Gregory A; Wuehler, Sara E; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition research, ranging from molecular to population levels and all points along this spectrum, is exploring new frontiers as new technologies and societal changes create new possibilities and demands. This paper defines a set of frontiers at the population level that are being created by the increased societal recognition of the importance of nutrition; its connection to urgent health, social, and environmental problems; and the need for effective and sustainable solutions at the population level. The frontiers are defined in terms of why, what, who, and how we study at the population level and the disciplinary foundations for that research. The paper provides illustrations of research along some of these frontiers, an overarching framework for population nutrition research, and access to some of the literature from outside of nutrition that can enhance the intellectual coherence, practical utility, and societal benefit of population nutrition research. The frontiers defined in this paper build on earlier forward-looking efforts by the American Society for Nutrition and extend these efforts in significant ways. The American Society for Nutrition and its members can play pivotal roles in advancing these frontiers by addressing a number of well-recognized challenges associated with transdisciplinary and engaged research.

  15. HomeSpace:Maputo Dwelling Processes in ten Rapidly Expanding Peri-Urban Areas of an African City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...

  16. Balancing ecosystem function, services and disservices resulting from expanding goose populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buij, Ralph; Melman, Theodorus C P; Loonen, Maarten J J E; Fox, Anthony D

    2017-03-01

    As goose populations increase in abundance, their influence on ecological processes is increasing. We review the evidence for key ecological functions of wild goose populations in Eurasia and North America, including aquatic invertebrate and plant propagule transport, nutrient deposition in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, the influence of goose populations on vegetation biomass, carbon storage and methane emission, species diversity and disease transmission. To estimate the implications of their growing abundance for humans, we explore how these functions contribute to the provision of ecosystem services and disservices. We assess the weight, extent and trends among such impacts, as well as the balance of their value to society. We examine key unresolved issues to enable a more balanced assessment of the economic costs or benefits of migratory geese along their flyways, including the spatial and temporal variation in services and their contrasting value to different user groups. Many ecological functions of geese are concluded to provide neither services nor disservices and, ecosystem disservices currently appear to outweigh services, although this varies between regions. We consider an improved quantification of ecosystem services and disservices, and how these vary along population flyways with respect to variation in valuing certain cultural services, and under different management scenarios aimed at reducing their disservices, essential for a more balanced management of goose populations.

  17. Community Health Needs Assessments: Expanding the Boundaries of Nursing Education in Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin; Reyes, David; Primomo, Janet; Meyer, Karen; Matlock-Hightower, Corrie

    2017-01-01

    Conducting federally mandated community health needs assessments through academic-practice partnerships provides new opportunities for developing population health nursing competencies. The purpose of this article was to describe how a baccalaureate practicum experience within such an assessment process, involving health care system partners, re-affirms the importance of community and population health assessment in the development of future nursing leaders. Student evaluations indicated an emerging appreciation for the social determinants of health, the power of partnerships, and the importance of diversity. Integrating health care and public health system perspectives on assessment meets both public health and nursing accreditation standards and extends student leadership experiences. Such integration also improves regional capacity for improving population health. Federal mandates for community health needs assessments provide opportunities to advance leadership roles for nursing graduates throughout the health care system, and for confirming the importance of community assessment as an essential nursing competency. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Transgenic common carp do not have the ability to expand populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Lian

    Full Text Available The ecological safety of transgenic organisms is an important issue of international public and political concern. The assessment of ecological risks is also crucial for realizing the beneficial industrial application of transgenic organisms. In this study, reproduction of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, CC in isolated natural aquatic environments was analyzed. Using the method of paternity testing, a comparative analysis was conducted on the structure of an offspring population of "all-fish" growth hormone gene-transgenic common carp (afgh-CC and of wild CC to evaluate their fertility and juvenile viability. Experimental results showed that in a natural aquatic environment, the ratio of comparative advantage in mating ability of afgh-CC over wild CC was 1∶1, showing nearly identical mating competitiveness. Juvenile viability of afgh-CC was low, and the average daily survival rate was less than 98.00%. After a possible accidental escape or release of transgenic CC into natural aquatic environments they are unable to monopolize resources from eggs of natural CC populations, leading to the extinction of transgenic CC. Transgenic CC are also unlikely to form dominant populations in natural aquatic environments due to their low juvenile viability. Thus, it is expected that the proportion of afgh-CC in the natural environment would remain low or gradually decline, and ultimately disappear.

  19. Rapid adaptive evolution in novel environments acts as an architect of population range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, M; Vahsen, M L; Melbourne, B A; Hoover, C; Weiss-Lehman, C; Hufbauer, R A

    2017-12-19

    Colonization and expansion into novel landscapes determine the distribution and abundance of species in our rapidly changing ecosystems worldwide. Colonization events are crucibles for rapid evolution, but it is not known whether evolutionary changes arise mainly after successful colonization has occurred, or if evolution plays an immediate role, governing the growth and expansion speed of colonizing populations. There is evidence that spatial evolutionary processes can speed range expansion within a few generations because dispersal tendencies may evolve upwards at range edges. Additionally, rapid adaptation to a novel environment can increase population growth rates, which also promotes spread. However, the role of adaptive evolution and the relative contributions of spatial evolution and adaptation to expansion are unclear. Using a model system, red flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum), we either allowed or constrained evolution of populations colonizing a novel environment and measured population growth and spread. At the end of the experiment we assessed the fitness and dispersal tendency of individuals originating either from the core or edge of evolving populations or from nonevolving populations in a common garden. Within six generations, evolving populations grew three times larger and spread 46% faster than populations in which evolution was constrained. Increased size and expansion speed were strongly driven by adaptation, whereas spatial evolutionary processes acting on edge subpopulations contributed less. This experimental evidence demonstrates that rapid evolution drives both population growth and expansion speed and is thus crucial to consider for managing biological invasions and successfully introducing or reintroducing species for management and conservation.

  20. Expanding HIV testing efforts in concentrated epidemic settings: a population-based survey from rural Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Pharris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01, higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22, and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66 were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. CONCLUSIONS: We found low testing uptake (6% among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider

  1. The seduction of general practice and illegitimate birth of an expanded role in population health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, Stephen; Docherty, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    To reduce health inequalities and improve quality in health care, health policy initiatives in countries including New Zealand and the United Kingdom are expecting general practice to share responsibilities for a population approach to health care. This is giving increased emphasis to preventative care, including health promotion. Reasoned debate on this policy is overdue, not least in New Zealand, where clinicians within general practice appear to have been seduced by the lack of clarity in health policy into accepting this policy without question. They appear to disregard implications of the policy for redefining the nature and scope of their discipline (and of public health), including their own role as providers of personal care. This paper suggests that a population health approach is inappropriate in general practice when this approach weakens personal care and involves health promotion activity of unknown safety and effectiveness. The example of intentional weight loss to reduce overweight is used to illustrate these issues. We argue for a restricted range of general practice services.

  2. Expanding Maize Genetic Resources with Predomestication Alleles: Maize–Teosinte Introgression Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengbin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Teosinte ( subsp. H. H. Iltis & Doebley has greater genetic diversity than maize inbreds and landraces ( subsp. . There are, however, limited genetic resources to efficiently evaluate and tap this diversity. To broaden resources for genetic diversity studies in maize, we developed and evaluated 928 near-isogenic introgression lines (NILs from 10 teosinte accessions in the B73 background. Joint linkage analysis of the 10 introgression populations identified several large-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL for days to anthesis (DTA, kernel row number (KRN, and 50-kernel weight (Wt50k. Our results confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits. Additionally, we used a targeted set of NILs to validate the effects of a KRN QTL located on chromosome 2. These introgression populations offer novel tools for QTL discovery and validation as well as a platform for initiating fine mapping.

  3. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  4. Aquatic Insects and their Potential to Contribute to the Diet of the Globally Expanding Human Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. Dudley; Williams, Siân S.

    2017-01-01

    Of the 30 extant orders of true insect, 12 are considered to be aquatic, or semiaquatic, in either some or all of their life stages. Out of these, six orders contain species engaged in entomophagy, but very few are being harvested effectively, leading to over-exploitation and local extinction. Examples of existing practices are given, ranging from the extremes of including insects (e.g., dipterans) in the dietary cores of many indigenous peoples to consumption of selected insects, by a wealthy few, as novelty food (e.g., caddisflies). The comparative nutritional worth of aquatic insects to the human diet and to domestic animal feed is examined. Questions are raised as to whether natural populations of aquatic insects can yield sufficient biomass to be of practicable and sustained use, whether some species can be brought into high-yield cultivation, and what are the requirements and limitations involved in achieving this? PMID:28754025

  5. Aquatic Insects and their Potential to Contribute to the Diet of the Globally Expanding Human Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D Dudley; Williams, Siân S

    2017-07-21

    Of the 30 extant orders of true insect, 12 are considered to be aquatic, or semiaquatic, in either some or all of their life stages. Out of these, six orders contain species engaged in entomophagy, but very few are being harvested effectively, leading to over-exploitation and local extinction. Examples of existing practices are given, ranging from the extremes of including insects (e.g., dipterans) in the dietary cores of many indigenous peoples to consumption of selected insects, by a wealthy few, as novelty food (e.g., caddisflies). The comparative nutritional worth of aquatic insects to the human diet and to domestic animal feed is examined. Questions are raised as to whether natural populations of aquatic insects can yield sufficient biomass to be of practicable and sustained use, whether some species can be brought into high-yield cultivation, and what are the requirements and limitations involved in achieving this?

  6. Uncertainty, robustness, and the value of information in managing an expanding Arctic goose population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper; Williams, Byron K.

    2014-01-01

    We explored the application of dynamic-optimization methods to the problem of pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus) management in western Europe. We were especially concerned with the extent to which uncertainty in population dynamics influenced an optimal management strategy, the gain in management performance that could be expected if uncertainty could be eliminated or reduced, and whether an adaptive or robust management strategy might be most appropriate in the face of uncertainty. We combined three alternative survival models with three alternative reproductive models to form a set of nine annual-cycle models for pink-footed geese. These models represent a wide range of possibilities concerning the extent to which demographic rates are density dependent or independent, and the extent to which they are influenced by spring temperatures. We calculated state-dependent harvest strategies for these models using stochastic dynamic programming and an objective function that maximized sustainable harvest, subject to a constraint on desired population size. As expected, attaining the largest mean objective value (i.e., the relative measure of management performance) depended on the ability to match a model-dependent optimal strategy with its generating model of population dynamics. The nine models suggested widely varying objective values regardless of the harvest strategy, with the density-independent models generally producing higher objective values than models with density-dependent survival. In the face of uncertainty as to which of the nine models is most appropriate, the optimal strategy assuming that both survival and reproduction were a function of goose abundance and spring temperatures maximized the expected minimum objective value (i.e., maxi–min). In contrast, the optimal strategy assuming equal model weights minimized the expected maximum loss in objective value. The expected value of eliminating model uncertainty was an increase in objective value

  7. A Boom for Whom? Exploring the Impacts of a Rapid Increase in the Male Population Upon Women's Services in Darwin, Northern Territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Gretchen; Tofa, Matalena; Finlayson, Mary; U'Ren, Julie

    2016-05-03

    A rapidly expanding natural-resource extraction industry and a growing military presence mean an increasingly male-skewed population for the city of Darwin, Australia. This has sparked concerns about the potential for increased violence against women. In this article, we present qualitative research detailing the views of 13 participants from 10 women's support services in the Darwin area. We argue that women's support services bear witness to and are tasked with responding to the impacts of population change on women, yet their work is undermined by uncertainties that stem from neoliberal funding rationales and limited demands on companies to address social issues. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  9. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  10. Rapid evolution leads to differential population dynamics and top-down control in resurrectedDaphniapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goitom, Eyerusalem; Kilsdonk, Laurens J; Brans, Kristien; Jansen, Mieke; Lemmens, Pieter; De Meester, Luc

    2018-01-01

    There is growing evidence of rapid genetic adaptation of natural populations to environmental change, opening the perspective that evolutionary trait change may subsequently impact ecological processes such as population dynamics, community composition, and ecosystem functioning. To study such eco-evolutionary feedbacks in natural populations, however, requires samples across time. Here, we capitalize on a resurrection ecology study that documented rapid and adaptive evolution in a natural population of the water flea Daphnia magna in response to strong changes in predation pressure by fish, and carry out a follow-up mesocosm experiment to test whether the observed genetic changes influence population dynamics and top-down control of phytoplankton. We inoculated populations of the water flea D. magna derived from three time periods of the same natural population known to have genetically adapted to changes in predation pressure in replicate mesocosms and monitored both Daphnia population densities and phytoplankton biomass in the presence and absence of fish. Our results revealed differences in population dynamics and top-down control of algae between mesocosms harboring populations from the time period before, during, and after a peak in fish predation pressure caused by human fish stocking. The differences, however, deviated from our a priori expectations. An S-map approach on time series revealed that the interactions between adults and juveniles strongly impacted the dynamics of populations and their top-down control on algae in the mesocosms, and that the strength of these interactions was modulated by rapid evolution as it occurred in nature. Our study provides an example of an evolutionary response that fundamentally alters the processes structuring population dynamics and impacts ecosystem features.

  11. Adult pancreas side population cells expand after β cell injury and are a source of insulin-secreting cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia Banakh

    Full Text Available Pancreas stem cells are a potential source of insulin-producing β cells for the therapy of diabetes. In adult tissues the 'side population' (SP of cells that effluxes the DNA binding dye Hoechst 33342 through ATP-binding cassette transporters has stem cell properties. We hypothesised therefore that the SP would expand in response to β cell injury and give rise to functional β cells. SP cells were flow sorted from dissociated pancreas cells of adult mice, analysed for phenotype and cultured with growth promoting and differentiation factors before analysis for hormone expression and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. SP cell number and colony forming potential (CFP increased significantly in models of type diabetes, and after partial pancreatectomy, in the absence of hyperglycaemia. SP cells, ∼1% of total pancreas cells at 1 week of age, were enriched >10-fold for CFP compared to non-SP cells. Freshly isolated SP cells contained no insulin protein or RNA but expressed the homeobox transcription factor Pdx1 required for pancreas development and β cell function. Pdx1, along with surface expression of CD326 (Ep-Cam, was a marker of the colony forming and proliferation potential of SP cells. In serum-free medium with defined factors, SP cells proliferated and differentiated into islet hormone-expressing cells that secreted insulin in response to glucose. Insulin expression was maintained when tissue was transplanted within vascularised chambers into diabetic mice. SP cells in the adult pancreas expand in response to β cell injury and are a source of β cell progenitors with potential for the treatment of diabetes.

  12. Rapid Point-of-Care Diagnostic Test for Syphilis in High-Risk Populations, Manaus, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzaken, Adele S.; de Andrade Rodrigues, Ệnio José; Mayaud, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the acceptability and operational suitability of a rapid point-of-care syphilis test and identified barriers to testing among high-risk groups and healthcare professionals in a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Use of this test could considerably alleviate the impact of syphilis in hard-to-reach populations in the Amazon region of Brazil. PMID:19331762

  13. A Pilot Study of Rapid Hepatitis C Testing in Probation and Parole Populations in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Nickolas D; Patry, Emily J; Bazerman, Lauri B; Noska, Amanda; Kuo, Irene; Kurth, Ann; Beckwith, Curt G

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects between five and seven million individuals in the United States and chronic infection can lead to liver disease, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Probation/parole offices are a novel setting for rapid HCV testing, providing outreach to populations at increased risk for HCV infection and/or transmitting HCV to others. While some correctional facilities offer HCV testing, many individuals who present to probation/parole offices are never or briefly incarcerated and may not access medical services. We conducted a rapid HCV testing pilot at probation/parole offices in Rhode Island. Overall, 130 people accepted rapid HCV testing, of whom 12 had reactive tests. Only four of these individuals presented to a community-based clinic for confirmatory testing, despite being offered a monetary incentive. Identifying and addressing barriers to HCV confirmatory testing and follow-up care is critical to increasing the uptake of HCV care and treatment in this vulnerable population.

  14. Rapid declines of large mammal populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragina, Eugenia V; Ives, A R; Pidgeon, A M; Kuemmerle, T; Baskin, L M; Gubar, Y P; Piquer-Rodríguez, M; Keuler, N S; Petrosyan, V G; Radeloff, V C

    2015-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that socioeconomic shocks strongly affect wildlife populations, but quantitative evidence is sparse. The collapse of socialism in Russia in 1991 caused a major socioeconomic shock, including a sharp increase in poverty. We analyzed population trends of 8 large mammals in Russia from 1981 to 2010 (i.e., before and after the collapse). We hypothesized that the collapse would first cause population declines, primarily due to overexploitation, and then population increases due to adaptation of wildlife to new environments following the collapse. The long-term Database of the Russian Federal Agency of Game Mammal Monitoring, consisting of up to 50,000 transects that are monitored annually, provided an exceptional data set for investigating these population trends. Three species showed strong declines in population growth rates in the decade following the collapse, while grey wolf (Canis lupus) increased by more than 150%. After 2000 some trends reversed. For example, roe deer (Capreolus spp.) abundance in 2010 was the highest of any period in our study. Likely reasons for the population declines in the 1990s include poaching and the erosion of wildlife protection enforcement. The rapid increase of the grey wolf populations is likely due to the cessation of governmental population control. In general, the widespread declines in wildlife populations after the collapse of the Soviet Union highlight the magnitude of the effects that socioeconomic shocks can have on wildlife populations and the possible need for special conservation efforts during such times. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Rapid population growth. Effects on the social infrastructures of southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J D

    1995-01-01

    Southern Africa's high rate of population growth and widespread poverty have serious implications for the region's social infrastructure. Large increases in the school-age population have undermined efforts to improve the quality of education since all resources are directed toward expansion of availability. To achieve a teacher-pupil ratio of 1:40 at the primary level and 1:35 at the secondary level, an estimated additional 50,000 classrooms would be required. Also jeopardized by high fertility is access to health services, safe water, and sanitation. In Mozambique, for example, where only 30% of the population has access to health services, the under-five years mortality rate is 297/1000 live births and the physician-population ratio is 1:37,970. Substandard housing, homelessness, congestion, deteriorating public services, pollution, and crime dominate urban areas. The single most effective intervention to reduce population growth in Southern Africa is female education. Women without a secondary education bear an average of seven children; if 40% of women attend secondary school, this drops to three children. Thus, governments must make gender equality a central focus of development planning and ensure that women are participants in this process. Property and inheritance laws that serve to increase the economic need for early marriage should be eliminated. Public health programs, including family planning, must be expanded. Finally, women's organizations should be strengthened and urged to foster female empowerment.

  16. Galaxy Zoo: evidence for rapid, recent quenching within a population of AGN host galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethurst, R. J.; Lintott, C. J.; Simmons, B. D.; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, S. P.; Cardamone, C. N.; Kruk, S. J.; Masters, K. L.; Urry, C. M.; Willett, K. W.; Wong, O. I.

    2016-12-01

    We present a population study of the star formation history of 1244 Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies, compared to 6107 inactive galaxies. A Bayesian method is used to determine individual galaxy star formation histories, which are then collated to visualize the distribution for quenching and quenched galaxies within each population. We find evidence for some of the Type 2 AGN host galaxies having undergone a rapid drop in their star formation rate within the last 2 Gyr. AGN feedback is therefore important at least for this population of galaxies. This result is not seen for the quenching and quenched inactive galaxies whose star formation histories are dominated by the effects of downsizing at earlier epochs, a secondary effect for the AGN host galaxies. We show that histories of rapid quenching cannot account fully for the quenching of all the star formation in a galaxy's lifetime across the population of quenched AGN host galaxies, and that histories of slower quenching, attributed to secular (non-violent) evolution, are also key in their evolution. This is in agreement with recent results showing that both merger-driven and non-merger processes are contributing to the co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes. The availability of gas in the reservoirs of a galaxy, and its ability to be replenished, appear to be the key drivers behind this co-evolution.

  17. Six rapid assessments of alcohol and other substance use in populations displaced by conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelekan Moruf

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance use among populations displaced by conflict is a neglected area of public health. Alcohol, khat, benzodiazepine, opiate, and other substance use have been documented among a range of displaced populations, with wide-reaching health and social impacts. Changing agendas in humanitarian response-including increased prominence of mental health and chronic illness-have so far failed to be translated into meaningful interventions for substance use. Methods Studies were conducted from 2006 to 2008 in six different settings of protracted displacement, three in Africa (Kenya, Liberia, northern Uganda and three in Asia (Iran, Pakistan, and Thailand. We used intervention-oriented qualitative Rapid Assessment and Response methods, adapted from two decades of experience among non-displaced populations. The main sources of data were individual and group interviews conducted with a culturally representative (non-probabilistic sample of community members and service providers. Results Widespread use of alcohol, particularly artisanally-produced alcohol, in Kenya, Liberia, Uganda, and Thailand, and opiates in Iran and Pakistan was believed by participants to be linked to a range of health, social and protection problems, including illness, injury (intentional and unintentional, gender-based violence, risky behaviour for HIV and other sexually transmitted infection and blood-borne virus transmission, as well as detrimental effects to household economy. Displacement experiences, including dispossession, livelihood restriction, hopelessness and uncertain future may make communities particularly vulnerable to substance use and its impact, and changing social norms and networks (including the surrounding population may result in changed - and potentially more harmful-patterns of use. Limited access to services, including health services, and exclusion from relevant host population programmes, may exacerbate the harmful consequences

  18. MDR-TB treatment as prevention: The projected population-level impact of expanded treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Emily A; Azman, Andrew S; Cobelens, Frank G; Dowdy, David W

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, approximately 480,000 people developed active multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), while only 97,000 started MDR-TB treatment. We sought to estimate the impact of improving access to MDR-TB diagnosis and treatment, under multiple diagnostic algorithm and treatment regimen scenarios, on ten-year projections of MDR-TB incidence and mortality. We constructed a dynamic transmission model of an MDR-TB epidemic in an illustrative East/Southeast Asian setting. Using approximate Bayesian computation, we investigated a wide array of potential epidemic trajectories consistent with current notification data and known TB epidemiology. Despite an overall projected decline in TB incidence, data-consistent simulations suggested that MDR-TB incidence is likely to rise between 2015 and 2025 under continued 2013 treatment practices, although with considerable uncertainty (median 17% increase, 95% Uncertainty Range [UR] -38% to +137%). But if, by 2017, all identified active TB patients with previously-treated TB could be tested for drug susceptibility, and 85% of those with MDR-TB could initiate MDR-appropriate treatment, then MDR-TB incidence in 2025 could be reduced by 26% (95% UR 4-52%) relative to projections under continued current practice. Also expanding this drug-susceptibility testing and appropriate MDR-TB treatment to treatment-naïve as well as previously-treated TB cases, by 2020, could reduce MDR-TB incidence in 2025 by 29% (95% UR 6-55%) compared to continued current practice. If this diagnosis and treatment of all MDR-TB in known active TB cases by 2020 could be implemented via a novel second-line regimen with similar effectiveness and tolerability as current first-line therapy, a 54% (95% UR 20-74%) reduction in MDR-TB incidence compared to current-practice projections could be achieved by 2025. Expansion of diagnosis and treatment of MDR-TB, even using current sub-optimal second-line regimens, is expected to significantly decrease MDR-TB incidence at

  19. The population genomics of rapid adaptation: disentangling signatures of selection and demography in white sands lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Stefan; Pfeifer, Susanne P; Settles, Matthew L; Hunter, Samuel S; Hardwick, Kayla M; Ormond, Louise; Sousa, Vitor C; Jensen, Jeffrey D; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the process of adaptation during rapid environmental change remains one of the central focal points of evolutionary biology. The recently formed White Sands system of southern New Mexico offers an outstanding example of rapid adaptation, with a variety of species having rapidly evolved blanched forms on the dunes that contrast with their close relatives in the surrounding dark soil habitat. In this study, we focus on two of the White Sands lizard species, Sceloporus cowlesi and Aspidoscelis inornata, for which previous research has linked mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (Mc1r) to blanched coloration. We sampled populations both on and off the dunes and used a custom sequence capture assay based on probed fosmid libraries to obtain >50 kb of sequence around Mc1r and hundreds of other random genomic locations. We then used model-based statistical inference methods to describe the demographic and adaptive history characterizing the colonization of White Sands. We identified a number of similarities between the two focal species, including strong evidence of selection in the blanched populations in the Mc1r region. We also found important differences between the species, suggesting different colonization times, different genetic architecture underlying the blanched phenotype and different ages of the beneficial alleles. Finally, the beneficial allele is dominant in S. cowlesi and recessive in A. inornata, allowing for a rare empirical test of theoretically expected patterns of selective sweeps under these differing models. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. China's rapidly aging population creates policy challenges in shaping a viable long-term care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhanlian; Liu, Chang; Guan, Xinping; Mor, Vincent

    2012-12-01

    In China, formal long-term care services for the large aging population have increased to meet escalating demands as demographic shifts and socioeconomic changes have eroded traditional elder care. We analyze China's evolving long-term care landscape and trace major government policies and private-sector initiatives shaping it. Although home and community-based services remain spotty, institutional care is booming with little regulatory oversight. Chinese policy makers face mounting challenges overseeing the rapidly growing residential care sector, given the tension arising from policy inducements to further institutional growth, a weak regulatory framework, and the lack of enforcement capacity. We recommend addressing the following pressing policy issues: building a balanced system of services and avoiding an "institutional bias" that promotes rapid growth of elder care institutions over home or community-based care; strengthening regulatory oversight and quality assurance with information systems; and prioritizing education and training initiatives to grow a professionalized long-term care workforce.

  1. Emerging infectious disease leads to rapid population declines of common British birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Robinson

    Full Text Available Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period.

  2. Emerging Infectious Disease Leads to Rapid Population Declines of Common British Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toms, Mike P.; Peck, Kirsi M.; Kirkwood, James K.; Chantrey, Julian; Clatworthy, Innes R.; Evans, Andy D.; Hughes, Laura A.; Hutchinson, Oliver C.; John, Shinto K.; Pennycott, Tom W.; Perkins, Matthew W.; Rowley, Peter S.; Simpson, Vic R.; Tyler, Kevin M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly cited as threats to wildlife, livestock and humans alike. They can threaten geographically isolated or critically endangered wildlife populations; however, relatively few studies have clearly demonstrated the extent to which emerging diseases can impact populations of common wildlife species. Here, we report the impact of an emerging protozoal disease on British populations of greenfinch Carduelis chloris and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, two of the most common birds in Britain. Morphological and molecular analyses showed this to be due to Trichomonas gallinae. Trichomonosis emerged as a novel fatal disease of finches in Britain in 2005 and rapidly became epidemic within greenfinch, and to a lesser extent chaffinch, populations in 2006. By 2007, breeding populations of greenfinches and chaffinches in the geographic region of highest disease incidence had decreased by 35% and 21% respectively, representing mortality in excess of half a million birds. In contrast, declines were less pronounced or absent in these species in regions where the disease was found in intermediate or low incidence. Also, populations of dunnock Prunella modularis, which similarly feeds in gardens, but in which T. gallinae was rarely recorded, did not decline. This is the first trichomonosis epidemic reported in the scientific literature to negatively impact populations of free-ranging non-columbiform species, and such levels of mortality and decline due to an emerging infectious disease are unprecedented in British wild bird populations. This disease emergence event demonstrates the potential for a protozoan parasite to jump avian host taxonomic groups with dramatic effect over a short time period. PMID:20805869

  3. Rapid Decrease in Populations of Wild Ring-Tailed Lemurs (Lemur catta) in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFleur, Marni; Clarke, Tara A; Reuter, Kim; Schaeffer, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Lemurs are the most threatened group of mammals on earth. Lemur catta (ring-tailed lemur) represents one of the most iconic lemur species and faces numerous anthropogenic threats in the wild. In this study, we present population estimates from 32 sites across the range of L. catta, collected from primary and secondary data sources, to assess the number of ring-tailed lemurs left in the wild. We estimate that there are approximately 2,220 individual L. catta remaining in the 32 sites considered. We note local extinctions of populations of L. catta in at least 12 of the 32 sites examined, and that significantly more extinctions occurred in areas without some form of protection. This decrease in extant populations could represent a decrease of more than 95% of all ring-tailed lemurs in Madagascar since the year 2000. While these results should be considered preliminary, we stress the rapid decline of the species and note that habitat loss, bushmeat hunting and the illegal pet trade are driving populations to local extinction. Based on the data presented here, urgent and immediate funding and conservation action are crucial to ensure the viability of the remaining wild populations of ring-tailed lemurs. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. White

    2005-09-14

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  5. Rapid global expansion of the fungal disease chytridiomycosis into declining and healthy amphibian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Y James

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The fungal disease chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, is enigmatic because it occurs globally in both declining and apparently healthy (non-declining amphibian populations. This distribution has fueled debate concerning whether, in sites where it has recently been found, the pathogen was introduced or is endemic. In this study, we addressed the molecular population genetics of a global collection of fungal strains from both declining and healthy amphibian populations using DNA sequence variation from 17 nuclear loci and a large fragment from the mitochondrial genome. We found a low rate of DNA polymorphism, with only two sequence alleles detected at each locus, but a high diversity of diploid genotypes. Half of the loci displayed an excess of heterozygous genotypes, consistent with a primarily clonal mode of reproduction. Despite the absence of obvious sex, genotypic diversity was high (44 unique genotypes out of 59 strains. We provide evidence that the observed genotypic variation can be generated by loss of heterozygosity through mitotic recombination. One strain isolated from a bullfrog possessed as much allelic diversity as the entire global sample, suggesting the current epidemic can be traced back to the outbreak of a single clonal lineage. These data are consistent with the current chytridiomycosis epidemic resulting from a novel pathogen undergoing a rapid and recent range expansion. The widespread occurrence of the same lineage in both healthy and declining populations suggests that the outcome of the disease is contingent on environmental factors and host resistance.

  6. Validity and feasibility of a satellite imagery-based method for rapid estimation of displaced populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Checchi Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the size of forcibly displaced populations is key to documenting their plight and allocating sufficient resources to their assistance, but is often not done, particularly during the acute phase of displacement, due to methodological challenges and inaccessibility. In this study, we explored the potential use of very high resolution satellite imagery to remotely estimate forcibly displaced populations. Methods Our method consisted of multiplying (i manual counts of assumed residential structures on a satellite image and (ii estimates of the mean number of people per structure (structure occupancy obtained from publicly available reports. We computed population estimates for 11 sites in Bangladesh, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya and Mozambique (six refugee camps, three internally displaced persons’ camps and two urban neighbourhoods with a mixture of residents and displaced ranging in population from 1,969 to 90,547, and compared these to “gold standard” reference population figures from census or other robust methods. Results Structure counts by independent analysts were reasonably consistent. Between one and 11 occupancy reports were available per site and most of these reported people per household rather than per structure. The imagery-based method had a precision relative to reference population figures of Conclusions In settings with clearly distinguishable individual structures, the remote, imagery-based method had reasonable accuracy for the purposes of rapid estimation, was simple and quick to implement, and would likely perform better in more current application. However, it may have insurmountable limitations in settings featuring connected buildings or shelters, a complex pattern of roofs and multi-level buildings. Based on these results, we discuss possible ways forward for the method’s development.

  7. Cancer survivors in Switzerland: a rapidly growing population to care for

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors are a heterogeneous group with complex health problems. Data concerning its total number and growing dynamics for Switzerland are scarce and outdated. Methods Population and mortality data were retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office (FSO). Incidence and relative survival for invasive cancers were computed using data from the cancer registries Geneva (1970–2009), St. Gallen - Appenzell (1980–2010), Grisons & Glarus (1989–2010), and Valais (1989–2010). We estimated prevalence for 1990–2010 using the Prevalence, Incidence Approach MODel (PIAMOD) method. We calculated trends in prevalence estimates by Joinpoint analysis. Projections were extrapolated using the above models and based on time trends of the period 2007–2010. Results The estimated number of cancer survivors increased from 139′717 in 1990 (2.08% of the population) to 289′797 persons in 2010 (3.70%). The growth rate shows an exponential shape and was 3.3% per year in the period 2008 to 2010. Almost half of the survivors have a history of breast, prostate or colorectal cancer. Among cancer survivors, 55% are women but the increases have been more marked in men (p Switzerland. Conclusions There is a rapidly growing population of cancer survivors in Switzerland whose needs and concerns are largely unknown. PMID:23764068

  8. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  9. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Mohan, Nikhil; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Makkay, Andrea M.; Wheeler, Ryan; Ventosa, Antonio; Naor, Adit; Gogarten, J. Peter; Papke, R. Thane

    2014-01-01

    Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well-documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500 bp) identified many closely and more distantly related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) haplotypes indicates that accumulation of genomic variation is rapid: faster than the rate of third codon substitutions. PMID:24782838

  10. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil eRam Mohan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500bp identified closely related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns within and across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA haplotypes suggests that accumulation of variation is rapid, perhaps occurring every generation.

  11. Neptune: a bioinformatics tool for rapid discovery of genomic variation in bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinier, Eric; Zaheer, Rahat; Berry, Chrystal; Weedmark, Kelly A; Domaratzki, Michael; Mabon, Philip; Knox, Natalie C; Reimer, Aleisha R; Graham, Morag R; Chui, Linda; Patterson-Fortin, Laura; Zhang, Jian; Pagotto, Franco; Farber, Jeff; Mahony, Jim; Seyer, Karine; Bekal, Sadjia; Tremblay, Cécile; Isaac-Renton, Judy; Prystajecky, Natalie; Chen, Jessica; Slade, Peter; Van Domselaar, Gary

    2017-10-13

    The ready availability of vast amounts of genomic sequence data has created the need to rethink comparative genomics algorithms using 'big data' approaches. Neptune is an efficient system for rapidly locating differentially abundant genomic content in bacterial populations using an exact k-mer matching strategy, while accommodating k-mer mismatches. Neptune's loci discovery process identifies sequences that are sufficiently common to a group of target sequences and sufficiently absent from non-targets using probabilistic models. Neptune uses parallel computing to efficiently identify and extract these loci from draft genome assemblies without requiring multiple sequence alignments or other computationally expensive comparative sequence analyses. Tests on simulated and real datasets showed that Neptune rapidly identifies regions that are both sensitive and specific. We demonstrate that this system can identify trait-specific loci from different bacterial lineages. Neptune is broadly applicable for comparative bacterial analyses, yet will particularly benefit pathogenomic applications, owing to efficient and sensitive discovery of differentially abundant genomic loci. The software is available for download at: http://github.com/phac-nml/neptune. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  13. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Psoriasis Are an Expanded Population Exhibiting Diverse T-Cell-Suppressor Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Lauren Y; Chung, Jin-Sung; Teshima, Takahiro; Feigenbaum, Lawrence; Cruz, Ponciano D; Jacobe, Heidi T; Chong, Benjamin F; Ariizumi, Kiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris is an inflammatory skin disease caused by hyperactivated T cells regulated by positive and negative mechanisms; although the former have been much studied, the latter have not. We studied the regulatory mechanism mediated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and showed that MDSCs expanded in melanoma patients express dendritic cell-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan-dependent integrin ligand, a critical mediator of T-cell suppressor function. We examined expansion of DC-HIL(+) MDSCs in psoriasis and characterized their functional properties. Frequency of DC-HIL(+) monocytic MDSCs (CD14(+)HLA-DR(no/low)) in blood and skin was markedly increased in psoriatic patients versus healthy control subjects, but there was no statistically significant relationship with disease severity (based on Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score). Blood DC-HIL(+) MDSC levels in untreated patients were significantly higher than in treated patients. Compared with melanoma-derived MDSCs, psoriatic MDSCs exhibited significantly reduced suppressor function and were less dependent on DC-HIL, but they were capable of inhibiting proliferation and IFN-γ and IL-17 responses of autologous T cells. Psoriatic MDSCs were functionally diverse among patients in their ability to suppress allogeneic T cells and in the use of either IL-17/arginase I or IFN-γ/inducible nitric oxide synthase axis as suppressor mechanisms. Thus, DC-HIL(+) MDSCs are expanded in psoriasis patients, and their mechanistic heterogeneity and relative functional deficiency may contribute to the development of psoriasis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of Molecular Cytogenetic Technique for Rapid Prenatal Diagnosis of Aneuploidies in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Nasiri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Classic cell culture and karyotyping is routinely used for prenatal detection of different chromosomal abnormalities. Molecular cytogenetic techniques have also recently been developed and used for this purpose. Quantitative florescence PCR using short tandem repeat (STR markers has more potential for high throughput diagnosis. Marker heterozygosity in short tandem repeats (STR is of critical importance in the clinical applicablity of this method. Materials and Methods: Different STR markers on chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y  were analysed from  amniotic samples to detect related disorders such as Down, Edward, Patau,  Klinefelter sundromes , as well as sex chromosomes numerical abnormalities . Results: In our population some markers (D18S976, DXS6854, D21S11, and D21S1411 showed alleles with sizes out of expected ranges. But others occupied narrower range of predicted distribution. Most markers have enough heterozygosity (66.3-94.7 to be used for prenatal diagnosis. Furthermore, results obtained from full karyotype for all samples were in concordance with results of molecular cytogenetic testing. Conclusion: It is concluded that, in urgent situations, if proper markers used, molecular cytogenetic testing (QF-PCR could be a useful method for rapid prenatal diagnosis (PND in populations with high rate of consanguinity such as Iran.  

  15. Rapid expansion of intravitreal drug injection procedures, 2000 to 2008: a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert J; Bronskill, Susan E; Bell, Chaim M; Paterson, J Michael; Whitehead, Marlo; Gill, Sudeep S

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate patterns of care for age-related macular degeneration following the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors. Using a population-based retrospective design, we studied monthly fee claims for intravitreal injections submitted to the Ontario Health Insurance Plan between January 1, 2000, and March 30, 2008, and linked procedures to the physicians who performed them. This database records physician services provided as part of universal health care insurance coverage in Ontario, Canada. This program covers all residents of Ontario, which had an average population of 12.1 million during the study period. Following regulatory approval of bevacizumab for colorectal cancer in 2005, off-label use of this drug for the treatment of retinal disease, particularly age-related macular degeneration, became increasingly common. The rate of intravitreal injections in Ontario rapidly grew 8-fold, and this growth preceded the availability of ranibizumab by more than a year. Moreover, in 2007, more than 50% of intravitreal injections in Ontario were performed by 3% of ophthalmologists. The development of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors has revolutionized the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify the dramatic uptake of these treatments at a population level. Our findings also suggest that off-label injection of bevacizumab was highly prevalent in Ontario. Serial intravitreal injections requiring direct physician administration and the concentration of injection procedures in the hands of a small number of ophthalmologists have the potential to affect services for other vision-threatening conditions.

  16. Excess of mutational jackpot events in expanding populations revealed by spatial Luria-Delbrück experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Diana; Gralka, Matti; Kayser, Jona; Anderson, Alex; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2016-10-03

    The genetic diversity of growing cellular populations, such as biofilms, solid tumours or developing embryos, is thought to be dominated by rare, exceptionally large mutant clones. Yet, the emergence of these mutational jackpot events is only understood in well-mixed populations, where they stem from mutations that arise during the first few cell divisions. To study jackpot events in spatially structured populations, we track mutant clones in microbial populations using fluorescence microscopy and population sequencing. High-frequency mutations are found to be massively enriched in microbial colonies compared with well-shaken liquid cultures, as a result of late-occurring mutations surfing at the edge of range expansions. Thus, jackpot events can be generated not only when mutations arise early but also when they occur at favourable locations, which exacerbates their role in adaptation and disease. In particular, because spatial competition with the wild type keeps most mutant clones in a quiescent state, strong selection pressures that kill the wild type promote drug resistance.

  17. Thermo-expandable prostatic stents for bladder outlet obstruction in the frail and elderly population: An underutilized procedure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Sethi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report our outcomes with the use of a thermo-expandable metallic intraprostatic stent (Memokath for patients with bladder outlet obstruction (BOO secondary to prostatic obstruction, and to assess it is a feasible option for many frail and elderly men unsuitable for surgery. Materials and Methods: We reviewed patients who underwent insertion of a Memokath stent for BOO over 17 years (January 1999 to December 2015 at one regional center over a long follow-up period (median, 7 years. Patients were selected if they had obstructive urinary symptoms or urinary retention with an indwelling catheter in situ, and were ineligible for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP under general or spinal anesthesia. Primary outcomes assessed were the improvement in urinary symptoms and voiding parameters, as well as the ability to void spontaneously if catheterized, along with complications. Results: One hundred forty-four patients who presented with BOO or urinary retention had a Memokath stent inserted. Ninety patients (62.5% had a successful stent insertion with a significant difference between the median preoperative (550 mL and postoperative residual volume (80 mL, p<0.0001. Nearly two-thirds of men (64% returned to unassisted voiding with no increased risk of complications over time. Fifty-four patients (37.5% experienced stent failure. Main complications requiring stent removal or repositioning were migration, occlusion, refractory urinary retention and irritative voiding symptoms. Conclusions: In elderly and frail men with BOO deemed unsuitable to undergo TURP, prostatic stent is a safe and practical alternative to long-term catheterization.

  18. Rapid assessment of trachoma in underserved population of Car-Nicobar Island, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Vashist

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the burden of trachoma and its related risk factors amongst the native population of Car-Nicobar Island in India. METHODS: Rapid assessment for trachoma was conducted in ten villages of Car-Nicobar Island according to standard WHO guidelines. An average of 50 children aged 1-9 years were assessed clinically for signs of active trachoma and facial cleanliness in each village. Additionally, all adults above 15 years of age in these households were examined for evidence of trachomatous trichiasis and corneal opacity. Environmental risk factors contributing to trachoma like limited access to potable water & functional latrine, presence of animal pen and garbage within the Nicobari hut were also noted in all villages. RESULTS: Out of a total of fifteen villages in Car-Nicobar Island, ten villages were selected for trachoma survey depending on evidence of socio-developmental indicators like poverty and decreased access to water, sanitation and healthcare facilities. The total population of the selected clusters was 7277 in the ten villages. Overall, 251 of 516 children (48.6%;CI: 46.5-55.1 had evidence of follicular stage of trachoma and 11 children (2.1%;CI:1.0-3.4 had evidence of inflammatory stage of trachoma. Nearly 15%(CI:12.1-18.3 children were noted to have unclean faces in the ten villages. Trachomatous trichiasis was noted in 73 adults (1.0%;CI:0.8-1.2. The environmental sanitation was not found to be satisfactory in the surveyed villages mainly due to the co-habitance of Nicobari people with domestic animals like pigs, hens, goats, dogs, cats etc in most (96.4% of the households. CONCLUSION: Active trachoma and trachomatous trichiasis was observed in all the ten villages surveyed, wherein trachoma control measures are needed.

  19. Rapid assessment of populations trends of invasive species: Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANA, ED

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA is a powerful analytical approach for biodi-versity management. Its main advan-tages are due to its intuitive processing and visualization, since mathematical workflow is conceptually similar to the widely accepted Principal Components Analysis. Detailed analyses of popula-tion trends with mathematical tools are often difficult to achieve for managers by a number of reasons (large numbers or areas monitored, large number of species, insufficient statistics skills, strong knowledge level in demographic analyses, etc.. SSA has been used since the 1970’s in signal processing to clarify signal vs. noisy information, but it has also been used in climate change analy-sis and other developmental areas. Be-sides, SSA is a rapid-learning method for technicians and managers with medium level of mathematical knowledge. Free software in Unix environment is avail-able. Unfortunately, no free and friendly software is available for Win-dows SO. Although R package may offer solutions for really advanced users, it does not fit real work situations for managers of biological invasions. Cater-pillar (Gistat Group, Ltd is by now, the best option found by the author in terms of price, facility for results inter-pretation and time consumed in learn-ing. The main disadvantage is the poor content of tutorial files

  20. Investigation of QF-PCR Application for Rapid Prenatal Diagnosis of Chromosomal Aneuploidies in Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Habib; Noori-Dalooi, Mohammad-Reza; Dastan, Jila; Ghaffari, Saeed-Reza

    2011-03-01

    G-Banding followed by standard chromosome analysis is routinely used for prenatal detection of chromosomal abnormalities. In recent years, molecular cytogenetic techniques have been developed for rapid diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. Among these methods Quantitative Florescence Polymerase Chain Reaction (QF-PCR) has been widely used for this purpose. Heterozygosity of short tandem repeat (STR) markers which leads to informativity is the most critical requirement for feasibility of QF-PCR. In this study we analyzed several short tandem repeats on chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y on amniotic fluid samples obtained from PND candidates to diagnose conditions such as Down, Edward and Patau syndromes and also numerical sex chromosome abnormalities such as Klinefelter and Turner syndromes. Most of the analyzed STRs had acceptable heterozygosity (66.3-94.7) to be used in QF-PCR based prenatal diagnosis. Moreover, results obtained from both methods (standard karyotype and QF-PCR) for all samples were in accordance with each other. In case of using appropriate STR markers, and in certain clinical indications, QF-PCR could be used as useful technique for prenatal diagnosis even in consanguine populations such as Iranians.

  1. Rapid Visual Site Analysis for Post-disaster Landscape Planning: Expanding the Range of Choice in a Tsunami-affected Town in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wescoat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement In post-disaster situations, it is often necessary to undertake rapid visual site reconnaissance to characterise patterns of damage and identify reconstruction opportunities and constraints. Rapid visual site analysis can occur over a period of hours to days rather than weeks to months. The time constraint is often necessary to assess the viability of initial reconstruction scenarios and help broaden the range of choice among site planning options. Rapid assessment can also minimise the use of scarce local post-disaster resources during the initial reconnaissance phases of planning. Because it involves visual methods rather than equipment-intensive survey techniques, it serves as an initial scoping of alternatives. It may follow emergency shelter response planning methods (for example, Sphere Project, 2011, ch 4 and be followed by more comprehensive site mapping and screening. This action–research project reviews the literature on post-disaster site analysis with an emphasis on the tsunami-affected area of north-eastern Japan. Because research on rapid visual site analysis in post-disaster contexts is limited, we combined field-based site analysis methods, adapted for post-disaster planning, with visual methods for assessing seismic and tsunami hazards.

  2. Particle dynamics and current-free double layers in an expanding, collisionless, two-electron-population plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairapetian, G.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of a two-electron-population, collisionless plasma into vacuum has been examined in detail. Plasma density, plasma potential, electric field, and particle disribution functions have been measured in situ. It is demonstrated that the presence of a low-pressure (P not less than 2 x 10 to the -5th torr) background neutral gas modifies the expansion of the plasma. A new plasma source creating dense, pulsed discharge plasma with a low background pressure (P not greater than 2 x 10 to the -6th torr) has been developed to perform in situ measurements of the temporal and spatial plasma evolution during its expansion into vacuum.

  3. The case for expanding the definition of 'key populations' to include high-risk groups in the general population to improve targeted HIV prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shisana, Olive; Zungu, N; Evans, M; Risher, K; Rehle, T; Clementano, D

    2015-09-22

    Two additional key populations within the general population in South Africa (SA) that are at risk of HIV infection are black African women aged 20 - 34 years and black African men aged 25 - 49 years. To investigate the social determinants of HIV serostatus for these two high-risk populations. Data from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, and Behaviour Survey were analysed for black African women aged 20 - 34 years and black African men aged 25 - 49 years. Of the 6.4 million people living with HIV in SA in 2012, 1.8 million (28%) were black women aged 20 - 34 years and 1.9 million (30%) black men aged 25 - 49 years. In 2012, they constituted 58% of the total HIV-positive population and 48% of the newly infected population. Low socioeconomic status (SES) was strongly associated (p<0.001) with being HIV-positive among black women aged 20 - 34 years, and was marginally significant among black men aged 25 - 49 years (p<0.1). Low SES is a critical social determinant for HIV infection among the high-risk groups of black African women aged 20 - 34 years and black African men aged 25 - 49 years. Targeted interventions for these key populations should prioritise socioeconomic empowerment, access to formal housing and services, access to higher education, and broad economic transformation.

  4. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  5. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  6. Characterization of the expanded T cell population in infectious mononucleosis: apoptosis, expression of apoptosis-related genes, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, C S; Wenthe, U; Bergler, W F; Zentgraf, H

    2000-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis (IM), a manifestation of primary infection with EBV, is characterized by a massive expansion of the T cell population. In this study we examined this expanded T cell population regarding its EBV status, its proliferative and apoptotic activity, and its expression of apoptosis-related genes. Whereas previous studies were performed on ex vivo cultures or on peripheral blood, our investigations included in vivo analysis of IM tonsillectomy specimens (14 cases) by in situ hybridization for viral RNA (EBERs) combined with immunohistochemistry (IHC; CD3, CD45RO, CD20, CD79a, Ki-67, Bcl-2, Bax, Fas, FasL) and the TUNEL method. Of the EBER+ cells 50–70% showed expression of the B cell markers CD20/CD79a. The remainder of the EBER+ cells expressed neither B nor T cell antigens. No co-expression of EBERs and T cell antigens was detected in any of the specimens. In accordance with a high rate of apoptosis (up to 2·37%) within the expanded T cell population, Bcl-2 expression was drastically reduced and FasL expression remarkably increased. The levels of Bax and Fas expression showed no or moderate up-regulation. In conclusion, the massive expansion of IM T cells is not caused by EBV infection of these cells but merely represents an intense immune reaction. Through altered expression of Bcl-2/Bax and Fas/FasL, the activated T cells are subject to enhanced apoptosis while residing within the lymphoid tissue, which eventually allows the efficient silencing of this potentially damaging T cell response. PMID:10792379

  7. Spatial genetic structure patterns of phenotype-limited and boundary-limited expanding populations: a simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Dai

    Full Text Available Range expansions may create a unique spatial genetic pattern characterized by alternate genetically homogeneous domains and allele frequency clines. Previous attempts to model range expansions have mainly focused on the loss of genetic diversity during expansions. Using individual-based models, we examined spatial genetic patterns under two expansion scenarios, boundary-limited range expansions (BLRE and phenotype-limited range expansions (PhLRE. Our simulation revealed that the genetic diversity within populations lost quickly during the range expansion, while the genetic difference accumulated between populations. Consequently, accompanying the expansions, the overall diversity featured a slow decrease. Specifically, during BLREs, high speed of boundary motion facilitated the maintenance of total genetic diversity and sharpened genetic clines. Very slight constraints on boundary motion of BLREs drastically narrowed the homogeneous domains and increased the allele frequency fluctuations from those levels exhibited by PhLREs. Even stronger constraints, however, surprisingly brought the width of homogeneous domains and the allele frequency fluctuations back to the normal levels of PhLREs. Furthermore, high migration rates maintained a higher total genetic diversity than low ones did during PhLREs. Whereas, the total genetic diversities during BLREs showed a contrary pattern: higher when migration was low than those when migration was high. Besides, the increase of migration rates helped maintain a greater number of homogeneous domains during PhLREs, but their effects on the number of homogeneous domains during BLREs were not monotonous. Previous studies have showed that the homogenous domains can merge to form a few broad domains as the expansion went on, leading to fewer homogeneous domains. Our simulations, meanwhile, revealed that the range expansions could also rebuild homogeneous domains from the clines during the range expansion. It is

  8. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Andrew; Clark, Bryan W.; Reid, Noah M.; Hahn, Mark E.; Nacci, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human‐mediated environmental changes, including environmental pollution. Here we review how key features of populations, the characteristics of environmental pollution, and the genetic architecture underlying adaptive traits, may interact to shape the likelihood of evolutionary rescue from pollution. Large populations of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) persist in som...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA analyses of the Cape hakes reveal an expanding, panmictic population for Merluccius capensis and population structuring for mature fish in Merluccius paradoxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Heyden, Sophie; Lipinski, Marek R; Matthee, Conrad A

    2007-02-01

    The Cape hake species, Merluccius capensis and Merluccius paradoxus are the most important resource of the South African and Namibian demersal fishery, but it is unclear whether there is a single population of each shared by both countries. We analysed the population structure and evolutionary history of these two species using the variable 5' region of the mtDNA control region for 311 specimens of M. capensis and 333 specimens of M. paradoxus sampled between Lüderitz (southern Namibia) to south of Cape Point (South Africa). 107 haplotypes for M. capensis and eight haplotypes for M. paradoxus were recovered. AMOVA and pairwise Phi(st) analyses revealed no structure in M. capensis, however significant genetic differentiation between Namibian and South African 'populations' was detected for M. paradoxus. This was only restricted to mature fish older than 3 and 4 years and not for juvenile fish younger than 3 years. Analyses reveal that M. capensis has undergone population expansion (Fu's Fs=-26.65, Phistory of sympatric species, as well as addressing management issues within regions where commercially valuable fish stocks are shared between nations.

  10. When evolution is the solution to pollution: Key principles, and lessons from rapid repeated adaptation of killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    For most species, evolutionary adaptation is not expected to be sufficiently rapid to buffer the effects of human-mediated environmental changes. Yet large persistent populations of small bodied fish residing in some of the most contaminated estuaries of the US have provided some...

  11. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  12. Disease-associated CAG·CTG triplet repeats expand rapidly in non-dividing mouse cells, but cell cycle arrest is insufficient to drive expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Hilley, James D; Morales, Fernando; Adam, Berit; James, Helen E; Monckton, Darren G

    2014-06-01

    Genetically unstable expanded CAG·CTG trinucleotide repeats are causal in a number of human disorders, including Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1. It is still widely assumed that DNA polymerase slippage during replication plays an important role in the accumulation of expansions. Nevertheless, somatic mosaicism correlates poorly with the proliferative capacity of the tissue and rates of cell turnover, suggesting that expansions can occur in the absence of replication. We monitored CAG·CTG repeat instability in transgenic mouse cells arrested by chemical or genetic manipulation of the cell cycle and generated unequivocal evidence for the continuous accumulation of repeat expansions in non-dividing cells. Importantly, the rates of expansion in non-dividing cells were at least as high as those of proliferating cells. These data are consistent with a major role for cell division-independent expansion in generating somatic mosaicism in vivo. Although expansions can accrue in non-dividing cells, we also show that cell cycle arrest is not sufficient to drive instability, implicating other factors as the key regulators of tissue-specific instability. Our data reveal that de novo expansion events are not limited to S-phase and further support a cell division-independent mutational pathway. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  14. Analysis of spatial genetic structure in an expanding Pinus halepensis population reveals development of fine-scale genetic clustering over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, D; Nathan, R; Vendramin, G G

    2006-10-01

    We analysed the change of spatial genetic structure (SGS) of reproductive individuals over time in an expanding Pinus halepensis population. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study to analyse the temporal component of SGS by following the dynamics of successive cohorts of the same population over time, rather than analysing different age cohorts at a single time. SGS is influenced by various factors including restricted gene dispersal, microenvironmental selection, mating patterns and the spatial pattern of reproductive individuals. Several factors that affect SGS are expected to vary over time and as adult density increases. Using air photo analysis, tree-ring dating and molecular marker analysis we reconstructed the spread of reproductive individuals over 30 years beginning from five initial individuals. In the early stages, genotypes were distributed randomly in space. Over time and with increasing density, fine-scale (< 20 m) SGS developed and the magnitude of genetic clustering increased. The SGS was strongly affected by the initial spatial distribution and genetic variation of the founding individuals. The development of SGS may be explained by fine-scale environmental heterogeneity and possibly microenvironmental selection. Inbreeding and variation in reproductive success may have enhanced SGS magnitude over time.

  15. Rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy CT ex vivo renal calculi characterization using a multiparametric approach: refining parameters on an expanded dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegshauser, J Scott; Paden, Robert G; He, Miao; Humphreys, Mitchell R; Zell, Steven I; Fu, Yinlin; Wu, Teresa; Sugi, Mark D; Silva, Alvin C

    2017-09-26

    We aimed to determine the best algorithms for renal stone composition characterization using rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy computed tomography (rsDECT) and a multiparametric approach after dataset expansion and refinement of variables. rsDECT scans (80 and 140 kVp) were performed on 38 ex vivo 5- to 10-mm renal stones composed of uric acid (UA; n = 21), struvite (STR; n = 5), cystine (CYS; n = 5), and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM; n = 7). Measurements were obtained for 17 variables: mean Hounsfield units (HU) at 11 monochromatic keV levels, effective Z, 2 iodine-water material basis pairs, and 3 mean monochromatic keV ratios (40/140, 70/120, 70/140). Analysis included using 5 multiparametric algorithms: Support Vector Machine, RandomTree, Artificial Neural Network, Naïve Bayes Tree, and Decision Tree (C4.5). Separating UA from non-UA stones was 100% accurate using multiple methods. For non-UA stones, using a 70-keV mean cutoff value of 694 HU had 100% accuracy for distinguishing COM from non-COM (CYS, STR) stones. The best result for distinguishing all 3 non-UA subtypes was obtained using RandomTree (15/17, 88%). For stones 5 mm or larger, multiple methods can distinguish UA from non-UA and COM from non-COM stones with 100% accuracy. Thus, the choice for analysis is per the user's preference. The best model for separating all three non-UA subtypes was 88% accurate, although with considerable individual overlap between CYS and STR stones. Larger, more diverse datasets, including in vivo data and technical improvements in material separation, may offer more guidance in distinguishing non-UA stone subtypes in the clinical setting.

  16. Population dynamics of Empetrum hermaphroditum (Ericaceae) on a subarctic sand dune: Evidence of rapid colonization through efficient sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Stéphane; Ropars, Pascale; Harper, Karen Amanda

    2010-05-01

    The importance of sexual reproduction for clonal plant species has long been underestimated, perhaps as a consequence of the difficulty in identifying individuals, preventing the study of their population dynamics. Such is the case for Empetrum hermaphroditum, an ericaceous species, which dominates the ground vegetation of subarctic ecosystems. Despite abundant seed production, seedlings are rarely observed. Therefore, prevalent seedling recruitment on a subarctic dune system provided an opportunity to study the population dynamics and spatial pattern of the colonization phase of this species. We established a 6-ha grid on the dune systems that extended from the shoreline to the fixed dunes and mapped and measured all E. hermaphroditum individuals in the grid. Moreover, we sampled 112 individuals just outside the grid to identify any allometric relationship between the size and age of the individuals, which allowed us to reconstruct population expansion. The overall size structure suggests that the population is still expanding. In the last 50 yr, E. hermaphroditum advanced more than 200 m in the dune system. Expansion started in the 1960s simultaneously at different distances from the shoreline. Colonization did not proceed gradually from the fixed dune toward the shoreline but instead individuals established earlier in the troughs between the dunes, with an increasingly clumped spatial pattern as the population filled in with time.

  17. Expanded Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  18. Rapid Adaptation of a Daphnia magna Population to Metal Stress Is Associated with Heterozygote Excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; De Meester, Luc; Pereira, Cecília M S; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-08-04

    Although natural populations can harbor evolutionary potential to adapt genetically to chemical stress, it is often thought that natural selection leads to a general reduction of genetic diversity and involves costs. Here, a 10 week microevolution experiment was conducted with a genetically diverse and representative sample of one natural Daphnia magna population that was exposed to copper and zinc. Both Cu- and Zn-selected populations developed a significantly higher metal tolerance (i.e., genetic adaptation), indicated by higher reproduction probabilities of clonal lines in Cu and Zn exposures than observed for the original and control populations. The complete recovery of the population densities after 10 weeks of Zn selection (following an initial decrease of 74%) illustrates an example of evolutionary rescue. Microsatellite genotyping revealed a decrease in clonal diversity but no change in allelic richness, and showed an excess in heterozygosity in the Cu- and Zn-selected populations compared to the control and original populations. The excess heterozygosity in metal-selected populations that we observed has important consequences for risk assessment, as it contributes to the maintenance of a higher allelic diversity under multigenerational chemical exposure. This study is, to our knowledge, the first report of an increase in heterozygosity following multigenerational exposure to metal stress, despite a decline in clonal diversity. In a follow-up study with the Zn-selected populations, we observed no effect of Zn selection on the tolerance to heat and cyanobacteria. However, we observed higher tolerance to Cd in the Zn-selected than in the original and control populations if the 20% effective concentration of Cd was considered (cross-tolerance). Our results suggest only limited costs of adaptation but future research is needed to evaluate the adaptive potential of metal-selected populations to novel stressors and to determine to what extent increased

  19. Rise and fall of a wolf population: genetic diversity and structure during recovery, rapid expansion and drastic decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, E; Ruokonen, M; Kojola, I; Aspi, J

    2012-11-01

    The grey wolves (Canis lupus) of Finland have had a varied history, with a period of rapid population expansion after the mid-1990s followed by a decline with a current census size of about 140 wolves. Here, we investigate the impact of unstable population size and connectivity on genetic diversity and structure in a long-term genetic study of 298 Finnish wolves born in 1995-2009 and genotyped for 17 microsatellite loci. During the initial recovery and prior to population expansion, genetic diversity was high (1995-1997: LD-N(e)  = 67.2; H(o)  = 0.749; H(e)  = 0.709) despite a small census size and low number of breeders (N(c)  < 100; N(b)  < 10) likely reflecting the status of the Russian source population. Surprisingly, observed heterozygosity decreased significantly during the study period (t = -2.643, P = 0.021) despite population expansion, likely a result of an increase in inbreeding (F(IS)  = 0.108 in 2007-2009) owing to a low degree of connectivity with adjacent Russian wolf population (m = 0.016-0.090; F(ST)  = 0.086, P < 0.001) and population crash after 2006. However, population growth had a temporary positive impact on N(e) and number of family lines. This study shows that even strong population growth alone might not be adequate to retain genetic diversity, especially when accompanied with low amount of subsequent gene flow and population decline. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    upon qualitative interviews with residents as well as road network data and travel speed data collected with GPS to offer a combination of local testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. It is argued that the use of digital network analysis enables planners to obtain a better......A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... knowledge of the spatial patterns of urban accessibility, while the analysis of mobility practices of residents enables a better understanding of the constraints people experience related to their livelihood strategies. Finally, the paper addresses how local residents engage in providing and improving...

  1. High false-positive rate of human immunodeficiency virus rapid serum screening in a predominantly hispanic prenatal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Nikolaos M; Athanassaki, Ioanna D; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Gardner, Michael O

    2004-12-01

    To identify the characteristics of the gravidas delivering at our birthing center that place them at risk for false-positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The medical records of all rapid HIV-ELISA-positive gravidas that delivered at our hospital between January 2000 and October 2001 were retrieved, and information was gathered regarding maternal demographics. The results of the Western blot tests were also retrieved and correlated to the ELISA results, across varying maternal characteristics. chi(2), Student's t-test and multivariate analysis were performed, as appropriate, using the SAS software; statistical significance was denoted by ppositive rapid HIV-ELISA out of 9,781 deliveries. Of those, 26 were confirmed as HIV infected by Western blot (overall HIV prevalence: 0.27%, ELISA-positive predictive value: 37.7%). The subgroup prevalence of HIV and positive predictive value of ELISA were 1.53 and 75% among Caucasians; 2.43 and 82.6% among African-Americans; and 0.05 and 9.8% among Hispanics, respectively (p or =5 lifetime) sexual partners was elicited in the majority of HIV-infected patients. The positive predictive value of rapid HIV-ELISA during pregnancy varies widely, depending on maternal race/ethnicity and sexual behavior. The routine disclosure of rapid intrapartum HIV serum screening results prior to Western blot confirmation should be avoided in very low-risk populations.

  2. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Fumagalli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyperlipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show...

  3. Tissue-resident adult stem cell populations of rapidly self-renewing organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barker, N.; Bartfeld, S.; Clevers, H.

    2010-01-01

    The epithelial lining of the intestine, stomach, and skin is continuously exposed to environmental assault, imposing a requirement for regular self-renewal. Resident adult stem cell populations drive this renewal, and much effort has been invested in revealing their identity. Reliable adult stem

  4. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study - Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearse A Keane

    Full Text Available To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness.In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available "spectral domain" OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon. Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL. This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion.67,321 participants (134,642 eyes in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days.We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging.

  5. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nor, A.N.M.; R. Corstanje; Harris, J.A.; Grafius, D.R.; Siriwardena, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for ...

  6. Medical Information & Technology: Rapidly Expanding Vast Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Anil K.

    2012-12-01

    During ÑMedical Council Of India?, Platinum Jubilee Year (1933-2008) Celebrations, In Year 2008, Several Scientific Meeting/Seminar/Symposium, On Various Topics Of Contemporary Importance And Relevance In The Field Of ÑMedical Education And Ethics?, Were Organized, By Different Medical Colleges At Various Local, State, National Levels. The Present Discussion, Is An Comprehensive Summary Of Various Different Aspects of ìMedical Information Communication Technologyî, Especially UseFul For The Audience Stratum Group Of Those Amateur Medical & Paramedical Staff, With No Previous Work Experience Knowledge Of Computronics Applications. Outlining The, i.Administration Applications: Medical Records Etc, ii. Clinical Applications: Pros pective Scope Of TeleMedicine Applicabilities Etc iii. Other Applications: Efforts To Augment Improvement Of Medical Education, Medical Presentations, Medical Education And Research Etc. ÑMedical Trancription? & Related Recent Study Fields e.g ÑModern Pharmaceuticals?,ÑBio-Engineering?, ÑBio-Mechanics?, ÑBio-Technology? Etc., Along With Important Aspects Of Computers-General Considerations, Computer Ergonomics Assembled To Summarize, The AwareNess Regarding Basic Fundamentals Of Medical Computronics & Its Practically SuccessFul Utilities.

  7. Monitoring the welfare of polar bear populations in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Patyk, Kelly A.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Most programs for monitoring the welfare of wildlife populations support efforts aimed at reaching discrete management objectives, like mitigating conflict with humans. While such programs can be effective, their limited scope may preclude systemic evaluations needed for large-scale conservation initiatives, like the recovery of at-risk species. We discuss select categories of metrics that can be used to monitor how polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are responding to the primary threat to their long-term persistence—loss of sea ice habitat due to the unabated rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG; e.g., CO2) concentrations—that can also provide information on ecosystem function and health. Monitoring key aspects of polar bear population dynamics, spatial behavior, health and resiliency can provide valuable insight into ecosystem state and function, and could be a powerful tool for achieving Arctic conservation objectives, particularly those that have transnational policy implications.

  8. Integrated care for older populations and its implementation facilitators and barriers: A rapid scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threapleton, Diane E; Chung, Roger Y; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Eliza; Chau, Patsy; Woo, Jean; Chung, Vincent C H; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2017-06-01

    Inform health system improvements by summarizing components of integrated care in older populations. Identify key implementation barriers and facilitators. A scoping review was undertaken for evidence from MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, organizational websites and internet searches. Eligible publications included reviews, reports, individual studies and policy documents published from 2005 to February 2017. Initial eligible documents were reviews or reports concerning integrated care approaches in older/frail populations. Other documents were later sourced to identify and contextualize implementation issues. Study findings and implementation barriers and facilitators were charted and thematically synthesized. Thematic synthesis using 30 publications identified 8 important components for integrated care in elderly and frail populations: (i) care continuity/transitions; (ii) enabling policies/governance; (iii) shared values/goals; (iv) person-centred care; (v) multi-/inter-disciplinary services; (vi) effective communication; (vii) case management; (viii) needs assessments for care and discharge planning. Intervention outcomes and implementation issues (barriers or facilitators) tend to depend heavily on the context and programme objectives. Implementation issues in four main areas were observed: (i) Macro-level contextual factors; (ii) Miso-level system organization (funding, leadership, service structure and culture); (iii) Miso-level intervention organization (characteristics, resources and credibility) and (iv) Micro-level factors (shared values, engagement and communication). Improving integration in care requires many components. However, local barriers and facilitators need to be considered. Changes are expected to occur slowly and are more likely to be successful where elements of integrated care are well incorporated into local settings.

  9. Population Genomics Reveal Recent Speciation and Rapid Evolutionary Adaptation in Polar Bears

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Fumagalli, Matteo; Li, Bo; Harris, Kelley; Xiong, Zijun; ZHOU, Long; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Somel, Mehmet; Babbitt, Courtney; Wray, Greg; Li, Jianwen; He, Weiming; Wang, Zhuo; Fu, Wenjing

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyperlipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479–343 thousand years BP. We find that genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger positive selection than in brown bears; nine of the top 16 genes under...

  10. FREQ-Seq: a rapid, cost-effective, sequencing-based method to determine allele frequencies directly from mixed populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lon M Chubiz

    Full Text Available Understanding evolutionary dynamics within microbial populations requires the ability to accurately follow allele frequencies through time. Here we present a rapid, cost-effective method (FREQ-Seq that leverages Illumina next-generation sequencing for localized, quantitative allele frequency detection. Analogous to RNA-Seq, FREQ-Seq relies upon counts from the >10(5 reads generated per locus per time-point to determine allele frequencies. Loci of interest are directly amplified from a mixed population via two rounds of PCR using inexpensive, user-designed oligonucleotides and a bar-coded bridging primer system that can be regenerated in-house. The resulting bar-coded PCR products contain the adapters needed for Illumina sequencing, eliminating further library preparation. We demonstrate the utility of FREQ-Seq by determining the order and dynamics of beneficial alleles that arose as a microbial population, founded with an engineered strain of Methylobacterium, evolved to grow on methanol. Quantifying allele frequencies with minimal bias down to 1% abundance allowed effective analysis of SNPs, small in-dels and insertions of transposable elements. Our data reveal large-scale clonal interference during the early stages of adaptation and illustrate the utility of FREQ-Seq as a cost-effective tool for tracking allele frequencies in populations.

  11. High resolution melting analytical platform for rapid prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia common among Southeast Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajantasen, Thanet; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa

    2015-02-20

    High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a powerful technology for scanning sequence alteration. We have applied this HRM assay to screen common β-thalassemia mutations found among Southeast Asian population. Known DNA samples with 8 common mutations were used in initial development of the methods including -28 A-G, codon 17 A-T, IVSI-1G-T, IVSI-5G-C, codon 26G-A (Hb E), codons 41/42 -TTCT, codons 71/72+A and IVSII-654 C-T. Further validation was done on 60 postnatal and 6 prenatal diagnoses of β-thalassemia. Each mutation has specific HRM profile which could be used in rapid screening. Apart from those with DNA deletions, the results of HRM assay matched 100% with those of routine diagnosis made by routine allele specific PCR. In addition, the HRM assay could initially recognize three unknown mutations including a hitherto un-described one in Thai population. The established HRM assay should prove useful for rapid and high throughput platform for screening and prenatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia common in the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M; Aagaard-Hansen, J; Dukhi, N; Day, C; Ndlovu, N; Slotow, R; Hofman, K

    2017-12-14

    There is a global epidemic of overweight and obesity; however, this rate of increase is even greater in some low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). South Africa (SA) is undergoing rapid socioeconomic and demographic changes that have triggered a rapid nutrition transition. The paper focuses on the recent rate of change of body mass index (BMI) among children, adolescents and young adults, further stratified by key sociodemographic factors. We analysed mean BMI of 28 247 individuals (including children) from 7301 households by age and year, from anthropometric data from four national cross-sectional (repeated panel) surveys using non-linear fitted curves and associated 95% confidence intervals. From 2008 to 2015, there was rapid rise in mean BMI in the 6-25 age band, with the highest risk (3-4+ BMI unit increase) among children aged 8-10 years. The increase was largely among females in urban areas and of middle-high socioeconomic standing. Prominent gains were also observed in certain rural areas, with extensive geographical heterogeneity across the country. We have demonstrated a major deviation from the current understanding of patterns of BMI increase, with a rate of increase substantially greater in the developing world context compared with the global pattern. This population-wide effect will have major consequences for national development as the epidemic of related non-communicable disease unfolds, and will overtax the national health care budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes and mandatory bans on unhealthy food marketing to children.The scenario unfolding in South Africa will likely be followed in other LMICs.

  13. POPULATION GENOMICS REVEAL RECENT SPECIATION AND RAPID EVOLUTIONARY ADAPTATION IN POLAR BEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Fumagalli, Matteo; Li, Bo; Harris, Kelley; Xiong, Zijun; Zhou, Long; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Somel, Mehmet; Babbitt, Courtney; Wray, Greg; Li, Jianwen; He, Weiming; Wang, Zhuo; Fu, Wenjing; Xiang, Xueyan; Morgan, Claire C.; Doherty, Aoife; O’Connell, Mary J.; McInerney, James O.; Born, Erik W.; Dalén, Love; Dietz, Rune; Orlando, Ludovic; Sonne, Christian; Zhang, Guojie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyperlipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479–343 thousand years BP. We find that genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger positive selection than in brown bears; nine of the top 16 genes under strong positive selection are associated with cardiomyopathy and vascular disease, implying important reorganization of the cardio-vascular system. One of the genes showing the strongest evidence of selection, APOB, encodes the primary lipoprotein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL); functional mutations in APOB may explain how polar bears are able to cope with life-long elevated LDL levels that are associated with high risk of heart disease in humans. PMID:24813606

  14. Rapid growth and genetic diversity retention in an isolated reintroduced black bear population in the central appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean M.; Cox, John J.; Clark, Joseph D.; Augustine, Benjamin J.; Hast, John T.; Gibbs, Dan; Strunk, Michael; Dobey, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Animal reintroductions are important tools of wildlife management to restore species to their historical range, and they can also create unique opportunities to study population dynamics and genetics from founder events. We used non-invasive hair sampling in a systematic, closed-population capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study design at the Big South Fork (BSF) area in Kentucky during 2010 and Tennessee during 2012 to estimate the demographic and genetic characteristics of the black bear (Ursus americanus) population that resulted from a reintroduced founding population of 18 bears in 1998. We estimated 38 (95% CI: 31–66) and 190 (95% CI: 170–219) bears on the Kentucky and Tennessee study areas, respectively. Based on the Tennessee abundance estimate alone, the mean annual growth rate was 18.3% (95% CI: 17.4–19.5%) from 1998 to 2012. We also compared the genetic characteristics of bears sampled during 2010–2012 to bears in the population during 2000–2002, 2–4 years following reintroduction, and to the source population. We found that the level of genetic diversity since reintroduction as indicated by expected heterozygosity (HE) remained relatively constant (HE(source, 2004) = 0.763, HE(BSF, 2000–2002) = 0.729, HE(BSF, 2010–2012) = 0.712) and the effective number of breeders (NB) remained low but had increased since reintroduction in the absence of sufficient immigration (NB(BSF, 2000–2002) = 12, NB(BSF, 2010–2012)  = 35). This bear population appears to be genetically isolated, but contrary to our expectations, we did not find evidence of genetic diversity loss or other deleterious genetic effects typically observed from small founder groups. We attribute that to high initial genetic diversity in the founder group combined with overlapping generations and rapid population growth. Although the population remains relatively small, the reintroduction using a small founder group appears to be demographically and genetically

  15. Population genomics reveal recent speciation and rapid evolutionary adaptation in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiping; Lorenzen, Eline D; Fumagalli, Matteo; Li, Bo; Harris, Kelley; Xiong, Zijun; Zhou, Long; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Somel, Mehmet; Babbitt, Courtney; Wray, Greg; Li, Jianwen; He, Weiming; Wang, Zhuo; Fu, Wenjing; Xiang, Xueyan; Morgan, Claire C; Doherty, Aoife; O'Connell, Mary J; McInerney, James O; Born, Erik W; Dalén, Love; Dietz, Rune; Orlando, Ludovic; Sonne, Christian; Zhang, Guojie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske; Wang, Jun

    2014-05-08

    Polar bears are uniquely adapted to life in the High Arctic and have undergone drastic physiological changes in response to Arctic climates and a hyper-lipid diet of primarily marine mammal prey. We analyzed 89 complete genomes of polar bear and brown bear using population genomic modeling and show that the species diverged only 479-343 thousand years BP. We find that genes on the polar bear lineage have been under stronger positive selection than in brown bears; nine of the top 16 genes under strong positive selection are associated with cardiomyopathy and vascular disease, implying important reorganization of the cardiovascular system. One of the genes showing the strongest evidence of selection, APOB, encodes the primary lipoprotein component of low-density lipoprotein (LDL); functional mutations in APOB may explain how polar bears are able to cope with life-long elevated LDL levels that are associated with high risk of heart disease in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid identification of causal mutations in tomato EMS populations via mapping-by-sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Virginie; Bres, Cécile; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Tai, Fabienne Wong Jun; Mauxion, Jean-Philippe; Le Paslier, Marie-Christine; Bérard, Aurélie; Brunel, Dominique; Aoki, Koh; Alseekh, Saleh; Fernie, Alisdair R; Fraser, Paul D; Rothan, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    The tomato is the model species of choice for fleshy fruit development and for the Solanaceae family. Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutants of tomato have already proven their utility for analysis of gene function in plants, leading to improved breeding stocks and superior tomato varieties. However, until recently, the identification of causal mutations that underlie particular phenotypes has been a very lengthy task that many laboratories could not afford because of spatial and technical limitations. Here, we describe a simple protocol for identifying causal mutations in tomato using a mapping-by-sequencing strategy. Plants displaying phenotypes of interest are first isolated by screening an EMS mutant collection generated in the miniature cultivar Micro-Tom. A recombinant F2 population is then produced by crossing the mutant with a wild-type (WT; non-mutagenized) genotype, and F2 segregants displaying the same phenotype are subsequently pooled. Finally, whole-genome sequencing and analysis of allele distributions in the pools allow for the identification of the causal mutation. The whole process, from the isolation of the tomato mutant to the identification of the causal mutation, takes 6-12 months. This strategy overcomes many previous limitations, is simple to use and can be applied in most laboratories with limited facilities for plant culture and genotyping.

  17. Rapid and sensitive magnetoelastic biosensors for the detection of Salmonella typhimurium in a mixed microbial population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntupalli, R; Lakshmanan, R S; Hu, J; Huang, T S; Barbaree, J M; Vodyanoy, V; Chin, B A

    2007-07-01

    In this article, we report the results of an investigation into the performance of a wireless, magnetoelastic biosensor designed to selectively detect Salmonella typhimurium in a mixed microbial population. The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayer technique was employed for antibody (specific to Salmonella sp.) immobilization on rectangular shaped strip magnetoelastic sensors (2 x 0.4 x 0.015 mm). Bacterial binding to the antibody on the sensor surface changes the resonance parameters, and these changes were quantified as a shift in the sensor's resonance frequency. Response of the sensors to increasing concentrations (5 x 10(1) to 5 x 10(8) cfu/ml) of S. typhimurium in a mixture of extraneous foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes) was studied. A detection limit of 5 x 10(3) cfu/ml and a sensitivity of 139 Hz/decade were observed for the 2 x 0.4 x 0.015 mm sensors. Binding kinetics studies have shown that the dissociation constant (K(d)) and the binding valencies for water samples spiked with S. typhimurium was 435 cfu/ml and 2.33 respectively. The presence of extraneous microorganisms in the mixture did not produce an appreciable change in the biosensor's dose response behavior.

  18. Rapid and unambiguous detection of DNase I hypersensitive site in rare population of cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ping Zeng

    Full Text Available DNase I hypersensitive (DHS sites are important for understanding cis regulation of gene expression. However, existing methods for detecting DHS sites in small numbers of cells can lead to ambiguous results. Here we describe a simple new method, in which DNA fragments with ends generated by DNase I digestion are isolated and used as templates for two PCR reactions. In the first PCR, primers are derived from sequences up- and down-stream of the DHS site. If the DHS site exists in the cells, the first PCR will not produce PCR products due to the cuts of the templates by DNase I between the primer sequences. In the second PCR, one primer is derived from sequence outside the DHS site and the other from the adaptor. This will produce a smear of PCR products of different sizes due to cuts by DNase I at different positions at the DHS site. With this design, we detected a DHS site at the CD4 gene in two CD4 T cell populations using as few as 2×10(4 cells. We further validated this method by detecting a DHS site of the IL-4 gene that is specifically present in type 2 but not type 1 T helper cells. Overall, this method overcomes the interference by genomic DNA not cut by DNase I at the DHS site, thereby offering unambiguous detection of DHS sites in the cells.

  19. Dynamic large-scale chromosomal rearrangements fuel rapid adaptation in yeast populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lin Chang

    Full Text Available Large-scale genome rearrangements have been observed in cells adapting to various selective conditions during laboratory evolution experiments. However, it remains unclear whether these types of mutations can be stably maintained in populations and how they impact the evolutionary trajectories. Here we show that chromosomal rearrangements contribute to extremely high copper tolerance in a set of natural yeast strains isolated from Evolution Canyon (EC, Israel. The chromosomal rearrangements in EC strains result in segmental duplications in chromosomes 7 and 8, which increase the copy number of genes involved in copper regulation, including the crucial transcriptional activator CUP2 and the metallothionein CUP1. The copy number of CUP2 is correlated with the level of copper tolerance, indicating that increasing dosages of a single transcriptional activator by chromosomal rearrangements has a profound effect on a regulatory pathway. By gene expression analysis and functional assays, we identified three previously unknown downstream targets of CUP2: PHO84, SCM4, and CIN2, all of which contributed to copper tolerance in EC strains. Finally, we conducted an evolution experiment to examine how cells maintained these changes in a fluctuating environment. Interestingly, the rearranged chromosomes were reverted back to the wild-type configuration at a high frequency and the recovered chromosome became fixed in less selective conditions. Our results suggest that transposon-mediated chromosomal rearrangements can be highly dynamic and can serve as a reversible mechanism during early stages of adaptive evolution.

  20. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Hedayat; El-Soda, Mohamed; van Oorschot, Inge; Hanhart, Corrie; Bonnema, Guusje; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Mank, Rolf; Keurentjes, Joost J. B.; Meng, Lin; Wu, Jian; Koornneef, Maarten; Aarts, Mark G. M.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel, and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 centiMorgan (cM) with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 and 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis. PMID:22912644

  1. Genetic analysis of morphological traits in a new, versatile, rapid-cycling Brassica rapa recombinant inbred line population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedayat eBagheri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A recombinant inbred line (RIL population was produced based on a wide cross between the rapid-cycling and self-compatible genotypes L58, a Caixin vegetable type, and R-o-18, a yellow sarson oil type. A linkage map based on 160 F7 lines was constructed using 100 SNP, 130 AFLP®, 27 InDel and 13 publicly available SSR markers. The map covers a total length of 1150 cM with an average resolution of 4.3 cM/marker. To demonstrate the versatility of this new population, 17 traits, related to plant architecture and seed characteristics, were subjected to QTL analysis. A total of 47 QTLs were detected, each explaining between 6 to 54% of the total phenotypic variance for the concerned trait. The genetic analysis shows that this population is a useful new tool for analyzing genetic variation for interesting traits in B. rapa, and for further exploitation of the recent availability of the B. rapa whole genome sequence for gene cloning and gene function analysis.

  2. The Adolescent "Expanded Medical Home": School-Based Health Centers Partner with a Primary Care Clinic to Improve Population Health and Mitigate Social Determinants of Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Laurie, Anna R; Plegue, Melissa A; Richarson, Caroline R

    2016-01-01

    Access to high-quality health care is a crucial social determinant of health. We describe the implementation of an "expanded medical home" partnering a primary care practice (the Ypsilanti Health Center [YHC]) with local school-based health centers (the Regional Alliance for Healthy Schools [RAHS]), and to assess whether this model improves access to and quality of care for shared patients. Using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, we define the steps in, barriers to, and facilitating factors in implementing the expanded medical home model. Visits and quality measures were assessed for patients seen by YHC only versus YHC/RAHS at baseline and during the intervention. At baseline, patients seen at YHC/RAHS had higher compliance with most quality metrics compared with those seen at YHC only. The proportion of shared patients significantly increased because of the intervention (P < .001). Overall, patients seen in the expanded medical home had a higher likelihood of receiving quality metric services than patients in YHC only (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.57-2.05) across all measures. Thoughtful and intentional implementation of an expanded medical home partnership between primary care physicians and school-based health centers increases the number of shared high-risk adolescent patients. Shared patients have improved compliance with quality measures, which may lead to long-term improved health equity. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  3. Influence of rapid rural-urban population migration on riverine nitrogen pollution: perspective from ammonia-nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangshou; Swaney, Dennis P; Hong, Bongghi; Howarth, Robert W; Li, Xuyong

    2017-09-30

    China is undergoing a rapid transition from a rural to an urban society. This societal change is a consequence of a national drive toward economic prosperity. However, accelerated urban development resulting from rapid population migration from rural to urban lands has led to high levels of untreated sewage entering aquatic ecosystems directly. Consequently, many of these regions have been identified as hot spots of riverine nitrogen (N) pollution because of the increasing level of urban point-source discharge. In order to address this concern, we assessed effects of urban development on ammonia-nitrogen (AN) loads using a panel data regression model. The model, expressed as an exponential function of anthropogenic N inputs multiplied by a power function of streamflow, was applied to 20 subwatersheds of the Huai River Basin for the years 2003-2010. The results indicated that this model can account for 81% of the variation in annual AN fluxes over space and time. Application of this model to three scenarios of urban development and sewage treatment (termed urbanization priority, sustainable development, and environmental priority) suggests that future N pollution will inevitably deteriorate if current urban environmental management and investment are not significantly improved. Stronger support for environmental management is very critical to alleviate N pollution and improve water quality. More effort should focus on improving sewage treatment and the N removal rate of the current sewage system in light of the increasing degree of urbanization.

  4. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  5. Population Divergence in Venom Bioactivities of Elapid Snake Pseudonaja textilis: Role of Procoagulant Proteins in Rapid Rodent Prey Incapacitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skejić, Jure; Hodgson, Wayne C.

    2013-01-01

    This study looked at how toxic proteins in venoms of adult Australian eastern Brown snakes Pseudonaja textilis from South Australian and Queensland populations interact with physiological functions of the lab SD rat Rattus norvegicus. Circulatory collapse and incoagulable blood occurred instantly after injection of venom under the dorsal skin of anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats in an imitation of a P. textilis bite. Intravenous injection of purified P. textilis (Mackay, QLD) venom prothrombin activator proteins caused instant failure of circulation, testifying of high toxicity of these proteins and suggesting their role in rapid incapacitation of rodent prey. The hypothesis is further supported by circulatory collapse occurring instantly despite artificial respiration in envenomed rats and the finding of extremely high venom procoagulant potency in rat plasma. LC-MS and physiology assays revealed divergent venom composition and biological activity of South Australian (Barossa locality) and Queensland (Mackay locality) populations, which may be driven by selection for different prey. The Queensland venom of P. textilis was found to be more procoagulant and to exhibit predominately presynaptic neurotoxicity, while the South Australian venom contained diverse postsynaptic type II and III α-neurotoxins in addition to the presynaptic neurotoxins and caused significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. LC-MS analysis found evidence of multiple coagulation factor X-like proteins in P. textilis venoms, including a match to P. textilis coagulation factor X isoform 2, previously known to be expressed only in the liver. PMID:23691135

  6. Rapidly rising incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes in Chinese population: epidemiology in Shanghai during 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhuhui; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Chunfang; Li, Pin; Wang, Wei; Ye, Jun; Gu, Xuefan; Wang, Xiaodong; Shen, Shuixian; Zhi, Dijing; Lu, Zhong; Ye, Rong; Cheng, Ruoqian; Xi, Li; Li, Xiaojing; Zheng, Zhangqian; Zhang, Miaoying; Luo, Feihong

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate incidence trend of childhood type 1 diabetes in Shanghai, a megalopolis in east China. We established a population-based retrospective registry for the disease in the city's registered population during 1997-2011 and collected 622 incident type 1 diabetes in children aged 0-14 years. Standardized incidence rates and 95 % CI were estimated by applying the capture-recapture method and assuming Poisson distribution. Incidence trend was analyzed using the Poisson regression model. The mean annual incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years. We did not observe significant difference in incidence between boys and girls. The incidence is unstable and had a mean annual increase 14.2 % per year during the studied period. A faster annual increase was observed in boys, warmer seasons, and in the outer regions of the city. If present trends continue, the number of new type 1 diabetes cases will double from 2016 to 2020, and prevalent cases will sextuple by 2025. Our results showed the incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes was rising rapidly in Shanghai. More studies are needed to analyze incidence changes in other regions of China for appropriate allocation of healthcare resources.

  7. Population divergence in venom bioactivities of elapid snake Pseudonaja textilis: role of procoagulant proteins in rapid rodent prey incapacitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Skejić

    Full Text Available This study looked at how toxic proteins in venoms of adult Australian eastern Brown snakes Pseudonaja textilis from South Australian and Queensland populations interact with physiological functions of the lab SD rat Rattus norvegicus. Circulatory collapse and incoagulable blood occurred instantly after injection of venom under the dorsal skin of anaesthetised and mechanically ventilated rats in an imitation of a P. textilis bite. Intravenous injection of purified P. textilis (Mackay, QLD venom prothrombin activator proteins caused instant failure of circulation, testifying of high toxicity of these proteins and suggesting their role in rapid incapacitation of rodent prey. The hypothesis is further supported by circulatory collapse occurring instantly despite artificial respiration in envenomed rats and the finding of extremely high venom procoagulant potency in rat plasma. LC-MS and physiology assays revealed divergent venom composition and biological activity of South Australian (Barossa locality and Queensland (Mackay locality populations, which may be driven by selection for different prey. The Queensland venom of P. textilis was found to be more procoagulant and to exhibit predominately presynaptic neurotoxicity, while the South Australian venom contained diverse postsynaptic type II and III α-neurotoxins in addition to the presynaptic neurotoxins and caused significantly faster onset of neuromuscular blockade in the rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. LC-MS analysis found evidence of multiple coagulation factor X-like proteins in P. textilis venoms, including a match to P. textilis coagulation factor X isoform 2, previously known to be expressed only in the liver.

  8. Rapid changes in transcription profiles of the Plasmodium yoelii yir multigene family in clonal populations: lack of epigenetic memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Cunningham

    Full Text Available The pir multigene family, found in the genomes of Plasmodium vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species, encode variant antigens that could be targets of the immune response. Individual parasites of the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii, selected by micromanipulation, transcribe only 1 to 3 different pir (yir suggesting tight transcriptional control at the level of individual cells. Using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that despite this very restricted transcription in a single cell, many yir genes are transcribed throughout the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle. The timing and level of transcription differs between genes, with some being more highly transcribed in ring and trophozoite stages, whereas others are more highly transcribed in schizonts. Infection of immunodeficient mice with single infected erythrocytes results in populations of parasites each with transcriptional profiles different from that of the parent parasite population and from each other. This drift away from the original 'set' of transcribed genes does not appear to follow a preset pattern and "epigenetic memory" of the yir transcribed in the parent parasite can be rapidly lost. Thus, regulation of pir gene transcription may be different from that of the well-characterised multigene family, var, of Plasmodium falciparum.

  9. Rapid changes in transcription profiles of the Plasmodium yoelii yir multigene family in clonal populations: lack of epigenetic memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Deirdre; Fonager, Jannik; Jarra, William; Carret, Celine; Preiser, Peter; Langhorne, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The pir multigene family, found in the genomes of Plasmodium vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species, encode variant antigens that could be targets of the immune response. Individual parasites of the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii, selected by micromanipulation, transcribe only 1 to 3 different pir (yir) suggesting tight transcriptional control at the level of individual cells. Using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that despite this very restricted transcription in a single cell, many yir genes are transcribed throughout the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle. The timing and level of transcription differs between genes, with some being more highly transcribed in ring and trophozoite stages, whereas others are more highly transcribed in schizonts. Infection of immunodeficient mice with single infected erythrocytes results in populations of parasites each with transcriptional profiles different from that of the parent parasite population and from each other. This drift away from the original 'set' of transcribed genes does not appear to follow a preset pattern and "epigenetic memory" of the yir transcribed in the parent parasite can be rapidly lost. Thus, regulation of pir gene transcription may be different from that of the well-characterised multigene family, var, of Plasmodium falciparum.

  10. Rapid evolution in the wild: changes in body size, life-history traits, and behavior in hunted populations of the Japanese mamushi snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kiyoshi; Fox, Stanley F; Duvall, David

    2009-02-01

    Rapid evolution caused by human exploitation of wildlife is not usually addressed in studies of the impacts of such exploitation despite its direct relevance to population persistence. Japanese mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffii), an endemic venomous snake of the Japanese archipelago, has been heavily hunted by humans, and many populations appear to be declining or are already extirpated. We compared local populations that have been hunted regularly with populations that have not been hunted. Mamushi in hunted populations were smaller, had fewer vertebrae, produced more and smaller offspring, had increased reproductive effort among smaller females, and in nature fled at greater distances from an approaching human and were less defensive than mamushi in unhunted populations, as predicted from life-history theory. Heritability estimates for body size, number of vertebrae, and antipredator behavior were statistically significant, and neonates from hunted sites showed the same distribution of altered characters (compared with those from unhunted sites) as adults. Thus, distribution of the divergent trait between hunted and unhunted sites appeared in part to be genetically based, which suggests rapid evolution to human predation pressures. Trait distributions in hunted populations probably deviate from naturally (as opposed to anthropogenically) selected optima and, therefore, may have long-term negative repercussions on population persistence. Because rapid evolution affects a suite of parameters that characterize exploited populations, accurate understanding of the impacts of exploitation and effective resource management and conservation can only be achieved if evolutionary consequences are considered explicitly.

  11. Expanding Medicaid managed care: the right choice for Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Swapna; Finley, Marisa; Posey, Dan; Rohack, James J

    2012-10-01

    We set out to determine whether expanding Medicaid managed care in Texas is the solution to the challenges faced by the state of meeting the healthcare needs of a rapidly growing Medicaid population while addressing its own fiscal limitations. We reviewed the Texas Medicaid program, the potential effects of federal healthcare reform, and the state political climate through the perspectives (advantages and disadvantages) of the primary stakeholders: patients, practitioners, hospitals, and insurers. Research was performed through online, federal and state regulatory, and legislative review. In addition, we reviewed government and peer-reviewed reports and articles pertaining to issues related to Medicaid populations, healthcare practitioners, and hospitals that serve them. Each primary stakeholder had potential advantages and disadvantages associated with the expansion of Medicaid managed care. We conclude that expanding Medicaid managed care, if done in a manner responsive to the needs of recipients, can meet enrollees' healthcare needs while controlling the state's costs.

  12. Rapid approach to the quantitative determination of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories: a clear-sky case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav; Petržala, Jaromír

    2016-11-01

    A zero-order approach to the solving of the radiative transfer equation and a method for obtaining the horizontal diffuse irradiance at night-time are both developed and intended for wide use in numerical predictions of nocturnal ground irradiance in populated territories. Downward diffuse radiative fluxes are computed with a two-stream approximation, and the data products obtained are useful for scientists who require rapid estimations of illumination levels during the night. The rapid technique presented here is especially important when the entire set of calculations is to be repeated for different lighting technologies and/or radiant intensity distributions with the aim of identifying high-level illuminance/irradiance, the spectral composition of scattered light or other optical properties of diffuse light at the ground level. The model allows for the computation of diffuse horizontal irradiance due to light emissions from ground-based sources with arbitrary spectral compositions. The optical response of a night sky is investigated using the ratio of downward to upward irradiance, R⊥, λ(0). We show that R⊥, λ(0) generally peaks at short wavelengths, thus suggesting that, e.g., the blue light of an LED lamp would make the sky even more bluish. However, this effect can be largely suppressed or even removed with the spectral sensitivity function of the average human eye superimposed on to the lamp spectrum. Basically, blue light scattering dominates at short optical distances, while red light is transmitted for longer distances and illuminates distant places. Computations are performed for unshielded as well as fully shielded lights, while the spectral function R⊥, λ(0) is tabulated to make possible the modelling of various artificial lights, including those not presented here.

  13. BREATHING FIRE: HOW STELLAR FEEDBACK DRIVES RADIAL MIGRATION, RAPID SIZE FLUCTUATIONS, AND POPULATION GRADIENTS IN LOW-MASS GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, Kareem; Geha, Marla [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Wetzel, Andrew; Hopkins, Philip F. [TAPIR, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA USA (United States); Kereš, Dusan; Chan, T. K. [Department of Physics, Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André, E-mail: kareem.el-badry@yale.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and CIERA, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We examine the effects of stellar feedback and bursty star formation on low-mass galaxies (M{sub star} = 2 × 10{sup 6} − 5 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) using the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) simulations. While previous studies emphasized the impact of feedback on dark matter profiles, we investigate the impact on the stellar component: kinematics, radial migration, size evolution, and population gradients. Feedback-driven outflows/inflows drive significant radial stellar migration over both short and long timescales via two processes: (1) outflowing/infalling gas can remain star-forming, producing young stars that migrate ∼1 kpc within their first 100 Myr, and (2) gas outflows/inflows drive strong fluctuations in the global potential, transferring energy to all stars. These processes produce several dramatic effects. First, galaxies’ effective radii can fluctuate by factors of >2 over ∼200 Myr, and these rapid size fluctuations can account for much of the observed scatter in the radius at fixed M{sub star}. Second, the cumulative effects of many outflow/infall episodes steadily heat stellar orbits, causing old stars to migrate outward most strongly. This age-dependent radial migration mixes—and even inverts—intrinsic age and metallicity gradients. Thus, the galactic-archaeology approach of calculating radial star formation histories from stellar populations at z = 0 can be severely biased. These effects are strongest at M{sub star} ≈ 10{sup 7–9.6} M{sub ⊙}, the same regime where feedback most efficiently cores galaxies. Thus, detailed measurements of stellar kinematics in low-mass galaxies can strongly constrain feedback models and test baryonic solutions to small-scale problems in ΛCDM.

  14. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Smith, Kristine M; Ramirez, Sara D; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P; Brunner, Jesse L; Goldberg, Caren S; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  15. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  16. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  17. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  18. Rapid Buildup of Genetic Diversity in Founder Populations of the Gynodioecious Plant Species Origanum vulgare after Semi-Natural Grassland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, Kenny; Jacquemyn, Hans; Hermy, Martin; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In most landscapes the success of habitat restoration is largely dependent on spontaneous colonization of plant species. This colonization process, and the outcome of restoration practices, can only be considered successful if the genetic makeup of founding populations is not eroded through founder effects and subsequent genetic drift. Here we used 10 microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic effects of recent colonization of the long-lived gynodioecious species Origanum vulgare in restored semi-natural grassland patches. We compared the genetic diversity and differentiation of fourteen recent populations with that of thirteen old, putative source populations, and we evaluated the effects of spatial configuration of the populations on colonization patterns. We did not observe decreased genetic diversity in recent populations, or inflated genetic differentiation among them. Nevertheless, a significantly higher inbreeding coefficient was observed in recent populations, although this was not associated with negative fitness effects. Overall population genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.040). Individuals of restored populations were assigned to on average 6.1 different source populations (likely following the ‘migrant pool’ model). Gene flow was, however, affected by the spatial configuration of the grasslands, with gene flow into the recent populations mainly originating from nearby source populations. This study demonstrates how spontaneous colonization after habitat restoration can lead to viable populations in a relatively short time, overcoming pronounced founder effects, when several source populations are nearby. Restored populations can therefore rapidly act as stepping stones and sources of genetic diversity, likely increasing overall metapopulation viability of the study species. PMID:23840642

  19. Population-based passive tick surveillance and detection of expanding foci of blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelder, Mark P; Russell, Curtis; Lindsay, L Robbin; Dhar, Badal; Patel, Samir N; Johnson, Steven; Moore, Stephen; Kristjanson, Erik; Li, Ye; Ralevski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    We identified ticks submitted by the public from 2008 through 2012 in Ontario, Canada, and tested blacklegged ticks Ixodes scapularis for Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Among the 18 species of ticks identified, I. scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes cookei and Amblyomma americanum represented 98.1% of the 14,369 ticks submitted. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest in Ontario's Eastern region; D. variabilis in Central West and Eastern regions; I. cookei in Eastern and South West regions; and A. americanum had a scattered distribution. Rates of blacklegged tick submission per 100,000 population were highest from children (0-9 years old) and older adults (55-74 years old). In two health units in the Eastern region (i.e., Leeds, Grenville & Lanark District and Kingston-Frontenac and Lennox & Addington), the rate of submission for engorged and B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks was 47× higher than the rest of Ontario. Rate of spread for blacklegged ticks was relatively faster and across a larger geographic area along the northern shore of Lake Ontario/St. Lawrence River, compared with slower spread from isolated populations along the northern shore of Lake Erie. The infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in blacklegged ticks increased in Ontario over the study period from 8.4% in 2008 to 19.1% in 2012. The prevalence of B. burgdorferi-positive blacklegged ticks increased yearly during the surveillance period and, while increases were not uniform across all regions, increases were greatest in the Central West region, followed by Eastern and South West regions. The overall infection prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in blacklegged ticks was 0.3%. This study provides essential information on ticks of medical importance in Ontario, and identifies demographic and geographic areas for focused public education on the prevention of tick bites and tick-borne diseases.

  20. Population expanding with the phalanx model and lineages split by environmental heterogeneity: a case study of Primula obconica in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Fei Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current and historical events have both affected the current distribution patterns and intraspecific divergence of plants. While numerous studies have focused on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP, the impacts of such events on the flora of subtropical China remain poorly understood. Subtropical China is famous for its highly complex topography and the limited impact from glaciation during the Pleistocene; this may have resulted in a different genetic legacy for species in this region compared to fully glaciated areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used plastid and nuclear DNA sequence data and distribution modeling to analyze the divergence patterns and demographic history of Primula obconica Hance, a widespread herbaceous montane species in subtropical China. The phylogenetic analysis revealed two major lineages (lineage A and lineage B, representing a west-east split into the Yunnan and Eastern groups, and the Sichuan and Central groups, respectively. The Eastern and Central groups comprised relatively new derived haplotypes. Nested Clade Analysis and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses both indicated that P. obconica mainly experienced a gradual expansion of populations. In addition, the simulated distribution of P. obconica during the Last Glacial Maximum was slightly larger than its present-day distribution. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results are the first to identify a west-east migration of P. obconica. The gradual expansion pattern and a larger potential distribution range in cold periods detected for P. obconica indicate that the population expansion of this species is consistent with the phalanx model. In addition, the current patterns of genetic differentiation have persisted as a result of the extensive environmental heterogeneity that exists in subtropical China.

  1. Expanding the population coverage of evidence-based interventions with community health workers to save the lives of mothers and children: an analysis of potential global impact using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Victoria B; Friberg, Ingrid K; Christian, Mervyn; Walker, Neff; Perry, Henry B

    2017-12-01

    Evidence has been accumulating that community health workers (CHWs) providing evidence-based interventions as part of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) can lead to reductions in maternal, neonatal and child mortality. However, investments to strengthen and scale-up CHW programs still remain modest. We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the number of maternal, neonatal and child deaths and stillbirths that could be prevented if 73 countries effectively scaled up the population coverage of 30 evidence-based interventions that CHWs can deliver in these high-burden countries. We set population coverage targets at 50%, 70%, and 90% and summed the country-level results by region and by all 73 high-burden countries combined. We also estimated which specific interventions would save the most lives. LiST estimates that a total of 3.0 (sensitivity bounds 1.8-4.0), 4.9 (3.1-6.3) and 6.9 (3.7-8.7) million deaths would be prevented between 2016 and 2020 if CBPHC is gradually scaled up during this period and if coverage of key interventions reaches 50%, 70%, and 90% respectively. There would be 14%, 23%, and 32% fewer deaths in the final year compared to a scenario assuming no intervention coverage scale up. The Africa Region would receive the most benefit by far: 58% of the lives saved at 90% coverage would be in this region. The interventions contributing the greatest impact are nutritional interventions during pregnancy, treatment of malaria with artemisinin compounds, oral rehydration solution for childhood diarrhea, hand washing with soap, and oral antibiotics for pneumonia. Scaling up CHW programming to increase population-level coverage of life-saving interventions represents a very promising strategy to achieve universal health coverage and end preventable maternal and child deaths by 2030. Numerous practical challenges must be overcome, but there is no better alternative at present. Expanding the coverage of key interventions for maternal nutrition

  2. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Graña-Miraglia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  3. Rapid Gene Turnover as a Significant Source of Genetic Variation in a Recently Seeded Population of a Healthcare-Associated Pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña-Miraglia, Lucía; Lozano, Luis F; Velázquez, Consuelo; Volkow-Fernández, Patricia; Pérez-Oseguera, Ángeles; Cevallos, Miguel A; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Genome sequencing has been useful to gain an understanding of bacterial evolution. It has been used for studying the phylogeography and/or the impact of mutation and recombination on bacterial populations. However, it has rarely been used to study gene turnover at microevolutionary scales. Here, we sequenced Mexican strains of the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii sampled from the same locale over a 3 year period to obtain insights into the microevolutionary dynamics of gene content variability. We found that the Mexican A. baumannii population was recently founded and has been emerging due to a rapid clonal expansion. Furthermore, we noticed that on average the Mexican strains differed from each other by over 300 genes and, notably, this gene content variation has accrued more frequently and faster than the accumulation of mutations. Moreover, due to its rapid pace, gene content variation reflects the phylogeny only at very short periods of time. Additionally, we found that the external branches of the phylogeny had almost 100 more genes than the internal branches. All in all, these results show that rapid gene turnover has been of paramount importance in producing genetic variation within this population and demonstrate the utility of genome sequencing to study alternative forms of genetic variation.

  4. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  5. Public health services and their relationship with rapid HIV test utilization and access for key populations in Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jesús Conde González

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In 2009, 4 749 rapid HIV tests were run in Morelos, Mexico, despite lacking evidence on their results. This article seeks to analyze how public health organization relates to utility of rapid HIV test among healthcare users. Materials and methods. Joint study: comparison of differences in applied test and positive results for each group with the Bonferroni statistical tool, observational study in 34 health subsystems, and 11 interviews with public healthcare users. Results. Each subsystem processes influenced the use and usefulness of screening; for instance, primary care centers test only pregnant women and exclude men who have sex with men (MSM. That group shows significant differences (p<0.007 in the HIV-positive test with respect to other groups. Conclusions. Despite the availability of rapid detection tests and epidemiological evidence, the way public health services are organized impedes an efficient diagnosis in the group with higher risk, namely MSM. The distribution of rapid HIV tests was guided by stigmatization.

  6. Expanded progenitor populations, vitreo-retinal abnormalities, and Müller glial reactivity in the zebrafish leprechaun/patched2 retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibliowicz Jonathan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The roles of the Hedgehog (Hh pathway in controlling vertebrate retinal development have been studied extensively; however, species- and context-dependent findings have provided differing conclusions. Hh signaling has been shown to control both population size and cell cycle kinetics of proliferating retinal progenitors, and to modulate differentiation within the retina by regulating the timing of cell cycle exit. While cell cycle exit has in turn been shown to control cell fate decisions within the retina, a direct role for the Hh pathway in retinal cell fate decisions has yet to be established in vivo. Results To gain further insight into Hh pathway function in the retina, we have analyzed retinal development in leprechaun/patched2 mutant zebrafish. While lep/ptc2 mutants possessed more cells in their retinas, all cell types, except for Müller glia, were present at identical ratios as those observed in wild-type siblings. lep/ptc2 mutants possessed a localized upregulation of GFAP, a marker for 'reactive' glia, as well as morphological abnormalities at the vitreo-retinal interface, where Müller glial endfeet terminate. In addition, analysis of the over-proliferation phenotype at the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ revealed that the number of proliferating progenitors, but not the rate of proliferation, was increased in lep/ptc2 mutants. Conclusion Our results indicate that Patched2-dependent Hh signaling does not likely play an integral role in neuronal cell fate decisions in the zebrafish retina. ptc2 deficiency in zebrafish results in defects at the vitreo-retinal interface and Müller glial reactivity. These phenotypes are similar to the ocular abnormalities observed in human patients suffering from Basal Cell Naevus Syndrome (BCNS, a disorder that has been linked to mutations in the human PTCH gene (the orthologue of the zebrafish ptc2, and point to the utility of the lep/ptc2 mutant line as a model for the study of BCNS

  7. Rapid assessment of genetic ancestry in populations of unknown origin by genome-wide genotyping of pooled samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charleston W K Chiang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As we move forward from the current generation of genome-wide association (GWA studies, additional cohorts of different ancestries will be studied to increase power, fine map association signals, and generalize association results to additional populations. Knowledge of genetic ancestry as well as population substructure will become increasingly important for GWA studies in populations of unknown ancestry. Here we propose genotyping pooled DNA samples using genome-wide SNP arrays as a viable option to efficiently and inexpensively estimate admixture proportion and identify ancestry informative markers (AIMs in populations of unknown origin. We constructed DNA pools from African American, Native Hawaiian, Latina, and Jamaican samples and genotyped them using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. Aided by individual genotype data from the African American cohort, we established quality control filters to remove poorly performing SNPs and estimated allele frequencies for the remaining SNPs in each panel. We then applied a regression-based method to estimate the proportion of admixture in each cohort using the allele frequencies estimated from pooling and populations from the International HapMap Consortium as reference panels, and identified AIMs unique to each population. In this study, we demonstrated that genotyping pooled DNA samples yields estimates of admixture proportion that are both consistent with our knowledge of population history and similar to those obtained by genotyping known AIMs. Furthermore, through validation by individual genotyping, we demonstrated that pooling is quite effective for identifying SNPs with large allele frequency differences (i.e., AIMs and that these AIMs are able to differentiate two closely related populations (HapMap JPT and CHB.

  8. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  9. Assessing service use for mental health by Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America: a rapid review of population surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Cecily; Harris, Meredith G; Baxter, Amanda J; Leske, Stuart; Diminic, Sandra; Gone, Joseph P; Hunter, Ernest; Whiteford, Harvey

    2017-08-04

    Indigenous people in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States of America experience disproportionately poor mental health compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. To optimally allocate resources, health planners require information about the services Indigenous people use for mental health, their unmet treatment needs and the barriers to care. We reviewed population surveys of Indigenous people to determine whether the information needed to guide service development is being collected. We sought national- or state-level epidemiological surveys of Indigenous populations conducted in each of the four selected countries since 1990 that asked about service use for mental health. Surveys were identified from literature reviews and web searches. We developed a framework for categorising the content of each survey. Using this framework, we compared the service use content of the surveys of Indigenous people to each other and to general population mental health surveys. We focused on identifying gaps in information coverage and topics that may require Indigenous-specific questions or response options. Nine surveys met our inclusion criteria. More than half of these included questions about health professionals consulted, barriers to care, perceived need for care, medications taken, number, duration, location and payment of health professional visits or use of support services or self-management. Less than half included questions about interventions received, hospital admissions or treatment dropout. Indigenous-specific content was most common in questions regarding use of support services or self-management, types of health professionals consulted, barriers to care and interventions received. Epidemiological surveys measuring service use for mental health among Indigenous populations have been less comprehensive and less standardised than surveys of the general population, despite having assessed similar content. To better understand the gaps in mental

  10. Carboxylesterase 1A2 encoding gene with increased transcription and potential rapid drug metabolism in Asian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Berg; Madsen, Majbritt Busk; Lyauk, Yassine Kamal

    2017-01-01

    The carboxylesterase 1 gene (CES1) encodes a hydrolase implicated in the metabolism of commonly used drugs. CES1A2, a hybrid of CES1 and a CES1-like pseudogene, has a promoter that is weak in most individuals. However, some individuals harbor a promoter haplotype of this gene with two overlapping...... Sp1 sites that confer significantly increased transcription potentially leading to rapid drug metabolism. This CES1A2 haplotype has previously been reported to be common among Asians. Using polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing, the present study examined variation in the promoter and 5...

  11. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  12. Rapidly increasing body mass index among children, adolescents and young adults in a transitioning population, South Africa, 2008-15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, B; Sartorius, K; Taylor, M

    2017-01-01

    budget. Our refined understanding highlights that risks are further compounded for certain groups/places, and emphasizes that urgent geographical and population-targeted interventions are necessary. These interventions could include a sugar tax, clearer food labelling, revised school feeding programmes...

  13. Rapid increase in log populations in drought-stressed mixed-conifer and ponderosa pine forests in northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph L. Ganey; Scott C. Vojta

    2012-01-01

    Down logs provide important ecosystem services in forests and affect surface fuel loads and fire behavior. Amounts and kinds of logs are influenced by factors such as forest type, disturbance regime, forest man-agement, and climate. To quantify potential short-term changes in log populations during a recent global- climate-change type drought, we sampled logs in mixed-...

  14. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fun-gal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gautier, A.; Marcel, T.C.; Confais, J.; Crane, C.; Kema, G.H.J.; Suffert, F.; Walker, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further

  15. Development of a rapid multiplex SSR genotyping method to study populations of the fungal plant pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Angélique; Marcel, Thierry C; Confais, Johann; Crane, Charles; Kema, Gert; Suffert, Frédéric; Walker, Anne-Sophie

    2014-06-18

    Zymoseptoria tritici is a hemibiotrophic ascomycete fungus causing leaf blotch of wheat that often decreases yield severely. Populations of the fungus are known to be highly diverse and poorly differentiated from each other. However, a genotyping tool is needed to address further questions in large collections of isolates, regarding regional population structure, adaptation to anthropogenic selective pressures, and dynamics of the recently discovered accessory chromosomes. This procedure is limited by costly and time-consuming simplex PCR genotyping. Recent development of genomic approaches and of larger sets of SSRs enabled the optimization of microsatellite multiplexing. We report here a reliable protocol to amplify 24 SSRs organized in three multiplex panels, and covering all Z. tritici chromosomes. We also propose an automatic allele assignment procedure, which allows scoring alleles in a repeatable manner across studies and laboratories. All together, these tools enabled us to characterize local and worldwide populations and to calculate diversity indexes consistent with results reported in the literature. This easy-to-use, accurate, repeatable, economical, and faster technical strategy can provide useful genetic information for evolutionary inferences concerning Z. tritici populations. Moreover, it will facilitate the comparison of studies from different scientific groups.

  16. Rapid changes in key ruminal microbial populations during the induction of and recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Preston, S H; Risser, J M; Harvatine, K J

    2015-08-14

    The ruminant provides a powerful model for understanding the temporal dynamics of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) in the dairy cow is caused by rumen-derived bioactive fatty acids, and is commonly attributed to the changes in the microbial population. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes occurring in nine ruminal bacterial taxa with well-characterised functions, and abundance of total fungi, ciliate protozoa and bacteria during the induction of and recovery from MFD. Interactions between treatment and time were observed for ten of the twelve populations. The total number of both fungi and ciliate protozoa decreased rapidly (days 4 and 8, respectively) by more than 90% during the induction period and increased during the recovery period. The abundance of Streptococcus bovis (amylolytic) peaked at 350% of control levels on day 4 of induction and rapidly decreased during the recovery period. The abundance of Prevotella bryantii (amylolytic) decreased by 66% from day 8 to 20 of the induction period and increased to the control levels on day 12 of the recovery period. The abundance of Megasphaera elsdenii and Selenomonas ruminantium (lactate-utilising bacteria) increased progressively until day 12 of induction (>170%) and decreased during the recovery period. The abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes (fibrolytic) decreased by 97% on day 4 of induction and increased progressively to an equal extent during the recovery period, although smaller changes were observed for other fibrolytic bacteria. The abundance of the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens/Pseudobutyrivibrio group decreased progressively during the induction period and increased during the recovery period, whereas the abundance of Butyrivibrio hungatei was not affected by treatment. Responsive taxa were modified rapidly, with the majority of changes occurring within 8 d and their time course was similar to the time course of the induction of MFD

  17. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; Van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  18. Rapid differentiation of Listeria monocytogenes epidemic clones III and IV and their intact compared with heat-killed populations using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Esmond B; Puzey, Kenneth A; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis (chemometrics) could be used to rapidly differentiate epidemic clones (ECs) of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as their intact compared with heat-killed populations. FT-IR spectra were collected from dried thin smears on infrared slides prepared from aliquots of 10 μL of each L. monocytogenes ECs (ECIII: J1-101 and R2-499; ECIV: J1-129 and J1-220), and also from intact and heat-killed cell populations of each EC strain using 250 scans at a resolution of 4 cm(-1) in the mid-infrared region in a reflectance mode. Chemometric analysis of spectra involved the application of the multivariate discriminant method for canonical variate analysis (CVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). CVA of the spectra in the wavelength region 4000 to 600 cm(-1) separated the EC strains while LDA resulted in a 100% accurate classification of all spectra in the data set. Further, CVA separated intact and heat-killed cells of each EC strain and there was 100% accuracy in the classification of all spectra when LDA was applied. FT-IR spectral wavenumbers 1650 to 1390 cm(-1) were used to separate heat-killed and intact populations of L. monocytogenes. The FT-IR spectroscopy method allowed discrimination between strains that belong to the same EC. FT-IR is a highly discriminatory and reproducible method that can be used for the rapid subtyping of L. monocytogenes, as well as for the detection of live compared with dead populations of the organism. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis can be used for L. monocytogenes source tracking and for clinical case isolate comparison during epidemiological investigations since the method is capable of differentiating epidemic clones and it uses a library of well-characterized strains. The FT-IR method is potentially less expensive and more rapid compared to genetic

  19. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  20. TRIPLE ACTION PALATE EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yordanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  1. A rapid and sensitive GC-MS/MS method to measure deuterium labeled deoxyadenosine in DNA from limited mouse cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don E.; Buxbaum, Nataliya P.; Bare, Catherine V.; Treadwell, Shirin M.; Kapoor, Veena; Williams, Kirsten M.; Gress, Ronald E.

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive GC-MS/MS method was developed to quantitatively measure low levels of DNA base deoxyadenosine (dA) and its isotopologues (e.g. dA M+1) from limited mouse cell populations. Mice undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation (AHSCT) received deuterated water at biologically relevant time intervals post AHSCT, allowing labeling of DNA upon cell division, which was detected as the dA M+1 isotopologue. Targeted mouse cell populations were isolated from lymphoid organs and purified by multi-parameter fluorescence activated cell sorting. Cell lysis, DNA extraction and hydrolysis were accomplished using available commercial procedures. The novel analytical method utilized a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced sample preparation, rapid on-line hot GC inlet gas phase sample derivatization, fast GC low thermal mass technology, and a recently marketed GC-MS/MS system. Calibration standards containing dA and fortified with relevant levels of dA M+1 (0.25–20%) and dA M+5 (internal standard) were used for sample quantitation. The method employed a quadratic fit for calibration of dA M+1 (0.25–20%) and dA, demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision, and had limits of detection of 100 fg on-column for the dA isotopologues. The method was validated and required only 20,000 cells to characterize population dynamics of cells involved in the biology of chronic graft-versus-host disease, the main cause of late morbidity and non-relapse-mortality following AHSCT. The high sensitivity and specificity of the method makes it useful for investigating in vivo kinetics on limited and important cell populations (e.g. T regulatory cells) from disease conditions or in disease models that are immune-mediated, such as diabetes, HIV/AIDS, arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis. PMID:23541182

  2. High incidence of community-acquired pneumonia among rapidly aging population in Japan: a prospective hospital-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Masahiro; Nakama, Takahiro; Ishida, Masayuki; Morimoto, Hitomi; Nagasaki, Yuka; Shiramizu, Rina; Hamashige, Naohisa; Chikamori, Masayuki; Yoshida, Laymyint; Ariyoshi, Koya; Suzuki, Motoi; Morimoto, Konosuke

    2014-01-01

    The age-group-specific incidence and etiological patterns of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have not been fully established in Japan. A 2-year prospective surveillance was conducted in Kochi city, Western Japan. All CAP patients aged ≥15 years who visited a community-based hospital were enrolled in the study. Clinical samples were examined by conventional bacterial culture and urinary antigen tests, and 6 bacterial pathogens and 16 respiratory viruses were identified from sputum samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays. The age-group-specific incidence of CAP was estimated using a population-based data set of the total number of outpatients in the whole city. Ninety of the 131 enrolled patients, 68.7% were positive for respiratory pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the leading bacterial pathogen identified (28.2%). Respiratory viruses were identified in 36 patients (27.5%), and human entero-rhinovirus was the most common (13.3%) among them. The estimated overall incidence of adult CAP in Kochi was 9.6 per 1,000 person-years (PY); the estimated age group-specific incidence was 3.4, 10.7, and 42.9 per 1,000 PY for those aged 15-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively. The high incidence of CAP in these rural city of Japan, probably reflects the substantial aged population. S. pneumoniae and respiratory viruses play important roles in CAP in all age groups.

  3. Measurement of proliferation and disappearance of rapid turnover cell populations in human studies using deuterium-labeled glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macallan, Derek C; Asquith, Becca; Zhang, Yan; de Lara, Catherine; Ghattas, Hala; Defoiche, Julien; Beverley, Peter C L

    2009-01-01

    Cell proliferation may be measured in vivo by quantifying DNA synthesis with isotopically labeled deoxyribonucleotide precursors. Deuterium-labeled glucose is one such precursor which, because it achieves high levels of enrichment for a short period, is well suited to the study of rapidly dividing cells, in contrast to the longer term labeling achieved with heavy water ((2)H(2)O). As deuterium is non-radioactive and glucose can be readily administered, this approach is suitable for clinical studies. It has been widely applied to investigate human lymphocyte proliferation, but solid tissue samples may also be analyzed. Rate, duration and route (intravenous or oral) of [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose administration should be adapted to the target cell of interest. For lymphocytes, cell separation is best achieved by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), although magnetic bead separation is an alternative. DNA is then extracted, hydrolyzed enzymatically and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Appropriate mathematical modeling is critical to interpretation. Typical time requirements are as follows: labeling, 10-24 h; sampling, approximately 3 weeks; DNA extraction/derivatization, 2-3 d; and GC/MS analysis, approximately 2 d.

  4. Rapid impact of rotavirus vaccine introduction to the National Immunization plan in southern Israel: comparison between 2 distinct populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givon-Lavi, Noga; Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Cohen, Raanan; Greenberg, David; Dagan, Ron

    2015-04-15

    Rotavirus vaccines were licensed in Israel in 2007, and in 2011 the pentavalent-vaccine (RV5) was introduced into the Israeli National Immunization plan. To determine the effect of rotavirus-vaccines on the incidence of hospital visits due to rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and all-cause diarrhea in Jewish and Bedouin children vaccine period, the overall RVGE hospital visits rates per 1000 in children Vaccine uptake was faster in the Jewish vs. the Bedouin population. In the year following RV5 introduction, RVGE hospital visits rates declined by 82%, 70% (Pvaccine introduction in southern Israel in both Jewish and Bedouin children. However, the impact was faster and more profound in Jewish children, probably related to higher vaccine uptake and possibly to lifestyle differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey of a population of anaesthesiologists from South India regarding practices for rapid sequence intubation in patients with head injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyen Parida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Evidence and utility of the individual steps of the rapid sequence induction and tracheal intubation protocols have been debated, especially in the setting of traumatic brain injury. The purpose of this survey was to determine preferences in the current approach to rapid sequence intubation ( RSI in head injury patients among a population of anaesthesiologists from South India. Methods: A questionnaire was E-mailed to all the members of the Indian Society of Anaesthesiologists′ South Zone Chapter to ascertain their preferences, experience and comfort level with regard to their use of rapid sequence intubation techniques in adult patients with head injury. Participants were requested to indicate their practices for RSI technique for a head-injured patient upon arrival at the Emergency Medical Services department of their hospital. Results: The total response rate was 56.9% (530/932. Of the total respondents, 35% of the clinicians used cricoid pressure routinely, most respondents (68% stated that they pre-oxygenate the patients for about 3 min prior to RSI, thiopentone (61% and propofol (34% were commonly used prior to intubation. Rocuronium was the muscle relaxant of choice for RSI among the majority (44%, compared to succinylcholine (39%. Statistical analyses were performed after the initial entry onto a spreadsheet. Data were summarised descriptively using frequency distribution. Conclusion: In a rapid sequence intubation situation, the practice differed significantly among anaesthesiologists. Owing to disagreements and paucity of evidence-based data regarding the standards of RSI, it is apparent that RSI practice still has considerable variability in clinical practice.

  6. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2003-06-24

    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  7. Design and manufacturing of customised femoral stems for the Indian population using rapid manufacturing: a finite element approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhugiri, T S; Kuthe, A M; Deshmukh, T R

    2011-01-01

    Joint replacement surgeries in India primarily involve the use of conventional implants, also referred to as 'standard implants'. There has been a little awareness about the possibility of using customised implants for such surgeries. Although standard implants from various biomedical companies are easily available in the Indian market, they are expensive and rarely conform to patient's anatomy. Studies in the past have shown that there are anatomical variations in the hip joint for different ethnic backgrounds and geographical locations. This article evaluates the feasibility of using custom-manufactured hip implants and presents a comparison between the former and standard implant from stress reduction point of view. Two CAD models of femoral stems - one from standard sized hip implant available in the market and other from customised hip implant designed as per parameters from a radiograph (specific to the patient's anatomy) - are used for evaluation. Finite element analysis was carried out for a double-legged stance. The comparative study indicated lesser stresses in head and neck region of the customised femoral stems than the standard implant. The study suggests design feasibility of customised implants for the Indian population owing to reduction in stresses in the implant.

  8. Human CD4+ CD25hi Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are derived by rapid turnover of memory populations in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmanovic-Stejic, Milica; Zhang, Yan; Cook, Joanne E.; Fletcher, Jean M.; McQuaid, Arthur; Masters, Joanne E.; Rustin, Malcolm H.A.; Taams, Leonie S.; Beverley, Peter C.L.; Macallan, Derek C.; Akbar, Arne N.

    2006-01-01

    While memory T cells are maintained by continuous turnover, it is not clear how human regulatory CD4+CD45RO+CD25hi Foxp3+ T lymphocyte populations persist throughout life. We therefore used deuterium labeling of cycling cells in vivo to determine whether these cells could be replenished by proliferation. We found that CD4+CD45RO+Foxp3+CD25hi T lymphocytes were highly proliferative, with a doubling time of 8 days, compared with memory CD4+CD45RO+Foxp3–CD25– (24 days) or naive CD4+CD45RA+Foxp3–CD25– populations (199 days). However, the regulatory population was susceptible to apoptosis and had critically short telomeres and low telomerase activity. It was therefore unlikely to be self regenerating. These data are consistent with continuous production from another population source. We found extremely close TCR clonal homology between regulatory and memory CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, antigen-related expansions within certain TCR Vβ families were associated with parallel numerical increases of CD4+CD45RO+CD25hiFoxp3+ Tregs with the same Vβ usage. It is therefore unlikely that all human CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs are generated as a separate functional lineage in the thymus. Instead, our data suggest that a proportion of this regulatory population is generated from rapidly dividing, highly differentiated memory CD4+ T cells; this has considerable implications for the therapeutic manipulation of these cells in vivo. PMID:16955142

  9. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  10. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  11. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  12. Two populations of amphibole in dacite magmas at Volcan Aucanquilcha, Chile: A case for rapid and repeated mixing of a tiered magmatic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemetti, E. W.; Grunder, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Magmatic amphibole is a ubiquitous phase in most dacitic magmas in continental arc systems. Amphibole can react quickly to changes in P, T and water content caused by processes such as underplating of new magma, degassing, ascension and mixing of magma. This allows amphibole to be a valuable and sensitive barometer, thermometer and hygrometer in silicic magmatic systems. It can be especially suitable for disentangling the potential geometry of subvolcanic systems and limiting the timescales that these processes can occur. Volcán Aucanquilcha (Chile) is a Quaternary volcano that has erupted dacite lavas (63-67 wt% SiO2) that contain two populations of amphibole during its entire 1 M.y. eruptive history. The amphibole is found as phenocrysts of hornblende and pargasite that range in size from 0.5 mm to 1 cm. The amphibole populations exhibit a variety of textures: (1) thin opacite rims; (2) thick reaction rims of pyroxene, plagioclase and opaque oxides; (3) cored" with other phases such as plagioclase, biotite and anhydride; and (4) unrimmed. Representative electron microprobe analyses of amphibole find that very few of the phenocrysts are compositionally zoned, i.e., the two populations are not pargasite cores with hornblende rims. The presence of two populations of amphibole such as those found at Aucanquilcha appears to be rare; there are documented occurrences of two amphibole populations found in lavas from continental-arc related volcanoes. Sajama, Parinacota and Porquesa in Central Andes of Chile exhibit the same two populations of amphibole phenocrysts as Aucanquilcha. Evidence from Aucanquilcha suggest that the populations of amphibole crystallized at different pressures: 0.5-2 kb and 3-6 kb. Textures of the amphibole imply that the processes that mix the amphibole occur quickly before eruption, possibly in a timescales of days. The constant presence of these amphibole in all Aucanquilcha lavas indicate that the processes that juxtapose pargasite and

  13. How did Japanese rural dwellers become rapidly healthier in the two decades following World War II?: Examining the diverse policy interventions that improved the population's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-01-01

    policies implemented in Japan as well as the integration of various policies and programs addressing livelihoods, economics, and education greatly improved the population's health in a relatively short time. These non-health initiatives intersected with a wide range of health determinants. Verifying these hypotheses in detail would help develop effective measures for international aid to poverty-stricken regions. It also encourages alternative ways through which Japan could overcome its present-day challenges such as a rapidly aging population with limited access to national schemes for social security.

  14. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  15. A population-based cross-sectional study of barriers to uptake of eye care services in South India: the Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Shekhar, Konegari; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2014-06-12

    To assess the barriers to uptake of eye care services among those with avoidable impairment in the population aged ≥40 years in the South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Cross-sectional study. Community setting. Of 7800 participants recruited from one urban and two rural locations using a two-stage cluster random sampling methodology, 7378 (95%) were examined. Eye examinations were conducted using a rapid assessment protocol. Visual impairment (VI) was defined as presenting visual acuity attitude and 'felt need' to improve vision, newer and much intensive awareness campaigns are needed to bring about an attitudinal/behavioural change among individuals to improve the uptake of services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs A Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The theory of expander graphs is a rapidly developing topic in mathematics and computer science, with applications to communication networks, error-correcting codes, cryptography, complexity theory, and much more. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs: A Beginner's Guide is a comprehensive introduction to expander graphs, designed to act as a bridge between classroom study and active research in the field of expanders. It equips those with little or no prior knowledge with the skills necessary to both comprehend current research articles and begin their own research. Central to this book are fou

  17. Expanding the Trilinos developer community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2010-10-01

    The Trilinos Project started approximately nine years ago as a small effort to enable research, development and ongoing support of small, related solver software efforts. The 'Tri' in Trilinos was intended to indicate the eventual three packages we planned to develop. In 2007 the project expanded its scope to include any package that was an enabling technology for technical computing. Presently the Trilinos repository contains over 55 packages covering a broad spectrum of reusable tools for constructing full-featured scalable scientific and engineering applications. Trilinos usage is now worldwide, and many applications have an explicit dependence on Trilinos for essential capabilities. Users come from other US laboratories, universities, industry and international research groups. Awareness and use of Trilinos is growing rapidly outside of Sandia. Members of the external research community are becoming more familiar with Trilinos, its design and collaborative nature. As a result, the Trilinos project is receiving an increasing number of requests from external community members who want to contribute to Trilinos as developers. To-date we have worked with external developers in an ad hoc fashion. Going forward, we want to develop a set of policies, procedures, tools and infrastructure to simplify interactions with external developers. As we go forward with multi-laboratory efforts such as CASL and X-Stack, and international projects such as IESP, we will need a more streamlined and explicit process for making external developers 'first-class citizens' in the Trilinos development community. This document is intended to frame the discussion for expanding the Trilinos community to all strategically important external members, while at the same time preserving Sandia's primary leadership role in the project.

  18. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  19. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  20. Rapid and accurate species and genomic species identification and exhaustive population diversity assessment of Agrobacterium spp. using recA-based PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, M; Vial, L; Chapulliot, D; Nesme, X; Lavire, C

    2013-07-01

    Agrobacteria are common soil bacteria that interact with plants as commensals, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria or alternatively as pathogens. Indigenous agrobacterial populations are composites, generally with several species and/or genomic species and several strains per species. We thus developed a recA-based PCR approach to accurately identify and specifically detect agrobacteria at various taxonomic levels. Specific primers were designed for all species and/or genomic species of Agrobacterium presently known, including 11 genomic species of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens complex (G1-G9, G13 and G14, among which only G2, G4, G8 and G14 still received a Latin epithet: pusense, radiobacter, fabrum and nepotum, respectively), A. larrymoorei, A. rubi, R. skierniewicense, A. sp. 1650, and A. vitis, and for the close relative Allorhizobium undicola. Specific primers were also designed for superior taxa, Agrobacterium spp. and Rhizobiaceace. Primer specificities were assessed with target and non-target pure culture DNAs as well as with DNAs extracted from composite agrobacterial communities. In addition, we showed that the amplicon cloning-sequencing approach used with Agrobacterium-specific or Rhizobiaceae-specific primers is a way to assess the agrobacterial diversity of an indigenous agrobacterial population. Hence, the agrobacterium-specific primers designed in the present study enabled the first accurate and rapid identification of all species and/or genomic species of Agrobacterium, as well as their direct detection in environmental samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiplex Minisequencing of the HBB Gene: A Rapid Strategy to Confirm the Most Frequent β-Thalassemia Mutations in the Tunisian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Charfeddine, Ilhem; Ben Lazreg, Taheni; M'sakni, Ahlem; Amara, Abdelbasset; Mlika, Adnène; Chaïeb, Anouar; Hlel, Khalid; Zouari, Noura; Zbidi, Faïza; Bouguila, Jihène; Soyah, Najla; Ayedi, Abdelkarim; Ben Hamouda, Hechmi; Abroug, Saoussen; Boughamoura, Lamia; Saad, Ali; Gribaa, Moez

    2015-01-01

    The β hemoglobinopathies [β-thalassemia (β-thal) and structural hemoglobin (Hb) variants such as Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) and Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A)] are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide. In Tunisia, due to the high prevalence of consanguineous marriages, the recurrent risk of this disease is high. The average prevalence of hemoglobinopathies is 4.48%, reaching 12.50% in some focus regions. The molecular investigations on thalassemia contributed to establishing the spectrum of mutations in the Tunisian population. The total number of HBB gene mutations identified was 24. The two most frequent mutations, codon 39 (C > T) (HBB: c.118C > T) and IVS-I-110 (G > A) (HBB: c.93-21G > A) accounted for 70.0% of the total encountered β-thal cases. These two mutations together with IVS-I-2 (T > G) (HBB: c.92 + 2T > G) and the Hb S variant account for more than 90.0% of all HBB genetic variants in Tunisia. Thus, developing rapid, inexpensive and reliable mutation-specific molecular diagnostic assays targeting our Tunisian populations is our aim to facilitate routine detection of hemoglobinopathies. In this report, we describe the successful application of the multiplex minisequencing assay as an alternative strategy for genetic diagnosis of HBB gene disorders in Tunisia.

  2. An ultra-high density bin-map for rapid QTL mapping for tassel and ear architecture in a large F₂ maize population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zongliang; Wang, Baobao; Dong, Xiaomei; Liu, Han; Ren, Longhui; Chen, Jian; Hauck, Andrew; Song, Weibin; Lai, Jinsheng

    2014-06-04

    Understanding genetic control of tassel and ear architecture in maize (Zea mays L. ssp. mays) is important due to their relationship with grain yield. High resolution QTL mapping is critical for understanding the underlying molecular basis of phenotypic variation. Advanced populations, such as recombinant inbred lines, have been broadly adopted for QTL mapping; however, construction of large advanced generation crop populations is time-consuming and costly. The rapidly declining cost of genotyping due to recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies has generated new possibilities for QTL mapping using large early generation populations. A set of 708 F2 progeny derived from inbreds Chang7-2 and 787 were generated and genotyped by whole genome low-coverage genotyping-by-sequencing method (average 0.04×). A genetic map containing 6,533 bin-markers was constructed based on the parental SNPs and a sliding-window method, spanning a total genetic distance of 1,396 cM. The high quality and accuracy of this map was validated by the identification of two well-studied genes, r1, a qualitative trait locus for color of silk (chromosome 10) and ba1 for tassel branch number (chromosome 3). Three traits of tassel and ear architecture were evaluated in this population, a total of 10 QTL were detected using a permutation-based-significance threshold, seven of which overlapped with reported QTL. Three genes (GRMZM2G316366, GRMZM2G492156 and GRMZM5G805008) encoding MADS-box domain proteins and a BTB/POZ domain protein were located in the small intervals of qTBN5 and qTBN7 (~800 Kb and 1.6 Mb in length, respectively) and may be involved in patterning of tassel architecture. The small physical intervals of most QTL indicate high-resolution mapping is obtainable with this method. We constructed an ultra-high-dentisy linkage map for the large early generation population in maize. Our study provides an efficient approach for fast detection of quantitative loci responsible

  3. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  4. Expanding cosmic horizons of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wainwright, Milton

    2003-02-01

    The conceptual boundaries of life are rapidly expanding far beyond the confines of our planet to encompass an ever-widening region of the universe. Complex organic molecules in interstellar dust and comets appear most plausibly to be biologically derived, or at least closely related spectroscopically and structurally to such material. A de novo origin of life from non-living material is reckoned to have so minuscule a probability that its occurrence once in the universe can be considered miracle enough. The widespread distribution of similar material (e.g with the characteristics of the diffuse infrared bands and 2175 absorption features) throughout the galaxy and in external galaxies adds weight to the theory of panspermia, where it is supposed that the components of life at a generic level are readily transferred from one place to another. Spectroscopic evidence consistent with life extends to redshifts z=0.5, and from elemental abundance studies alone (e.g, of C, O and metals) in distant galaxies the possibility of cosmic life extends to redshifts as high as z=3.

  5. Highly visible street-based HIV rapid testing: is it an attractive option for a previously untested population? A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Balbuena, Sonia; de la Fuente, Luis; Hoyos, Juan; Rosales-Statkus, M Elena; Barrio, Gregorio; Belza, María-José

    2014-03-01

    Given the shortage of community-based HIV testing initiatives in resource-rich countries not targeting most-at-risk populations, we aimed to evaluate whether a highly visible mobile programme promoting and offering rapid HIV testing in the street can attract persons at risk for infection who have never been tested. Between 2008 and 2011, the programme served 7552 persons in various Spanish cities who answered a brief questionnaire while awaiting their results. The factors associated with being tested for the first time were analysed using two logistic regression models, one for men who have sex with men (MSM) and the other for only heterosexual men (MSW) and women. 3517 participants (47%) were first-time testers (24% of MSM, 56% of MSW and 60% of women). Among them, 22 undiagnosed HIV infections were detected with a global prevalence of 0.6% and 3.1% in MSM. Undergoing a first HIV test was independently associated with age gay community. Among those tested for the first time, 22% had never thought of being tested and 62% decided to be tested when they passed by and noticed the programme, regardless of their previous intentions. This community programme attracted a substantial number of persons previously untested and particularly hard to reach, such as those with low education and MSM who were least involved in the gay community. Programme visibility was a decisive factor for almost two of every three persons who had never been tested.

  6. Alcohol tax policy and related mortality. An age-period-cohort analysis of a rapidly developed Chinese population, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y; Kim, Jean H; Yip, Benjamin H; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S; Chung, Vincent C H; Griffiths, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1) chronic causes, 2) acute causes, 3) all (chronic+acute) causes and 4) causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007-2008 duty reduction.

  7. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  8. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  9. Population distribution, density and habitat preference of the Cerulean Warbler (Setophaga cerulea) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon Curley; Terry Master; Gregory George

    2012-01-01

    The breeding range of the Cerulean Warbler has expanded into second-growth forest and converted agricultural land in the northeastern United States where, according to the North American Breeding Bird Survey, the population is increasing. Despite this expansion in one part of its range, the population as a whole is still in rapid decline implying that habitat quality...

  10. Self-reported HIV-positive status but subsequent HIV-negative test result using rapid diagnostic testing algorithms among seven sub-Saharan African military populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Harbertson

    Full Text Available HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs combined in an algorithm are the current standard for HIV diagnosis in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has confirmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However, false-positive RDT algorithm results have been reported due to a variety of factors, such as suboptimal quality assurance procedures and inaccurate interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosurveys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of personnel self-reporting HIV positivity, but subsequently testing HIV-negative during the serosurvey. The frequency of individuals who reported they were HIV-positive but subsequently tested HIV-negative using RDT algorithms ranged from 3.3 to 91.1%, suggesting significant rates of prior false-positive HIV RDT algorithm results, which should be confirmed using biological testing across time in future studies. Simple measures could substantially reduce false-positive results, such as greater adherence to quality assurance guidelines and prevalence-specific HIV testing algorithms as described in the World Health Organization's HIV testing guidelines. Other measures to improve RDT algorithm specificity include classifying individuals with weakly positive test lines as HIV indeterminate and retesting. While expansion of HIV testing in resource-limited countries is critical to identifying HIV-infected individuals for appropriate care and treatment, careful attention to potential causes of false HIV-positive results are needed to prevent the significant medical, psychological, and fiscal costs resulting from individuals receiving a false-positive HIV diagnosis.

  11. Self-reported HIV-positive status but subsequent HIV-negative test result using rapid diagnostic testing algorithms among seven sub-Saharan African military populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbertson, Judith; Hale, Braden R; Tran, Bonnie R; Thomas, Anne G; Grillo, Michael P; Jacobs, Marni B; McAnany, Jennifer; Shaffer, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    HIV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) combined in an algorithm are the current standard for HIV diagnosis in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has confirmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However, false-positive RDT algorithm results have been reported due to a variety of factors, such as suboptimal quality assurance procedures and inaccurate interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosurveys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of personnel self-reporting HIV positivity, but subsequently testing HIV-negative during the serosurvey. The frequency of individuals who reported they were HIV-positive but subsequently tested HIV-negative using RDT algorithms ranged from 3.3 to 91.1%, suggesting significant rates of prior false-positive HIV RDT algorithm results, which should be confirmed using biological testing across time in future studies. Simple measures could substantially reduce false-positive results, such as greater adherence to quality assurance guidelines and prevalence-specific HIV testing algorithms as described in the World Health Organization's HIV testing guidelines. Other measures to improve RDT algorithm specificity include classifying individuals with weakly positive test lines as HIV indeterminate and retesting. While expansion of HIV testing in resource-limited countries is critical to identifying HIV-infected individuals for appropriate care and treatment, careful attention to potential causes of false HIV-positive results are needed to prevent the significant medical, psychological, and fiscal costs resulting from individuals receiving a false-positive HIV diagnosis.

  12. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  13. Education Abroad for Students with Disabilities: Expanding Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Heidi M.; Fisher, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    Education abroad is a rapidly expanding opportunity for undergraduate students in the United States. Concurrent with this growth in total numbers is a growth in the diversity of participants. Students with different ethnic backgrounds, academic majors, age, socioeconomic status, and disabilities are increasingly seeking opportunities overseas. In…

  14. Validity of Race, Ethnicity, and National Origin in Population-based Cancer Registries and Rapid Case Ascertainment Enhanced with a Spanish Surname List

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.C. Clarke (Lisa C.); R.P. Rull (Rudolph P.); J.Z. Ayanian (John Z.); R. Boer (Robert); D. Deapen (Dennis); D. van West; K.L. Kahn (Katherine L.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Accurate information regarding race, ethnicity, and national origins is critical for identifying disparities in the cancer burden. Objectives: To examine the use of a Spanish surname list to improve the quality of race-related information obtained from rapid case

  15. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    . It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...... as a guideline for evaluating game design thinking and for measuring solutions made in the development process. To strengthen our model of expanded design space, we will present examples from our game design courses.......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...

  16. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  17. Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K

    2010-01-01

    The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion.

  18. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, affects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction.

  19. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  20. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  1. Ex Vivo Restimulation of Human PBMC Expands a CD3+CD4−CD8− γδ + T Cell Population That Can Confound the Evaluation of CD4 and CD8 T Cell Responses to Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgmen, B. J.; Papalia, L.; Wang, L.; Dyson, A. R.; McCallum, H. A.; Simson, C. M.; Pearse, M. J.; Maraskovsky, E.; Hung, D.; Eomois, P. P.; Hartel, G.; Barnden, M. J.; Rockman, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of vaccine-induced humoral and CD4+ and CD8+ cellular immune responses represents an important correlate of vaccine efficacy. Accurate and reliable assays evaluating such responses are therefore critical during the clinical development phase of vaccines. T cells play a pivotal role both in coordinating the adaptive and innate immune responses and as effectors. During the assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in subjects participating in a large-scale influenza vaccine trial, we identified the expansion of an IFN-γ-producing CD3+CD4−CD8− γδ + T cell population in the peripheral blood of 90/610 (15%) healthy subjects. The appearance of CD3+CD4−CD8− γδ + T cells in the blood of subjects was transient and found to be independent of the study cohort, vaccine group, subject gender and ethnicity, and ex vivo restimulation conditions. Although the function of this population and relevance to vaccination are unclear, their inclusion in the total vaccine-specific T-cell response has the potential to confound data interpretation. It is thus recommended that when evaluating the induction of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses following vaccination, the CD3+CD4−CD8− γδ + T cells are either excluded or separately enumerated from the overall frequency determination. PMID:24066003

  2. Ex Vivo Restimulation of Human PBMC Expands a CD3+CD4-CD8-γδ+ T Cell Population That Can Confound the Evaluation of CD4 and CD8 T Cell Responses to Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Sedgmen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of vaccine-induced humoral and CD4+ and CD8+ cellular immune responses represents an important correlate of vaccine efficacy. Accurate and reliable assays evaluating such responses are therefore critical during the clinical development phase of vaccines. T cells play a pivotal role both in coordinating the adaptive and innate immune responses and as effectors. During the assessment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI in subjects participating in a large-scale influenza vaccine trial, we identified the expansion of an IFN-γ-producing CD3+CD4-CD8-γδ+ T cell population in the peripheral blood of 90/610 (15% healthy subjects. The appearance of CD3+CD4-CD8-γδ+ T cells in the blood of subjects was transient and found to be independent of the study cohort, vaccine group, subject gender and ethnicity, and ex vivo restimulation conditions. Although the function of this population and relevance to vaccination are unclear, their inclusion in the total vaccine-specific T-cell response has the potential to confound data interpretation. It is thus recommended that when evaluating the induction of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ immune responses following vaccination, the CD3+CD4-CD8-γδ+ T cells are either excluded or separately enumerated from the overall frequency determination.

  3. Non-local competition drives both rapid divergence and prolonged stasis in a model of speciation in populations with degenerate resource consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atamas Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The theory of speciation is dominated by adaptationist thinking, with less attention to mechanisms that do not affect species adaptation. Degeneracy – the imperfect specificity of interactions between diverse elements of biological systems and their environments – is key to the adaptability of populations. A mathematical model was explored in which population and resource were distributed one-dimensionally according to trait value. Resource consumption was degenerate – neither strictly location-specific nor location-independent. As a result, the competition for resources among the elements of the population was non-local. Two modeling approaches, a modified differential-integral Verhulstian equation and a cellular automata model, showed similar results: narrower degeneracy led to divergent dynamics with suppression of intermediate forms, whereas broader degeneracy led to suppression of diversifying forms, resulting in population stasis with increasing phenotypic homogeneity. Such behaviors did not increase overall adaptation because they continued after the model populations achieved maximal resource consumption rates, suggesting that degeneracy-driven distributed competition for resources rather than selective pressure toward more efficient resource exploitation was the driving force. The solutions were stable in the presence of limited environmental stochastic variability or heritable phenotypic variability. A conclusion was made that both dynamic diversification and static homogeneity of populations may be outcomes of the same process – distributed competition for resource not affecting the overall adaptation – with the difference between them defined by the spread of trait degeneracy in a given environment. Thus, biological degeneracy is a driving force of both speciation and stasis in biology, which, by themselves, are not necessarily adaptive in nature.

  4. Expanding the Conversation: Further Explorations into Indigenous Environmental Science Education Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous environmental science education is a diverse, dynamic, and rapidly expanding field of research, theory, and practice. This article highlights, challenges, and expands upon key areas of discussion presented by Mack et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ 7, "2012") as part of the forum on their article "Effective Practices for Creating…

  5. The Breadth of Expandable Memory CD8+ T Cells Inversely Correlates with Residual Viral Loads in HIV Elite Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlovu, Zaza M.; Stampouloglou, Eleni; Cesa, Kevin; Mavrothalassitis, Orestes; Alvino, Donna Marie; Li, Jonathan Z.; Wilton, Shannon; Karel, Daniel; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Chen, Huabiao; Pereyra, Florencia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies have shown that elite controllers with minimal effector T cell responses harbor a low-frequency, readily expandable, highly functional, and broadly directed memory population. Here, we interrogated the in vivo relevance of this cell population by investigating whether the breadth of expandable memory responses is associated with the magnitude of residual viremia in individuals achieving durable suppression of HIV infection. HIV-specific memory CD8+ T cells were expanded by using autologous epitopic and variant peptides. Viral load was measured by an ultrasensitive single-copy PCR assay. Following expansion, controllers showed a greater increase in the overall breadth of Gag responses than did untreated progressors (P = 0.01) as well as treated progressors (P = 0.0003). Nef- and Env-specific memory cells expanded poorly for all groups, and their expanded breadths were indistinguishable among groups (P = 0.9 for Nef as determined by a Kruskal-Wallis test; P = 0.6 for Env as determined by a Kruskal-Wallis test). More importantly, we show that the breadth of expandable, previously undetectable Gag-specific responses was inversely correlated with residual viral load (r = −0.6; P = 0.009). Together, these data reveal a direct link between the abundance of Gag-specific expandable memory responses and prolonged maintenance of low-level viremia. Our studies highlight a CD8+ T cell feature that would be desirable in a vaccine-induced T cell response. IMPORTANCE Many studies have shown that the rare ability of some individuals to control HIV infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy appears to be heavily dependent upon special HIV-specific killer T lymphocytes that are able to inhibit viral replication. The identification of key features of these immune cells has the potential to inform rational HIV vaccine design. This study shows that a special subset of killer lymphocytes, known as central memory CD8+ T lymphocytes, is at least

  6. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  7. Self-Reported HIV-Positive Status But Subsequent HIV-Negative Test Result Using Rapid Diagnostic Testing Algorithms Among Seven Sub-Saharan African Military Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    in many sub-Saharan African countries, and extensive laboratory testing has con- firmed HIV RDTs have excellent sensitivity and specificity. However... interpretation of results. We conducted HIV serosur- veys in seven sub-Saharan African military populations and recorded the frequency of per- sonnel...positive results, such as greater adherence to quality assurance guidelines and prevalence-specific HIV testing algorithms as described in the World

  8. Unintended Consequences of Expanding the Genetic Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollum, Marvin; Ashwood, Brennan; Jockusch, Steffen; Lam, Minh; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2016-09-14

    The base pair d5SICS·dNaM was recently reported to incorporate and replicate in the DNA of a modified strain of Escherichia coli, thus making the world's first stable semisynthetic organism. This newly expanded genetic alphabet may allow organisms to store considerably more information in order to translate proteins with unprecedented enzymatic activities. Importantly, however, there is currently no knowledge of the photochemical properties of d5SICS or dNaM-properties that are central to the chemical integrity of cellular DNA. In this contribution, it is shown that excitation of d5SICS or dNaM with near-visible light leads to efficient trapping of population in the nucleoside's excited triplet state in high yield. Photoactivation of these long-lived, reactive states is shown to photosensitize cells, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species and to a marked decrease in cell proliferation, thus warning scientists of the potential phototoxic side effects of expanding the genetic alphabet.

  9. A review of the expanding field of exotic animal oral health care--veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, D A; Oosterhuis, J E; Kirkman, J E

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the clinical literature of the field of Veterinary Dentistry from its conception in the late 1960's to its rapidly expanding role today as an emerging clinical specialty practice in veterinary medicine. It defines eight dental sub-disciplines in contemporary veterinary oral health care from a practical point of view and provides information concerning standardization of key words searches, definition of terms, and use of the expanded Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) necessary for a comprehensive review of the rapidly expanding literature stored in electronic databases.

  10. Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Urban and Rural Population in the South Indian State of Andhra Pradesh: Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Shekhar, Konegari; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-01-01

    To assess the visual outcomes after cataract surgery among urban and rural population aged ≥40 years in the South India state of Andhra Pradesh. A population based cross-sectional study was conducted in which 7800 subjects were sampled from two rural and one urban location. Visual Acuity was assessed and eye examination were performed by trained personnel. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information, and history of cataract surgery. Blindness and moderate Visual Impairment (MVI) was defined as presenting VA blindness was seen in 14.7% of the eyes. A significantly higher proportion of subjects in urban area had good outcome as compared to those in the rural area (p = 0.01). Uncorrected refractive error (58.7%) was the leading cause of MVI, and posterior segment disease (34.3%) was the leading cause of blindness. On applying multiple logistic regression, risk factors for poor outcomes were age ≥ 70 years (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8), rural residence (OR: 1.3, 95% CI:1.0-1.8) and presence of aphakia (OR: 8.9, 95% CI: 5.7-13.8). Post cataract surgery, refractive errors remain an important correctable cause of MVI, in the south Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The correction of refractive errors is required to provide good visual recovery and achieve the benefit of cataract surgery.

  11. Validity of Race, Ethnicity, and National Origin in Population-based Cancer Registries and Rapid Case Ascertainment Enhanced With a Spanish Surname List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lisa C; Rull, Rudolph P; Ayanian, John Z; Boer, Robert; Deapen, Dennis; West, Dee W; Kahn, Katherine L

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information regarding race, ethnicity, and national origins is critical for identifying disparities in the cancer burden. To examine the use of a Spanish surname list to improve the quality of race-related information obtained from rapid case ascertainment (RCA) and to estimate the accuracy of race-related information obtained from cancer registry records collected by routine reporting. Self-reported survey responses of 3954 participants from California enrolled in the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and percent agreement. We used logistic regression to identify predictors of underreporting and overreporting of a race/ethnicity. Use of the Spanish surname list increased the sensitivity of RCA for Latino ethnicity from 37% to 83%. Sensitivity for cancer registry records collected by routine reporting was ≥95% for whites, blacks, and Asians, and specificity was high for all groups (86%-100%). However, patterns of misclassification by race/ethnicity were found that could lead to biased cancer statistics for specific race/ethnicities. Discordance between self-reported and registry-reported race/ethnicity was more likely for women, Latinos, and Asians. Methods to improve race and ethnicity data, such as using Spanish surnames in RCA and instituting data collection guidelines for hospitals, are needed to ensure minorities are accurately represented in clinical and epidemiological research.

  12. Rapid assessment of sexually transmitted diseases in a sentinel population in Thailand: prevalence of chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, and syphilis among pregnant women--1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmarx, P H; Black, C M; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Shaffer, N; Yanpaisarn, S; Chaisilwattana, P; Siriwasin, W; Young, N L; Farshy, C E; Mastro, T D; St Louis, M E

    1998-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among pregnant women in Thailand, where case reporting suggests a marked decrease in STDs following a campaign promoting condom use during commercial sex. Cross sectional study of women at their first visit to the study hospitals' antenatal clinics in Chiang Rai (n = 500) and Bangkok (n = 521). First catch urine specimens were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Amplicor CT/NG polymerase chain reaction assay. Syphilis and HIV serological testing were performed in the study hospitals' laboratories. The prevalence of chlamydial infection was 5.7%, gonorrhoea 0.2%, and syphilis 0.5% (all VDRL or RPR titres were gestational age at first antenatal clinic visit, but was not associated with marital status, gravidity, city of enrollment, or HIV infection status. There was a low prevalence of gonorrhoea and syphilis among these pregnant women in Thailand. Chlamydial infection was detected at a higher prevalence, especially among younger women and women registering later for antenatal care. Testing of pregnant women using easily collected urine specimens and a sensitive nucleic acid amplification assay is a feasible method of rapidly assessing chlamydial and gonococcal prevalence.

  13. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  14. Scalable metagenomics alignment research tool (SMART): a scalable, rapid, and complete search heuristic for the classification of metagenomic sequences from complex sequence populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron Y; Lee, Cecilia S; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2016-07-28

    Next generation sequencing technology has enabled characterization of metagenomics through massively parallel genomic DNA sequencing. The complexity and diversity of environmental samples such as the human gut microflora, combined with the sustained exponential growth in sequencing capacity, has led to the challenge of identifying microbial organisms by DNA sequence. We sought to validate a Scalable Metagenomics Alignment Research Tool (SMART), a novel searching heuristic for shotgun metagenomics sequencing results. After retrieving all genomic DNA sequences from the NCBI GenBank, over 1 × 10(11) base pairs of 3.3 × 10(6) sequences from 9.25 × 10(5) species were indexed using 4 base pair hashtable shards. A MapReduce searching strategy was used to distribute the search workload in a computing cluster environment. In addition, a one base pair permutation algorithm was used to account for single nucleotide polymorphisms and sequencing errors. Simulated datasets used to evaluate Kraken, a similar metagenomics classification tool, were used to measure and compare precision and accuracy. Finally using a same set of training sequences we compared Kraken, CLARK, and SMART within the same computing environment. Utilizing 12 computational nodes, we completed the classification of all datasets in under 10 min each using exact matching with an average throughput of over 1.95 × 10(6) reads classified per minute. With permutation matching, we achieved sensitivity greater than 83 % and precision greater than 94 % with simulated datasets at the species classification level. We demonstrated the application of this technique applied to conjunctival and gut microbiome metagenomics sequencing results. In our head to head comparison, SMART and CLARK had similar accuracy gains over Kraken at the species classification level, but SMART required approximately half the amount of RAM of CLARK. SMART is the first scalable, efficient, and rapid metagenomics classification algorithm

  15. Rapid and inexpensive detection of common HBB gene mutations in Tunisian population by high-resolution melting analysis: implication for molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouragini, Houyem; Haddad, Faten; Darragi, Imen; Abbes, Salem

    2014-03-01

    In Tunisia, β-thalassemia is a common hereditary disease with a carrying rate of 2.21%. Up to now, detection of responsible mutations was made by laborious, expensive, and/or time consuming methods. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a specific assay for detection of the two most frequent mutations in Tunisian population, the IVS-I-110 (G → A) and Cd39 (C → T) mutations. In this study, we optimize high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) conditions for these mutations, using control DNAs. Then, we evaluate the strength of this methodology by screening a cohort of patients with β-thalassemia. All examined reference DNA samples were unambiguously distinguished from each other. For the blinded test, the results were completely compatible with direct sequencing, performed after the HRMA. As HRMA represents a highly sensitive and high-throughput gene scanning method, it can provide timely diagnosis at low cost for effective clinical management of β-thalassemia.

  16. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehy, Tony; Roache, Cindy; Sharma, Sangita

    2013-06-02

    To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities.

  17. Rapid species identification of "Streptococcus milleri" strains by line blot hybridization: identification of a distinct 16S rRNA population closely related to Streptococcus constellatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Schot, C S; Bunschoten, A E; Schouls, L M

    1996-01-01

    A collection of 399 "Streptococcus milleri" strains were identified to the species level by the use of a line blot assay. Their PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were hybridized with species-specific 5'-biotinylated oligonucleotide probes homologous to the bp 213 to 231 regions of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the type strains Streptococcus anginosus ATCC 33397, Streptococcus constellatus ATCC 27823, and Streptococcus intermedius ATCC 27335. The hybridization results were compared with the reference phenotypic identification method data (R. A. Whiley, H. Fraser, J. M. Hardie, and D. Beighton, J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:1497-1501, 1990). Most strains (357 of 399 [89.5%]) reacted unambiguously with only one probe. However, 42 of the 399 strains (10.5%) reacted with both the S. constellatus- and S. intermedius-specific probes; 41 of them were phenotypically identified as S. constellatus. These dually reactive strains hybridized with a 5'-biotinylated probe based on the bp 213 to 231 region of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of one of two species. Analysis of the 5' ends of the 16S rRNA gene sequences (487 bp) demonstrated that the dually reactive strains represent a distinct rRNA population sharing 98.1% sequence similarity with S. constellatus. Phenotypic consistency between the dually reactive strains and the S. constellatus strains was not demonstrated. Line blot hybridization proved to be a simple and inexpensive method to screen large numbers of strains for genetic relatedness, and it allowed the detection of a distinct 16S rRNA type within the "S. milleri" group. PMID:8784576

  18. Eating habits of a population undergoing a rapid dietary transition: portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods and beverages consumed by Inuit adults in Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the portion sizes of traditional and non-traditional foods being consumed by Inuit adults in three remote communities in Nunavut, Canada. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between June and October, 2008. Trained field workers collected dietary data using a culturally appropriate, validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire (QFFQ) developed specifically for the study population. Results Caribou, muktuk (whale blubber and skin) and Arctic char (salmon family), were the most commonly consumed traditional foods; mean portion sizes for traditional foods ranged from 10 g for fermented seal fat to 424 g for fried caribou. Fried bannock and white bread were consumed by >85% of participants; mean portion sizes for these foods were 189 g and 70 g, respectively. Sugar-sweetened beverages and energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods were also widely consumed. Mean portion sizes for regular pop and sweetened juices with added sugar were 663 g and 572 g, respectively. Mean portion sizes for potato chips, pilot biscuits, cakes, chocolate and cookies were 59 g, 59 g, 106 g, 59 g, and 46 g, respectively. Conclusions The present study provides further evidence of the nutrition transition that is occurring among Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. It also highlights a number of foods and beverages that could be targeted in future nutritional intervention programs aimed at obesity and diet-related chronic disease prevention in these and other Inuit communities. PMID:23724920

  19. Age-period-cohort projections of ischaemic heart disease mortality by socio-economic position in a rapidly transitioning Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene O L Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With economic development and population aging, ischaemic heart disease (IHD is becoming a leading cause of mortality with widening inequalities in China. To forewarn the trends in China we projected IHD trends in the most economically developed part of China, i.e., Hong Kong. METHODS: Based on sex-specific IHD mortality rates from 1976 to 2005, we projected mortality rates by neighborhood-level socio-economic position (i.e., low- or high-income groups to 2020 in Hong Kong using Poisson age-period-cohort models with autoregressive priors. RESULTS: In the low-income group, age-standardized IHD mortality rates among women declined from 33.3 deaths in 1976-1980 to 19.7 per 100,000 in 2016-2020 (from 55.5 deaths to 34.2 per 100,000 among men. The rates in the high-income group were initially higher in both sexes, particularly among men, but this had reversed by the end of the study periods. The rates declined faster for the high-income group than for the low-income group in both sexes. The rates were projected to decline faster in the high-income group, such that by the end of the projection period the high-income group would have lower IHD mortality rates, particularly for women. Birth cohort effects varied with sex, with a marked upturn in IHD mortality around 1945, i.e., for the first generation of men to grow up in a more economically developed environment. There was no such upturn in women. Birth cohort effects were the main drivers of change in IHD mortality rates. CONCLUSION: IHD mortality rates are declining in Hong Kong and are projected to continue to do so, even taking into account greater vulnerability for the first generation of men born into a more developed environment. At the same time social disparities in IHD have reversed and are widening, partly as a result of a cohort effect, with corresponding implications for prevention.

  20. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  1. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  2. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohrer, Jim [IBM, North Castle, NY (United States); Pierce, Brian M. [Raytheon Co., Waltham, MA (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Golledge, Reginald G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Horn, Robert E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Turkle, Sherry [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yonas, Gerold [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glicken Turnley, Jessica [Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollack, Jordan [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Burger, Rudy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinett, Warren; Wilson, Larry Todd [Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Bainbridge, W. S.; Canton, J.; Kuekes, P.; Loomis, J.; Penz, P.

    2013-01-01

    To be able to chart the most profitable future directions for societal transformation and corresponding scientific research, five multidisciplinary themes focused on major goals have been identified to fulfill the overall motivating vision of convergence described in the previous pages. The first, “Expanding Human Cognition and Communication,” is devoted to technological breakthroughs that have the potential to enhance individuals’ mental and interaction abilities. Throughout the twentieth century, a number of purely psychological techniques were offered for strengthening human character and personality, but evaluation research has generally failed to confirm the alleged benefits of these methods (Druckman and Bjork 1992; 1994). Today, there is good reason to believe that a combination of methods, drawing upon varied branches of converging science and technology, would be more effective than attempts that rely upon mental training alone.

  3. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  4. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  5. Expandable Total Humeral Replacement in a Child with Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Henderson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A right-handed 8-year-old female patient presented with a conventional, high-grade osteosarcoma involving her right humerus; through-shoulder amputation was recommended. After consultation, total humerus resection with expandable, total humeral endoprosthesis reconstruction was performed with a sleeve to encourage soft-tissue ingrowth. At three-year follow-up she has received one lengthening procedure and her functional scores are excellent. Conclusion. Total humeral resection and replacement in the pediatric population are rare and although early reports of expandable total humeral endoprosthesis outcomes demonstrate high failure rates, this patient’s success indicates that expandable total humeral replacement is a viable option.

  6. Population information, education and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Over the years UNFPA has used the information, education, and communication strategy to create awareness about population issues in more than 100 countries. The annual UNFPA publication The State of World Population has received worldwide media attention. Population issues are also aired through the annual World Population Day, which includes an international poster competition. Radio is used for spreading the message of population control but it could be employed more effectively given the 1.9 billion radio sets in the world. In Peru community-operated radio stations offer information on immunizations, reproductive health, and family planning. Some 20 countries have launched their own television programs in the form of mini-dramas to promote reproductive health and family planning. Mexico's family planning soap opera is highly popular in other Latin American countries. Multimedia campaigns are the most effective way of increasing public awareness about population and health-related issues. In Egypt the state-controlled television network is running a highly successful series of family planning mini-dramas. The country's contraceptive prevalence rate was nearly 50% in 1995 and rising. Similar successes have been reported in Mexico and Turkey. The growth of regional and international population information networks has been decisive in disseminating information. These include the UN Population Information Network (POPIN); the POPIN ASEAN for members of the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN); POPIN Africa; DOCPAL set up for Latin American countries; and PROLAP with the participation of 50 nongovernmental organizations. In the 1960s and 1970s population education also rapidly expanded in schools, and by the mid-1980s about 80 countries had population education in their schools. As of 1994 about 100 countries had such projects in schools. In addition, more attention is paid in schools to family planning, human sexuality, and gender issues. The major

  7. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  8. Coupled Proliferation and Apoptosis Maintain the Rapid Turnover of Microglia in the Adult Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Askew

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia play key roles in brain development, homeostasis, and function, and it is widely assumed that the adult population is long lived and maintained by self-renewal. However, the precise temporal and spatial dynamics of the microglial population are unknown. We show in mice and humans that the turnover of microglia is remarkably fast, allowing the whole population to be renewed several times during a lifetime. The number of microglial cells remains steady from late postnatal stages until aging and is maintained by the spatial and temporal coupling of proliferation and apoptosis, as shown by pulse-chase studies, chronic in vivo imaging of microglia, and the use of mouse models of dysregulated apoptosis. Our results reveal that the microglial population is constantly and rapidly remodeled, expanding our understanding of its role in the maintenance of brain homeostasis.

  9. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  10. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  11. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  12. Improving and expanding NGO programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A

    1993-06-01

    India has massive problems and is in need of improving and expanding non governmental organization (NGO) programs by broadening the scope of NGO activities, identifying successful NGO activities, and by moving closer to the community to participate in their activities. The problems and experience in the last few decades indicate that with expansion bureaucratization takes place. The institution begins to depend on donors and follows donor-driven agendas. As more money is given by the government, many more so called GONGO or Government-NGO projects materialize. Another problem is that the government almost always approaches the NGOs for the implementation of a project, and there is complete lack of cooperation at the planning stage. The government is considering a loan from the World Bank and UNICEF to launch a mother and child health program, but there has not been any discussion with the dozens of people who have worked on issues concerning mother and child health issues for many years. There is a need to be more demanding of the government about the various programs that are implemented for the government. Very few NGO health and family welfare projects are run by ordinary nurses or ordinary Ayurvedic doctors under ordinary conditions. Since successful NGO work has to be extended to other parts of the country, they will have to be run by ordinary people with very ordinary resources. Over the years, the NGO community has become preoccupied with its own agenda. Today, despite very sophisticated equipment and infrastructure, they are not able to reach the 60,000-70,000 workers and employees. Some of the ideas with respect to the strengthens and weaknesses of community participation have to be shared. NGOs should include all the existing non governmental organizations throughout the country, and have a dialogue with other nongovernmental bodies such as trade unions. The challenge is to adjust the current agenda, prevailing style, and present way of operating and move

  13. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  14. Emergent sclerotherapy of a newborn with expanding lymphatic malformation causing respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron C. Sheehan, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of acute airway obstruction in a newborn caused by an expanding hemorrhagic macrocystic lymphatic malformation (LM, which was successfully treated with emergent decompression and interventional radiology-guided sclerotherapy. The use of sclerotherapy for macrocystic LMs has been well described for various indications. The urgent interventional treatment obviated the need for a tracheostomy. This case describes the rapid diagnosis and use of sclerotherapy in a large expanding macrocystic LM.

  15. Emergent sclerotherapy of a newborn with expanding lymphatic malformation causing respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Cameron C; Idicula, Winslo; Raabe, Andrew; Jatana, Kris; Chiang, Tendy; Elmaraghy, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    The present report describes a case of acute airway obstruction in a newborn caused by an expanding hemorrhagic macrocystic lymphatic malformation (LM), which was successfully treated with emergent decompression and interventional radiology-guided sclerotherapy. The use of sclerotherapy for macrocystic LMs has been well described for various indications. The urgent interventional treatment obviated the need for a tracheostomy. This case describes the rapid diagnosis and use of sclerotherapy in a large expanding macrocystic LM.

  16. Expanded carrier screening in gamete donors of Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Maria Teresa; Benjamin, Isaac; Medina, Randolfo; Jiménez, José; Trías, Laura; Lerner, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    To discuss the implications of expanded genetic carrier screening for preconception purposes based on our practice. One hundred and forty-three potential gamete donors aged 20-32 years old (µ=24, 127 females and 16 males), signed informed consent forms and were selected according to the REDLARA guidelines. Blood or saliva samples were examined by one of these genetic carrier screening methods: Genzyme screening for Cystic Fibrosis (CF), Fragile X and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA); Counsyl Universal panel or Recombine Carrier Map. Genotyping results for all donors were analyzed; 41% (58/143) of donors were identified as carriers for at least one condition. We found a carrier frequency of 1/24 for CF, 1/72 for SMA and 0/120 for Fragile X syndrome. Among the high-impact most prevalent conditions in our study (Carrier Map group) were: 21-Hydroxilase-Deficient Congenital Nonclassical Adrenal Hyperplasia (1/8), Factor V deficiency (1/12), Hemochromatosis: Type 1: HFE Related (1/12), Short Chain Acyl-CoA (1/14) and MTHFR deficiency 1/3 (39%). The rate of gamete donors identified as carriers of at least one condition was 41%, which supports the offering of expanded carrier screening to our population. Studies in Latin American populations could help customize screening panels. The ART patient population has a unique opportunity to be offered expanded carrier screening and appropriate counseling, to make its best-informed decisions.

  17. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  18. Análise comparativa da expansão maxilar com três marcas de parafusos com limitador posterior: ensaio laboratorial em Typodont Comparative analysis of rapid maxillary expansion using three brands of fan-type expander screw: laboratory trial using typodont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Damo Meneguzzi

    2011-10-01

    treatment generally involves the expansion of the arch. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expansion pattern obtained with three different fan-type expander screws. METHODS: Using Typodont, 18 expansions were executed, six for each group, according to the expander tested: G1- DentaurumTM; G2- LeoneTM and G3- MorelliTM. For each essay, 13 activations of 2/4 of a turn were done in each appliance, leading to a total activation of 5.2mm. Using a caliper, measurements were taken in the beginning of the testing (T1; in half the total turnings (T2 and in the end of the testing (T3. Different measures were considered: interpremolar width (IP1, intersecond premolar width (IP2, intermolar width (IM and also the arch length (CA. The data obtained was analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Tukey and Freeman tests as well as by ANOVA. RESULTS: It could be observed that all tested groups showed a "V" expansion pattern, with major expansion in the anterior region of the arch, that was even more expressive in G3 (IP1=29.85% and IM=9.73%. Increases in the CA measurements were similar for groups G1 and G3 (+12.65% and +12.13%, respectively, and lower for G2 (+8.23%. CONCLUSIONS: It could be concluded that all the fan-type expander screws tested in the present study can be used for treating transverse constriction of the maxilla. However, Morelli expander showed a greater expansion in the anterior region of the arch in relation to the posterior region, which is an important characteristic when treating cleft lip and palate patients. Clinical studies are also necessary to confirm the findings of the present study.

  19. Rapid heating of matter using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Woosuk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-08

    This slide presentation describes motivation (uniform and rapid heating of a target, opportunity to study warm dense matter, study of nuclear fusion reactions), rapid heating of matter with intense laser-driven ion beams, visualization of the expanding warm dense gold and diamond, and nuclear fusion experiments using high power lasers (direct heating of deuterium spheres (radius ~ 10nm) with an intense laser pulse.

  20. A comparison of skin expansion and contraction between one expander and two expanders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhang, Jin-ming; Ji, Chen-yang; Meng, Hong; Huang, Jian-hua; Luo, He-yuan; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Liu, Xiao-tao; Hong, Xiao-fang

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the difference between the skin expansion and contraction rates for an expanded flap with one versus two expanders. The study cohort comprised 24 cases of two overlapping expanders and 15 cases of a single implanted expander involving 22 patients. The method of "wet-cloth sampling" was applied to measure the expanded flap area and the initial unexpanded area and to calculate the skin expansion rate. Two points 5 cm apart in the center of the expanded flap were selected before the second surgical stage. After removal of the expander, the distance between the two fixed points was measured and recorded. The contraction rate of the expanded flap then was calculated. During the same period of expansion in the two groups (p = 0.06, >0.01), the skin expansion rate was 3.5 ± 0.9 % in the group with two overlapping expanders and 2.6 ± 0.6 % in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002, 0.05). We fitted a linear regression model that was Y = 0.533 − 0.003X, where Y was the contraction rate of the expanded flap and X was the period of expansion. The contraction rate of the expanded flap was negatively correlated with the period of expansion. Compared with the traditional method of implanting a single expander, the new method of overlapping two expanders in a single cavity increased the skin expansion rate. The instantly expanded flap contraction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups, so the amount of expanded skin area absolutely increased. The clinical application of the new method is worth promoting. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  1. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira

    1996-10-01

    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  2. Expanding Genomics of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eKuo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant and soil health, and carbon and nutrient cycles. The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphological types (e.g. arbuscular [AM], ectomycorrhizal [ECM] in multiple fungal clades (e.g. phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota. The accessibility and culturability of many mycorrhizal partners make them ideal models for symbiosis studies. Alongside molecular, physiological, and ecological investigations, sequencing led to the first 3 mycorrhizal fungal genomes, representing 3 fungal phyla and 2 mycorrhizal types. The genome of the ECM basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor showed that the mycorrhizal lifestyle can evolve through loss of plant-degrading enzymes (PDEs and expansion of lineage-specific gene families, including short secreted protein (SSP effectors and other symbiosis genes. The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of gene families in contrast to Laccaria, and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other 2 fungi, the symbiosis can involve similar solutions as loss of PDEs and mycorrhiza-induced SSPs. The mycorrhizal community is building on these studies with 3 large-scale initiatives. The Mycorrhizal Genomics Initiative (MGI is sequencing 35 genomes of multiple fungal clades and mycorrhizal types for phylogenomic and population analyses. 17 MGI species whose symbiosis is reconstitutable in vitro are targeted for comprehensive transcriptomics of mycorrhiza formation. MGI genomes are seeding a set of 50+ reference fungal genomes for annotating metatranscriptomes sampled from 7 diverse well-described soil sites. These 3 projects address fundamental questions about the nature and role of a

  3. Journal impact factor in the era of expanding literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Julia; Belmont, John; Cho, Cheng T

    2006-12-01

    The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of the Science Citation Index (SCI), published by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), provides a comprehensive database for analysis of journals. Recent use of JCR's journal impact factor for evaluation of journals and authors has provoked strongly mixed reactions among investigators. This paper examines the effects of the rapidly expanding literature on the impact factor over the past decade and examines the limitations of journal impact factor for evaluating individual author's contributions. The JCR analyzed 6088 journals in 2005, a 32% increase in new listings since 1995. During the same period, there was a 39% increase in new journal listings in the infectious diseases category. The phenomenon of journal proliferation has had a profound effect on the journal impact factor. During the past decade an increased impact factor was observed in 92% of the top ranking major journals, especially in young and rapidly expanding research fields. Certain highly cited new journals published primarily review articles - not original contributions. There was no increase in impact factor among some of the best known journals, such as Journal of Experimental Medicine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), and Journal of Infectious Diseases. Clearly, journal impact factor is an imperfect tool for measuring the quality of articles, and its use in evaluating authors has inherent risks. In spite of its limitations, journal impact factor can be used as a rough indicator of scientific quality in specific subject categories and for serious reading and learning.

  4. Learning through Making: Emerging and Expanding Designs for College Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust, Torrey; Maloy, Robert W.; Edwards, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    As higher education institutions seek to prepare an increasingly diverse population of students for a rapidly changing future, makerspaces offer a pedagogical approach for engaging all learners in active thinking and hands-on learning while promoting creativity, problem solving, and collaboration skills. In this paper, we discuss ways to integrate…

  5. Losing your edge: climate change and the conservation value of range-edge populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Evan M; Olivas, Paulo; Stroud, James; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2015-10-01

    Populations occurring at species' range edges can be locally adapted to unique environmental conditions. From a species' perspective, range-edge environments generally have higher severity and frequency of extreme climatic events relative to the range core. Under future climates, extreme climatic events are predicted to become increasingly important in defining species' distributions. Therefore, range-edge genotypes that are better adapted to extreme climates relative to core populations may be essential to species' persistence during periods of rapid climate change. We use relatively simple conceptual models to highlight the importance of locally adapted range-edge populations (leading and trailing edges) for determining the ability of species to persist under future climates. Using trees as an example, we show how locally adapted populations at species' range edges may expand under future climate change and become more common relative to range-core populations. We also highlight how large-scale habitat destruction occurring in some geographic areas where many species range edge converge, such as biome boundaries and ecotones (e.g., the arc of deforestation along the rainforest-cerrado ecotone in the southern Amazonia), can have major implications for global biodiversity. As climate changes, range-edge populations will play key roles in helping species to maintain or expand their geographic distributions. The loss of these locally adapted range-edge populations through anthropogenic disturbance is therefore hypothesized to reduce the ability of species to persist in the face of rapid future climate change.

  6. Long-term implications of observing an expanding cosmological civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2018-01-01

    Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe. How does the presence of one limit the expansionistic ambitions of another, and what sort of boundary forms between their expanding domains? We describe a general scenario for any expansion speed, separation distance and time. We then specialize to a question of particular interest: What are the future prospects for a young and ambitious civilization if they can observe the presence of another at a cosmological distance? We treat cases involving the observation of one or two expanding domains. In the single-observation case, we find that almost any plausible detection will limit one's future cosmic expansion to some extent. Also, practical technological limits to expansion speed (well below the speed of light) play an interesting role. If a domain is visible at the time one embarks on cosmic expansion, higher practical limits to expansion speed are beneficial only up to a certain point. Beyond this point, a higher speed limit means that gains in the ability to expand are more than offset by the first-mover advantage of the observed domain. In the case of two visible domains, it is possible to be `trapped' by them if the practical speed limit is high enough and their angular separation in the sky is large enough, i.e. one's expansion in any direction will terminate at a boundary with the two visible civilizations. Detection at an extreme cosmological distance has surprisingly little mitigating effect on our conclusions.

  7. Ceftibuten: a new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D R

    1997-09-01

    To review the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of ceftibuten, a new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin. Literature was identified by a MEDLINE search (January 1983-June 1996) of the medical literature, review of English-language literature and bibliographies of these articles, and data on file. Clinical efficacy data were selected from all published and unpublished trials and abstracts that mentioned ceftibuten. Additional information concerning in vitro susceptibility, safety, chemistry, and pharmacokinetic profile of ceftibuten also was reviewed. Ceftibuten, an oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of activity against many gram-negative and selected gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Ceftibuten is stable to hydrolysis by many common beta-lactamases. Ceftibuten is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is primarily eliminated renally as unchanged drug. The elimination half-life of ceftibuten is slightly longer than 2 hours. Efficacy has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials in adults and children with upper and lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis) and urinary tract infections. The adverse effect profile is equal to that of comparator agents. Ceftibuten is an alternative to other antimicrobial agents with convenient once-daily dosing in the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Similar to other oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, ceftibuten has antimicrobial activity against common pathogens of the respiratory tract and is stable in the presence of many beta-lactamases. The clinical choice of an oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin will be based on patient acceptance, frequency of administration, and cost.

  8. The bibliometric behaviour of an expanding specialisation of medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelwall, M.; Levitt, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates macular disease research and cataract research, which are both specialisations of Ophthalmology. Macular disease and cataracts are amongst the three leading causes of blindness in the world. Macular research expanded between 1992 and 2006 in that the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as macular increased by over 300% in that period. By contrast, during that same period the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as ‘cataract’ decreased by over 20%. This study investigates the bibliometric differences between the rapidly expanding specialisation of ‘macular’ and the slightly contracting specialisation of ‘cataract’. Our rationale for investigating these bibliometric differences is that previous researchers have suggested that articles in expanding specialisations are likely to be more highly cited than articles in relatively static specialisations, and it seems important, when comparing specialisations, to try to ensure that articles in a relatively static specialisation are not penalised. This study first identifies substantial macro-level bibliometric differences between the two specialisations and then gauges the extent to which these differences were associated with the expansion of Macular compared with Cataract. The initial investigation uses coarse-grained delineations of the specialisation, formed from search terms frequently associated with macular (and cataract). It finds that articles in the relatively expanding specialisation were substantially more highly cited and that these differences were associated with the expansion of the specialisation rather than the size of the specialisation (the Matthew effect). A major limitation of this study is that its coarse-grained delineation of specialisations fails to identify substantial numbers of articles in the specialisation. A more fine-grained delineation using PubMed’s Medical Subject Headings (MESH) has been piloted and additional articles

  9. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Bray; Ivy Bourgault

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing...

  10. Efficacy of Nickel-Titanium Palatal Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Paul

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : To conclude, a Ni-Ti expander brings about expansion by a combination of orthodontic and orthopedic effects by an increase in maxillary intermolar, maxillary intercanine and mandibular intercanine widths as also the opening of the midpalatal suture.

  11. Portable microfluidic raman system for rapid, label-free early disease signature detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meiye [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Davis, Ryan Wesley [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hatch, Anson [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    In the early stages of infection, patients develop non-specific or no symptoms at all. While waiting for identification of the infectious agent, precious window of opportunity for early intervention is lost. The standard diagnostics require affinity reagents and sufficient pathogen titers to reach the limit of detection. In the event of a disease outbreak, triaging the at-risk population rapidly and reliably for quarantine and countermeasure is more important than the identification of the pathogen by name. To expand Sandia's portfolio of Biological threat management capabilities, we will utilize Raman spectrometry to analyze immune subsets in whole blood to rapidly distinguish infected from non-infected, and bacterial from viral infection, for the purpose of triage during an emergency outbreak. The goal of this one year LDRD is to determine whether Raman spectroscopy can provide label-free detection of early disease signatures, and define a miniaturized Raman detection system meeting requirements for low- resource settings.

  12. Coordination of glucose and glutamine utilization by an expanded Myc network

    OpenAIRE

    Kaadige, Mohan R; Elgort, Marc G; Ayer, Donald E

    2010-01-01

    Glucose and glutamine are the most abundant circulating nutrients and support the growth and proliferation of all cells, in particular rapidly growing and dividing cancer cells. Several recent studies implicate an expanded Myc network in how cells sense and utilize both glucose and glutamine. These studies reveal an unappreciated coordination between glycolysis and glutaminolysis, potentially providing new targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

  13. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  14. Expanding Access to Pro-Poor Energy Services in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleri, Ewah Otu; Ugwu, Okechukwu; Onuvae, Precious

    2012-10-15

    Nigeria experiences a remarkable paradox -- the abundance of energy resources and widespread energy poverty. Only about 40% of the population has access to the country’s grid electricity. About 72% of the population depends on traditional fuelwood for cooking. Despite this, government financing of energy services that benefits majority of Nigeria’s population has been grossly inadequate. Private sector investments and donor support have not fared better. This paper examines the current level of energy poverty in Nigeria. It analyses the level of government, private sector and donor funding for energy services that benefit the poor. It further reviews international best practices in expanding access for pro poor energy services. The paper finds a significant decline in political interest for expanding electricity services to rural areas. Even though ambitious policy reforms have commenced, agreed programmes are not implemented effectively. Not only are investments in rural electrification in decline, there is no history of annual budgeting for cooking energy programmes. The paper recommends a number of action points for expanding access to energy services that benefit the poor. These include the development and launching of a new national rural electrification strategy; establishment of a national cooking energy programme; and the development of clear policy incentives to support private sector investment in energy services for the poor. It calls on the Nigerian Central Bank of Nigeria to set aside 10% of the existing power intervention fund for pro poor energy financing; and the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission to establish a clear framework for the utilization of the Consumer Assistance Fund. Other recommendations include the use of a proportion of the Ecological Fund to finance cooking energy; establishment of a donor’s platform on pro poor energy; and the mobilization of civil society in providing community-level energy services.

  15. Beyond the numbers: expanding the boundaries of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-02-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology.

  16. Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William

    2009-01-01

    Beyond the Numbers: Expanding the Boundaries of Neuropsychology was Dr Perry's 2007 presidential address in the annual conference of the National Academy of Neuropsychology. In his address he discussed the achievements of the science of neuropsychology and highlighted some areas that exemplified the expansion of the boundaries of neuropsychology. These areas are: (i) the study of neuropsychological functioning in new or non-traditional populations, particularly seemingly healthy people and people with non-brain diseases; (ii) the interface of cognition and genetics; (iii) the use of the process approach as a means of understanding brain functioning; and (iv) a translational application to the science of neuropsychology. PMID:19395354

  17. Spatial structure of ion beams in an expanding plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, E. M.; Scime, E. E.; Thompson, D. S.; Good, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    We report spatially resolved perpendicular and parallel, to the magnetic field, ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) measurements in an expanding argon helicon plasma. The parallel IVDFs, obtained through laser induced fluorescence (LIF), show an ion beam with v ≈ 8000 m/s flowing downstream and confined to the center of the discharge. The ion beam is measurable for tens of centimeters along the expansion axis before the LIF signal fades, likely a result of metastable quenching of the beam ions. The parallel ion beam velocity slows in agreement with expectations for the measured parallel electric field. The perpendicular IVDFs show an ion population with a radially outward flow that increases with distance from the plasma axis. Structures aligned to the expanding magnetic field appear in the DC electric field, the electron temperature, and the plasma density in the plasma plume. These measurements demonstrate that at least two-dimensional and perhaps fully three-dimensional models are needed to accurately describe the spontaneous acceleration of ion beams in expanding plasmas.

  18. An Optimized Method for Isolating and Expanding Invariant Natural Killer T Cells from Mouse Spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Srinath; Elewaut, Dirk; Drennan, Michael

    2015-10-29

    The ability to rapidly secrete cytokines upon stimulation is a functional characteristic of the invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cell lineage. iNKT cells are therefore characterized as an innate T cell population capable of activating and steering adaptive immune responses. The development of improved techniques for the culture and expansion of murine iNKT cells facilitates the study of iNKT cell biology in in vitro and in vivo model systems. Here we describe an optimized procedure for the isolation and expansion of murine splenic iNKT cells. Spleens from C57Bl/6 mice are removed, dissected and strained and the resulting cellular suspension is layered over density gradient media. Following centrifugation, splenic mononuclear cells (MNCs) are collected and CD5-positive (CD5(+)) lymphocytes are enriched for using magnetic beads. iNKT cells within the CD5(+) fraction are subsequently stained with αGalCer-loaded CD1d tetramer and purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS sorted iNKT cells are then initially cultured in vitro using a combination of recombinant murine cytokines and plate-bound T cell receptor (TCR) stimuli before being expanded in the presence of murine recombinant IL-7. Using this technique, approximately 10(8) iNKT cells can be generated within 18-20 days of culture, after which they can be used for functional assays in vitro, or for in vivo transfer experiments in mice.

  19. Rapid evolution and range expansion of an invasive plant are driven by provenance-environment interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenni, Rafael D; Bailey, Joseph K; Simberloff, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    To improve our ability to prevent and manage biological invasions, we must understand their ecological and evolutionary drivers. We are often able to explain invasions after they happen, but our predictive ability is limited. Here, we show that range expansions of introduced Pinus taeda result from an interaction between genetic provenance and climate and that temperature and precipitation clines predict the invasive performance of particular provenances. Furthermore, we show that genotypes can occupy climate niche spaces different from those observed in their native ranges and, at least in our case, that admixture is not a main driver of invasion. Genotypes respond to climate in distinct ways, and these interactions affect the ability of populations to expand their ranges. While rapid evolution in introduced ranges is a mechanism at later stages of the invasion process, the introduction of adapted genotypes is a key driver of naturalisation of populations of introduced species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Design of laser afocal zoom expander system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lian; Zeng, Chun-Mei; Hu, Tian-Tian

    2018-01-01

    Laser afocal zoom expander system due to the beam diameter variable, can be used in the light sheet illumination microscope to observe the samples of different sizes. Based on the principle of afocal zoom system, the laser collimation and beam expander system with a total length of less than 110mm, 6 pieces of spherical lens and a beam expander ratio of 10 is designed by using Zemax software. The system is focused on laser with a wavelength of 532nm, divergence angle of less than 4mrad and incident diameter of 4mm. With the combination of 6 spherical lens, the beam divergence angle is 0.4mrad at the maximum magnification ratio, and the RMS values at different rates are less than λ/4. This design is simple in structure and easy to process and adjust. It has certain practical value.

  1. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving......Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... the materiality level or KAM. As a consequence, standard setters should carefully analyse the effect of additional information before making decisions on expanding the content of the audit report. Such expansions are not necessarily perceived as useful by stakeholders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd...

  2. A Rapid-Response Humoral Vaccine Platform Exploiting Pre-Existing Non-Cognate Populations of Anti-Vaccine or Anti-Viral CD4+ T Helper Cells to Confirm B Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Thomas; Jakeman, Phillip G; Carlisle, Robert C; Klenerman, Paul; Seymour, Leonard W; Cawood, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The need for CD4+ T cell responses to arise de novo following vaccination can limit the speed of B cell responses. Populations of pre-existing vaccine-induced or anti-viral CD4+ T cells recognising distinct antigens could be exploited to overcome this limitation. We hypothesise that liposomal vaccine particles encapsulating epitopes that are recognised, after processing and B cell MHCII presentation, by pre-existing CD4+ T cells will exploit this pre-existing T cell help and result in improved antibody responses to distinct target antigens displayed on the particle surface. Liposomal vaccine particles were engineered to display the malaria circumsporozoite (CSP) antigen on their surface, with helper CD4+ epitopes from distinct vaccine or viral antigens contained within the particle core, ensuring the B cell response is raised but focused against CSP. In vivo vaccination studies were then conducted in C57Bl/6 mice as models of either vaccine-induced pre-existing CD4+ T cell immunity (using ovalbumin-OVA) or virus-induced pre-existing CD4+ T cell immunity (murine cytomegalovirus-MCMV). Following the establishment of pre-existing by vaccination (OVA in the adjuvant TiterMax® Gold) or infection with MCMV, mice were administered CSP-coated liposomal vaccines containing the relevant OVA or MCMV core CD4+ T cell epitopes. In mice with pre-existing anti-OVA CD4+ T cell immunity, these vaccine particles elicited rapid, high-titre, isotype-switched CSP-specific antibody responses-consistent with the involvement of anti-OVA T helper cells in confirming activation of anti-CSP B cells. Responses were further improved by entrapping TLR9 agonists, combining humoral vaccination signals 'one', 'two' and 'three' within one particle. Herpes viruses can establish chronic infection and elicit significant, persistent cellular immune responses. We then demonstrate that this principle can be extended to re-purpose pre-existing anti-MCMV immunity to enhance anti-CSP vaccine responses

  3. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k...

  4. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  5. Expanded polystyrene (EPS) floats for surveillance of Ochlerotatus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jamesina J; Crans, Wayne J

    2003-12-01

    Blocks of expanded polystyrene (EPS) were placed in a variety of habitats to investigate their potential as an egg-collection device for container-dwelling Aedes and Ochlerotatus species. Eggs from Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. triseriatus, Oc. hendersoni, and Aedes albopictus were collected with EPS floats. The float provides an inexpensive, low-maintenance alternative to the Centers for Disease Control ovitrap for sampling container-dwelling mosquito species that are important vectors of disease. Eggs collected on the floats have many potential applications, including use in routine population surveillance; detection of Oc. japonicus, Ae. albopictus, and other container-dwelling species in new areas; species distribution studies; natural transovarial transmission studies; ovipositional studies; collection of local field populations for insecticide resistance assays; assessment of adulticiding efficacy; and establishment of new laboratory colonies.

  6. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  7. Expanding refractory rectus sheath hematoma: a therapeutic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Guo-Shiang; Liau, Guo-Shiou; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chu, Shi-Jye; Ko, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but well-described complication of a tussive paroxysm. It is an accumulation of blood within the sheath of the rectus abdominis secondary to disruption of the epigastric vessels or the rectus muscle and is often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen. Increases in the number of elderly patients and the use of therapeutic anticoagulation may increase the prevalence and severity of rectus sheath hematomas encountered in clinical practice. Expanding rectus sheath hematomas are occasionally refractory to conservative treatment and may require hemostatic intervention. Here, we describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with two separate rectus sheath hematomas that were precipitated by a paroxysm of coughing. Repeated computed tomography showed two separate expanding rectus sheath hematomas, which were not accompanied by obvious contrast extravasation on angiography. Empiric left inferior epigastric artery embolization resulted in rapid hemodynamic stabilization, and the hematomas shrank gradually. Early empiric transcatheter arterial embolization may be appropriate for patients who are poor surgical candidates and have enlarging hematomas that are refractory to conservative treatment.

  8. Rapid palatal expansion: a comparison of two appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda do Prado Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed occlusal radiographs to compare the transverse changes produced in patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using two types of appliances. The sample consisted of 31 children aged 7 to 10.6 years, of both genders, with posterior cross-bite. Fifteen children were treated with a tooth-borne expander and 16 were treated with a tooth-tissue-borne expander. Occlusal radiographs obtained at treatment onset and at the end of the retention period were digitized. The following variables were measured: intermolar distance (IMD, interapical distance (IApD, interbase distance (IBaD and interarm distance (IArD. The results revealed increases in all measurements in both groups after rapid maxillary expansion. Comparison between groups revealed that the increases were greater in patients treated with the tooth-borne expander, except for the IArD measurement, which presented the same increase in both groups. Even though the IMD measurements differed between expanders, they were proportional to the activation of the appliances (IBaD. The increase in the IApD measurement was proportionally greater in the group treated with the tooth-borne expander (0.7:1.0 than in that treated with the tooth-tissue-borne expander (0.4:1.0. It was concluded that both appliances had similar effects, although the tooth-tissue-borne expander produced a lesser opening at the apical region of the incisors.

  9. Replicating an expanded genetic alphabet in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to replicate an unnatural base pair in living cells. This study highlights the technologies developed to create a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet and the potential challenges of moving forward. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  11. Expanding the Reader Landscape of Histone Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Bridgers, Joseph B; Strahl, Brian D

    2017-04-04

    In this issue of Structure,Klein et al. (2017) expand our understanding of what reader domains bind to by showing that MORF, a double PHD domain containing lysine acetyltransferase, is a preferential reader of histone lysine acylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  13. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  14. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic ...

  15. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  16. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 216-225. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0216-0225 ...

  17. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  18. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  19. Discrete Groups, Expanding Graphs and Invariant Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Presents the solutions to two problems: the first is the construction of expanding graphs - graphs which are of fundamental importance for communication networks and computer science, and the second is the Ruziewicz problem concerning the finitely additive invariant measures on spheres

  20. Expanding Educational Excellence: The Power of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Winn, Donna-Marie; Harradine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore four major barriers to academic success that must be addressed, briefly describe two projects that have worked to address these barriers, and make recommendations for moving forward as they work to expand educational excellence for all students. They provide examples of the myriad ways in which schools have the…

  1. Expanded Core Curriculum: 12 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Keri; Blankenship, Karen; Hatlen, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in teachers' and parents' understanding and implementation of or philosophy on the implementation of the content areas of the expanded core curriculum for students who are visually impaired. The results demonstrated some changes since the original survey results were reported in 1998 and a discrepancy between the…

  2. CLASSICS WHY THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (H. G. Wells, The Time Machine and other Stories). WHY IS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDING? Chemical Explosion and Astrophysical Explosion Similarities and Differences. The expansion of the Universe is a reliably established fact. There was the “Big Bang” about 15 billion years ago. But why did it happen? What are the ...

  3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and the distances of galaxies. H ubble also did a lot of pioneering w ork on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at H ubble's law and discuss how it ...

  4. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  5. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    compositions and (b) unravelling of the contributions of stress-depth and composition-depth profiles in expanded austenite layers are summarised and discussed. It is shown through simulation of line profiles that the combined effects of composition gradients, stress gradients and stacking fault gradients can...

  6. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  7. Rapidly expanding knowledge on the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cenit, M. C.; Matzaraki, V.; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E. F.; Zhernakova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is colonized by a wide diversity of micro-organisms, which are now known to play a key role in the human host by regulating metabolic functions and immune homeostasis. Many studies have indicated that the genomes of our gut microbiota, known as the gut microbiome or our "other genome"

  8. The rapidly expanding universe of giant viruses: Mimivirus, Pandoravirus, Pithovirus and Mollivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, Chantal; Legendre, Matthieu; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2015-11-01

    More than a century ago, the term 'virus' was introduced to describe infectious agents that are invisible by light microscopy and capable of passing through sterilizing filters. In addition to their extremely small size, most viruses have minimal genomes and gene contents, and rely almost entirely on host cell-encoded functions to multiply. Unexpectedly, four different families of eukaryotic 'giant viruses' have been discovered over the past 10 years with genome sizes, gene contents and particle dimensions overlapping with that of cellular microbes. Their ongoing analyses are challenging accepted ideas about the diversity, evolution and origin of DNA viruses. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Four-year treatment outcomes of adult patients enrolled in Mozambique's rapidly expanding antiretroviral therapy program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Auld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Mozambique during 2004-2007 numbers of adult patients (≥15 years old enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART increased about 16-fold, from 60 kg, WHO stage IV (AHR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4, reference group WHO stage I/II, lack of co-trimoxazole prescription (AHR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, and later calendar year of ART initiation (AHR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8. Rates of immunologic treatment failure and regimen-switch were 14.0 and 0.6 events per 100-patient years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ART initiation at earlier disease stages and scale-up of co-trimoxazole among ART patients could improve outcomes. Research to determine reasons for low regimen-switch rates and increasing rates of attrition during program expansion is needed.

  10. The Challenge--To Meet The Needs of the Rapidly Expanding Horticulture Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Russell C.

    1977-01-01

    A horticulture instructor outlines various methods of getting information from the horticulture industry for use in planning instructional programs to fill industry needs. He suggests that student learning packets to implement the program could be developed with the assistance of industry. (MF)

  11. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  12. Management of recurrent otitis media with rapid maxillary expansion: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, A; Baffa, C; Cerrone, D; Mathur, N; Cascini, V; Petrucci, A G; Neri, G

    2009-01-01

    Management of recurrent otitis media with rapid maxillary expansion: our experience. Recurrent otitis media is a frequent problem in the paediatric population. It is commonly associated with adenoid hypertrophy and occasionally with skeletal development syndrome characterised by maxillary anatomical alterations. When this syndrome is present in conjunction with adenoid hypertrophy, surgical management with adenoidectomy and/or myringotomy with ventilation tube positioning does not necessarily ensure a resolution of conductive hearing disorders. We used maxillary rapid expansion in 27 children with a mean age of 7 years affected by recurrent otitis media associated with skeletal development syndrome and adenoid hypertrophy. Rapid maxillary expansion acting directly on the median palatine suture expands the palate and the nasal floor, improving nasal breathing. In addition, maxillary expansion stretches elevator and tensor palatine muscles, helping to restore normal Eustachian tube function, even in the presence of adenoid hypertrophy. In our opinion, rapid maxillary expansion results in an improvement in skeletal-facial abnormalities associated with skeletal development syndrome and it can be considered a valid treatment for preventing recurrent otitis media in children affected by maxillary anatomical alterations.

  13. Community-based rapid oral human immunodeficiency virus testing for tuberculosis patients in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Adrianne K; Caldas, Adolfo; Sebastian, Jose Luis; Muñoz, Maribel; Bonilla, Cesear; Yamanija, Jose; Jave, Oswaldo; Magan, Christina; Saldivar, Judith; Espiritu, Betty; Rosell, Gustavo; Bayona, Jaime; Shin, Sonya

    2012-09-01

    Among tuberculosis patients, timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and early antiretroviral treatment are crucial, but are hampered by a myriad of individual and structural barriers. Community-based models to provide counseling and rapid HIV testing are few but offer promise. During November 2009-April 2010, community health workers offered and performed HIV counseling and testing by using the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test to new tuberculosis cases in 22 Ministry of Health establishments and their household contacts (n = 130) in Lima, Peru. Refusal of HIV testing or study participation was low (4.7%). Intervention strengths included community-based approach with participant preference for testing site, use of a rapid, non-invasive test, and accompaniment to facilitate HIV care and family disclosure. We will expand the intervention under programmatic auspices for rapid community-based testing for new tuberculosis cases in high incidence establishments. Other potential target populations include contacts of HIV-positive persons and pregnant women.

  14. [Population education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, M

    1992-12-01

    Africa has the highest population growth rate in the world (3%). It has 650 million people (about 900 million in 2000). Rapid population growth has serious consequences which, if not addressed, will be disastrous. This worrisome situation has led some governments to adopt demographic policies to slow down population growth. The UN Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recommends that schools provide population education. Various population conferences have popularized population education in schools among African countries. UNESCO began its regional program on population education in Africa in 1969. National family life and population education (FL/PE) projects have increased from 4 in 1970 to 32 in 1990 (17 in French- and Portuguese-speaking Africa and 5 in English-speaking Africa). These projects teach students about the links between demographic problems and socioeconomic factors and contemporary culture. They aim for total development of the individual and improvement of the quality of life for the individual, family, and community. Topics covered in FL/PE are birth rate; fertility; health; and maternal, infant, and child mortality; unwanted pregnancy; illegal abortion; sexually transmitted diseases; rural-urban migration; and urbanization. Benin introduced FL/PE at all levels of its education system while Senegal, Guinea, Mauritania, and Zaire introduced it to only the primary and secondary school levels. Some countries teach FL/PE as one discipline while most countries (e.g., Senegal) have integrated it into other disciplines (e.g., geography). FL/PE should begin in primary schools because they have the most students and prepare students for middle schools, which provide FL/PE. Elementary education in Senegal is being overhauled to introduce current major problems bit by bit. Senegal also wants to incorporate FL/PE into literacy and adult education programs. Integration of FL/PE into other disciplines should be encouraged.

  15. Parameter estimation for an expanding universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieci Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parameter estimation for excitations of Dirac fields in the expanding Robertson–Walker universe. We employ quantum metrology techniques to demonstrate the possibility for high precision estimation for the volume rate of the expanding universe. We show that the optimal precision of the estimation depends sensitively on the dimensionless mass m˜ and dimensionless momentum k˜ of the Dirac particles. The optimal precision for the ratio estimation peaks at some finite dimensionless mass m˜ and momentum k˜. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by choosing the probe state as an eigenvector of the hamiltonian. This occurs because the largest quantum Fisher information is obtained by performing projective measurements implemented by the projectors onto the eigenvectors of specific probe states.

  16. Microwave Energy for Expanding Perlite Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Aguilar-Garib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perlite is an igneous mineral composed by silicon, aluminum, oxygen and water. It can be expanded by heating it up at temperatures above 870 °C, then it becomes plastic, and the steam formed inside pressures out of the mineral. Maximum expansion is possible if the particles are heated up quickly, since the expansion degree strongly depends on the remaining water in the particles at the time that they reach the temperature where they become plastic. The typical expansion process consist in pouring the particles in rotary kilns operated with natural gas, but it is proposed in this research that the particles can be heated quickly with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. Particles of 0.08 cm and 0.018 cm of average diameter were expanded 10 to 20 times.

  17. Expanding roles for GILT in immunity

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura Ciaccia; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), a thioredoxin-related oxidoreductase, functions in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation by reducing disulfide bonds of endocytosed proteins and facilitating their unfolding and optimal degradation. However, recent reports have greatly expanded our understanding of GILT’s function. Several studies of GILT and antigen processing have shown that the influence of GILT on the peptide re...

  18. Japan: Implications of an Expanded Military Role,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-03

    served by diplomatic, economic and foreign assistance strategies. The Fukuda and Ohira " doctrines " emphasized the role of non-military policy in...encourage it to expand economic assistance under the comprehensive security doctrine . Weinstein is criticizing U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union; he...the United States. The second category of opinion which developed centered -~ on support for a policy line orginally set forth In the Yoshida Doctrine

  19. Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter Wilhelm, E-mail: walter.focke@up.ac.za; Badenhorst, Heinrich; Mhike, Washington; Kruger, Hermanus Joachim; Lombaard, Dewan

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Expandable graphite is less well-ordered than its graphite bisulfate progenitor. • It includes graphite oxide as a randomly interstratified phase. • CO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} are released during thermal-driven exfoliation. - Abstract: Thermal analysis and other techniques were employed to characterize two expandable graphite samples. The expansion onset temperatures of the expandable graphite's were ca. 220 °C and 300 °C respectively. The key finding is that the commercial products are not just pure graphite intercalation compounds with sulfuric acid species intercalated as guest ions and molecules in between intact graphene layers. A more realistic model is proposed where graphite oxide-like layers are also randomly interstratified in the graphite flakes. These graphite oxide-like layers comprise highly oxidized graphene sheets which contain many different oxygen-containing functional groups. This model explains the high oxygen to sulfur atomic ratios found in both elemental analysis of the neat materials and in the gas generated during the main exfoliation event.

  20. Beyond NK Cells: The Expanding Universe of Innate Lymphoid Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, Marina; Miller, Hannah; Song, Christina

    2014-01-01

    For a long time, natural killer (NK) cells were thought to be the only innate immune lymphoid population capable of responding to invading pathogens under the influence of changing environmental cues. In the last few years, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that a number of different innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations found at mucosal sites rapidly respond to locally produced cytokines in order to establish or maintain homeostasis. These ILC populations closely mirror the phenotype of adaptive T helper subsets in their repertoire of secreted soluble factors. Early in the immune response, ILCs are responsible for setting the stage to mount an adaptive T cell response that is appropriate for the incoming insult. Here, we review the diversity of ILC subsets and discuss similarities and differences between ILCs and NK cells in function and key transcriptional factors required for their development. PMID:24982658

  1. PHENIX Results on Heavy-Flavor Yields at Forward Rapidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.

    2016-12-01

    The PHENIX collaboration is actively pursuing a physics program to make precision open and closed heavy flavor measurements over a large rapidity range (- 2.2 production at all rapidities and are expanding our measurements of inclusive open heavy flavor to separated charm and beauty measurements carried out via single lepton measurements and through the separation of prompt and B → J / ψ + X production. We present the current status of these measurements.

  2. Estimating population parameters for northern and southern breeding populations of Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestbeck, J.B.; Rusch, Donald H.; Samuel, Michael D.; Humburg, Dale D.; Sullivan, Brian D.

    1998-01-01

    Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have been managed largely as a migratory resource. In the 1960's, Canada goose flocks were restored to historic breeding ranges in the United States and southern Canada to enhance recreational opportunity for observation and harvest. These populations of southern breeding geese have rapidly expanded, increasing conflicts with social and economic interests and causing the Midwinter Waterfowl Survey to be less effective as a management tool to monitor migrant populations. Wildlife agencies need methods to control local, southern breeding geese that reduce conflicts while providing adequate protection to populations of northern breeding geese. New techniques have been developed using mark-resight data from neck-banded geese to estimate distribution and population size during the late summer, fall, and mid-winter. Survival and movement rates can be estimated over special early or late hunting seasons, traditional fall-winter hunting season, and nonharvest periods. Direct recovery rates can be estimated for special and traditional harvest periods and these recovery rates can be related to survival and movement rates. Changes in harvest regulations can be related to changes in recovery, survival, and movement rates for specific cohorts of Canada geese. These techniques can be used to monitor population status and determine more appropriate harvest strategies.

  3. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ESO Astronomers Contribute towards Resolution of Cosmic Puzzle Since the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920's, by measurement of galaxy velocities, astronomers have tried to learn how this expansion changes with time. Until now, most scientists have been considering two possibilities: the expansion rate is slowing down and will ultimately either come to a halt - whereafter the Universe would start to contract, or it will continue to expand forever. However, new studies by two independent research teams, based on observations of exploding stars ( supernovae ) by ESO astronomers [1] with astronomical telescopes at the La Silla Observatory as well as those of their colleagues at other institutions, appear to show that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating . The results take the discovery of the cosmological expansion one step further and challenge recent models of the Universe. If the new measurements are indeed correct, they show that the elusive "cosmological constant" , as proposed by Albert Einstein , contributes significantly to the evolution of the Universe. The existence of a non-zero cosmological constant implies that a repulsive force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion , and consequently leads to an ever-expanding Universe. This new research is being named as the "Breakthrough of the Year" by the renowned US science journal Science in the December 18, 1998, issue. A Press Release is published by the journal on this occasion. "Fundamental Parameters" of the Universe Three fundamental parameters govern all cosmological models based on the theory of General Relativity. They are 1. the current expansion rate as described by Hubble's constant , i.e. the proportionality factor between expansion velocity and distance 2. the average matter density in the Universe, and 3. the amount of "other energy" present in space. From the measured values of these fundamental

  4. Selection of nanoparticles using CO.sub.2-expanded liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher B; McLeod, Marshall Chandler; Anand, Madhu

    2013-02-19

    A method for size selection of nanostructures comprising utilizing a gas-expanded liquids (GEL) and controlled pressure to precipitate desired size populations of nanostructures, e.g., monodisperse. The GEL can comprise CO.sub.2 antisolvent and an organic solvent. The method can be carried out in an apparatus comprising a first open vessel configured to allow movement of a liquid/particle solution to specific desired locations within the vessel, a second pressure vessel, a location controller for controlling location of the particles and solution within the first vessel, a inlet for addition of antisolvent to the first vessel, and a device for measuring the amount of antisolvent added. Also disclosed is a method for forming nanoparticle thin films comprising utilizing a GEL containing a substrate, pressurizing the solution to precipitate and deposit nanoparticles onto the substrate, removing the solvent thereby leaving a thin nanoparticle film, removing the solvent and antisolvent, and drying the film.

  5. The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the challenges of rapid urbanization on the sustainable development of Nyanya, Abuja. An interesting finding of the study is that the primary factor for the rapid urbanization of Nyanya within a short period of time is migration. The consequence of this rapid urbanization and population rise within a short ...

  6. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  7. Population Genetics and Demography Unite Ecology and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H; Kovach, Ryan P; Allendorf, Fred W

    2017-02-01

    The interplay of ecology and evolution has been a rich area of research for decades. A surge of interest in this area was catalyzed by the observation that evolution by natural selection can operate at the same contemporary timescales as ecological dynamics. Specifically, recent eco-evolutionary research focuses on how rapid adaptation influences ecology, and vice versa. Evolution by non-adaptive forces also occurs quickly, with ecological consequences, but understanding the full scope of ecology-evolution (eco-evo) interactions requires explicitly addressing population-level processes - genetic and demographic. We show the strong ecological effects of non-adaptive evolutionary forces and, more broadly, the value of population-level research for gaining a mechanistic understanding of eco-evo interactions. The breadth of eco-evolutionary research should expand to incorporate the breadth of evolution itself. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Population genetics and demography unite ecology and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Kovach, Ryan; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2017-01-01

    The interplay of ecology and evolution has been a rich area of research for decades. A surge of interest in this area was catalyzed by the observation that evolution by natural selection can operate at the same contemporary timescales as ecological dynamics. Specifically, recent eco-evolutionary research focuses on how rapid adaptation influences ecology, and vice versa. Evolution by non-adaptive forces also occurs quickly, with ecological consequences, but understanding the full scope of ecology–evolution (eco–evo) interactions requires explicitly addressing population-level processes – genetic and demographic. We show the strong ecological effects of non-adaptive evolutionary forces and, more broadly, the value of population-level research for gaining a mechanistic understanding of eco–evo interactions. The breadth of eco-evolutionary research should expand to incorporate the breadth of evolution itself.

  9. Population growth. Its magnitude and implications for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1984-09-01

    A summary of the 1984 World Development Report is provided. The 3 major points stressed in the report were: 1) rapid population growth adversely affects development, 2) governments must adopt policies to reduce fertility, and 3) policies adopted by many countries have effectively reduced fertility. World population growth began accelerating at 0.5%/year in the 18th century, and by 1950 the annual acceleration rate was 2%. Most of the increase in population size is occurring in less developed countries, and this increase is due in part to the recent decline in mortality experienced by these countries. Of the 80 million individuals who will be added to the world's population in 1984, 70 million will be in the developing countries. Since 1965 the population growth rate for developing countries as a group declined from 2.4% to 2%. However, because of the high proportion of younger aged individuals in developing countries, the decline in fertility is expected to level off. According to World Bank population projections, the world population will stabilize at around 11 billion in 2150. During the interium, the population of developing countries will increase from its present level of 3.6 billion to 8.4 billion, and the population of developed countries will increase from 1.2 billion to 1.4 billion. These projections are probably overly optimistic. The adverse impact on development of rapid population growth is due to several factors. 1st, resources which could be used for investment must instead be used to fulfill the consumption needs of an increased number of people. 2nd, increases in the labor force must be absorbed by the agricultural sector, and this reduces agricultural productivity. 3rd, rapid population growth increases management problems. The adaption of policies by governments to reduce fertility is a necessary step in halting population growth. For poor families, children provide economic security. Therefore, governments must act to improve the economic

  10. The evolutionary origin and population history of the grauer gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tocheri, Matthew W; Dommain, René; McFarlin, Shannon C; Burnett, Scott E; Troy Case, D; Orr, Caley M; Roach, Neil T; Villmoare, Brian; Eriksen, Amandine B; Kalthoff, Daniela C; Senck, Sascha; Assefa, Zelalem; Groves, Colin P; Jungers, William L

    2016-01-01

    Gorillas living in western central Africa (Gorilla gorilla) are morphologically and genetically distinguishable from those living in eastern central Africa (Gorilla beringei). Genomic analyses show eastern gorillas experienced a significant reduction in population size during the Pleistocene subsequent to geographical isolation from their western counterparts. However, how these results relate more specifically to the recent biogeographical and evolutionary history of eastern gorillas remains poorly understood. Here we show that two rare morphological traits are present in the hands and feet of both eastern gorilla subspecies at strikingly high frequencies (>60% in G. b. graueri; ∼28% in G. b. beringei) in comparison with western gorillas (gorillas after diverging from their western relatives during the early to middle Pleistocene. The extremely high frequencies observed among grauer gorillas-which currently occupy a geographic range more than ten times the size of that of mountain gorillas-imply that grauers originated relatively recently from a small founding population of eastern gorillas. Current paleoenvironmental, geological, and biogeographical evidence supports the hypothesis that a small group of eastern gorillas likely dispersed westward from the Virungas into present-day grauer range in the highlands just north of Lake Kivu, either immediately before or directly after the Younger Dryas interval. We propose that as the lowland forests of central Africa expanded rapidly during the early Holocene, they became connected with the expanding highland forests along the Albertine Rift and enabled the descendants of this small group to widely disperse. The descendant populations significantly expanded their geographic range and population numbers relative to the gorillas of the Virunga Mountains and the Bwindi-Impenetrable Forest, ultimately resulting in the grauer gorilla subspecies recognized today. This founder-effect hypothesis offers some optimism for

  11. Expanding Greenland’s Glacial Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker

    Mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet and adjecent glaciers and ice caps has accelerated within the last decades, and these changes are accurately observed using a variety of different data products. However, the observational era is relatively short offering little insight into past dynamics....... On order to expand the glacial history of Greenland, this thesis explores physical and geological archives for evidence of the glaciers’ past response to climatic variations. Using aerial photographs, the dynamic history of the Greenland Ice Sheet is extended back to 1900 C.E. Glacier changes covering...

  12. Expanding the Bethe/Gauge dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Lukowski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We expand the Bethe/Gauge dictionary between the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and 2d N = (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories to include aspects of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We construct the wave functions of off-shell Bethe states as orbifold defects in the A-twisted supersymmetric gauge theory and study their correlation functions. We also present an alternative description of off-shell Bethe states as boundary conditions in an effective N = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we interpret spin chain R-matrices as correlation functions of Janus interfaces for mass parameters in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  13. FOAM: Expanding the horizons of climate modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobis, M.; Foster, I.T.; Schafer, C.M. [and others

    1997-10-01

    We report here on a project that expands the applicability of dynamic climate modeling to very long time scales. The Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model (FOAM) is a coupled ocean atmosphere model that incorporates physics of interest in understanding decade to century time scale variability. It addresses the high computational cost of this endeavor with a combination of improved ocean model formulation, low atmosphere resolution, and efficient coupling. It also uses message passing parallel processing techniques, allowing for the use of cost effective distributed memory platforms. The resulting model runs over 6000 times faster than real time with good fidelity, and has yielded significant results.

  14. Expanding Slayer Statutes to Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    Common law has a dictum that people must not benefit from their crimes. In years past, states have enacted slayer rules to prevent killers from inheriting from their victims. The specific criteria and applicability of slayer rules vary by jurisdiction. Recently, several states, including Washington, have expanded their slayer rules to disqualify persons from inheriting if they have been involved in abuse or financial exploitation of the deceased. Reviewed herein are the abuse disinheritance laws, the relationship of the laws to concepts of testamentary capacity and undue influence, and the relevance to forensic psychiatric evaluations. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  15. World Population Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Paul R.; Ehrlich, Anne H.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid population growth, rising competition for resources, and increasing environmental deterioration are intertwined factors in the human predicament that feed political tensions and conflicts of the late twentieth century. Outlines dimensions of this predicament (including data on population, growth, military spending, quality of life, and…

  16. Malawi's population dynamics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rapid population growth on natural and non-renewable re- sources, energy and the environment. A second strand of concern has been related to an assess- ment of population's ... education at the expense of more productive, economic growth-oriented investments. . The 1980s marked a period of less pessimism since a ...

  17. PCR with an expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Denis A; Seo, Young Jun; Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2009-10-21

    Expansion of the genetic alphabet with a third base pair would lay the foundation for a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic code and also have immediate in vitro applications. Previously, the unnatural base pairs formed between d5SICS and either dNaM or dMMO2 were shown to be well-replicated by DNA polymerases under steady-state conditions and also transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase efficiently in either direction. We now demonstrate that DNA containing either the d5SICS-dNaM or d5SICS-dMMO2 unnatural base pair may be amplified by PCR with fidelities and efficiencies that approach those of fully natural DNA. These results further demonstrate that the determinants of a functional unnatural base pair may be designed into predominantly hydrophobic nucleobases with no structural similarity to the natural purines or pyrimidines. Importantly, the results reveal that the unnatural base pairs may function within an expanded genetic alphabet and make possible many in vitro applications.

  18. The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Dale E.; Hurford, G. J.; Nita, G. M.; White, S. M.; Tun, S. D.; Fleishman, G. D.; McTiernan, J. M.

    2011-05-01

    The Expanded Owens Valley Solar Array (EOVSA) is now under construction near Big Pine, CA as a solar-dedicated microwave imaging array operating in the frequency range 1-18 GHz. The solar science to be addressed focuses on the 3D structure of the solar corona (magnetic field, temperature and density), on the sudden release of energy and subsequent particle acceleration, transport and heating, and on space weather phenomena. The project will support the scientific community by providing open data access and software tools for analysis of the data, to exploit synergies with on-going solar research in other wavelengths. The New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) is expanding OVSA from its previous complement of 7 antennas to a total of 15 by adding 8 new antennas, and will reinvest in the existing infrastructure by replacing the existing control systems, signal transmission, and signal processing with modern, far more capable and reliable systems based on new technology developed for the Frequency Agile Solar Radiotelescope (FASR). The project will be completed in time to provide solar-dedicated observations during the upcoming solar maximum in 2013 and beyond. We provide an update on current status and our preparations for exploiting the data through modeling and data analysis tools. This research is supported by NSF grants AST-0908344, and AGS-0961867 and NASA grant NNX10AF27G to New Jersey Institute of Technology.

  19. Historical Notes on the Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.; Belenkyi, Ari; Nussbaumer, Harry; Peacock, John

    2014-01-01

    The article Measuring the Hubble constant by Mario Livio and Adam Riess (Physics Today, October 2013, page 41) reviewed studies of the expanding universe from the 1920s to the present. Although the history of the subject underwent considerable compression to fit the length of a magazine article, we think it may leave a misleading impression of some of the key steps to our current understanding. We therefore offer the following clarifications. Most significantly, papers by Arthur Eddington and by Willem de Sitter in 1930, who successfully promoted Georges Lematres 1927 article for the Scientific Society of Brussels, effected a paradigm shift in interpretation of extragalactic redshifts in 1930. Before then, the astronomical community was generally unaware of the existence of nonstatic cosmological solutions and did not broadly appreciate that redshifts could be thought of locally as Doppler shifts in an expanding matter distribution. Certainly, in 1929 Edwin Hubble referred only to the de Sitter solution of 1917. At the time, the relation between distance and redshift predicted in that model was generally seen purely as a manifestation of static spacetime curvature.

  20. Familiarity expands space and contracts time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarpour, Anna; Spiers, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    When humans draw maps, or make judgments about travel-time, their responses are rarely accurate and are often systematically distorted. Distortion effects on estimating time to arrival and the scale of sketch-maps reveal the nature of mental representation of time and space. Inspired by data from rodent entorhinal grid cells, we predicted that familiarity to an environment would distort representations of the space by expanding the size of it. We also hypothesized that travel-time estimation would be distorted in the same direction as space-size, if time and space rely on the same cognitive map. We asked international students, who had lived at a college in London for 9 months, to sketch a south-up map of their college district, estimate travel-time to destinations within the area, and mark their everyday walking routes. We found that while estimates for sketched space were expanded with familiarity, estimates of the time to travel through the space were contracted with familiarity. Thus, we found dissociable responses to familiarity in representations of time and space. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Expanding CEP290 mutational spectrum in ciliopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Lorena; Brancati, Francesco; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Audollent, Sophie; Bertini, Enrico; Kaplan, Josseline; Perrault, Isabelle; Iannicelli, Miriam; Mancuso, Brunella; Rigoli, Luciana; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Swistun, Dominika; Tolentino, Jerlyn; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gleeson, Joseph G; Valente, Enza Maria; Zankl, A; Leventer, R; Grattan-Smith, P; Janecke, A; D'Hooghe, M; Sznajer, Y; Van Coster, R; Demerleir, L; Dias, K; Moco, C; Moreira, A; Kim, C Ae; Maegawa, G; Petkovic, D; Abdel-Salam, G M H; Abdel-Aleem, A; Zaki, M S; Marti, I; Quijano-Roy, S; Sigaudy, S; de Lonlay, P; Romano, S; Touraine, R; Koenig, M; Lagier-Tourenne, C; Messer, J; Collignon, P; Wolf, N; Philippi, H; Kitsiou Tzeli, S; Halldorsson, S; Johannsdottir, J; Ludvigsson, P; Phadke, S R; Udani, V; Stuart, B; Magee, A; Lev, D; Michelson, M; Ben-Zeev, B; Fischetto, R; Benedicenti, F; Stanzial, F; Borgatti, R; Accorsi, P; Battaglia, S; Fazzi, E; Giordano, L; Pinelli, L; Boccone, L; Bigoni, S; Ferlini, A; Donati, M A; Caridi, G; Divizia, M T; Faravelli, F; Ghiggeri, G; Pessagno, A; Briguglio, M; Briuglia, S; Salpietro, C D; Tortorella, G; Adami, A; Castorina, P; Lalatta, F; Marra, G; Riva, D; Scelsa, B; Spaccini, L; Uziel, G; Del Giudice, E; Laverda, A M; Ludwig, K; Permunian, A; Suppiej, A; Signorini, S; Uggetti, C; Battini, R; Di Giacomo, M; Cilio, M R; Di Sabato, M L; Leuzzi, V; Parisi, P; Pollazzon, M; Silengo, M; De Vescovi, R; Greco, D; Romano, C; Cazzagon, M; Simonati, A; Al-Tawari, A A; Bastaki, L; Mégarbané, A; Sabolic Avramovska, V; de Jong, M M; Stromme, P; Koul, R; Rajab, A; Azam, M; Barbot, C; Martorell Sampol, L; Rodriguez, B; Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Teber, S; Anlar, B; Comu, S; Karaca, E; Kayserili, H; Yüksel, A; Akcakus, M; Al Gazali, L; Sztriha, L; Nicholl, D; Woods, C G; Bennett, C; Hurst, J; Sheridan, E; Barnicoat, A; Hennekam, R; Lees, M; Blair, E; Bernes, S; Sanchez, H; Clark, A E; DeMarco, E; Donahue, C; Sherr, E; Hahn, J; Sanger, T D; Gallager, T E; Dobyns, W B; Daugherty, C; Krishnamoorthy, K S; Sarco, D; Walsh, C A; McKanna, T; Milisa, J; Chung, W K; De Vivo, D C; Raynes, H; Schubert, R; Seward, A; Brooks, D G; Goldstein, A; Caldwell, J; Finsecke, E; Maria, B L; Holden, K; Cruse, R P; Swoboda, K J; Viskochil, D

    2009-10-01

    Ciliopathies are an expanding group of rare conditions characterized by multiorgan involvement, that are caused by mutations in genes encoding for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus. Among these genes, CEP290 bears an intriguing allelic spectrum, being commonly mutated in Joubert syndrome and related disorders (JSRD), Meckel syndrome (MKS), Senior-Loken syndrome and isolated Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Although these conditions are recessively inherited, in a subset of patients only one CEP290 mutation could be detected. To assess whether genomic rearrangements involving the CEP290 gene could represent a possible mutational mechanism in these cases, exon dosage analysis on genomic DNA was performed in two groups of CEP290 heterozygous patients, including five JSRD/MKS cases and four LCA, respectively. In one JSRD patient, we identified a large heterozygous deletion encompassing CEP290 C-terminus that resulted in marked reduction of mRNA expression. No copy number alterations were identified in the remaining probands. The present work expands the CEP290 genotypic spectrum to include multiexon deletions. Although this mechanism does not appear to be frequent, screening for genomic rearrangements should be considered in patients in whom a single CEP290 mutated allele was identified.

  2. Expanding intestinal stem cells in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heo, Inha; Clevers, Hans

    Culturing intestinal stem cells into 3D organoids results in heterogeneous cell populations, reflecting the in vivo cell type diversity. In a recent paper published in Nature, Wang et al. established a culture condition for a highly homogeneous population of intestinal stem cells.

  3. An evaluation of the performance of OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Test in a high-risk population attending genitourinary medicine clinics in East London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelin, J; Garrett, N; Saunders, J; Warburton, F; Anderson, J; Moir, K; Symonds, M; Estcourt, C

    2008-10-01

    To date, no data have been published on the use of OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Test (OraQuick) in the UK. We report preliminary findings of an ongoing evaluation of OraQuick in UK genitourinary (GU) medicine clinics. A total of 820 samples from patients in high-risk groups for HIV were tested with OraQuick and results were compared with standard HIV antibody testing. HIV prevalence (enzyme immunoassay [EIA]) was 5.73%, sensitivity of OraQuick was 93.64% (95% CI 82.46-98.66%), specificity 99.87% (99.28-100%), positive predictive value 97.78% (88.27-99.94%) and negative predictive value 99.61% (98.87-99.92%). This includes three false-negatives considered to be due to observer error and now rectified by further training. This has increased test sensitivity to 100%. Our observed test performance of OraQuick compares well with EIA and with other rapid tests. We believe that simple, non-invasive antibody detection tests such as OraQuick can increase HIV testing and diagnosis in UK GU medicine and community settings.

  4. Rapid divergence of ecotypes of an invasive plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Avik; Ray, Rajasri

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species demonstrate rapid evolution within a very short period of time allowing one to understand the underlying mechanism(s). Lantana camara, a highly invasive plant of the tropics and subtropics, has expanded its range and successfully established itself almost throughout India. In order to uncover the processes governing the invasion dynamics, 218 individuals from various locations across India were characterized with six microsatellites. By integrating genetic data with niche modelling, we examined the effect of drift and environmental selection on genetic divergence. We found multiple genetic clusters that were non-randomly distributed across space. Spatial autocorrelation revealed a strong fine-scale structure, i.e. isolation by distance. In addition, we obtained evidence of inhibitory effects of selection on gene flow, i.e. isolation by environmental distance. Perhaps, local adaptation in response to selection is offsetting gene flow and causing the populations to diverge. Niche models suggested that temperature and precipitation play a major role in the observed spatial distribution of this plant. Based on a non-random distribution of clusters, unequal gene flow among them and different bioclimatic niche requirements, we concluded that the emergence of ecotypes represented by two genetic clusters is underway. They may be locally adapted to specific climatic conditions, and perhaps at the very early stages of ecological divergence. PMID:25165061

  5. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  6. Human population and the global environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdren, J P; Ehrlich, P R

    1974-01-01

    A stable ecosystem resists large, rapid changes in the sizes of its constituent populations which upset the orderly flow of energy and nutrients. An early example of such alteration was the conversion to desert of the rich Tigris and Euphrates valleys through erosion and salt accumulation resulting from faulty irrigation practices that caused the downfall of the great Mesopotamian civilization. Overgrazing and poor cultivation practices have contributed over the millennia to the expansion of the Sahara Desert. Attempts to cultivate too intensively the fragile soil of tropical rainforest areas are suspected of being in part responsible for the collapse of the Mayan civilization. The 19th century Irish potato famine because of heavy reliance of the Irish population on a single, highly productive crop led to 1.5 million deaths when the potato monoculture, a simple agricultural ecosystem, fell victim to a fungus. Modern agriculture's desire to maximize yields per acre are worrisome ecologically (increases in the use of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers). The liabilities include that as larger land areas are farmed the tracts available for reservoirs of species diversity and for natural ecosystems become smaller. Pressure to expand agriculture to steep hillsides unsuitable for cultivation has led to serious erosion in Indonesia, and increasing slash-and-burn practices are destroying tropical forests in the Philippines. The enormous expansion of wheat or rice monoculture has increased the probability of epidemic crop failure from insects or disease. 37% of the world's population is under 15 years of age which means that population will grow for 50-70 years more before leveling off. Despite a declining growth rate population would still increase 30% or more during the transition to stability. Zero global population growth is required for a prosperous and environmentally sustainable civilization.

  7. Rapid HIV testing for individuals on probation/parole: outcomes of an intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; McKenzie, Michelle; Wilson, Monique E; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-07-01

    Many probationers and parolees do not receive HIV testing despite being at increased risk for obtaining and transmitting HIV. A two-group randomized controlled trial was conducted between April, 2011 and May, 2012 at probation/parole offices in Baltimore, Maryland and Providence/Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Male and female probationers/parolees were interviewed (n = 1,263) and then offered HIV testing based on random assignment to one of two conditions: (1) On-site rapid HIV testing conducted at the probation/parole office; or (2) Referral for rapid HIV testing off site at a community HIV testing clinic. Outcomes were: (1) undergoing HIV testing; and (2) receipt of HIV testing results. Participants were significantly more likely to be tested on-site at a probation/parole office versus off-site at a HIV testing clinic (p < 0.001). There was no difference between the two groups in terms of receiving HIV testing results. Findings indicate that probationers/parolees are willing to be tested on-site and, independent of testing location, are equally willing to receive their results. Implications for expanding rapid HIV testing to more criminal justice related locations and populations are discussed.

  8. Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-04

    USAARL Report No. 2015-08 Expanded Polystyrene Re-Expansion Analysis Following Impact Compression By Mark S. Adams Frederick Brozoski Katie...13 iv This page is intentionally left blank. 1 Introduction Expanded bead polystyrene (EPS) is widely...steep rise in the stress-strain curve and little or no energy attenuation. When compressive stresses are removed, EPS foam will partially re- expand

  9. Expanding Global Mindedness through a 4-H International Village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Susan D.; Peterson, Donna J.; Iwata, Chieko; Kobia, Caroline; Reddy, Raja

    2017-01-01

    With expanding global interdependence, it is vital that 4-H youths learn more about the ever-increasing diverse cultures in their own communities as well as expand their global mindedness and understanding of globalization. The 4-H International Village (a) offers a comfortable yet engaging avenue for youths to expand their knowledge of and…

  10. 46 CFR 56.30-15 - Expanded or rolled joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expanded or rolled joints. 56.30-15 Section 56.30-15... APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-15 Expanded or rolled joints. (a) Expanded or rolled joints may be used where experience or test has demonstrated that the joint is suitable for the...

  11. Transapical implantation of a novel self-expanding sutureless aortic valve prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Mario; Suri, Rakesh M; Kraehenbuehl, Eva S; Hellige, Gerrit; Wenaweser, Peter; Zobrist, Claudia; Schaff, Harzell V; Carrel, Thierry P

    2010-03-01

    To date, transapical aortic valve implantation has required a balloon-expandable stented valve prosthesis. More recently, a novel self-expanding sutureless stented bovine pericardial prosthesis has been developed which allows rapid aortic valve replacement via an open transaortic approach in humans. The aim of this animal study was to develop a reliable protocol to facilitate the transapical implantation of this self-expanding valve in a porcine model. Off-pump transapical aortic valve implantation was performed through a left mini-thoracotomy using a bovine pericardial valve mounted on a self-expandable nitinol stent of size 21 mm and 23 mm in 11 pigs (average weight 60 kg). The crimped valve was introduced through the left ventricular apex using a flexible and steerable delivery sheath, using a three-step technique. Biplane fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography were simultaneously used for guidance. Successful adjustment of alignment along three axes prior to deployment of the valve was accomplished in each animal. Deployments were performed during a period of rapid pacing. All valves were successfully deployed and functioned normally following transapical removal of the delivery system. Paravalvular leak was documented in one case (9.1%) due to prosthetic misalignment. There was no evidence of valve migration. Correct anatomic seating was confirmed during post-procedure necropsy. Successful transapical implantation of a novel self-expandable bovine pericardial valve was accomplished in 11 animals, without cardiopulmonary bypass. A flexible, steerable delivery system with a three-step release mechanism allowed precise positioning of the valve with a low rate of paravalvular leakage, and excellent device stability.

  12. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  13. Financing Expanded Learning Time in Schools: A Look at Five District-Expanded Time Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Claire; Farbman, David A.; Deich, Sharon; Padgette, Heather Clapp

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several years, public education in the U.S. has experienced a remarkable growth in the number of schools that have expanded their schedules beyond the conventional calendar of 180 6.5-hour days. Spurred by significant policy activity at the federal, state, and local levels, more and more educators have capitalized on opportunities to…

  14. Ergodic theory of expanding thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-01-01

    Thurston maps are topological generalizations of postcritically-finite rational maps. This book provides a comprehensive study of ergodic theory of expanding Thurston maps, focusing on the measure of maximal entropy, as well as a more general class of invariant measures, called equilibrium states, and certain weak expansion properties of such maps. In particular, we present equidistribution results for iterated preimages and periodic points with respect to the unique measure of maximal entropy by investigating the number and locations of fixed points. We then use the thermodynamical formalism to establish the existence, uniqueness, and various other properties of the equilibrium state for a Holder continuous potential on the sphere equipped with a visual metric. After studying some weak expansion properties of such maps, we obtain certain large deviation principles for iterated preimages and periodic points under an additional assumption on the critical orbits of the maps. This enables us to obtain general eq...

  15. The expanding world of DNA and RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingjian; Hongdilokkul, Narupat; Liu, Zhixia; Thirunavukarasu, Deepak; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2016-10-01

    DNA and RNA are remarkable because they can both encode information and possess desired properties, including the ability to bind specific targets or catalyze specific reactions. Nucleotide modifications that do not interfere with enzymatic synthesis are now being used to bestow DNA or RNA with properties that further increase their utility, including phosphate and sugar modifications that increase nuclease resistance, nucleobase modifications that increase the range of activities possible, and even whole nucleobase replacement that results in selective pairing and the creation of unnatural base pairs that increase the information content. These modifications are increasingly being applied both in vitro and in vivo, including in efforts to create semi-synthetic organisms with altered or expanded genetic alphabets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efforts to expand the genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romesberg, Floyd E

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to develop an unnatural base pair with which to expand the genetic code we have examined a wide variety of simple phenyl rings derivatized with methyl, fluoro, or nitrogen. The small aromatic surface of these base pairs should prevent inter-strand intercalation, which is thought to inhibit the polymerase-mediated synthesis of base pairs with larger aromatic surface area. Surprisingly, despite reduced aromatic surface area and hydrogen-bonding potential, some of these base pairs are stable and synthesized with reasonable efficiency. We have also been examining the use of activity-based selection systems to evolve DNA polymerases to more efficiently recognize the unnatural substrates, and our initial successes are described.

  17. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 371-374

  18. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 371-374

  19. Neuroimmunology: an expanding frontier in autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana eHöftberger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-neuronal autoimmune encephalitis (AIE comprises a recently characterized group of immune-mediated disorders that result in limbic, multifocal, or diffuse encephalitis due to direct interaction of autoantibodies with neuronal surface or synaptic proteins. The pathological effects of the autoantibodies vary according to the target antigen but when they are removed neuronal dysfunction is commonly reversed. Ongoing research on AIE constantly increases the number of novel autoantibodies and expands the spectrum of neurological syndromes that are important in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric illness, dementia, or viral encephalitis. This review summarizes recent advances in AIE, focusing on pathogenetic mechanisms and novel associations with other CNS disorders such as neurodegeneration, relapsing symptoms post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis, and demyelinating diseases. In addition, an algorithmic approach to detect and characterize neuronal cell surface autoantibodies is proposed.

  20. Expanding Technological Frames Towards Mediated Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Scupola, Ada; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    of their work practices and use of technology. Finally the third step includes participants' commitment and practical enactment of groupware. One of the key findings is that in groupware adoption the alignment of the individual technological frames requires articulation and re-evaluation of experienced......This paper provides an in-depth analysis of technological and social factors leading to the successful adoption of groupware in a virtual team in educational setting. Drawing on a theoretical framework based on the concept of technological frames, we conducted an action research study to analyze...... the chronological sequence of events leading to groupware adoption. We argue that groupware adoption can be conceptualized as a three-step process of expanding and aligning individual technological frames towards groupware: The first step comprises activities facilitating participants in articulation and evaluation...

  1. Web Content Analysis: Expanding the Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Susan C.

    Are established methods of content analysis (CA) adequate to analyze web content, or should new methods be devised to address new technological developments? This article addresses this question by contrasting narrow and broad interpretations of the concept of web content analysis. The utility of a broad interpretation that subsumes the narrow one is then illustrated with reference to research on weblogs (blogs), a popular web format in which features of HTML documents and interactive computer-mediated communication converge. The article concludes by proposing an expanded Web Content Analysis (WebCA) paradigm in which insights from paradigms such as discourse analysis and social network analysis are operationalized and implemented within a general content analytic framework.

  2. The law's interface with expanding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    The role of the law in technology assessment is described in generalized terms of a legal system as it confronts expanding technology. The functions of a technology assessment are considered to be twofold; provide for legislative action designed to channel technological advance along lines which are regarded as optimal from the standpoint of society's interests; and encourage and promote legislative action which will deal decisively with the potential disruptions and injuries caused by technology at a much earlier stage of the growth of the technology than is feasible under the present legal system. It is concluded that since new law always has a disruptive effect on expectations and commitments arrived at under old law, it is generally desirable that new legislation should make the least possible change in the law consistant with accomplishing the desired objective.

  3. Particles formation in an expanding plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoute, E.; Hallo, L.; Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Stenz, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, CNRS-CEA, 33 - Talence (France); Hebert, D.; Chevalier, J.M.; Rullier, J.L.; Palmier, S. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2009-08-15

    Interaction of a laser beam with a target generates a high velocity expanding plasma plume, solid debris and liquid nano- and micro-particles. They are produced from plasma recombination and vapor condensation and can be deposited on optical elements located nearby the target. Two distinct kinds of particles were observed depending on the temperature achieved in the plasma plume: large micrometer-size fragments for temperatures lower than the critical temperature, and very small nanometer-size particles for higher temperatures. The paper presents experimental observations of fragments and nano-particles in plasma plumes and a comparison with models. A good agreement has been found for nano-particle sizes and distributions. This simple modeling can also be used for nuclei production in the nanosecond time scale. Our estimates show that particle size can be correlated to laser wavelength and fluences.

  4. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Expanding the applicability of Heallth Technology Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to expand the foundations of input into policy decision making relying on health technology assessments (HTA). HTAs are primarily based on systematic reviews (SR) and thereby mostly on randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCTs can be distinguished on a continuum......-oriented perspective and aims at supporting health policy makers and therefore have to reflect policy applicable questions and answers. Simply relying on strictly controlled explanatory RCTs alone is too narrow to answer questions of relevance for policy making. It is suggested to supplement these highly controlled...... between explanatory and pragmatic trials according to their level of control over variables in the study besides the examined technology. In explanatory trials emphasis are placed on internal validity in order to test the efficacy of a technology under ideal conditions while pragmatic trials emphasizes...

  6. Expanding Policy Imagination in Political Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Much of the literature in political economy seeks to capture an essential insight into the evolution of political and economic systems to provide a foundation for policy advice. This article suggests that attempts to nut out the kernels of change often restrict rather than expand policy imagination...... be implemented. Historical sociology provides a way to generate information about contextual constellations through two "tonics": intentional rationality and social mechanisms. With the assistance of these tonics, historical sociology widens political economy's policy imagination........ Three "fevers" are identified as involved in the narrowing of policy imagination and two "tonics" are offered to widen it. The three fevers are: 1. viewing the present as natural; 2. seeing history as overtly path dependent; and 3. viewing history as driven by "Great Men". These fevers limit our...

  7. Expanded uncertainty regions for complex quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, B. D.

    2013-10-01

    The expanded measurement uncertainty of a complex quantity is a region in the complex plane surrounding the measured value. This paper considers different shaped uncertainty regions in the form of ellipses, circles, rectangles and parallelograms. The different types of region are compared, under a variety of measurement error conditions, with regard to coverage probability and relative area. Elliptical confidence regions are commonly used in multivariate statistics. However, this shape has not been adopted widely in metrology, perhaps because there is no simple way to report the extent of an elliptical region. The other shapes considered are easier to use. Unfortunately, the coverage probability of circular uncertainty regions is found to be sensitive to both the form of the distribution of measurement errors and to the number of degrees of freedom, making this shape a poor choice. Parallelograms and rectangles both performed well, with parallelograms giving the best results overall.

  8. Use of a modified cluster sampling method to perform rapid needs assessment after Hurricane Andrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlady, W G; Quenemoen, L E; Armenia-Cope, R R; Hurt, K J; Malilay, J; Noji, E K; Wurm, G

    1994-04-01

    To rapidly obtain population-based estimates of needs in the early aftermath of Hurricane Andrew in South Florida. We used a modified cluster-sampling method (the Expanded Programme on Immunization [EPI] method) for three surveys. We selected a systematic sample of 30 quarter-mile square clusters for each survey and, beginning from a random start, interviewed members of seven consecutive occupied households in each cluster. Two surveys were of the most affected area (1990 population, 32,672) at three and ten days after the hurricane struck; one survey was of a less affected area (1990 population, 15,576) seven days after the hurricane struck. Results were available within 24 hours of beginning each survey. Initial findings emphasized the need for restoring utilities and sanitation and helped to focus medical relief on primary care and preventive services. The second survey of the most affected area showed improvement in the availability of food, water, electricity, and sanitation (P < or = .05). There was no evidence of disease outbreaks. For the first time, the EPI method provided population-based information to guide and evaluate relief operations after a sudden-impact natural disaster. An improvement over previous approaches, the EPI method warrants further evaluation as a needs assessment tool in acute disasters.

  9. Transcription of an expanded genetic alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Young Jun; Matsuda, Shigeo; Romesberg, Floyd E

    2009-04-15

    Expansion of the genetic alphabet with a third base pair would have immediate biotechnology applications and also lay the foundation for a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic code. A variety of unnatural base pairs have been shown to be formed efficiently and selectively during DNA replication, and the pairs formed between the unnatural nucleotide d5SICS and either dMMO2 or dNaM are particularly interesting because they have been shown to be replicated with efficiencies and fidelities that are beginning to approach those of a natural base pair. Not only are these unnatural base pairs promising for different applications, but they also demonstrate that nucleobase shape and hydrophobicity are sufficient to control replication. While a variety of unnatural base pairs have been shown to be substrates for transcription, none are transcribed in both possible strand contexts, and the transcription of a fully hydrophobic base pair has not been demonstrated. We show here that both of the unnatural base pairs d5SICS:dMMO2 and d5SICS:dNaM are selectively transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase and that the efficiency of d5SICS:dNaM transcription in both possible strand contexts is only marginally reduced relative to that of a natural base pair. Thus, as with replication, we find that hydrogen-bonding is not essential for transcription and may be replaced with packing and hydrophobic forces. The results also demonstrate that d5SICS:dNaM is both replicated and transcribed with efficiencies and fidelities that should be sufficient for use as part of an in vitro expanded genetic alphabet.

  10. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  11. Methamphetamine and the expanding complications of amphetamines.

    OpenAIRE

    Albertson, T. E.; Derlet, R W; Van Hoozen, B E

    1999-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the use of methamphetamine has increased rapidly in the West and throughout the United States. Because of this increase, our attention has focused on methamphetamine's toxicity. Methamphetamine and related compounds generate many of the same toxic effects as cocaine. Because of methamphetamine's widespread use, clinicians should be familiar with its medical effects and toxicity and with treatment options for acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine abuse.

  12. Dynamic characteristics and seismic stability of expanded polystyrene geofoam embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Zahra A.

    Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) geofoam has become a preferred material in various construction applications due to its light weight. Application of EPS accelerates the projects particularly on soft soils. The focus of this research is on the application of the EPS in embankments and its behavior mainly under harmonic vibration. The goal of this study was to investigate dynamic characteristics of freestanding vertical EPS geofoam embankment and address potential seismic issues that result from the distinguished dynamic behavior of such systems due to the layered and discrete block structure. A series of experimental studies on EPS 19 and a commercially available adhesive was conducted. Two-dimensional numerical analyses were performed to replicate the response of EPS geofoam embankment to horizontal and vertical harmonic motions. The results of the analyses have shown that for some acceleration amplitude levels interlayer sliding is expected to occur in EPS geofoam embankments almost immediately after the start of the base excitation; however, as a highly efficient energy dissipation mechanism sliding ceases rapidly. Shear keys and adhesive may be used to prevent interlayer sliding if they cover the proper extent of area of the embankment. EPS blocks placed in the corners of the embankment and at the edges of the segment prohibited from sliding may experience high stress concentrations. The embankment may show horizontal sway and rocking once sliding is prevented.

  13. New DEA rules expand options for controlled substance disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David M

    2015-03-01

    Prescription drug abuse and overdose are rapidly growing problems in the United States. The United States federal Disposal of Controlled Substances Rule became effective 9 October 2014, implementing the Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act of 2010 (Disposal Act). These regulations target escalating prescription drug misuse by reducing accumulation of unused controlled substances that may be abused, diverted or accidentally ingested. Clinical areas that can now participate in collecting unused controlled substances include retail pharmacies, hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy, and narcotic treatment programs. Collection methods include placing a controlled substance collection receptacle or instituting a mail-back program. Because prompt onsite destruction of collected items is required of mail-back programs, collection receptacles are more likely to be used in clinical areas. Retail pharmacies and hospitals or clinics with an onsite pharmacy may also place and maintain collection receptacles at long-term care facilities. The Act and Rule are intended to increase controlled substance disposal methods and expand local involvement in collection of unused controlled substances. Potential barriers to participating in controlled substance collection include acquisition of suitable collection receptacles and liners, lack of available space meeting the necessary criteria, lack of employee time for verification and inventory requirements, and program costs.

  14. The Expanding Role for Retinoid Signaling in Heart Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta L. Hoover

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of retinoid signaling during cardiac development has long been appreciated, but recently has become a rapidly expanding field of research. Experiments performed over 50 years ago showed that too much or too little maternal intake of vitamin A proved detrimental for embryos, resulting in a cadre of predictable cardiac developmental defects. Germline and conditional knockout mice have revealed which molecular players in the vitamin A signaling cascade are potentially responsible for regulating specific developmental events, and many of these molecules have been temporally and spatially characterized. It is evident that intact and controlled retinoid signaling is necessary for each stage of cardiac development to proceed normally, including cardiac lineage determination, heart tube formation, looping, epicardium formation, ventricular maturation, chamber and outflow tract septation, and coronary arteriogenesis. This review summarizes many of the significant milestones in this field and particular attention is given to recently uncovered cross-talk between retinoid signaling and other developmentally significant pathways. It is our hope that this review of the role of retinoid signaling during formation, remodeling, and maturation of the developing heart will serve as a tool for future discoveries.

  15. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  16. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  17. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  18. Primary health care in the context of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-espagnet, A

    1983-01-01

    A review of demographic trends and health and social problems in the fast growing urban areas of the world indicates that, in the future, increasing numbers of people will be living in precarious socioeconomic conditions which impede the achievement of health. It is estimated that from 4.4 billion in 1980 the world's population will increase to 6.2 billion by the year 2000. The urban population will increase from 1.8 to 3.2 billion during the same period, over 2 billion of which will be in developing countries. The rapid and often uncontrollable demographic growth of cities, especially in the developing world, stimulates the demand for resources, intensifies their utilization and creates an intolerable pressure on the urban infrastructure and physical environment. A number of action oriented projects to combat disease and contamination have been successful. Projects in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Colombo, Sri Lanka, Hyderabad, India, Guayaquil, Ecuador, Lima, Peru, and Rio de Janeiro have been implemented under a partnership among WHO, UNICEF, the Netherlands Aid Agency, the World Bank, and other international organizationals and governments. These projects all emphasize the fundamental role of community organizations, especially that of women; low-cost technology and the need to mobilize and efficiently use locally available resources; an ecological multisectoral concept of health whereby action concerning the environment, education, income generation and the availability of food, all with a powerful disease preventive potential, carry equal if not greater weight than the efforts to provide the population with health centers or implement curative practices. All these projects are focused on marginal groups; many were initiated by imaginative individuals or groups with a considerable amount of social orientation and motivation, and often, at least in the beginning, without the support of governments, nongovernmental or international organizations. It is important to

  19. Plant Growth Research for Food Production: Development and Testing of Expandable Tuber Growth Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Brennan A.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled and reliable growth of a variety of vegetable crops is an important capability for manned deep space exploration systems for providing nutritional supplementation and psychological benefits to crew members. Because current systems have been limited to leafy vegetables that require minimal root space, a major goal for these systems is to increase their ability to grow new types of crops, including tuber plants and root vegetables that require a large root space. An expandable root zone module and housing was developed to integrate this capability into the Vegetable Production System (Veggie). The expandable module uses a waterproof, gas-permeable bag with a structure that allows for root space to increase vertically throughout the growth cycle to accommodate for expanding tuber growth, while minimizing the required media mass. Daikon radishes were chosen as an ideal tuber crop for their subterraneous tuber size and rapid growth cycle, and investigations were done to study expanding superabsorbent hydrogels as a potential growth media. These studies showed improved water retention, but restricted oxygen availability to roots with pure gel media. It was determined that these hydrogels could be integrated in lower proportions into standard soil to achieve media expansion and water retention desired. Using the constructed module prototype and ideal gel and soil media mixture, daikon radishes are being grown in the system to test the capability and success of the system through a full growth cycle.

  20. Expanded polylactide bead foaming - A new technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofar, M.; Ameli, A.; Park, C. B.

    2015-05-01

    Bead foaming technology with double crystal melting peak structure has been recognized as a promising method to produce low-density foams with complex geometries. During the molding stage of the bead foams, the double peak structure generates a strong bead-to-bead sintering and maintains the overall foam structure. During recent years, polylactide (PLA) bead foaming has been of the great interest of researchers due to its origin from renewable resources and biodegradability. However, due to the PLA's low melt strength and slow crystallization kinetics, the attempts have been limited to the manufacturing methods used for expanded polystyrene. In this study, for the first time, we developed microcellular PLA bead foams with double crystal melting peak structure. Microcellular PLA bead foams were produced with expansion ratios and average cell sizes ranging from 3 to 30-times and 350 nm to 15 µm, respectively. The generated high melting temperature crystals during the saturation significantly affected the expansion ratio and cell density of the PLA bead foams by enhancing the PLA's poor melt strength and promoting heterogeneous cell nucleation around the crystals.

  1. Filtration application from recycled expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C

    2006-10-01

    Water-in-oil emulsion with drop size less than 100 mum is difficult to separate. Coalescence filtration is economical and effective for separation of secondary dispersions. Coalescence performance depends on flow rate, bed depth, fiber surface properties, and drop size. The amount of surface area of the fibers directly affects the efficiency. A new recycling method was investigated in the previous work in which polystyrene (PS) sub-mum fibers were electro-spun from recycled expanded polystyrene (EPS). These fibers are mixed with micro glass fibers to modify the glass fiber filter media. The filter media are tested in the separation of water droplets from an emulsion of water droplets in oil. The experimental results in this work show that adding nanofibers to conventional micron sized fibrous filter media improves the separation efficiency of the filter media but also increases the pressure drop. An optimum in the performance occurs (significant increase in efficiency with minimal increase in pressure drop) with the addition of about 4% by mass of 500 nm diameter PS nanofibers to glass fibers for the filters.

  2. Germany's expanding role in global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Franz, Christian; Holzscheiter, Anna; Hunger, Iris; Jahn, Albrecht; Köhler, Carsten; Razum, Oliver; Schmidt, Jean-Olivier

    2017-08-26

    Germany has become a visible actor in global health in the past 10 years. In this Series paper, we describe how this development complements a broad change in perspective in German foreign policy. Catalysts for this shift have been strong governmental leadership, opportunities through G7 and G20 presidencies, and Germany's involvement in managing the Ebola virus disease outbreak. German global health engagement has four main characteristics that are congruent with the health agenda of the Sustainable Development Goals; it is rooted in human rights, multilateralism, the Bismarck model of social protection, and a link between development and investment on the basis of its own development trajectory after World War 2. The combination of momentum and specific characteristics makes Germany well equipped to become a leader in global health, yet the country needs to accept additional financial responsibility for global health, expand its domestic global health competencies, reduce fragmentation of global health policy making, and solve major incoherencies in its policies both nationally and internationally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  4. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  5. Phase-coded pulse expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. L.

    1985-04-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The adders are connected in N/2-fold cyclically permutated order to the frequency ports, where N is the number of frequency ports if that number is even, and N is the number of frequency ports less one if that number is odd. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  6. P2 polyphase code expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, F. F.

    1985-06-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every frequency port is phase-shifted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then phase-shifted at every frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  7. P1 polyphase code expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, F. F.

    1985-04-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding and input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion-means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this tme in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  8. Phase coded pulse expander-compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. L.

    1985-06-01

    A pulse expansion and compression system, especially useful for radar ranging, comprising a pulse coder for expanding an input pulse and a pulse compressor of the matched-filter type. The coder consists of a plurality of delay stages into which the input pulse is fed, a discrete Fourier transform (DFT) circuit to which the output signals of the delay stages are fed by way of respective phase weights and for which every other frequency port is inverted prior to entry to a time-dispersion means (TDM) comprising an arrangement of adders interconnected by delay stages for differently delaying the output signals from the DFT. The TDM output is fed to a phase modulator and then to the transmitter. The echo signals are conjugated, time-inverted, and passed through the same DFT as the input pulse signal by way of the phase weights. The outputs of the DFT are then inverted at every other frequency port and passed through the TDM, but this time in time-inverted order. The outputs of the TDM are fed through an envelope detector to provide a cross-correlated facsimile of the original input pulse.

  9. Expanding the role of internal facility assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Levenson, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) is an effective and comprehensive system to evaluate environmental compliance at individual USAF installations. The ECAMP assessment is typically performed by a team of experts from the installation`s Major Command (MAJCOM) Headquarters, and is often augmented with technical contractor support. As directed by Air Force policy, an external ECAMP assessment is required at a minimum of every three years for each installation. In the intervening years, each installation is required to perform an internal ECAMP assessment, with its own personnel and resources. Even though team composition differs, the internal and external ECAMP assessments are likely to be very similar in scope, objectives, and deliverables. For over nine years, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has supported several Air Force MAJCOMs in performing their external ECAMP assessments. More recently, ANL has also had the opportunity to provide technical support and training at individual installations during their preparation and conduct of internal ECAMP assessments. From that experience, the authors have learned that the quality and value of the internal assessment is enhanced by making it a vehicle for training, planning, and interaction among organizations. Various strategies and techniques have been successfully employed to derive maximum benefit and insight from the internal assessment process. Experiences that involve expanding the scope and objectives of internal assessments to meet specific goals are presented. The expansion of scope and objectives include preassessment training, planning, and evaluator interactions as part of the overall internal assessment process.

  10. Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  11. Preschool Orientation and Mobility: An Expanded Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Everett W.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The article describes a broadened definition of orientation and mobility as it relates to serving a diverse population of visually handicapped preschoolers, examines the relationship of orientation and mobility to other curriculum areas, and considers the importance of coordinated involvement between parents and professionals. (CL)

  12. Population-based assessment of prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the state of Telangana, India: a cross-sectional study using the Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmamula, Srinivas; Khanna, Rohit C; Kunkunu, Eswararao; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-12-15

    To assess the prevalence and causes of visual impairment (VI) among a rural population aged 40 years and older in the state of Telangana in India. Population-based cross-sectional study. Districts of Adilabad and Mahbubnagar in south Indian state of Telangana, India. A sample of 6150 people was selected using cluster random sampling methodology. A team comprising a trained vision technician and a field worker visited the households and conducted the eye examination. Presenting, pinhole and aided visual acuity were assessed. Anterior segment was examined using a torchlight. Lens was examined using distant direct ophthalmoscopy in a semidark room. In all, 5881 (95.6%) participants were examined from 123 study clusters. Among those examined, 2723 (46.3%) were men, 4824 (82%) had no education, 2974 (50.6%) were from Adilabad district and 1694 (28.8%) of them were using spectacles at the time of eye examination. VI was defined as presenting visual acuity glasses (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.1 to 0.2) were protective. VI was also higher in Mahbubnagar (OR 1.0 to 1.5) district. Cataract (54.7%) was the leading cause of VI followed by uncorrected refractive errors (38.6%). VI continues to remain a challenge in rural Telangana. As over 90% of the VI is avoidable, massive eye care programmes are required to address the burden of VI in Telangana. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardillo, Marcel; Purvis, Andy; Sechrest, Wes; Gittleman, John L; Bielby, Jon; Mace, Georgina M

    2004-07-01

    Understanding why some species are at high risk of extinction, while others remain relatively safe, is central to the development of a predictive conservation science. Recent studies have shown that a species' extinction risk may be determined by two types of factors: intrinsic biological traits and exposure to external anthropogenic threats. However, little is known about the relative and interacting effects of intrinsic and external variables on extinction risk. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that extinction risk in the mammal order Carnivora is predicted more strongly by biology than exposure to high-density human populations. However, biology interacts with human population density to determine extinction risk: biological traits explain 80% of variation in risk for carnivore species with high levels of exposure to human populations, compared to 45% for carnivores generally. The results suggest that biology will become a more critical determinant of risk as human populations expand. We demonstrate how a model predicting extinction risk from biology can be combined with projected human population density to identify species likely to move most rapidly towards extinction by the year 2030. African viverrid species are particularly likely to become threatened, even though most are currently considered relatively safe. We suggest that a preemptive approach to species conservation is needed to identify and protect species that may not be threatened at present but may become so in the near future.

  14. Human population density and extinction risk in the world's carnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Cardillo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding why some species are at high risk of extinction, while others remain relatively safe, is central to the development of a predictive conservation science. Recent studies have shown that a species' extinction risk may be determined by two types of factors: intrinsic biological traits and exposure to external anthropogenic threats. However, little is known about the relative and interacting effects of intrinsic and external variables on extinction risk. Using phylogenetic comparative methods, we show that extinction risk in the mammal order Carnivora is predicted more strongly by biology than exposure to high-density human populations. However, biology interacts with human population density to determine extinction risk: biological traits explain 80% of variation in risk for carnivore species with high levels of exposure to human populations, compared to 45% for carnivores generally. The results suggest that biology will become a more critical determinant of risk as human populations expand. We demonstrate how a model predicting extinction risk from biology can be combined with projected human population density to identify species likely to move most rapidly towards extinction by the year 2030. African viverrid species are particularly likely to become threatened, even though most are currently considered relatively safe. We suggest that a preemptive approach to species conservation is needed to identify and protect species that may not be threatened at present but may become so in the near future.

  15. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  16. Accurate Estimation of Target amounts Using Expanded BASS Model for Demand-Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

    2008-10-01

    The electricity demand in Korea has rapidly increased along with a steady economic growth since 1970s. Therefore Korea has positively propelled not only SSM (Supply-Side Management) but also DSM (Demand-Side Management) activities to reduce investment cost of generating units and to save supply costs of electricity through the enhancement of whole national energy utilization efficiency. However study for rebate, which have influence on success or failure on DSM program, is not sufficient. This paper executed to modeling mathematically expanded Bass model considering rebates, which have influence on penetration amounts for DSM program. To reflect rebate effect more preciously, the pricing function using in expanded Bass model directly reflects response of potential participants for rebate level.

  17. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  18. Is my sick child healthy? Is my healthy child sick?: changing parental experiences of cystic fibrosis in the age of expanded newborn screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Rachel

    2008-10-01

    This paper explores how rapid growth in the USA of mandatory newborn screening (NBS) leading to a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is changing, for affected families, their experience of illness versus disease. Qualitative research comparing newborn screening and post-symptomatic diagnostic experiences suggests a number of potent consequences associated with affixing a disease diagnosis through newborn screening. The early, unsought diagnosis deeply affects parents' feeling of competence to care for their newborn and their sense of who the child is, and places the disease -- rather than the process of "falling in love with" the new baby -- at centre stage during the child's early weeks and months; and causes health professionals to loom very large in the family's life at this formative time. With newborn genetic screening continuing to expand rapidly in the USA for a range of other conditions that may not be immediately symptomatic, we can expect that the newborn period will be significantly altered in these ways for a growing segment of the population.

  19. Expanding on Successful Concepts, Models, and Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Tan, Yu-Mei; Edwards, Stephen W.; Leonard, Jeremy A.; Anderson, Kim A.; Corley, Richard A.; Kile, Molly L.; L. Massey Simonich, Staci; Stone, David; Tanguay, Robert L.; Waters, Katrina M.; Harper, Stacey L.; Williams, David E.

    2016-09-06

    In her letter to the editor1 regarding our recent Feature Article “Completing the Link between Exposure Science and Toxicology for Improved Environmental Health Decision Making: The Aggregate Exposure Pathway Framework” 2, Dr. von Göetz expressed several concerns about terminology, and the perception that we propose the replacement of successful approaches and models for exposure assessment with a concept. We are glad to have the opportunity to address these issues here. If the goal of the AEP framework was to replace existing exposure models or databases for organizing exposure data with a concept, we would share Dr. von Göetz concerns. Instead, the outcome we promote is broader use of an organizational framework for exposure science. The framework would support improved generation, organization, and interpretation of data as well as modeling and prediction, not replacement of models. The field of toxicology has seen the benefits of wide use of one or more organizational frameworks (e.g., mode and mechanism of action, adverse outcome pathway). These frameworks influence how experiments are designed, data are collected, curated, stored and interpreted and ultimately how data are used in risk assessment. Exposure science is poised to similarly benefit from broader use of a parallel organizational framework, which Dr. von Göetz correctly points out, is currently used in the exposure modeling community. In our view, the concepts used so effectively in the exposure modeling community, expanded upon in the AEP framework, could see wider adoption by the field as a whole. The value of such a framework was recognized by the National Academy of Sciences.3 Replacement of models, databases, or any application with the AEP framework was not proposed in our article. The positive role broader more consistent use of such a framework might have in enabling and advancing “general activities such as data acquisition, organization…,” and exposure modeling was discussed

  20. Expanding awareness of docosahexaenoic acid during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Rebecca; Akkersdyk, Shann; Yeatman, Heather; Meyer, Barbara J

    2013-04-02

    Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (≥200 mg/day). Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group) is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118) were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card) were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74). Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  1. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  2. AstroCom NYC: Expanding the Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Agueros, Marcel A.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Robbins, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. For our second cohort, we dramatically improved the application and screening process, implemented a number of tools to evaluate their potential for grad school, and began growing a network of potential hosts for summer internships around NY State and the US. We review these implementations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 3, when we expect many of our current students to compete for external summer REUs, and after greatly expanding the program reach through a NASA community college initiative.

  3. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  4. The Phenix expandable prosthesis: early American experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, R M; Soubeiran, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major dilemmas in limb preservation in skeletally immature children involves the ability to maintain leg length equality. Many attempts have been made to design a prosthesis that could be expanded easily either nonoperatively or through a minor surgical procedure. Most of these designs have had mechanical difficulty or the lengthening procedure becomes a major surgical endeavor. The Phenix technology has been used in France for several years. The basic principle involves storage of energy in a spring which is maintained compressed by an original locking system. Once implanted, prosthetic lengthening is achieved via exposure to an external electromagnetic field that pilots the locking system and allows controlled release of the spring energy. Seven Phenix prostheses have been implanted in six patients. All patients had been treated for Stage II-B osteosarcoma. Six of the seven prostheses were implanted during revision procedures in salvage situations; one prosthesis was implanted during an index procedure. The surgical procedures were completed without complications. One patient sustained a fracture of the prosthesis in a fall and had an infection develop after implantation of the second prosthesis. Twenty-one expansions have been performed in six patients (mean lengthening at each procedure, 8 mm). There were no acute complications attributable to the lengthening procedure. Prosthetic expansions required an average of 20 to 30 seconds and were accompanied by very mild discomfort, if any. Most patients were given an oral analgesic either before or during the lengthening procedure. The Phenix prosthesis shows promise in handling the difficult problem of limb preservation in a growing child. Additional investigation is underway regarding limb lengthening and other dynamic applications.

  5. Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (≥200 mg/day. Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118 were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74. Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  6. Sakurai's Object Continues to Brighten and Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.; Matheson, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Sakurai's Object (V4334 Sgr), the prototype final flash object discovered in the mid-1990s, was observed to undergo rapid cooling becoming as faint as 25th magnitude at K during the first decade of the 21st century. A review of imaging data suggests the minimum K magnitude occurred about 2006. Sakuarai's Object was re-acquired at K in 2010. Between 2010 Sep and 2013 Apr Sakurai's object brightened more than 2 magnitudes to K=14.2. Here we report on a Gemini-NIRI K band AO image obtained in 2016 July. The Ks magnitude was 13.35. The AO image also records the continuing expansion of the debris cloud. The central star remains obscured. Spectro-spatial NIFS images of the spectral region around He I 1.0830 micron and a GMOS optical spectrum, both observed in 2015, will also be displayed.

  7. Expanding role of a blood center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaisy Mathai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials and Methods: The study was performed on prospective donors who reported to the Department of Transfusion Medicine. Individuals deferred due to hypertension contributed the study population. They were compared with age and sex matched donor controls. Demographic details were recorded in a proforma. On identification of a hypertensive individual, consequent two comparable donors were taken as controls with a total of 50 hypertensive subjects. Hypertensive status of the subjects were assessed based on the criteria formulated by the WHO-ISH and US Seventh Joint National Committee report on prevention, detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Results: About 0.95% of healthy blood donors had undetected hypertension. Mean age at detection of hypertension in the study group was 35.44 ± 7.69 years. Higher BMI was observed in the hypertensive group compared to normotensive control group with P value significant at 0.0001. Conclusion: About 1% of healthy individuals were found to have undetected hypertension. Though the study was not designed to determine the prevalence of hypertension in the region, it is a rough estimate of the proportion of undetected hypertension in the local population as donors are considered as representative of healthy population.

  8. Lightweight High Strength Concrete with Expanded Polystyrene Beads

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a literature study about lightweight high strength concrete by incorporating expanded polystyrene beads. Basically polystyrene is disposal material from packaging industry. However, after being processed in a special manner, polystyrene can be expanded and used as lightweight concrete making material. Therefore, the use of expanded polystyrene beads in concrete is not only beneficial for engineering studies but also provide solution for the environmental problem

  9. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  10. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  11. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  12. Allogeneic lymphocyte-licensed DCs expand T cells with improved antitumor activity and resistance to oxidative stress and immunosuppressive factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adoptive T-cell therapy of cancer is a treatment strategy where T cells are isolated, activated, in some cases engineered, and expanded ex vivo before being reinfused to the patient. The most commonly used T-cell expansion methods are either anti-CD3/CD28 antibody beads or the “rapid expansion protocol” (REP, which utilizes OKT-3, interleukin (IL-2, and irradiated allogeneic feeder cells. However, REP-expanded or bead-expanded T cells are sensitive to the harsh tumor microenvironment and often short-lived after reinfusion. Here, we demonstrate that when irradiated and preactivated allosensitized allogeneic lymphocytes (ASALs are used as helper cells to license OKT3-armed allogeneic mature dendritic cells (DCs, together they expand target T cells of high quality. The ASAL/DC combination yields an enriched Th1-polarizing cytokine environment (interferon (IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-2 and optimal costimulatory signals for T-cell stimulation. When genetically engineered antitumor T cells were expanded by this coculture system, they showed better survival and cytotoxic efficacy under oxidative stress and immunosuppressive environment, as well as superior proliferative response during tumor cell killing compared to the REP protocol. Our result suggests a robust ex vivo method to expand T cells with improved quality for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  14. Global kinetic hybrid simulation for radially expanding solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyadechkin, S.; Semenov, V. S.; Kallio, E.; Erkaev, N. V.; Alho, M.; Lammer, H.

    2017-08-01

    We present the results of a 1-D global kinetic simulation of the solar wind in spherical coordinates without a magnetic field in the region from the Sun to the Earth's orbit. Protons are considered as particles while electrons are considered as a massless fluid, with a constant temperature, in order to study the relation between the hybrid and hydrodynamic solutions. It is shown that the strong electric field in the hybrid model accelerates the protons. Since the electric field in the model is related to electron pressure, each proton in the initial Maxwellian velocity distribution function moves under the same forces as in the classical Parker Solar wind model. The study shows that the hybrid model results in very similar velocity and number density distributions along the radial distance as in the Parker model. In the hybrid simulations, the proton temperature is decreased with distance in 1 order of magnitude. The effective polytropic index of the proton population slightly exceeds 1 at larger distances with the maximum value ˜1.15 in the region near the Sun. A highly non-Maxwellian type of distribution function is initially formed. Further from the Sun, a narrow beam of the escaping protons is created which does not change much in later expansion. The results of our study indicates that already a nonmagnetized global hybrid model is capable of reproducing some fundamental features of the expanding solar wind shown in the Parker model and additional kinetic effects in the solar wind.

  15. Expanding the List of Dysregulated Immunosuppressive Cells in Psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, David C; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) have been studied in regard to their increased numbers of circulating cells in cancer patients. Recent research efforts have also increased awareness of MDSC in non-malignant inflammatory diseases, including asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, and arthritis. Psoriasis can now be added to the growing list of inflammatory disorders with an MDSC component. Cao et al. report increased numbers of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Mo-MDSC) in psoriasis patients and examine the implication of dysregulated Mo-MDSC function. Cao et al. describe psoriatic Mo-MDSC that produce increased IL-23, IL-1b, and CCL4 cytokines compared to Mo-MDSC from healthy controls. These results complement previous research demonstrating psoriatic Mo-MDSC are unable to suppress autologous and heterologous CD8 T-cell proliferations, display decreased expression levels of PD-1 as well as PD-L1, and fail to produce effective immuno-competent regulatory T cells (Tregs). Cao et al. also identify the unique expression of the surface protein DC-HIL on psoriatic Mo-MDSC. The expanded population of DC-HIL(+) Mo-MDSC in psoriasis patients, however, display inferior suppressive capabilities compared to DC-HIL(+) Mo-MDSC found in melanoma patients, suggesting contextual signaling as a potential contributing factor to Mo-MDSC function. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanding Access with Satellite-Enabled Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Education and training became increasingly critical for citizens of every nation during the last century, and that paradigm will be no less true, throughout the 21st Century. As the world progresses fully into an information society, access to information and to a knowledge-based work force is a precondition for any country to remain competitive. Education, and increasingly distant education (DE, plays a vital role in turning human resources into knowledge workers. Information and communications technologies (ICT have provided new ways to educate and to disseminate information that is crucial for creating these competitive, knowledge-based work forces. Modern DE, enabled by ICT-based networks and the Internet tools, offers great advantages that are leveling the global playing field, in terms of providing access and opportunities for specialized training and education. Using satellite technology in DE may be imperative to developing countries, where the majority of their populations are scattered in rural and remote areas. Where the traditional brick and mortar classrooms cannot easily reach, satellite-powered DE systems can. Through literature review and rational analysis, this paper examines how satellite-assisted DE systems expand education access.

  17. Expanded carrier screening for monogenic disorders: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoshvili, Davit; Vears, Danya; Borry, Pascal

    2017-07-06

    Expanded carrier screening (ECS), which can identify carriers of a large number of recessive disorders in the general population, has grown in popularity and is now widely accessible to prospective parents. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the characteristics of currently available ECS tests. To identify relevant ECS providers, we employed a multi-step approach, which included online searching, review of the recent literature, and consultations with researchers familiar with the current landscape of ECS. As of January 2017, there were 16 providers of ECS tests: 13 commercial companies, 2 medical hospitals, and 1 academic diagnostic laboratory. We observed drastic differences in the characteristics of ECS tests, with the number of conditions ranging from 41 to 1792. Only three conditions (cystic fibrosis, maple syrup urine disease 1b, and Niemann-Pick disease) were screened for by all providers. Where the same disease gene was included by multiple providers, substantial differences existed in the mutations screened and/or variant interpretation/reporting strategies. Given the importance of carrier screening results in reproductive decision-making, the observed heterogeneity across ECS panels is concerning. Efforts should be made to ensure that clear and concrete criteria are in place to guide the development of ECS panels. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Spatial Studies of Ion Beams in an Expanding Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Evan; Good, Timothy; Scime, Earl; Thompson, Derek

    2017-10-01

    We report spatially resolved perpendicular and parallel ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) measurements in an expanding argon helicon plasma. The parallel IVDFs, obtained through laser induced fluorescence (LIF), show an ion beam with v 8 km/s flowing downstream that is confined to the center of the discharge. The ion beam is confined to within a few centimeters radially and is measurable for tens of centimeters axially before the LIF signal fades, likely a result of metastable quenching of the beam ions. The axial ion beam velocity slows in agreement with collisional processes. The perpendicular IVDFs show an ion population with a radially outward flow that increases with radial location. The DC electric field, electron temperature, and the plasma density in the double layer plume are all consistent with magnetic field aligned structures. The upstream and downstream electric field measurements show clear evidence of an ion hole that maps along the magnetic field at the edge of the plasma. Current theories and simulations of double layers, which are one-dimensional, completely miss these critically important two-dimensional features.

  19. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  20. TOURISM AS A WAY TO EXPAND THE HUMAN LIFE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work is to substantiate the development of railway tourism in the context of human needs in accordance with the theory of individual life space. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study is the provisions of the economic theory, management theory, corporate governance. The rational activity of travel agencies is based on the principles of economic equilibrium; Ukrainian population demand for railway tourism was determined with the help of market research and anonymous survey; to explore the real balance between the demand for tourist rail transport and the potential of the required volume of services the paper suggests the balance method. Since any travel company is an open system and is completely dependent on environmental factors, we proposed a method for estimating the factors of internal and external environment. Originality. The element of originality is compilation of existing concepts to the definition of the individual as a subject of life property, for the understanding of human relationships and its external environment. The paper developed the issue of the ability to influence the value of human life space with the help of tourist services. Conclusions. Market research conducted by the author has shown that in Ukraine there is a certain demand for tourist transport by rail, because it is more reliable, safer and more comfortable than the road transport. It is proved that the development of a new innovative project is very timely, as it will allow: to develop tourist infrastructure of Ukraine and bring it to the domestic and foreign tourists; replenish the state and local budgets by tourists; create new jobs for the population and improve their living level; partially reduce the loss-making passenger sector by increasing the volume of rail transport; expand life space for the people of Ukraine that will allow raising the intellectual level of the individual.

  1. New Ballard Score, expanded to include extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, J L; Khoury, J C; Wedig, K; Wang, L; Eilers-Walsman, B L; Lipp, R

    1991-09-01

    The Ballard Maturational Score was refined and expanded to achieve greater accuracy and to include extremely premature neonates. To test validity, accuracy, interrater reliability, and optimal postnatal age at examination, the resulting New Ballard Score (NBS) was assessed for 578 newly born infants and the results were analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 20 to 44 weeks and postnatal ages at examination ranged from birth to 96 hours. In 530 infants, gestational age by last menstrual period was confirmed by agreement within 2 weeks with gestational age by prenatal ultrasonography (C-GLMP). For these infants, correlation between gestational age by NBS and C-GLMP was 0.97. Mean differences between gestational age by NBS and C-GLMP were 0.32 +/- 1.58 weeks and 0.15 +/- 1.46 weeks among the extremely premature infants (less than 26 weeks) and among the total population, respectively. Correlations between the individual criteria and C-GLMP ranged from 0.72 to 0.82. Interrater reliability of NBS, as determined by correlation between raters who rated the same subgroup of infants, ws 0.95. For infants less than 26 weeks of gestational age, the greatest validity (97% within 2 weeks of C-GLMP) was seen when the examination was performed before 12 hours of postnatal age. For infants at least 26 weeks of gestational age, percentages of agreement with C-GLMP remained constant, averaging 92% for all postnatal age categories up to 96 hours. The NBS is a valid and accurate gestational assessment tool for extremely premature infants and remains valid for the entire newborn infant population.

  2. The effect of rapid palatal expansion on sleep bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellerive, Audrey; Montpetit, Andrée; El-Khatib, Hicham; Carra, Maria Clotilde; Remise, Claude; Desplats, Eve; Huynh, Nelly

    2015-12-01

    Sleep bruxism (SB) is a movement described as an involuntary mastication movement during sleep, also defined as rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). It is observed in 2-40 % of the pediatric population. A link was suggested between respiratory events and RMMA. Rapid palatal expansion (RPE) is an effective orthopedic treatment for correcting maxillary transverse deficiency and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children. The aim was to evaluate the possible reduction of SB after rapid palatal expansion (RPE) therapy. A total of 32 patients (8-14 years old; 22 girls and 10 boys) received an orthodontic treatment for transverse maxillary deficiency (5 mm or more) at the orthodontics department of the Université de Montréal. They underwent an ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) before, after expansion with the expander, and at the end of the study without the expander. They were classified into three subgroups based on sleep electromyography (EMG) data. Total sleep time and stage NREM 3 presented significant differences between the types of appliances. Moreover, there was a time effect observed for total sleep time, sleep cycles, stage NREM 2, and stage REM, while only a trend suggested for stage NREM 3. Significant differences were observed between subgroups for both RMMA episodes and burst indexes, similarly, for the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). A total of 50 % of the patients were classified as responders when RMMA episodes index decreased by more than 25 % when comparing treatment efficacy at baseline night. Most bruxers (65 %) reduced their RMMA episode index after expansion, but sleep and respiratory variables remained unchanged.

  3. A rapid, noninvasive immunoassay for frataxin: utility in assessment of Friedreich ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric C; Santani, Avni B; Perlman, Susan L; Farmer, Jennifer M; Stolle, Catherine A; Marusich, Michael F; Lynch, David R

    2010-01-01

    Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by reduced amounts of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin levels in research studies are typically measured via Western blot analysis from patient fibroblasts, lymphocytes, or muscle biopsies; none of these is ideal for rapid detection in large scale clinical studies. Recently, a rapid, noninvasive lateral flow immunoassay was developed to accurately measure picogram levels of frataxin protein and shown to distinguish lymphoblastoid cells from FRDA carriers, patients and controls. We expanded the immunoassay to measure frataxin directly in buccal cells and whole blood from a large cohort of controls, known carriers and patients typical of a clinical trial population. The assay in buccal cells shared a similar degree of variability with previous studies conducted in lymphoblastoid cells (~10% coefficient of variation in controls). Significant differences in frataxin protein quantity were seen between the mean group values of controls, carriers, and patient buccal cells (100, 50.2, and 20.9% of control, respectively) and in protein extracted from whole blood (100, 75.3, and 32.2%, respectively), although there was some overlap between the groups. In addition, frataxin levels were inversely related to GAA repeat length and correlated directly with age of onset. Subjects with one expanded GAA repeat and an identified frataxin point mutation also carried frataxin levels in the disease range. Some patients displaying an FRDA phenotype but carrying only a single identifiable mutation had frataxin levels in the FRDA patient range. One patient from this group has a novel deletion that included exons 2 and 3 of the FXN gene based on multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis of the FXN gene. The lateral flow immunoassay may be a useful means to noninvasively assess frataxin levels repetitively with minimal discomfort in FRDA patients in specific situations such

  4. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  5. Origins Of Magnetospheric Physics An Expanded Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Van Allen, James A

    2004-01-01

    Early in 1958, instruments on the space satellites Explorer I and Explorer III revealed the presence of radiation belts, enormous populations of energetic particles trapped in the magnetic field of the earth. Originally published in 1983 but long out of print until now, Origins of Magnetospheric Physics tells the story of this dramatic and hugely transformative period in scientific and Cold War history. Writing in an accessible style and drawing on personal journals, correspondence, published papers, and the recollections of colleagues, James Van Allen documents a trail-blazing era in space hi

  6. Study and design of beam expander with wide aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming; Jin, Guangyong; Cai, Jixing; Zhang, Wei; Wei, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    In order to improve the capacity of beam collimation for laser beam expander, it is necessary to design a more reasonable and feasible structure of beam expander system. Laser beam expander is used to compress the laser divergence angle, in order to reduce the energy losing in long distance scanning acquisition system. This paper introduces the working principle and design idea of the laser beam expander, the collimating multiplying power focal length and the collimated magnification formula of expander main, secondary mirror. According to the third-order aberration theory, Considering the spherical aberration, sine difference and divergence angle, the reasonable analysis of optical path, ZEMAX optical design software was used to design large-diameter laser beam expander and analysis and optimize, And given the actual design data and results. Display the maximum optical path difference is +/-0.01λ of the main light ray and each light ray. To combination the rear- group objective lens of Galileo and Kepler beam expander, a large-diameter(1.475m) laser beam expander was designed with 0.2m in the diameter, 1/2m in the relative caliber. In the objective lens System, a high-order aspherical was used to the aberration of extra-axial point. we can see that the image quality is close to the diffraction limit from the curves of wavefront. In addition to improve image quality effectively, the system has the characteristics of simple structure, less costly and less design difficulty to compare with the other beam expanding system. And make the output beam's divergence angle smaller, energy density higher, and the beam quality has been greatly improved. The results show that the beam expander is fully meet the design requirements, the use effect is good. Design and research of laser beam expanding system not only improves the quality of the laser beam in the laser system, but also enlarge the application field of laser technology in photoelectric system.

  7. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  8. [The quality of population from viewpoints of the level of education and changes in social demands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, K

    1980-04-01

    Educational level as an attribute of population quality is significant from the socioeconomic point of view. Knowledge and skills acquired through education affect productivity, standard of living, and social activities of the population. Education as a form of investment is well illustrated by man power policy adopted in connection with economic growth policy. Since 1955 the focus of the Japanese population policy shifted from the question of quantity to that of quality. Education was expected to meet the needs of the society characterized by accelerated socioeconomic growth and technological developments. The great emphasis was placed on the education, training, and supply of scientific and technological professionals. Science curriculum, vocational training programs, career counseling, and guidance programs were expanded and improved. The percentage of population with higher education has rapidly increased since 1955 and is rising. High educational level of the population has greatly contributed to modernization and socioeconomic growth of Japan, but it also changed the composition of population in terms of education and employment. The importance of having an appropriate balance between economic growth and social development which concerns health and welfare of the population has been also noted. Since 1970 with longer life expectancy and prospective aging population the need for life long integrated education has come into focus.

  9. Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit (Poster)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K. R.; Levine, A.

    2014-09-01

    The Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit combines the former Geothermal Regulatory Roadmap, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Database, and other resources into a Web-based tool that gives the regulatory and utility-scale geothermal developer communities rapid and easy access to permitting information. RAPID currently comprises five tools - Permitting Atlas, Regulatory Roadmap, Resource Library, NEPA Database, and Best Practices. A beta release of an additional tool, the Permitting Wizard, is scheduled for late 2014. Because of the huge amount of information involved, RAPID was developed in a wiki platform to allow industry and regulatory agencies to maintain the content in the future so that it continues to provide relevant and accurate information to users. In 2014, the content was expanded to include regulatory requirements for utility-scale solar and bulk transmission development projects. Going forward, development of the RAPID Toolkit will focus on expanding the capabilities of current tools, developing additional tools, including additional technologies, and continuing to increase stakeholder involvement.

  10. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  11. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  12. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  13. Compressive and Tensile Strength of Expanded Polystyrene Beads Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Subhan, Tengku Fitriani L

    2005-01-01

    Penelitian ini betujuan untuk mempelajari property dari beton ringan yang mengandung expanded polystyrene beads, yaitu kuat tekan (compressive strength) dan kuat tarik (tensile strength). Property tersebut kemudian dibandingkan dengan beton normal (beton tanpa expanded polystyrene beads) sebagai campuran pengontrol. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jumlah polystyrene beads yang dimasukkan sebagai campuran beton mempengaruhi property beton; yaitu dapat menurunkan kuat tekan beton. Tetapi...

  14. Principles of the fifth order tuning of beam expanders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F.; Aniel, T.

    1995-12-31

    An analytical treatment of the third and fifth order optics of beam expanders is described, which allows precise tuning of the optical elements of the beam line, and efficient optimization of the beam uniformizing at the extended target. An application to a two-dimensional expander is given as an illustration. (authors). 4 refs.

  15. 21 CFR 878.5035 - Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene surgical suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... surgical suture. 878.5035 Section 878.5035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 878.5035 Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene surgical suture. (a) Identification. Nonabsorbable expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) surgical suture is a monofilament, nonabsorbable, sterile...

  16. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension Practice in Nigeria. ... The expanded scope could include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, service to farmers' associations, technical extension service and urban extension. These services should be provided at ...

  17. Comparision of the Expandable Nail with Locked Nail in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... fracture patterns as informed in a biomechanical study. Maher et al.[36] compared the expandable nail with a standard locked nail in fracture model, finding that spiral fracture patterns, rather than transverse fractures, were more suitable for expandable nail fixation.. However, in this study bending and ...

  18. New York: Expanding Time, Increasing Opportunities for Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tiffany D.

    2014-01-01

    New York is poised to take an important step to improve student achievement by expanding learning time for students attending high-poverty, low-performing schools. Recent district- and state-level investments in expanded learning time--a promising strategy to close achievement and opportunity gaps--will give students more time to learn core…

  19. Detection of tissue expander leakage by methylene blue instillation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tissue expansion is an important and widely used technique of soft tissue reconstruction. Leakage of the expanders is one of the complications and it might at times be difficult to detect. Method and Conclusion: We used methylene blue stained saline for inflation of tissue expanders in 42 cases and found it to ...

  20. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  1. Regional Impact of Population Aging on Changes in Individual Self-perceptions of Aging: Findings From the German Ageing Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Julia K; Beyer, Ann-Kristin; Wurm, Susanne; Nowossadeck, Sonja; Wiest, Maja

    2017-09-04

    The importance of self-perceptions of aging (SPA) for health and longevity is well documented. Comparably little is known about factors that contribute to SPA. Besides individual factors, the context a person lives in may shape SPA. Research has so far focused on country-level differences in age stereotypes, indicating that rapid population aging accompanies more negative age stereotypes. The present study expands previous research by investigating the impact of district-specific population aging within one country on different facets of SPA. Based on a large representative survey in Germany, the study investigates changes in SPA as ongoing development as well as the SPA of physical loss over a 12-year period in adults aged 40+. The study uses several indicators of population aging (e.g., population development, average age, greying index), to identify four clusters differing in their pace of population aging. Based on three-level latent change models, these clusters were compared in their impact on changes in SPA. Compared to districts with an average rate of population aging, the study shows that persons living in regions with a fast population aging rate (C1) hold more negative SPA in both facets (ps = .01). Districts with slow population aging (C2) have significantly higher SPA ongoing development (p = .03). The study underlines the importance for regional differences in population aging on the development of SPA. In particular, societies should be aware that fast population aging may result in more negative SPA.

  2. [Reconstruction in plastic surgery using osmotic tissue expanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronovich, Yoav; Binenboym, Rami; Retchkiman, Meir; Eizenman, Nirit; Lotan, Adi; Stuchiner, Barak; Tuchman, Izhak

    2015-03-01

    Tissue expander is a major reconstructive modality. Its main disadvantages include: long and inconvenient period of inflation with temporary deformity of the surrounding tissue. Osmotic expander was developed in order to eliminate some of these limitations. It is a self-filling device which absorbs fluids in order to achieve tissue expansion faster. We present our experience with 28 consecutive cases of tissue reconstruction using osmotic expanders. We wish to emphasize the main advantages and limitations of this device. The present study was launched in May 2008, until April 2014, for twenty eight patients, median age 26 years with reconstructions using an osmotic expander (total of 35 expanders). The reasons for using tissue expander included large congenital nevi (75%) and scars. In all of the cases, the operative and post-operative management was uneventful. During the expansion period, there were 2 outpatient clinical visits. The average expansion time was 9 weeks. In 11% (three patients) there was partial extrusion of the expander. In all other cases there were no complications and the final aesthetic results were satisfying. Osmotic expander is an advanced modality for tissue reconstruction. The final shape and size are precisely predictable. Its initial small size allows for a small surgical incision and short overall operating time. The expansion period is shorter and more convenient for the patient. Its main disadvantage includes the inability to control the filling rate and the need to remove the expander in case of damage to the overlying tissue. Osmotic expander is a reliable tool for tissue expansion. It allows for a satisfying aesthetic result in a shorter period of time and with less inconvenience to the patient.

  3. Prevalencia de infección por VIH en la población adulta en México: una epidemia en ascenso y expansión Prevalence of HIV infection among adult population in Mexico: an increasingly expanding epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Valdespino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: ONUSIDA ha reconocido que calcular la magnitud de la infección por VIH en los planos nacional o regional es importante desde el punto de vista de la evaluación, planeación de programas y supervisión. Al adoptar esta recomendación, el propósito de este trabajo fue cuantificar la magnitud de la infección en la población general adulta mexicana a partir de los datos consignados en la ENSA 2000, la cual permitió determinar la prevalencia de infección por VIH en la población general y los principales factores relacionados. La disponibilidad de datos de la Encuesta Seroepidemiológica proveyó además la oportunidad de conocer las tendencias en el periodo entre las dos encuestas (1987-2000. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se seleccionó de manera aleatoria a 21 271 individuos de 20 años de edad o mayores, de ambos sexos, estudiados en la ENSA 2000 para IgG anti-VIH1/2 (ELISA, confirmados por inmunoelectrotransferencia, y los principales factores relacionados con seropositividad. Las muestras se procesaron en el Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública en 2005. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia para anticuerpos anti-VIH-1 fue de 0.25%. Los principales factores vinculados con la infección fueron las edades más jóvenes, sexo masculino, vivir en el Distrito Federal, escolaridad de licenciatura o mayor y ser soltero, divorciado o separado. CONCLUSIONES: La seroprevalencia en hombres adultos muestra un incremento de 10 veces en comparación con la encuesta nacional de 1987. Si bien la epidemia continúa concentrada en hombres que tienen relaciones sexuales con hombres, existe evidencia de diseminación a la población heterosexual.OBJECTIVE: UNAIDS has recognized that estimating HIV infection at a national or regional level is important for evaluation, program planning and advocacy. Following this recommendation, the purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude of HIV infection prevalence among adults from the general population using information

  4. More and Better Learning: Year Three Report on the National Demonstration of ExpandED Schools. A TASC Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traill, Saskia; Brohawn, Katie

    2015-01-01

    In the 2013-14 school year, TASC entered the third year of its national demonstration of ExpandED Schools. Ten elementary and middle schools in New York City, Baltimore and New Orleans continued their partnerships with youth-serving community organizations, such as settlement houses or community development corporations. Together, principals,…

  5. Rapid parapatric speciation on holey adaptive landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S; Vose, M D; Gavrilets, Sergey; Li, Hai; Vose, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A classical view of speciation is that reproductive isolation arises as a by-product of genetic divergence. Here, individual-based simulations are used to evaluate whether the mechanisms implied by this view may result in rapid speciation if the only source of genetic divergence are mutation and random genetic drift. Distinctive features of the simulations are the consideration of the complete process of speciation (from initiation until completion), and of a large number of loci, which was only one order of magnitude smaller than that of bacteria. It is demonstrated that rapid speciation on the time scale of hundreds of generations is plausible without the need for extreme founder events, complete geographic isolation, the existence of distinct adaptive peaks or selection for local adaptation. The plausibility of speciation is enhanced by population subdivision. Simultaneous emergence of more than two new species from a subdivided population is highly probable. Numerical examples relevant to the theory of ce...

  6. Expanded carrier screening : What determines intended participation and can this be influenced by message framing and narrative information?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorwinden, Jan S.; Buitenhuis, Anne H.; Birnie, Erwin; Lucassen, Anneke M.; Verkerk, Marian A.; van Langen, Irene M.; Plantinga, Mirjam; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Next-generation sequencing enabled us to create a population-based expanded carrier screening (ECS) test that simultaneously tests for 50 serious autosomal recessive diseases. Before offering this test universally, we wanted to know what factors are related to intended participation and how the

  7. Population policy summaries of countries of the ESCAP region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    The government of Bangladesh recognizes population as the principal socioeconomic problem of the country. It therefore recently launched a multisectoral population control program involving eight ministries in a move to expand its narrow, clinic-based birth control program to a multi-dimensional family welfare program. The government of China also places the highest priority upon curbing population growth, with family planning programs in place to postpone marriage, encourage spaces of 3-5 years between births, and promote the one-child family. The government is directly involved in organizing the nationwide family planning campaign through various mass media and the party leadership. The government of India's interest in and commitment to lowering population fertility and growth rates have been apparent in all development plans since 1951. Its Seventh Five-Year Plan for the period 1986-90 aims to establish a two-child family norm and replacement fertility by 2000. The plan also has the goal of 31 million sterilizations, 21.3 million IUD insertions, and 62.5 million conventional contraceptive users by 1990. Indonesia's population policy is designed to reduce the rate of population growth, redistribute the population away from the urban center, adjust economic factors, and increase family prosperity. The Republic of Korea's Fifth Five-Year Plan for 1982-86 gives greater emphasis to social development than did previous plans. The government understands that rates of population growth and fertility are too high, and is working to integrate population and development policies and programs into all relevant sectors. The government of Malaysia is paying attention to contraceptive and reproductive health research to ensure that the methods are efficient, safe, and socially acceptable, while the government of Nepal has adopted a population control program as an integral component of its development strategies. Reducing the rate of population growth was an objective of

  8. Cancer burden with ageing population in urban regions in China: projection on cancer registry data from World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Hirai, Hoyee W; Chan, Felix C H; Griffiths, Sian; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2017-01-01

    China is facing the challenges of an expanding ageing population and the impact of rapid urbanization, cancer rates are subsequently increasing. This study focuses on the changes of the ageing population and projects the incidence of common ageing-related cancers in the urban regions in China up to 2030. Cancer incidence data and population statistics in China were extracted from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Due to improving longevity in China, continuous and remarkable increasing trends for the lung, colorectal and prostate cancers are expected. The rate of expanding ageing population was taken into account when predicting the trend of cancer incidence; the estimations of ageing-related cancers were more factual and significant than using the conventional approach of age standardization. The incidence rates of lung, colorectal and prostate cancers will continue to rise in the future decades due to the rise of ageing population. Lifestyle modification such as cutting tobacco smoking rates and promoting healthier diets as well as cancer screening programs should be a health system priority in order to decrease the growing burden of cancer-related mortality and morbidity.

  9. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  10. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  11. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  12. International Society of Nephrology-Hydration and Kidney Health Initiative - Expanding Research and Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moist, Louise M; Clark, William F; Segantini, Luca; Damster, Sandrine; Le Bellego, Laurent; Wong, Germaine; Tonelli, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a collaborative research initiative to explore the role of hydration in kidney health. Our understanding of the effects of hydration in health and disease is surprisingly limited, particularly when we consider the vital role of hydration in basic human physiology. Recent initiatives and research outcomes have challenged the global medical community to expand our knowledge about hydration, including the differences between water, sugared beverages and other consumables. Identification of the potential mechanisms contributing to the benefits of hydration has stimulated the global nephrology community to advance research regarding hydration for kidney health. Hydration and kidney health has been a focus of research for several research centers with a rapidly expanding world literature and knowledge. The International Society of Nephrology has collaborated with Danone Nutricia Research to promote development of kidney research initiatives, which focus on the role of hydration in kidney health and the global translation of this new information. This initiative supports the use of existing data in different regions and countries to expand dialogue among experts in the field of hydration and health, and to increase scientific interaction and productivity with the ultimate goal of improving kidney health. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Seed and Root Endophytic Fungi in a Range Expanding and a Related Plant Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisen, Stefan; Kostenko, Olga; Cnossen, Mark C; Ten Hooven, Freddy C; Vreš, Branko; van der Putten, Wim H

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is accelerating the spread of plants and their associated species to new ranges. The differences in range shift capacity of the various types of species may disrupt long-term co-evolved relationships especially those belowground, however, this may be less so for seed-borne endophytic microbes. We collected seeds and soil of the range-expanding Centaurea stoebe and the congeneric Centaurea jacea from three populations growing in Slovenia (native range of both Centaurea species) and the Netherlands (expanded range of C. stoebe, native range of C. jacea). We isolated and identified endophytic fungi directly from seeds, as well as from roots of the plants grown in Slovenian, Dutch or sterilized soil to compare fungal endophyte composition. Furthermore, we investigated whether C. stoebe hosts a reduced community composition of endophytes in the expanded range due to release from plant-species specific fungi while endophyte communities in C. jacea in both ranges are similar. We cultivated 46 unique and phylogenetically diverse endophytes. A majority of the seed endophytes resembled potential pathogens, while most root endophytes were not likely to be pathogenic. Only one endophyte was found in both roots and seeds, but was isolated from different plant species. Unexpectedly, seed endophyte diversity of southern C. stoebe populations was lower than of populations from the north, while the seed endophyte community composition of northern C. stoebe populations was significantly different southern C. stoebe as well as northern and southern C. jacea populations. Root endophyte diversity was considerably lower in C. stoebe than in C. jacea independent of plant and soil origin, but this difference disappeared when plants were grown in sterile soils. We conclude that the community composition of fungal endophytes not only differs between related plant species but also between populations of plants that expand their range compared to their native habitat. Our

  14. Seed and Root Endophytic Fungi in a Range Expanding and a Related Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Geisen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is accelerating the spread of plants and their associated species to new ranges. The differences in range shift capacity of the various types of species may disrupt long-term co-evolved relationships especially those belowground, however, this may be less so for seed-borne endophytic microbes. We collected seeds and soil of the range-expanding Centaurea stoebe and the congeneric Centaurea jacea from three populations growing in Slovenia (native range of both Centaurea species and the Netherlands (expanded range of C. stoebe, native range of C. jacea. We isolated and identified endophytic fungi directly from seeds, as well as from roots of the plants grown in Slovenian, Dutch or sterilized soil to compare fungal endophyte composition. Furthermore, we investigated whether C. stoebe hosts a reduced community composition of endophytes in the expanded range due to release from plant-species specific fungi while endophyte communities in C. jacea in both ranges are similar. We cultivated 46 unique and phylogenetically diverse endophytes. A majority of the seed endophytes resembled potential pathogens, while most root endophytes were not likely to be pathogenic. Only one endophyte was found in both roots and seeds, but was isolated from different plant species. Unexpectedly, seed endophyte diversity of southern C. stoebe populations was lower than of populations from the north, while the seed endophyte community composition of northern C. stoebe populations was significantly different southern C. stoebe as well as northern and southern C. jacea populations. Root endophyte diversity was considerably lower in C. stoebe than in C. jacea independent of plant and soil origin, but this difference disappeared when plants were grown in sterile soils. We conclude that the community composition of fungal endophytes not only differs between related plant species but also between populations of plants that expand their range compared to their native

  15. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  17. Expanding the scoring system for the Dynamic Gait Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumway-Cook, Anne; Taylor, Catherine S; Matsuda, Patricia Noritake; Studer, Michael T; Whetten, Brady K

    2013-11-01

    The Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) measures the capacity to adapt gait to complex tasks. The current scoring system combining gait pattern (GP) and level of assistance (LOA) lacks clarity, and the test has a limited range of measurement. This study developed a new scoring system based on 3 facets of performance (LOA, GP, and time) and examined the psychometric properties of the modified DGI (mDGI). A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted. Nine hundred ninety-five participants (855 patients with neurologic pathology and mobility impairments [MI group] and 140 patients without neurological impairment [control group]) were tested. Interrater reliability was calculated using kappa coefficients. Internal consistency was computed using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. Factor analysis and Rasch analysis investigated unidimensionality and range of difficulty. Internal validity was determined by comparing groups using multiple t tests. Minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for total score and 3 facet scores using the reliability estimate for the alpha coefficients. Interrater agreement was strong, with kappa coefficients ranging from 90% to 98% for time scores, 59% to 88% for GP scores, and 84% to 100% for LOA scores. Test-retest correlations (r) for time, GP, and LOA were .91, .91, and .87, respectively. Three factors (time, LOA, GP) had eigenvalues greater than 1.3 and explained 79% of the variance in scores. All group differences were significant, with moderate to large effect sizes. The 95% minimal detectable change (MDC95) was 4 for the mDGI total score, 2 for the time and GP total scores, and 1 for the LOA total score. The limitations included uneven sample sizes in the 2 groups. The MI group were patients receiving physical therapy; therefore, they may not be representative of this population. The mDGI, with its expanded scoring system, improves the range, discrimination, and facets of measurement related to walking function. The strength of the

  18. Expanding the marine virosphere using metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco; Kimes, Nikole E; Ghai, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Viruses infecting prokaryotic cells (phages) are the most abundant entities of the biosphere and contain a largely uncharted wealth of genomic diversity. They play a critical role in the biology of their hosts and in ecosystem functioning at large. The classical approaches studying phages require isolation from a pure culture of the host. Direct sequencing approaches have been hampered by the small amounts of phage DNA present in most natural habitats and the difficulty in applying meta-omic approaches, such as annotation of small reads and assembly. Serendipitously, it has been discovered that cellular metagenomes of highly productive ocean waters (the deep chlorophyll maximum) contain significant amounts of viral DNA derived from cells undergoing the lytic cycle. We have taken advantage of this phenomenon to retrieve metagenomic fosmids containing viral DNA from a Mediterranean deep chlorophyll maximum sample. This method allowed description of complete genomes of 208 new marine phages. The diversity of these genomes was remarkable, contributing 21 genomic groups of tailed bacteriophages of which 10 are completely new. Sequence based methods have allowed host assignment to many of them. These predicted hosts represent a wide variety of important marine prokaryotic microbes like members of SAR11 and SAR116 clades, Cyanobacteria and also the newly described low GC Actinobacteria. A metavirome constructed from the same habitat showed that many of the new phage genomes were abundantly represented. Furthermore, other available metaviromes also indicated that some of the new phages are globally distributed in low to medium latitude ocean waters. The availability of many genomes from the same sample allows a direct approach to viral population genomics confirming the remarkable mosaicism of phage genomes.

  19. Expanding the marine virosphere using metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Megumi Mizuno

    Full Text Available Viruses infecting prokaryotic cells (phages are the most abundant entities of the biosphere and contain a largely uncharted wealth of genomic diversity. They play a critical role in the biology of their hosts and in ecosystem functioning at large. The classical approaches studying phages require isolation from a pure culture of the host. Direct sequencing approaches have been hampered by the small amounts of phage DNA present in most natural habitats and the difficulty in applying meta-omic approaches, such as annotation of small reads and assembly. Serendipitously, it has been discovered that cellular metagenomes of highly productive ocean waters (the deep chlorophyll maximum contain significant amounts of viral DNA derived from cells undergoing the lytic cycle. We have taken advantage of this phenomenon to retrieve metagenomic fosmids containing viral DNA from a Mediterranean deep chlorophyll maximum sample. This method allowed description of complete genomes of 208 new marine phages. The diversity of these genomes was remarkable, contributing 21 genomic groups of tailed bacteriophages of which 10 are completely new. Sequence based methods have allowed host assignment to many of them. These predicted hosts represent a wide variety of important marine prokaryotic microbes like members of SAR11 and SAR116 clades, Cyanobacteria and also the newly described low GC Actinobacteria. A metavirome constructed from the same habitat showed that many of the new phage genomes were abundantly represented. Furthermore, other available metaviromes also indicated that some of the new phages are globally distributed in low to medium latitude ocean waters. The availability of many genomes from the same sample allows a direct approach to viral population genomics confirming the remarkable mosaicism of phage genomes.

  20. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  1. Acute expanded perlite exposure with persistent reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chung-Li; Wang, Jung-Der; Chu, Po-Chin; Guo, Yue-Liang Leon

    2010-01-01

    Expanded perlite has been assumed as simple nuisance, however during an accidental spill out in Taiwan, among 24 exposed workers followed for more than 6 months, three developed persisted respiratory symptoms and positive provocation tests were compatible with reactive airway dysfunction syndrome. During simulation experiment expanded perlite is shown to be very dusty and greatly exceed current exposure permission level. Review of literature and evidence, though exposure of expanded perlite below permission level may be generally safe, precautionary protection of short term heavy exposure is warranted.

  2. The expanding problem of adipose depot remodeling and postnatal adipocyte progenitor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Chelsea; Gupta, Rana K

    2017-04-15

    The rising incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has increased the urgency in understanding all aspects of adipose tissue biology. This includes the function of adipocytes, how adipose tissue expands in obesity, and how expanded adipose tissues in adults can impact physiology. Here, we highlight the growing appreciation for the importance of de novo adipocyte differentiation to adipose tissue expansion in adult humans and animals. We detail recent efforts to identify adipose precursor populations that contribute to the physiological postnatal recruitment of white, brown, and beige adipocytes in mice, and summarize new data that reveal the complexity of adipose tissue development in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The impact of expanding Medicaid on health insurance coverage and labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David E; Jung, Younsoo

    2017-09-22

    Expansions of public health insurance have the potential to reduce the uninsured rate, but also to reduce coverage through employer-sponsored insurance (ESI), reduce labor supply, and increase job mobility. In January 2014, twenty-five states expanded Medicaid as part of the Affordable Care Act to low-income parents and childless adults. Using data from the 2011-2015 March Current Population Survey Supplements, we compare the changes in insurance coverage and labor market outcomes over time of adults in states that expanded Medicaid and in states that did not. Our estimates suggest that the recent expansion significantly increased Medicaid coverage with little decrease in ESI. Overall, the expansion did not impact labor market outcomes, including labor force participation, employment, and hours worked.

  4. CE: Tuberculosis: A New Screening Recommendation and an Expanded Approach to Elimination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmer, John; Allen, Leeanna; Walton, Wanda

    2017-08-01

    : Nurses play a critical role in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and in the prevention of tuberculosis transmission through infection control practices. To eliminate tuberculosis in the United States, however, an expanded approach to testing and treating people with latent tuberculosis infection must be implemented. Recently, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) issued a new recommendation statement on latent tuberculosis infection testing that expands nurses' opportunities to identify at-risk populations for tuberculosis prevention. In combination with newer testing methodologies and shorter treatment regimens, implementation of the USPSTF recommendation has the potential to remove previously existing barriers to screening and treatment of both patients and health care providers. This article provides a general overview of tuberculosis transmission, pathogenesis, and epidemiology; presents preventive care recommendations for targeted testing among high-risk groups; and discusses the USPSTF recommendation's applicability to public health and primary care practice in the United States.

  5. Global Analysis of Population Growth and Decline

    OpenAIRE

    Sneddon, Mark; Pearse, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Species of plants and animals have populations that are declining at a rapid rate and possibly face extinction. To combat this decline, we must first understand where and why species are declining. We compared known species population growth rates in the COMPADRE (7024 different plant populations) and COMADRE (1927 different animal populations) databases to a variety of possible factors and other databases.

  6. A comparative study of the removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions by bentonite and expanded perlite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakir, Achraf; Bessiere, Jacques; Kacemi, Kacem E L; Marouf, Bouchaïb

    2002-11-11

    Local bentonite and expanded perlite (Morocco) have been characterised and used for the removal of trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The kinetic study had showed that the uptake of Cr(III) by bentonite is very rapid compared to expanded perlite. To calculate the sorption capacities of the two sorbents, at different pH, the experimental data points have been fitted to the Freundlich and Langmuir models, respectively, for bentonite and expanded perlite. For both sorbents the sorption capacity increases with increasing the pH of the suspensions. The removal efficiency has been calculated for both sorbents resulting that bentonite (96% of Cr(III) was removed) is more effective in removing trivalent chromium from aqueous solution than expanded perlite (40% of Cr(III) was removed). In the absence of Cr(III) ions, both bentonite and expanded perlite samples yield negative zeta potential in the pH range of 2-11. The changes of expanded perlite charge, from negative to positive, observed after contact with trivalent chromium(III) solutions was related to Cr(III) sorption on the surface of the solid. Thus, it was concluded that surface complexation plays an important role in the sorption of Cr(III) species on expanded perlite. In the case of bentonite, cation-exchange is the predominate mechanism for sorption of trivalent chromium ions, wherefore no net changes of zeta potential was observed after Cr(III) sorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, at different pH values, were also made to corroborate the zeta potential results.

  7. Expanding the bandwidth of low level photo-electric amplifier using continuous equal-potential shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kai; Sun, Bin; Shi, Xueyou; Huang, Anfeng; Xi, Ruoyao

    2016-03-01

    For the low level current preamplifier circuits in photo-electric detection, the bandwidth and the low noise characteristics are usually contradictory, because the bandwidth is limited by the high value resistor and its inevitable parasitic capacitances, which together exhibit low-pass characteristics. To expand the bandwidth of low level current amplifier, a novel method is proposed by using continuous equal-potential shielding to eliminate the parasitic capacitances and expand the bandwidth. The shielded resistor contains three layers: the center is high value resistance strip; the top and bottom layers are high conductivity shielding films with same path to center strip. The surrounding electric field energy could be provided by shielding structure instead by high value resistor itself, so the parasitic capacitances would be greatly reduced. In this paper, the principle and the structure of the equal potential shielding are presented, and the possible results are predicted by finite element simulation. The simulation was conducted by the ultra-low current preamplifier with a trans-impedance gain of 50 GΩ. The results indicated that the parasitic capacitances reduced from 1.36×10-2pF to 1.18×10-3pF, meanwhile the bandwidth was expanded from 234.1 Hz to 2.43 kHz with more than 10 times of increase; the rise time decreased from 1.53ms to 0.085ms. The advantage of this method is that the bandwidth could be expanded without extra compensation; meanwhile the shielding layers improve the noise immunity. This method is suitable for the demand of rapid response to low level current in photo-electric detection field, such as scanning tunneling microscopy and laser radar.

  8. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  9. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  10. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  11. REGIONAL MULTILATERAL DEVELOPMENT BANKS. External Audit Reporting Could Be Expanded

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    While the traditional role of the external audit function is to express an independent opinion on an entity's financial statements, this role has increasingly been expanded to include reviews of internal control...

  12. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  13. Development of a New Air Liquide Cryogenic Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, G.; Courty, J. C.; Delcayre, F.; Drevard, L.; Durand, F.; Gianese, P.

    2006-04-01

    Air Liquide's Advanced Technology Division is a manufacturer of cryogenic expanders. More than 450 units are now working around the world, mainly dedicated to liquefiers, refrigerators and H2-CO purification units. In order to cope with the power increase of these units, a new expander called "TC7" has been developed and tested. This expander permits turbine wheel diameters up to 110 mm, while the other units of the range (from TC3 to TC6, by increasing wheel diameter) are limited to 78 mm. The maximum flow rate is therefore doubled. The main technical features of the existing range have been kept, and adapted in size: static radial and thrust bearings, low loss casing, variety of wheel shapes (radial-radial shrouded or un-shrouded, radial-axial). This paper describes the main design characteristics of this new expander, together with manufacturing aspects and test results.

  14. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  15. Invading and Expanding: Range Dynamics and Ecological Consequences of the Greater White-Toothed Shrew (Crocidura russula) Invasion in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Allan D.; Montgomery, W. Ian; Tosh, David G.; Lusby, John; Reid, Neil; White, Thomas A.; McDevitt, C. Damien; O'Halloran, John; Searle, Jeremy B.; Yearsley, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus), previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013) to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008–2013), and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012–2013 showing rates of 2.4–14.1 km/yr, 0.5–7.1 km/yr and 0–5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island. PMID:24955824

  16. Invading and expanding: range dynamics and ecological consequences of the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula invasion in Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan D McDevitt

    Full Text Available Establishing how invasive species impact upon pre-existing species is a fundamental question in ecology and conservation biology. The greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula is an invasive species in Ireland that was first recorded in 2007 and which, according to initial data, may be limiting the abundance/distribution of the pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus, previously Ireland's only shrew species. Because of these concerns, we undertook an intensive live-trapping survey (and used other data from live-trapping, sightings and bird of prey pellets/nest inspections collected between 2006 and 2013 to model the distribution and expansion of C. russula in Ireland and its impacts on Ireland's small mammal community. The main distribution range of C. russula was found to be approximately 7,600 km2 in 2013, with established outlier populations suggesting that the species is dispersing with human assistance within the island. The species is expanding rapidly for a small mammal, with a radial expansion rate of 5.5 km/yr overall (2008-2013, and independent estimates from live-trapping in 2012-2013 showing rates of 2.4-14.1 km/yr, 0.5-7.1 km/yr and 0-5.6 km/yr depending on the landscape features present. S. minutus is negatively associated with C. russula. S. minutus is completely absent at sites where C. russula is established and is only present at sites at the edge of and beyond the invasion range of C. russula. The speed of this invasion and the homogenous nature of the Irish landscape may mean that S. minutus has not had sufficient time to adapt to the sudden appearance of C. russula. This may mean the continued decline/disappearance of S. minutus as C. russula spreads throughout the island.

  17. Self-Expanding, Tough Biodegradable Elastomers for Wound Stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    the civilian setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self- expanding polyurethane foam...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Arsenal...setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self-expanding polyurethane foam significantly

  18. Expanding the concept of sustainable seafood using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Friederike; Hornborg, Sara; Green, Bridget S

    2016-01-01

    Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global-scale environm......Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global...

  19. An Expanded CAG Repeat in Huntingtin Causes +1 Frameshifting*

    OpenAIRE

    Saffert, Paul; Adamla, Frauke; Schieweck, Rico; Atkins, John F.; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-01-01

    Maintenance of triplet decoding is crucial for the expression of functional protein because deviations either into the −1 or +1 reading frames are often non-functional. We report here that expression of huntingtin (Htt) exon 1 with expanded CAG repeats, implicated in Huntington pathology, undergoes a sporadic +1 frameshift to generate from the CAG repeat a trans-frame AGC repeat-encoded product. This +1 recoding is exclusively detected in pathological Htt variants, i.e. those with expanded re...

  20. An Expanded Model of Distributed Leadership in Organizational Knowledge Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Cannatelli, B.; Smith, B. J.; Giudici, A.; Jones, J; Conger, M.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a three-year qualitative, longitudinal case study of a social venture partnership, we extend the understanding of distributed leadership in organizational knowledge creation. We develop an expanded model of distributed leadership that identifies the antecedents, different forms, and enablers of distributed leadership in knowledge creation. Our findings move beyond a static and monolithic understanding of distributed leadership to illustrate how an expanded model informs the situation...

  1. Chronic expanding hematoma in the retroperitoneal space: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuto, Takahiro; Hatori, Motoaki; Masashi, Nomura; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2013-11-18

    Chronic expanding hematoma is a rare condition that develops after surgery, trauma, or injury. It can also develop at any location in the body in the absence of trauma. Clinical findings and various diagnostic imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of this condition. In general, hematomas are naturally reabsorbed and rarely cause serious problems. However, hematomas that develop slowly without a history of trauma, surgery, or bleeding disorders could be difficult to differentiate from soft tissue neoplasms. In the present case, we describe a patient, without any history or physical evidence of trauma, who exhibited a large chronic expanding hematoma in the retroperitoneal space that resulted in hydronephrosis because of the pressure exerted on the left ureter. A 69-year-old man presented to our hospital with a swollen lesion in the left flank. A mass, 19 cm in diameter, was detected in the retroperitoneal space by computed tomography. We suspected the presence of a chronic expanding hematoma, soft tissue tumor, or left renal artery aneurysm. Surgical treatment was performed. However, postoperative histopathological examination indicated that the mass was a nonmalignant chronic expanding hematoma. No recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. In patients without a history of trauma who present slowly growing masses, the differential diagnosis should include chronic expanding hematoma in addition to cysts and soft tissue tumors. Moreover, the use of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography is essential to differentiate between chronic expanding hematoma and soft tissue tumors.

  2. Rapid detection of genetic modification for GMO monitoring in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sofija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transgenic technology has expanded the ways of new genetic variability creation. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs are organisms which total genome is altered in a way that could not happen in nature. GM crops recorded a steady increase in its share in agricultural production. However, for the most part, GMO in agriculture has been limited to two cultivars - soy and corn, and the two genetic modifications, the total herbicide resistance and pest of the Lepidoptera genus. In order to monitor cultivation and trade of GMOs, tests of different precision are used, qualitatively and/or quantitatively determining the presence of genetic modification. Tests for the rapid determination of the presence of GM are suitable, since they can be implemented quickly and accurately, in terms of declared sensitivity, outside or in the laboratory. The example of the use of rapid tests demonstrates their value in use for rapid and efficient monitoring.

  3. Expanding the eco-evolutionary context of herbicide resistance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Paul; Busi, Roberto; Renton, Michael; Vila-Aiub, Martin M

    2014-09-01

    The potential for human-driven evolution in economically and environmentally important organisms in medicine, agriculture and conservation management is now widely recognised. The evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds is a classic example of rapid adaptation in the face of human-mediated selection. Management strategies that aim to slow or prevent the evolution of herbicide resistance must be informed by an understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that drive selection in weed populations. Here, we argue for a greater focus on the ultimate causes of selection for resistance in herbicide resistance studies. The emerging fields of eco-evolutionary dynamics and applied evolutionary biology offer a means to achieve this goal and to consider herbicide resistance in a broader and sometimes novel context. Four relevant research questions are presented, which examine (i) the impact of herbicide dose on selection for resistance, (ii) plant fitness in herbicide resistance studies, (iii) the efficacy of herbicide rotations and mixtures and (iv) the impacts of gene flow on resistance evolution and spread. In all cases, fundamental ecology and evolution have the potential to offer new insights into herbicide resistance evolution and management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  5. eRME - Rapid Maxillary Expansion in the economic way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Mahadevia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objectives: Rapid Maxillary Expansion constitutes a routine clinical procedure in orthodontics, involving separation of mid-palatine suture which is usually done with help of the Hyrax screw. However, because of its high cost, the use has been limited, especially in institutions. So, the purpose of this study was to construct an economical device which can expand the maxillary arch in growing patients. Materials and Methods: Six patients having constricted maxilla and posterior skeletal crossbite were randomly selected from the Department of Orthodontics. A unique, easy and simple alternative device for expanding the maxillary arch called economic Rapid Maxillary Expander (eRME has been fabricated at about one-tenth the cost of the conventional Hyrax. Pre- and post-treatment effects were statistically tested by using paired t-test at 0.05 level of significance. Results and Conclusion: The study results showed an average expansion in canine, premolar and molar regions of 4.4 mm, 6.8 mm and 9.4 mm, respectively, having significant difference pre-and post-treatment. Thus, it shows that maxillary expansion is efficiently possible with the application of this newly constructed device named eRME. This appliance also acts as a fixed retainer to avoid relapse, hence negating the need for a separate retainer.

  6. South Asian co-operation in population programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M A

    1989-12-01

    Efforts by governments of South Asian countries to improve the economic growth and welfare of the people are being negated by high fertility. In some countries, the expenditures on health programs have increased and the programs have expanded rapidly without any concomitant improvement in efficiency or cost-effectiveness. This highlights the urgency of tackling the problems of not only population growth but also of managing population programs. There are similarities as well as differences in the management of population programs in the South Asian countries. Bangladesh has a population policy with a strong political will behind it. It also has a sound administrative structure and organization. Some areas that need attention are building up the operational relationship between health and family planning personnel, improved infrastructure development, more community involvement, and better evaluation. Some states in India have shown outstanding success in population programs, and some have successfully experimented with beyond family planning methods. A greater awareness of family planning among health staff, a solid information base for decision making, and management training for medical officers and staff are also needed. Pakistan's population program has had uneven results in the past, but it has now developed multi-sectoral components in decentralized field activities, involvement of local organizations and leaders, and better information, education, and social marketing, but it still needs to plan for evaluation and strengthen management training. Of the South Asian countries, Sri Lanka, with a high level of literacy and health care, has shown the best achievement in its social sector. The coverage through the maternal and child health service delivery system has been commendable with 94% of deliveries through institutions. Regional meetings have identified program management problem areas in 1) planning, control, and coordination of program implementation, 2

  7. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary adaptation to toxic pollution in wild fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl h...

  8. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  9. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  10. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Expanding Global Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    M’Koma, Amosy E.

    2013-01-01

    This review provides a summary of the global epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). It is now clear that IBD is increasing worldwide and has become a global emergence disease. IBD, which includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has been considered a problem in industrial-urbanized societies and attributed largely to a Westernized lifestyle and other associated environmental factors. Its incidence and prevalence in developing countries is steadily rising and has been attributed to the rapid modernization and Westernization of the population. There is a need to reconcile the most appropriate treatment for these patient populations from the perspectives of both disease presentation and cost. In the West, biological agents are the fastest-growing segment of the prescription drug market. These agents cost thousands of dollars per patient per year. The healthcare systems, and certainly the patients, in developing countries will struggle to afford such expensive treatments. The need for biological therapy will inevitably increase dramatically, and the pharmaceutical industry, healthcare providers, patient advocate groups, governments and non-governmental organizations should come to a consensus on how to handle this problem. The evidence that IBD is now affecting a much younger population presents an additional concern. Meta-analyses conducted in patients acquiring IBD at a young age also reveals a trend for their increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), since the cumulative incidence rates of CRC in IBD-patients diagnosed in childhood are higher than those observed in adults. In addition, IBD-associated CRC has a worse prognosis than sporadic CRC, even when the stage at diagnosis is taken into account. This is consistent with additional evidence that IBD negatively impacts CRC survival. A continuing increase in IBD incidence worldwide associated with childhood-onset of IBD coupled with the diseases’ longevity and an increase

  12. Rapid development of fungicide resistance by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Chang, Seog Won; Boehm, Michael; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-12-01

    Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is the most prevalent and economically important turfgrass disease in North America. Increasing levels of fungicide resistance, coupled with tightening environmental scrutiny of existing fungicides, has left fewer options for managing dollar spot. More knowledge about S. homoeocarpa populations is needed to improve dollar spot management strategies, especially with respect to minimizing the development of fungicide resistance. Population diversity of S. homoeocarpa was examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers and vegetative compatibility assays. Two subgroups were found in S. homoeocarpa field populations on both fairway and putting green turfgrass at a research field in Wisconsin. These subgroups were genetically different, vegetatively incompatible, and had different fungicide sensitivities. The frequency of the two genetic subgroups differed significantly between the fairway and putting green, but was uniform within the fairway or within the green. Population dynamics of S. homoeocarpa in response to two systemic fungicides (thiophanate-methyl and propiconazole) were assessed based on in vitro fungicide sensitivity. Dynamics of S. homoeocarpa populations depended on the presence of fungicide-resistant isolates in the initial populations before fungicide applications and changed rapidly after fungicide applications. Shifting of the population toward propiconazole resistance was gradual, whereas thiophanate-methyl resistance developed rapidly in the population. In conclusion, field populations of S. homoeocarpa containing genetically distinct, vegetatively incompatible groups were different on turfgrass that was managed differently, and they were changed rapidly after exposure to fungicides.

  13. The case for expanding the definition of 'key populations' to include ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    soldiers, internally displaced people, refugees, and orphans and ... 2 Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, South ..... move towards universal healthcare should be lauded; however,.

  14. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  15. The technique of sand control with expandable screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P. [Petrochina, Liaohe (China). Liaohe Oilfield Co.

    2009-07-01

    Sand production in heavy oil reservoirs can limit the normal production of oil wells. In this study, expandable screens were used as a sand control mechanism by filtering the sand as it entered the wellbore. The screen systems consists of an expandable outer housing, an expandable base pipe and a filtering layer. The screen expands radially through an expandable cone and presses into the casing well. Axial tension is used to shrink the screens radially through a fishing anchor in order to remove them from the well. The lack of a sand ring between the screen and the casing increases the flow area of the oil and reduces flow resistance caused by fine silt blockages. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to study the expansion and shrinkage properties of the screens. A field test conducted at a well located in the Liaohe oilfield in China demonstrated that good sand control results can be obtained without the need for pump checking. It was concluded that the sand control method is easy to use and provides good sand control results in large open flow areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Research and Development of a Convertible Use Rapidly Expandable Model for Response to Disasters and Mass Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    bacteria, fungi, viruses, smoke , ozone, volatile organic compounds, and poisonous or noxious gases. Independent portable isolation units can convert...Marianne Kolbasuk McGee InformationWeek June 25, 2008 03:30 PM GPS-enabled cell phones and other mobile location-tracking technologies used for

  17. A Prospective Analysis of Dynamic Loss of Breast Projection in Tissue Expander-Implant Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Mioton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBreast projection is a critical element of breast reconstruction aesthetics, but little has been published regarding breast projection as the firm expander is changed to a softer implant. Quantitative data representing this loss in projection may enhance patient education and improve our management of patient expectations.MethodsFemale patients who were undergoing immediate tissue-expander breast reconstruction with the senior author were enrolled in this prospective study. Three-dimensional camera software was used for all patient photographs and data analysis. Projection was calculated as the distance between the chest wall and the point of maximal projection of the breast form. Values were calculated for final tissue expander expansion and at varying intervals 3, 6, and 12 months after implant placement.ResultsFourteen breasts from 12 patients were included in the final analysis. Twelve of the 14 breasts had a loss of projection at three months following the implant placement or beyond. The percentage of projection lost in these 12 breasts ranged from 6.30% to 43.4%, with an average loss of projection of 21.05%.ConclusionsThis study is the first prospective quantitative analysis of temporal changes in breast projection after expander-implant reconstruction. By prospectively capturing projection data with three-dimensional photographic software, we reveal a loss of projection in this population by three months post-implant exchange. These findings will not only aid in managing patient expectations, but our methodology provides a foundation for future objective studies of the breast form.

  18. Expanded bed adsorption of an alkaline lipase from Pseudomona cepacia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Padilha, Giovana; Curvelo-Santana, José Carlos; Alegre, Ranulfo Monte; Tambourgi, Elias Basile

    2009-02-15

    An extracellular lipase was isolated from Pseudomona cepacia by expanded bed adsorption on an Amberlite 410 ion-exchange resin. Enzyme characterization and hydrodynamic study of a chromatography column were done. Enzyme purification was done at three condition of expanded bed height (H): at one and half (6cm), at two (8cm) and at three (12cm) times the fixed bed height (H(0)=4cm). The results showed that the experimental data was fitted to the Richardson and Zaki equation, and the comparison between the experimental and calculated terminal velocities showed low relative error. In enzyme purification for better condition, a purification factor of about 80 times was found at 6cm of expanded bed height, or 1.5 times of expansion degree. Purified lipase had an optimal pH and a temperature of 8 and 37 degrees C, respectively.

  19. Financial Burdens and Economic Costs in Expanding Urban Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, David H.; Snyder, Thomas P.

    1987-07-01

    Rates of growth of demand, lengths of financing periods, real interest rates, and the types of facilities are shown to be important variables in evaluating the equity (or inequity) between established residents and new-development residents when urban water and sewer facilities are expanded with public financing. Established residents pay less than the economic cost of facilities when facilities that can be efficiently expanded in an incremental manner are subject to demands that are growing at rates that are less than the real interest rate. They pay more than the economic cost when growth occurs at higher rates. When facilities are expanded at multiyear intervals with excess capacity, payments are equated to costs at lower growth rates. Similarly, increasing real costs of facilities shift that breakpoint to lower growth rates. Modest one-time changes can be used to offset burdens on established residents when inequities do occur. Inflation has little effect on these results.

  20. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni