WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly expanding market

  1. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  2. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  3. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of rapid palatal expander screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. Methods Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S”, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S” for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S.P., Target Baby REP Veltri, and Leone A 362113. A test expander with the mean dimensions taken from measurements on a sample of 100 expanders was constructed for each screw. The test expanders were connected to the supports of an Instron 4467 (Instron Corp., USA mechanical testing machine equipped with a 500 N load cell, and the compression force exerted after each activation was measured. The mean forces expressed by the two- and four-arm expanders were then compared. Results After five activations, the forces expressed by the two-arm devices were double than those expressed by the four-arm devices on average (224 ± 59.9 N vs. 103 ± 32.9 N, and such values remained high after subsequent activations. Conclusions The expanders tested demonstrated stiffness characteristics compatible with opening of the palatine sutures in pre-adolescent patients. The stiffness of such devices can be further increased during the construction phase.

  4. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... as the Transmission System Operator (TSO) requests demand response and the winning endusers are disconnected immediately if the TSO accepts the result of the auction. The endusers are compensated with a uniform auction price job by job and the Aggregator receives part of the surplus. The simulation captures...

  5. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  6. Critical ignition in rapidly expanding self-similar flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Maxwell, Brian M.

    2010-06-01

    The generic problem of ignition of a particle undergoing an expansion given by a power law rate of decay behind a decaying shock is addressed in the present study. It is demonstrated, using a one-step Arrhenius irreversible reaction, that a sufficiently strong expansion wave can quench the reaction. The critical conditions for extinction are obtained in closed form in terms of the time scale for the expansion process and the thermochemical properties of the gas, yielding a critical Damkohler number, i.e., the ratio of the expansion time scale to the homogeneous ignition time scale, given by (γ -1)(Ea/RT)-1/n, where n is the power law exponent of the self-similar expansion. The critical ignition criteria, which are valid in the asymptotic limit n(γ -1)(Ea/RT)=O(1), were found in excellent agreement with numerical results. The applicability of the results obtained are discussed for ignition in rapidly expanding flows which occur behind decaying shock waves, as encountered in problems of detonation initiation by a Taylor-Sedov blast wave, and reacting jet startup, and for reactions in steady hypersonic flows around projectiles.

  7. Expanding Marketing Principles for the Sale of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Denis; Mills, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper will develop and explain a conceptual framework for the use of business industry marketing techniques within the higher educational spectrum. This framework will demonstrate how sound marketing management can help higher education increase its effectiveness and improve student interest, as well as encourage the development of managerial…

  8. India: When cities expand too rapidly | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... “If you walk around Bangalore,” she continues, “the first thing you notice is how much everything is expanding – roads, buildings, everything.” As a result, the inhabitants must gradually change their way of life. “No one wants to stay in agriculture because it's easier to find work in the city,” explains Srinivasan ...

  9. Farmers’ Market Expands to Offer Products in Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer The 2013 National Cancer Institute (NCI) at Frederick Farmers’ Market regular season may have closed, but that doesn’t mean customers who want fresh produce, handmade crafts, and other homemade goodies from local vendors are out of luck. Winter Markets, which began Jan. 7, will be held every other Tuesday, from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m., in front of Building 549 or in the Café Room, depending on the weather.

  10. Maxillary ulceration resulting from using a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Maia, Luiz Guilherme [UNESP; Monini, Andre da Costa [UNESP; Jacob, Helder Baldi; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga

    2011-01-01

    One of the characteristics of diabetes mellitus is the exaggerated inflammatory response. The present report shows the reaction from the use of a rapid maxillary expander in a diabetic patient. A 9-year-old child presented an uncommon reaction to the treatment with a rapid maxillary expander, and on follow-up examination, it was discovered that the patient had diabetes mellitus. After controlling the disease, the proposed treatment was used without further incidents. The case calls attention ...

  11. Gas elephants: Arctic projects revived by expanding markets and pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, G.

    2000-01-03

    The revival of interest in Arctic natural gas and the developing competition to extend the pipeline grid to Alaska and the Yukon and the Northwest territories are the subject of this report. Substantial agreement between competing interest groups is reported with respect to the need for Arctic gas and the willingness of the market to pay for bringing it south to consumers. The discussion centers on the construction of the Alliance Pipeline Project that will reportedly bring two billion cubic feet per day of excess capacity to transport natural gas from northeastern British Columbia to Chicago, and the 2,400 km long Foothills Pipelines System that carries about one-third of Canadian gas exports to middle-western states and California. Plans are to extend the line to 5,240 km by laying pipe in a giant Y pattern between Prudhoe Bay and the Mackenzie delta in the north, and the start of the Foothills System at Caroline in central Alberta. The estimated cost of the line is about $US 6 billion, using a 36-inch diameter line at increased pressures in place of the 56-inch diameter pipe used in the 1970s. Construction plans are similar for the rest of the big Y, the Dempster Lateral beside the Dempster Highway between Whitehorse and Inuvik. A competing project, the Northern Gas Pipeline Project is also discussed. This line would run east of Prudhoe Bay under the Beaufort Sea to the Mackenzie Delta; then south along the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. Cost of this line is also estimated at $US 6 billion, however, it would have a capacity of four billion cubic feet per day, including 2.5 billion cubic feet from Alaska and 1.5 billion cubic feet from Canada. Strong revival of interest is also reported from the supply side, with BP Amoco, ARCO, Chevron Canada Resources, Ranger 0il Ltd., Paramount Resources, Berkley Petroleum Corporation, Canadian Forest Oil, Alberta Energy Company, Petro-Canada, Anderson Resources, and Poco Petroleum Ltd., all showing interest to mount new

  12. School Principals as Marketing Managers: The Expanding Role of Marketing for School Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anast-May, Linda; Mitchell, Mark; Buckner, Barbara Chesler; Elsberry, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance that school principals attach to aspects of their role as marketing managers for their schools and their relative satisfaction with their efforts to date. The study included 60 principals from two school districts. Findings suggest that principals are aware of the importance of marketing in today's…

  13. The impact of expanding Medicaid on health insurance coverage and labor market outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David E; Jung, Younsoo

    2017-09-22

    Expansions of public health insurance have the potential to reduce the uninsured rate, but also to reduce coverage through employer-sponsored insurance (ESI), reduce labor supply, and increase job mobility. In January 2014, twenty-five states expanded Medicaid as part of the Affordable Care Act to low-income parents and childless adults. Using data from the 2011-2015 March Current Population Survey Supplements, we compare the changes in insurance coverage and labor market outcomes over time of adults in states that expanded Medicaid and in states that did not. Our estimates suggest that the recent expansion significantly increased Medicaid coverage with little decrease in ESI. Overall, the expansion did not impact labor market outcomes, including labor force participation, employment, and hours worked.

  14. Expanding Energy Performance Contracting in china: policy solutions and market mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Meng, Lu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shi, Wenjing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Roshchanka, Volha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-07-19

    Energy performance contracting is an important market mechanism that uses energy savings to pay over time for the upfront costs of energy efficiency retrofits in buildings, industries, and other types of facilities. Through energy performance contracts (EPCs), Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) play an important role in implementing energy efficiency retrofits. Both China and the United States have large markets for EPCs and significant opportunities for growth. The Chinese government has made great efforts in promoting the country’s ESCO business and expanding its EPC markets. This paper makes a series of recommendations for China to adopt more ambitious policy measures to encourage deep energy savings projects via EPCs. These recommendations are built on initial insights from a white paper developed by researchers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with the assistance from the ESCO Committee of China’s Energy Conservation Association (EMCA). Key recommendations are listed below.

  15. Market Channels of Technology Startups that Internationalize Rapidly from Inception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simar Yoos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of technology startups that internationalize rapidly from inception has increased in recent years. However, little is known about their channels to market. This article addresses a gap in the "born global" literature by examining the channels used by six startups that internationalized rapidly from inception as well as the programs they used to support their channel partners and customers. The six startups examined combined the use of the Internet with: i a relationship with a multi-national, ii distributors, iii re-sellers, or iv a direct sales force. They also delivered programs to support partners and customers that focused on communications, alliance and network development, education, marketing and promotion, and financial incentives. This article informs entrepreneurs who need to design go-to-market channels to exploit global opportunities about decisions made by other entrepreneurs who launched born-global companies. Normative rules and practitioner-oriented approaches are needed to help entrepreneurs explain and apply the results presented in this article.

  16. Miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander (MARPE: the quest for pure orthopedic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Suzuki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The midpalatal suture has bone margins with thick connective tissue interposed between them, and it does not represent the fusion of maxillary palatal processes only, but also the fusion of palatal processes of the jaws and horizontal osseous laminae of palatal bones. Changing it implies affecting neighboring areas. It has got three segments that should be considered by all clinical analyses, whether therapeutic or experimental: the anterior segment (before the incisive foramen, or intermaxillary segment, the middle segment (from the incisive foramen to the suture transversal to the palatal bone and the posterior segment (after the suture transversal to the palatal bone . Rapid palatal expansion might be recommended for patients at the final pubertal growth stage, in addition to adult patients with maxillary constriction. It represents a treatment solution that can potentially avoid surgical intervention. When performed in association with rapid palatal expanders, it might enhance the skeletal effects of the latter. Of the various designs of expansion appliances, MARPE (miniscrew-assisted rapid palatal expander has been modified in order to allow its operational advantages and outcomes to become familiar in the clinical practice.

  17. Geothermal energy and the utility market -- the opportunities and challenges for expanding geothermal energy in a competitive supply market: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year's conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,'' focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. A systematic analysis of online marketing materials used by providers of expanded carrier screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokoshvili, Davit; Borry, Pascal; Vears, Danya F

    2017-12-14

    PurposeExpanded carrier screening (ECS) for a large number of recessive disorders is available to prospective parents through commercial providers. This study aimed to analyze the content of marketing materials on ECS providers' websites.MethodsTo identify providers of ECS tests, we undertook a comprehensive online search, reviewed recent academic literature on commercial carrier screening, and consulted with colleagues familiar with the current ECS landscape. The identified websites were archived in April 2017, and inductive content analysis was performed on website text, brochures and educational materials, and video transcripts.ResultsWe identified 18 ECS providers, including 16 commercial genetic testing companies. Providers typically described ECS as an important family planning tool. The content differed in both the tone used to promote ECS and the accuracy and completeness of the test information provided. We found that most providers offered complimentary genetic counseling to their consumers, although this was often optional, limited to the posttest context, and, in some cases, appeared to be available only to test-positive individuals.ConclusionThe quality of ECS providers' websites could be improved by offering more complete and accurate information about ECS and their tests. Providers should also ensure that all carrier couples receive posttest genetic counseling to inform their subsequent reproductive decision making.Genet Med advance online publication, 14 December 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.222.

  19. EXCIMER-LASER ABLATION OF SOFT-TISSUE - A STUDY OF THE CONTENT OF RAPIDLY EXPANDING AND COLLAPSING BUBBLES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, T. G.; Jansen, E. D.; Motamedi, M.; Welch, A. J.; Borst, C.

    1994-01-01

    Both holmium (lambda = 2.09 mum) and excimer (lambda = 308 nm) lasers are used for ablation of tissue. In a previous study, excimer laser ablation of aorta produced rapidly expanding and collapsing vapor bubbles. To investigate whether the excimer-induced bubble is caused by vaporization of (tissue)

  20. Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook Available for an Expanding Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, Ben C.; Lienau, Paul J.

    1989-03-21

    The Geothermal direct use industry potential, growth trends, needs, and how they are being met, are addressed. The high potential for industry growth, coupled with a rapidly expanding use of geothermal energy for direct use, and concerns over the greenhouse effect is the setting in which a new engineering and design guidebook is being issued to support the growth of the geothermal direct use industry. Recent investigations about the current status of the industry and the identification of technical needs of current operating district heating systems provide the basis upon which this paper and the guidebook is presented. The guidebook, prepared under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, attempts to impart a comprehensive understanding of information important to the development of geothermal direct use projects. The text is aimed toward the engineer or technical person responsible for project design and development. The practical and technical nature of the guidebook answers questions most commonly asked in a wide range of topics including geology, exploration, well drilling, reservoir engineering, mechanical engineering, cost analysis, regulations, and environmental aspects.

  1. Marketing of banana and banana products in Uganda: Results of a rapid rural appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Digges, Philip

    1994-01-01

    This report concerns a survey undertaken by NRI in Uganda during September and December 1993, which sought to characterise the banana and banana beer marketing systems. The study follows on from the recommendations of the Banana Based Cropping System Rapid Rural Appraisal (1991), and focuses upon the Kampala market.

  2. Farmer's market, demonstration gardens, and research projects expand outreach of Extension Master Gardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Bennett; Ellen M. Bauske; Alison Stoven O' Connor; Jean Reeder; Carol Busch; Heidi A. Kratsch; Elizabeth Leger; Angela O' Callaghan; Peter J. Nitzche; Jim Downer

    2013-01-01

    Extension Master Gardener (EMG) volunteers are central to expanding the outreach and engagement of extension staff. A workshop format was used at the Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science on 31 July 2012 in Miami, FL to identify successful management techniques and projects that expand EMG volunteer outreach, leading to increased extension...

  3. Do newly marketed generic medicines expand markets using descriptive time series analysis and mixed logit models? Korea as an exemplar and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hye-Young; Godman, Brian

    2016-04-14

    There have been concerns in Korea that the availability of cheaper generics can appreciably increase prescribed volumes thereby negating their beneficial effects on overall pharmaceutical expenditure. Consequently, this study aimed to explore market changes after newly entered generics including market expansion and substitution effects, and to examine factors contributing to the prescribing of newly entered generics using atorvastatin as an exemplar. This is because previous studies have shown market expansion had occurred following generic atorvastatin. Explore market expansion effects by extracting all statins users from July 2008 to June 2010 from the nationally representative dataset of 2008, combined with the National Health Insurance Claims data, with atorvastatin's patent expiring in July 2008. The data consisted of medical visit episodes of patients who had been prescribed statins at least once during the observational period. Patients who had been prescribed any statin before the observation period were classified as the previously treated group and those who had not as the newly treated group. Descriptive time series analysis was conducted and the mixed logit model applied to understand factors contributing to generic atorvastatin prescriptions. Market expansion was observed after generic atorvastatin availability with an appreciable increase in number of newly treated patients, whereas substitution effect was found among previously treated patients. Newly treated patients tended to get significantly lower daily doses (p < 0.0001). According to the mixed logistic analysis, newly treated patients were more likely to be prescribed generic atorvastatin (OR = 2.58; 95% CI, 2.05-3.26) than their counterparts. Clinicians and secondary hospitals were also key drivers of generic atorvastatin (ORs were 10.41 and 9.81, respectively). Newly marketed generic statins in Korea resulted in an expanding market by substantially increasing the number of new patients with

  4. Expanding the framework of the varieties of capitalism: Turkey as a hierarchical market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyan Kıran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article both extends the debate on the varieties of capitalism theory beyond the existing literature to solve the ambiguous position of the variety of capitalism that is found in Turkey and brings a novel approach to the studies of the political economy of Turkey by adopting a firm-centred position using the varieties of capitalism framework. Based on a qualitative comparison with the dependent market economies (DMEs, mixed market economies (MMEs and hierarchical market economies (HMEs, this article claims that Turkey is a hierarchical market economy with four characteristic features that are also found in Latin American economies. These core features are the dominance of the family-owned diversified business groups, state-regimented and weak industrial relations, low skills and the influence of MNCs.

  5. Freedom as a source of constraint : expanding market discipline through free movement

    OpenAIRE

    SAYDÉ, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Free movement increases the degree of market discipline within every Member State by exposing domestic workers and businesses to competitive pressures coming from other Member States. However, the nature of this amplifying effect on market discipline is fundamentally different depending on whether free movement is interpreted as requiring national treatment (chiefly in relation to workers, with the notable exception of posted workers) or mutual recognition (chiefly in the areas of goods, serv...

  6. Managing the social impacts of the rapidly-expanding extractive industries in Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Vanclay, Frank; Croal, Peter; Skjervedal, Anna Sofie Hurup

    2016-01-01

    The recent rapid expansion of extractive industries in Greenland is both causing high hopes for the future and anxieties among the local population. In the Arctic context, even small projects carry risks of major social impacts at local and national scales, and have the potential to severely affect

  7. Managing the social impacts of the rapidly expanding extractive industries in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Vanclay, Frank; Croal, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The recent rapid expansion of extractive industries in Greenland is both causing high hopes for the future and anxieties among the local population. In the Arctic context, even small projects carry risks of major social impacts at local and national scales, and have the potential to severely affect...

  8. Major Markets, Real Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anita Hawser

    2015-01-01

      Islamic banking, long focused on core markets like Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and the UAE, has been expanding rapidly, as other nations seek to access the global pool of Islamic investors to help finance...

  9. Expanding Markets: Foreign Direct Investment as a Lesson in Economic Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalafsky, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Firms face numerous challenges when looking to invest internationally, not the least of which includes understanding the business environment of a new market. Given the expansion and impacts of foreign direct investment (FDI), it has become increasingly important for students to understand and analyze the motivations, concerns, and strategies of…

  10. Bridging the Gap: The Case for Expanding Ethnographic Techniques in the Marketing Research Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lynne; Spanjaard, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    This article challenges the content of most marketing research courses whereby students are indoctrinated into the qualitative-then-quantitative archetype commonly found in scholarly research, under the assumption that it is both sufficient and appropriate when equipping students with the necessary skills for business. By following this standard…

  11. Rapid Ultrasound in Shock (RUSH) Velocity-Time Integral: A Proposal to Expand the RUSH Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Pablo; Aguiar, Francisco Miralles; Blaivas, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound assessment of patients in shock is becoming the standard of care in emergency and critical care settings worldwide. One of the most common protocols used for this assessment is the rapid ultrasound in shock (RUSH) examination. The RUSH protocol is a rapid evaluation of cardiac function, key vascular structures, and likely sources of hypotension. Stroke volume is an established important value to assess in the setting of shock, allowing the provider to predict the patient's response to treatment. However, the calculation of stroke volume or its surrogates is not part of any protocol, including RUSH. We propose the addition of ultrasound calculation of stroke volume or surrogates to the RUSH protocol and provide support for its utility and relative ease of calculation. The resulting product would be the RUSH velocity-time integral protocol. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Camouflage treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion with asymmetry using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Kim, Seong-Hun; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-03-01

    This case report presents the successful use of palatal mini-implants for rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular distalization in a skeletal Class III malocclusion. The patient was a 13-year-old girl with the chief complaint of facial asymmetry and a protruded chin. Camouflage orthodontic treatment was chosen, acknowledging the possibility of need for orthognathic surgery after completion of her growth. A bone-borne rapid expander (BBRME) was used to correct the transverse discrepancy and was then used as indirect anchorage for distalization of the lower dentition with Class III elastics. As a result, a Class I occlusion with favorable inclination of the upper teeth was achieved without any adverse effects. The total treatment period was 25 months. Therefore, BBRME can be considered an alternative treatment in skeletal Class III malocclusion.

  13. Marketing or strategy? Defining the best approach to expand the anesthesiology workforce in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael C; Grant, Gilbert J

    2015-01-01

    There is a chronic shortage of anesthesiologists in Israel. The study by Cohen et al. suggests that a marketing campaign may be one method of addressing this shortage. This commentary argues for a more comprehensive strategy based on the US experience. This would not only involve marketing as suggested by Cohen et al. but would also involve a fundamental change in the Israel anesthesia care model, as well as providing substantial financial incentives to young physicians. We believe that a combination of these approaches will help to alleviate the shortage of anesthesia providers in Israel. Creating a new class of physician extenders, namely, anesthesiologist assistants, would also provide an employment pathway for the skilled medical technicians trained by the Israel Defense Forces, and other non-physicians with an interest in anesthesiology.

  14. Gardening in the desert: a spatial optimization approach to locating gardens in rapidly expanding urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Elizabeth A; Tong, Daoqin; Credit, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    Food access is a global issue, and for this reason, a wealth of studies are dedicated to understanding the location of food deserts and the benefits of urban gardens. However, few studies have linked these two strands of research together to analyze whether urban gardening activity may be a step forward in addressing issues of access for food desert residents. The Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is used as a case to demonstrate the utility of spatial optimization models for siting urban gardens near food deserts and on vacant land. The locations of urban gardens are derived from a list obtained from the Maricopa County Cooperative Extension office at the University of Arizona which were geo located and aggregated to Census tracts. Census tracts were then assigned to one of three categories: tracts that contain a garden, tracts that are immediately adjacent to a tract with a garden, and all other non-garden/non-adjacent census tracts. Analysis of variance is first used to ascertain whether there are statistical differences in the demographic, socio-economic, and land use profiles of these three categories of tracts. A maximal covering spatial optimization model is then used to identify potential locations for future gardening activities. A constraint of these models is that gardens be located on vacant land, which is a growing problem in rapidly urbanizing environments worldwide. The spatial analysis of garden locations reveals that they are centrally located in tracts with good food access. Thus, the current distribution of gardens does not provide an alternative food source to occupants of food deserts. The maximal covering spatial optimization model reveals that gardens could be sited in alternative locations to better serve food desert residents. In fact, 53 gardens may be located to cover 96.4% of all food deserts. This is an improvement over the current distribution of gardens where 68 active garden sites provide coverage to a scant 8.4% of food desert

  15. Time-constrained mother and expanding market: emerging model of under-nutrition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, S; Ramji, S; Arora, N K; Rewal, S; Dasgupta, R; Deshmukh, V

    2016-07-25

    Persistent high levels of under-nutrition in India despite economic growth continue to challenge political leadership and policy makers at the highest level. The present inductive enquiry was conducted to map the perceptions of mothers and other key stakeholders, to identify emerging drivers of childhood under-nutrition. We conducted a multi-centric qualitative investigation in six empowered action group states of India. The study sample included 509 in-depth interviews with mothers of undernourished and normal nourished children, policy makers, district level managers, implementer and facilitators. Sixty six focus group discussions and 72 non-formal interactions were conducted in two rounds with primary caretakers of undernourished children, Anganwadi Workers and Auxiliary Nurse Midwives. Based on the perceptions of the mothers and other key stakeholders, a model evolved inductively showing core themes as drivers of under-nutrition. The most forceful emerging themes were: multitasking, time constrained mother with dwindling family support; fragile food security or seasonal food paucity; child targeted market with wide availability and consumption of ready-to-eat market food items; rising non-food expenditure, in the context of rising food prices; inadequate and inappropriate feeding; delayed recognition of under-nutrition and delayed care seeking; and inadequate responsiveness of health care system and Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS). The study emphasized that the persistence of child malnutrition in India is also tied closely to the high workload and consequent time constraint of mothers who are increasingly pursuing income generating activities and enrolled in paid labour force, without robust institutional support for childcare. The emerging framework needs to be further tested through mixed and multiple method research approaches to quantify the contribution of time limitation of the mother on the current burden of child under-nutrition.

  16. Time-constrained mother and expanding market: emerging model of under-nutrition in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Chaturvedi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent high levels of under-nutrition in India despite economic growth continue to challenge political leadership and policy makers at the highest level. The present inductive enquiry was conducted to map the perceptions of mothers and other key stakeholders, to identify emerging drivers of childhood under-nutrition. Methods We conducted a multi-centric qualitative investigation in six empowered action group states of India. The study sample included 509 in-depth interviews with mothers of undernourished and normal nourished children, policy makers, district level managers, implementer and facilitators. Sixty six focus group discussions and 72 non-formal interactions were conducted in two rounds with primary caretakers of undernourished children, Anganwadi Workers and Auxiliary Nurse Midwives. Results Based on the perceptions of the mothers and other key stakeholders, a model evolved inductively showing core themes as drivers of under-nutrition. The most forceful emerging themes were: multitasking, time constrained mother with dwindling family support; fragile food security or seasonal food paucity; child targeted market with wide availability and consumption of ready-to-eat market food items; rising non-food expenditure, in the context of rising food prices; inadequate and inappropriate feeding; delayed recognition of under-nutrition and delayed care seeking; and inadequate responsiveness of health care system and Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS. The study emphasized that the persistence of child malnutrition in India is also tied closely to the high workload and consequent time constraint of mothers who are increasingly pursuing income generating activities and enrolled in paid labour force, without robust institutional support for childcare. Conclusion The emerging framework needs to be further tested through mixed and multiple method research approaches to quantify the contribution of time limitation of

  17. Geothermal Program Review X: proceedings. Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- the Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R&D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R&D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal city. This year`s conference, Program Review X, was held in San Francisco on March 24--26, 1992. The theme of the review, ``Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market -- The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market,`` focused on the needs of the electric utility sector. Geothermal energy, with its power capacity potential of 10 GWe by the year 2010, can provide reliable, enviromentally clean electricity which can help offset the projected increase in demand. Program Review X consisted of seven sessions including an opening session with presentations by Mr. Vikram Budhraja, Vice President of System Planning and Operations, Southern California Edison Company, and Mr. Richard Jaros, President and Chief Operating Officer, California Energy Company. The six technical sessions included presentations by the relevant field researchers covering DOE-sponsored R&D in hydrothermal, hot dry rock, and geopressured energy. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. Using Retrofit Nail Base Panels to Expand the Market for Wall Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, M. [Home Innovation Research Lab., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Wiehagen, J. [Home Innovation Research Lab., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness and affordability of integrating retrofit insulated panels into a re-siding project. The Partnership for Home Innovation (PHI) teamed with New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), the Albany Housing Authority (AHA), and the New York State Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) administered by Albany Community Action Partnership to demonstrate an energy retrofit and siding upgrade on a two-story, seven unit, multifamily building in Albany New York (CZ 5). The project focused on accomplishing three goals - doubling the existing wall thermal resistance (from approximately R-13 to a weighted average of R-27), reduction of building air leakage, and completion of the retrofit within a budget where the additional cost for upgrading wall's thermal resistance is equal to the cost of the standard re-siding effort (i.e., the total cost of the energy efficient re-siding scope of work is not more than double the cost of the standard re-siding effort). Lessons learned from the project strongly indicate that the retrofit panel technology can be installed using common installation practices and with minimal training. Other lessons learned include limitation on the use of standard air sealing materials during cold weather installations and the need to develop better installation guidance for trades working with the level of tolerances that may be present in the existing structure. This technology demonstration showed that exterior retrofit panels provide a viable and reasonable option for the siding trades to increase market opportunities and achieve synergistic benefits for aesthetic upgrades to a building's exterior.

  19. Correction of a skeletal Class II malocclusion with severe crowding by a specially designed rapid maxillary expander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghong; Feng, Jing; Lu, Peijun; Shen, Gang

    2015-02-01

    To correct an Angle Class II malocclusion or to create spaces in the maxillary arch by nonextraction treatment, distal movement of the maxillary molars is required. Various modalities for distalizing the buccal segment have been reported. Conventional extraoral appliances can be used to obtain maximum anchorage. However, many patients reject headgear wear because of social and esthetic concerns, and the success of this treatment depends on patient compliance. Intraoral appliances, such as repelling magnets, nickel-titanium coils, pendulum appliance, Jones jig appliance, distal jet appliance, and modified Nance appliance, have been introduced to distalize the molars with little or no patient cooperation. However, intraoral appliances can result in anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the maxillary molars. In this case report, we introduce a diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance that was custom designed and fabricated for the treatment of a growing girl with a skeletal Class II malocclusion and severe crowding from a totally lingually positioned lateral incisor. The appliance concomitantly expanded the maxilla transversely and retracted the buccal segment sagittally, distalizing the maxillary molars to reach a Class I relationship and creating the spaces to displace the malpositioned lateral incisor. The uniqueness of this special diversified rapid maxillary expansion appliance was highlighted by a series of reconstructions and modifications at different stages of the treatment to reinforce the anchorage. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expanding comparative-advantage biological market models: contingency of mutualism on partners' resource requirements and acquisition trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeksema, Jason D; Schwartz, Mark W

    2003-05-07

    We expand the comparative-advantage biological market-modelling framework to show how differences between partners, both in their abilities to acquire two resources and in their requirements for those resources, can affect the net benefit of participating in interspecific resource exchange. In addition, the benefits derived from resource trading depend strongly on the nature of the trade-off between the acquisition of one resource and the acquisition of another, described here by the shape (linear, convex or concave) of the resource acquisition constraints of the individuals involved. Combined with previous results, these analyses provide a suite of predictions about whether or not resource exchange is beneficial for two heterospecific individuals relative to a strategy of non-interaction. The benefit derived from resource exchange depends on three factors: (i) relative differences between the partners in their resource acquisition abilities; (ii) relative differences between the partners in their resource requirements; and (iii) variation in the shape of resource acquisition trade-offs. We find that such an explicit consideration of resource requirements and acquisition abilities can provide useful and sometimes non-intuitive predictions about the benefits of resource exchange, and also which resources should be traded by which species.

  1. High performance bio-based hyperbranched polyurethane/carbon dot-silver nanocomposite: a rapid self-expandable stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarah, Rituparna; Singh, Yogendra P; Gupta, Prerak; Mandal, Biman B; Karak, Niranjan

    2016-10-27

    Development of a bio-based smart implantable material with multifaceted attributes of high performance, potent biocompatibility and inherent antibacterial property, particularly against drug resistant bacteria, is a challenging task in biomedical domain. Addressing these aspects at the bio-nano interface, we report the in situ fabrication of starch modified hyperbranched polyurethane (HPU) nanocomposites by incorporating different weight percentages of carbon dot-silver nanohybrid during polymerization process. This nanohybrid and its individual nanomaterials (Ag and CD) were prepared by facile hydrothermal approaches and characterized by various instrumental techniques. The structural insight of the nanohybrid, as well as its nanocomposites was evaluated by TEM, XRD, FTIR, EDX and thermal studies. The significant improvement in the performance in terms of tensile strength (1.7 fold), toughness (1.5 fold) and thermal stability (20 °C) of the pristine HPU was observed by the formation of nanocomposite with 5 wt.% of nanohybrid. They also showed notable shape recovery (99.6%) and nearly complete self-expansion (>99%) just within 20s at (37 ± 1) °C. Biological assessment established in vitro cytocompatibility of the HPU nanocomposites. The fabricated nanocomposites not only assisted the growth and proliferation of smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells that exhibited reduced platelet adhesion but also displayed in vitro hemocompatibility of mammalian RBCs. Significantly, the antibacterial potency of the nanocomposites against Escherichia coli MTCC 40 and Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 3160 bacterial strains vouched for their application to countercheck bacterial growth, often responsible for biofilm formation. Thus, the present work forwards the nanocomposites as potential tough infection-resistant rapid self-expandable stents for possible endoscopic surgeries.

  2. Effect of bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance on the craniofacial structures using finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Cheon; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Kim, Ki Beom; Araujo, Eustaquio A; Kook, Yoon-Ah

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze stress distribution and displacement of the craniofacial structures resulting from bone-borne rapid maxillary expanders with and without surgical assistance using finite element analysis. Five designs of rapid maxillary expanders were made: a tooth-borne hyrax expander (type A); a bone-borne expander (type B); and 3 bone-borne surgically assisted modalities: separation of the midpalatal suture (type C), added separation of the pterygomaxillary sutures (type D), and added LeFort I corticotomy (type E). The geometric nonlinear theory was applied to evaluate the Von Mises stress distribution and displacement. The surgical types C, D, and E demonstrated more transverse movement than did the nonsurgical types A and B. The amounts of expansion were greater in the posterior teeth in types A and B, but in types C, D, and E, the amounts of expansion were greater in the anterior teeth. At the midpalatal suture, the nonsurgical types showed more anterior expansion than did the posterior region, and higher stresses than with the surgical types. Type B showed the highest stresses at the infraorbital margin, anterior and posterior nasal spines, maxillary tuberosity, and pterygoid plate and hamulus. The 3 surgical models showed similar amounts of stress and displacement along the teeth, midpalatal sutures, and craniofacial sutures. Therefore, when using a bone-borne rapid maxillary expander in an adult, it is recommended to assist it with midpalatal suture separation, which requires minimal surgical intervention. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A prospective study of the short-term treatment effects of the acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expander combined with the lower Schwarz appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Lisa K; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2005-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated the short-term treatment effects of acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expander in conjunction with lower Schwarz appliance (RME-Sz) therapy to the acrylic-splint rapid maxillary expansion alone (RME-only group). Pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms were analyzed for 25 RME patients and 19 RME-Sz patients. The average time between films ranged between nine and 12 months. Statistical comparisons of the treatment changes in the RME-only and RME-Sz groups were performed by means of independent sample t-tests (P appliance prevented the mesial movement of the lower molars during the treatment period.

  4. Dentoskeletal outcomes of a rapid maxillary expander with differential opening in patients with bilateral cleft lip and palate: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela; Lauris, Rita De Cássia Moura Carvalho; Calil, Louise Resti; Alves, Arthur César De Medeiros; Janson, Guilherme; De Almeida, Araci Malagodi; Cevidanes, Lúcia Helena Soares; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm parallel study was to evaluate the dentoskeletal effects of rapid maxillary expansion with differential opening (EDO) compared with the hyrax expander in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. A sample of patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate was prospectively and consecutively recruited. Eligibility criteria included participants in the mixed dentition with lip and palate repair performed during early childhood and maxillary arch constriction with a need for maxillary expansion before the alveolar bone graft procedure. The participants were consecutively divided into 2 study groups. The experimental and control groups comprised patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using EDO and the hyrax expander, respectively. Cone-beam computed tomography examinations and digital dental models of the maxillary dental arches were obtained before expansion and 6 months postexpansion. Standardized cone-beam computed tomography coronal sections were used for measuring maxillary transverse dimensions and posterior tooth inclinations. Digital dental models were used for assessing maxillary dental arch widths, arch perimeters, arch lengths, palatal depths, and posterior tooth inclinations. Blinding was used only during outcome assessment. The chi-square test was used to compare the sex ratios between groups (P variables before expansion. No significant differences were found between the EDO and the hyrax expander groups regarding skeletal changes. The EDO promoted significantly greater increases of intercanine width (difference, 3.63 mm) and smaller increases in canine buccal tipping than the conventional hyrax expander. No serious harm was observed other than transitory variable pressure sensations on the maxillary alveolar process in both groups. The EDO produced skeletal changes similar to the conventional hyrax expander. The differential expander is an adequate alternative to conventional rapid maxillary

  5. Overview of the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market - The Opportunities and Challenges for Expanding Geothermal Energy in a Competitive Supply Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mock, John E.; Budraja, Vikram; Jaros, Richard; Yamaguchi, Tsutomu; Hinrichs, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    This overview at the Geothermal Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Technology Advancements to Support Growth in Geothermal Power Sales in a Dynamic Utility Market'' by John E. Mock; ''Geothermal Energy Market in Southern California: Past, Present and Future'' by Vikram Budraja; ''Taking the High Ground: Geothermal's Place in the Revolving Energy Market'' by Richard Jaros; ''Recent Developments in Japan's Hot Dry Rock Program'' by Tsutomu Yamaguchi; and ''Options in the Eleventh Year for Interim Standard Offer Number Four Contracts'' by Thomas C. Hinrichs.

  6. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  7. HomeSpace:Maputo Dwelling Processes in ten Rapidly Expanding Peri-Urban Areas of an African City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...

  8. Building a French for Business and Technology Program Abroad: Giving Students an Edge in an Expanding Global Job Market

    OpenAIRE

    Lemarchand, Lionel J.

    2010-01-01

    The reality of globalization has made international programs more significant than ever before. Students from all over the world are accessing an increasingly competitive world market. Understanding other cultures in the social sense and in the business culture sense is crucial not only for their own benefits but also for their careers. This article describes how to develop an “Abroad Business and Technology Program” and presents the principal components that can insure its success. It also s...

  9. Surge in the heating market. Renewable energies rapidly gaining market share; Wende im Waermemarkt. Erneuerbare Energien gewinnen rasant an Marktanteilen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk; Hein, Thomas; Gatena, Jens [trend:research GmbH Institut fuer Trend- und Marktforschung, Bremen (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    The proportion of heat produced from renewable energies is rapidly growing in Germany. The main reasons for this dynamic development are governmental funds for heating technologies based on renewable energy, the growing importance attached by large parts of the population to environmentally responsible energy production and the rising costs of fossil fuels. Biomass plants, solar thermal installations and heat pumps will be widely used in upcoming refurbishment and new building projects, as a recent study shows.

  10. Problems in the online marketing of online shops in China : Case study: the Taobao online marketing policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lu

    2013-01-01

    With the development and popularization of the Internet, more and more people are choosing to trade via the Internet. For the Chinese market, online marketing is still in its infancy, and inevitably several problems exist. Taobao is the fastest developing of all online marketing shopping platforms in China and accounts for the largest share of the online shopping market. In such a rapidly expanding market, Taobao's rise is a cause for concern. This thesis will examine the current online m...

  11. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  12. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  13. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, David L.

    This booklet suggests ways in which institutions--Catholic schools in particular--can move beyond public relations and advertising to engage in the broader arena of marketing with its focus on consumer satisfaction. The first of the book's three chapters reviews the concept of marketing, providing definitions of key terms, clarification of…

  14. Future direction in airline marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussy, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid growth and broadening of the air travel market, coupled with a more sophisticated consumer, will dramatically change airline marketing over the next decade. Discussed is the direction this change is likely to take and its implications for companies within the industry. New conceptualization approaches are required if the full potential of this expanding market is to be fully realized. Marketing strategies are developed that will enable various elements of the travel industry to compete not only against each other but also with other products that are competing for the consumer's discretionary income.

  15. Learning from marketing: Rapid development of medication messages that engage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yank, Veronica; Tribett, Erika; Green, Lydia; Pettis, Jasmine

    2015-08-01

    To adapt marketing approaches in a health services environment. Researchers and advertising professionals partnered in developing advertising-style messages designed to activate patients pre-identified as having chronic kidney disease to ask providers about recommended medications. We assessed feasibility of the development process by evaluating partnership structure, costs, and timeframe. We tested messages with patients and providers using preliminary surveys to refine initial messages and subsequent focus groups to identify the most persuasive ones. The partnership achieved an efficient structure, $14,550 total costs, and 4-month timeframe. The advertising team developed 11 initial messages. The research team conducted surveys and focus groups with a total of 13 patients and 8 providers to identify three messages as most activating. Focus group themes suggested the general approach of using advertising-style messages was acceptable if it supported patient-provider relationships and had a credible evidence base. Individual messages were more motivating if they elicited personal identification with imagery, particular emotions, active patient role, and message clarity. We demonstrated feasibility of a research-advertising partnership and acceptability and likely impact of advertising-style messages on patient medication-seeking behavior. Healthcare systems may want to replicate our adaptation of marketing approaches to patients with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Jeffrey Prestemon; Robert Huggett; Douglas Carter

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsAlthough timber production in the South more than doubled from the 1960s to the late 1990s, output levels have declined over the last 10 years, signaling structural changes in timber markets.For softwood products, production declines are most clearly related to demand issues. Demand for softwood solid wood products...

  17. The expanding spectrum of neurological phenotypes in children with ATP1A3 mutations, Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood, Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism, CAPOS and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweney, Matthew T; Newcomb, Tara M; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    ATP1A3 mutations have now been recognized in infants and children presenting with a diverse group of neurological phenotypes, including Rapid-onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism (RDP), Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood (AHC), and most recently, Cerebellar ataxia, Areflexia, Pes cavus, Optic atrophy, and Sensorineural hearing loss (CAPOS) syndrome. Existing literature on ATP1A3-related disorders in the pediatric population were reviewed, with attention to clinical features and associated genotypes among those with RDP, AHC, or CAPOS syndrome phenotypes. While classically defined phenotypes associated with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes are distinct, common elements among ATP1A3-related neurological disorders include characteristic episodic neurological symptoms and signs that vary in severity, duration, and frequency of occurrence. Affected children typically present in the context of an acute onset of paroxysmal, episodic neurological symptoms ranging from oculomotor abnormalities, hypotonia, paralysis, dystonia, ataxia, seizure-like episodes, or encephalopathy. Neurodevelopmental delays or persistence of dystonia, chorea, or ataxia after resolution of an initial episode are common, providing important clues for diagnosis. The phenotypic spectrum of ATP1A3-related neurological disorders continues to expand beyond the distinct yet overlapping phenotypes in patients with AHC, RDP, and CAPOS syndromes. ATP1A3 mutation analysis is appropriate to consider in the diagnostic algorithm for any child presenting with episodic or fluctuating ataxia, weakness or dystonia whether they manifest persistence of neurological symptoms between episodes. Additional work is needed to better identify and classify affected patients and develop targeted treatment approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Rapid Colorimetric Method Reveals Fraudulent Substitutions in Sea Urchin Roe Marketed in Sardinia (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico; Spina, Antonio; Satta, Gianluca; Chessa, Vittorio

    2016-06-25

    In recent years, besides the consumption of fresh sea urchin specimens, the demand of minimally-processed roe has grown considerably. This product has made frequent consumption in restaurants possible and frauds are becoming widespread with the partial replacement of sea urchin roe with surrogates that are similar in colour. One of the main factors that determines the quality of the roe is its colour and small differences in colour scale cannot be easily discerned by the consumers. In this study we have applied a rapid colorimetric method for reveal the fraudulent partial substitution of semi-solid sea urchin roe with liquid egg yolk. Objective assessment of whiteness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue (h*), and chroma (C*) was carried out with a digital spectrophotometer using the CIE L*a*b* colour measurement system. The colorimetric method highlighted statistically significant differences among sea urchin roe and liquid egg yolk that could be easily discerned quantitatively.

  19. NABIR Assessment Element, Expanded Rapid, Comprehensive, Lipid Biomarker Analysis for Subsurface, Community Composition and Nutritional/Physiological Status as Monitors of Remediation and Detoxification Effectiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. White

    2005-09-14

    NABIR funding at the University of Tennessee Center for Biomarker Analysis (CBA) has led to several key contributions to the investigation of bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. This lab has played an integral part in assessing microbial communities at the field scale at the ORNL FRC (Istok et al., 2004) and two UMTRA sites (Anderson et al., 2003, Chang et al., 2001). Our work over the period of the grant has resulted in 42-peer reviewed publications, 62 presentations (14 of which were international), and one patent pending. Currently CBA has 2 papers in press. The main objectives relating to the field portion of this program were to provide comprehensive biomarker analysis for NABIR collaborators to enhance the understanding of microbial geo-bioprocesses involved in the effective immobilization of metals (We have worked with and published or currently are publishing with 10 groups of NAIBR investigators). The laboratory portion of our research centered on methods development and has led to three major innovations that could result in a systematic way of evaluating sites for potential bioremediation. The first of these is the development of an in situ sampling device (Peacock et al., 2004, Anderson et al., 2003, Istok et al., 2004) for the collection and concentration of microbial biomass. The second is the development of expanded lipid analysis based on the significantly greater sensitivity and selectivity of the LC/MS/MS that allows the analysis of respiratory quinones, diglycerides, sterols, intact phospholipids, poly-hydroxyalkonates, and potentially archaeol, and caldarchaeols from archea. These new analyses are accomplished more rapidly and with increased sensitivities and resolution than in the past (Lytle et al., 2000a, 2000b, 2001a, Geyer et al., 2004). The third advance is the coupling of lipid analysis with 13C enrichment experiments (Lytle et al., 2001b, Geyer et al. 2005). With this technique it is now possible to follow the active portion of

  20. Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Henrietta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins. In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas. The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives

  1. Rapid Visual Site Analysis for Post-disaster Landscape Planning: Expanding the Range of Choice in a Tsunami-affected Town in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Wescoat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement In post-disaster situations, it is often necessary to undertake rapid visual site reconnaissance to characterise patterns of damage and identify reconstruction opportunities and constraints. Rapid visual site analysis can occur over a period of hours to days rather than weeks to months. The time constraint is often necessary to assess the viability of initial reconstruction scenarios and help broaden the range of choice among site planning options. Rapid assessment can also minimise the use of scarce local post-disaster resources during the initial reconnaissance phases of planning. Because it involves visual methods rather than equipment-intensive survey techniques, it serves as an initial scoping of alternatives. It may follow emergency shelter response planning methods (for example, Sphere Project, 2011, ch 4 and be followed by more comprehensive site mapping and screening. This action–research project reviews the literature on post-disaster site analysis with an emphasis on the tsunami-affected area of north-eastern Japan. Because research on rapid visual site analysis in post-disaster contexts is limited, we combined field-based site analysis methods, adapted for post-disaster planning, with visual methods for assessing seismic and tsunami hazards.

  2. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  3. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  4. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  5. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  6. Disease-associated CAG·CTG triplet repeats expand rapidly in non-dividing mouse cells, but cell cycle arrest is insufficient to drive expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Pereira, Mário; Hilley, James D; Morales, Fernando; Adam, Berit; James, Helen E; Monckton, Darren G

    2014-06-01

    Genetically unstable expanded CAG·CTG trinucleotide repeats are causal in a number of human disorders, including Huntington disease and myotonic dystrophy type 1. It is still widely assumed that DNA polymerase slippage during replication plays an important role in the accumulation of expansions. Nevertheless, somatic mosaicism correlates poorly with the proliferative capacity of the tissue and rates of cell turnover, suggesting that expansions can occur in the absence of replication. We monitored CAG·CTG repeat instability in transgenic mouse cells arrested by chemical or genetic manipulation of the cell cycle and generated unequivocal evidence for the continuous accumulation of repeat expansions in non-dividing cells. Importantly, the rates of expansion in non-dividing cells were at least as high as those of proliferating cells. These data are consistent with a major role for cell division-independent expansion in generating somatic mosaicism in vivo. Although expansions can accrue in non-dividing cells, we also show that cell cycle arrest is not sufficient to drive instability, implicating other factors as the key regulators of tissue-specific instability. Our data reveal that de novo expansion events are not limited to S-phase and further support a cell division-independent mutational pathway. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Expanding versus non expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In cosmology the number of scientists using the framework of an expanding universe is very high. This model, the big-bang, is now overwhelmingly present in almost all aspects of society. It is the main stream cosmology of today. A small number of scientists are researching on the possibility of a non-expanding universe. The existence of these two groups, one very large and the other very small, is a good proof of the use of the scientific method: it does not drive to an absolute certainty. All models have to be permanently validated, falsified. Ockham's razor, a powerful philosophical tool, will probably change the amount of scientists working in each of these groups. We present here a model where a big-bang is unnecessary. It ends, in a finite time, in a second INFLATION, or a disaggregation to infinity. We also discuss the possibilities of a non-expanding universe model. Only a few references will be cited, mainly concerned with our own work in the past, thus purposely avoiding citing the many thousands of ...

  8. Rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy CT ex vivo renal calculi characterization using a multiparametric approach: refining parameters on an expanded dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegshauser, J Scott; Paden, Robert G; He, Miao; Humphreys, Mitchell R; Zell, Steven I; Fu, Yinlin; Wu, Teresa; Sugi, Mark D; Silva, Alvin C

    2017-09-26

    We aimed to determine the best algorithms for renal stone composition characterization using rapid kV-switching single-source dual-energy computed tomography (rsDECT) and a multiparametric approach after dataset expansion and refinement of variables. rsDECT scans (80 and 140 kVp) were performed on 38 ex vivo 5- to 10-mm renal stones composed of uric acid (UA; n = 21), struvite (STR; n = 5), cystine (CYS; n = 5), and calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM; n = 7). Measurements were obtained for 17 variables: mean Hounsfield units (HU) at 11 monochromatic keV levels, effective Z, 2 iodine-water material basis pairs, and 3 mean monochromatic keV ratios (40/140, 70/120, 70/140). Analysis included using 5 multiparametric algorithms: Support Vector Machine, RandomTree, Artificial Neural Network, Naïve Bayes Tree, and Decision Tree (C4.5). Separating UA from non-UA stones was 100% accurate using multiple methods. For non-UA stones, using a 70-keV mean cutoff value of 694 HU had 100% accuracy for distinguishing COM from non-COM (CYS, STR) stones. The best result for distinguishing all 3 non-UA subtypes was obtained using RandomTree (15/17, 88%). For stones 5 mm or larger, multiple methods can distinguish UA from non-UA and COM from non-COM stones with 100% accuracy. Thus, the choice for analysis is per the user's preference. The best model for separating all three non-UA subtypes was 88% accurate, although with considerable individual overlap between CYS and STR stones. Larger, more diverse datasets, including in vivo data and technical improvements in material separation, may offer more guidance in distinguishing non-UA stone subtypes in the clinical setting.

  9. Expanded Dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, D B; Salvi, Sonali; Chandanwale, Ajay

    2016-07-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has coined the term expanded dengue to describe cases which do not fall into either dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever. This has incorporated several atypical findings of dengue. Dengue virus has not been enlisted as a common etiological agent in several conditions like encephalitis, Guillain Barre syndrome. Moreover it is a great mimic of co-existing epidemics like Malaria, Chikungunya and Zika virus disease, which are also mosquito-borne diseases. The atypical manifestations noted in dengue can be mutisystemic and multifacetal. In clinical practice, the occurrence of atypical presentation should prompt us to investigate for dengue. Knowledge of expanded dengue helps to clinch the diagnosis of dengue early, especially during ongoing epidemics, avoiding further battery of investigations. Dengue has proved to be the epidemic with the ability to recur and has a diverse array of presentation as seen in large series from India, Srilanka, Indonesia and Taiwan. WHO has given the case definition of dengue fever in their comprehensive guidelines. Accordingly, a probable case is defined as acute febrile illness with two or more of any findings viz. headache, retro-orbital pain, myalgia, arthralgia, rash, hemorrhagic manifestations, leucopenia and supportive serology. There have been cases of patients admitted with fever, altered mentation with or without neck stiffness and pyramidal tract signs. Some had seizures or status epilepticus as presentation. When they were tested for serology, dengue was positive. After ruling out other causes, dengue remained the only culprit. We have come across varied presentations of dengue fever in clinical practice and the present article throws light on atypical manifestations of dengue. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.

  10. Fair Trade: Social Regulation in Global Food Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Laura T.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the theoretical and empirical parameters of social regulation in contemporary global food markets, focusing on the rapidly expanding Fair Trade initiative. Fair Trade seeks to transform North/South relations by fostering ethical consumption, producer empowerment, and certified commodity sales. This initiative joins an array…

  11. Evolutions in food marketing, quantifying the impact, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Georgina

    2013-03-01

    A case study on interactive digital marketing examined the adequacy of extant policy controls and their underpinning paradigms to constrain the effects of this rapidly emerging practice. Findings were interactive digital marketing is expanding the strategies available to promote products, brands and consumer behaviours. It facilitates relational marketing; the collection of personal data for marketing; integration of the marketing mix, and provides a platform for consumers to engage in the co-creation of marketing communications. The paradigmatic logic of current policies to constrain youth-oriented food marketing does not address the interactive nature of digital marketing. The evidence base on the effects of HFSS marketing and policy interventions is based on conceptualizations of marketing as a force promoting transactions rather than interactions. Digital technologies are generating rich consumer data. Interactive digital technologies increase the complexity of the task of quantifying the impact of marketing. The rapidity of its uptake also increases urgency of need to identify appropriate effects measures. Independent analysis of commercial consumer data (appropriately transformed to protect commercial confidentiality and personal privacy) would provide evidence sources for policy on the impacts of commercial food and beverage marketing and policy controls. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    upon qualitative interviews with residents as well as road network data and travel speed data collected with GPS to offer a combination of local testimony with GIS-based modelling of overall accessibility. It is argued that the use of digital network analysis enables planners to obtain a better......A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... knowledge of the spatial patterns of urban accessibility, while the analysis of mobility practices of residents enables a better understanding of the constraints people experience related to their livelihood strategies. Finally, the paper addresses how local residents engage in providing and improving...

  13. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nor, A.N.M.; R. Corstanje; Harris, J.A.; Grafius, D.R.; Siriwardena, G.M.

    2017-01-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for ...

  14. Medical Information & Technology: Rapidly Expanding Vast Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Anil K.

    2012-12-01

    During ÑMedical Council Of India?, Platinum Jubilee Year (1933-2008) Celebrations, In Year 2008, Several Scientific Meeting/Seminar/Symposium, On Various Topics Of Contemporary Importance And Relevance In The Field Of ÑMedical Education And Ethics?, Were Organized, By Different Medical Colleges At Various Local, State, National Levels. The Present Discussion, Is An Comprehensive Summary Of Various Different Aspects of ìMedical Information Communication Technologyî, Especially UseFul For The Audience Stratum Group Of Those Amateur Medical & Paramedical Staff, With No Previous Work Experience Knowledge Of Computronics Applications. Outlining The, i.Administration Applications: Medical Records Etc, ii. Clinical Applications: Pros pective Scope Of TeleMedicine Applicabilities Etc iii. Other Applications: Efforts To Augment Improvement Of Medical Education, Medical Presentations, Medical Education And Research Etc. ÑMedical Trancription? & Related Recent Study Fields e.g ÑModern Pharmaceuticals?,ÑBio-Engineering?, ÑBio-Mechanics?, ÑBio-Technology? Etc., Along With Important Aspects Of Computers-General Considerations, Computer Ergonomics Assembled To Summarize, The AwareNess Regarding Basic Fundamentals Of Medical Computronics & Its Practically SuccessFul Utilities.

  15. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  16. Change of Subsidiary Mandates in Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.; Petersen, Bent; Wad, Peter

    2011-01-01

    fails to conceptualize how the specificities of emerging market business environments affect subsidiary mandate evolution. The paper develops a theoretical model for business environment change influence on subsidiary mandates, and demonstrates how the model can capture much of recent years dramatic......In recent years, the activities of Danish MNCs in India have expanded dramatically. Previously dormant subsidiaries have been transformed into integral components in the global strategies of Danish MNCs, either as crucial cash cows catering to the rapidly growing Indian markets, or as platforms...

  17. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  18. Examine the Effectiveness of Marketing Strategies in Improving Credit Card Adoption: An Empirical Study in Klang Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Foo, Yong Sin

    2007-01-01

    In view of the globalization, Malaysia is opening parts of its services to greater foreign participation. Local banks have gone one round of consolidations and foreign banks expanding its business in local market have made the competition more intense. As the competition rapidly increases, credit card adoption is getting more challenging to marketers, hence effective marketing strategies are important. The theoretical model of the thesis is based on the model of buyer behavior by Kotler and A...

  19. Expanding Markets Through Analytical Services and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas; Raja, Jawwad; Boa, Sofie Østergaard

    This report stems from research undertaken by Copenhagen Business School (CBS) as part of the applied research project ‘Driving Competitiveness through Servitization’. The aim of the project is to examine the potential of services as a means of improving the competitiveness of Danish industry...

  20. Repeat confirmatory testing for persons with discordant whole blood and oral fluid rapid HIV test results: findings from post marketing surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura G Wesolowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reactive oral fluid and whole blood rapid HIV tests must be followed with a confirmatory test (Western blot (WB, immunofluorescent assay (IFA or approved nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT. When the confirmatory result is negative or indeterminate (i.e. discordant with rapid result, repeat confirmatory testing should be conducted using a follow-up specimen. Previous reports have not described whether repeat testing adequately resolves the HIV-infection status of persons with discordant results. METHODOLOGY: Post-marketing surveillance was conducted in 368 testing sites affiliated with 14 state and 2 city health departments from August 11, 2004 to June 30, 2005 and one health department through December 31, 2005. For persons with discordant results, data were collected on demographics, risk behaviors, HIV test results and specimen types. Persons with repeat confirmatory results were classified as HIV-infected or uninfected. Regression models were created to assess risk factors for not having repeat testing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 167,371 rapid tests conducted, 2589 (1.6% were reactive: of these, 2417 (93% had positive WB/IFA, 172 (7% had negative or indeterminate WB/IFA. Of 89/172 (52% persons with a repeat confirmatory test: 17 (19% were HIV-infected, including 3 with indeterminate WB and positive NAAT; 72 (81% were uninfected, including 12 with repeat indeterminate WB. Factors associated with HIV-infection included having an initial indeterminate WB/IFA (vs. negative (p<0.001 and having an initial oral fluid WB (vs. serum (p<0.001. Persons who had male-female sex (vs. male-male sex were at increased risk for not having a repeat test [adjusted OR 2.6, 95% CI (1.3, 4.9]. CONCLUSIONS: Though only half of persons with discordant results had repeat confirmatory testing, of those who did, nearly one in five were HIV-infected. These findings underscore the need for rapid HIV testing programs to increase repeat confirmatory testing for

  1. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  2. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  3. Rapid and selective quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink teas from Chinese market using SPE and UPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Yun; Song, Weiqi; Zhao, Bo; Dou, Yuling

    2012-11-15

    An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) sample pre-treatment was developed and validated for the rapid quantification of L-theanine in ready-to-drink (RTD) teas. UPLC analysis of twenty-seven RTD teas from the Chinese market revealed that the L-theanine levels in various types of RTD teas were significantly different. RTD green teas were found to contain highest mean L-theanine level (37.85±20.54 mg/L), followed by jasmine teas (36.60±12.08 mg/L), Tieguanying teas (18.54±3.46 mg/L) black teas (16.89±6.56), Pu-erh teas (11.31±0.90 mg/L) and oolong teas (3.85±2.27 mg/L). The ratio of total polyphenols content to L-theanine content could be used as a featured parameter for differentiating RTD teas. L-theanine in RTD teas could be a reliable quality parameter that is complementary to total polyphenols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Marketing of Cultural Values

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Enache

    2015-01-01

    The current, fast and unpredictable changes required a rapid transformation of Marketing. Marketing 3.0 can be the solution. Marketing 3.0 is a cultural and social marketing, a marketing of high values: moral, legal, esthetic and a marketing of superior needs: peace, justice, spiritual accomplishments, all globally approached. The goal of Marketing 3.0 is to convince all commercial and cultural structures to get involved in creating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): eradicating poverty...

  5. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  6. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  7. Pemasaran Viral – Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Situmorang, James Rianto

    2010-01-01

    Viral marketing is an extremely powerful and effective form of internet marketing. Itis a new form of word-of-mouth through internet. In viral marketing, someone passeson a marketing message to someone else and so on. Viral marketing proposes thatmessages can be rapidly disseminated from consumer to consumer leading to largescale market acceptance. The analogy of a virus is used to described the exponentialdiffusion of information in an electronic environment and should not be confusedwith th...

  8. IMPORTANCE OF CREATIVE ADVERTISING AND MARKETING ACCORDING TO UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remziye Terkan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advertising has crucial role in todays competitive marketing world. This research studies two important persuasive processes often employed in the management of businesses; Creative Advertising and Marketing Management. Creative Advertising and Marketing Management is necessary in order to have a complete understanding of how producers and sales companies work effectively. While advertising performs the communicative function of informing consumers about a company’s product or services, creative advertising is also attract people to the market, marketing management is a much more complex managerial process which encompasses activities such as; marketing research, product conception and design, pricing, distribution and even advertising. Today, in current globalized and rapidly expanding business conscious world; creative advertising and marketing management are increasingly becoming more relevant to the businesses. Companies need to adopt creative strategies and innovations in their operations in order to survive the challenges of the ever expanding global market. In the study, creative advertising and its importance in marketing managemet are investigated and examined by sample group of university students.

  9. Layouts of Expander Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Dujmović, Vida; Sidiropoulos, Anastasios; Wood, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Bourgain and Yehudayoff recently constructed $O(1)$-monotone bipartite expanders. By combining this result with a generalisation of the unraveling method of Kannan, we construct 3-monotone bipartite expanders, which is best possible. We then show that the same graphs admit 3-page book embeddings, 2-queue layouts, 4-track layouts, and have simple thickness 2. All these results are best possible.

  10. E-Marketing Jaya Abadi Computer (JAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honni Honni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet has been widely used by manufacturers and distributors to expand product markets for its advantageous in quick process, practicality and low cost. Jaya Abadi Computer (JAC as a sales distributor and service agent of computer equipment still perform its direct marketing manually on the spot, so that the marketing only reaches a small scope. This article analyzes the market opportunity of JAC; determines the marketing strategy and builds e-marketing website for JAC based on customer experience using The Seven Stage Cycle of Internet Marketing. The results obtained are an e-marketing website to support the marketing activities of JAC. Eventually it can be concluded that by building an e-marketing, JAC can reach as well as expand market opportunities in virtual world, use the right marketing strategy, and meet customer needs through features on the website. 

  11. A New Development in Online Marketing: Introducing Digital Inbound Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin OPREANA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particularly in online settings, marketing is undergoing a transformation. Online business can no longer rely on traditional marketing tactics and campaigns to attract, retain and expand consumers because there is a transformation in how people interact with brands and companies, how they shop and buy in online and offline settings. Traditional marketing is no longer a viable option because it focuses on pushing a message out. In online business framework, a new marketing development has arisen, namely digital inbound marketing. This new marketing type is focused on attracting valuable consumers (potential, existing, or aspirational that choose to interact with a particular company that provides them with something useful. In this paper, we propose a definition for digital inbound marketing and examine the online strategies associated with this concept: brand-focused marketing communications, content marketing, social media marketing, and search engine optimization.

  12. E-Marketing Jaya Abadi Computer (JAC)

    OpenAIRE

    Honni, Honni; Raymond, Raymond; Johni, Johni; Tan, Wendi

    2011-01-01

    Internet has been widely used by manufacturers and distributors to expand product markets for its advantageous in quick process, practicality and low cost. Jaya Abadi Computer (JAC) as a sales distributor and service agent of computer equipment still perform its direct marketing manually on the spot, so that the marketing only reaches a small scope. This article analyzes the market opportunity of JAC; determines the marketing strategy and builds e-marketing website for JAC based on customer e...

  13. IMPACT OF CULTURE ON GLOBAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Cojocaru Ph.D Student

    2010-01-01

    This paper analysis the international marketing activities under the influence of cultural environments on different markets. The marketing mix concerning product, distribution and communication policy is expanding its significance where cultural values are involved. As methodological approach we analyzed each marketing policy taking into account the cultural variable that mostly affect their meaning.

  14. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension Practice in Nigeria. ... The expanded scope could include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, service to farmers' associations, technical extension service and urban extension. These services should be provided at ...

  15. POLITICS AND MARKETS IN THE ARTICULATION OF PREFERENCES FOR ATTRIBUTES OF THE RAPIDLY CHANGING FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SECTORS: FRAMING THE ISSUES

    OpenAIRE

    Charles W. Abdalla; James D. Shaffer

    1997-01-01

    Industrialization of the food and agricultural sectors changes the pattern of external effects. Participants helped or harmed in the process attempt to influence outcomes through markets and politics. Decisions about property rights and boundaries determine benefits and burdens and the relative cost of animal agriculture in different jurisdictions. Prescriptions to redefine property rights are influenced by selective perception of rights to share in the benefits and be protected from costs. P...

  16. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  17. Marketing contraceptives in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M

    1988-01-01

    It can be difficult to administer and motivate field workers in family planning programs. In the case of social marketing, the last distributors in the chain are small shopkeepers who keep part of the final sale price. Thus contraceptives become part and parcel of their routine business, and the margin becomes both their remuneration and their motivation. In Thailand and most other countries with social marketing programs, part of the selling price also returns to the program, providing some degree of cost recovery. As family planning succeeds and per capita incomes rise, individuals will be able to pay an increasing part of the total cost of family planning. In the interim, international agencies and governments will continue to provide subsidies. In rural countries like Thailand, social marketing programs can be initiated and expanded relatively rapidly because they build on an existing infrastructure; they can also reach the most distant parts of the country. Skills of local advertising agencies are available in practically all Third World countries. Sales are a reliable record of progress and can be used to suggest innovations or practical solutions to problems. Small shopkeepers often feel more comfortable vending contraceptives than many experts would expect and as members of the community, intuitively know what the community's standards are. Individuals handling oral contraceptives often require some training and supervision by full-time staff who can answer questions that arise; local physicians may also be notified of the program for referral of problem cases. If there is a problem with social marketing programs, it is that they are sometimes too successful--leading to large bills for contraceptive commodities. However, if evaluated in terms of cost-effectiveness, they are less expensive than their alternatives. Along with access to voluntary sterilization and community-based distribution programs, social marketing is a keystone in the arch of family

  18. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  19. INNOVATIONS OF THE TRADE MARKETING IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spīča, Inese; Spīčs, Ernests

    2010-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment contemporary marketing activities affects educational programms. The paper analyze the marketing and sales current events in Latvia. In this paper given a substantive explanation of trade marketing and trade marketing development opportunities for Latvia, trade marketing new development areas and to clarify their learning opportunities in Latvia.

  20. The Marketing of Cultural Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Enache

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current, fast and unpredictable changes required a rapid transformation of Marketing. Marketing 3.0 can be the solution. Marketing 3.0 is a cultural and social marketing, a marketing of high values: moral, legal, esthetic and a marketing of superior needs: peace, justice, spiritual accomplishments, all globally approached. The goal of Marketing 3.0 is to convince all commercial and cultural structures to get involved in creating the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs: eradicating poverty, access to education, promoting the equality of the sexes, reducing infantile mortality, improving maternal health, fighting diseases, ensuring environment sustainability.

  1. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  2. TRIPLE ACTION PALATE EXPANDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Yordanova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Malocclusion correction essentially involves expansion of the maxilla, protrusion of anterior teeth and opening the bite. Expansion is often the stage preceding the treatment with fixed appliances. The elevation of the occlusion using accomplished with different devices (bite planes -fixed or removable, composite material on the occlusall surface of molars carries the risk of breaking or debonding them.The present article proposes an expanding appliance with triple action as a therapeutic means of choice in an orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. The expander can simultaneously be used to protrude upper teeth, to expand the upper jaw and disarticulate the occlusion. It can be easily fabricated in clinical conditions, causes no discomfort and does not hamper oral hygiene because it can be removed and cleaned.

  3. Foreign direct investment in the financial sector of emerging market economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bank for International Settlements

    2004-01-01

    Executive summary Foreign participation in the financial sectors of emerging market economies (EMEs) increased rapidly during the 1990s. It has continued to expand so far in this decade, on balance – although its pace fell somewhat following problems in Argentina in 2002 and the global slowdown in mergers and acquisitions. While banks accounted for the majority of financial sector foreign direct investment (FSFDI), they were joined during this period by securities and investment firms. In a n...

  4. RICE MARKETING SYSTEM A SOLUTION FOR INCREASING REVENUE FARMERS IN WEST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C.Kilmanun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of expectation want to be reached by development West Kalimantan is making regency Kubu Raya as " buffer Stock" rice for West Kalimantan. Problems is hitherto the solution rice marketing by society of Sui Itik. The price sell still be very low and have an effect to peasant earnings for this article aim to system of paddy marketing specially rice of Sui Itik village and is the solution which must be taken in rice marketing in Sui Itik. Collected by data is primary data representing result interview with method approach of Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA and gathering data by method of Stratifide Random Sampling. Collected data later;then be analysed in diskriptif. The study aims to: 1. to increase knowledge about marketing management hence need conducted by training about marketing management to peasant of Sui Itik village. 2 system and Good market information very have an effect on reality to fluency of rice marketing of Sui Itik village. 3 system of Rice marketing in Multi Level Marketing (MLM expected to expand since this system of fluenting rice marketing. 4. Governmental policy about stability of price shell of rice affected farmers.

  5. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  6. Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausner, Eytan A; Lavy, Eran; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2003-06-24

    Expandable gastroretentive dosage forms (GRDFs) have been designed for the past 3 decades. They were originally created for possible veterinary use, but later the design was modified for enhanced drug therapy in humans. These GRDFs are easily swallowed and reach a significantly larger size in the stomach due to swelling or unfolding processes that prolong their gastric retention time (GRT). After drug release, their dimensions are minimized with subsequent evacuation from the stomach. Gastroretentivity is enhanced by the combination of substantial dimensions with high rigidity of the dosage form to withstand the peristalsis and mechanical contractility of the stomach. Positive results were obtained in preclinical and clinical studies evaluating GRT of expandable GRDFs. Narrow absorption window drugs compounded in such systems have improved in vivo absorption properties. These findings are an important step towards the implementation of expandable GRDFs in the clinical setting. The current review deals with expandable GRDFs reported in articles and patents, and describes the physiological basis of their design. Using the dog as a preclinical screening model prior to human studies, relevant imaging techniques and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic aspects of such delivery systems are also discussed.

  7. MARKETING CHARACTERISTICS OF INSURANCE MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Sabirova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current state of the insurance market of Ukraine in the post-crisis period, by comparison with the pre-crisis was investigated in the paper. The insurance market in the pre-crisis period grew rapidly, but was unable to withstand the economic crisis and suffered a crushing blow. The economic crisis of 2008-2009 led to a decrease of the demand for financial services in general and insurance services in particular. The lack of development of the insurance market created high barriers for responding and adapting to changes that occurred during the crisis.

  8. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  9. A rapid LC-MS/MS method for the determination of moniliformin and occurrence of this mycotoxin in maize products from the Bavarian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Jörg; Rapp, Martin; Holtmannspötter, Heinrich; Gottschalk, Christoph

    2018-03-01

    A simple LC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of moniliformin (MON) in maize and applied for the analysis of samples within the official food surveillance. The homogenized samples were extracted with acetonitrile/water 50/50 (v/v) which proved to have the highest extraction efficiency compared to other tested solvents. The centrifuged extracts were diluted with acetonitrile and were measured after chromatographic separation by HILIC (hydrophobic interaction liquid chromatography)-HPLC without any cleanup (dilute and shoot approach). The LOD and LOQ achieved by this procedure were 2.6 and 8.8 μg/kg, respectively. Thirty-nine samples of popcorn, maize meal, and semolina were collected in 2014 and 2015 at mills, cinemas, wholesale, and retail from the Bavarian market (Germany). The rate of contamination with MON was very high (97%) with levels ranging between the LOD and 847 μg/kg. The mean level was 118 μg/kg and the median, 39 μg/kg. The maximum value was detected in maize meal. The results are discussed with respect to possible health implications for the consumer.

  10. Expandable LED array interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas Cheng-Hsin; Keller, Bernd

    2011-03-01

    A light emitting device that can function as an array element in an expandable array of such devices. The light emitting device comprises a substrate that has a top surface and a plurality of edges. Input and output terminals are mounted to the top surface of the substrate. Both terminals comprise a plurality of contact pads disposed proximate to the edges of the substrate, allowing for easy access to both terminals from multiple edges of the substrate. A lighting element is mounted to the top surface of the substrate. The lighting element is connected between the input and output terminals. The contact pads provide multiple access points to the terminals which allow for greater flexibility in design when the devices are used as array elements in an expandable array.

  11. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  12. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  13. Mobile Marketing as a strategy in CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Mobile marketing is a young and still developing strategy in marketing. It thanks its creation and rapid evolution to the growth of mobile devices, such as mobile phones and tablets. This paper's research question, "can mobile marketing be used as a strategy in CRM?" investigates the strength of mobile marketing, its application and use by marketers as their sole or part of their marketing campaign and as strategy in customer relationship management (CRM). The two main components of the resea...

  14. Social Pharmacology: Expanding horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Rituparna; Alloza, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    In the current modern and global society, social changes are in constant evolution due to scientific progress (technology, culture, customs, and hygiene) and produce the freedom in individuals to take decisions by themselves or with their doctors toward drug consumption. In the arena of marketed drug products which includes society, individual, administration, and pharmaceutical industry, the young discipline emerged is social pharmacology or sociopharmacology. This science arises from clinical pharmacology, and deals with different parameters, which are important in creating knowledge on marketed drugs. However, the scope of “social pharmacology” is not covered by the so-called “Phase IV” alone, but it is the science that handles the postmarketing knowledge of drugs. The social pharmacology studies the “life cycle” of any marketed pharmaceutical product in the social terrain, and evaluates the effects of the real environment under circumstances totally different in the drug development process. Therefore, there are far-reaching horizons, plural, and shared predictions among health professionals and other, for beneficial use of a drug, toward maximizing the benefits of therapy, while minimizing negative social consequences. PMID:24987168

  15. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs A Beginner's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Krebs, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The theory of expander graphs is a rapidly developing topic in mathematics and computer science, with applications to communication networks, error-correcting codes, cryptography, complexity theory, and much more. Expander Families and Cayley Graphs: A Beginner's Guide is a comprehensive introduction to expander graphs, designed to act as a bridge between classroom study and active research in the field of expanders. It equips those with little or no prior knowledge with the skills necessary to both comprehend current research articles and begin their own research. Central to this book are fou

  16. Expanding the Trilinos developer community.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heroux, Michael Allen

    2010-10-01

    The Trilinos Project started approximately nine years ago as a small effort to enable research, development and ongoing support of small, related solver software efforts. The 'Tri' in Trilinos was intended to indicate the eventual three packages we planned to develop. In 2007 the project expanded its scope to include any package that was an enabling technology for technical computing. Presently the Trilinos repository contains over 55 packages covering a broad spectrum of reusable tools for constructing full-featured scalable scientific and engineering applications. Trilinos usage is now worldwide, and many applications have an explicit dependence on Trilinos for essential capabilities. Users come from other US laboratories, universities, industry and international research groups. Awareness and use of Trilinos is growing rapidly outside of Sandia. Members of the external research community are becoming more familiar with Trilinos, its design and collaborative nature. As a result, the Trilinos project is receiving an increasing number of requests from external community members who want to contribute to Trilinos as developers. To-date we have worked with external developers in an ad hoc fashion. Going forward, we want to develop a set of policies, procedures, tools and infrastructure to simplify interactions with external developers. As we go forward with multi-laboratory efforts such as CASL and X-Stack, and international projects such as IESP, we will need a more streamlined and explicit process for making external developers 'first-class citizens' in the Trilinos development community. This document is intended to frame the discussion for expanding the Trilinos community to all strategically important external members, while at the same time preserving Sandia's primary leadership role in the project.

  17. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  18. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  19. Electricity market 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment.

  20. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  1. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  2. Inbound Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hesoun, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  3. Rapidly expanding range of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert J.; Spackman, Erica

    2015-01-01

    The movement of highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N8) virus across Eurasia and into North America and the virus’ propensity to reassort with co-circulating low pathogenicity viruses raise concerns among poultry producers, wildlife biologists, aviculturists, and public health personnel worldwide. Surveillance, modeling, and experimental research will provide the knowledge required for intelligent policy and management decisions.

  4. Entering Russian Market of Passenger Transportation : Case of Veolia Transdev

    OpenAIRE

    Niklyaev, Ilya; Samuseva, Yuliya; Bayar, Tulga

    2013-01-01

    Each day more and more companies choose to become international and to expand to new markets looking for bigger profits. However, many of them end up carrying big losses only because they lack a deep and detailed analysis of a new market they have chosen to expand to. Therefore, the authors of this thesis decided to conduct a deep and profound analysis of Russian public transportation market. Russia presents a fast developing economy which shows very positive development signs. Russian market...

  5. Expanding cosmic horizons of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Narlikar, J. V.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wainwright, Milton

    2003-02-01

    The conceptual boundaries of life are rapidly expanding far beyond the confines of our planet to encompass an ever-widening region of the universe. Complex organic molecules in interstellar dust and comets appear most plausibly to be biologically derived, or at least closely related spectroscopically and structurally to such material. A de novo origin of life from non-living material is reckoned to have so minuscule a probability that its occurrence once in the universe can be considered miracle enough. The widespread distribution of similar material (e.g with the characteristics of the diffuse infrared bands and 2175 absorption features) throughout the galaxy and in external galaxies adds weight to the theory of panspermia, where it is supposed that the components of life at a generic level are readily transferred from one place to another. Spectroscopic evidence consistent with life extends to redshifts z=0.5, and from elemental abundance studies alone (e.g, of C, O and metals) in distant galaxies the possibility of cosmic life extends to redshifts as high as z=3.

  6. EDUCATIONAL MARKET STRATEGIES FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE MARKETING ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena PLATIS

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the recent social, technological and cultural changes, universities need to adapt rapidly or even to generate the change. More than that, on the educational market, new orientations reveal as well as new actions, which make it close to the market of goods and services or a business market. This paper analyze the possibilities of adapting the marketing orientation to the educational market strategy in the sense of reconsideration the strategic directions in the higher education institutions in order to make the study structures sustainable. The main objectives of the analyze are: ¾ Understanding the marketing orientation on the educational market; ¾ Identification the principal levels of the market strategy; ¾ Creating the strategic directions for sustainable development in the contemporary universities.

  7. Analysis of modern sports marketing of post-Olympic era

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    There is a long history for sports as a marketing vehicle. With enormous business opportunities and expanding market, Chinese enterprises, large and small, are taking advantages of "in-depth marketing" to build their brand names with all their resources and promote sustained development of modern sports marketing.

  8. Transformations in gas shipping : Market structure and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout

    This article aims to improve understanding of the gas shipping markets which, contrary to the main merchant markets- namely the dry, the tanker and the container markets- have not been subject to the same scrutiny. We examine the fundamentals and segment these versatile markets in which expanding

  9. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  10. Challenges of Location-Based Services market analysis: current market description

    OpenAIRE

    Basiri, Anahid; Moore, Terry; Hill, Chris; Bhatia, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Location-Based Services (LBS) have a huge and rapidly growing market, however LBS market reports do not fully agree about the current market size, the exact number of LBS users, market growth rate, etc. Different market study reports describe LBS market size, number of LBS subscribers and frequent users, revenues and costs and most appreciated application types with different and sometimes extremely contrasting numbers and figures and this becomes more problematic when it comes to forecasting...

  11. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Trofymchuk, Dmytro

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  12. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  13. Internet-induced marketing techniques: Critical factors of viral marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerndl, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid diffusion of the Internet and the emergence of various social constructs facilitated by Internet technologies are changing the drivers that define how marketing techniques are developed and refined. This paper identifies critical factors for viral marketing, an Internet-based ‘word-of-mouth’ marketing technique. Based on existing knowledge, five types of viral marketing factors that may critically influence the success of viral marketing campaigns are identified. These factors are the overall structure of the campaign, the characteristics of the product or service, the content of the message, the characteristics of the diffusion and, the peer-to-peer information conduit. The paper discusses three examples of viral marketing campaigns and identifies the specific factors in each case that influence its success. The paper concludes with a viral marketing typology differentiating between viral marketing communications, unintended viral marketing and commercial viral marketing. This is still a rapidly evolving area and further research is clearly needed to monitor new developments and make sense of the radical changes these developments bring to the market.

  14. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rai, Neha [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Reber, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muzammil, Maliha [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Mahmood, Tasfiq [International Center for Climate Change and Development, Baridhara (Bangladesh); Kaur, Nanki [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Tesfaye, Lidya [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Mamuye, Simret [Echnoserve Consulting (Ethiopia); Knuckles, James [Univ. of London (England). Cass Business School; Morris, Ellen [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States); de Been, Merijn [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Steinbach, Dave [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (England); Acharya, Sunil [Digo Bikas Inst. (Nepal); Chhetri, Raju Pandit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhushal, Ramesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  15. Expander chunked codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  16. Globalization of the art market [emerging art markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, O.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1980s art markets have developed rapidly outside of Europe and the USA. In the so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) this development has been particularly dynamic. With aggregate sales estimated at €11.5 billion, China is the second largest market for art and

  17. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  18. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  19. Marketing Principles as Applied to the Corporate Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Suzan A.

    Marketing principles, as applied by major businesses around the world, can also be used by information professionals to grow and expand their presence within their own organization. This paper focuses on parallels between marketing in the industrial/research arena, and the needs of information professionals to expand business from existing…

  20. Market Power in Bilateral Oligopoly Markets with Nonexpendable Infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funaki, Y.; Houba, H.E.D.; Motchenkova, E.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We consider price-fee competition in bilateral oligopolies with perfectly-divisible goods, non-expandable infrastructures, concentrated agents on both sides, and constant marginal costs. We define and characterize stable market outcomes. Buyers exclusively trade with the supplier with whom

  1. Designing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) as a service: Prioritising patients over administrative logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, J.; Holt, D. B.

    2014-01-01

    Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccination rates remain well below herd immunity in regions of many countries despite huge international resources devoted to both financing and access. We draw upon service marketing theory, organisational sociology, development anthropology and cultural...

  2. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  3. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA); Sasu, Constantin; Geanina Constanța SPĂTARU (PRAVĂȚ)

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presente...

  4. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Klečková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  5. Postmoderne marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Urquizu, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This thesis will challenge the traditional marketing perspective by adding a post-modern approach to marketing. Secondary an analysis of the post-modern consumer as well as the importance of neo tribalism in marketing will be described. Additionally the necessity of including countercultural segments and the importance of countercultures will be argued. Finally this thesis will examine which marketing method is the most useful when working with countercultures.

  6. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  7. 2008 WIND TECHNOLOGIES MARKET REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Bolinger, Mark; Barbose, G.; Mills, A.; Rosa, A.; Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Tegen, S.; Musial, W.; Oteri, F.; Heimiller, D.; Rberts, B.; Belyeu, K.; Stimmel, R.

    2009-07-15

    The U.S. wind industry experienced a banner year in 2008, again surpassing even optimistic growth projections from years past. At the same time, the last year has been one of upheaval, with the global financial crisis impacting near-term growth prospects for the wind industry, and with federal policy changes enacted to push the industry towards continued aggressive expansion. This rapid pace of development has made it difficult to keep up with trends in the marketplace. Yet, the need for timely, objective information on the industry and its progress has never been greater. This report - the third of an ongoing annual series - attempts to meet this need by providing a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2008. As with previous editions, this report begins with an overview of key wind power installation-related trends: trends in wind capacity growth in the U.S., how that growth compares to other countries and generation sources, the amount and percentage of wind in individual states and serving specific utilities, and the quantity of proposed wind capacity in various interconnection queues in the United States. Next, the report covers an array of wind industry trends, including developments in turbine manufacturer market share, manufacturing and supply-chain investments, wind turbine and wind project size, project financing developments, and trends among wind power developers, project owners, and power purchasers. The report then turns to a discussion of wind project price, cost, and performance trends. In so doing, it reviews the price of wind power in the United States, and how those prices compare to the cost of fossil-fueled generation, as represented by wholesale power prices. It also describes trends in installed wind project costs, wind turbine transaction prices, project performance, and operations and maintenance expenses. Next, the report examines other policy and market factors impacting the

  8. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  9. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  10. Analisa Strategi E-Marketing dan Implementasinya pada Rental Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyliana Meyliana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the main key for persistence of a company. The company could arrange old customers and attract new customers, as marketing event. Marketing is one component in customer relationship management. Marketing today has become a trend in doing promotion, increase new customers to expand target market, and maintain old customer loyalty to increase the company sales’ point volume. Supported by appropriate information technology, marketing event could be changed as events that give benefit to the company. Marketing event with information technology, e-marketing, is done to increase company image. After being analysed, this e-marketing strategy will be implemented to rental company. 

  11. Identifying spatial segments in international markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hofstede, F; Wedel, M; Steenkamp, JBEM

    2002-01-01

    The identification of geographic target markets is critical to the success of companies that are expanding internationally. Country borders have traditionally been used to delineate such target markets, resulting in accessible segments and cost efficient entry strategies. However, at present such

  12. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  13. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  14. TRANSFORMATION OF MARKET STRUCTURES OF FOOD MARKETS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elagina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of market structures in agri-food markets has had a negative impact on the dynamics of food prices. The current situation of volatility in food prices is determined by the following accelerated economic growth in China and other countries in Southeast Asia, a lack of investment in the agricultural sector in all developing countries, the low level of implementation of innovative technologies, strengthening the problem of the impoverishment of the soil and frequent crop failures, unstable level of the dollar, reducing the profitability of export activities, the diversification of consumption of cereals including through expanding the production of biofuels and speculation on the world market. In relation to Russia these processes are so important in modern conditions, as the level of industrialization of the agricultural sector since the 1960s, was one of the best in the world (with the exception of energy efficiency and now meets international standards. The transition to a market economy has enabled the liberalization of markets, substitution of food production by biofuels is not happening because of low energy prices, therefore, the Russian food markets less dependent on price volatility in the international market. Nevertheless, in General, strengthening the processes of concentration that occurs in the Russian market is the reason for the improvement of regulatory instruments structures of food markets and increasing food security.

  15. Marketing particularities in financial organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanić Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acceptance of marketing as a business concept in financial organizations, implies that the respective organization adopts the following marketing postulations: value of action capital conclusively depends on the client (value; key goal of marketing management in financial organizations is to attract new and retain existing clients; clients are attracted by delivering superior value/offer, and retaind by generating client satisfaction; in creating and delivering superior quality (value, marketing must have full colaboration with other departments (functional business areas. Due to the financial services nature, marketing management demands the classical marketing mix concept to accomodate and expand with respect to basic 4P concept, by adding new elements related to humen force (employees, physical environment and the manner in which they provide services to their clients. Therefore we believe that for the financial organizations 7P, namely 7C model is more adequate than classical model, and that it represents conceptual frame that identifies wider spectar of marketing management tools. In addition, we would like to emphasize that the advertisment, that participates with over 2/3 in total marketing budget, represents the dominant promotional form and that the budget structure for advertizing is commonly defined by the goal and task method, that stands for an important indicator of proper market orientation of financial organizations in Serbia.

  16. Government policy and market penetration opportunities for US renewable energy technology in India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Weingart, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some US renewable energy industries are now looking abroad, especially to the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region, in order to increase sales and expand markets. The developing world appears in principle to be an important market for renewable energy technologies. These international markets have proven extremely difficult to penetrate, and the US competitive position is threatened by strong, well-organized, government-supported competition from Japan and Western Europe. For example, US photovoltaic manufacturers held 80% of the world PV market in 1980; today their market share is down to 35%. Less developed countries (LDCs) present a potentially significant but highly elusive market for renewable energy technologies. This market may develop for three major reasons; the shortage of electricity supply and the high cost of grid extension to rural areas, the high cost of oil imports and the scarcity of light oil products, and the gradual replacement of traditional fuels with modern ones. The focus of this report is on the policies and attitudes of national and regional governments in India and Pakistan towards renewable energy technology and how these policies and attitudes affect the potential for penetration of these markets by US industry. We have attempted to provide some useful insight into the actual market environment in India and Pakistan rather than just report on official laws, regulations, and policies. The report also examines the economics of technologies in comparison with more traditional sources of energy. It concentrates primarily on technologies, such as photovoltaics and wind electric systems, that would benefit from foreign participation, but also identifies potential market opportunities for advanced solar desalination and other renewable energy technologies. 31 refs.

  17. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 371-374

  18. Rubella Seroprevalence Before Expanded Vaccination Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Sener

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Altough rubella is usually a mild childhood disease, but when it occurs early in pregnancy are severe. In this study, seroprevalence of rubella antibodies have been invastegated in various age groups especially chilbearing age’s women before Expanded Vaccination Programme. IgM and IgG antibodies against rubella were tested by ELISA kits. Seropositivity of rubella IgG was 89,5% in chlidbearing age’s women. In Turkey, the vaccine has been on the market since 1989 but rubella vaccination is currently included in the national immunization programme. Hence, our results are important for comparison of the seroprevalence rates after national vaccination program. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(5.000: 371-374

  19. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  20. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual clarification and cross-cutting review of seven articles analysing marketization in six countries in three policy areas at the level of local government. Findings: Four ideal-type models are deduced: Quasi-markets, involving both provider competition and free choice for users; Classic contracting...... out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also...

  1. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  2. The challenges of the expanded availability of genomic information: an agenda-setting paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borry, Pascal; Bentzen, Heidi Beate; Budin-Ljøsne, Isabelle; Cornel, Martina C; Howard, Heidi Carmen; Feeney, Oliver; Jackson, Leigh; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Mendes, Álvaro; Peterlin, Borut; Riso, Brigida; Shabani, Mahsa; Skirton, Heather; Sterckx, Sigrid; Vears, Danya; Wjst, Matthias; Felzmann, Heike

    2017-09-26

    Rapid advances in microarray and sequencing technologies are making genotyping and genome sequencing more affordable and readily available. There is an expectation that genomic sequencing technologies improve personalized diagnosis and personalized drug therapy. Concurrently, provision of direct-to-consumer genetic testing by commercial providers has enabled individuals' direct access to their genomic data. The expanded availability of genomic data is perceived as influencing the relationship between the various parties involved including healthcare professionals, researchers, patients, individuals, families, industry, and government. This results in a need to revisit their roles and responsibilities. In a 1-day agenda-setting meeting organized by the COST Action IS1303 "Citizen's Health through public-private Initiatives: Public health, Market and Ethical perspectives," participants discussed the main challenges associated with the expanded availability of genomic information, with a specific focus on public-private partnerships, and provided an outline from which to discuss in detail the identified challenges. This paper summarizes the points raised at this meeting in five main parts and highlights the key cross-cutting themes. In light of the increasing availability of genomic information, it is expected that this paper will provide timely direction for future research and policy making in this area.

  3. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  4. Education Abroad for Students with Disabilities: Expanding Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneson, Heidi M.; Fisher, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    Education abroad is a rapidly expanding opportunity for undergraduate students in the United States. Concurrent with this growth in total numbers is a growth in the diversity of participants. Students with different ethnic backgrounds, academic majors, age, socioeconomic status, and disabilities are increasingly seeking opportunities overseas. In…

  5. ADVERTISING AGENCY MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodology. Monitoring of the marketing behavior of agencies that promote advertising services. The results of monitoring and analysis demonstrated that the majority of agencies have a disorganized approach to the agency marketing, which results in sporadic activities related to the use and organization of agency marketing. Only individual agencies begin to form their own marketing strategy for the implementation of which marketing budgets are allocated. The main marketing functions of a Ukrainian advertising agency have been identified. Practical value. Rapid development of technologies, sophistication and increased variety of goods and services, reduction of their life cycle, higher customer demands, the growth of volume and speed of obtaining information, increased competition – all these changes that are taking place in the external environment make the Ukrainian companies that provide advertising services search for new approaches to ensure better adaptation to these conditions. Uncertainty, unpredictability and instability of the external environment will continue to grow. Therefore, the companies that provide advertising services need to constantly adapt not only to the existing conditions but also ensure that they are able to quickly react in the future. The basic precondition for success is stability of the quality that is achieved through strategic planning, fine-tuned search system, efficient management, which encourages creation of a position of quality

  6. Strategic market positions for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, D M; Lennox, L

    1988-01-01

    Faced with a rapidly changing market, increased legislation and intense competition, mental health service providers must be sophisticated planners and position themselves advantageously in the marketplace. They can effectively position themselves to be profitable and sustaining through market segmentation and sensitivity. The following article will address one concept of marketing that has received less attention but is of critical importance: positioning. As the market environment becomes increasingly competitive, positioning will be the key to success for mental health programs and institutions.

  7. The growing threat of AIDS: how marketers must respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, G W; Bush, A J

    1990-09-01

    The authors attempt to expand the dialogue between the health care industry and the marketing discipline on perhaps the most crucial issue facing health care marketers today--AIDS. They offer a critique of a JHCM article by Ronald Paul Hill. Their intent is to prompt a reconsideration of the normative propositions Hill suggests for health care marketers in response to the AIDS crisis.

  8. Marketing-sales interface configurations in B2B firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Wim G.; Brencic, Maja Makovec; Malshe, Avinash; Makovec Brenciv, M.

    As the body of knowledge on marketing-sales interface expands, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in B2B firms. Using a qualitative methodology and interview data collected from over 100 sales and marketing professionals from the US, The

  9. Web-Based Implementation of E-Marketing to Support Product Marketing of Chemical Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riswan Efendi Tarigan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many company’s marketing strategies are limited only to face-to-face communication, telephone, facsimile, company portfolio, and product brochures. However, those marketing strategies are well- known to have limited impacts. Therefore, the presence of e-marketing as one of the marketing strategies would be appropriate to cover the weaknesses and to solve a number of the marketing problems. The purpose of this study is to discuss matters related to marketing, such    as, proposing a marketing plan using website, expanding marketing segment, and introducing existing  products for a chemical manufacturing company. The adopted research method is a descriptive method where the study is directly performed on the research object to acquire necessary data. The collected data are further analyzed using the Porter’s Five Force and SWOT analysis. Fi- nally, the work provides a number of recommendations for implementing e-marketing strategies to support the company business.

  10. Marketing Particularities in Tourism and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Gabriela TURTUREANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The marketing has as an essential objective the orientation of firms’ activities based on the market needs. This presupposes, necessarily,the existence of an informational system very well established, that observes any rapid changing market environment: the consumer, distributor andcompetition. Marketing services is a marketing specialized domain, autonomous, clearly differentiated, in the process of consolidation anddevelopment. The services characteristics such as: immateriality, inseparability, variability, inability of storage, they normally lead to a discussion onwhether the marketing of services is similar to or different from that of physical goods.

  11. In the eye of the storm. Planned EEG amendments reduce the half-life of the market survey of complete PV power generation systems; Im Auge des Wirbelsturms. Die EEG-Reformplaene lassen die Halbwertszeit der Marktuebersicht Komplettsysteme rapide schrumpfen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Matthias B.

    2012-04-15

    The impending amendments of the German Renewables Act (EEG) have put the photovoltaic industry in a state of fright. Accurate market surveys are hardly possible, although at least a return on investments will still be possible even after 2012.

  12. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  13. Sexual Markets or Black Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    sex with sugar-daddies, called sponsors or patrons, who provide for them in exchange for sex while male peers often become street vendors, street artists or petty criminals engaged in the so-called ‘black’ markets of theft, sale of counterfeits, and circulation of stolen goods, alcohol and drugs. As I...... show, these gendered markets are highly entangled and interdependent, and as I argue, male and female markets use many of the same technologies, sources and circuits of exchange...

  14. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  15. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  16. Tourism Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  17. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines

  18. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  19. Agricultural Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helt, Lawrence; And Others

    Designed for use in farm business management adult programs, this marketing curriculum includes six teaching lessons and professional staff products. The following topics are covered in the lessons: introduction to marketing; interpretation of price/demand/supply cycles and fundamental outlook trends (carryover/projections/disappearance); farmers'…

  20. RELIGIOUS MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna-Ioana JURAVLE (GAVRA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the conceptual delimitation of the term religious marketing. The term religious marketing has caused controversy. There are two currents: that of the theologians, on one hand and that of the marketers, on the other hand. The representatives of each current have their own view regarding the implementation of marketing into the religious sphere. The article concludes with the necessity to adapt the churches’ activities and the ways they must be presented to the society’s actual characteristics. This can be achieved by using appropriate marketing tools and methods; however, the particularities of religion must be taken into account in order not to alter its religious values.

  1. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    Situated at the intersection of markets and development, this commentary aims to promote a cross-fertilization of macromarketing and transformative consumer research (TCR) that directs attention to the sociocultural context and situational embeddedness of consumer experience and wellbeing, while...... acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing......, and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  2. Competition and market strategies in the Swiss fixed telephony market

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, Roberto E.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed telephony has long been a fundamentally important market for European telecommunications operators. The liberalisation and the introduction of regulation in the end of the 1990s, however, allowed new entrants to compete with incumbents at the retail level. A rapid price decline and a decline in revenues followed. Increased retail competition eventually led a number of national regulators to deregulate this market. In 2013, however, many European countries (including Switzerland) continu...

  3. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    . It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...... as a guideline for evaluating game design thinking and for measuring solutions made in the development process. To strengthen our model of expanded design space, we will present examples from our game design courses.......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...

  4. Medieval market institutions : the organisation of commodity markets in Holland, c. 1200 - c. 1450

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, J.E.C.

    2010-01-01

    According to neo-institutional economics, markets are shaped by man-made rules and practices that determine market efficiency. Departing from this hypothesis, the dissertation examines how the organisation of commodity markets contributed to the rapid commercialisation of the county of Holland in

  5. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  6. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  7. Maritime Policy and the Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Pawlik, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    of production in an exporting market, in an importing market, and in a closed market, respectively, as shaped by various relevant maritime policies. Since a global policy that can regulate the maritime labor market does not exist, the trend on maritime labor supply is dynamic on a per country basis wherein crew......The reports highlighting the foreseen lack of merchant marine officers for the expanding world’s fleet calls for a review in evaluating the impact of maritime policy in the seafaring labor market. This paper aims to clarify the particular characteristics of the seafaring labor market and how it can...... be shaped by specific maritime labor policies. The seafaring labor market in the Philippines, Poland, Germany, and Brazil as well as the general maritime labor policies in these countries is discussed. The focus on these countries leads to a comparative observation of maritime labor as a factor...

  8. Welfare Maximization, Product Pricing, and Market Allocation in the Gasoline and Additives Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul W.; Shapouri, Hosein; PRICE, JEFFREY

    2003-01-01

    Programming models approximate market prices and quantities when regulations constrain firm choices, because market outcomes result when welfare is appropriately defined and includes performance and environmental constraints. This study discusses market operation in quality-constrained sectors, like gasoline and additives; processors expand output until marginal processing cost equals the processing margin between product revenues and raw material costs; retailers who buy gasoline and additiv...

  9. Expanding nail or expanding femur? An adverse event with the expandable intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Soham; Riley, Nicholas D; Sivaji, Chellappan K

    2010-01-01

    The expandable intramedullary nail is self-locking and has the advantage of reducing operating time and exposure to ionizing radiation. The nail is recommended for simple diaphyseal fractures involving the middle third of long bones, where the nail can bypass the fracture site by at least 5 cm. We encountered a unique complication with the expandable nail in a simple transverse shaft fracture at the junction of the middle and distal third of the left femur in an otherwise healthy 57-year-old man. The fracture was reduced and a 12-mm expandable nail was inserted. Following full expansion, intraoperative radiographs were obtained prior to closure. After six postoperative weeks, it was noted that the nail expanded the femoral canal, converting a simple fracture to a distally progressing comminuted fracture with a butterfly fragment. A review of the intraoperative radiographs showed slight widening of the medullary canal at the level of the fracture. As the alignment was satisfactory and callus was present, no further surgical intervention was considered. The patient was advised not to bear weight and was provided with a locked knee brace in extension to wear for six weeks. Radiographs at 12 weeks demonstrated good progress of healing with adequate callus and the patient was permitted to bear weight as tolerated and commence knee flexion. The fracture united satisfactorily at four months. This adverse experience emphasizes that caution should be exercised when expanding the nail, with close observation of the medullary canal diameter during the later stages of expansion.

  10. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Abstract. Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, affects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction.

  11. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2013-01-22

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  12. Expanding the eukaryotic genetic code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Jason W.; Cropp, T. Ashton; Anderson, J. Christopher; Schultz, Peter G.

    2017-02-28

    This invention provides compositions and methods for producing translational components that expand the number of genetically encoded amino acids in eukaryotic cells. The components include orthogonal tRNAs, orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, orthogonal pairs of tRNAs/synthetases and unnatural amino acids. Proteins and methods of producing proteins with unnatural amino acids in eukaryotic cells are also provided.

  13. Assessing market structures in resource markets. An empirical analysis of the market for metallurgical coal using various equilibrium models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Panke, Timo [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Energy Economics

    2015-05-15

    The prevalent market structures found in many resource markets consist of a high concentration on the supply side and a low demand elasticity. Market results are therefore frequently assumed to be an outcome of strategic interaction between producers. Common models to investigate the market outcomes and underlying market structures are games representing competitive markets, strategic Cournot competition and Stackelberg structures taking into account a dominant player acting first followed by one or more followers. Besides analysing a previously neglected scenario of the latter kind, we add to the literature by expanding the application of mathematical models by applying an Equilibrium Problem with Equilibrium Constraints (EPEC), which is used to model multi-leader-follower games, to a spatial market. We apply our model by investigating the prevalent market setting in the international market for metallurgical coal between 2008 and 2010, whose market structure provides arguments for a wide variety of market structures. Using different statistical measures and comparing model with actual market outcomes, we find that two previously neglected settings perform best: First, a setting in which the four largest metallurgical coal exporting firms compete against each other as Stackelberg leaders, while the remainders act as Cournot followers. Second, a setting with BHPB acting as sole Stackelberg leader.

  14. Marketing automation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raluca Dania Todor

    2016-01-01

      The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand...

  15. The marketing of partial hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, P; Brown, E; Kiser, L; Pruitt, D

    1987-09-01

    Health-care professionals are currently operating in the context of a rapidly changing health-care delivery system, including the move away from inpatient services to outpatient services in order to control costs. Those who practice in partial-hospital settings are in a position to offer effective, cost-efficient services; however, there continue to be obstacles which hinder appropriate utilization of the modality. The development and use of a well-designed marketing plan is one strategy for removing these obstacles. This paper presents a brief overview of the marketing process, ideas for developing a marketing plan, and several examples of specific marketing strategies as well as ways to monitor their effectiveness. Partial-hospital providers must take an active role in answering the calls for alternative sources of psychiatric care. A comprehensive, education-oriented marketing approach will increase the public's awareness of such alternatives and enable programs to survive in a competitive environment.

  16. Guerilla Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Nufer, Gerd; Bender, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Die Rezipienten sind gelangweilt von der heutigen Werbeuniformität. Die Aufmerksamkeit, die für die Absorption kommerziellen Botschaften aufgewendet wird, schwindet. Das Postulat nach neuen, innovativen Marketingformen lässt sich konstatieren. Dieser Forderung möchte das Konzept des Guerilla Marketings gerecht werden. Das Hauptaugenmerk des vorliegenden Beitrags liegt auf der Erarbeitung einer Charakterisierung dieser ungewöhnlichen Marketingstrategie sowie einer Einordnung in einen marketing...

  17. Market potential for probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, C; Gardiner, G; Meehan, H; Collins, K; Fitzgerald, G; Lynch, P B; Ross, R P

    2001-02-01

    "Functional foods" as a marketing term was initiated in Japan in the late 1980s and is used to describe foods fortified with ingredients capable of producing health benefits. This concept is becoming increasingly popular with consumers because of a heightened awareness of the link between health, nutrition, and diet. Food manufacturers are enthusiastic about developing such products because the added ingredients give increased value to food. The global market for functional foods in the coming years is predicted to grow rapidly. Although Japan currently accounts for about one-half of this market, the fastest rate of growth is expected to be in the United States. Probiotic products represent a strong growth area within the functional foods group and intense research efforts are under way to develop dairy products into which probiotic organisms such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are incorporated. Such probiotic foods may modulate gut microbial composition, thereby leading to improved gut health, for example, through improved tolerance to lactose in lactose-intolerant individuals or improved resistance to pathogenic bacteria. Large numbers of viable microorganisms are likely to be required in the food product, which should be consumed regularly to experience the health effect. The probiotic market, especially dairy products such as yogurts and fermented milks, has experienced rapid growth in Europe. The long-term exploitation of probiotics as health promoters is dependent on several factors, including sound, scientifically proven clinical evidence of health-promoting activity; accurate consumer information; effective marketing strategies; and, above all, a quality product that fulfills consumer expectations.

  18. Expanding the Conversation: Further Explorations into Indigenous Environmental Science Education Theory, Research, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowan, Greg

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous environmental science education is a diverse, dynamic, and rapidly expanding field of research, theory, and practice. This article highlights, challenges, and expands upon key areas of discussion presented by Mack et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ 7, "2012") as part of the forum on their article "Effective Practices for Creating…

  19. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  20. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  1. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act......This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  2. Cerrejon expansion in a tight market?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretelt, A. [Carbocol SA, Bogota (Colombia)

    1995-12-31

    Examines plans to expand Carbocol`s Cerrejon North Zone coal mine (Colombia). Covers: background; current status of the project; main features of the expansion (i.e. coal reserves, infrastructure, operating costs, expansion schedule and market factors); advantages of expansion; and Carbocol`s vision of the market. A positive decision to expand will depend on the results of a feasibility class III study which will define in exact terms the technical and economic aspects of the expansion and the best way to execute it. The study will be completed next year. The expansion programme should improve the profitability of the project. 10 figs.

  3. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  4. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...... to challenge the conventional wisdom and put border markets at the center of trade policies....... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...

  5. Prediction Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian Franz; Ivens, Bjørn Sven; Ohneberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Prediction Markets gained growing interest as a forecasting tool among researchers as well as practitioners, which resulted in an increasing number of publications. In order to track the latest development of research, comprising the extent and focus of research, this article...... provides a comprehensive review and classification of the literature related to the topic of Prediction Markets. Overall, 316 relevant articles, published in the timeframe from 2007 through 2013, were identified and assigned to a herein presented classification scheme, differentiating between descriptive...... works, articles of theoretical nature, application-oriented studies and articles dealing with the topic of law and policy. The analysis of the research results reveals that more than half of the literature pool deals with the application and actual function tests of Prediction Markets. The results...

  6. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  7. Football marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hontañón Velarde, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN: A lo largo del presente proyecto, realizo un estudio de investigación sobre el marketing dentro del fútbol, llevando a cabo un caso práctico con un equipo de Cantabria; el Racing de Santander. En este Trabajo de Fin de Grado defino las principales causas por las que el marketing dentro del fútbol es considerado de interés. Una de las causas es la económica, ya que aporta una actividad que en total es casi el 1% de PIB de una potencia como España; y, la causa social, ya que por tod...

  8. Market Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical systematic discussion of Shiller’s writings from the late 1970s to the present, as well as an examination of the social-psychological assumptions on which his work is built. We argue that Shiller’s work displays a tension between mimetic and anti-mimetic tendencies......, i.e. between understanding financial markets as captured by fads and fashions (mimesis), and at the same time understanding such markets on the basis of a notion of homo economicus (an essentially anti-mimetic figure). Identifying that tension not only sheds novel light on Shiller’s work, but also...

  9. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Apple Juice and Cider

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2001-01-01

    Apple juice and cider experienced rapid market growth in the U.S. during the past few decades, but now a mature market is established. The industry faces economic pressures created by the globalization of the market, and growers and processors across the industry are trying to adapt to new market conditions. The development of effective competitive strategies for this industry requires an understanding of industry trends, market conditions, consumer preferences, and the forces driving competi...

  10. A review of the expanding field of exotic animal oral health care--veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, D A; Oosterhuis, J E; Kirkman, J E

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the clinical literature of the field of Veterinary Dentistry from its conception in the late 1960's to its rapidly expanding role today as an emerging clinical specialty practice in veterinary medicine. It defines eight dental sub-disciplines in contemporary veterinary oral health care from a practical point of view and provides information concerning standardization of key words searches, definition of terms, and use of the expanded Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) necessary for a comprehensive review of the rapidly expanding literature stored in electronic databases.

  11. Educational Blogging: Integrating Technology into Marketing Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Melike Demirbag; Piskin, Burak; Bol, Beste

    2010-01-01

    The major challenge of marketing education is that the discipline continually reinvents itself. Marketing approaches and practices once new rapidly become old and many texts grow outdated in a short period of time, increasing the pressure on the instructors to provide the students with the latest knowledge. The changing environment of business…

  12. Postinternet Marketing: For a Philosophy and Art of Online Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Janoščík

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While we are living in rapidly changing environment driven by the online services, marketing has been rather reluctant in serious apprehending of these consequences. We do not aim to analyse this complex delay that we call conceptual jetlag here. (Conceptual consciousness of marketing is far behind the velocity of the plane online services. Rather we try to establish certain switchback that is driven by concept of philosophy by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari and the artistic notion of postinternet. By these means we aim at unveiling the general drive of marketing: The product (take Photoshop as an instance is meant not only to satisfy our needs and desires. It is creates them. This basic assumption of marketing and the dominance of online environment can elucidate each other since the "fluid ontology" of virtual environment consists precisely in the possibility of being formed by the will of its users.

  13. Outperforming markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Rimmel, Gunnar; Yosano, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    . Intellectual capital information leads to significantly better long-term performance against a reference portfolio, and is thus important to the capital market. Further, superior disclosure of IC reduces bid-ask spread in the long-term, indicating that such disclosures are important in an IPO setting. Analysts...

  14. Sports Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…

  15. Corporate targeting: Nike on the Russian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nike Corporation is one of leading global players in sports apparel and footwear market. Strategic development of Nike Co has always been based on superior marketing and engagement of world-class sportspersons in its advertising campaigns. When USSR collapsed, Nike immediately started with penetration on Russian market. By relying on its outstanding innovativeness in product development and marketing, Nike has become one of three biggest players in the market. As its distributor for Russian market, Nike has chosen Serbia-based company, Delta Sport. The strategy of penetration on Russian market is based on four major pillars: sport marketing, public relations retail marketing and advertising. The most relevant competitors on Russian market are Reebok and Adidas. Trying to increase its market share in the Russian Federation, Nike has used following competitive advantages: global brand, retail discounts and cost decrease. Regarding further development of the company's activities on Russian market, long-term objectives are as follows: maintaining the leading position, unfurling production on whole RF and CIS territories, new contracts and improvement of contracts with existing partners, expanding of retail network, establishment of own production on RF and CIS markets, and orientation of marketing department toward "Sport Marketing". Delta Sport, as an agent of Nike Co, has certain freedom in creating business policy but it still has to comply with basic principles adopted for the whole corporation. The most important factors considered when selecting a strategy are: positive sides of firm, its goals and interests top management relationships, financial resources, personnel qualifications influence of external environment, and time factor. Delta Sport has entirely adopted these principles and also developed internal ones, which are complementary with Nike's.

  16. Mobile shopper marketing: Key issues, current insights, and future research avenues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shankar, V.; Kleijnen, M.H.P.; Ramanathan, S.; Rizley, R.; Holland, S.; Morrissey, S.

    2016-01-01

    The intersection of mobile marketing and shopper marketing, known as mobile shopper marketing, is a rapidly evolving area. We formally define mobile shopper marketing as the planning and execution of all mobile-based marketing activities that influence a shopper along and beyond the

  17. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  18. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  19. From physical marketing to web marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main

  20. Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Bielová, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    The subject of bachelor's thesis "Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication" is analyze problematic of marketing communications in sector of educational services. The aims are potential clients of education. I will try to make out import of marketing research for marketing communication of the company.

  1. Entrepreneurship and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship marketing and entrepreneurship. Marketing considered as an integral part of entrepreneurship. Commit role in relationship marketing and entrepreneurship innovation. The role of marketing in the search for potential market demand of innovation as the scope of latent or unmet needs of customers. Shown the lack of marketing in today's special marketing tools for entrepreneurs.

  2. Strategic market segmentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maricic, Branko; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    ..., requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation...

  3. Strategische Planung im Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Graßy, Oliver

    1990-01-01

    Strategische Planung im Marketing : e. krit. Analyse ausgew. Planungsmethoden. - Augsburg : Förderges. Marketing, 1990. - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diplomarb. - (Arbeitspapiere zur Schriftenreihe Schwerpunkt Marketing ; 28)

  4. COMPLEMENTARITY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND MARKETING CAPABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAUL ALEXANDRU HUȚU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper study the relation between information technology and marketing capabilities. The interface between marketing and information technology forms the subject of numerous empirical and conceptual research. The expanding adoption of information technology in marketing implies the knowledge about the e-marketing capabilities development factors and the potential of these capabilities to generate competitive advantage and to improve firm’s performance. The results of recent studies highlight that organizations witch integrate information technology in marketing processes can improve results in customer acquisition and retention processes, also provides other benefits like share growth and cost reduction and it also improve the firms marketing functions. The aim of this exploratory research is to identify the antecedents of e-marketing and technological capabilities of the firm. Understanding this link is arguably one of the key challenges facing organizations in today’s highly dynamic environment.. It is also critical for marketing managers not only for determining strategic investments of resources but also for demonstrating marketing return on activities. E-marketing not only has a tremendous potential for growth but also poses unique challenges for all organisations, incumbents or new entrants.

  5. Financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Bibow, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a brief exposition of financial markets in Post Keynesian economics. Inspired by John Maynard Keynes's path-breaking insights into the role of liquidity and finance in "monetary production economies," Post Keynesian economics offers a refreshing alternative to mainstream (mis)conceptions in this area. We highlight the importance of liquidity-as provided by the financial system—to the proper functioning of real world economies under fundamental uncertainty, contrasting star...

  6. Multilevel marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Trübenekr, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis examines Multilevel marketing (abbreviated as 'MLM') as a business sector. The first aim of this study is to analyse the system of MLM within the company Oriflame and to measure to what extent the success of MLM is dependent on the duration of the seller's involvement in MLM and on the type of individual's character. Additionally, the thesis investigates whether it is possible to attain financial independence within Oriflame. The second goal is to find out what is the publ...

  7. Developing Marketing Strategies for University Teaching Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    University teaching hospitals face increasing competition from community hospitals, expanding regulation of health care, consumerism, and a declining urban population base. New marketing strategies are seen as ways in which teaching hospitals can achieve better relationships with institutions, practitioners, and surrounding communities and…

  8. Applying Marketing in the Public School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinga, Deidre M.; Angelov, Azure D. S.; Bateman, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional public schools no longer have a guaranteed market share of students, or tax dollars, based on geographic location. Families with little to no options in the past about where their child would attend school, now have many. In response to the expanding options available to them--in the form of charter schools and vouchers--families today…

  9. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  10. POLITICAL MARKET AS VARIABLE OF POLITICAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Cicović

    2012-01-01

    In order to completely understandconcept of this paper I would like to stress that myaim was to elaborate “political market as variableof political marketing” in a way that will define therole of political marketing in the society by drawinga parallel with the traditional (basic marketing)only because the political marketing as a scientificdiscipline emerged from the theory of basicmarketing. The position that political market takeswithin the political marketing is defined, bystressing politi...

  11. On market integration of renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeer, Sebastian

    2014-12-05

    Since the liberalization of electricity and gas markets in Europe, the energy sector has changed in every respect with one constant: most actors have underestimated renewable energies with regard to their growth, their economies of scale and their impact on existing energy markets. If that trend continues, the urgency for policy measures will increase. Given the security of supply, integration of renewables into energy markets is necessary to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. However, the further development of renewable energies plays a crucial role in the ability to meet the energy and climate policy targets. Thus, it increases the need for regulation to achieve societally desirable outcomes. This thesis has examined the effects of renewable energies on existing energy markets. It has also investigated the various other cost-efficient options that policy makers have in striving to reach energy and climate policy targets. We assumed that cost efficiency is a relevant side condition. In the past, this has not always been the case. Today, cost efficiency is definitely relevant and might also be an essential target in the future (see Bundesregierung 2013, p. 50). We contributed to the analysis of power prices as a result of increasing shares of renewables by showing that shutting down conventional capacities will have a merit order effect. This is necessary if renewable energies are to replace fossil and nuclear capacities. Any discussion of a change of market design should make mention of this effect, since spot market revenues impact a company's behaviour within potential capacity markets. From a consumer perspective, we have shown that there is a substantial need for secured capacity with low marginal costs to keep spot prices stable. This outcome has important implications for policy makers if they are to provide consumers with low-cost renewable market integration. Policy makers have numerous ways to reach policy targets than rapidly expanding

  12. OCT Expanded Clinical Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Baalen, Mary; Tafreshi, Ali; Patel, Nimesh; Young, Millennia; Mason, Sara; Otto, Christian; Samuels, Brian; Koslovsky, Matthew; Schaefer, Caroline; Taiym, Wafa; hide

    2017-01-01

    Vision changes identified in long duration space fliers has led to a more comprehensive clinical monitoring protocol. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) was recently implemented on board the International Space Station in 2013. NASA is collaborating with Heidelberg Engineering to expand our current OCT data analysis capability by implementing a volumetric approach. Volumetric maps will be created by combining the circle scan, the disc block scan, and the radial scan. This assessment may provide additional information about the optic nerve and further characterize changes related microgravity exposure. We will discuss challenges with collection and analysis of OCT data, present the results of this reanalysis and outline the potential benefits and limitations of the additional data.

  13. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  14. Expanding Human Cognition and Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spohrer, Jim [IBM, North Castle, NY (United States); Pierce, Brian M. [Raytheon Co., Waltham, MA (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States); Golledge, Reginald G. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Horn, Robert E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Turkle, Sherry [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Yonas, Gerold [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Glicken Turnley, Jessica [Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pollack, Jordan [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Burger, Rudy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinett, Warren; Wilson, Larry Todd [Inst. of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Bainbridge, W. S.; Canton, J.; Kuekes, P.; Loomis, J.; Penz, P.

    2013-01-01

    To be able to chart the most profitable future directions for societal transformation and corresponding scientific research, five multidisciplinary themes focused on major goals have been identified to fulfill the overall motivating vision of convergence described in the previous pages. The first, “Expanding Human Cognition and Communication,” is devoted to technological breakthroughs that have the potential to enhance individuals’ mental and interaction abilities. Throughout the twentieth century, a number of purely psychological techniques were offered for strengthening human character and personality, but evaluation research has generally failed to confirm the alleged benefits of these methods (Druckman and Bjork 1992; 1994). Today, there is good reason to believe that a combination of methods, drawing upon varied branches of converging science and technology, would be more effective than attempts that rely upon mental training alone.

  15. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  16. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  17. Marketing-sales interface and organizational competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Avlonitis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effectiveness of marketing-sales interfaces in B2B firms. As the body of knowledge on this domain is scarce, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in such firms. The objective of this paper is to expand existing knowledge regarding marketing-sales interfaces in B2B firms, in order to identify the effectiveness of each configuration. Based on quantitative data collected from marketing or sales managers of 98 B2B firms, the study identifies the most effective marketing-sales interface in terms of smooth relationships and enhanced performance. The implications of the study are discussed.

  18. Strategi Komunikasi Pemasaran Dalam Kegiatan Pemasaran Produk Consumer Goods (Studi Kasus Pada PT Expand Berlian Mulia Di Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman Kusniadji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication is a form of communication that aims to strengthen the marketing strategy and communication applications to help the marketing activities of a company. In addition, the marketing communication activities are intended to introduce, establish and create interactions between companies with business partners and customers, and is an attempt to communicate the company, the products or services to outside business partners, suppliers and consumers. Marketing communication strategies in consumer goods marketing should be able to achieve the goal of marketing, that is satisfy the customers.This study wanted to know how the marketing communication strategies in marketing consumer goods in the PT Expand Berlian Mulia Semarang. The object of this study conducted to assess the marketing communication strategies in marketing consumer goods in PT Expand Berlian Mulia Semarang. The study subject is PT Expand Berlian Mulia Semarang and chose this company because of its position as a market leader in the field of consumer goods distributor. The theories used in this research are the process of communication, strategy, marketing communication strategies SOSTAC models, and forms of marketing or promotional communications. The paradigm of this research is construktivist paradigm and research method used the case study method of qualitative approaches. This study tried to find empirical evidence of the object research, reveals how marketing communication strategies in consumer goods marketing products at PT Expand Berlian Mulia and develop the meaning of the implementation of marketing communication activities. Results showed correspondence between conceptual patterns predicted by theories that are relevant to the empirical findings patterns of case studies. Based on the analysis conducted can be concluded that marketing communication strategies in PT Expand Berlian Mulia use promotion mix such as advertising, sales promotion, personal

  19. Market and Policy in Argentina: Exploring the Non- Market Strategies and Government in A Hybrid Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola De Simone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the nature of non-market strategies in the case of expanding business in Argentinian.  Result of the enquiry presents a new conceptual framework that allow us to understand the Argentine reality in a proper manner. The full investigation suggests that in other countries the non-market strategies are being studied, without establishing a discipline. Academic material and specific courses have been developed in the business schools of the universities, but, except in specific and small cases, there is no research field and cases developed in Argentina. The expanded research hypothesis argues that companies in Argentina do not understand how to approach the political decisions of the State of hybrid political regimes in matters that concern them. Companies focus on market logic without understanding the logic of "non-market" environments.

  20. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  1. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  2. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  3. Introducing Tanzania as a potential market for Finnish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Mika

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming clear that Africa offers huge market and investment possibilities with its one billion people. The purpose of the study was to introduce Tanzania as a future market for Finnish companies. Analyzing the operational environment and the investment and market potential in the area were the key objectives of this study. Theory about internationalization and operational environment analysis were used to describe the process of expanding abroad from the point of view of Finnish SMEs. ...

  4. Brazil's Market for Trading Forest Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead.

  5. Edible Mushroom Cultivation for Food Security and Rural Development in China: Bio-Innovation, Technological Dissemination and Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoqi Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms traditionally collected from forests and now more cultivated have recently become the products of the fifth-largest agricultural sector in China. It was estimated that more than 25 million farmers in China are currently engaged in the collection, cultivation processing and marketing of mushrooms. The total value of mushroom products amounted to 149 billion RMB Yuan (24 billion USD in 2011. The raw materials have expanded from a few hardwoods to a variety of woods and increasing more into agricultural residues and wastes. The average annual growth rate has been over 10% over the past 30 years in China. This paper describes the rapid growth of mushroom cultivation and its contribution to food security and rural sustainable development. The roles of bio-innovation, technological dissemination, and marketing are also examined. Mushrooms could potentially be very important in future food supplies and in new dimensions of sustainable agriculture and forestry.

  6. Labour market emancipation results in booming Dutch owner-occupied housing market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumeester, H.J.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, the proportion of dual-income households in the Netherlands increased rapidly. Dutch society lagged a little behind other Western societies in terms of the emancipation of women in the labour market, but women began to enter the labour market more often and continue

  7. Expanding your gay and lesbian patient base: what savvy medical practices know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Ellen; Sullivan, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Many medical practices are looking at options to reach out to the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender community as a means of expanding business and improving quality of care. This article sets out steps that any practice can take to market to this community and improve its cultural competence.

  8. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  9. The internal marketing in enterprise marketing system

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Reshetnikova

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to summarize the scientific approaches defining the essence of the concept of «internal marketing» and determining their place in the marketing company. The results of the analysis. The theoretical development of foreign and local scientists concerning about internal marketing nature and its role in the marketing of the company has been analyzed. Applying the principles of a systematic approach for analysis of marketing allowed to select it...

  10. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Holloway, Garth J.; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  11. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  12. Financial services in England in the late XVII century and first equity market boom (1691–1693

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the formation of the British financial services industry in the 1690's and the reasons of the first joint-stock companies’ boom of 1691–1693's. The author describes the course of events of this boom, and data on the volume of transactions in shares. The reasons of the joint-stock boom end are associated with very low capitalization of most of the new companies. The consequence of rapid economic growth in England in the late XVII century was the appearance and rapid development of financial services. Financial intermediaries appeared first and their services, in particular the services of insurance companies, were in demand. The rapid increase in the number of insurance companies has become prerequisite for becoming financial capitalism that led to the emergence of other intermediaries which provided financial services. Among them there were the so-called "notaries" that offered a full range of services related to land transactions and "bankers, jewelers," that woke the first private bankers. Thus, in the early 1690's London had a favorable environment for the rapid growth of the financial market, which was the main precondition for expanding market shares and led to the joint-stock boom.

  13. Expanding Medicaid managed care: the right choice for Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Swapna; Finley, Marisa; Posey, Dan; Rohack, James J

    2012-10-01

    We set out to determine whether expanding Medicaid managed care in Texas is the solution to the challenges faced by the state of meeting the healthcare needs of a rapidly growing Medicaid population while addressing its own fiscal limitations. We reviewed the Texas Medicaid program, the potential effects of federal healthcare reform, and the state political climate through the perspectives (advantages and disadvantages) of the primary stakeholders: patients, practitioners, hospitals, and insurers. Research was performed through online, federal and state regulatory, and legislative review. In addition, we reviewed government and peer-reviewed reports and articles pertaining to issues related to Medicaid populations, healthcare practitioners, and hospitals that serve them. Each primary stakeholder had potential advantages and disadvantages associated with the expansion of Medicaid managed care. We conclude that expanding Medicaid managed care, if done in a manner responsive to the needs of recipients, can meet enrollees' healthcare needs while controlling the state's costs.

  14. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  15. The Effect of Social Marketing on Increasing Sport Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    KARGÜN, Mehmet; DALKILIÇ, Mehmet; Alpullu, Aytekin; Pala, Adem

    2015-01-01

    In today's world of rapidly evolving technology and innovation organizations brought about by increased production and marketing possibilities. Increase in the production and marketing opportunities for organizations, intense competitive environment brought about. Both organizations have to think about the benefit of society as well as their products are required to bring to the fore. The concept of social marketing come to the fore in such an environment. Social marketing is a new marke...

  16. A Modern Approach to the Efficient-Market Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Frahm, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Market efficiency at least requires the absence of weak arbitrage opportunities, but this is not sufficient to establish a situation where the market is sensitive, i.e., where it "fully reflects" or "rapidly adjusts to" some information flow including the evolution of asset prices. By contrast, No Weak Arbitrage together with market sensitivity is sufficient and necessary for a market to be informationally efficient.

  17. Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Rowles, Kristin

    2000-01-01

    Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of these markets will be positive for the apple industry, b...

  18. FTM-West : fuel treatment market model for U.S. West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew Kramp; Henry Spelter; Ken Skog; Dennis Dykstra

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents FTM–West, a partial market equilibrium model designed to project future wood market impacts of significantly expanded fuel treatment programs that could remove trees to reduce fire hazard on forestlands in the U.S. West. FTM–West was designed to account for structural complexities in marketing and utilization that arise from unconventional size...

  19. Race and Racelessness in CMO Marketing: Exploring Charter Management Organizations' Racial Construction and Its Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    As schools face growing competitive pressures, researchers have investigated the increasing reliance on marketing and its implications for various racial and socioeconomic groups. Although research has expanded our knowledge of marketing's gatekeeping qualities, it has less often considered the manner in which school marketing efforts contribute…

  20. Solar Installation Labor Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, B.; Jordan, P.; Carrese, J.

    2011-12-01

    The potential economic benefits of the growing renewable energy sector have led to increased federal, state, and local investments in solar industries, including federal grants for expanded workforce training for U.S. solar installers. However, there remain gaps in the data required to understand the size and composition of the workforce needed to meet the demand for solar power. Through primary research on the U.S. solar installation employer base, this report seeks to address that gap, improving policymakers and other solar stakeholders understanding of both the evolving needs of these employers and the economic opportunity associated with solar market development. Included are labor market data covering current U.S. employment, expected industry growth, and employer skill preferences for solar installation-related occupations. This study offers an in-depth look at the solar installation sectors. A study published by the Solar Foundation in October 2011 provides a census of labor data across the entire solar value chain.

  1. Profitable marketing: marketing for non marketing managers. Ceuta Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2005-01-01

    This workshop was conducted with 20 Managers from Ceuta Healthcare to raise their awareness of the power of marketing and give them a set of marketing tools to improve the success rate of their business development activities

  2. MARKETING EXPENDITURES IN THE INDONESIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Mochtar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1960s, a “new” marketing concept known as "four Ps marketing mix" appeared and shifted the focus from the product to the customer. The objective of the new concept was not only profit, and the means of achieving the objective expanded to include the entire “marketing mix”: product, price, promotion, and place (channels and distribution. Expenditures of marketing in a company should be explored from these mixes, because each mix would have an impact on the total marketing expenditures. These four mixes are the main aspects of marketing and thus, should represent almost all expenditures in marketing in a company. From this research it is discovered that the responding contractors have only average efforts to improve or innovate their service, mostly using the latest construction methods and management approach. Correlated to their policy in the fourth mix (Place, they are still national oriented and not international oriented in marketing their services, this may lead to the big question of their survival; their motivation to innovate is only average while their target market is only national market. Their attitude to use more intensive “fees” policy rather than both product innovation and promotion is also interesting. Big percentage of the responding contractors assumes these “fees” are regular marketing practices. This attitude may better be stopped to make the construction industry practices healthier. Attitude to use more product innovation and true promotion approach in marketing in construction must be encouraged systematically in the future, to improve competitiveness in the long term.

  3. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  4. Improving and expanding NGO programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A

    1993-06-01

    India has massive problems and is in need of improving and expanding non governmental organization (NGO) programs by broadening the scope of NGO activities, identifying successful NGO activities, and by moving closer to the community to participate in their activities. The problems and experience in the last few decades indicate that with expansion bureaucratization takes place. The institution begins to depend on donors and follows donor-driven agendas. As more money is given by the government, many more so called GONGO or Government-NGO projects materialize. Another problem is that the government almost always approaches the NGOs for the implementation of a project, and there is complete lack of cooperation at the planning stage. The government is considering a loan from the World Bank and UNICEF to launch a mother and child health program, but there has not been any discussion with the dozens of people who have worked on issues concerning mother and child health issues for many years. There is a need to be more demanding of the government about the various programs that are implemented for the government. Very few NGO health and family welfare projects are run by ordinary nurses or ordinary Ayurvedic doctors under ordinary conditions. Since successful NGO work has to be extended to other parts of the country, they will have to be run by ordinary people with very ordinary resources. Over the years, the NGO community has become preoccupied with its own agenda. Today, despite very sophisticated equipment and infrastructure, they are not able to reach the 60,000-70,000 workers and employees. Some of the ideas with respect to the strengthens and weaknesses of community participation have to be shared. NGOs should include all the existing non governmental organizations throughout the country, and have a dialogue with other nongovernmental bodies such as trade unions. The challenge is to adjust the current agenda, prevailing style, and present way of operating and move

  5. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  6. The Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nazan Gunay

    2001-01-01

    Since the term "Market Orientation" is recognised as the critical factor in business success there has been an overwhelming increase in research issues linking market orientation with company performance. The term market orientation has been employed by scholars to indicate the implementation of the marketing concept. In order to understand market orientation, one believes that there is a need to recall what the marketing concept is. Therefore, this study reviews the "marketing concept" as a ...

  7. Social Guerilla marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hejkalová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the social guerrilla marketing and its aim is to analyze the social guerrilla campaigns and to evaluate the suitability of the guerilla marketing for the social issues. The theoretical part describes marketing communications, new trends in communication, including guerrilla marketing, and also social marketing and social guerrilla marketing. The practical part includes the market research of guerrilla campaigns. The chosen campaigns are introduced and afterwards ...

  8. Marketing Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomivirta, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The study is done as a part of a bachelor’s study in Marketing at Laurea University of Applied Sciences. Marketing as a science appeared more than 50 years ago and is still developing. The purpose of the thesis work is to collect knowledge via marketing research, to understand how marketing is implemented by the case company–provider and compare the result to professional services marketing theory. Marketing professional services is difficult because services differ from goods. Marketing ...

  9. Interaction of Compliance and Voluntary Renewable Energy Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Lokey, E.

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, both compliance and voluntary markets have emerged to help support the development of renewable energy resources. Both of these markets are growing rapidly and today about half of U.S. states have RPS policies in place, with a number of these policies adopted in the last several years. In addition, many states have recently increased the stringency of their RPS policies. This paper examines key market interaction issues between compliance and voluntary renewable energy markets. It provides an overview of both the compliance and voluntary markets, addressing each market's history, purpose, size, scope, and benefits while addressing issues, including double counting.

  10. Emergent sclerotherapy of a newborn with expanding lymphatic malformation causing respiratory distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron C. Sheehan, BS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present report describes a case of acute airway obstruction in a newborn caused by an expanding hemorrhagic macrocystic lymphatic malformation (LM, which was successfully treated with emergent decompression and interventional radiology-guided sclerotherapy. The use of sclerotherapy for macrocystic LMs has been well described for various indications. The urgent interventional treatment obviated the need for a tracheostomy. This case describes the rapid diagnosis and use of sclerotherapy in a large expanding macrocystic LM.

  11. Emergent sclerotherapy of a newborn with expanding lymphatic malformation causing respiratory distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Cameron C; Idicula, Winslo; Raabe, Andrew; Jatana, Kris; Chiang, Tendy; Elmaraghy, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    The present report describes a case of acute airway obstruction in a newborn caused by an expanding hemorrhagic macrocystic lymphatic malformation (LM), which was successfully treated with emergent decompression and interventional radiology-guided sclerotherapy. The use of sclerotherapy for macrocystic LMs has been well described for various indications. The urgent interventional treatment obviated the need for a tracheostomy. This case describes the rapid diagnosis and use of sclerotherapy in a large expanding macrocystic LM.

  12. India creates social marketing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    India, in a major policy shift toward reversible birth controls methods, will form a new organization to promote private sector contraceptive sales. The government, through a recently signed agreement with the Agency for International Development (AID), plans to establish a private nonprofit Contraceptive Marketing Organization (CMO) in fiscal year 1984. This momentous move marks a full circle return to a 1969 proposal by AID and Ford Foundation consultants. Funded at about $500 million over a 7 year period, the CMO will function as a semi-autonomous entity run by a board of governors representing government and such public and public sectors as health, communications, management, manufacturing, marketing, advertising, and market research. According to the agreement called the India Family Planning Communications and Marketing Plan, the CMO's activities will cover procurement and distribution of condoms, oral contraceptives (OCs), and other yet to be determined contraceptive methods. Of the $500 million in funds, the government of India has pledged 2/3, AID roughly $50 million in grants and loans, with the balance expected from such sources as the UN Fund for Population Activities. The CMO's goal is a marked increase in contraceptive use by married couples of reproductive age from the current 6% rate to 20% by 1990. As of 1982, India has 122 million such couples, with 1% purchasing commercial products, 2% buying Nirodh Marketing Program condoms and 3% relying on free government contraceptives. Besides creating the CMO, the India/AID pact outlines intensified public sector family planning promotions and activities. Some Indian health experts believe the government's decision to expand social marketing's role rests with a significant decade long decline in the popularity of such permanent birth control measures as vasectomy and tubal ligation.

  13. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  14. Flippers in Housing Market Search

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Ka Yui Leung; Chung-Yi Tse

    2012-01-01

    We add flippers-specialist investors who attempt to profit from buying low and selling high to a canonical housing market search model. These agents facilitate the turnover of mismatched houses on behalf of end-users and they may survive even if they face an arbitrarily large cost of financing vis-a-vis ordinary households. Multiple equilibrium may exist. In one equilibrium, most, if not all, transactions are intermediated by flippers, resulting in rapid turnover, a high vacancy rate, and hig...

  15. Canada: expanding nuclear fuel exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paehlke, R.

    1978-01-01

    Uranium is soon to be a very big business in Canada and most of the expansion is bound for export markets. The expansions that are planned are both in uranium mining and in fuel processing. Almost all environmental problems associated with the nuclear fuel cycle thus far in Canada have been associated with these two phases of the cycle: mining and processing. The water in Elliot Lake has been found to have high concentrations of radium and the drinking water of Serpent River, Ontario--downwater from Elliot Lake--has been found to be contaminated by excess radioactivity. Buildings in both Port Hope, Ontario, and Uranium City, Saskatchewan (near Eldorado's Saskatchewan minesite), have excess radiation counts attributable to radon and radon daughter gases. Several aspects of the expansion are currently undergoing environmental impact assessment. Far and away the most careful and balanced inquiry is the Saskatchewan government-appointed inquiry under Mr. Justice E. D. Bayda of the Saskatchewan Appeals Court. This inquiry is, in the first instance, examining a proposal by Amok Ltee., a consortium of a French multinational and the French government, to develop a $135 million uranium mine and mill at Cluff Lake in the northern portion of Saskatchewan. But the inquiry is considering all aspects and implications of the full nuclear fuel cycle. The second stage of the uranium boom in Canada centers on processing. Here two major new plants are proposed by Eldorado Nuclear: one at Port Granby, Ontario; the second at Varman, Saskatchewan. Several massive nuclear power stations are planned east of Toronto, but nuclear opposition is growing in Canada. (MCW)

  16. Gaining competitive advantage in the gas boilers market of Vojvodina through integrated marketing communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the appearance of marketing and implementation of marketing concept in practice, the importance of the marketing mix, through which organizations adapt their offer to targeted customer segments, was emphasized . Regardless of the fact that the product is commonly referred to as the basic (key instrument of the marketing mix, in the last ten years, due to the rapid and strong development of science, technology, especially information technology, business and society in general, integrated marketing communications (IMK are becoming increasingly important, without which organizations can not even begin, or end, any significant marketing activity. In this context, the aim of the authors of this study was to investigate the importance of integrated marketing communications on the placement of gas boilers, i.e. on the market share of individual producers in the market of Vojvodina, which also represents the basic hypothesis of the research. Research results confirmed the basic hypothesis as well as an extraordinary influence of IMK to the market share of producers in the placement of gas boilers. Supplementary hypothesis was not confirmed, advertising is not a key promotional instrument. Thanks to the specific characteristics, primarily the high technical complexity of gas boilers, a key promotional instrument are education and training of sales and installation staff in the marketing channels, which operate on the market of Vojvodina.

  17. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2012? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? How will the refinery sector cope? The International Energy Agency (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEA Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop. By assessing all firmly planned upstream and downstream projects worldwide, this report forecasts supply and demand potential for crude and petroleum products over the next five years. The results provide an invaluable insight into vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. An essential report for all policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following oil market trends, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report is a further element of the strong commitment of the IEA to improving and expanding the quality, timeliness and accuracy of energy data and analysis.

  18. Uncooled LWIR imaging: applications and market analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Satomi

    2015-05-01

    The evolution of infrared (IR) imaging sensor technology for defense market has played an important role in developing commercial market, as dual use of the technology has expanded. In particular, technologies of both reduction in pixel pitch and vacuum package have drastically evolved in the area of uncooled Long-Wave IR (LWIR; 8-14 μm wavelength region) imaging sensor, increasing opportunity to create new applications. From the macroscopic point of view, the uncooled LWIR imaging market is divided into two areas. One is a high-end market where uncooled LWIR imaging sensor with sensitivity as close to that of cooled one as possible is required, while the other is a low-end market which is promoted by miniaturization and reduction in price. Especially, in the latter case, approaches towards consumer market have recently appeared, such as applications of uncooled LWIR imaging sensors to night visions for automobiles and smart phones. The appearance of such a kind of commodity surely changes existing business models. Further technological innovation is necessary for creating consumer market, and there will be a room for other companies treating components and materials such as lens materials and getter materials and so on to enter into the consumer market.

  19. Marketing in nursing organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of chapter 3 is to provide a conceptual framework for understanding marketing. Although it is often considered to be, marketing is not really a new activity for nursing organizations. What is perhaps new to most nursing organizations is the conduct of marketing activities as a series of interrelated events that are part of a strategic marketing process. The increasingly volatile nursing environment requires a comprehensive approach to marketing. This chapter presents definitions of marketing, the marketing mix, the characteristics of nonprofit marketing, the relationship of strategic planning and strategic marketing, portfolio analysis, and a detailed description of the strategic marketing process. While this chapter focuses on marketing concepts, essential components, and presentation of the strategic marketing process, chapter 4 presents specific methods and techniques for implementing the strategic marketing process.

  20. Oil on the market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, K.; Ukert, T.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of the German mineral oil market, supply and consumption as well as the particularities of this market are investigated and explained. The authors deal in particular with the market for light fuel oil, the petrol market, the market for heavy fuel oil and the market of lubricants. As different as these markets may be - the unavoidable coupled production produces interdependences. This and the balance caused by imports and exports have the effect that the price level on the German mineral oil markets is closely connected with the development of prices on the internal mineral oil markets.

  1. Análise comparativa da expansão maxilar com três marcas de parafusos com limitador posterior: ensaio laboratorial em Typodont Comparative analysis of rapid maxillary expansion using three brands of fan-type expander screw: laboratory trial using typodont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Damo Meneguzzi

    2011-10-01

    treatment generally involves the expansion of the arch. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the expansion pattern obtained with three different fan-type expander screws. METHODS: Using Typodont, 18 expansions were executed, six for each group, according to the expander tested: G1- DentaurumTM; G2- LeoneTM and G3- MorelliTM. For each essay, 13 activations of 2/4 of a turn were done in each appliance, leading to a total activation of 5.2mm. Using a caliper, measurements were taken in the beginning of the testing (T1; in half the total turnings (T2 and in the end of the testing (T3. Different measures were considered: interpremolar width (IP1, intersecond premolar width (IP2, intermolar width (IM and also the arch length (CA. The data obtained was analyzed through Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Tukey and Freeman tests as well as by ANOVA. RESULTS: It could be observed that all tested groups showed a "V" expansion pattern, with major expansion in the anterior region of the arch, that was even more expressive in G3 (IP1=29.85% and IM=9.73%. Increases in the CA measurements were similar for groups G1 and G3 (+12.65% and +12.13%, respectively, and lower for G2 (+8.23%. CONCLUSIONS: It could be concluded that all the fan-type expander screws tested in the present study can be used for treating transverse constriction of the maxilla. However, Morelli expander showed a greater expansion in the anterior region of the arch in relation to the posterior region, which is an important characteristic when treating cleft lip and palate patients. Clinical studies are also necessary to confirm the findings of the present study.

  2. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  3. Redefining the money market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The money market has traditionally been defined as the market for marketable short-term securities. It has deep historical roots. Today, it is not an illuminating definition. The genesis of interest rates, which is the quintessence of monetary policy implementation, does not originate in market for marketable short-term ...

  4. Marketing II Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Cheryl

    This combination curriculum and workbook, which was originally developed for use in a training workshop, is intended to assist adult educators in learning to market their adult literacy programs. The first chapter reviews basic marketing concepts (the definition of marketing, 10 truths about marketing, marketing versus promotion, steps in…

  5. Inbound marketing in research institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Świeczak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in times of revolution! We are witnessing a revolution in the way we choose new products and in the way we look for business partners. Nowadays, almost everybody who is looking for a pram for his child or a new accounting company for his small business, always starts by turning on the computer. We start with Google or any other search engine, we ask our friends from the Internet, our family members and colleagues for assistance, usually via e-mail, online chats, Facebook or Twitter. We live in times of revolution – as a result of this revolution companies without huge budgets and not resorting to eyecatching tv commercials are able to attract our attention. Nowadays, we pay more attention to companies offering us excellent content on the Internet – a good example here is Zaoppos, a company selling shoes which rapidly evolved into a multi-billion-dollar business. There is no doubt that currently an attractive form of presence in the web is of utmost importance for any company. The main force driving this new revolution is inbound marketing. This revolution has a global and universal reach and affects everybody without regard to his or her social or economic status, his or her education or culture. The term of Inbound Marketing hasn’t been translated into Polish yet. It can be interpreted as active, incoming marketing. Inbound Marketing is opposed to outbound marketing – traditional way of communicating, which is all about „pushing out” information, advertising message to the potential customer. Inbound marketing is focused on activities on the Internet, which allow the customers to find the message they are looking for. The potential customer is following issues he is looking for on the Internet, which leads him to the source of the message. The idea of inbound marketing is about taking such actions in the sphere of media that allow potential customers to find what they are looking for. Inbound marketing combines elements of

  6. Guerilla marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Slezáková, Martina

    2007-01-01

    Αντικείμενο της παρούσας διπλωματικής εργασίας είναι το “Guerilla Marketing”. To Guerilla Marketing είναι μια διαρκώς αναπτυσσόμενη τάση του Μάρκετινγκ, η οποία βασιζόμενη σε αντισυμβατικές τεχνικές, προσπαθεί να πετύχει την μέγιστη δυνατή ανταπόκριση, στο ελάχιστο δυνατό κόστος. Το Guerilla Marketing βασίζεται στην ενεργοποίηση ντόρου (buzz) και την συνακόλουθη μετάδοση του μηνύματος από στόμα σε στόμα (word-of-mouth). Στην άνθησή του έχουν συνεισφέρει η πτώση της αποτελεσματικότητα...

  7. Market for nickel-cadmium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putois, F.

    Besides the lead/acid battery market, which has seen a tremendous development linked with the car industry, the alkaline rechargeable battery market has also been expanded for more than twenty years, especially in the field of portable applications with nickel-cadmium batteries. Today, nickel-cadmium batteries have to face newcomers on the market, such as nickel-metal hydride, which is another alkaline couple, and rechargeable lithium batteries; these new battery systems have better performances in some areas. This work illustrates the status of the market for nickel-cadmium batteries and their applications. Also, for two major applications—the cordless tool and the electric vehicles—the competitive situation of nickel-cadmium batteries; facing new systems such as nickel-metal hydride and lithium ion cells are discussed.

  8. Housing market transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawcett, Tina; Boardman, Brenda (Environmental Change Inst., Univ. of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    Reducing energy use in the existing building stock requires a substantial and rapid transformation of the whole sector. Using a market transformation approach provides a useful framework and poses some new problems in comparison with appliances: houses don't break down in the same way as fridges, but can be improved piecemeal. The Energy Performance in Buildings Directive provides the foundation (and the x axis) for policies to achieve substantial reductions in residential energy use and carbon emissions by 2050. The technology is known, but has to be chosen by the householder it cannot be incorporated in the factory by a manufacturer. Education and awareness are, therefore, more important, both for the householder and for the installers. What is the role, if any, of mandatory minimum standards? The types and mix of policies require a clear understanding of the challenges provided by low-income groups, capital shortages, the length of residence in the house, the landlord-tenant split and user knowledge. This paper reviews the challenges and examines the extent to which the well-known market transformation theories work for the housing sector. Most of the examples are from the UK, but have been developed into generic principles.

  9. Market conduct and performance of wild and semi-wild food plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the market conduct and performance of wild and semi-wild food plants (WSWFPs) traded in Bunyoro-Kitara Kingdom, Uganda. A rapid market survey (RMS) was conducted in 17 local markets in Kibanda County. Market prices and weekly volumes of traded WSWFPs were compared with some of the ...

  10. Segmenting the Latin American travel market to South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinette Kruger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation and motive of research: Tourism growth to South Africa is in decline resulting in an emphasis shift to identify new markets to offset the slowdown in tourism growth. Purpose of research: This study identified viable target markets within the Latin America tourist market using market segmentation based on motivations to travel to South Africa. Results and findings: Four viable segments were identified that should be catered for and, based on the distinct characteristics of each market, marketing strategies are proposed. Practical implications: This study makes a valuable contribution to the current tourism literature by expanding current knowledge of the profile and motives of a, to date, relatively unknown tourist market.

  11. Relationship marketing as a modern marketing concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolotnaya Oksana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of scientific and practical justification of the relevance of using the concept of marketing of relations in modern market conditions and identifies the content and factors of customer loyalty.

  12. Market integration in the crustaceans market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Bronnmann, Julia

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the price dynamics and the degree of market integration in the German crustaceans market is examined using cointegration methods. The study focuses on wild caught cold water shrimp, farmed warm water shrimp as well as lobster and derives implications for the fisheries sector....... In the analysis, both the import market and the retail market price reactions are distinguished. Therefore, it is evaluated how price changes affect competing commodities within and between the value chain of a given crustaceans commodity. Evidence of partial market integration is found for all species under...... study at the import level while at the retail level; there is weak evidence of perfect market integration. At the import-retail level linkages, shrimp markets are partially integrated, while the lobster market is fully integrated. Consequently, it can be concluded that the species under consideration...

  13. Marketers’ expanded role to increase internal customer satisfaction in organizational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotileanu Adina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available During times of change, when companies are going through major transformations like mergers, acquisitions, organizational re-structuring or culture change, marketing faces the challenge to implement the new strategy as scheduled, with no delays or changes. Internal customer change acceptance plays a significant role in this endeavor and marketers need to expand their role and complement Human Resources strategy to building trust between decision makers and employees, to learn and understand past issues and to find solutions. In this circumstance, marketers’ have to identify the variables that generally influence internal customer satisfaction and develop them in marketing tools aimed to increase it to the level that strategy is accepted and implemented faster than using only Human Resources mechanisms. This paper is a result of marketing practice in medium and large companies that went through organizational change. The goal of this case study is to create, based on time, discipline and cross-functional skills variables, a model of efficient processes and evaluation of marketing actions that will increase employees’ trust in change management decisions and will lead to their support and engagement. The three independent variables allowed researcher to study the complex relationship between internal client satisfaction phenomena, organizational change context and thirty-six cross-functional employees including management, ultimately to answer how these variables can be used by marketers to get the internal customer change buy-in. The research showed that the new developed marketing tools, that is to say a process flow associated with sustainable procedures and Service Level Agreements, increased internal customer satisfaction and contributed to smooth and consistent marketing strategy implementation, as scheduled. This result means the theory that marketers role in times of organizational change, besides regular Key Performance Indicators

  14. FINANCIAL MARKETING CHALLENGES FOR THE ROMANIAN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Oana PREDA

    2013-01-01

    The reason I choose to analyze this issue is the fact that the proper functioning of the market economy is based on a solid and profitable banking financial system. The experience of the last 20 years in corroboration with the global financial crisis shows that banks in our country must face the challenges coming from both the international market and especially the national market. In this context, it becomes increasingly clear that to obtain a good market positioning (which will automatical...

  15. Experiential Marketing: Growing Importance in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Tümer Kabadayı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of experience entered in the field of marketing in 1982, this concept has now become a key constituent of understanding consumer behaviour. In recent years, a great deal of research has examined this concept is a foundation of economy and future of marketing. From this point of view the purpose of this study is to discuss concept of experience, experiential marketing and related concepts in a holistic perspective and moreover some marketing implications have been given.

  16. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Olle

    2012-01-01

    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by mea...

  17. Computerized models for strategic planning and marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, R J

    1985-03-01

    In the rapidly changing health care industry, planning and marketing based primarily on historical information is no longer sufficient. The use of computerized models to evaluate alternatives is proposed as a key part of strategic planning and marketing. The general concept, approach, components, and uses of such models are described in general, followed by an example model including the inputs, formats, and outputs, Finally, the use and interpretation of such models are discussed.

  18. Marketing is everything.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, R

    1991-01-01

    Technology is creating customer choice, and choice is altering the marketplace. Gone are the days of the marketer as salesperson. Gone as well is marketing that tries to trick the customer into buying whatever the company makes. There is a new paradigm for marketing, a model that depends on the marketer's knowledge, experience, and ability to integrate the customer and the company. Six principles are at the heart of the new marketing. The first, "Marketing is everything and everything is marketing," suggests that marketing is like quality. It is not a function but an all-pervasive way of doing business. The second, "The goal of marketing is to own the market, not just to sell the product," is a remedy for companies that adopt a limiting "market-share mentality." When you own a market, you lead the market. The third principle says that "marketing evolves as technology evolves." Programmable technology means that companies can promise customers "any thing, any way, any time." Now marketing is evolving to deliver on that promise. The fourth principle, "Marketing moves from monologue to dialogue," argues that advertising is obsolete. Talking at customers is no longer useful. The new marketing requires a feedback loop--a dialogue between company and customer. The fifth principle says that "marketing a product is marketing a service is marketing a product." The line between the categories is fast eroding: the best manufacturing companies provide great service, the best service companies think of themselves as offering high-quality products. The sixth principle, "Technology markets technology," points out the inevitable marriage of marketing and technology and predicts the emergence of marketing workstations, a marketing counterpart to engineers' CAD/CAM systems.

  19. Tools of online Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M. S.; Rahman, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Online marketing is the most crucial issue in the modern marketing era but there was no previous research that could identify the tools of internet marketing before this study and it was the first study on the field of online marketing tools. This research was descriptive in nature and it has attempted to identify the major tools of internet marketing from the concepts of traditional marketing tools. Worldwide network is known as Internet that can exchange information between use...

  20. New marketing, improved marketing, apocryphal marketing: is one marketing concept enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, T

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE – This paper seeks to explore marketing's ambiguous relationship with truth and, in so doing, to question the efficacy and value of the marketing concept and the very nature of marketing itself. Is marketing something that marketers do, or is it something much broader than this? If the latter, are marketers themselves either willing, or able to operate beyond traditional boundaries and, if not, should they focus – honourably – on what they do best, and encourage/support others who mig...

  1. Marketing in Healthcare Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana BIRSA

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare marketing is a part of public services marketing. In developed countries, healthcare marketing can be applied to a microeconomic as well as to a macroeconomic level. The main feature of healthcare marketing is that there are products, markets, but there is no cash equivalent. For both traditional marketing and public healthcare marketing, the user of a product or service is called “consumer” and a group of consumers is mentioned as a “market”. Acceptance of marketing by USA heath s...

  2. Mining Marketing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    MarketMiner(R) Products, a line of automated marketing analysis tools manufactured by MarketMiner, Inc., can benefit organizations that perform significant amounts of direct marketing. MarketMiner received a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA's Johnson Space Center to develop the software as a data modeling tool for space mission applications. The technology was then built into the company current products to provide decision support for business and marketing applications. With the tool, users gain valuable information about customers and prospects from existing data in order to increase sales and profitability. MarketMiner(R) is a registered trademark of MarketMiner, Inc.

  3. Rapid heating of matter using high power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Woosuk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-08

    This slide presentation describes motivation (uniform and rapid heating of a target, opportunity to study warm dense matter, study of nuclear fusion reactions), rapid heating of matter with intense laser-driven ion beams, visualization of the expanding warm dense gold and diamond, and nuclear fusion experiments using high power lasers (direct heating of deuterium spheres (radius ~ 10nm) with an intense laser pulse.

  4. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2011? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? The International Energy Agencys (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEAs monthly Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop in the next five years. The forecasts look in detail at product demand and the supply potential from all the firmly planned individual upstream and downstream projects around the world. The results provide invaluable insights on vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. The rapid pace of change in the oil market means that forecasts can become outdated very quickly. This interim update provides the opportunity to rebase the data and forecasts in the annual Medium-Term Oil Market Report and to discuss and analyse new issues affecting the oil industry. Policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following trends in the oil market should find this report extremely useful.

  5. A comparison of skin expansion and contraction between one expander and two expanders: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gan-lin; Zhang, Jin-ming; Ji, Chen-yang; Meng, Hong; Huang, Jian-hua; Luo, He-yuan; Zhang, Hua-sheng; Liu, Xiao-tao; Hong, Xiao-fang

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the difference between the skin expansion and contraction rates for an expanded flap with one versus two expanders. The study cohort comprised 24 cases of two overlapping expanders and 15 cases of a single implanted expander involving 22 patients. The method of "wet-cloth sampling" was applied to measure the expanded flap area and the initial unexpanded area and to calculate the skin expansion rate. Two points 5 cm apart in the center of the expanded flap were selected before the second surgical stage. After removal of the expander, the distance between the two fixed points was measured and recorded. The contraction rate of the expanded flap then was calculated. During the same period of expansion in the two groups (p = 0.06, >0.01), the skin expansion rate was 3.5 ± 0.9 % in the group with two overlapping expanders and 2.6 ± 0.6 % in the control group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.002, 0.05). We fitted a linear regression model that was Y = 0.533 − 0.003X, where Y was the contraction rate of the expanded flap and X was the period of expansion. The contraction rate of the expanded flap was negatively correlated with the period of expansion. Compared with the traditional method of implanting a single expander, the new method of overlapping two expanders in a single cavity increased the skin expansion rate. The instantly expanded flap contraction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups, so the amount of expanded skin area absolutely increased. The clinical application of the new method is worth promoting. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  6. Spherical Accretion in a Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Wasserman, Ira

    1996-10-01

    We consider spherically symmetric accretion of material from an initially homogeneous, uniformly expanding medium onto a Newtonian point mass M. The gas is assumed to evolve adiabatically with a constant adiabatic index F, which we vary over the range Γ ɛ [1, 5/3]. We use a one-dimensional Lagrangian code to follow the spherical infall of material as a function of time. Outflowing shells gravitationally bound to the point mass fall back, giving rise to a inflow rate that, after a rapid rise, declines as a power law in time. If there were no outflow initially, Bondi accretion would result, with a characteristic accretion time-scale ta,0. For gas initially expanding at a uniform rate, with a radial velocity U = R/t0 at radius R, the behavior of the flow at all subsequent times is determined by ta,0/t0. If ta,0/t0 ≫ 1, the gas has no time to respond to pressure forces, so the fluid motion is nearly collisionless. In this case, only loosely bound shells are influenced by pressure gradients and are pushed outward. The late-time evolution of the mass accretion rate Mdot is close to the result for pure dust, and we develop a semianalytic model that accurately accounts for the small effect of pressure gradients in this limit. In the opposite regime, ta,0/t0 ≪ 1, pressure forces significantly affect the motion of the gas. At sufficiently early times, t ≤ ttr, the flow evolved along a sequence of quasi-stationary, Bondi-like states, with a time-dependent Mdot determined by the slowly varying gas density at large distances. However, at later times, t ≥ ttr, the fluid flow enters a dustllke regime; ttr is the time when the instantaneous Bondi accretion radius reaches the marginally bound radius. The transition time ttr depends sensitively on ta,0/t0 for a given Γ and can greatly exceed t0. We show that there exists a critical value Γ = 11/9, below which the transition from fluid to ballistic motion disappears. As one application of our calculations, we consider the

  7. The Market - between Marketing and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    is applicable in real life situations. Furthermore we shall discuss implications of the global disintegration of production, and the growing content of intangibles (experiences) in the goods we consume, for our understanding of the market. This takes us to a plausible theoretical explanation of the smile......We all know what a market is, but when it comes to theorizing about markets and modelling them, there are differences within the fields of economics and marketing management. Here we shall try to locate the cause of these differences, and discuss when the economic concept of an ideal market...

  8. The Market - between Marketing and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    We all know what a market is, but when it comes to theorizing about markets and modelling them, there are differences within the fields of economics and marketing management. Here we shall try to locate the cause of these differences, and discuss when the economic concept of an ideal market...... is applicable in real life situations. Furthermore we shall discuss implications of the global disintegration of production, and the growing content of intangibles (experiences) in the goods we consume, for our understanding of the market. This takes us to a plausible theoretical explanation of the smile...

  9. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current clients and competitors, also – singularity of the professional services.Article in Lithuanian

  10. The new threat of digital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kathryn C; Chester, Jeff; Grier, Sonya A; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-06-01

    Because of their avid use of new media and their increased spending power, children and teens have become primary targets of a new "media and marketing ecosystem." The digital marketplace is undergoing rapid innovation as new technologies and software applications continue to reshape the media landscape and user behaviors. The advertising industry, in many instances led by food and beverage marketers, is purposefully exploiting the special relationship that youth have with new media, as online marketing campaigns create unprecedented intimacies between adolescents and the brands and products that now literally surround them. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN THE INNOVATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Boier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inspired from the context of business-to-business markets, relationship marketing in the context of innovation have been expanded more and more to the consumer markets as well. The paper starts with a review of several most relevant studies on relationship marketing-innovation topic, from the first references to the current complex approaches. The effective stakeholder involvement in the value creation provides a more fertile ground for further successful innovations. All of the variables generating the success of a relationship marketing approach – trust, commitment, communication, seller’s customer orientation and empathy, experience and satisfaction a.s.o. – are also involved, with specific particularities, in the management of the innovation and new product development processes. The paper also outline the different perspectives to understand the relationship marketing-innovation approaches, coming from the product type, its business-to-business or business-to-consumer settings, the specific industry, the actual stage of the market evolution – emerging or mature –, the level of technological novelty as dimension of technological uncertainty, the position/ status and role of stakeholders as part in the relationships, the state of the new product development process in which the interactions occurs or special issues like sustainable innovation, for profit and not-for-profit areas etc.

  12. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC’s abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. PMID:25429243

  13. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states.

  14. Medical devices and the Middle East: market, regulation, and reimbursement in Gulf Cooperation Council states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard JJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jason J Howard Division of Paediatric Orthopaedics, Department of Surgery, Sidra Medical and Research Center, Doha, Qatar Abstract: With some of the richest economies in the world, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC is undergoing rapid growth not only in its population but also in health care expenditure. Despite the GCC's abundance of hydrocarbon-based wealth, the drivers of the medical device industry in the GCC are still in flux, with gains yet to be made in areas of infrastructure, regulation, and reimbursement. However, the regional disease burden, expanding health insurance penetration, increasing privatization, and a desire to attract skilled expatriate health care providers have led to favorable conditions for the medical device market in the GCC. The purpose of this article is to investigate the current state of the GCC medical device industry, with respect to market, regulation, and reimbursement, paying special attention to the three largest medical device markets: Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar. The GCC would seem to represent fertile ground for the development of medical technologies, especially those in line with the regional health priorities of the respective member states. Keywords: medical devices, regulation, reimbursement, Middle East 

  15. Journal impact factor in the era of expanding literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Julia; Belmont, John; Cho, Cheng T

    2006-12-01

    The Journal Citation Reports (JCR) of the Science Citation Index (SCI), published by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI), provides a comprehensive database for analysis of journals. Recent use of JCR's journal impact factor for evaluation of journals and authors has provoked strongly mixed reactions among investigators. This paper examines the effects of the rapidly expanding literature on the impact factor over the past decade and examines the limitations of journal impact factor for evaluating individual author's contributions. The JCR analyzed 6088 journals in 2005, a 32% increase in new listings since 1995. During the same period, there was a 39% increase in new journal listings in the infectious diseases category. The phenomenon of journal proliferation has had a profound effect on the journal impact factor. During the past decade an increased impact factor was observed in 92% of the top ranking major journals, especially in young and rapidly expanding research fields. Certain highly cited new journals published primarily review articles - not original contributions. There was no increase in impact factor among some of the best known journals, such as Journal of Experimental Medicine, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), and Journal of Infectious Diseases. Clearly, journal impact factor is an imperfect tool for measuring the quality of articles, and its use in evaluating authors has inherent risks. In spite of its limitations, journal impact factor can be used as a rough indicator of scientific quality in specific subject categories and for serious reading and learning.

  16. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location......, in our case a medium-sized retail supermarket. Two prototypes based on push and pull marketing strategies are implemented and evaluated. Taking outset in a synthesis of central issues in contemporary research on mobile marketing, we discuss their role in micro mobility marketing to point to similarities...

  17. The Quintessence of Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bickhoff, Nils; Hollensen, Svend; Opresnik, Marc Oliver

    What actually is marketing? Many people think of marketing as only sales and advertising because every day we are bombarded with TV commercials, flyers, catalogues, sales calls, and commercial e-mail. However, selling and advertising are only one element of marketing. Today, marketing must...... be understood not in the old sense of making a sale but in a contemporary and holistic sense of satisfying customer needs. In this book the authors develop the Quintessential Marketing Arena by following the logic of the three major steps of the marketing process. Along this process they present the fourteen...... most important marketing instruments that occur during this process. Having read this book: - You will have a basic understanding of marketing and the process of marketing management - You will know the most important marketing instruments and how they interact - You can develop your own marketing plan...

  18. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide......’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from...

  19. ANALYSIS, SELECTION AND RANKING OF FOREIGN MARKETS. A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Choosing the appropriate markets for growth and development is essential for a company that wishes expanding businesses through international economic exchanges. But in this business case foreign markets research is not sufficient even though is an important chapter in the decision technology and an indispensable condition for achieving firm’s objectives. If in marketing on the national market this market is defined requiring no more than its prospection and segmentation, in the case of the international market outside the research process there is a need of a selection of markets and their classification. Companies that have this intention know little or nothing about the conditions offered by a new market or another. Therefore, they must go, step by step, through a complex analysis process, multilevel- type, composed of selection and ranking of markets followed by the proper research through exploration and segmentation, which can lead to choosing the most profitable markets. In this regard, within this study, we propose a multi-criteria model for selection and ranking of international development markets, allowing companies access to those markets which are in compliance with the company's development strategy.

  20. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  1. Critical Care Pharmacist Market Perceptions: Comparison of Critical Care Program Directors and Directors of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, David R; Persaud, Rosemary A; Naseman, Ryan W; Choudhary, Kavish; Carter, Kristen E; Hansen, Amanda

    2017-05-01

    supply and demand in the critical care trained pharmacist market. In comparing RPD and DOP perceptions of the demand for critical care pharmacists, DOPs perceived demand to be higher than RPDs (mean, 3.2 vs 2.8; P = .032). Conclusion: Although there is a perception of the oversupply of critical care trained pharmacists, a survey of DOPs and CC RPDs found a market with positions available, rapid hiring, stable salaries, and plans for expanded hiring of critical care trained pharmacists.

  2. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  3. Long-term implications of observing an expanding cosmological civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2018-01-01

    Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe. How does the presence of one limit the expansionistic ambitions of another, and what sort of boundary forms between their expanding domains? We describe a general scenario for any expansion speed, separation distance and time. We then specialize to a question of particular interest: What are the future prospects for a young and ambitious civilization if they can observe the presence of another at a cosmological distance? We treat cases involving the observation of one or two expanding domains. In the single-observation case, we find that almost any plausible detection will limit one's future cosmic expansion to some extent. Also, practical technological limits to expansion speed (well below the speed of light) play an interesting role. If a domain is visible at the time one embarks on cosmic expansion, higher practical limits to expansion speed are beneficial only up to a certain point. Beyond this point, a higher speed limit means that gains in the ability to expand are more than offset by the first-mover advantage of the observed domain. In the case of two visible domains, it is possible to be `trapped' by them if the practical speed limit is high enough and their angular separation in the sky is large enough, i.e. one's expansion in any direction will terminate at a boundary with the two visible civilizations. Detection at an extreme cosmological distance has surprisingly little mitigating effect on our conclusions.

  4. Ceftibuten: a new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, D R

    1997-09-01

    To review the antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, and tolerability of ceftibuten, a new expanded-spectrum oral cephalosporin. Literature was identified by a MEDLINE search (January 1983-June 1996) of the medical literature, review of English-language literature and bibliographies of these articles, and data on file. Clinical efficacy data were selected from all published and unpublished trials and abstracts that mentioned ceftibuten. Additional information concerning in vitro susceptibility, safety, chemistry, and pharmacokinetic profile of ceftibuten also was reviewed. Ceftibuten, an oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin, has a broad spectrum of activity against many gram-negative and selected gram-positive organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Ceftibuten is stable to hydrolysis by many common beta-lactamases. Ceftibuten is rapidly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is primarily eliminated renally as unchanged drug. The elimination half-life of ceftibuten is slightly longer than 2 hours. Efficacy has been demonstrated in a number of clinical trials in adults and children with upper and lower respiratory tract infections (e.g., acute otitis media, pharyngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis) and urinary tract infections. The adverse effect profile is equal to that of comparator agents. Ceftibuten is an alternative to other antimicrobial agents with convenient once-daily dosing in the treatment of upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Similar to other oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, ceftibuten has antimicrobial activity against common pathogens of the respiratory tract and is stable in the presence of many beta-lactamases. The clinical choice of an oral expanded-spectrum cephalosporin will be based on patient acceptance, frequency of administration, and cost.

  5. The bibliometric behaviour of an expanding specialisation of medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelwall, M.; Levitt, J.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates macular disease research and cataract research, which are both specialisations of Ophthalmology. Macular disease and cataracts are amongst the three leading causes of blindness in the world. Macular research expanded between 1992 and 2006 in that the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as macular increased by over 300% in that period. By contrast, during that same period the proportion of Ophthalmology articles classified as ‘cataract’ decreased by over 20%. This study investigates the bibliometric differences between the rapidly expanding specialisation of ‘macular’ and the slightly contracting specialisation of ‘cataract’. Our rationale for investigating these bibliometric differences is that previous researchers have suggested that articles in expanding specialisations are likely to be more highly cited than articles in relatively static specialisations, and it seems important, when comparing specialisations, to try to ensure that articles in a relatively static specialisation are not penalised. This study first identifies substantial macro-level bibliometric differences between the two specialisations and then gauges the extent to which these differences were associated with the expansion of Macular compared with Cataract. The initial investigation uses coarse-grained delineations of the specialisation, formed from search terms frequently associated with macular (and cataract). It finds that articles in the relatively expanding specialisation were substantially more highly cited and that these differences were associated with the expansion of the specialisation rather than the size of the specialisation (the Matthew effect). A major limitation of this study is that its coarse-grained delineation of specialisations fails to identify substantial numbers of articles in the specialisation. A more fine-grained delineation using PubMed’s Medical Subject Headings (MESH) has been piloted and additional articles

  6. Marketing suggestions for YING KE SONG

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yichen

    2015-01-01

    Ying Kesong is a beverage company which was founded in the north part of Anhui province in 2010. The main purpose of the thesis was to discover effective ways to expand the market of the Ying Kesong company. The other purpose was to figure out how to maintain a long time relationship with customers in the meantime. The theoretical part includes the external environment, internal environment, SWOT analysis and the analysis of some successful companies like Coca Cola and Jia Duobao. Th...

  7. Analysis of IaaS market

    OpenAIRE

    Dušek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    The thesis focuses on cloud computing which has become technological trend in the last years and possibilities how to use IT services. Still more expanding offer of cloud services brings new ways for organizations how to efficiently utilize capabilities. The main objective of thesis is the Infrastructure as a service market's analysis carried out in the form of comparison between chosen IaaS public cloud providers, based on multicriterial decision making. For purposes of the analysis are set ...

  8. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  9. Expanding Scope of Practice for Ontario Optometrists

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emily Bray; Ivy Bourgault

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, The Optometry Act, 1991 was amended to include The Designated Drugs and Standards of Practice Regulation which expanded the scope of practice for Ontario optometrists to include prescribing...

  10. Efficacy of Nickel-Titanium Palatal Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Paul

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : To conclude, a Ni-Ti expander brings about expansion by a combination of orthodontic and orthopedic effects by an increase in maxillary intermolar, maxillary intercanine and mandibular intercanine widths as also the opening of the midpalatal suture.

  11. Generic Market Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); M. van Regenmortel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractCurrently, there are two market models for valuation and risk management of interest rate derivatives, the LIBOR and swap market models. In this paper, we introduce arbitrage-free constant maturity swap (CMS) market models and generic market models featuring forward rates that span

  12. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.

  13. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  14. Marketing Counseling: Caveat Emptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Holly A.

    1988-01-01

    Responds to Wittman's previous article on counseling and marketing by questioning whether marketing is a justifiable means to a worthwhile end. Examines language of marketing, juxtaposes marketing and counseling metaphors to highlight conflicting philosophies, and concludes that counselors should not abandon philosophical traditions of their…

  15. Destination Marketing and Management

    OpenAIRE

    KOCKOVÁ, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    Work presents the theoretical aspects of destination management and marketing. It defines the destination management and sustainable development of tourism. The work is applied to destination management and destination marketing in region Sokolovsko. For this destiaci is proposed marketing strategy and marketing mix.

  16. Hospital marketing revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  17. Labor market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Berndt Christian

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the International Encyclopedia of Geography is a reinterpretation of labor market segmentation theories mapping the evolution of this perspective on labor markets and using the findings of the care market project to reflect on the rising importance of female migrant labor in the domestic sphere and the question of diversity and inequalities in the labor market.

  18. Marketing and public relations in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, T A; Tilson, W; Hemingway, J

    1987-02-01

    This article outlines the elements of successful ED marketing, as well as providing definitions for terms used within the marketing process. In today's competition and rapidly changing environment, marketing and public relations are tools that every ED Medical Director may want to consider. Because the marketing process requires a great deal of time and effort, as well as a high degree of intellectual honesty, it should never be entered into without a strong commitment. However, marketing the ED can be among the most productive, stimulating, and gratifying experiences for the ED Medical Director, the emergency department physicians, and all ED service personnel.

  19. Make Markets Work for Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    In developing countries with rapidly growing economies, energy consumption will more than triple by 2030. This will require more than 8 trillion euros in investments in energy in these countries. The way these investments are made will be crucial in determining whether greenhouse gas emissions will rise proportionately. By creating a worldwide, lucrative market for clean technologies, countries can use the money they set aside for fighting climate change to stimulate large-scale private investment in clean energy production and efficient energy consumption. A well-functioning market ensures that money is invested where it will be the most cost-effective and will have the greatest impact in helping to solve a generally recognised problem. This also means making sure that innovations get to the market, so as to take advantage of economies of scale. The conference on 16 and 17 October 2006 in Amsterdam was the official start of the collaboration of governments, business and financial institutions to Make Markets Work for Climate. At the conference it was underlined that coordinated strategies are needed for international financial institutions, private banks, private investors and governments. Business and governments stand shoulder to shoulder in shaping the much needed actions on climate change. The participants agreed that potentially profitable opportunities exist for investment in commercial technologies in developing countries, especially aimed at energy efficiency. An enabling environment is needed in developing countries to attract funds for clean energy. Attention should be paid to less-developed countries. They have difficulty profiting from the current CDM market and are unable to compete on the technology learning curve. In order to make markets work for climate there is a strong need for long-term continuity in the carbon market beyond 2012. Governments need to create stable incentives for business to invest in clean energy technologies. Business is ready

  20. Marketing your expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplewski, L M

    1999-01-01

    Marketing an existing or new venture is a vital part of business. For the nurse entrepreneur, marketing involves applying previously learned skills to new situations. The methods used to market a service may mean the difference between success and failure. Unfortunately many entrepreneurs think that because they have a great idea, clients will beat a path to their door. Marketing requires planning, creativity, time, and money. It is an ongoing process that must be evaluated regularly. When marketing achieves results, clients commit to using the entrepreneur's services and profits are realized. Basic marketing concepts are considered, and strategies for developing a workable marketing plan are presented.

  1. Application scenario analysis of Power Grid Marketing Large Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Qianyu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, large data has become an important strategic asset in the commercial economy, and its efficient management and application has become the focus of government, enterprise and academia. Power grid marketing data covers real data of electricity and other energy consumption and consumption costs and so on, which is closely related to each customer and the overall economic operation. Fully tap the inherent value of marketing data is of great significance for power grid company to make rapid and efficient response to the market demand and improve service level. The development of large data technology provides a new technical scheme for the development of marketing business under the new situation. Based on the study on current situation of marketing business, marketing information system and marketing data, this paper puts forward the application direction of marketing data and designed typical scenes for internal and external applications.

  2. Open source marketing: Camel cigarette brand marketing in the "Web 2.0" world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, B; Chapman, S

    2009-06-01

    The international trend towards comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising has seen the tobacco industry become increasingly innovative in its approach to marketing. Further fuelling this innovation is the rapid evolution and accessibility of web-based technology. The internet, as a relatively unregulated marketing environment, provides many opportunities for tobacco companies to pursue their promotional ambitions. In this paper, "open source marketing" is considered as a vehicle that has been appropriated by the tobacco industry, through a case study of efforts to design the packaging for the Camel Signature Blends range of cigarettes. Four sources are used to explore this case study including a marketing literature search, a web-based content search via the Google search engine, interviews with advertising trade informants and an analysis of the Camel brand website. RJ Reynolds (RJR) has proven to be particularly innovative in designing cigarette packaging. RJR engaged with thousands of consumers through their Camel brand website to design four new cigarette flavours and packages. While the Camel Signature Blends packaging designs were subsequently modified for the retail market due to problems arising with their cartoon-like imagery, important lessons arise on how the internet blurs the line between marketing and market research. Open source marketing has the potential to exploit advertising ban loopholes and stretch legal definitions in order to generate positive word of mouth about tobacco products. There are also lessons in the open source marketing movement for more effective tobacco control measures including interactive social marketing campaigns and requiring plain packaging of tobacco products.

  3. Coordination of glucose and glutamine utilization by an expanded Myc network

    OpenAIRE

    Kaadige, Mohan R; Elgort, Marc G; Ayer, Donald E

    2010-01-01

    Glucose and glutamine are the most abundant circulating nutrients and support the growth and proliferation of all cells, in particular rapidly growing and dividing cancer cells. Several recent studies implicate an expanded Myc network in how cells sense and utilize both glucose and glutamine. These studies reveal an unappreciated coordination between glycolysis and glutaminolysis, potentially providing new targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

  4. Trends in Internet Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Panchanathan, Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Internet marketing involves the usage of the Internet to market and sell goods or services. In this thesis we wished to seek answers for the following questions with the help of web, email surveys taking into consideration consumer perspective, company perspective and 3rd party internet marketing agency perspective. Our survey sample was based on a small set of companies, consumers and internet marketing agencies. The survey results helped us in predicting the trends in internet marketing. We...

  5. CHILDREN AS TARGET MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    SOMESFALEAN Vasilica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the reasons that lead marketers to give greater importance to children, how to explain this increased potential that children have on the existing market and strategies that marketers and companies use in order to reach this market. To this end we analyzed a series of articles, studies and research conducted on the subject, with implications in psychology, sociology, but especially in marketing. The results obtained show very interesting issues regard...

  6. Diversity in marketing practice

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Ann Marie

    2009-01-01

    Theory development in marketing has received periodic debate. In the spirit of reappraisal, this thesis endeavours to explain the nature of diversity in marketing practice found among firms and the manner in which marketing practice is related to organisational performance. The specific research goals are to explore: the nature of diversity in marketing practice, as linked to strategic archetypes; whether there is evidence of order in the diversity of marketing practice that can be linked to ...

  7. B2B marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this bachelor thesis is to apply theoretical knowledge in B2B marketing to the example of marketing processes in a particular company, to evaluate the current situation of its activities with regard to B2B principles and to suggest relevant recommendations. The theoretical part focuses on specific characteristics of B2B marketing, describes its differences from marketing on consumer markets, deals with buying behaviour of organizations and specifies particular features of mar...

  8. Strategic Marketing Planning Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Radulescu

    2012-01-01

    Market-oriented strategic planning is the process of defining and maintaining a viable relationship between objectives, training of personnel and resources of an organization, on the one hand and market conditions, on the other hand. Strategic marketing planning is an integral part of the strategic planning process of the organization. For successful marketing organization to obtain a competitive advantage, but also to measure the effectiveness of marketing actions the company is required to ...

  9. A Marketing Case History Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirick, Margaret C.

    1978-01-01

    A current marketing plan from Temple University illustrates many marketing techniques, including those dealing with enrollment objectives, market objectives, demographic characteristics of Temple students, market share analysis, and the marketing plan. Specific guidelines are provided. (LBH)

  10. Romanian Market Researches in Global Market Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Danciu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Market research is a powerful industry, whose value reached 21,5 billion USD in 2004. Market studies expenses are mostly concentrated in Europe (45% and in USA (37%. The market shares of the Top 10 companies were above fifty per cent of the research market’s turnover. As a young, modest market, which is 0,84% of the global expenses value, Romania was the global leader in terms of growth, in 2004. With an asymmetric demand and a relatively concentrated offer, the Romanian research market may have a spectacular development in the future, if the obstacles for the customers and research companies are surpassed. If so, the pressures following the UE’s entry of Romania and the evolution of customers needs and expectations will speed up the growth of the market research.

  11. Contrarian Investment Philosophy in the American Stock Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondo Hansen, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    This paper contributes to the understanding of the role of crowds in the financial market by examining the historical origins and theoretical underpinnings of contrarian investment philosophy. Developed in non-scientific, practice-oriented ‘how to’ handbooks in 1920s and 1930s America, contrarian...... investment advice was aimed at so-called small investors rather than well-established market practitioners. Emerging out of late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century debates about public participation in the stock market, the contrarians expanded on a widely held (amongst financial writers) scepticism......’ conception of the market based on crowd psychology points to a fundamental fragility of market participants, which still lingers on in recent debates about the wisdom of financial market crowds....

  12. Labour market dynamics in a heterogeneous market

    OpenAIRE

    Gorter, C.; de Larquier, G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a flow model in a dual labour market with heterogeneous workers and heterogeneous jobs that allows for upward mobility or promotion flows via the internal market and demotion or deskilling flows through the state of unemployment. Dynamic impulse-responses analyses are used to examine the effects of labour market policies that aim to generate institutional changes in the wage bargaining process, make job creation less costly or job matching more efficiently to reduce unempl...

  13. Market Efficiency in Indian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Sahani, Rishi

    2009-01-01

    In this era, efficient market hypothesis has become a very important theory for all the investors who wish to hold or plan to have an international diversified portfolio. As today, all the world economies and markets are globally getting connected, and investors have all the opportunities to invest internationally, so the understanding of market efficiency concept is gaining greater importance for all kinds of investors. In this research I have test the weak form hypothesis and random walk hy...

  14. Direct marketing and market communication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct marketing is marketing which demands immediate reply. That reply can be an order, a request for an additional information, a registration, a telephone call or a visit. This work presents direct marketing as the most contemporary method of company communications with environs. A concept of direct marketing is made and aimed for complete identification of existing customers and for finding out potential customers. Mail, printed documents e-mail and new medias are used as modern communications channels. It is especially emphasizes the Internet as an important media.

  15. Modeling global franchising in emerging markets: An entry mode analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica

    2009-01-01

    Emerging markets are some of the fastest-growing economies in the world because of their substantial economic transformation. Nevertheless, little is known about the factors influencing choices of foreign entry mode into those markets. In an attempt to expand knowledge of this topic, this article presents an empirical assessment of the relationship between a set of variables and the four possible entry modes franchisors can adopt: direct franchising, master franchising, joint venture, and dir...

  16. How labor market institutions affect job creation and productivity growth

    OpenAIRE

    Henrekson, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Economic growth requires factor reallocation across firms and continuous replacement of technologies. Labor market institutions influence economic dynamism by their impact on the supply of a key factor, skilled workers to new and expanding firms, and the shedding of workers from declining and failing firms. Growth-favoring labor market institutions include portable pension plans and other job tenure rights, health insurance untied to the current employer, individualized wage-setting, and publ...

  17. Correlation Analysis between Rural Tourism and Agricultural Food Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Song

    2015-01-01

    Rural tourism has much economic benefits, the development of rural tourism can fully utilize rural natural resources, optimizing the agricultural structure and expanding agricultural function. In this study, we make correlation analysis between rural tourism and agricultural food marketing by using time series model. The result shows that: First, rural tourism development will promote the agricultural food marketing in short time, but this effect will reduce gradually in the long time. Second...

  18. The development of educational marketing in modern Ukrainian society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.І. Vikarchuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the acute problems of educational marketing development in modern Ukrainian society, its impact on modernization of national education system. The development process of educational services in Ukraine is characterised. The theoretical principles of the concept of "educational marketing" and the importance of marketing activities in educational institutions in achieving their commercial and non-commercial goals are also investigated. The authors make the reasonable conclusion about the necessity of creating the concept of providing educational services which should be started with the analysis of potential clients' demand, educational services market research, labour market research to develop and establish marketing events programme. The system of objective education market should be built for this, and the integral part of which is the clear market profile formation through segmentation. Educational institutions, in terms of marketing, produce a supply, provide with the services of promotion both educational and related services on the market. However, the educational services market has a number of unsolved issues which influence unprofitably on the quality of services. The transparency of education system means that the determination of its goals is not limited to the government procurement, but it means the expanding of education needs created by students, their parents and teachers; the programmes set a basic, required, minimum point, a common knowledge core which is open to additions that depend on cultural, regional, ethnic and other conditions.

  19. A Critical Evaluation of the Influence of Creative Thinking on Marketing Creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Sebastian RÜCKER

    2017-01-01

    Due to the rapid technological development and a globally competitive business environment, creative marketing methods become increasingly important for a unique value proposition. As a result, the aim of this research paper is to critically evaluate the influence of creative thinking on marketing creativity. In order to evaluate this correlation, examples of creative marketing concepts in traditional marketing and online marketing campaigns are examined and analysed in regards to potentially...

  20. Awareness and usage of digital marketing in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Krstić, Nataša; Lalić, Danijela; Vujičić, Dunja

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of new technologies and the propensity of today's online shoppers towards the digitalised media, integrating digital marketing into the strategic marketing function and business goals has become a challenge. Managing today's marketing function requires a constant review of new digital opportunities which, if successful, lead towards operational transformation into e-business. Compared to the global trends, due to the unfavourable demographic and economic conditions,...

  1. PUBLIC RELATION BASED MODEL OF INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Ljupka Naumovska; Daliborka Blazeska

    2016-01-01

    The marketing communications industry and theory are facing rapid changes in accordance with global business and society fluctuations. Global and local market conditions are constantly varying and thus creating hardly predictable environment. The most implemented tool for marketing communications – advertising, is losing its power for effective communications; customers are becoming over-advertised and resistant to traditional advertising stimuli. Advertising, as one-way communica...

  2. Branding and Performance in the Global Beer Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    The mass market for beers is served by a few global breweries in an oligopoly structure covering most of the world market. The homogeneity of their main lager beers are very high and produced at large scaled plants at low costs. However, the breweries spend large amounts of money to promote some ...... and relate it to the rapid change in the oligopoly structure of the market through the merger and acquisition activities....

  3. 7 CFR 1218.11 - Market or marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1218.11 Section 1218.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Market or marketing. (a) Marketing means the sale or other disposition of blueberries in any channel of...

  4. Creating New Structures for Marketing Firms: An Experimental Conjoint Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalogeras, N.; Lans, van der I.A.C.M.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Dijk, van G.

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT As market conditions change rapidly in the 21st century, questions are arising concerning the suitable organizational structures and processes to meet the challenges that these conditions pose. This paper introduces a new model to structure marketing co-operatives (MCs), which is based on

  5. Sustainable food consumption in urban Thailand: an emerging market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantamaturapoj, K.

    2012-01-01

    The food market in Bangkok has developed from a purely traditional one to a combination between traditional and modern sectors. In 1970s and earlier, fresh markets accounted for a hundred percent of food shopping in Bangkok. From that time on, the modern food retails in Bangkok has rapidly spread

  6. INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH «DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIAN MARKET OF NANOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTS IN CONSTRUCTION UNTIL 2020». PART 3. ANALYSIS OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSEV Boris Vladimirovich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The previous publications [1, 2] dealt with the analysis of the main indicators to the world market of nanotechnological construction materials. Today this market is estimated at 12 milliard of dollars, and its rapid growth is expected soon. The present paper analyses the Russian market.

  7. Marketing with limited budget

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnova, Daria

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research-based thesis was to get an idea how managers of two small resembling hotels of a specific region deal with marketing process with a limited budget. In addition, the aim of the thesis was to examine if hotel managers who were interviewed perceive marketing only in the way of ‘promotion’ rather than marketing research, marketing mix and marketing environment theories. It was also found out if hotel managers of those hotels consider marketing as a key to successful h...

  8. THE FRACTAL MARKET HYPOTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRAU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the concept of capital market is analysed using Fractal Market Hypothesis which is a modern, complex and unconventional alternative to classical finance methods. Fractal Market Hypothesis is in sharp opposition to Efficient Market Hypothesis and it explores the application of chaos theory and fractal geometry to finance. Fractal Market Hypothesis is based on certain assumption. Thus, it is emphasized that investors did not react immediately to the information they receive and of course, the manner in which they interpret that information may be different. Also, Fractal Market Hypothesis refers to the way that liquidity and investment horizons influence the behaviour of financial investors.

  9. Multisided Media Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstädt, Nadine

    Media markets recently have been identified as multisided markets. The application of the theory of multisided markets provides a better understanding of such markets. It enriched the hitherto economic approach and led to new insights and perspectives especially for the antitrust authorities when...... evaluating competition constraints and mergers. This paper reviews the theory of multisided markets and subsequently applies it to media markets. Finally the paper draws attention to the new perspectives and insights the theory provides but also brings open research questions to light....

  10. Market Design in Chinese Market Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara); H. Hendrischke (Hans)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Market Design (MD) approach to institutional analysis provides the analytical tools to evaluate endogenous institution building in local market places irrespective of the institutional setting of the national economy. Implicit in this analysis of endogenous institution building at

  11. A MARKETING STRATEGY ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Coita Dorin Cristian

    2008-01-01

    Photovoltaic is an increasingly important energy technology. Deriving energy from the sun offers numerous environmental benefits. It is an extremely clean energy source, and few other power-generating technologies have as little environmental impact as photovoltaic. In this article we explored some dimensions of photovoltaic market and suggested a marketing strategy for solar panels manufacturers

  12. A MARKETING STRATEGY ON PHOTOVOLTAIC MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coita Dorin Cristian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic is an increasingly important energy technology. Deriving energy from the sun offers numerous environmental benefits. It is an extremely clean energy source, and few other power-generating technologies have as little environmental impact as photovoltaic. In this article we explored some dimensions of photovoltaic market and suggested a marketing strategy for solar panels manufacturers

  13. Design of laser afocal zoom expander system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lian; Zeng, Chun-Mei; Hu, Tian-Tian

    2018-01-01

    Laser afocal zoom expander system due to the beam diameter variable, can be used in the light sheet illumination microscope to observe the samples of different sizes. Based on the principle of afocal zoom system, the laser collimation and beam expander system with a total length of less than 110mm, 6 pieces of spherical lens and a beam expander ratio of 10 is designed by using Zemax software. The system is focused on laser with a wavelength of 532nm, divergence angle of less than 4mrad and incident diameter of 4mm. With the combination of 6 spherical lens, the beam divergence angle is 0.4mrad at the maximum magnification ratio, and the RMS values at different rates are less than λ/4. This design is simple in structure and easy to process and adjust. It has certain practical value.

  14. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    of expanded audit reports, namely information on the assurance level, materiality levels and key audit matters (KAM), on bank director perceptions of the quality of the financial statements, the audit and the audit report, as well as on their credit approval decisions. We conduct an experiment involving......Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact...... the materiality level or KAM. As a consequence, standard setters should carefully analyse the effect of additional information before making decisions on expanding the content of the audit report. Such expansions are not necessarily perceived as useful by stakeholders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd...

  15. Using the Process of Disruption to Find New Markets and to Develop New Marketing Programs for Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Mark John

    2009-01-01

    The market for management education has grown rapidly over the past 40 years. However, increasing competition stemming from new entrants such as for-profit universities and from the globalization of management education have changed the dynamics of the market thereby presenting business schools with difficult challenges. The process of disruption…

  16. AUTOMOTIVE MARKET- FROM A GENERAL TO A MARKET SEGMENTATION APPROACH

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liviana Andreea Niminet

    2014-01-01

    Automotive market and its corresponding industry are undoubtedly of outmost importance and therefore proper market segmentation is crucial for market players, potential competitors and customers as well...

  17. How Often Are Drugs Made Available Under the Food and Drug Administration's Expanded Access Process Approved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Amy E; Markon, André O; Chan-Tack, Kirk M; Lurie, Peter

    2017-10-01

    In this review of individual patient expanded-access requests to the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research for the period Fiscal Year 2010 to Fiscal Year 2014, we evaluated the number of applications received and the number allowed to proceed. We also evaluated whether drugs and certain biologics obtained under expanded access went on to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Finally, we considered concerns that adverse events occurring during expanded access might place sponsors at risk for legal liability. Overall, 98% of individual patient expanded-access requests were allowed to proceed. During the study period, among drugs without a previous approval for any indication or dosage form, 24% of unique drugs (ie, multiple applications for access to the same drug were considered to relate to 1 unique drug), and 20% of expanded-access applications received marketing approval by 1 year after initial submission; 43% and 33%, respectively, were approved by 5 years after initial submission. A search of 3 legal databases and a database of news articles did not appear to identify any product liability cases arising from the use of a product in expanded access. Our analyses seek to give physicians and patients a realistic perspective on the likelihood of a drug's approval as well as certain information regarding the product liability risks for commercial sponsors when providing expanded access to investigational drugs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s expanded-access program maintains a careful balance between authorizing patient access to potentially beneficial drugs and protecting them from drugs that may have unknown risks. At the same time, the agency wishes to maintain the integrity of the clinical trials process, ultimately the best way to get safe and effective drugs to patients. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  18. Peculiarities of marketing communications in cultural marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gardan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Extending the application of marketing science specific concepts and principles in various sectors would not have been possible without their gradual evolution, in terms of customization and differentiation tailored for a specific field. This phenomenon regarding marketing evolution in terms of both extensively and intensively way, led to the emergence and consolidation of a set of concepts adapted also for cultural products and services market, or in other words for culture “consumption”. This article highlights a number of marketing communications specific elements, derived from the peculiarities of modern culture consumer and the latest technologies interference in the creation and delivery of cultural products and services. Given the high degree of consumer involvement in relation to the needs that underlie consumption of cultural products and services, as well as the dimension specific for an artistic act in some cases, marketing communications has to respond to particular challenges in the process of building customer-provider relationship.

  19. Market Competition and Efficient Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    We find that in market-partners, market experience has adverse effects on the efficiency of cooperation on both market-winner and market-loser pairs. In market-strangers, pairs of market-winners manage to cooperate more efficiently. These results indicate that it is not market experience per se that

  20. Opportunities for development of local forest markets: the case of Amish furniture manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Gary Graham; Charles. Goebel

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic decline in the production of hardwood furniture in the United States has had profound impacts on employment and hardwood markets. Against this backdrop, the Amish-based furniture manufacturing cluster in Ohio has expanded and hardwood lumber consumption by the cluster is significant. Recent research suggests that 71 percent of firms in the cluster expanded...

  1. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...... inexpensive synthesis, constant availability, a good safety profile, biodegradability and the long clinical use as plasma expanders. Three polymers have been tested for cytotoxicity and cytokine activation in cell cultures and conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye: hydroxyethyl starches (HES 200 k...

  2. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  3. Spatial–Temporal Patterns and Driving Factors of Rapid Urban Land Development in Provincial China: A Case Study of Jiangsu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingke Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its economic reform and opening-up, China has undergone unprecedented urbanization, where massive areas of rural land have been converted into urban use. Urban land development plays an important role in dynamic urban economic development. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of urban land development and its mechanisms in China. We conceptualized the mechanism of urban land development from multiple perspectives based on a case study in Jiangsu Province. We employed the methods of global and local spatial auto-correlation detection and spatial lag model to analyze the provincial land use conveyance and survey data from 2004 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 to understand the dynamics of urban land development. The results show that urban land development varies significantly across different time periods, spatial scales, and regions in Jiangsu. Higher absolute urban land development mainly occurred in Sunan, expanding to Subei and Suzhong, while faster development occurred mainly in Subei, where the initial bases were lower but had strong economic growth potential. The regression analysis shows that market activities and administrative levels had played a more critical role in driving urban land development, which suggests that rapid urban land development has institutional and market foundations. Urban land development was not only a consequence of economic development but also a strategy of local governments to stimulate and govern the urban economy. This study enriches the literature on urban dynamics by providing an institutional understanding of rapid urban land development in a transitional economy.

  4. Digital wine marketing: Social media marketing for the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viana Natália Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The wine industry recognizes the increasingly relevant role of digital marketing as a valuable and appropriate tool to reach (adult consumers. This paper intends to trace a brief analysis about Digital Wine Marketing and Social Media Marketing contribution for the Wine Industry to increase brand awareness and sales and develop a short guidance to digital marketing as well. When consumers search for wine and wineries on internet they are bombarded with an massive volume of brand messages, meaning that delivering creative, polished content is key if a brand wants to capture people's attention. So, make a good wine is a important part of the work, but after this is necessary to give it the presentation it deserves, communicating accurately to consumers and have in mind that digital marketing activities are in a state of evolutionary development, where new trends are likely to occur rapidly and wineries have to adapt.

  5. Dynamical Structure of Behavioral Similarities of the Market Participants in the Foreign Exchange Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro; Shintani, Kohei

    The financial markets started to be computerized due to development and spread of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in early 1990s. As the result rapid development and spread of electrical trading systems occurred all over the world. Moreover advance of processing speed of computers and capacity of storages leads to accumulation of activity records of market participants, high frequency financial data. By utilizing the high frequency financial data one can observe behavior of the market participants with high resolutions and analyze a large amount of data enough to quantify them in the statistically significant.

  6. "Physics-to-Market Challenges in Nanotechnology"

    Science.gov (United States)

    W., Dennis; Hamill

    2003-03-01

    Nanotechnologies, Inc., is a small start-up company using a high energy pulsed-plasma process for making metal and ceramic nanopowders controllable in size from 5 to 100 nanometers in diameter. The author will discuss the challenges faced by a team of physicists in moving a unique technology toward a commercial success. The author, a solid state physicist who also teaches a High-Tech Marketing course in the Business School at the University of Texas, will detail experiences and insights dealing with marketing technology based products when both the technology and the marketplace are experiencing dramatic and rapid change. Topics included from the small company perspective are; venture capital constraints, market segmentation and lead user identification, management of the gap between technology value demonstration and commercialization scaleup, strategic partner choices, core competencies, and vertical market application leverage.

  7. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...

  8. Marketing management : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze

  9. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  10. Market News Price Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  11. Natural and political markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    of knowledge production continued, transforming given technicalknowledge in unexpected ways. Technical knowledge also became a negotiated outcome during thetransfer of FMS. Hence, when market transaction takes place, knowledge it self can be transformed,and with it, the conditions for conducting the market...... factor markets. The paper develops the notion of political markets by drawing upon anempirical case that reconstructs the chain of events related to the transfer of flexible manufacturingsystems (FMS). The case account for the various actors and institutions involved in the technologytransfer, including...... the firms on both sides of the market, the government, the engineering-scientists,the economists, the union representatives and the machinists.It is argued that Natural markets is a special case of political markets in which technologies andhybrid entities and identities produce both the Natural market...

  12. Marketing Youth Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimick, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Marketing techniques in youth services are useful for designing programs, collections, and services and for determining customer needs. The marketing mix--product, place, price, and practice--provides a framework for service analysis. (AEF)

  13. Moderní marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Koblásová, Jana

    2008-01-01

    The publication shows summary of the historical development of marketing and the latest marketing methods of 21st century. This work assesses households' access to selected information and communication technologies, and proposes a business opportunity in the area of multimedia.

  14. The President As Marketer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Robert I.

    1978-01-01

    Advocates a marketing orientation to community college management as demonstrated by the successful implementation of four-state (service, promotion, delivery, and evaluation) marketing plan at Prince George's Community College in Washington D.C. (TP)

  15. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...... took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability...

  16. Why We Need Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Nancy

    1984-01-01

    An interview with Philip Kotler, the Harold T. Martin Professor of Marketing at Northwestern University, is presented. Three approaches to marketing are identified: product-oriented, hard-sell, and building satisfaction in a long-term clientele. (MLW)

  17. Pharmaceutical market in Serbia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dickov, Veselin

    2012-01-01

    Marketing concept formed around the focus on the consumers, their needs, wants and demands, evolves in the case of pharmaceutical into a care of the complex interest of constituents generating demand on this market and #8211...

  18. Cellular Concrete Bricks with Recycled Expanded Polystyrene Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bosco Hernández-Zaragoza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular concrete bricks were obtained by using a lightweight mortar with recycled expanded polystyrene aggregate instead of sandy materials. After determining the block properties (absorption, compressive strength, and tensile stresses, it was found that this brick meets the requirements of the masonry standards used in Mexico. The obtained material is lighter than the commercial ones, which facilitates their rapid elaboration, quality control, and transportation. It is less permeable, which helps prevent moisture formation retaining its strength due to the greater adherence shown with dry polystyrene. It was more flexible, which makes it less vulnerable to cracking walls due to soil displacements. Furthermore, it is economical, because it uses recyclable material and has properties that prevent deterioration increasing its useful life. We recommend the use of the fully dry EP under a dry environment to obtain the best properties of brick.

  19. Digital Direct-to-Consumer Advertising: A Perfect Storm of Rapid Evolution and Stagnant Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K.

    2016-01-01

    The adoption and use of digital forms of direct-to-consumer advertising (also known as "eDTCA") is on the rise. At the same time, the universe of eDTCA is expanding, as technology on Internet-based platforms continues to evolve, from static websites, to social media, and nearly ubiquitous use of mobile devices. However, little is known about how this unique form of pharmaceutical marketing impacts consumer behavior, public health, and overall healthcare utilization. The study by Kim analyzing US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notices of violations (NOVs) and warning letters regarding online promotional activities takes us in the right direction, but study results raise as many questions as it does answers. Chief among these are unanswered concerns about the unique regulatory challenges posed by the "disruptive" qualities of eDTCA, and whether regulators have sufficient resources and oversight powers to proactively address potential violations. Further, the globalization of eDTCA via borderless Internet-based technologies raises larger concerns about the potential global impact of this form of health marketing unique to only the United States and New Zealand. Collectively, these challenges make it unlikely that regulatory science will be able to keep apace with the continued rapid evolution of eDTCA unless more creative policy solutions are explored. PMID:27239871

  20. Seniorský marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtová, Markéta

    2009-01-01

    The thesis "Marketing of Elderly People" follow up on the issue of marketing focused on the generation aged over fifty years. Describes the specifics of this generation in the context of the consumer behavior. In the practical part of the thesis is conducted marketing research dedicated to consumables behavior of seniors in regard to Internet commerce. For marketing research was used questionnaire. Analysis of the results obtained information on the relationship of seniors to Internet trading...

  1. Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu

    OpenAIRE

    Raut, Biranjan

    2013-01-01

    Degree Thesis “Marketing Planning: Feeniks Koulu” demonstrates structured marketing planning process with the help of case company “Feeniks Koulu”. The central idea of Thesis is to come up with systematic marketing plan following structured process. Thesis employs qualitative research methodology following inductive reasoning approach. Thesis, initiates by outlining theoretical planning methods, which then is materialized into marketing plan with the help of empirical research. Discussion and...

  2. Modeling the U.S. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, E.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2010-09-01

    Global rooftop PV markets are growing rapidly, fueled by a combination of declining PV prices and several policy-based incentives. The future growth, and size, of the rooftop market is highly dependent on continued PV cost reductions, financing options, net metering policy, carbon prices and future incentives. Several PV market penetration models, sharing a similar structure and methodology, have been developed over the last decade to quantify the impacts of these factors on market growth. This study uses a geospatially rich, bottom-up, PV market penetration model--the Solar Deployment Systems (SolarDS) model developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory--to explore key market and policy-based drivers for residential and commercial rooftop PV markets. The identified drivers include a range of options from traditional incentives, to attractive customer financing options, to net metering and carbon policy.

  3. Sport event marketing plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  4. Ekologický marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Neznaj, Radek

    2009-01-01

    The work addresses issues of ecological marketing, specifically focuses on the marketing mix of organic products. The intention is to point out guidelines and outline options that may be the potential of products development in line with environmental objectives and the enterprise. The work is divided into three parts. The first part briefly shows the evolution of marketing and its current form, including current trends and events that led to the emergence of ecological marketing. This sectio...

  5. Social media influencer marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Isosuo, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The marketing field is changing simultaneously with the digital world. Social media is getting more and more important to marketers, and there is a need to stand out in the social media noise. Social media influencer marketing could be a good alternative to other types of marketing. A need from the consignor and the interest of the author were the motivations for conducting the study. Sääskilahti Consulting has a social media influencer network Somevaikuttajat, which is offering social media ...

  6. Are All Marketers Liars ?

    OpenAIRE

    Sunanto, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Today, consumers demand higher levels of quality, reliability, and durability of product A marketer must understand consumer's expectations and try to satisfy those and retain the consumer's loyalty.The shift from golden age of marketing to post age creates new challenge for marketer because consumers do not trust television commercials anymore. In this age consumers love being told a storyTo tell a story marketer must understand what is a great story. A great story must true, authentic, trus...

  7. Culture in Services Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    This research features both theoretical and empirical work underlining the potential value of marketing to contribute to commercial performance. The theory draws from those authors who have been predominant in promoting the concept of a market orientation as an antecedent to organisational success. The marketing culture paradigm is introduced and developed to specifically consider the area of services marketing. The empirical investigation concludes that there is an acknowledged appreciation ...

  8. Paying for Market Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anand, Amber; Tanggaard, Carsten; Weaver, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Many financial markets, including electronic limit order markets, assign designated liquidity providers (LPs). We study the experience of the Stockholm Stock Exchange, where listed firms contract directly with LPs. Our analysis offers insights regarding situations where designated liquidity...... of contracted liquidity provision. The evidence indicates that liquidity providers trade against market movements, and in times of wide spreads. On balance, firms contracting with LPs experience a decreased cost of capital, and significant improvements in market quality and price discovery....

  9. Dynamics of Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Joseph L.

    2004-06-01

    Standard texts and research in economics and finance ignore the absence of evidence from the analysis of real, unmassaged market data to support the notion of Adam Smith's stabilizing Invisible Hand. In stark contrast, this text introduces a new empirically-based model of financial market dynamics that explains the volatility of prices options correctly and clarifies the instability of financial markets. The emphasis is on understanding how real markets behave, not how they hypothetically 'should' behave.

  10. THE EXPANSION OF THE RITZ-CARLTON® ON FOREIGN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai-Răzvan DOBAI

    2016-01-01

    The spreading of globalization drives the companies’ pursuit to expand on foreign markets for various reasons. In this paper it will be analysed the expansion on non-US markets of the Ritz-Carlton®, a hotel company with tradition, being known for its services quality. The analysis takes into consideration the opening year of the hotels in the Latin American, European, Middle Eastern, Central and South Asian and AsiaPacific market, trying to correlate the expansion on certain areas and l...

  11. Enforcing Margin Squeeze Ex Post Across Converging Telecommunications Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian; Townsend, John

    , delay profitability or limit their ability to remain or expand on markets. However, traditional market definitions are being challenged by (1) the technological convergence of services and (2) innovative product offerings taking advantage of this convergence. Consumers now routinely purchase a bundle...... and innovation present both theoretical and practical difficulties for assessing “muddled margins” on telecoms markets. New and different enforcement approaches to exclusion will have to be formulated within the Article 102 framework and tested in the Courts. This may even require abstaining from applying...

  12. Expanding refractory rectus sheath hematoma: a therapeutic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Guo-Shiang; Liau, Guo-Shiou; Shyu, Hann-Yeh; Chu, Shi-Jye; Ko, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kuo-An

    2012-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but well-described complication of a tussive paroxysm. It is an accumulation of blood within the sheath of the rectus abdominis secondary to disruption of the epigastric vessels or the rectus muscle and is often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen. Increases in the number of elderly patients and the use of therapeutic anticoagulation may increase the prevalence and severity of rectus sheath hematomas encountered in clinical practice. Expanding rectus sheath hematomas are occasionally refractory to conservative treatment and may require hemostatic intervention. Here, we describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with two separate rectus sheath hematomas that were precipitated by a paroxysm of coughing. Repeated computed tomography showed two separate expanding rectus sheath hematomas, which were not accompanied by obvious contrast extravasation on angiography. Empiric left inferior epigastric artery embolization resulted in rapid hemodynamic stabilization, and the hematomas shrank gradually. Early empiric transcatheter arterial embolization may be appropriate for patients who are poor surgical candidates and have enlarging hematomas that are refractory to conservative treatment.

  13. E-Cigarette Market Trends in Traditional U.S. Retail Channels, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Hammond, David; Corey, Catherine G; Ambrose, Bridget K; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2015-10-01

    E-cigarette sales continue to increase in the United States. To date, little surveillance research has documented the specific product attributes driving growth. This study uses national market scanner data to describe sales trends in traditional U.S. tobacco retail channels between 2012 and 2013 and identifies product features associated with sales increases. Data on e-cigarette sales in convenience stores, drug stores, grocery stores, and mass merchandisers in the United States were obtained from the Nielsen Company. Each product was coded for attributes such as brand, flavor, and unit size. Total sales volume, market share, and percent growth were calculated for various product attributes. E-cigarette sales more than doubled between 2012 and 2013, from $273.6 million to $636.2 million, respectively. Growth was particularly strong in the convenience store channel. Blu eCigs quickly emerged as the best-selling brand and in 2013 constituted nearly half (44.1%) of overall sales. Although fruit-flavored and other flavored products experienced marked growth, unflavored and menthol e-cigarettes overwhelmingly dominated the market. Sales of single unit products (likely disposable e-cigarettes) increased by 216.4%, a much faster rate than multi-unit packs and cartridge refills. In traditional U.S. retail channels, particularly the convenience store channel, sales of e-cigarettes continue to grow, with brands like blu and disposable products as the likely drivers. Given the rapidly-changing market, expanded surveillance is needed to monitor sales not only in traditional retail locations, but sales online and in specialty "vape shops," as well. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rapid palatal expansion: a comparison of two appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda do Prado Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed occlusal radiographs to compare the transverse changes produced in patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using two types of appliances. The sample consisted of 31 children aged 7 to 10.6 years, of both genders, with posterior cross-bite. Fifteen children were treated with a tooth-borne expander and 16 were treated with a tooth-tissue-borne expander. Occlusal radiographs obtained at treatment onset and at the end of the retention period were digitized. The following variables were measured: intermolar distance (IMD, interapical distance (IApD, interbase distance (IBaD and interarm distance (IArD. The results revealed increases in all measurements in both groups after rapid maxillary expansion. Comparison between groups revealed that the increases were greater in patients treated with the tooth-borne expander, except for the IArD measurement, which presented the same increase in both groups. Even though the IMD measurements differed between expanders, they were proportional to the activation of the appliances (IBaD. The increase in the IApD measurement was proportionally greater in the group treated with the tooth-borne expander (0.7:1.0 than in that treated with the tooth-tissue-borne expander (0.4:1.0. It was concluded that both appliances had similar effects, although the tooth-tissue-borne expander produced a lesser opening at the apical region of the incisors.

  15. Marketing : de essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul van der Hoek; Gary Armstrong; Ton Borchert; Philip Kotler

    2013-01-01

    Het betreft hier de Nederlandse bewerking van het boek Marketing: an introduction van Philip Kotler en Gary Armstrong. Topmarketeers hebben allemaal dezelfde missie: de klant centraal stellen in de marketing. Hedendaagse marketing draait volledig om het creëren van klantwaarde en het opbouwen van

  16. LINKAGES MARKETING AND TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary economic theory and practice is very important and it's present concept triangle "market- marketing-commerce." First of all, the importance of the connection between these three categories, and then in the key roles they have in marketing channels. This paper discussed the bond that exists between these categories.

  17. Future Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The changing face of energy production in Europe necessitates a rethink in the way that electricity markets are structured. The ‘5s’ (Future Electricity Markets) project is a multi-disciplinary project that is looking to challenge the current approach to the design and operation of electricity...... markets as penetration of renewable energy sources increases...

  18. Managing Nonprofit Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dennis L.

    1979-01-01

    Nonprofit marketing is an extension of the planning and management process, and a necessary new skill for the community college manager. Management must teach marketing concepts to faculty and all college personnel and communicate their role in the marketing process of the institution for a successful program. (RC)

  19. Markets and Institutional Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2010-01-01

    Adequate explanations concerning the introduction of production and consumption of organic food in Denmark imply the necessity to engage a certain understanding of markets. Markets should subsequently not be seen as entities nor places but as complex relations between human actors. Further......, the establishment, maintenance and development of markets are depending on the capacity of the actors to enter into continuous and enhancing interplay....

  20. Romanticizing the Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Christian Garmann

    2016-01-01

    is echoed in post-bureaucratic management literature. Comparing Rousseau's romanticization of nature with what I call the romanticization of markets, I show how the post-bureaucratic management literature employs the logic of market rationalism to generate a managerial pedagogy that installs the market...

  1. Economy, market and chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    In their pursuit of growth and professionalisation, the Dutch organic sector focuses primarily on market development. But how do you stimulate the market for organic foods? This is the subject of many research projects concerning market, consumer preferences and the supply chain. These projects

  2. Non-Market Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes

    2003-01-01

    In addition to commodities such as timber, forest ecosystems provide an array of goods and services that are not priced in markets but maintain, to a large degree, the characteristics of public goods (non-rivalry and non-excludability). Markets do not recognize scarcity of non-market resources and cannot be relied upon to allocate these resources to their highest and...

  3. Mexico : Capital Market Development

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Securities markets in Mexico are orderly and relatively innovative; however, corporate markets lag behind those in comparator countries. The government bond market accounts for the bulk of the fixed-income segment, and is well developed and active. While financial savings rates have been growing, little has been transformed into long-term investments. Most of the savings remain in traditio...

  4. MARKETING MIX IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srećko Novaković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.

  5. Introduction to Agricultural Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the importance of forecasting in order for a farm family to develop marketing plans. It describes sources of information and includes a glossary of marketing terms and exercises using both fundamental and technical methods to predict prices in order to improve forecasting ability. The unit is organized in the…

  6. Rewards for Good Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Carol Anne, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Many professional library associations and affiliates "strongly encourage" the marketing of libraries and their wares. These organizations present awards, certificates, and monetary enticements to honor outstanding marketing programs. For most individuals or teams who are already working on and implementing marketing programs, the added effort of…

  7. Marketing and design management.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, Margaret; Cooper, Rachel

    1997-01-01

    This title looks at the interface between marketing and design management, with particular focus on product development and corporate communications. It considers such issues as the role of design in the organisation, new product strategies and the effectiveness of the marketing/design relationship. Cases cover retail, services and industrial products in order to assess best practice in design management for marketing.

  8. Replicating an expanded genetic alphabet in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, John C

    2014-09-05

    Recent advances in synthetic biology have made it possible to replicate an unnatural base pair in living cells. This study highlights the technologies developed to create a semisynthetic organism with an expanded genetic alphabet and the potential challenges of moving forward. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Expanding the Focus of Career Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jared D.; Hogan, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Issues affecting career assessment include change in the focus and definition of career, emphasis on quality of work life, expansion of career paths, increased amount of career information available on the Internet, and questionable quality of online assessment. An expanded model of career assessment now includes technical fit, personal fit,…

  10. Expanding the Reader Landscape of Histone Acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Bridgers, Joseph B; Strahl, Brian D

    2017-04-04

    In this issue of Structure,Klein et al. (2017) expand our understanding of what reader domains bind to by showing that MORF, a double PHD domain containing lysine acetyltransferase, is a preferential reader of histone lysine acylation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic catalysts and ...

  12. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  13. Sulfonated graphenes catalyzed synthesis of expanded porphyrins ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A newer synthesis of sulfonic acid functionalized graphenes have been developed, which have been characterized, examined as heterogeneous solid acid carbocatalyst in the synthesis of selected expanded porphyrins in different reaction conditions. This environment-friendly catalyst avoids the use of toxic ...

  14. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  15. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe. J S Bagla. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 216-225. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/014/03/0216-0225 ...

  16. Expanding the collaboration between CERN and Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Parvez Butt, chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and CERN Director General, Luciano Maiani, signed a letter of intent last week to expand collaboration. Through an agreement which should be formalized within a few months, Pakistan would make a substantial contribution to the LHC and its detectors, coordinated by the Pakistani National Centre of Physics.

  17. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  18. Discrete Groups, Expanding Graphs and Invariant Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Presents the solutions to two problems: the first is the construction of expanding graphs - graphs which are of fundamental importance for communication networks and computer science, and the second is the Ruziewicz problem concerning the finitely additive invariant measures on spheres

  19. Expanding Educational Excellence: The Power of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Ruth; Winn, Donna-Marie; Harradine, Christine

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors explore four major barriers to academic success that must be addressed, briefly describe two projects that have worked to address these barriers, and make recommendations for moving forward as they work to expand educational excellence for all students. They provide examples of the myriad ways in which schools have the…

  20. Expanded Core Curriculum: 12 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmeier, Keri; Blankenship, Karen; Hatlen, Phil

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated changes in teachers' and parents' understanding and implementation of or philosophy on the implementation of the content areas of the expanded core curriculum for students who are visually impaired. The results demonstrated some changes since the original survey results were reported in 1998 and a discrepancy between the…

  1. CLASSICS WHY THE UNIVERSE IS EXPANDING

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (H. G. Wells, The Time Machine and other Stories). WHY IS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDING? Chemical Explosion and Astrophysical Explosion Similarities and Differences. The expansion of the Universe is a reliably established fact. There was the “Big Bang” about 15 billion years ago. But why did it happen? What are the ...

  2. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and the distances of galaxies. H ubble also did a lot of pioneering w ork on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at H ubble's law and discuss how it ...

  3. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  4. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    compositions and (b) unravelling of the contributions of stress-depth and composition-depth profiles in expanded austenite layers are summarised and discussed. It is shown through simulation of line profiles that the combined effects of composition gradients, stress gradients and stacking fault gradients can...

  5. Determinants of Marketing Performance: Innovation, Market Capabilities and Marketing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Farida

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aim to analyze causality influence between innovations, market capability, social modal, entrepreneurs oriented into marketing performance. Organizational innovations is a basic focus on Total  Quality Management. Innovation has a role to technological development and competitive economy environment. The sample technique used is Purpusive sampling amount 58 respondent owner of Batik Small Medium Enterprise known as UKM.  Small businesses have small medium or medium can grow and develop so that it is able to increase its product and sustainability efforts on the creative industry. The technique analysis used is Parsial Least Square (PLS, this result shows entrepreneur orientation doesn’t influence into market capability and social modal, innovation has positive influence and significance into market capability and marketing performance. This results shows innovation has important role in advantaging market capability while influencing to increase marketing performance of Small Medium Enterprise known as UKM. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh kausalitas antara inovasi, kemampuan pasar, modal sosial, pengusaha berorientasi ke kinerja pemasaran. Inovasi organisasi adalah dasar TQM. Inovasi mempunyai peran pentinga dalam pengembangan teknologi dan lingkungan yang penuh persaingan. Teknik sampel yang digunakan adalah Purposive Sampling jumlah 58 pemilik responden dari Batik Kecil Menengah dikenal sebagai UKM. UKM dapat tumbuh dan berkembang melalui industri kreatif. Teknik analisis yang digunakan adalah Parsial Least Square (PLS, hasil ini menunjukkan orientasi entrepreneur tidak mempengaruhi ke kemampuan pasar dan modal sosial, inovasi berpengaruh positif dan signifikan dalam kemampuan pasar dan kinerja pemasaran. Hal ini menyebabkan menunjukkan inovasi memiliki peran penting dalam advantaging kemampuan pasar sementara yang mempengaruhi untuk meningkatkan kinerja pemasaran Kecil Menengah dikenal sebagai UKM.

  6. The electricity markets around the Baltic Sea; Elmarknaderna runt Oestersjoen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    A thorough description of the electric power markets in the countries surrounding the Baltic sea is given in this book. Environmental problems and regulations and nuclear power are surveyed. Factors that may affect an expanded trade of electricity between the countries are analyzed

  7. Creating demand for foreign brands in a 'home run' market: tobacco company tactics in South Korea following market liberalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungkyu; Lee, Kelley; Holden, Chris

    2014-05-01

    To analyse the tactics transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) used to increase market share in South Korea after market liberalisation in 1988, and the subsequent impact of TTCs' activities on the domestic industry and ultimately public health. Internal tobacco industry documents were searched iteratively and analysed by keyword related to strategies for increasing market share in Korea since liberalisation. Following market liberalisation, TTCs faced entrenched cultural and institutional barriers in Korea which hindered increased sales of cigarette imports. TTCs identified population groups more favourably inclined towards imported brands, developed new distribution channels and used promotional activities targeting these groups. The growth in market share by TTCs suggests that these activities were successful at challenging the Korea Tobacco & Ginseng Corporation (KTGC) monopoly. In response, KTGC shifted to a proactive marketing approach and adopted strategies similar to TTCs. This, in turn, made the Korean market highly competitive. Findings show that, after market liberalisation, there was an upward trend in cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence among the targeted population groups, notably youth and young women. Governments engaging in trade negotiations that may lead to the opening of domestic tobacco markets need a fuller understanding of previous industry activities for expanding into emerging markets as well as how the domestic industry can change accordingly. To protect public health, the adoption of comprehensive tobacco control measures, guided by WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, are needed as part of such negotiations.

  8. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  9. Medium-Term Oil Market Report (MTOMR) 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    Why have oil prices hit US$140 per barrel? How strong will oil demand be in the upcoming years? Will supply of crude oil, natural gas liquids and biofuels be sufficient to meet this future demand? And, no less crucially, what investments in refining capacity and technology can we expect and will these help ease some of the imbalance in strained oil product markets? The Medium-Term Oil Market Report (now in its third year) published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) has become a new benchmark, complementing the short-term market analysis provided in the IEA Oil Market Report. This year's edition reappraises all upstream and downstream projects worldwide, setting them against a revised demand forecast and expanding the time horizon to 2013. Special features this year include in-depth analyses of price formation, transport trends, non-OECD economies, non-OPEC production decline, project slippage, key crude export pipeline developments and a stronger emphasis on product supply bottlenecks. An essential report for all policy makers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following oil market trends, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report is a further element of the strong commitment of the IEA to improving and expanding the quality, timeliness and accuracy of energy data and analysis.

  10. Marketing Cooperatives' Re-engineering: Influences among Organizational Attributes, Strategic Attributes & Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benos, T.; Kalogeras, N.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper we expand the agribusiness co-op literature by studying the re-engineering process of marketing cooperatives (co-ops). More specifically we discuss and empirically examine organizational innovations adopted by marketing co-ops in Greece. We hypothesize three types of

  11. Increasing plant density in eastern United States broccoli production systems to maximize marketable head yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased demand for fresh market broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) has led to increased production along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Maximizing broccoli yields is a primary concern for quickly expanding eastern commercial markets. Thus, a plant density study was carried ...

  12. Marketing strategy for private housing market in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Limcharoen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Marketing is an important part of a business strategy. A company develops a marketing strategy to match their resources and capabilities to customer's changing needs and wants, at a profit. This paper presents the marketing strategy of housing companies in the high-end market segment of Thai private housing market. The framework includes the 4Ps marketing mix and relationship marketing. The 4Ps marketing mix concerns product, price, promotion and place element of house products and services w...

  13. Rapidly expanding knowledge on the role of the gut microbiome in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cenit, M. C.; Matzaraki, V.; Tigchelaar-Feenstra, E. F.; Zhernakova, A.

    2014-01-01

    The human gut is colonized by a wide diversity of micro-organisms, which are now known to play a key role in the human host by regulating metabolic functions and immune homeostasis. Many studies have indicated that the genomes of our gut microbiota, known as the gut microbiome or our "other genome"

  14. The rapidly expanding universe of giant viruses: Mimivirus, Pandoravirus, Pithovirus and Mollivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abergel, Chantal; Legendre, Matthieu; Claverie, Jean-Michel

    2015-11-01

    More than a century ago, the term 'virus' was introduced to describe infectious agents that are invisible by light microscopy and capable of passing through sterilizing filters. In addition to their extremely small size, most viruses have minimal genomes and gene contents, and rely almost entirely on host cell-encoded functions to multiply. Unexpectedly, four different families of eukaryotic 'giant viruses' have been discovered over the past 10 years with genome sizes, gene contents and particle dimensions overlapping with that of cellular microbes. Their ongoing analyses are challenging accepted ideas about the diversity, evolution and origin of DNA viruses. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Four-year treatment outcomes of adult patients enrolled in Mozambique's rapidly expanding antiretroviral therapy program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Auld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Mozambique during 2004-2007 numbers of adult patients (≥15 years old enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART increased about 16-fold, from 60 kg, WHO stage IV (AHR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4, reference group WHO stage I/II, lack of co-trimoxazole prescription (AHR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8, and later calendar year of ART initiation (AHR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8. Rates of immunologic treatment failure and regimen-switch were 14.0 and 0.6 events per 100-patient years, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ART initiation at earlier disease stages and scale-up of co-trimoxazole among ART patients could improve outcomes. Research to determine reasons for low regimen-switch rates and increasing rates of attrition during program expansion is needed.

  16. The Challenge--To Meet The Needs of the Rapidly Expanding Horticulture Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Russell C.

    1977-01-01

    A horticulture instructor outlines various methods of getting information from the horticulture industry for use in planning instructional programs to fill industry needs. He suggests that student learning packets to implement the program could be developed with the assistance of industry. (MF)

  17. Expandable and Rapidly Differentiating Human Induced Neural Stem Cell Lines for Multiple Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M. Cairns

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited availability of human neurons poses a significant barrier to progress in biological and preclinical studies of the human nervous system. Current stem cell-based approaches of neuron generation are still hindered by prolonged culture requirements, protocol complexity, and variability in neuronal differentiation. Here we establish stable human induced neural stem cell (hiNSC lines through the direct reprogramming of neonatal fibroblasts and adult adipose-derived stem cells. These hiNSCs can be passaged indefinitely and cryopreserved as colonies. Independently of media composition, hiNSCs robustly differentiate into TUJ1-positive neurons within 4 days, making them ideal for innervated co-cultures. In vivo, hiNSCs migrate, engraft, and contribute to both central and peripheral nervous systems. Lastly, we demonstrate utility of hiNSCs in a 3D human brain model. This method provides a valuable interdisciplinary tool that could be used to develop drug screening applications as well as patient-specific disease models related to disorders of innervation and the brain.

  18. Marketing health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasa, R J

    1984-01-01

    Indisputably, marketing plays an important role in today's competitive health service industry. It is essential for every medical group manager to learn about the marketing process and his role in pursuing marketing in his medical group. Conducting internal and external assessments, developing promotional techniques and strategies, organizing and implementing a plan, and evaluating results are all critical areas in the marketing effort. When each critical area is carefully examined and steps are properly taken, a marketing approach will be totally consistent with delivery of high-quality patient care services.

  19. Etika Marketing Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Nurhisam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing activities (marketing which is the activity of distributing goods and services ranging from producers to the hands of consumers. In this case there are some fundamental questions that encompass marketing activities (marketing; ranging from what is marketed, who is marketing, to how goods and services are marketed through the activities of marketing functions such as purchase, sales, transportation, and so forth. The problem that arises then is, most of the producers/the company with the marketers (marketers who do not consider the moral and ethical aspects of marketing the products they offer, the most important for them is how to make the products they offer acceptable and successful and control the market share. Especially if the marketer is pressed by the target company that must be achieved and the bonus will be obtained, then to achieve the target, not infrequently a marketer doing various ways, to the point of crashing the signs and ethics that have been established in religion. This study aims to analyze how the ethical aspect in the concept and practice in marketing (marketing sharia by the company / producer of goods and services. The research method used in this research is descriptive qualitative analysis, using linguistic or language approach that is describe the concept and structure of marketing language as it is. From this study it can be concluded that the majority of scholars allow the concepts and practices in sharia marketing, seen from the process of creation, the process of bidding, as well as the process of change of value (value in sharia marketing there should be no things that conflict with the principles that exist in sharia. As long as it can be guaranteed, and deviation of principles in sharia does not occur in any transaction inside marketing, it can be allowed in syarak. As well as in the ethical aspect has also fulfilled the spiritual elements that are spiritual based, the divinity is sourced from the

  20. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  1. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  2. Effects of trade openness and market scale on different regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Renqu; Yang, Zisheng

    2017-04-01

    This paper revisits the relationship between growth, trade openness and market scale. Empirical studies have provided that area develops lopsided problem in China is increasingly serious, while large trade openness and market scale bring about more economic growth. We use a number of data set from province-level’s gross domestic product and socio-economic, as well as statistical methods panel ordinary least squares and instrumental variables estimation techniques to explore the effects of trade openness and regional market scale on the three major economic regions. The results indicate: Firstly, the impact of market scale and trade openness on economic growth is found to be positive. Secondly, the overall regional disparity is owing to the trade openness, market scale and macroeconomic policies. Thirdly, midland and western region should take advantage of regional geographical location and resource to expand exports and narrow the regional difference.

  3. Illegal markets, human trade and transnational organised crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author explores, focusing largely on the example of the Balkans, the connection between the expansion of neoliberal market economy and war, and related to it the growth of illegal markets and the shadow economy, on one hand, and the victimisation by human trafficking, on the other. By locating human trade within expanding local and global illegal markets, the author is arguing that, without taking into consideration wider social contexts, which create structural incentives for illegal markets and transnational organised crime, we can hardly understand the causes, let alone build effective strategies to combat and prevent it. Consequently, on the basis of the analyses of human trade as a form of both transnational organised crime and illegal markets, some strategies (short-term and long-term for the prevention and control of human trafficking on both the micro and macro level are suggested.

  4. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  5. 7 CFR 1212.14 - Market or marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., Promotion, Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.14 Market or marketing. (a...

  6. 7 CFR 1206.12 - Market or marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Market or marketing. 1206.12 Section 1206.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.12 Market or marketing...

  7. Comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in selected markets of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on comparative analysis of crayfish marketing in some selected markets of Akwa Ibom and Abia states of Nigeria. It specifically looked at market integration, costs and return, marketing margin, marketing efficiency and factors influencing marketing efficiency in both states. Data were collected from 60 ...

  8. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Islamic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    Among the limited publications on marketing in emerging markets this book focuses on regional specifics of Islamic Countries and the appropriate approaches for reaching their markets with effective and efficient marketing strategies. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Islamic Countries...... is of great value to students, researchers, practioners, policy makers and all interested in this exciting region....

  9. Modeling Dynamic Effects of the Marketing Mix on Market Shares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractTo comprehend the competitive structure of a market, it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on market shares. A useful model to link market shares with marketing-mix variables, like price and promotion, is the market share attraction model.

  10. Alkali-silica reactivity of expanded glass granules in structure of lightweight concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.; Locs, J.; Korjakins, A.

    2013-12-01

    Main component in the lightweight concrete, which provides its properties, is aggregate. A lot of investigations on alkali silica reaction (ASR) between cement and lightweight aggregates have been done with their results published in the academic literature. Whereas expanded glass granules, which is relatively new product in the market of building materials, has not been a frequent research object. Therefore lightweight granules made from waste glass and eight types of cement with different chemical and mineralogical composition were examined in this research. Expanded glass granules used in this research is commercially available material produced by Penostek. Lightweight concrete mixtures were prepared by using commercial chemical additives to improve workability of concrete. The aim of the study is to identify effect of cement composition to the ASR reaction which occurs between expanded glass granules and binder. Expanded glass granules mechanical and physical properties were determined. In addition, properties of fresh and hardened concrete were determined. The ASR test was processed according to RILEM AAR-2 testing recommendation. Tests with scanning electron microscope and microstructural investigations were performed for expanded glass granules and hardened concrete specimens before and after exposing them in alkali solution.

  11. A Tri-Country Marketing Project--Preparing Students for the Realities of a Global Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ina; Knight, Peter; Butt, Irfan

    2011-01-01

    With rapidly increasing globalization, business students are required to understand complex global markets and adapt to the rapid changes in the global landscape. This paper discusses a project where students from International Marketing courses in Pakistan, the United States, and France used an interactive platform as a base to jointly explore…

  12. Operationalizing strategic marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, S B

    1989-05-01

    The strategic marketing process, like any administrative practice, is far simpler to conceptualize than operationalize within an organization. It is for this reason that this chapter focused on providing practical techniques and strategies for implementing the strategic marketing process. First and foremost, the marketing effort needs to be marketed to the various publics of the organization. This chapter advocated the need to organize the marketing analysis into organizational, competitive, and market phases, and it provided examples of possible designs of the phases. The importance and techniques for exhausting secondary data sources and conducting efficient primary data collection methods were explained and illustrated. Strategies for determining marketing opportunities and threats, as well as segmenting markets, were detailed. The chapter provided techniques for developing marketing strategies, including considering the five patterns of coverage available; determining competitor's position and the marketing mix; examining the stage of the product life cycle; and employing a consumer decision model. The importance of developing explicit objectives, goals, and detailed action plans was emphasized. Finally, helpful hints for operationalizing the communication variable and evaluating marketing programs were provided.

  13. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  14. Strategic market segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning of marketing activities is the basis of business success in modern business environment. Customers are not homogenous in their preferences and expectations. Formulating an adequate marketing strategy, focused on realization of company's strategic objectives, requires segmented approach to the market that appreciates differences in expectations and preferences of customers. One of significant activities in strategic planning of marketing activities is market segmentation. Strategic planning imposes a need to plan marketing activities according to strategically important segments on the long term basis. At the same time, there is a need to revise and adapt marketing activities on the short term basis. There are number of criteria based on which market segmentation is performed. The paper will consider effectiveness and efficiency of different market segmentation criteria based on empirical research of customer expectations and preferences. The analysis will include traditional criteria and criteria based on behavioral model. The research implications will be analyzed from the perspective of selection of the most adequate market segmentation criteria in strategic planning of marketing activities.

  15. User-Generated Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trzaskowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses legal implications for businesses which engage in viral marketing. In the wake of the adoption of social media such as Facebook and YouTube, viral marketing has become much cheaper, which in combination with an increased trust in other people’s opinions makes viral marketing...... very efficient and widespread. The article focuses on EU legislation concerning identification of marketing, unsolicited commercial messages, and marketing buzz. The nature and quality of the business’ encouragement of private individuals to spread its marketing material is essential in determining...... whether the business is liable for activities carried out by private individuals. The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive adopts a tradition of applying an average-consumer-test, which in the light of the low-cost communication platforms utilised for viral marketing is likely to lead to lawful deception...

  16. Marketing Management Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costoiu, M.; Ioana, A.; Semenescu, A.; Marcu, D.

    2016-11-01

    The article takes as a starting point several complementary definitions of marketing. Also present several key points related to marketing policy: defining the position that the company will occupy on the market with respect to competition, fixing the image with what will approach the market, achieving a balance between turnover rates profit and expenses as a condition for the survival of the company. In below article it is proposed an original concept of marketing management. This concept takes into consideration on the one hand correlations between company position in the market definition and on the other hand the image received by customers. The ultimate goal of this original concept of marketing management is to ensure an effective balance between: the turnover rate of profit and expenses of the company.

  17. The Interaction between Higher Education and Labour Market in Changing Economic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravite, Aija

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores challenges higher education institutions face while ensuring one of the quality assurance criteria--meeting the demands of labour market. The relationship between labour market and higher education institutions becomes even more complicated during the periods of rapid changes in labour market caused by economic collisions. In…

  18. A Social Media Practicum: An Action-Learning Approach to Social Media Marketing and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwong, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    To prepare students for the rapidly evolving field of digital marketing, which requires more and more technical skills every year, a social media practicum creates a learning environment in which students can apply marketing principles and become ready for collaborative work in social media marketing and analytics. Using student newspapers as…

  19. Functional Food Marketing - The Hungarian Market Case

    OpenAIRE

    Szabolcs Nagy

    2010-01-01

    In Hungary, a growing number of consumers have recently recognized the importance of healthy eating habits in disease prevention. As health is one of the most important terminal values of Hungarian consumers, functional foods are likely to have a bright future and their market is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. In this paper, the main driving forces of the growth of the functional food market, the consumption patterns of functional foods, up-to-date product trends, the rel...

  20. Tourism Marketing: A Service Marketing perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Tourism is a service sector which earns a substantial foreign exchange to developing countries. In India, Kerala is one of the important destination for the international tourists with its unique nature beauty with backwaters, mountains and beaches. To make the tourism a great success one has to take advantage of the modern technology to full extent. Present paper is an attempt to market tourism by adapting the service marketing approach for achieving great success.

  1. NEW DIRECTIONS IN GLOBAL FOOD MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Anonymous,; Gehlhar, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Although consumer diets are being upgraded globally, food purchase patterns vary across countries based on income levels. Developing countries are registering rapid increases in retail sales of high-value foods, while developed countries are seeing a rise in sales of products that meet consumer demands for variety, food safety, and quality. To meet these increasingly varied needs, multinational food retailers and manufacturers are expanding their presence in developing countries, and food ret...

  2. Review of Solar PV Market Development in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    While the diffusion of solar home systems in Kenya has been market-based for some years, the diffusion of PV in most other Sub-Saharan African countries has been driven by government and donor-supported projects aimed at serving specific needs for electricity while at the same time creating...... a national niche market for PV. This practice is rapidly changing and, as in industrialised countries, there is evidence of a transition towards more market-based diffusion and private-sector involvement for PV systems for private consumers, institutions and villages. This transition has been facilitated...... to understanding these effects by reviewing the development of markets for solar PV in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, focusing on how the differences in market development have been explained in the literature. The paper finds that, although Tanzania and Uganda are rapidly catching up, Kenya is still leading...

  3. Changing market for renewable energy in New England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, M. [Second Wind Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author discusses the rapidly changing power market in New England in the face of deregulation of the electric power industry. Utilities are moving to sell their generation assets, and the new players in the market are striving to present themselves as active in a green market. But there is little knowledge about renewable energy sources on the part of the new marketers, and little capacity available, while there does appear to be customer demand. Legislative action seems to be putting in place policies making renewable energy a more attractive option. The author looks at the disparity between demand and availability at this time.

  4. The Microstructure of the European Sovereign Bond Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelizzon, Loriana; Subrahmanyam, Marti G.; Tomio, Davide

    We explore the interaction between credit risk and liquidity, during the Euro-zone crisis, in the Italian sovereign bond market, using a unique tick-by-tick dataset, from the period June 2011-December 2012. We document a strong, dynamic relationship between changes in sovereign credit risk...... and market liquidity, conditional on the credit default swap (CDS) spread: When the CDS is above 500 basis points (bp), market liquidity adjusts more rapidly and signicantly to changes in the credit risk. Other global systemic factors also aect market liquidity, while, surprisingly, the specic credit risk...

  5. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  6. Swedish electricity market 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The organization of the Swedish electricity market has been in a state of continual change since the electricity market reform was started in the early 1990s. The conditions for the development of the electricity market have changed since the new Electricity Act came into force on 1 January 1996. The purpose of the reform is to introduce greater competition on the electricity market and provide the consumers with greater freedom of choice and, by open trade in electricity, to create the conditions for more efficient pricing. Being the central energy authority, the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, was entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market. The Network Authority, which has the supervisory function for the new electricity market, were entrusted by the Government with the task of following developments on the Swedish electricity market and regularly compiling and reporting current market information. The new electricity market has now been operative for ten months. The Network Authority has submitted to the Government a detailed report entitled `Developments on the electricity market`, dealing with the experience gained from the electricity market reform. The purpose of the publication is to provide the players on the electricity market - the decision makers, the media and the general public - with comprehensive and easily accessible information on the market conditions. The publication includes summaries of information on electricity production and use in recent years, the structure of the electricity market from the perspective of a player, electricity trade in Sweden and in northern Europe, electricity prices in Sweden and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment

  7. Religious Market and Market as Religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Mo Sung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the religious market begins with the observation of religious pluralism and comes to the conclusion that, in this situation, religion becomes a matter of personal or family choice and it is established a situation of competition among religions subordinated to the logic of the market economy. Thus, religions reduced to the sphere of private life can no longer perform the traditional role of religions in legitimizing the whole social order. This article analyzes the thesis of the subordination of religion to the logic of the market economy and puts forward the hypothesis that the traditional function of the religion of "absolutizing the relative and legitimizing the arbitrary" is exercised today by the capitalist market system itself; and, because of that, the logic of the market economy has become the "natural” way of thinking today, even to think about religion. To this purpose, it dialogues mainly with the thought of P. Berger, P. Bourdieu, M. Weber, W. Benjamin, K. Marx, F. Hinkelammert and H. Assmann, showing how the theme of faith in and sacralization of market appears in discourses of economists.

  8. The nature of sports marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Bühler, André; Nufer, Gerd; Rennhak, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    Sports marketing has established itself over the last three decades not only as a very special form of marketing but also as an own subject of research. However, it is quite surprising that the nature of sports marketing is relatively unknown as different definitions of sports market-ing indicate. Indeed, a generally accepted definition does not exist to date and opinions about the nature of sports marketing differ widely. This paper examines the nature of sports market-ing and therefore seek...

  9. On the Market Aspect of Product Program Design: Towards a Definition of an Architecture of the Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    an architecture of the market. This is to be interpreted as the ‘market perspective’ of the product family referring to the design of the product family from the market’s point of view. The main result of this paper is the suggestion of a definition of a market architecture with an articulation of its elements......An often overlooked aspect of architecture based product development, is the market aspect. However, without focusing the scope of the product family and ensuring an appropriate layout of product families, variants and features across the product program offerings, experiences show...... that architecture based product families become rigid, unfocused, prepared for yesterday’s market situation, and ultimately lack profitability. This paper will propose to expand the existing notion of coordinating product and production architectures as a means to develop profitable architectures by including...

  10. Trials and Triumphs of Expanded Extension Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavengood, Scott; Love, Bob

    1998-01-01

    Oregon extension faced challenges in presenting programs in the wood products industry. Several traditional tactics, revised to suit a new audience, have proved successful: personal coaching, building partnerships, and providing a high level of service. Newer methods, such as database marketing and distance learning, are also proving to be…

  11. FRM: ADVANCED FOREST PRODUCTS MARKETING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. The study assessed and evaluated the marketing and utilization of Prosopis Africana condiment in Makurdi metropolis. Four major markets where prosopis condiment is sold in Makurdi were randomly selected for this study. The markets are wurukum market, north bank market, modern market and high level ...

  12. TOURISM AS A WAY TO EXPAND THE HUMAN LIFE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Martseniuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work is to substantiate the development of railway tourism in the context of human needs in accordance with the theory of individual life space. Methodology. Theoretical and methodological basis of the study is the provisions of the economic theory, management theory, corporate governance. The rational activity of travel agencies is based on the principles of economic equilibrium; Ukrainian population demand for railway tourism was determined with the help of market research and anonymous survey; to explore the real balance between the demand for tourist rail transport and the potential of the required volume of services the paper suggests the balance method. Since any travel company is an open system and is completely dependent on environmental factors, we proposed a method for estimating the factors of internal and external environment. Originality. The element of originality is compilation of existing concepts to the definition of the individual as a subject of life property, for the understanding of human relationships and its external environment. The paper developed the issue of the ability to influence the value of human life space with the help of tourist services. Conclusions. Market research conducted by the author has shown that in Ukraine there is a certain demand for tourist transport by rail, because it is more reliable, safer and more comfortable than the road transport. It is proved that the development of a new innovative project is very timely, as it will allow: to develop tourist infrastructure of Ukraine and bring it to the domestic and foreign tourists; replenish the state and local budgets by tourists; create new jobs for the population and improve their living level; partially reduce the loss-making passenger sector by increasing the volume of rail transport; expand life space for the people of Ukraine that will allow raising the intellectual level of the individual.

  13. Parameter estimation for an expanding universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieci Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parameter estimation for excitations of Dirac fields in the expanding Robertson–Walker universe. We employ quantum metrology techniques to demonstrate the possibility for high precision estimation for the volume rate of the expanding universe. We show that the optimal precision of the estimation depends sensitively on the dimensionless mass m˜ and dimensionless momentum k˜ of the Dirac particles. The optimal precision for the ratio estimation peaks at some finite dimensionless mass m˜ and momentum k˜. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by choosing the probe state as an eigenvector of the hamiltonian. This occurs because the largest quantum Fisher information is obtained by performing projective measurements implemented by the projectors onto the eigenvectors of specific probe states.

  14. Microwave Energy for Expanding Perlite Ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Aguilar-Garib

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Perlite is an igneous mineral composed by silicon, aluminum, oxygen and water. It can be expanded by heating it up at temperatures above 870 °C, then it becomes plastic, and the steam formed inside pressures out of the mineral. Maximum expansion is possible if the particles are heated up quickly, since the expansion degree strongly depends on the remaining water in the particles at the time that they reach the temperature where they become plastic. The typical expansion process consist in pouring the particles in rotary kilns operated with natural gas, but it is proposed in this research that the particles can be heated quickly with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. Particles of 0.08 cm and 0.018 cm of average diameter were expanded 10 to 20 times.

  15. Brazil’s Market for Trading Forest Certificates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Rajão, Raoni; Merry, Frank; Rodrigues, Hermann; Davis, Juliana; Lima, Letícia; Macedo, Marcia; Coe, Michael; Carneiro, Arnaldo; Santiago, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Brazil faces an enormous challenge to implement its revised Forest Code. Despite big losses for the environment, the law introduces new mechanisms to facilitate compliance and foster payment for ecosystem services (PES). The most promising of these is a market for trading forest certificates (CRAs) that allows landowners to offset their restoration obligations by paying for maintaining native vegetation elsewhere. We analyzed the economic potential for the emerging CRA market in Brazil and its implications for PES programs. Results indicate a potential market for trading 4.2 Mha of CRAs with a gross value of US$ 9.2±2.4 billion, with main regional markets forming in the states of Mato Grosso and São Paulo. This would be the largest market for trading forests in the world. Overall, the potential supply of CRAs in Brazilian states exceeds demand, creating an opportunity for additional PES programs to use the CRA market. This expanded market could provide not only monetary incentives to conserve native vegetation, but also environmental co-benefits by fostering PES programs focused on biodiversity, water conservation, and climate regulation. Effective implementation of the Forest Code will be vital to the success of this market and this hurdle brings uncertainty into the market. Long-term commitment, both within Brazil and abroad, will be essential to overcome the many challenges ahead. PMID:27050309

  16. ETHICS AND MARKETING IN THE KNOWLEDGE BASED SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana HÎNCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the relationship between marketing and ethics. Today we face great challenges given the so-called knowledge society, as through the internet and social networks we can learn anything about anyone, including large corporations and about. The work that we realized is composed of two parts, namely: the ethics part and marketing, and later to stress that ethical marketing concept means and how it can be achieved in our country. Marketing appeared a long time ago, at first in the USA during the first part of the twentieth century. The modern concept of the term marketing refers to the main purpose of the economic activity, which is consumer satisfaction. During the last five decades, along with the development of tourism, marketing interferes with this area and gradually expands to other areas as well. Many authors try to define tourism marketing in certain ways, but eventually tourism marketing is presented as a process of identifying and ensuring the formula by which both consumer satisfaction and the achievement of the entrepreneurial goals become possible. During their daily activity, marketers face various moral issues, but most often the activities they undertake are not clear in terms of ethics.

  17. Expanding roles for GILT in immunity

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura Ciaccia; Cresswell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT), a thioredoxin-related oxidoreductase, functions in MHC class II-restricted antigen processing and MHC class I-restricted cross-presentation by reducing disulfide bonds of endocytosed proteins and facilitating their unfolding and optimal degradation. However, recent reports have greatly expanded our understanding of GILT’s function. Several studies of GILT and antigen processing have shown that the influence of GILT on the peptide re...

  18. Japan: Implications of an Expanded Military Role,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-03

    served by diplomatic, economic and foreign assistance strategies. The Fukuda and Ohira " doctrines " emphasized the role of non-military policy in...encourage it to expand economic assistance under the comprehensive security doctrine . Weinstein is criticizing U.S. policy toward the Soviet Union; he...the United States. The second category of opinion which developed centered -~ on support for a policy line orginally set forth In the Yoshida Doctrine

  19. Line managers as marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  20. Characterization of commercial expandable graphite fire retardants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focke, Walter Wilhelm, E-mail: walter.focke@up.ac.za; Badenhorst, Heinrich; Mhike, Washington; Kruger, Hermanus Joachim; Lombaard, Dewan

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Expandable graphite is less well-ordered than its graphite bisulfate progenitor. • It includes graphite oxide as a randomly interstratified phase. • CO{sub 2}, CO and SO{sub 2} are released during thermal-driven exfoliation. - Abstract: Thermal analysis and other techniques were employed to characterize two expandable graphite samples. The expansion onset temperatures of the expandable graphite's were ca. 220 °C and 300 °C respectively. The key finding is that the commercial products are not just pure graphite intercalation compounds with sulfuric acid species intercalated as guest ions and molecules in between intact graphene layers. A more realistic model is proposed where graphite oxide-like layers are also randomly interstratified in the graphite flakes. These graphite oxide-like layers comprise highly oxidized graphene sheets which contain many different oxygen-containing functional groups. This model explains the high oxygen to sulfur atomic ratios found in both elemental analysis of the neat materials and in the gas generated during the main exfoliation event.