Dearing, John A.; Bullock, Seth; Costanza, Robert; Dawson, Terry P.; Edwards, Mary E.; Poppy, Guy M.; Smith, Graham M.
The `Perfect Storm' metaphor describes a combination of events that causes a surprising or dramatic impact. It lends an evolutionary perspective to how social-ecological interactions change. Thus, we argue that an improved understanding of how social-ecological systems have evolved up to the present is necessary for the modelling, understanding and anticipation of current and future social-ecological systems. Here we consider the implications of an evolutionary perspective for designing research approaches. One desirable approach is the creation of multi-decadal records produced by integrating palaeoenvironmental, instrument and documentary sources at multiple spatial scales. We also consider the potential for improved analytical and modelling approaches by developing system dynamical, cellular and agent-based models, observing complex behaviour in social-ecological systems against which to test systems dynamical theory, and drawing better lessons from history. Alongside these is the need to find more appropriate ways to communicate complex systems, risk and uncertainty to the public and to policy-makers.
Yang, Guang-Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo
Complex hypernetworks are ubiquitous in the real system. It is very important to investigate the evolution mechanisms. In this paper, we present a local-world evolving hypernetwork model by taking into account the hyperedge growth and local-world hyperedge preferential attachment mechanisms. At each time step, a newly added hyperedge encircles a new coming node and a number of nodes from a randomly selected local world. The number of the selected nodes from the local world obeys the uniform distribution and its mean value is m. The analytical and simulation results show that the hyperdegree approximately obeys the power-law form and the exponent of hyperdegree distribution is γ = 2 + 1/m. Furthermore, we numerically investigate the node degree, hyperedge degree, clustering coefficient, as well as the average distance, and find that the hypernetwork model shares the scale-free and small-world properties, which shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the real systems.
Lorenz, Ralph D.
The Cassini RADAR investigation continues to explore Titan : here I summarize some recent and ongoing developments. Geological interpretation of SAR imaging engages a wide community, in particular addressing Titan's dunes, lakes, seas and fluvial systems, impact craters and possible cryovolcanic features. Mapping of these features continues to suggest a dynamic world, with geologically-recent surface change due to tectonic, hydrological and aeolian processes. Mapping of fluvial channels and shoreline features suggests some tectonic controls and spatially-variable land/sea level changes. A despeckle filter applied to the images has proven popular for image interpretation, for example in resolving what may be star- and barchanoid dune morphologies which contrast with the dominant linear type. New observations in 2012 (T83, T84 and T86) place bounds on liquid accumulation in the northern polar regions - not expected to be substantial for another couple of years - and have highlighted a possibly cryomagma-inflated 'hot cross bun' feature and anomalous midlatitude ridges that may be paleodunes from a different climate epoch. The accumulating body of topographic data from altimetry and SARtopo has permitted the assembly of a global topographic map (albeit substantially interpolated) and an estimate of the spherical harmonic shape out to degree ~12. These datasets will be of substantial value in interpreting Titan's structure and geology, and as a boundary condition on global circulation models and fluvial studies. The growing number of overlap regions also permits stereo topography on smaller scales (e.g. of impact structures Ksa and Soi) which helps to understand the processes obliterating craters on Titan.
Mullen, Max Robertson
This dissertation focuses on three projects involving the development of harsh environment gas sensors. The first project discusses the development of a multipurpose oxygen sensor electrode for use in sealing with the common electrolyte yttria stabilized zirconia. The purpose of the sealing function is to produce an internal reference environment maintained by a metal/metal oxide mixture, a criteria for miniaturization of potentiometric oxygen sensing technology. This sensor measures a potential between the internal reference and a sensing environment. The second project discusses the miniaturization of an oxygen sensor and the fabrication of a more generalized electrochemical sensing platform. The third project discusses the discovery of a new mechanism in the electrochemical sensing of ammonia through molecular recognition and the utilization of a sensor taking advantage of the new mechanism. An initial study involving the development of a microwave synthesized La0.8Sr0.2Al0.9Mn0.1O3 sensor electrode material illustrates the ability of the material developed to meet ionic and electronic conducting requirements for effective and Nernstian oxygen sensing. In addition the material deforms plastically under hot isostatic pressing conditions in a similar temperature and pressure regime with yttria stabilized zirconia to produce a seal and survive temperatures up to 1350 °C. In the second project we show novel methods to seal an oxygen environment inside a device cavity to produce an electrochemical sensor body using room temperature plasma-activated bonding and low temperature and pressure assisted plasma-activated bonding with silicon bodies, both in a clean room environment. The evolution from isostatic hot pressing methods towards room temperature complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible technologies using single crystal silicon substrates in the clean room allows the sealing of devices on a much larger scale. Through this evolution in bonding technology we move from performing non-scalable experiments to produce one sensor at a time to scalable experiments producing six. The bonding methods we use are compatible with wafer scale processing. Practically speaking this means that the oxygen sensor design is scalable to produce thousands of sensors from one single bond. Using this bonding technology we develop a generalized sensing platform that could be used for a variety of sensing applications, including oxygen sensing, but also potentially involving CO2 or NOx as well. Future efforts will involve completing of O2 sensor construction and adaption of the design for CO2 and NOx sensing. The final project focuses on a novel ammonia sensor and sensing mechanism in Ag loaded zeolite Y. The sensor resistance changes upon exposure to ammonia due to the molecular recognition of Ag+ and ammonia, producing Ag(NH3)x+ species. The sensing mechanism is a Grothuss like mechanism based on the hoping of Ag+ centers. The hopping frequency of Ag+ changes upon introduction of ammonia due to the reduced electrostatic interactions between Ag+ and the negatively charged zeolite framework upon formation of Ag(NH3) x+. The change in hopping frequency results in a measurable change in impedance.
With a working definition of twenty-first century power in hand, the paper then examines the historical record regarding the power relationships... definition of power? These are some of the questions this paper will address and attempt to answer in this section. Over two millennia ago...challenge.10 In Europe and other parts of the world, the major demographic concern is no longer overpopulation , but a stagnant and aging population
Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal
Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…
Irwin, Louis Neil
It is very unlikely that little green humanoids are living on Mars. But what are the possible life forms that might exist in our Solar System and how might they have evolved? This uniquely authoritative and imaginative book on the possibilties for alien life addresses the intrinsic interest that we have about life on other worlds - reinforcing some of our assumptions and reshaping others. It introduces new possibilties that will enlarge our understanding of the issue overall, in particular the enormous range of environments and planetary conditions within which life might evolve. Cosmic Biology -discusses a broad range of possible environments where alien life might have evolved; -explains why carbon-based, water-borne life is more likely that its alternatives, but is not the only possiblity; -applies the principles of planetary science and modern biology to evolutionary scenarios on other worlds; -looks at the future fates of living systems, including those on Earth.
The active region NOAA 8032 of April 15, 1997 was observed to evolve rapidly. The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. The magnetic evolution of this region is studied to ascertain its role in flare production. Large changes were observed in magnetic ...
Scirea, Marco; Brown, Joseph Alexander
This application of the Multiple Worlds Model examines a collaborative fitness model for generating four part harmonies. In this model we have multiple populations and the fitness of the individuals is based on the ability of a member from each population to work with the members of other...... populations. We present the result of two experiments: the generation of compositions, given a static voice line, both in a constrained and unconstrained harmonic framework. The remaining three voices are evolved using this collaborative fitness function, which looks for a number of classical composition...
Da Silva, R. Rodrigues; Canto Martins, B. L.; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: email@example.com [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)
We present an analysis of the nature of the rapidly rotating, apparently single giant based on rotational and radial velocity measurements carried out by the CORAVEL spectrometers. From the analyzed sample, composed of 2010 spectroscopic, apparently single, evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib with spectral types G and K, we classified 30 stars that presented unusual, moderate to rapid rotation. This work reports, for the first time, the presence of these abnormal rotators among subgiant, bright giant, and Ib supergiant stars. To date, this class of stars was reported only among giant stars of luminosity class III. Most of these abnormal rotators present an IRAS infrared excess, which, in principle, can be related to dust around these stars.
Moosavi, Vahid; Isacchini, Giulio
The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money.
Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Amos, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)
Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers consisting of varying numbers of tandem repeats. At different loci, these repeats can consist of one to five nucleotides. Microsatellites have been used in many fields of genetics, including genetic mapping, linkage disequilibrium analyses, forensic studies, and population genetics. It is important that we understand their mutational processes better so that they can be exploited optimally for studies of human diversity and evolutionary genetics. We have analyzed 24 microsatellite loci in chimpanzees, East Anglians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The stepwise-weighted genetic distances between the humans and the chimpanzees and between the two human populations were calculated according to the method described by Deka et al. The ratio of the genetic distances between the chimpanzees and the humans relative to that between the Africans and the East Anglians was more than 10 times smaller than expected. This suggests that microsatellites have evolved more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees. 12 refs., 1 tab.
Jansen Pascal WTC
Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone variants alter the composition of nucleosomes and play crucial roles in transcription, chromosome segregation, DNA repair, and sperm compaction. Modification of metazoan histone variant lineages occurs on a background of genome architecture that shows global similarities from sponges to vertebrates, but the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, a member of the sister group to vertebrates, exhibits profound modification of this ancestral architecture. Results We show that a histone complement of 47 gene loci encodes 31 histone variants, grouped in distinct sets of developmental expression profiles throughout the life cycle. A particularly diverse array of 15 male-specific histone variants was uncovered, including a testes-specific H4t, the first metazoan H4 sequence variant reported. Universal histone variants H3.3, CenH3, and H2A.Z are present but O. dioica lacks homologs of macroH2A and H2AX. The genome encodes many H2A and H2B variants and the repertoire of H2A.Z isoforms is expanded through alternative splicing, incrementally regulating the number of acetylatable lysine residues in the functionally important N-terminal "charge patch". Mass spectrometry identified 40 acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation posttranslational modifications (PTMs and showed that hallmark PTMs of "active" and "repressive" chromatin were present in O. dioica. No obvious reduction in silent heterochromatic marks was observed despite high gene density in this extraordinarily compacted chordate genome. Conclusions These results show that histone gene complements and their organization differ considerably even over modest phylogenetic distances. Substantial innovation among all core and linker histone variants has evolved in concert with adaptation of specific life history traits in this rapidly evolving chordate lineage.
Oh, Kevin P; Shaw, Kerry L
Estimating the fitness surface of rapidly evolving secondary sexual traits can elucidate the origins of sexual isolation and thus speciation. Evidence suggests that sexual selection is highly complex in nature, often acting on multivariate sexual characters that sometimes include non-heritable components of variation, thus presenting a challenge for predicting patterns of sexual trait evolution. Laupala crickets have undergone an explosive species radiation marked by divergence in male courtship song and associated female preferences, yet patterns of sexual selection that might explain this diversification remain unknown. We used female phonotaxis trials to estimate the fitness surface for acoustic characters within one population of Laupala cerasina, a species with marked geographical variation in male song and female preferences. Results suggested significant directional sexual selection on three major song traits, while canonical rotation of the matrix of nonlinear selection coefficients (γ) revealed the presence of significant convex (stabilizing) sexual selection along combinations of characters. Analysis of song variation within and among males indicated significantly higher repeatability along the canonical axis of greatest stabilizing selection than along the axis of greatest linear selection. These results are largely consistent with patterns of song divergence that characterize speciation and suggest that different song characters have the potential to indicate distinct information to females during courtship.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intralocus sexual conflict can inhibit the evolution of each sex towards its own fitness optimum. In a previous study, we confirmed this prediction through the experimental removal of female selection pressures in Drosophila melanogaster, achieved by limiting the expression of all major chromosomes to males. Compared to the control populations (C(1-4 where the genomes are exposed to selection in both sexes, the populations with male-limited genomes (ML(1-4 showed rapid increases in male fitness, whereas the fitness of females expressing ML-evolved chromosomes decreased. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examine the behavioural phenotype underlying this sexual antagonism. We show that males expressing the ML genomes have a reduced courtship level but acquire the same number of matings. On the other hand, our data suggest that females expressing the ML genomes had reduced attractiveness, stimulating a lower rate of courtship from males. Moreover, females expressing ML genomes tend to display reduced yeast-feeding behaviour, which is probably linked to the reduction of their fecundity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that reproductive behaviour is shaped by opposing selection on males and females, and that loci influencing attractiveness and foraging were polymorphic for alleles with sexually antagonistic expression patterns prior to ML selection. Hence, intralocus sexual conflict appears to play a role in the evolution of a wide range of fitness-related traits and may be a powerful mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness.
Jaffer, Usman; Vaughan-Huxley, Eyston; Standfield, Nigel; John, Nigel W
Mentoring, for physicians and surgeons in training, is advocated as an essential adjunct in work-based learning, providing support in career and non-career related issues. The World Wide Web (WWW) has evolved, as a technology, to become more interactive and person centric, tailoring itself to the individual needs of the user. This changing technology may open new avenues to foster mentoring in medicine. DESIGN, SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A search of the MEDLINE database from 1950 to 2012 using the PubMed interface, combined with manual cross-referencing was performed using the following strategy: ("mentors"[MeSH Terms] OR "mentors"[All Fields] OR "mentor"[All Fields]) AND ("internet"[MeSH Terms] OR "internet"[All Fields]) AND ("medicine"[MeSH Terms] OR "medicine"[All Fields]) AND ("humans"[MeSH Terms] AND English[lang]). Abstracts were screened for relevance (UJ) to the topic; eligibility for inclusion was simply on screening for relevance to online mentoring and web-based technologies. Forty-five papers were found, of which 16 were relevant. All studies were observational in nature. To date, all medical mentoring applications utilizing the World Wide Web have enjoyed some success limited by Web 1.0 and 2.0 technologies. With the evolution of the WWW through 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 generations, the potential for meaningful tele- and distance mentoring has greatly improved. Some engagement has been made with these technological advancements, however further work is required to fully realize the potential of these technologies. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Coker, Jeffrey Scott
Evolutionary concepts are essential for a scientific understanding of most issues surrounding modern medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, and the environment. If the mantra for biology education in the 20th century was, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution," the mantra for the 21st century must be, "Nothing in biology…
information society, e-government, digital divide, and e-learning/digital scholarship. This paper provides an overview of the paradigm shifts sweeping the information landscape in the networked world and the implications for the creation and management of information, especially in African libraries. African Journal of ...
Howell, N.; Kubacka, I. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Mackey, D.A. [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)]|[Univ. of Tasmania, Launceston (Australia)
The results of an empirical nucleotide-sequencing approach indicate that the evolution of the human mitochondrial noncoding D-loop is both more rapid and more complex than is revealed by standard phylogenetic approaches. The nucleotide sequence of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome was determined for 45 members of a large matrilineal Leber hereditary optic neuropathy pedigree. Two germ-line mutations have arisen in members of one branch of the family, thereby leading to triplasmic descendants with three mitochondrial genotypes. Segregation toward the homoplasmic state can occur within a single generation in some of these descendants, a result that suggests rapid fixation of mitochondrial mutations as a result of developmental bottlenecking. However, slow segregation was observed in other offspring, and therefore no single or simple pattern of segregation can be generalized from the available data. Evidence for rare mtDNA recombination within the D-loop was obtained for one family member. In addition to these germ-line mutations, a somatic mutation was found in the D-loop of one family member. When this genealogical approach was applied to the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial coding regions, the results again indicated a very rapid rate of evolution. 44 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) residing in some urban and industrialized estuaries of the US eastern seaboard demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, characterized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis of the genetic basis for DLC tolerance in killifish inhabiting an urban estuary contaminated with PCB congeners, the most toxic of which are DLCs. Consistent with mechanistic knowledge of DLC toxicity in fish and other vertebrates, the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (ahr2) region accounts for 17% of trait variation; however, QTLs on independent linkage groups and their interactions have even greater explanatory power (44%). QTLs interpreted within the context of recently available Fundulus genomic resources and shared synteny among fish species suggest adaptation via inter-acting components of a complex stress response network. Some QTLs were also enriched in other killifish populations characterized as DLC tolerant and residing in distant urban estuaries contaminated with unique mixtures of pollutants. Together, our results suggest that DLC tolerance in killifish represents an emerging example of parallel contemporary evolution that has been driven by intense human-mediated selection on natural populations. This manuscript describes experimental studies that contribute to our understanding of the ecological
Full Text Available Abstract Background Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the extracellular production of the shell, directing the ordered biomineralization of CaCO3 and the deposition of architectural and color patterns. The evolutionary origins of the ability to synthesize calcified structures across various metazoan taxa remain obscure, with only a small number of protein families identified from molluskan shells. The recent sequencing of a wide range of metazoan genomes coupled with the analysis of gene expression in non-model animals has allowed us to investigate the evolution and process of biomineralization in gastropod mollusks. Results Here we show that over 25% of the genes expressed in the mantle of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina encode secreted proteins, indicating that hundreds of proteins are likely to be contributing to shell fabrication and patterning. Almost 85% of the secretome encodes novel proteins; remarkably, only 19% of these have identifiable homologues in the full genome of the patellogastropod Lottia scutum. The spatial expression profiles of mantle genes that belong to the secretome is restricted to discrete mantle zones, with each zone responsible for the fabrication of one of the structural layers of the shell. Patterned expression of a subset of genes along the length of the mantle is indicative of roles in shell ornamentation. For example, Has-sometsuke maps precisely to pigmentation patterns in the shell, providing the first case of a gene product to be involved in molluskan shell pigmentation. We also describe the expression of two novel genes involved in nacre (mother of pearl deposition. Conclusion The unexpected complexity and evolvability of this secretome and the modular design of the molluskan mantle enables
Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.; Post, J.
-Post, Johan. (2004) Evolving Partnerships in the Collection of Urban Solid Waste in the Developing World, in: Baud, Isa., Johan. Post and Christine Furedy (2004) Solid Waste Management and Recycling; Actors, Partnerships and Policies in Hyderabad, India
Bordi, Licia; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Lalle, Eleonora; Vairo, Francesco; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando
Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults. The primary mode of transmission of Zika virus between humans is through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the Aedes genus, but also sexual and blood transfusion transmission may occur. Moreover, a case of non-sexual spread from one person to another has been described, indicating that we still have more to learn about Zika transmission.Biological basis for pathogenetic effects are under investigation. Laboratory diagnosis is challenging since, so far, there are no "gold standard" diagnostic tools, and the low and short viremia in the acute phase, and together with the high cross-reactivity among the members of flavivirus genus are the most challenging aspects to be overcome.
Deutz, André; Schütze, Oliver; Legrand, Pierrick; Tantar, Emilia; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian
This book comprises nine selected works on numerical and computational methods for solving multiobjective optimization, game theory, and machine learning problems. It provides extended versions of selected papers from various fields of science such as computer science, mathematics and engineering that were presented at EVOLVE 2013 held in July 2013 at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The internationally peer-reviewed papers include original work on important topics in both theory and applications, such as the role of diversity in optimization, statistical approaches to combinatorial optimization, computational game theory, and cell mapping techniques for numerical landscape exploration. Applications focus on aspects including robustness, handling multiple objectives, and complex search spaces in engineering design and computational biology.
Tatiana I. Andreeva
Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of
Henneken, Jessica; Jones, Therésa M
Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown. Here, we explore how recent increases in urbanisation and associated anthropogenic impacts may affect how chemical signals are produced and perceived. We focus on four anthropomorphic influences which have the potential to interact with pheromone-mediated sexual selection processes; climatic temperature shifts, exposure to chemical pollutants, the presence of artificial light at night and nutrient availability. Our aim is to provide a broad overview of key areas where the rapidly changing environment of the future might specifically affect pheromones utilised in sexual selection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Macdonald, J.; Bland, S. N.; Threadgold, J.
We report on the first use of a fibre interferometer incorporating triature analysis for measuring rapidly evolving plasma densities of ne ˜ 1013/cm3 and above, such as those produced by simple coaxial plasma guns. The resultant system is extremely portable, easy to field in experiments, relatively cheap to produce, and—with the exception of a small open area in which the plasma is sampled—safe in operation as all laser light is enclosed.
Thomas K. J. Craig
Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.
Bidaut, Luc; Madewell, John; Yasko, Alan
Introduction: Rapid prototype modeling (RPM) has been used in medicine principally for bones - that are easily extracted from CT data sets - for planning orthopaedic, plastic or maxillo-facial interventions, and/or for designing custom prostheses and implants. Based on newly available technology, highly valuable multimodality approaches can now be applied to RPM, particularly for complex musculo-skeletal (MSK) tumors where multimodality often transcends CT alone. Methods: CT data sets are acquired for primary evaluation of MSK tumors in parallel with other modalities (e.g., MR, PET, SPECT). In our approach, CT is first segmented to provide bony anatomy for RPM and all other data sets are then registered to the CT reference. Parametric information relevant to the tumor's characterization is then extracted from the multimodality space and merged with the CT anatomy to produce a hybrid RPM-ready model. This model - that also accommodates digital multimodality visualization - is then produced on the latest generation of 3D printers, which permits both shapes and colors. Results: Multimodality models of complex MSK tumors have been physically produced on modern RPM equipment. This new approach has been found to be a clear improvement over the previously disconnected physical RPM and digital multimodality visualization. Conclusions: New technical developments keep opening doors to sophisticated medical applications that can directly impact the quality of patient care. Although this early work still deals with bones as base models for RPM, its use to encompass soft tissues is already envisioned for future approaches.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular ATP levels are generated by glucose-stimulated mitochondrial metabolism and determine metabolic responses, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS from the β-cells of pancreatic islets. We describe an analysis of the evolutionary processes affecting the core enzymes involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mammals. The proteins involved in this system belong to ancient enzymatic pathways: glycolysis, the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Results We identify two sets of proteins, or protein coalitions, in this group of 77 enzymes with distinct evolutionary patterns. Members of the glycolysis, TCA cycle, metabolite transport, pyruvate and NADH shuttles have low rates of protein sequence evolution, as inferred from a human-mouse comparison, and relatively high rates of evolutionary gene duplication. Respiratory chain and glutathione pathway proteins evolve faster, exhibiting lower rates of gene duplication. A small number of proteins in the system evolve significantly faster than co-pathway members and may serve as rapidly evolving adapters, linking groups of co-evolving genes. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the evolution of the involved proteins. We find evidence for two coalitions of proteins and the role of co-adaptation in protein evolution is identified and could be used in future research within a functional context.
Lechner, M; Fenton, T R
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been shown to represent a major independent risk factor for head and neck squamous cell cancer, in particular for oropharyngeal carcinoma. This type of cancer is rapidly evolving in the Western world, with rising trends particularly in the young, and represents a distinct epidemiological, clinical, and molecular entity. It is the aim of this review to give a detailed description of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional changes that underlie the phenotype of this deadly disease. The review will also link these changes and examine what is known about the interactions between the host genome and viral genome, and investigate changes specific for the viral genome. These data are then integrated into an updated model of HPV-induced head and neck carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Aird, Steven D; Aggarwal, Shikha; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Tin, Mandy Man-Ying; Terada, Kouki; Mikheyev, Alexander S
While many studies have shown that extracellular proteins evolve rapidly, how selection acts on them remains poorly understood. We used snake venoms to understand the interaction between ecology, expression level, and evolutionary rate in secreted protein systems. Venomous snakes employ well-integrated systems of proteins and organic constituents to immobilize prey. Venoms are generally optimized to subdue preferred prey more effectively than non-prey, and many venom protein families manifest positive selection and rapid gene family diversification. Although previous studies have illuminated how individual venom protein families evolve, how selection acts on venoms as integrated systems, is unknown. Using next-generation transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrometry, we examined microevolution in two pitvipers, allopatrically separated for at least 1.6 million years, and their hybrids. Transcriptomes of parental species had generally similar compositions in regard to protein families, but for a given protein family, the homologs present and concentrations thereof sometimes differed dramatically. For instance, a phospholipase A2 transcript comprising 73.4 % of the Protobothrops elegans transcriptome, was barely present in the P. flavoviridis transcriptome (venoms. Protein evolutionary rates were positively correlated with transcriptomic and proteomic abundances, and the most abundant proteins showed positive selection. This pattern holds with the addition of four other published crotaline transcriptomes, from two more genera, and also for the recently published king cobra genome, suggesting that rapid evolution of abundant proteins may be generally true for snake venoms. Looking more broadly at Protobothrops, we show that rapid evolution of the most abundant components is due to positive selection, suggesting an interplay between abundance and adaptation. Given log-scale differences in toxin abundance, which are likely correlated with biosynthetic costs, we
Mironov Andrey A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for generating functional and evolutionary diversity of proteins in eukaryotes. Here, we studied the frequency and functionality of recently gained, rodent-specific alternative exons. Results We projected the data about alternative splicing of mouse genes to the rat, human, and dog genomes, and identified exons conserved in the rat genome, but missing in more distant genomes. We estimated the frequency of rodent-specific exons while controlling for possible residual conservation of spurious exons. The frequency of rodent-specific exons is higher among predominantly skipped exons and exons disrupting the reading frame. Separation of all genes by the rate of sequence evolution and by gene families has demonstrated that rodent-specific cassette exons are more frequent in rapidly evolving genes and in rodent-specific paralogs. Conclusion Thus we demonstrated that recently gained exons tend to occur in fast-evolving genes, and their inclusion rate tends to be lower than that of older exons. This agrees with the theory that gain of alternative exons is one of the major mechanisms of gene evolution.
Bernhardt Harold S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA world concept has wide, though certainly not unanimous, support within the origin-of-life scientific community. One view is that life may have emerged as early as the Hadean Eon 4.3-3.8 billion years ago with an atmosphere of high CO2 producing an acidic ocean of the order of pH 3.5-6. Compatible with this scenario is the intriguing proposal that life arose within alkaline (pH 9-11 deep-sea hydrothermal vents like those of the 'Lost City', with the interface with the acidic ocean creating a proton gradient sufficient to drive the first metabolism. However, RNA is most stable at pH 4-5 and is unstable at alkaline pH, raising the possibility that RNA may have first arisen in the acidic ocean itself (possibly near an acidic hydrothermal vent, acidic volcanic lake or comet pond. As the Hadean Eon progressed, the ocean pH is inferred to have gradually risen to near neutral as atmospheric CO2 levels decreased. Presentation of the hypothesis We propose that RNA is well suited for a world evolving at acidic pH. This is supported by the enhanced stability at acidic pH of not only the RNA phosphodiester bond but also of the aminoacyl-(tRNA and peptide bonds. Examples of in vitro-selected ribozymes with activities at acid pH have recently been documented. The subsequent transition to a DNA genome could have been partly driven by the gradual rise in ocean pH, since DNA has greater stability than RNA at alkaline pH, but not at acidic pH. Testing the hypothesis We have proposed mechanisms for two key RNA world activities that are compatible with an acidic milieu: (i non-enzymatic RNA replication of a hemi-protonated cytosine-rich oligonucleotide, and (ii specific aminoacylation of tRNA/hairpins through triple helix interactions between the helical aminoacyl stem and a single-stranded aminoacylating ribozyme. Implications of the hypothesis Our hypothesis casts doubt on the hypothesis that RNA evolved in the vicinity of alkaline
Emens, Leisha A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Darcy, Phillip K; Demaria, Sandra; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Redmond, William L; Seliger, Barbara; Marincola, Francesco M
Cancer immunotherapy is now established as a powerful way to treat cancer. The recent clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade (antagonists of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1) highlights both the universal power of treating the immune system across tumour types and the unique features of cancer immunotherapy. Immune-related adverse events, atypical clinical response patterns, durable responses, and clear overall survival benefit distinguish cancer immunotherapy from cytotoxic cancer therapy. Combination immunotherapies that transform non-responders to responders are under rapid development. Current challenges facing the field include incorporating immunotherapy into adjuvant and neoadjuvant cancer therapy, refining dose, schedule and duration of treatment and developing novel surrogate endpoints that accurately capture overall survival benefit early in treatment. As the field rapidly evolves, we must prioritise the development of biomarkers to guide the use of immunotherapies in the most appropriate patients. Immunotherapy is already transforming cancer from a death sentence to a chronic disease for some patients. By making smart, evidence-based decisions in developing next generation immunotherapies, cancer should become an imminently treatable, curable and even preventable disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gunaratne, Shelton A.
A macro theory that recognizes the worlds three competing center-clusters and their respective hinterlands o?ers a realistic framework for global communication research. This study has used recent data on world trade, computers, Internet hosts, and high-tech exports to map the triadization of the world in the Information Age. The original dependency theory and world-system theory perspectives emphasized the hierarchical linking of national societies to the capitalist world-economy in a center...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-microseminoprotein, an abundant component in prostatic fluid, is encoded by the potential tumor suppressor gene MSMB. Some New World monkeys carry several copies of this gene, in contrast to most mammals, including humans, which have one only. Here we have investigated the background for the species difference by analyzing the chromosomal organization and expression of MSMB in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. Methods Genes were identified in the Callithrix jacchus genome database using bioinformatics and transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantified by real time PCR in the presence of SYBR green. Results The common marmoset has five MSMB: one processed pseudogene and four functional genes. The latter encompass homologous genomic regions of 32-35 kb, containing the genes of 12-14 kb and conserved upstream and downstream regions of 14-19 kb and 3-4 kb. One gene, MSMB1, occupies the same position on the chromosome as the single human gene. On the same chromosome, but several Mb away, is another MSMB locus situated with MSMB2, MSMB3 and MSMB4 arranged in tandem. Measurements of transcripts demonstrated that all functional genes are expressed in the male genital tract, generating very high transcript levels in the prostate. The transcript levels in seminal vesicles and testis are two and four orders of magnitude lower. A single gene, MSMB3, accounts for more than 90% of MSMB transcripts in both the prostate and the seminal vesicles, whereas in the testis around half of the transcripts originate from MSMB2. These genes display rapid evolution with a skewed distribution of mutated nucleotides; in MSMB2 they affect nucleotides encoding the N-terminal Greek key domain, whereas in MSMB3 it is the C-terminal MSMB-unique domain that is affected. Conclusion Callitrichide monkeys have four functional MSMB that are all expressed in the male genital tract, but the product from one gene, MSMB3, will predominate in seminal
Sperschneider, Jana; Gardiner, Donald M.; Thatcher, Louise F.; Lyons, Rebecca; Singh, Karam B.; Manners, John M.; Taylor, Jennifer M.
Pathogens and hosts are in an ongoing arms race and genes involved in host–pathogen interactions are likely to undergo diversifying selection. Fusarium plant pathogens have evolved diverse infection strategies, but how they interact with their hosts in the biotrophic infection stage remains puzzling. To address this, we analyzed the genomes of three Fusarium plant pathogens for genes that are under diversifying selection. We found a two-speed genome structure both on the chromosome and gene group level. Diversifying selection acts strongly on the dispensable chromosomes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and on distinct core chromosome regions in Fusarium graminearum, all of which have associations with virulence. Members of two gene groups evolve rapidly, namely those that encode proteins with an N-terminal [SG]-P-C-[KR]-P sequence motif and proteins that are conserved predominantly in pathogens. Specifically, 29 F. graminearum genes are rapidly evolving, in planta induced and encode secreted proteins, strongly pointing toward effector function. In summary, diversifying selection in Fusarium is strongly reflected as genomic footprints and can be used to predict a small gene set likely to be involved in host–pathogen interactions for experimental verification. PMID:25994930
Shelton A. Gunaratne
Full Text Available A macro theory that recognizes the worlds three competing center-clusters and their respective hinterlands o?ers a realistic framework for global communication research. This study has used recent data on world trade, computers, Internet hosts, and high-tech exports to map the triadization of the world in the Information Age. The original dependency theory and world-system theory perspectives emphasized the hierarchical linking of national societies to the capitalist world-economy in a center-periphery structure. The proposed global-triadization formulation looks at the center-periphery structure in terms of a capitalist world-economy dominated by three competing center economic clusters, each of which has a dependent hinterland comprising peripheral economic clusters. These clusters may not necessarily be geographically contiguous. Strong-weak relationships may exist within each center-cluster, as well as within each periphery-cluster, with one center-cluster occupying a hegemonic role. The rudimentary Information-Society Power Index, constructed for this study, can guide the researcher to test an abundance of hypotheses on the pattern of global communication and information ?ow with particular attention to source, message, channel, and receiver.
Hayes, William K; Mackessy, Stephen P
Recent reports in the lay press have suggested that bites by rattlesnakes in the last several years have been more severe than those in the past. The explanation, often citing physicians, is that rattlesnakes are evolving more toxic venom, perhaps in response to anthropogenic causes. We suggest that other explanations are more parsimonious, including factors dependent on the snake and factors associated with the bite victim's response to envenomation. Although bites could become more severe from an increased proportion of bites from larger or more provoked snakes (ie, more venom injected), the venom itself evolves much too slowly to explain the severe symptoms occasionally seen. Increased snakebite severity could also result from a number of demographic changes in the victim profile, including age and body size, behavior toward the snake (provocation), anatomical site of bite, clothing, and general health including asthma prevalence and sensitivity to foreign antigens. Clinical management of bites also changes perpetually, rendering comparisons of snakebite severity over time tenuous. Clearly, careful study taking into consideration many factors will be essential to document temporal changes in snakebite severity or venom toxicity. Presently, no published evidence for these changes exists. The sensationalistic coverage of these atypical bites and accompanying speculation is highly misleading and can produce many detrimental results, such as inappropriate fear of the outdoors and snakes, and distraction from proven snakebite management needs, including a consistent supply of antivenom, adequate health care, and training. We urge healthcare providers to avoid propagating misinformation about snakes and snakebites. Copyright (c) 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the implications of the recent economic and political evolution of Indian immigration in Europe, and specifically in France, their businesses and entrepreneurial groups, as well as their links with the countries of origin/welcoming countries and their transnational networks, using an historical and geoanthropological approach. The analysis also covers the essential links that the transnational entrepreneurs establish between France/Europe and the rest of the world, particularly with the emerging cities of Asia, the Middle East and, possibly, certain parts of Africa, such as South Africa, the Mascarene Islands and East Africa. To that end, the author begins by contextualising Indian business projects in France, before going on to examine the current situation of ethnic shops, the transnational companies of traditional trading communities and, to some extent, their Institute of Information Technology networks. The author also carries out a study of the “Mittal Case” as a new paradigm of research within the changing world economy, as the traditional North-South separation is undermined and the complexities of fields in research on trading and business groups is renewed. Finally, the author situates these debates within the growing world knowledge of the communities of Indian immigrants in France and their small ethnic businessmen and traders.
Baynes, Kevin C R
The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonist drugs have attractions as a treatment for type 2 diabetes since they positively alter a number of key pathophysiological defects. These include increasing insulin release, reducing glucagon release, slowing gastric emptying and reducing food intake. In numerous clinical trials these agents have been shown to reduce DCCT-aligned HbA(1c) between 0.8% and 1.1% in patients with moderately controlled type 2 diabetes, whilst also being associated with some weight loss. Whilst medium-term safety and side-effect profiles are now well established, there are as yet no long-term studies on the safety of this group of drugs. The place of the GLP-1 agonists in the treatment paradigm for type 2 diabetes will evolve over the next decade.
Zhao, Heng; Ren, Chuancheng; Chen, Xingmiao; Shen, Jiangang
Ischemic postconditioning is a concept originally defined to contrast with that of ischemic preconditioning. While both preconditioning and postconditioning confer a neuroprotective effect on brain ischemia, preconditioning is a sublethal insult performed in advance of brain ischemia, and postconditioning, which conventionally refers to a series of brief occlusions and reperfusions of the blood vessels, is conducted after ischemia/reperfusion. In this article, we first briefly review the history of preconditioning, including the experimentation that initially uncovered its neuroprotective effects and later revealed its underlying mechanisms-of-action. We then discuss how preconditioning research evolved into that of postconditioning – a concept that now represents a broad range of stimuli or triggers, including delayed postconditioning, pharmacological postconditioning, remote postconditioning – and its underlying protective mechanisms involving the Akt, MAPK, PKC and KATP channel cell-signaling pathways. Because the concept of postconditioning is so closely associated with that of preconditioning, and both share some common protective mechanisms, we also discuss whether a combination of preconditioning and postconditioning offers greater protection than preconditioning or postconditioning alone. PMID:22204317
Guo, Changjiang; Sun, Xiaoguang; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Sihai; Li, Jing; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaohui
Most rice blast resistance genes (R-genes) encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Our previous study has shown that more rice blast R-genes can be cloned in rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families. In the present study, two rapidly evolving R-gene families in rice were selected for cloning a subset of genes from their paralogs in three resistant rice lines. A total of eight functional blast R-genes were identified among nine NBS-LRR genes, and some of these showed resistance to three or more blast strains. Evolutionary analysis indicated that high nucleotide diversity of coding regions served as important parameters in the determination of gene resistance. We also observed that amino-acid variants (nonsynonymous mutations, insertions, or deletions) in essential motifs of the NBS domain contribute to the blast resistance capacity of NBS-LRR genes. These results suggested that the NBS regions might also play an important role in resistance specificity determination. On the other hand, different splicing patterns of introns were commonly observed in R-genes. The results of the present study contribute to improving the effectiveness of R-gene identification by using evolutionary analysis method and acquisition of novel blast resistance genes.
Full Text Available The last decades have witnessed the emergence and development of the transnational phase ofcapitalism followed by the making of a transnational capitalist class. As key actors in today’s globaleconomy, more and more corporations, especially multinational and transnational, are in touch withone another than ever before in many sectors at a global scale. These corporations have become giantbusiness organizations and wealthy and very powerful structures all over the world. The aim of ourpaper is to present the evolution of the world’s ten largest corporations by their revenues and profits inthe period 2014-2015. Our research is based on a literature review.
Arif, R.; Essa, K.
Lahore is an ancient, culturally rich city amidst which are embedded two world heritage sites. The state of historic preservation in the country is impoverished with a dearth of training and poor documentation skills, thus these monuments are decaying and in dire need of attention. The Aga Khan Cultural Service - Pakistan is one of the first working in heritage conservation in the country. AKCSP is currently subjecting the UNESCO World Heritage site of the Mughal era Lahore Fort to an intensive and multi-faceted architectural documentation process. This is presented here as a case study to chart the evolution of documentation techniques and enunciate the spectrum of challenges faced in the documentation of an intricate Mughal heritage site for conservation in the Pakistani context. 3D - laser scanning is used for the purpose of heritage conservation for the first time, and since has been utilised on heritage buildings and urban fabric in ongoing projects. These include Lahore Fort, Walled city of Lahore as well as the Baltit Fort, a project restored in the past, assisting in the maintenance of conserved buildings. The documentation team is currently discovering the full potential of this technology especially its use in heritage conservation simultaneously overcoming challenges faced. Moreover negotiating solutions to auto-generate 2D architectural drawings from the 3D pointcloud output. The historic architecture is juxtaposed with contemporary technology in a region where such a combination is rarely found. The goal is to continually develop the documentation methodologies whilst investigating other technologies in the future.
A. D. Voskressenski
Full Text Available Coexistence of structurally different modernities with various historical backgrounds and systemic/structural organizations leads to the coexistence of different traditional and new actors within the same spatial-temporal continuum of international relations, with macroregions and nation-states differentiating in accordance with structural principles of their organization. The type of political access in particular nation-states and the combination of different types of political access in macroregions of different structural organizations and historical phase, ultimately determine a development strategy, the tone and priorities of foreign policy of states which still have powerful infl uence on further evolution of world politics space. Identifying such interrelations helps to analyze the impact of the type of social and political access within states, coalitions of states and global regions on the evolution and features of world politics space as well as to employ social engineering of national and global space to maximize benefi ts in the process of social development. Theoretical and empirical conceptualization of interdependence between external and internal processes, including political component, makes it possible to develop applied theories of competitive regional and national development patterns based on higher cooperative trends in national strategies for modernization and development while defending adequately national interests.
Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a rapidly growing domain within the field of biomedical and health informatics. The objective of this paper is to reflect on the past twenty five years and showcase informatics concepts and applications that led to new models of care and patient empowerment, and to predict future trends and challenges for the next 25 years. We discuss concepts and systems based on a review and analysis of published literature in the consumer health informatics domain in the last 25 years. The field was introduced with the vision that one day patients will be in charge of their own health care using informatics tools and systems. Scientific literature in the field originally focused on ways to assess the quality and validity of available printed health information, only to grow significantly to cover diverse areas such as online communities, social media, and shared decision-making. Concepts such as home telehealth, mHealth, and the quantified-self movement, tools to address transparency of health care organizations, and personal health records and portals provided significant milestones in the field. Consumers are able to actively participate in the decision-making process and to engage in health care processes and decisions. However, challenges such as health literacy and the digital divide have hindered us from maximizing the potential of CHI tools with a significant portion of underserved populations unable to access and utilize them. At the same time, at a global scale consumer tools can increase access to care for underserved populations in developing countries. The field continues to grow and emerging movements such as precision medicine and the sharing economy will introduce new opportunities and challenges.
Wotzlaw, J.F.; Bindeman, I.N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, A.K.; Caricchi, L.; Schaltegger, U.
The geological record contains evidence of volcanic eruptions that were as much as two orders of magnitude larger than the most voluminous eruption experienced by modern civilizations, the A.D. 1815 Tambora (Indonesia) eruption. Perhaps nowhere on Earth are deposits of such supereruptions more prominent than in the Snake River Plain–Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) volcanic province (northwest United States). While magmatic activity at Yellowstone is still ongoing, the Heise volcanic field in eastern Idaho represents the youngest complete caldera cycle in the SRP-YP, and thus is particularly instructive for current and future volcanic activity at Yellowstone. The Heise caldera cycle culminated 4.5 Ma ago in the eruption of the ∼1800 km3 Kilgore Tuff. Accessory zircons in the Kilgore Tuff display significant intercrystalline and intracrystalline oxygen isotopic heterogeneity, and the vast majority are 18O depleted. This suggests that zircons crystallized from isotopically distinct magma batches that were generated by remelting of subcaldera silicic rocks previously altered by low-δ18O meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Prior to eruption these magma batches were assembled and homogenized into a single voluminous reservoir. U-Pb geochronology of isotopically diverse zircons using chemical abrasion–isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry yielded indistinguishable crystallization ages with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 4.4876 ± 0.0023 Ma (MSWD = 1.5; n = 24). These zircon crystallization ages are also indistinguishable from the sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dates, and thus zircons crystallized close to eruption. This requires that shallow crustal melting, assembly of isolated batches into a supervolcanic magma reservoir, homogenization, and eruption occurred extremely rapidly, within the resolution of our geochronology (103–104 yr). The crystal-scale image of the reservoir configuration, with several isolated magma batches, is very similar to the
Josephine A Reinhardt
Full Text Available How non-coding DNA gives rise to new protein-coding genes (de novo genes is not well understood. Recent work has revealed the origins and functions of a few de novo genes, but common principles governing the evolution or biological roles of these genes are unknown. To better define these principles, we performed a parallel analysis of the evolution and function of six putatively protein-coding de novo genes described in Drosophila melanogaster. Reconstruction of the transcriptional history of de novo genes shows that two de novo genes emerged from novel long non-coding RNAs that arose at least 5 MY prior to evolution of an open reading frame. In contrast, four other de novo genes evolved a translated open reading frame and transcription within the same evolutionary interval suggesting that nascent open reading frames (proto-ORFs, while not required, can contribute to the emergence of a new de novo gene. However, none of the genes arose from proto-ORFs that existed long before expression evolved. Sequence and structural evolution of de novo genes was rapid compared to nearby genes and the structural complexity of de novo genes steadily increases over evolutionary time. Despite the fact that these genes are transcribed at a higher level in males than females, and are most strongly expressed in testes, RNAi experiments show that most of these genes are essential in both sexes during metamorphosis. This lethality suggests that protein coding de novo genes in Drosophila quickly become functionally important.
Patient with rapidly evolving neurological disease with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Lewy body dementia, chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma.
Vita, Maria Gabriella; Tiple, Dorina; Bizzarro, Alessandra; Ladogana, Anna; Colaizzo, Elisa; Capellari, Sabina; Rossi, Marcello; Parchi, Piero; Masullo, Carlo; Pocchiari, Maurizio
We report a case of rapidly evolving neurological disease in a patient with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma. The coexistence of severe multiple pathologies in a single patient strengthens the need to perform accurate clinical differential diagnoses in rapidly progressive dementias. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.
Müller, Kai F; Borsch, Thomas; Hilu, Khidir W
The prevailing view in molecular systematics is that relationships among distantly related taxa should be inferred using DNA segments with low rates of evolution. However, recent analyses of sequences from the rapidly evolving matK and trnT-trnF regions yielded well resolved and highly supported trees for early diverging angiosperms. We compare here the phylogenetic structure in matK, trnT-F, and rbcL datasets for the same 42, primarily basal angiosperm taxa. Phylogenetic trees based on matK or trnT-F are far more robust than those based on rbcL. Combined analysis of the rapidly evolving regions provides support for higher-level relationships stronger than that derived from analyses of multi-gene datasets of up to several fold the number of characters analyzed here. In addition to displaying a higher percentage of parsimony-informative characters, the average phylogenetic signal per informative character is significantly higher in the datasets from rapidly evolving DNA than in the more slowly evolving rbcL, as detected using resampling of identical numbers of parsimony-informative characters from the data matrices and subjecting different statistics for overall tree robustness and phylogenetic signal to significance tests. Automated via a set of scripts, the method used here should be easily extendable to comparisons of a broader range of genomic regions for varying taxon samplings. The relative performance of markers correlates not only with a lower mean homoplasy in matK and trnT-trnF compared to rbcL, but in particular correlates negatively with the percentage of sites exhibiting maximum or close to maximum homoplasy. A likelihood ratio test confirms that the rapidly evolving gene matK evolves significantly closer to neutrality, which may be one of the underlying factors for lower levels of overall homoplasy. Our results are in line with evidence from simulation studies suggesting that the deleterious effect of multiple hits in using rapidly evolving DNA at
Chan, Martin C. W.; Lee, Nelson; Hung, Tin-Nok; Kwok, Kirsty; Cheung, Kelton; Tin, Edith K. Y.; Lai, Raymond W. M.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Leung, Ting F.; Chan, Paul K. S.
Norovirus genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) has been the predominant cause of viral gastroenteritis since 1996. Here we show that during the winter of 2014–2015, an emergent variant of a previously rare norovirus GII.17 genotype, Kawasaki 2014, predominated in Hong Kong and outcompeted contemporary GII.4 Sydney 2012 in hospitalized cases. GII.17 cases were significantly older than GII.4 cases. Root-to-tip and Bayesian BEAST analyses estimate GII.17 viral protein 1 (VP1) evolves one order of magnitude faster than GII.4 VP1. Residue substitutions and insertion occur in four of five inferred antigenic epitopes, suggesting immune evasion. Sequential GII.4-GII.17 infections are noted, implicating a lack of cross-protection. Virus bound to saliva of secretor histo-blood groups A, B and O, indicating broad susceptibility. This fast-evolving, broadly recognizing and probably immune-escaped emergent GII.17 variant causes severe gastroenteritis and hospitalization across all age groups, including populations who were previously less vulnerable to GII.4 variants; therefore, the global spread of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 needs to be monitored. PMID:26625712
Aguileta, Gabriela; Refrégier, Guislaine; Yockteng, Roxana; Fournier, Elisabeth; Giraud, Tatiana
The ongoing coevolutionary struggle between hosts and pathogens, with hosts evolving to escape pathogen infection and pathogens evolving to escape host defences, can generate an 'arms race', i.e., the occurrence of recurrent selective sweeps that each favours a novel resistance or virulence allele that goes to fixation. Host-pathogen coevolution can alternatively lead to a 'trench warfare', i.e., balancing selection, maintaining certain alleles at loci involved in host-pathogen recognition over long time scales. Recently, technological and methodological progress has enabled detection of footprints of selection directly on genes, which can provide useful insights into the processes of coevolution. This knowledge can also have practical applications, for instance development of vaccines or drugs. Here we review the methods for detecting genes under positive selection using divergence data (i.e., the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates, d(N)/d(S)). We also review methods for detecting selection using polymorphisms, such as methods based on F(ST) measures, frequency spectrum, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure. In the second part, we review examples where targets of selection have been identified in pathogens using these tests. Genes under positive selection in pathogens have mostly been sought among viruses, bacteria and protists, because of their paramount importance for human health. Another focus is on fungal pathogens owing to their agronomic importance. We finally discuss promising directions in pathogen studies, such as detecting selection in non-coding regions.
Lo, Cheng-Hsiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chung, Ping-Ying; Kao, Woei-Yau
Paraneoplastic eosinophilia is an unusual manifestation that usually remains asymptomatic. In this report, we presented the case of an 82-year-old patient with poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma and asymptomatic eosinophilia. The patient's condition worsened rapidly over a week, with episodes of cognitive disturbance, shortness of breath and acute kidney dysfunction. These symptoms were associated with a 4-fold increase in circulating eosinophil counts. The poor condition hindered further anticancer treatment. Treatment of the eosinophilia with corticosteroids and hydroxyurea significantly reduced circulating eosinophil counts to below the initial levels. Results of this case report suggested that lung cancer patients should be monitored closely for rapidly worsening symptoms of cognitive disturbance and respiratory insufficiency as signs of life-threatening asymptomatic eosinophilia, in order to initiate corticosteroid treatment.
We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.
""If we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things-using data they gathered without any help from us-we would be able to track and count everything, and greatly reduce waste, loss, and cost. We would know when things needed replacing, repairing or recalling, and whether they were fresh or past their best. The Internet of Things has the potential to change the world, just as the Internet did. Maybe even more so.""-Kevin Ashton, originator of the term, Internet of Things An examination of the concept and unimagined potential unleashed by the Internet of Things (IoT) with
Christina M Laukaitis
Full Text Available Two decades ago, we developed a congenic strain of Mus musculus, called b-congenic, by replacing the androgen-binding protein Abpa27(a allele in the C3H/HeJ genome with the Abpa27(b allele from DBA/2J. We and other researchers used this b-congenic strain and its C3H counterpart, the a-congenic strain, to test the hypothesis that, given the choice between signals from two strains with different a27 alleles on the same genetic background, test subjects would prefer the homosubspecific one. It was our purpose in undertaking this study to characterize the segment transferred from DBA to the C3H background in producing the b-congenic strain on which a role for ABPA27 in behavior has been predicated. We determined the size of the chromosome 7 segment transferred from DBA and the genes it contains that might influence preference. We found that the "functional" DBA segment is about 1% the size of the mouse haploid genome and contains at least 29 genes expressed in salivary glands, however, only three of these encode proteins identified in the mouse salivary proteome. At least two of the three genes Abpa27, Abpbg26 and Abpbg27 encoding the subunits of androgen-binding protein ABP dimers evolved under positive selection and the third one may have also. In the sense that they are subunits of the same two functional entities, the ABP dimers, we propose that their evolutionary histories might not be independent of each other.
Full Text Available The speciation of pathogens can be driven by divergent host specialization. Specialization to a new host is possible via the acquisition of advantageous mutations fixed by positive selection. Comparative genome analyses of closely related species allows for the identification of such key substitutions via inference of genome-wide signatures of positive selection. We previously used a comparative genomics framework to identify genes that have evolved under positive selection during speciation of the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici (synonym Mycosphaerella graminicola. In this study, we conducted functional analyses of four genes exhibiting strong signatures of positive selection in Z. tritici. We deleted the four genes in Z. tritici and confirm a virulence-related role of three of the four genes ΔZt80707, ΔZt89160 and ΔZt103264. The two mutants ΔZt80707 and ΔZt103264 show a significant reduction in virulence during infection of wheat; the ΔZt89160 mutant causes a hypervirulent phenotype in wheat. Mutant phenotypes of ΔZt80707, ΔZt89160 and ΔZt103264 can be restored by insertion of the wild-type genes. However, the insertion of the Zt80707 and Zt89160 orthologs from Z. pseudotritici and Z. ardabiliae do not restore wild-type levels of virulence, suggesting that positively selected substitutions in Z. tritici may relate to divergent host specialization. Interestingly, the gene Zt80707 encodes also a secretion signal that targets the protein for cell secretion. This secretion signal is however only transcribed in Z. tritici, suggesting that Z. tritici-specific substitutions relate to a new function of the protein in the extracellular space of the wheat-Z. tritici interaction. Together, the results presented here highlight that Zt80707, Zt103264 and Zt89160 represent key genes involved in virulence and host-specific disease development of Z. tritici. Our findings illustrate that evolutionary predictions provide a powerful tool
Human exposure to wheat and milk is almost global worldwide. Yet the introduction of milk and wheat is very recent (5000-10 000 years) when compared to the human evolution. The last 4 decades have seen a rise in food allergy and food intolerance to milk and wheat. Often described as plurifactorial, the cause of allergic diseases is the result from an interplay between genetic predisposition and epigenetic in the context of environmental changes. Genetic and epigenetic understanding and their contribution to allergy or other antigen-driven diseases have considerably advanced in the last few years. Yet, environmental factors are also quite difficult to identify and associate with disease risk. Can we rethink our old findings and learn from human history and recent genetic studies? More than one million years separate Homo habilis to today's mankind, more than 1 million years to develop abilities to obtain food by foraging in diverse environments. One million year to adjust and fine-tune our genetic code and adapt; and only 1% of this time, 10 000 years, to face the three biggest revolutions of the human kind: the agricultural revolution, the industrial revolution and the postindustrial revolution. With big and rapid environmental changes come adaptation but with no time for fine-tuning. Today tolerance and adverse reactions to food may be a testimony of adaptation successes and mistakes.
Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of the physical and behavioral traits that separate humans from other primates is a challenging but intriguing topic. The adaptive functions of the expansion and/or reduction in human brain size have long been explored. From a brain transcriptome project we have identified a KRAB-Zn finger protein-encoding gene (M003-A06 that has rapidly evolved since the human-chimpanzee separation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of different human tissues indicates that M003-A06 expression is enriched in the human fetal brain in addition to the fetal heart. Furthermore, analysis with use of immunofluorescence staining, neurosphere culturing and Western blotting indicates that the mouse ortholog of M003-A06, Zfp568, is expressed mainly in the embryonic stem (ES cells and fetal as well as adult neural stem cells (NSCs. Conditional gene knockout experiments in mice demonstrates that Zfp568 is both an NSC maintaining- and a brain size-regulating gene. Significantly, molecular genetic analyses show that human M003-A06 consists of 2 equilibrated allelic types, H and C, one of which (H is human-specific. Combined contemporary genotyping and database mining have revealed interesting genetic associations between the different genotypes of M003-A06 and the human head sizes. We propose that M003-A06 is likely one of the genes contributing to the uniqueness of the human brain in comparison to other higher primates.
Mariotti, Paolo; Quaranta, Davide; Di Giacopo, Raffaella; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Mazza, Marianna; Martini, Annalisa; Canestri, Jorge; Della Marca, Giacomo
Study Objectives: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a parasomnia characterized by motor activity during sleep with dream mentation. Aggressiveness has been considered a peculiar feature of dreams associated with RBD, despite normal score in aggressiveness scales during wakefulness. We aimed to measure daytime aggressiveness and analyze dream contents in a population of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) with and without RBD. Design: This is a single-center prospective observational study; it concerns the description of the clinical features of a medical disorder in a case series. Setting: The study was performed in the Department of Neurosciences of the Catholic University in Rome, Italy. Patients: Three groups of subjects were enrolled: patients with PD plus RBD, patients with PD without RBD, and healthy controls. Interventions: The diagnosis of RBD was determined clinically and confirmed by means of overnight, laboratory-based video-polysomnography. For the evaluation of diurnal aggressiveness, the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ) was used. The content of dreams was evaluated by means of the methods of Hall and Van De Castle. Measurements and Results: Patients with PD without RBD displayed higher levels of anger, and verbal and physical aggressiveness than patients with PD and RBD and controls. Patients with PD and RBD and controls did not differ in hostility. Conclusions: It can be hypothesized that a noradrenergic impairment at the level of the locus coeruleus could, at the same time, explain the presence of REM sleep behavior disorder, as well as the reduction of diurnal aggressiveness. This finding also suggests a role for REM sleep in regulating homeostasis of emotional brain function. Citation: Mariotti P, Quaranta D, Di Giacopo R, Bentivoglio AR, Mazza M, Martini A, Canestri J, Della Marca G. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a window on the emotional world of Parkinson disease. SLEEP 2015;38(2):287–294. PMID:25325501
Jenkyns, Hugh C
The best-documented example of rapid climate change that characterized the so-called 'greenhouse world' took place at the time of the Palaeocene-Eocene boundary: introduction of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, accompanied by global warming of 5-8 degrees C across a range of latitudes, took place over a few thousand years. Dissociation, release and oxidation of gas hydrates from continental-margin sites and the consequent rapid global warming from the input of greenhouses gases are generally credited with causing the abrupt negative excursions in carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios. The isotopic anomalies, as recorded in foraminifera, propagated downwards from the shallowest levels of the ocean, implying that considerable quantities of methane survived upward transit through the water column to oxidize in the atmosphere. In the Mesozoic Era, a number of similar events have been recognized, of which those at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in the early Toarcian (Jurassic) and in the early Aptian (Cretaceous) currently carry the best documentation for dramatic rises in temperature. In these three examples, and in other less well-documented cases, the lack of a definitive time-scale for the intervals in question hinders calculation of the rate of environmental change. However, comparison with the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) suggests that these older examples could have been similarly rapid. In both the early Toarcian and early Aptian cases, the negative carbon-isotope excursion precedes global excess carbon burial across a range of marine environments, a phenomenon that defines these intervals as oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). Osmium-isotope ratios ((187)Os/(188)Os) for both the early Toarcian OAE and the PETM show an excursion to more radiogenic values, demonstrating an increase in weathering and erosion of continental crust consonant with elevated temperatures. The more highly buffered strontium-isotope system ((87)Sr/(86)Sr
Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang
Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.
Allsup, Randall Everett
This essay examines the shift toward a globally interdependent world, starting with the ontological premise that thinking, identity and action are subsumed by culture. The author explores the view that globalism, with its break from modernist constraints, may enable liberation. The post-Soviet borderless economy implies a shift of rule and a new…
Bailey, Patrick A.; Doehr, Brett B.
The knowledge engineering and rapid prototyping phases of an expert system that does fault handling for a Solid Amine, Water Desorbed CO2 removal assembly for the Environmental Control and Life Support System for space based platforms are addressed. The knowledge acquisition phase for this project was interesting because it could not follow the textbook examples. As a result of this, a variety of methods were used during the knowledge acquisition task. The use of rapid prototyping and the need for a flexible prototype suggested certain types of knowledge representation. By combining various techniques, a representative subset of faults and a method for handling those faults was achieved. The experiences should prove useful for developing future fault handling expert systems under similar constraints.
Miguel A Fortuna
Full Text Available "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" . Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism. Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved.
Fraga, Jorge; Veland, Nicolas; Montalvo, Ana M; Praet, Nicolas; Boggild, Andrea K; Valencia, Braulio M; Arévalo, Jorge; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Van der Auwera, Gert
The heat-shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) has been exploited for Leishmania species identification in the Old and New World, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Three new Leishmania-specific hsp70 PCRs were recently described, and we applied 2 of these on 89 clinical samples from a total of 73 Peruvian patients with either cutaneous or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The new PCRs on average showed a 2- to 3-fold improved sensitivity in the tested sample types (lesion biopsies, aspirates, and scrapings), for both genus detection and species typing, and were most successful in biopsies. Leishmania braziliensis, L. peruviana, and L. guyanensis were encountered. About one third of the L. braziliensis parasites contained 2 hsp70 alleles. This study is a paradigm for the implementation of a globally applicable upgraded tool for the identification of Leishmania directly on human specimens from cutaneous and mucocutaneous lesions in the New World. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Chomicki, Guillaume; Condamine, Fabien L; Karremans, Adam P; Bogarín, Diego; Matzke, Nicholas J; Silvestro, Daniele; Antonelli, Alexandre
The Andean mountains of South America are the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets. We find that the majority of Andean orchid lineages only originated in the last 20-15 million yr. Andean lineages are derived from lowland Amazonian ancestors, with additional contributions from Central America and the Antilles. Species diversification is correlated with Andean orogeny, and multiple migrations and recolonizations across the Andes indicate that mountains do not constrain orchid dispersal over long timescales. Our study sheds new light on the timing and geography of a major Neotropical diversification, and suggests that mountain uplift promotes species diversification across all elevational zones. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.
Kosta, Charles Paul; Krolak, Patrick D.
On-going work into user requirements analysis using CLIPS (NASA/JSC) expert systems as an intelligent event simulator has led to research into three-dimensional (3D) interfaces. Previous work involved CLIPS and two-dimensional (2D) models. Integral to this work was the development of the University of Massachusetts Lowell parallel version of CLIPS, called PCLIPS. This allowed us to create both a Software Bus and a group problem-solving environment for expert systems development. By shifting the PCLIPS paradigm to use the VEOS messaging protocol we have merged VEOS (HlTL/Seattle) and CLIPS into a distributed virtual worlds prototyping environment (VCLIPS). VCLIPS uses the VEOS protocol layer to allow multiple experts to cooperate on a single problem. We have begun to look at the control of a virtual factory. In the virtual factory there are actors and objects as found in our Lincoln Logs Factory of the Future project. In this artificial reality architecture there are three VCLIPS entities in action. One entity is responsible for display and user events in the 3D virtual world. Another is responsible for either simulating the virtual factory or communicating with the real factory. The third is a user interface expert. The interface expert maps user input levels, within the current prototype, to control information for the factory. The interface to the virtual factory is based on a camera paradigm. The graphics subsystem generates camera views of the factory on standard X-Window displays. The camera allows for view control and object control. Control or the factory is accomplished by the user reaching into the camera views to perform object interactions. All communication between the separate CLIPS expert systems is done through VEOS.
Crow, James F
Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy
Arnold, Suzanne N; Steneck, Robert S
Free space is necessary for larval recruitment in all marine benthic communities. Settling corals, with limited energy to invest in competitive interactions, are particularly vulnerable during settlement into well-developed coral reef communities. This situation may be exacerbated for corals settling into coral-depauperate reefs where succession in nursery microhabitats moves rapidly toward heterotrophic organisms inhospitable to settling corals. To study effects of benthic organisms (at millimeter to centimeter scales) on newly settled corals and their survivorship we deployed terra-cotta coral settlement plates at 10 m depth on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef in Belize and monitored them for 38 mo. During the second and third years, annual recruitment rates declined by over 50% from the previous year. Invertebrate crusts (primarily sponges) were absent at the start of the experiment but increased in abundance annually from 39, 60, to 73% of the plate undersides by year three. Subsequently, substrates hospitable to coral recruitment, including crustose coralline algae, biofilmed terra-cotta and polychaete tubes, declined. With succession, substrates upon which spat settled shifted toward organisms inimical to survivorship. Over 50% of spat mortality was due to overgrowth by sponges alone. This result suggests that when a disturbance creates primary substrate a "recruitment window" for settling corals exists from approximately 9 to 14 mo following the disturbance. During the window, early-succession, facilitating species are most abundant. The window closes as organisms hostile to coral settlement and survivorship overgrow nursery microhabitats.
Suzanne N Arnold
Full Text Available Free space is necessary for larval recruitment in all marine benthic communities. Settling corals, with limited energy to invest in competitive interactions, are particularly vulnerable during settlement into well-developed coral reef communities. This situation may be exacerbated for corals settling into coral-depauperate reefs where succession in nursery microhabitats moves rapidly toward heterotrophic organisms inhospitable to settling corals. To study effects of benthic organisms (at millimeter to centimeter scales on newly settled corals and their survivorship we deployed terra-cotta coral settlement plates at 10 m depth on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef in Belize and monitored them for 38 mo. During the second and third years, annual recruitment rates declined by over 50% from the previous year. Invertebrate crusts (primarily sponges were absent at the start of the experiment but increased in abundance annually from 39, 60, to 73% of the plate undersides by year three. Subsequently, substrates hospitable to coral recruitment, including crustose coralline algae, biofilmed terra-cotta and polychaete tubes, declined. With succession, substrates upon which spat settled shifted toward organisms inimical to survivorship. Over 50% of spat mortality was due to overgrowth by sponges alone. This result suggests that when a disturbance creates primary substrate a "recruitment window" for settling corals exists from approximately 9 to 14 mo following the disturbance. During the window, early-succession, facilitating species are most abundant. The window closes as organisms hostile to coral settlement and survivorship overgrow nursery microhabitats.
Ramsey, Justin; Robertson, Alexander; Husband, Brian
Adaptive evolution is often associated with speciation. In plants, however, ecotypic differentiation is common within widespread species, suggesting that climatic and edaphic specialization can outpace cladogenesis and the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. We used cpDNA sequence (5 noncoding regions, 3.5 kb) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs: 4 primer pairs, 1,013 loci) to evaluate the history of ecological differentiation in the North American Achillea millefolium, an autopolyploid complex of "ecological races" exhibiting morphological, physiological, and life-history adaptations to diverse environments. Phylogenetic analyses reveal North American A. millefolium to be a monophyletic group distinct from its European and Asian relatives. Based on patterns of sequence divergence, as well as fossil and paleoecological data, colonization of North America appears to have occurred via the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene (1.8 MYA to 11,500 years ago). Population genetic analyses indicate negligible structure within North American A. millefolium associated with varietal identity, geographic distribution, or ploidy level. North American populations, moreover, exhibit the signature of demographic expansion. These results affirm the "ecotype" concept of the North American Achillea advocated by classical research and demonstrate the rapid rate of ecological differentiation that sometimes occurs in plants.
Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003
Hallett, Christine; Wagner, Lis
HALLETT C and WAGNER L. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 359-368 Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003 The World Health Organisat......HALLETT C and WAGNER L. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 359-368 Promoting the health of Europeans in a rapidly changing world: a historical study of the implementation of World Health Organisation policies by the Nursing and Midwifery Unit, European Regional Office, 1970-2003 The World Health...... Organisation (WHO) was inaugurated in 1948. Formed in a period of post-war devastation, WHO aimed to develop and meet goals that would rebuild the health of shattered populations. The historical study reported here examined the work of the Nursing and Midwifery Unit (NMU) of WHO's European Regional Office...
Hope, K R
A priority task for developing countries is the formulation of national urbanization policies that: 1) foster the full development of national resources; 2) promote cohesion among regions, especially where there are striking inequities in per capita output; 3) prevent or correct the overconcentration of economic activity in a few urban centers; and 4) create a more efficient, equitable management of growth within cities. Although urban households tend to be served better by the health and educational sectors than their rural counterparts, the urban poor are denied these benefits in the absence of special programs to ensure universal access. The urban poor are further denied access to the benefits of urban centers through a transportation policy that is oriented more toward roads and cars than public transit systems. Of major concern are the overcrowded squatter settlements that have developed in response to massive rural-urban migration. Since the landlessness, joblessness, and demoralization in rural areas and the consequent urban influx are at the root of the urban crisis in the Third World, integrated rural development is essential to retain substantial new additions to the urban labor force in rural areas. Land reform is the single strategy with the greatest potential to improve the quality of life of the landless poor and small holders. Other needs include programs of labor-intensive rural public works to provide supplementary income-earning opportunities and improve the rural infrastructure and more widespread participation of the rural poor in the development process. Increasingly sophisticated administrative and financing systems will be required to carry out a national urbanization policy, and current politicized bureaucracies must be replaced by a reliance on technically skilled professional administrators.
Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath
Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.
Full Text Available Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae-a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC-trnV, trnR-atpA, ndhF-rpl32, psbM-trnD, and trnQ-rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters. Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid, Olea (asterids and Cymbidium (monocots showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF-rpl32 and trnK-rps16 were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations. Sequencing
Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.
Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216
Castillo-Ortiz, Jose Dionisio; de Jesus Valdivia-Nuno, Jose; Ramirez-Gomez, Andrea; Garagarza-Mariscal, Heber; Gallegos-Rios, Carlos; Flores-Hernandez, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Luis; Brambila-Barba, Victor; Castaneda-Sanchez, Jose Juan; Barajas-Ochoa, Zalathiel; Suarez-Rico, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jorge Manuel; Ramos-Remus, Cesar
The aim of this study was to assess the changes in the characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis information on the Internet over a 15-year period and the positioning of Web sites posted by universities, hospitals, and medical associations. We replicated the methods of a 2001 study assessing rheumatoid arthritis information on the Internet using WebCrawler. All Web sites and pages were critically assessed for relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication, and financial objectives. Differences between studies were considered significant if 95 % confidence intervals did not overlap. Additionally, we added a Google search with assessments of the quality of content of web pages and of the Web sites posted by medical institutions. There were significant differences between the present study's WebCrawler search and the 2001-referent study. There were increases in information sites (82 vs 36 %) and rheumatoid arthritis-specific discussion pages (59 vs 8 %), and decreases in advertisements (2 vs 48 %) and alternative therapies (27 vs 45 %). The quality of content of web pages is still dispersed; just 37 % were rated as good. Among the first 300 hits, 30 (10 %) were posted by medical institutions, 17 of them in the USA. Regarding readability, 7 % of these 30 web pages required 6 years, 27 % required 7-9 years, 27 % required 10-12 years, and 40 % required 12 or more years of schooling. The Internet has evolved in the last 15 years. Medical institutions are also better positioned. However, there are still areas for improvement, such as the quality of the content, leadership of medical institutions, and readability of information.
von Groote, Per M; Reinhardt, Jan D; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; DeLisa, Joel A; Melvin, John L; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Stucki, Gerold
International non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in official relation with the World Health Organization (WHO) face organizational challenges against the background of legitimate representation of their membership and accountable procedures within the organization. Moreover, challenges arise in the light of such an international NGO's civil societal mandate to help reach the "health-for-all" goals as defined by WHO and to facilitate the implementation of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The objective of this paper is to examine how such an international NGO using the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) as a case in point can address these challenges. The specific aims are to analyse ISPRM's structures and procedures of internal organs and external relations and to develop solutions. These possible solutions will be presented as internal organizational scenarios and a yearly schedule of meetings closely aligned to that of WHO to facilitate an efficient internal and external interaction.
Ball, Jeffrey [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Reicher, Dan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Sun, Xiaojing [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Pollock, Caitlin [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Solar power is undergoing a revolution. Over the past decade, an energy source as old as the planet and theoretically all but limitless has plummeted in cost and begun in some places to be harnessed in large volume. This dynamic is disrupting the modern energy system and, as energy disruptions always do, rattling the geopolitical order. In the process, the industry that produces the equipment to convert sunlight into electricity is simultaneously reeling, consolidating, and surging. These twin transformations—one of the global energy system, one of the global solar industry—carry profound implications for national economies and for the planet. At the center of both transformations sits China. The New Solar System illuminates key and little- understood changes that are remaking the solar enterprise—in China and thus in the world. Based on this analysis, it recommends changes in U.S. solar policy—particularly timely with a new U.S. administration and Congress—that would put solar power on a more economically sensible path toward environmentally significant growth. The New Solar System does not seek to enable any country to beat another in the global solar industry. It seeks instead to help all countries find their most effective places. By better understanding and playing to their comparative strengths in the solar business, countries would achieve two key objectives. They would reduce the cost for the world of scaling up solar power. And they would be better positioned to fashion policies that maximized the long-term benefit to their own economies from solar’s global growth.
Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.; Złoczewski, K.; Ratajczak, M.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Crain, J. A.; Foster, A. C.; Nysewander, M. C.; Lacluyze, A. P.
Aims: We present the results of our spectroscopic and photometric analysis of two newly discovered low-mass detached eclipsing binaries found in the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalogue: ASAS J093814-0104.4 and ASAS J212954-5620.1. Methods: Using the Grating Instrument for Radiation Analysis with a Fibre-Fed Echelle (GIRAFFE) on the 1.9-m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and the University College London Echelle Spectrograph (UCLES) on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope, we obtained high-resolution spectra of both objects and derived their radial velocities (RVs) at various orbital phases. The RVs of both objects were measured with the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique (TODCOR) using synthetic template spectra as references. We also obtained V and I band photometry using the 1.0-m Elizabeth telescope at SAAO and the 0.4-m Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT) located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The orbital and physical parameters of the systems were derived with PHOEBE and JKTEBOP codes. We compared our results with several sets of widely-used isochrones. Results: Our multi-epoch photometric observations demonstrate that both objects show significant out-of-eclipse modulations, which vary in time. We believe that this effect is caused by stellar spots, which evolve on time scales of tens of days. For this reason, we constructed our models on the basis of photometric observations spanning short time scales (less than a month). Our modeling indicates that (1) ASAS J093814-0104.04 is a main sequence active system with nearly-twin components with masses of M1 = 0.771 ± 0.033 M⊙, M2 = 0.768 ± 0.021 M⊙ and radii of R1 = 0.772 ± 0.012 R⊙ and R2 = 0.769 ± 0.013 R⊙. (2) ASAS J212954-5620.1 is a main sequence active binary with component masses of M1 = 0.833 ± 0.017 M⊙, M2 = 0.703 ± 0.013 M⊙ and radii of R1 = 0.845 ± 0.012 R⊙ and R2
Laney, C. M.
Making data easily accessible and actionable is critical in our drive to understand ecological drivers and responses in our rapidly changing world. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), operated by Battelle and sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is a continental-scale, long-term observation facility built specifically to meet such needs. By the end of construction at the end of 2017, NEON will be generating and synthesizing data from in situ instruments, field sampling, and airborne platforms covering 81 field sites across the U.S. A challenge of such observatories is not only to generate, quality-control, and synthesize enormous and high-resolution datasets, but to provide it freely to researchers in formats that are easy to understand and integrate with other datasets. Here, we present how NEON is preparing publication-ready data for ready reuse by a broad range of practitioners through numerous mechanisms: 1) developing a robust and intuitive data portal and public API, 2) collaborating with numerous partners to support and enrich standards to assure interoperability and reproducibility, and 3) providing training materials covering the key concepts and tools researchers may need to fully leverage NEON data. In addition, we will solicit feedback on NEON's current, in-design, and proposed data services and portal features in order to best serve the diverse research interests of a AGU's scientific community.
Cho, Moses A
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to assess utility of RapidEye imagery for predicting leaf nitrogen concentration and evaluate the effects of forest fragmentation on leaf nitrogen distribution in the Dukuduku forest, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Rapid...
Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)
An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.
Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin
The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.
Christopher J Graves
Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish
Dunkley Jones, T.; Bown, P. R.; Maslin, M. A.
Predicting the response of the calcareous phytoplankton to increased sea surface temperatures and ocean acidity has provoked extensive debate amongst biologists, oceanographers and micropaleontologists, with attention focusing on coccolithophore culture experiments and extreme climate events in the geological record such as the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). Less attention has been directed at understanding the long-term macroevolutionary response of coccolithophores to high pCO2 warm-climate states or to rapid cooling events in earth history. The Paleogene epoch encompasses many of the key intervals of Cenozoic coccolithophore evolution and is ideally suited to an assessment of both the long-term impact of a high pCO2 warm-climate state on coccolithophore macroevolution and the effects of the most significant rapid warming (PETM) and cooling events (Eocene/Oligocene Transition; EOT) of the Cenozoic. Here we present records of the coccolithophore response to both the PETM and EOT from the Kilwa Group calcareous microfossil Konservat-Lagerstätte of southern Tanzania. Through all the intervals studied the calcareous nannoplankton recovered from these sediments are more diverse than any previously documented sections of the same age and include many small and fragile taxa that are new to science. In the Tanzanian sections the onset of the PETM is marked by rapid and significant nannoplankton assemblage shifts and synchronous extinctions representing around 10% of the total diversity, indicative of a severe disruption of the photic zone environment. Nannofossil assemblage data across the EOT reveal a significant drop in diversity and the abundance of oligotrophic taxa directly coincident with global cooling, indicating a significant increase in nutrient availability in the low-latitude surface ocean. These two rapid climatic events bound the Eocene epoch and we discuss the connections between coccolithophore macroevolution and Eocene climate and the critical
Full Text Available For in-season site-specific nitrogen (N management of rice to be successful, it is crucially important to diagnose rice N status efficiently across large areas within a short time frame. In recent studies, the FORMOSAT-2 satellite images with traditional blue (B, green (G, red (R, and near-infrared (NIR wavebands have been used to estimate rice N status due to its high spatial resolution, daily revisit capability, and relatively lower cost. This study aimed to evaluate the potential improvements of RapidEye and WorldView-2 data over FORMOSAT-2 for rice N status monitoring, as the former two sensors provide additional wavelengths besides the traditional four wavebands. Ten site-year N rate experiments were conducted in Jiansanjiang, Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China from 2008 to 2011. Plant samples and field hyperspectral data were collected at three growth stages: panicle initiation (PI, stem elongation (SE, and heading (HE. The canopy-scale hyperspectral data were upscaled to simulate the satellite bands. Vegetation index (VI analysis, stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR, and partial least squares regression (PLSR were performed to derive plant N status indicators. The results indicated that the best-performed VIs calculated from the simulated RapidEye and WorldView-2 bands, especially those based on the red edge (RE bands, explained significantly more variability for above ground biomass (AGB, plant N uptake (PNU, and nitrogen nutrition index (NNI estimations than their FORMOSAT-2-based counterparts did, especially at the PI and SE stages. The SMLR and PLSR models based on the WorldView-2 bands generally had the best performance, followed by the ones based on the RapidEye bands. The SMLR results revealed that both the NIR and RE bands were important for N status estimation. In particular, the NIR1 band (760–900 nm from RapidEye or 770–895 nm from WorldView-2 was most important for estimating all the N status indicators. The RE
Li, Ruili; Xu, Hualin; Chai, Minwei; Qiu, Guo Yu
To investigate the influence of mangrove forest on heavy metal accumulation and storage in intertidal sediments, core sediments from natural mangrove, restored mangrove, and adjacent mud flat spanning the intertidal zone along the south coastline of the most heavily urbanized Deep bay, Guangdong province, China were analyzed. The average concentrations of mercury (Hg) in surface sediments of natural mangrove and restored mangrove were 172 and 151 ng g(-1), whereas those of copper (Cu) were 75 and 50 μg g(-1), respectively. Compared to those from other typical mangrove wetlands of the world, the metal levels in Shenzhen were at median to high levels, which is consistent with the fact that Shenzhen is in high exploitation and its mangrove suffer intensive impact from human activities. Hg and Cu concentration profiles indicated a higher metal accumulation in surface layers of sediments, in agreement with enrichment of organic matter contents. Maximum concentration, enrichment factors, and excess (background-deducted) concentration inventories of metals (Hg and Cu) were substantially different between environments, decreasing from natural mangrove sediments to restored mangrove sediments to mud flat. Furthermore, metal inputs to Futian mangrove decreased in the order natural mangrove > restored mangrove > mud flat, indicating that mangrove facilitated the accumulation and storage of Hg and Cu in sediment layers.
In principle, we can learn from history and from historical data how a hydrological system behaved in the past. But what can we learn about new situations? Can we predict with confidence how our natural systems will function under changing boundary conditions? If the answer to this question is negative, then how can we prepare future generation to deal with these issues? I think that we have to focus on understanding physical processes at scales where they demonstrate organised behaviour, or - to put it in other words - at scales were patterns emerge. In recent years we have seen how the reductionist approach is incapable of predicting uncertain situations. Instead, we will have to focus on recognising dominant behaviour and on modelling this behaviour in the simplest terms possible. This brings us to the question how we can identify and conceptualise dominant and secondary behaviour in connection to a changing environment and subject to changed forcing. What does this mean for education? I think we have to teach basic physics and basic physical principles and processes at plot scale, but also at the scale of hill slopes, watersheds and river basins. This has to be strongly intertwined with field work. Only in the field can students recognise the processes and the thresholds that need to be passed for certain processes to become active. Next, students should learn how to conceptualise the hydrological world within a rejectionist framework of hypothesis testing; how to develop and use diagnostics to test hypothesis; and, more importantly, how to develop and use creativity to generate new hypotheses, in dialogue with the experimentalist and field hydrologist. Finally there are issues related to process. Learning should consist largely of learning by doing: literature studies, field work, experiments, colloquia, exercises, presentations, paper writing, discussion groups. Lecturing should not be more than 50% of the contact time and should be interactive and meant to
Letícia B Rocha
Full Text Available Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC are human intestinal pathogens responsible for diarrhea in both developing and industrialized countries. In research laboratories, EPEC and EHEC are defined on the basis of their pathogenic features; nevertheless, their identification in routine laboratories is expensive and laborious. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to develop a rapid and simple assay for EPEC/EHEC detection. Accordingly, the EPEC/EHEC-secreted proteins EspA and EspB were chosen as target antigens.First, we investigated the ideal conditions for EspA/EspB production/secretion by ELISA in a collection of EPEC/EHEC strains after cultivating bacterial isolates in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM or DMEM containing 1% tryptone or HEp-2 cells-preconditioned DMEM, employing either anti-EspA/anti-EspB polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies developed and characterized herein. Subsequently, a rapid agglutination latex test (RALT was developed and tested with the same collection of bacterial isolates.EspB was defined as a biomarker and its corresponding monoclonal antibody as the tool for EPEC/EHEC diagnosis; the production of EspB was better in DMEM medium. RALT assay has the sensitivity and specificity required for high-impact diagnosis of neglected diseases in the developing world.RALT assay described herein can be considered an alternative assay for diarrhea diagnosis in low-income countries since it achieved 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97% efficiency.
A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a
International Energy Agency. Paris
The global energy landscape is evolving at a rapid pace, reshaping long-held expectations for our energy future. The 2014 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO) will incorporate all the latest data and developments to produce a comprehensive and authoritative analysis of medium- and longer-term energy trends. It will complement a full set of energy projections – which extend from today through, for the first time, the year 2040 – with strategic insights into their meaning for energy security, the economy and the environment. Oil, natural gas, coal, renewables and energy efficiency will be covered, along with updates on trends in energy-related CO2 emissions, fossil-fuel and renewable energy subsidies, and universal access to modern energy services.
Block, Michelle; Florczak, Kristine L
The column concerns itself with mentoring as an evolving relationship between mentor and mentee. The collegiate mentoring model, the transformational transcendence model, and the humanbecoming mentoring model are considered in light of a dialogue with mentors at a Midwest university and conclusions are drawn.
Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew
processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... understanding of evolutionary processes in diverse organisms, from viruses to vertebrates....
Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos
This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...
Curtis, Steven A.
The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.
Objective During the two decades following Japan's World War II surrender in 1945, tremendous improvement in the population's health was observed, particularly in infant mortality and life expectancy. How did Japanese rural dwellers achieve such remarkable health improvement during this relatively short time span while its economy remained heavily damaged following the war? While the efforts from government-driven public health strategies and programs are well known, relatively little is known about the contributions of policies in non-health sectors. Therefore, the main aim is to verify, using literature based sources, whether non-health sectors contributed to the betterment of the population's health in addition to the public health sector policies.Hypotheses Synergistic efforts of diverse interventions from different policies and programs likely catalyzed the drastic health improvement observed in the Japanese population in the two decades after World War II. The Ministry of Health and Welfare, for example, implemented programs to provide health care services. These are thought to have contributed directly to reducing maternal and child mortality, as well as tuberculosis-related mortality. Additionally, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry carried out a nationwide livelihood improvement program to enhance individual and family lifestyles, improve indoor and outdoor environments, and strengthen social solidarity. The ministry also attempted to generate income stability for farmers through an agricultural improvement program to ensure allocation of household income to family health. The Ministry of Education also had an initiative to disseminate the concepts of democracy and rational thought to the Japanese population through a social education program. Through these efforts, superstition and pre-modern customs were reduced, and subsequently health awareness increased, leading to an improvement in the population's health.Conclusion The public health
Angelov, Plamen; Kasabov, Nik
From theory to techniques, the first all-in-one resource for EIS. There is a clear demand in advanced process industries, defense, and Internet and communication (VoIP) applications for intelligent yet adaptive/evolving systems. Evolving Intelligent Systems is the first self- contained volume that covers this newly established concept in its entirety, from a systematic methodology to case studies to industrial applications. Featuring chapters written by leading world experts, it addresses the progress, trends, and major achievements in this emerging research field, with a strong emphasis on th
Lenters, J. D.; Read, J. S.; Sharma, S.; O'Reilly, C.; Hampton, S. E.; Gray, D.; McIntyre, P. B.; Hook, S. J.; Schneider, P.; Soylu, M. E.; Barabás, N.; Lofton, D. D.
Global and regional changes in climate have important implications for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Recent studies, for example, have revealed significant warming of inland water bodies throughout the world. To better understand the global patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological implications of lake warming, an initiative known as the "Global Lake Temperature Collaboration" (GLTC) was started in 2010, with the objective of compiling and analyzing lake temperature data from numerous satellite and in situ records dating back at least 20-30 years. The GLTC project has now assembled data from over 300 lakes, with some in situ records extending back more than 100 years. Here, we present an analysis of the long-term warming trends, interdecadal variability, and a direct comparison between in situ and remotely sensed lake surface temperature for the 3-month summer period July-September (January-March for some lakes). The overall results show consistent, long-term trends of increasing summer-mean lake surface temperature across most but not all sites. Lakes with especially long records show accelerated warming in the most recent two to three decades, with almost half of the lakes warming at rates in excess of 0.5 °C per decade during the period 1985-2009, and a few even exceeding 1.0 °C per decade. Both satellite and in situ data show a similar distribution of warming trends, and a direct comparison at lake sites that have both types of data reveals a close correspondence in mean summer water temperature, interannual variability, and long-term trends. Finally, we examine standardized lake surface temperature anomalies across the full 100-year period (1910-2009), and in conjunction with similar timeseries of air temperature. The results reveal a close correspondence between summer air temperature and lake surface temperature on interannual and interdecadal timescales, but with many lakes warming more rapidly than the ambient air temperature over 25- to 100
Calkins, Susanna; Kelley, Matthew R.
The authors describe an inquiry-based learning project that required students in a first-year world history course to reflect on and analyze critically the nature of the knowledge found in Wikipedia--the free, open-content, rapidly evolving, internet encyclopedia. Using a rubric, the authors explored students' perceptions of the collaborative and…
School Library Journal, 2011
The face of reading is changing, and it is happening at a much faster rate than most people had imagined. Where is it all going? What factors are driving the most significant developments? And what role do librarians play in this rapidly evolving world? These are some of the key questions that stakeholders--including educators, publishers,…
Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug
The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases
Mechanistic insight into the biochemistry of carbon–halogen bond cleavage is rapidly growing because of recent structural, biochemical and computational studies that have provided further insight into how haloalkane dehalogenases achieve their impressive catalytic activity. An occluded water-free
CERN news will now be regularly updated on the CERN People page (see here). Dear readers, All over the world, communication is becoming increasingly instantaneous, with news published in real time on websites and social networks. In order to keep pace with these changes, CERN's internal communication is evolving too. From now on, you will be informed of what’s happening at CERN more often via the “CERN people” page, which will frequently be updated with news. The Bulletin is following this trend too: twice a month, we will compile the most important articles published on the CERN site, with a brand-new layout. You will receive an e-mail every two weeks as soon as this new form of the Bulletin is available. If you have interesting news or stories to share, tell us about them through the form at: https://communications.web.cern.ch/got-story-cern-website. You can also find out about news from CERN in real time...
John R. Speakman
Work on obesity is evolving, and obesity is a consequence of our evolutionary history. In the space of 50 years, we have become an obese species. The reasons why can be addressed at a number of different levels. These include separating between whether the primary cause lies on the food intake or energy expenditure side of the energy balance equation, and determining how genetic and environmental effects contribute to weight variation between individuals. Opinion on whether increased food intake or decreased energy expenditure drives the obesity epidemic is still divided, but recent evidence favours the idea that food intake, rather than altered expenditure, is most important. There is more of a consensus that genetics explains most (probably around 65% of weight variation between individuals. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have identified many polymorphisms that are linked to obesity, yet much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. Finding the causes of this unexplained variation will be an impetus of genetic and epigenetic research on obesity over the next decade. Many environmental factors – including gut microbiota, stress and endocrine disruptors – have been linked to the risk of developing obesity. A better understanding of gene-by-environment interactions will also be key to understanding obesity in the years to come.
Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.
Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792
Sakai, Paulo; Faintuch, Joel
Since the days of Albukasim in medieval Spain, natural orifices have been regarded not only as a rather repugnant source of bodily odors, fluids and excreta, but also as a convenient invitation to explore and treat the inner passages of the organism. However, surgical ingenuity needed to be matched by appropriate tools and devices. Lack of technologically advanced instrumentation was a strong deterrent during almost a millennium until recent decades when a quantum jump materialized. Endoscopic surgery is currently a vibrant and growing subspecialty, which successfully handles millions of patients every year. Additional opportunities lie ahead which might benefit millions more, however, requiring even more sophisticated apparatuses, particularly in the field of robotics, artificial intelligence, and tissue repair (surgical suturing). This is a particularly exciting and worthwhile challenge, namely of larger and safer endoscopic interventions, followed by seamless and scarless recovery. In synthesis, the future is widely open for those who use together intelligence and creativity to develop new prototypes, new accessories and new techniques. Yet there are many challenges in the path of endoscopic surgery. In this new era of robotic endoscopy, one will likely need a virtual simulator to train and assess the performance of younger doctors. More evidence will be essential in multiple evolving fields, particularly to elucidate whether more ambitious and complex pathways, such as intrathoracic and intraperitoneal surgery via natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), are superior or not to conventional techniques. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Coulomb, S.; Bauer, M.
We generalize the Poissonian evolving random graph model of M. Bauer and D. Bernard (2003), to deal with arbitrary degree distributions. The motivation comes from biological networks, which are well-known to exhibit non Poissonian degree distributions. A node is added at each time step and is connected to the rest of the graph by oriented edges emerging from older nodes. This leads to a statistical asymmetry between incoming and outgoing edges. The law for the number of new edges at each time step is fixed but arbitrary. Thermodynamical behavior is expected when this law has a large time limit. Although (by construction) the incoming degree distributions depend on this law, this is not the case for most qualitative features concerning the size distribution of connected components, as long as the law has a finite variance. As the variance grows above 1/4, the average being < 1/2, a giant component emerges, which connects a finite fraction of the vertices. Below this threshold, the distribution of component sizes decreases algebraically with a continuously varying exponent. The transition is of infinite order, in sharp contrast with the case of static graphs. The local-in-time profiles for the components of finite size allow to give a refined description of the system.
Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.
Fleury, Jules; Brunier, Guillaume; Michaud, Emma; Anthony, Edward; Dussouillez, Philippe; Morvan, Sylvain
Mud banks are the loci of rich bio-geo-chemical processes occuring rapidly at infra-tide frequency. Their surface topography is commonly affected by many of these processes, including bioturbation, water drainage or dessication. Quantifying surface morphology and changes on a mud bank at the micro-scale is a challenging task due to a number of issues. First, the water-saturated nature of the soil makes it difficult to measure High Resolution Topography (HRT) with classical methods. Second, setting up an instrumented experiment without disrupting the signal being studied is hardly achieved at micro-scale. Finally, the highly mobile nature of this environment enhancing strong spatio-temporal heterogeneity is hard to capture. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and SfM (Surface from Motion)-Photogrammetry are two techniques that enable mapping of micro-scale features, but the first technique is not suitable because of the poor quality of the backscattered laser signal on wet surfaces and the need to set up several measuring stations on a complex, unstable substrate. Thus, we set up an experiment to assess the feasibility and the accuracy of SfM in such a context. We took the opportunity of the installation of a pontoon dedicated to the study of bio-geochemical processes within benthic mesocosms installed on a mud bank inhabited by pioneer mangroves trees to develop an adapted photogrammetry protocol based on a full-frame remotely triggered camera sensor mounted on a pole. The incident light on the surface was also controlled with a light-diffusing device. We obtained sub-millimetric resolution 3D-topography and visible imagery. Surveys were carried out every 2 hours at low tide to detect surface changes due to water content variation as well as bioturbation mainly caused by crabs digging galleries and feeding on sediment surface. Both the qualitative and quantitative results seem very promising and lead us to expect new insights into heterogeneous surface processes on a
The aim of this paper is to analyze the possibility of having a world government, which world has been facing overarching changes since the end of Cold war, where bipolar world order has evolved into multipolar system through unipolarity. Analysis method in this paper have the sistematics: discussion of human nature and philosophical dimensions vis-à-vis individual, society and government, as well as society of societies; then briefly analyse globalization, the impact of individuals on inter...
de Roo, Gert; Yamu, Claudia
Spatial planning is currently being confronted with unprecedented change, which is taking place at the interface between traditional environments and the rapidly evolving virtual world (Axford et al. 2007, Sidhy and Doyle 2016, De Waal 2013). This situation provokes one of the most serious questions
Savenije, H.H.G.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Zaag, P.
This paper reviews the changing relation between human beings and water since the Industrial Revolution, a period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet during this time. We show how the rapidly changing world urges us to
Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others
Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…
Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.
The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.; Kurzban, R.; DeScioli, P.
Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and
Chaumont, Nicolas; Egli, Richard; Adami, Christoph
We present a system that can evolve the morphology and the controller of virtual walking and block-throwing creatures (catapults) using a genetic algorithm. The system is based on Sims' work, implemented as a flexible platform with an off-the-shelf dynamics engine. Experiments aimed at evolving Sims-type walkers resulted in the emergence of various realistic gaits while using fairly simple objective functions. Due to the flexibility of the system, drastically different morphologies and functions evolved with only minor modifications to the system and objective function. For example, various throwing techniques evolved when selecting for catapults that propel a block as far as possible. Among the strategies and morphologies evolved, we find the drop-kick strategy, as well as the systematic invention of the principle behind the wheel, when allowing mutations to the projectile.
Jawhar, Nazar M.T.
Tissue microarray is a recent innovation in the field of pathology. A microarray contains many small representative tissue samples from hundreds of different cases assembled on a single histologic slide, and therefore allows high throughput analysis of multiple specimens at the same time. Tissue microarrays are paraffin blocks produced by extracting cylindrical tissue cores from different paraffin donor blocks and re-embedding these into a single recipient (microarray) block at defined array coordinates. Using this technique, up to 1000 or more tissue samples can be arrayed into a single paraffin block. It can permit simultaneous analysis of molecular targets at the DNA, mRNA, and protein levels under identical, standardized conditions on a single glass slide, and also provide maximal preservation and use of limited and irreplaceable archival tissue samples. This versatile technique, in which data analysis is automated facilitates retrospective and prospective human tissue studies. It is a practical and effective tool for high-throughput molecular analysis of tissues that is helping to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets in human cancers, and has a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery. This article summarizes the technical aspects of tissue microarray construction and sectioning, advantages, application, and limitations. PMID:19318744
Apr 15, 1997 ... The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. ... (1991), where they observed X-class flares near the sites of. EFR. Wang & Shi (1993) suggested that ... region using the USΟ video magnetograph (Mathew et al. 1998). The active region. 233 ...
Full Text Available Whole heart engineering represents an incredible journey with as final destination the challenging aim to solve end-stage cardiac failure with a biocompatible and living organ equivalent. Its evolution started in 2008 with rodent organs and is nowadays moving closer to clinical application thanks to scaling-up strategies to human hearts. This review will offer a comprehensive examination on the important stages to be reached for the bioengineering of the whole heart, by describing the approaches of organ decellularization, repopulation, and maturation so far applied and the novel technologies of potential interest. In addition, it will carefully address important demands that still need to be satisfied in order to move to a real clinical translation of the whole bioengineering heart concept.
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease – mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD is associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. In vitro and animal models suggest that phosphorous, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D abnormalities, mediate the cardiovascular and bone diseases that characterise CKD-MBD and increase the risk of death. Currently, mineral abnormalities are corrected through phosphorous restriction, phosphate binders, calcimimetics and vitamin D administration. Nonetheless, data in humans that support the use of these compounds are still scarce, mainly based on observational studies. Thus, a considerable number of doubts and questions still challenge clinicians dealing with CKD patients and mineral metabolism imbalances. We herein critically review clinical evidence that support the use of different drugs in CKD-MBD.
...2.4 Ga ago, but when the photosynthetic oxygen production began is debatable. However, geological and geochemical evidence from older sedimentary rocks indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before this oxygenation event...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...
The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,
The conference of 2012 had contributions on the following themes: A: World Pellets 2012, B: Market outlook, C: Energy systems, D: Transportation, E: World biorefinery 2012, F: Sustainable bioenergy day. 52 contributions in A - D. A: World Pellets 2012 is an integrated part of World Bioenergy 2012. A three day 'conference in the conference' covering all aspects of pellets: raw material potentials, innovative pellets production systems, torrefaction, new combustion technologies, trade and market development, health and safety aspects, etc. B) Market outlook: Policy and targets for renewable energy to find an alternative to fossil energy are being put in place, increasing the demand for sustainable modern bioenergy. Global trade and improved logistics open up to the markets. To facilitate international trade in bioenergy commodities, new trading places and indexes are needed, as well as generally accepted standards. Supply and demand must meet to guarantee stable prices. In this session you learn all about current market development, including drivers like incentives and policies. C) Energy Systems: Modern bioenergy is a young industry. Therefore, technical development is rapid, with many new innovations. This session focuses on technical development in the whole bioenergy chain, from harvesting of forest residues to combustion technologies and co-firing. Optimal use of biomass through district heating or cooling - small scale and large scale - and CHP technology for electricity production. D) Transportation: Sustainable transports are one of the key challenges of tomorrow. Can we transport biomass as well as other products sustainably and at what costs? Which are the future fuels for transports and when will biofuels be viewed as profitable? Biofuels for transport are under rapid development with new methods, producers and feedstock entering the markets. The future biofuels will be produced in biorefineries, to increase profitability and optimize feed
Valverde Mena, Bernal Eduardo; Boddy, Louis G.; Pedroso, Rafael M.
Cyperus difformis L. is one of the worst weeds of rice world-wide and has evolved resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in rice fields of California. Propanil use was intensified to control the widespread resistant biotypes. Rice growers have recently experienced poor co...
Kenett, Dror Y; Raddant, Matthias; Lux, Thomas; Ben-Jacob, Eshel
In the current era of strong worldwide market couplings the global financial village became highly prone to systemic collapses, events that can rapidly sweep throughout the entire village. We present a new methodology to assess and quantify inter-market relations. The approach is based on the correlations between the market index, the index volatility, the market Index Cohesive Force and the meta-correlations (correlations between the intra-correlations.) We investigated the relations between six important world markets--U.S., U.K., Germany, Japan, China and India--from January 2000 until December 2010. We found that while the developed "western" markets (U.S., U.K., Germany) are highly correlated, the interdependencies between these markets and the developing "eastern" markets (India and China) are volatile and with noticeable maxima at times of global world events. The Japanese market switches "identity"--it switches between periods of high meta-correlations with the "western" markets and periods when it behaves more similarly to the "eastern" markets. The methodological framework presented here provides a way to quantify the evolvement of interdependencies in the global market, evaluate a world financial network and quantify changes in the world inter market relations. Such changes can be used as precursors to the agitation of the global financial village. Hence, the new approach can help to develop a sensitive "financial seismograph" to detect early signs of global financial crises so they can be treated before they develop into worldwide events.
Full Text Available Here we show the use of the 210Pb-226Ra excess method to determine the growth rate of two corals from the world's largest known cold-water coral reef, Røst Reef, north of the Arctic circle off Norway. Colonies of each of the two species that build the reef, Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, were collected alive at 350 m depth using a submersible. Pb and Ra isotopes were measured along the major growth axis of both specimens using low level alpha and gamma spectrometry and trace element compositions were studied. 210Pb and 226Ra differ in the way they are incorporated into coral skeletons. Hence, to assess growth rates, we considered the exponential decrease of initially incorporated 210Pb, as well as the increase in 210Pb from the decay of 226Ra and contamination with 210Pb associated with Mn-Fe coatings that we were unable to remove completely from the oldest parts of the skeletons. 226Ra activity was similar in both coral species, so, assuming constant uptake of 210Pb through time, we used the 210Pb-226Ra chronology to calculate growth rates. The 45.5 cm long branch of M. oculata was 31 yr with an average linear growth rate of 14.4 ± 1.1 mm yr−1 (2.6 polyps per year. Despite cleaning, a correction for Mn-Fe oxide contamination was required for the oldest part of the colony; this correction corroborated our radiocarbon date of 40 yr and a mean growth rate of 2 polyps yr−1. This rate is similar to the one obtained in aquarium experiments under optimal growth conditions. For the 80 cm-long L. pertusa colony, metal-oxide contamination remained in both the middle and basal part of the coral skeleton despite cleaning, inhibiting similar age and growth rate estimates. The youngest part of the colony was free of metal oxides and this 15 cm section had an estimated a growth rate of 8 mm yr−1, with high uncertainty (~1 polyp every two to three years. We are less certain of this 210Pb growth rate estimate which is within the lowermost
Noting that new technologies are resulting in extensive changes in the field of photojournalism, both as it is practiced and taught, this Digest reviews this rapidly evolving field of education and professional practice. It discusses what digital photography is; the history of digital photography; how digital photography has changed…
Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.
The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications
Full Text Available Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems.
Mall, Raghvendra; Langone, Rocco; Suykens, Johan A. K.
Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems. PMID:26356538
Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...
The search and discovery mechanisms that will facilitate and simplify systematic research on the Internet depend on systematic classifications of resources, as well as on standardized access to such metadata. The principles and technologies that will make this possible are evolving in the work of the Internet Engineering Task Force and the digital library initiatives, among others. The desired outcome is a set of standards, tools, and practices that permits both cataloging and retrieval to be comprehensive and efficient.
Li, Yaliang; Li, Qi; Gao, Jing; Su, Lu; Zhao, Bo; Fan, Wei; Han, Jiawei
In the era of big data, information regarding the same objects can be collected from increasingly more sources. Unfortunately, there usually exist conflicts among the information coming from different sources. To tackle this challenge, truth discovery, i.e., to integrate multi-source noisy information by estimating the reliability of each source, has emerged as a hot topic. In many real world applications, however, the information may come sequentially, and as a consequence, the truth of objects as well as the reliability of sources may be dynamically evolving. Existing truth discovery methods, unfortunately, cannot handle such scenarios. To address this problem, we investigate the temporal relations among both object truths and source reliability, and propose an incremental truth discovery framework that can dynamically update object truths and source weights upon the arrival of new data. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the proposed method is guaranteed to converge at a fast rate. The experiments on three real world applications and a set of synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.
Foshat, Michelle; Boroumand, Nahal
- An explosion of information on pulmonary hypertension has occurred during the past few decades. The perception of this disease has shifted from purely clinical to incorporate new knowledge of the underlying pathology. This transfer has occurred in light of advancements in pathophysiology, histology, and molecular medical diagnostics. - To update readers about the evolving understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and to demonstrate how pathology has shaped the current classification. - Information presented at the 5 World Symposia on pulmonary hypertension held since 1973, with the last meeting occurring in 2013, was used in this review. - Pulmonary hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of disorders that are differentiated based on differences in clinical, hemodynamic, and histopathologic features. Early concepts of pulmonary hypertension were largely influenced by pharmacotherapy, hemodynamic function, and clinical presentation of the disease. The initial nomenclature for pulmonary hypertension segregated the clinical classifications from pathologic subtypes. Major restructuring of this disease classification occurred between the first and second symposia, which was the first to unite clinical and pathologic information in the categorization scheme. Additional changes were introduced in subsequent meetings, particularly between the third and fourth World Symposia meetings, when additional pathophysiologic information was gained. Discoveries in molecular diagnostics significantly progressed the understanding of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Continued advancements in imaging modalities, mechanistic pathogenicity, and molecular biomarkers will enable physicians to define pulmonary hypertension phenotypes based on the pathobiology and allow for treatment customization.
Harold J. Berman
Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.
Raman, Karthik; Wagner, Andreas
In biological systems, individual phenotypes are typically adopted by multiple genotypes. Examples include protein structure phenotypes, where each structure can be adopted by a myriad individual amino acid sequence genotypes. These genotypes form vast connected ‘neutral networks’ in genotype space. The size of such neutral networks endows biological systems not only with robustness to genetic change, but also with the ability to evolve a vast number of novel phenotypes that occur near any one neutral network. Whether technological systems can be designed to have similar properties is poorly understood. Here we ask this question for a class of programmable electronic circuits that compute digital logic functions. The functional flexibility of such circuits is important in many applications, including applications of evolutionary principles to circuit design. The functions they compute are at the heart of all digital computation. We explore a vast space of 1045 logic circuits (‘genotypes’) and 1019 logic functions (‘phenotypes’). We demonstrate that circuits that compute the same logic function are connected in large neutral networks that span circuit space. Their robustness or fault-tolerance varies very widely. The vicinity of each neutral network contains circuits with a broad range of novel functions. Two circuits computing different functions can usually be converted into one another via few changes in their architecture. These observations show that properties important for the evolvability of biological systems exist in a commercially important class of electronic circuitry. They also point to generic ways to generate fault-tolerant, adaptable and evolvable electronic circuitry. PMID:20534598
Buratti, Bonnie J.
Introduction; 1. Mercury: the hottest little place; 2. Venus: an even hotter place; 3. Mars: the abode of life?; 4. Asteroids and comets: sweat the small stuff; 5. Galileo's treasures: worlds of fire and ice; 6. Enceladus: an active iceball in space; 7. Titan: an Earth in deep freeze?; 8. Iapetus and its friends: the weirdest 'planets' in the Solar System; 9. Pluto: the first view of the 'third zone'; 10. Earths above: the search for exoplanets and life in the universe; Epilogue; Glossary; Acknowledgements; Index.
Hunter, M J
Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.
Full Text Available AbstractBackground: We employed a highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP by targeting 18S rRNA gene to identify the rapid mass screening of Leishmania infections in captured sand flies of southwest Iran and In vitro culture. Methods: One hundred fifty sand flies were collected from 11 sites adjacent to Iraqi’s borders in southern parts of Khuzestan Province by using sticky sheets of paper and CDC miniature light traps during late May 2014 to Nov 2015. Following morphological identification of sand flies species, the DNA of infected samples was extracted and amplified by PCR and LAMP assays by targeting ITS-rDNA and 18S rRNA genes. The PCR amplicons were directly sequenced to conduct the phylogenetic analysis Results: Ten (6.6% Leishmania infections were identified by LAMP assay (detection limit 0.01 parasites DNA among infected Sergentomyia baghdadis, S. sintoni and Phlebotomus papatasi sand flies that was more sensitive than PCR (n=6.4%; (detection limit 101parasites DNA. LAMP can identify 101-106promastigotes/100 µl RPMI 1640 while PCR recognized104-106 promastigotes. The majority infection rate of sand flies was confirmed to L. major inferred by phylogenetic analysis. Conclusion: This is the first exploration characterized the Old World Leishmania infections by LAMP technique in both infected sand flies and In vitro conditions. The LAMP method because of its shorter reaction time, robustness, more sensitivity, lack of requirement of complicated equipment and visual discriminatory of positivity can be appeared a promising tool instead of PCR to identify low Leishmania loads and entomological monitoring of leishmaniasis in resource-limited endemic of the world.
F.E. Groffen (Fabian)
htmlabstractIn a world where data usage becomes more and more widespread, single system solutions are no longer adequate to meet the data requirements of today. No longer one monolithic system, but instead a group of smaller and cheaper ones have to manage the workload of the system, preferably
Vasas, Vera; Fernando, Chrisantha; Szilágyi, András; Zachár, István; Santos, Mauro; Szathmáry, Eörs
While it is generally agreed that some kind of replicating non-living compounds were the precursors of life, there is much debate over their possible chemical nature. Metabolism-first approaches propose that mutually catalytic sets of simple organic molecules could be capable of self-replication and rudimentary chemical evolution. In particular, the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, depicting assemblies of amphiphilic molecules, has received considerable interest. The system propagates compositional information across generations and is suggested to be a target of natural selection. However, evolutionary simulations indicate that the system lacks selectability (i.e. selection has negligible effect on the equilibrium concentrations). We elaborate on the lessons learnt from the example of the GARD model and, more widely, on the issue of evolvability, and discuss the implications for similar metabolism-first scenarios. We found that simple incorporation-type chemistry based on non-covalent bonds, as assumed in GARD, is unlikely to result in alternative autocatalytic cycles when catalytic interactions are randomly distributed. An even more serious problem stems from the lognormal distribution of catalytic factors, causing inherent kinetic instability of such loops, due to the dominance of efficiently catalyzed components that fail to return catalytic aid. Accordingly, the dynamics of the GARD model is dominated by strongly catalytic, but not auto-catalytic, molecules. Without effective autocatalysis, stable hereditary propagation is not possible. Many repetitions and different scaling of the model come to no rescue. Despite all attempts to show the contrary, the GARD model is not evolvable, in contrast to reflexively autocatalytic networks, complemented by rare uncatalyzed reactions and compartmentation. The latter networks, resting on the creation and breakage of chemical bonds, can generate novel ('mutant') autocatalytic loops from a given set of
Wagner, Markus; Day, Jareth; Jordan, Diora; Kroeger, Trent; Neumann, Frank
Team pursuit track cycling is a bicycle racing sport held on velodromes and is part of the Summer Olympics. It involves the use of strategies to minimize the overall time that a team of cyclists needs to complete a race. We present an optimisation framework for team pursuit track cycling and show how to evolve strategies using metaheuristics for this interesting real-world problem. Our experimental results show that these heuristics lead to significantly better strategies than state-of-art st...
Today, there is an increasing need of data stream mining technology to discover important patterns on the fly. Existing data stream models and algorithms commonly assume that users\\' records or profiles in data streams will not be updated or revised once they arrive. Nevertheless, in various applications such asWeb usage, the records/profiles of the users can evolve along time. This kind of streaming data evolves in two forms, the streaming of tuples or transactions as in the case of traditional data streams, and more importantly, the evolving of user records/profiles inside the streams. Such data streams bring difficulties on modeling and clustering for exploring users\\' behaviors. In this paper, we propose three models to summarize this kind of data streams, which are the batch model, the Evolving Objects (EO) model and the Dynamic Data Stream (DDS) model. Through creating, updating and deleting user profiles, these models summarize the behaviors of each user as a profile object. Based upon these models, clustering algorithms are employed to discover interesting user groups from the profile objects. We have evaluated all the proposed models on a large real-world data set, showing that the DDS model summarizes the data streams with evolving tuples more efficiently and effectively, and provides better basis for clustering users than the other two models. © 2012 IEEE.
Turner, Michael J
Peripartum hysterectomy (PH) is one of the obstetric catastrophes. Evidence is emerging that the role of PH in modern obstetrics is evolving. Improving management of postpartum hemorrhage and newer surgical techniques should decrease PH for uterine atony. Rising levels of repeat elective cesarean deliveries should decrease PH following uterine scar rupture in labor. Increasing cesarean rates, however, have led to an increase in the number of PHs for morbidly adherent placenta. In the case of uterine atony or rupture where PH is required, a subtotal PH is often sufficient. In the case of pathological placental localization involving the cervix, however, a total hysterectomy is required. Furthermore, the involvement of other pelvic structures may prospectively make the diagnosis difficult and the surgery challenging. If resources permit, PH for pathological placental localization merits a multidisciplinary approach. Despite advances in clinical practice, it is likely that peripartum hysterectomy will be more challenging for obstetricians in the future.
In just 20 years, we went from not knowing if the solar system is a fluke of Nature to realising that it is totally normal for stars to have planets. More remarkably, it is now clear that planet formation is a robust process, as rich multi-planet systems are found around stars more massive and less massive than the Sun. More recently, planetary systems have been identified in increasingly complex architectures, including circumbinary planets, wide binaries with planets orbiting one or both stellar components, and planets in triple stellar systems.We have also learned that many planetary systems will survive the evolution of their host stars into the white dwarf phase. Small bodies are scattered by unseen planets into the gravitational field of the white dwarfs, tidally disrupt, form dust discs, and eventually accrete onto the white dwarf, where they can be spectroscopically detected. HST/COS has played a critical role in the study these evolved planetary systems, demonstrating that overall the bulk composition of the debris is rocky and resembles in composition the inner the solar system, including evidence for water-rich planetesimals. Past observations of planetary systems at white dwarfs have focused on single stars with main-sequence progenitors of 1.5 to 2.5Msun. Here we propose to take the study of evolved planetary systems into the extremes of parameter ranges to answer questions such as: * How efficient is planet formation around 4-10Msun stars? * What are the metallicities of the progenitors of debris-accreting white dwarfs?* What is the fate of circumbinary planets?* Can star-planet interactions generate magnetic fields in the white dwarf host?
Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N.; Troup, Nicholas; Majewski, Steven R.
Two mechanisms are often invoked to explain tidal friction in binary systems. The ``dynamical tide” is the resonant excitation of internal gravity waves by the tide, and their subsequent damping by nonlinear fluid processes or thermal diffusion. The ``equilibrium tide” refers to non-resonant excitation of fluid motion in the star’s convection zone, with damping by interaction with the turbulent eddies. There have been numerous studies of these processes in main sequence stars, but less so on the subgiant and red giant branches. Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), we have performed calculations of both the dynamical and equilibrium tide processes for stars over a range of mass as the star’s cease core hydrogen burning and evolve to shell burning. Even for stars which had a radiative core on the main sequence, the dynamical tide may have very large amplitude in the newly radiative core in post-main sequence, giving rise to wave breaking. The resulting large dynamical tide dissipation rate is compared to the equilibrium tide, and the range of secondary masses and orbital periods over which rapid orbital decay may occur will be discussed, as well as applications to close APOGEE binaries.
We develop a novel Artificial Intelligence paradigm to generate autonomously artificial agents as mathematical models of behaviour. Agent/environment inputs are mapped to agent outputs via equation trees which are evolved in a manner similar to Symbolic Regression in Genetic Programming. Equations are comprised of only the four basic mathematical operators, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as input and output variables and constants. From these operations, equations can be constructed that approximate any analytic function. These Evolvable Mathematical Models (EMMs) are tested and compared to their Artificial Neural Network (ANN) counterparts on two benchmarking tasks: the double-pole balancing without velocity information benchmark and the challenging discrete Double-T Maze experiments with homing. The results from these experiments show that EMMs are capable of solving tasks typically solved by ANNs, and that they have the ability to produce agents that demonstrate learning behaviours. To further explore the capabilities of EMMs, as well as to investigate the evolutionary origins of communication, we develop NoiseWorld, an Artificial Life simulation in which interagent communication emerges and evolves from initially noncommunicating EMM-based agents. Agents develop the capability to transmit their x and y position information over a one-dimensional channel via a complex, dialogue-based communication scheme. These evolved communication schemes are analyzed and their evolutionary trajectories examined, yielding significant insight into the emergence and subsequent evolution of cooperative communication. Evolved agents from NoiseWorld are successfully transferred onto physical robots, demonstrating the transferability of EMM-based AIs from simulation into physical reality.
Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, which constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers, is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Due to the broad heterogeneity of genetic mutations and dense stromal environment, PDAC belongs to one of the most chemoresistant cancers. Most of the available treatments are palliative, with the objective of relieving disease-related symptoms and prolonging survival. Currently, available therapeutic options are surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and use of targeted drugs. However, thus far, therapies targeting cancer-associated molecular pathways have not given satisfactory results; this is due in part to the rapid upregulation of compensatory alternative pathways as well as dense desmoplastic reaction. In this review, we summarize currently available therapies and clinical trials, directed towards a plethora of pathways and components dysregulated during PDAC carcinogenesis. Emerging trends towards targeted therapies as the most promising approach will also be discussed.
Kenett, Dror Y.; Raddant, Matthias; Lux, Thomas; Ben-Jacob, Eshel
Background In the current era of strong worldwide market couplings the global financial village became highly prone to systemic collapses, events that can rapidly sweep throughout the entire village. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a new methodology to assess and quantify inter-market relations. The approach is based on the correlations between the market index, the index volatility, the market Index Cohesive Force and the meta-correlations (correlations between the intra-correlations.) We investigated the relations between six important world markets—U.S., U.K., Germany, Japan, China and India—from January 2000 until December 2010. We found that while the developed “western” markets (U.S., U.K., Germany) are highly correlated, the interdependencies between these markets and the developing “eastern” markets (India and China) are volatile and with noticeable maxima at times of global world events. The Japanese market switches “identity”—it switches between periods of high meta-correlations with the “western” markets and periods when it behaves more similarly to the “eastern” markets. Conclusions/Significance The methodological framework presented here provides a way to quantify the evolvement of interdependencies in the global market, evaluate a world financial network and quantify changes in the world inter market relations. Such changes can be used as precursors to the agitation of the global financial village. Hence, the new approach can help to develop a sensitive “financial seismograph” to detect early signs of global financial crises so they can be treated before they develop into worldwide events. PMID:22347444
Sim, Kwang Mong
In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.
Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry
Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed.
Young, Steven R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Rose, Derek C. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Johnston, Travis [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Heller, William T. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Karnowski, thomas P. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Potok, Thomas E. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Patton, Robert M. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Perdue, Gabriel [Fermilab; Miller, Jonathan [Santa Maria U., Valparaiso
While a large number of deep learning networks have been studied and published that produce outstanding results on natural image datasets, these datasets only make up a fraction of those to which deep learning can be applied. These datasets include text data, audio data, and arrays of sensors that have very different characteristics than natural images. As these “best” networks for natural images have been largely discovered through experimentation and cannot be proven optimal on some theoretical basis, there is no reason to believe that they are the optimal network for these drastically different datasets. Hyperparameter search is thus often a very important process when applying deep learning to a new problem. In this work we present an evolutionary approach to searching the possible space of network hyperparameters and construction that can scale to 18, 000 nodes. This approach is applied to datasets of varying types and characteristics where we demonstrate the ability to rapidly find best hyperparameters in order to enable practitioners to quickly iterate between idea and result.
All through the history of the universe there is an apparent tendency for increasing complexity, with the organization of matter in evermore elaborate and interactive systems. The living world in general, and the human brain in particular, provides the highest complexity known. It seems obvious that all of this complexity must be the result of physical, chemical and biological evolution, but it was only with Darwin that we began to get a scientific understanding of biological evolution. Darwinian principles are guiding in our understanding of such complex systems as the nervous system, but also for the evolution of human society and technology. Living organisms have to survive in a complex and changing environment. This implies response and adaption to environmental events and changes at several time scales. The interaction with the environment depends on the present state of the organism, as well as on previous experiences stored in its molecular and cellular structures. At a longer time scale, organisms can adapt to slow environmental changes, by storing information in the genetic material carried over from generation to generation. This phylogenetic learning is complemented by ontogenetic learning, which is adaptation at a shorter time scale, occuring in non-genetic structures. The evolution of a nervous system is a major transition in biological evolution and allows for an increasing capacity for information storage and processing, increasing chances of survival. Such neural knowledge processing, cognition, shows the same principal features as nonneural adaptive processes. Similarly, consciousness might appear, to different degrees, at different stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depends critically on the organization and complexity of the organism. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss general principles for evolution of complexity, focussing on the evolution of the nervous system, which provides organisms with ever increasing
Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimerly F.
A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of propelling the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.
Point mutations can surely be dangerous but what is worst than to lose the reading frame?! Does DNA evolved a strategy to try to limit frameshift mutations?! Here we investigate if DNA sequences effectively evolved a system to minimize frameshift mutations analyzing the transcripts of proteins with high molecular weights.
Heller, René; Armstrong, John
To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.
Rocha, L.M.; Joslyn, C.
As we enter this amazing new world of artificial and virtual systems and environments in the context of human communities, we are interested in the development of systems and environments which have the capacity to grow and evolve their own meanings in the context of this community of interaction. In this paper the authors analyze the necessary conditions to achieve systems and environments with these properties: (1) a coupled interaction between a system and its environment; (2) an environment with sufficient initial richness and structure to allow for; (3) embodied emergent classification of that environment system coupling; and (4) which is subject to pragmatic selection.
Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Chen, Lingjiao; Liu, Chuang; Yang, Chengcheng; Wang, Xueqi
In this paper, based on the gravity principle of classical physics, we propose a tunable gravity-based model, which considers tag usage pattern to weigh both the mass and distance of network nodes. We then apply this model in solving the problems of information filtering and network evolving. Experimental results on two real-world data sets, Del.icio.us and MovieLens, show that it can not only enhance the algorithmic performance, but can also better characterize the properties of real networks. This work may shed some light on the in-depth understanding of the effect of gravity model. PMID:24622162
Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; van der Zaag, P.
This paper reviews the changing relation between human beings and water since the Industrial Revolution, a period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet during this time. We show how the rapidly changing world urges us to continuously improve our understanding of the complex interactions between humans and the water system. The paper starts by demonstrating that hydrology and the science of managing water resources have played key roles in human and economic development throughout history; yet these roles have often been marginalised or obscured. Knowledge of hydrology and water resources engineering and management helped to transform the landscape, and thus also the very hydrology within catchments itself. It is only fairly recent that water experts have become conscious of such mechanisms, exemplified by several concepts that try to incorporate them - integrated water resources management, eco-hydrology, socio-hydrology. We have reached a stage at which a more systemic understanding of scale interdependencies can inform the sustainable governance of water systems, using new concepts like precipitation sheds, virtual water transfers, water footprints, and water value flow.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...
Most of evolutionary theory has abstracted away from how information is coded in the genome and how this information is transformed into traits on which selection takes place. While in the earliest stages of biological evolution, in the RNA world, the mapping from the genotype into function was largely predefined by the physical-chemical properties of the evolving entities (RNA replicators, e.g. from sequence to folded structure and catalytic sites), in present-day organisms, the mapping itself is the result of evolution. I will review results of several in silico evolutionary studies which examine the consequences of evolving the genetic coding, and the ways this information is transformed, while adapting to prevailing environments. Such multilevel evolution leads to long-term information integration. Through genome, network, and dynamical structuring, the occurrence and/or effect of random mutations becomes nonrandom, and facilitates rapid adaptation. This is what does happen in the in silico experiments. Is it also what did happen in biological evolution? I will discuss some data that suggest that it did. In any case, these results provide us with novel search images to tackle the wealth of biological data.
Blake, M. Brian; Cheung, William K.W.; Jaeger, Michael C.; Wombacher, Andreas
Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an evolving architectural paradigm where businesses can expose their capabilities as modular, network-accessible software services. By decomposing capabilities into modular services, organizations can share their offerings at multiple levels of granularity
Cano, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.
Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is
.... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...
Winkler, David A
A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known "S curve", with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine.
David A Winkler
Full Text Available A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known “S curve”, with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine.
Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F
The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.
A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known “S curve”, with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine. PMID:28694872
St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS: INFLUENCE UPON EVOLVING WAR THEORY BY COLONEL KRISTIN BAKER United States...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cyberspace Operations: Influence Upon Evolving War Theory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Leadership 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S
Bader, Mohamed; Poli, R.
Hyper-Heuristics could simply be defined as heuristics to choose other heuristics, and it is a way of combining existing heuristics to generate new ones. In a Hyper-Heuristic framework, the framework is used for evolving effective incremental (Inc*) solvers for SAT. We test the evolved heuristics (IncHH) against other known local search heuristics on a variety of benchmark SAT problems.
Correia, Tiago B.; Resende, Joao P.; Costa, Agnes M. [Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)
The latest advancements in the natural gas - NG industry have brought new opportunities for the resource's application, especially in the power industry. On the one hand, rapid growth in demand and falling costs of transportation over long distances, particularly as liquefied natural gas - LNG, should lead to a more integrated NG world market. On the other, the deregulation of electricity markets and the growth of independent power producers - IPPs using NG as a fuel for generating peak load power have increased the demand for more flexible NG supply contracts. These factors have allowed a shift in the timing of investment and contract negotiation in NG market. Traditionally, firms searched for trading partners and signed long-term contracts before investing in infrastructure. In the evolving LNG market, producers invest in infrastructure before they have buyers for all their expected outputs, while buyers undertake investment before having firm contracts for all their expected NG needs. These technological and market changes may foster greater participation of a fully flexible NG power plants in the Brazilian electricity market. Nowadays, thermal power long-term capacity contracts customized and negotiated in the local electricity pool (ACR) require power producer to award guarantees of NG firm supply, substantially increasing their cost. A combination of flexible LNG supply contracts and electricity pool contracts may present a solution to the lack of competitiveness of NG power plants in the Brazilian power industry. (author)
Mengistu, Henok; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Clune, Jeff
One hallmark of natural organisms is their significant evolvability, i.e.,their increased potential for further evolution. However, reproducing such evolvability in artificial evolution remains a challenge, which both reduces the performance of evolutionary algorithms and inhibits the study...... of evolvable digital phenotypes. Although some types of selection in evolutionary computation indirectly encourage evolvability, one unexplored possibility is to directly select for evolvability. To do so, we estimate an individual's future potential for diversity by calculating the behavioral diversity of its...... immediate offspring, and select organisms with increased offspring variation. While the technique is computationally expensive, we hypothesized that direct selection would better encourage evolvability than indirect methods. Experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains confirm this hypothesis: in both...
Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong
Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.
Christopher F Steiner
Full Text Available The ability of organisms to adapt and persist in the face of environmental change is accepted as a fundamental feature of natural systems. More contentious is whether the capacity of organisms to adapt (or "evolvability" can itself evolve and the mechanisms underlying such responses. Using model gene networks, I provide evidence that evolvability emerges more readily when populations experience positively autocorrelated environmental noise (red noise compared to populations in stable or randomly varying (white noise environments. Evolvability was correlated with increasing genetic robustness to effects on network viability and decreasing robustness to effects on phenotypic expression; populations whose networks displayed greater viability robustness and lower phenotypic robustness produced more additive genetic variation and adapted more rapidly in novel environments. Patterns of selection for robustness varied antagonistically with epistatic effects of mutations on viability and phenotypic expression, suggesting that trade-offs between these properties may constrain their evolutionary responses. Evolution of evolvability and robustness was stronger in sexual populations compared to asexual populations indicating that enhanced genetic variation under fluctuating selection combined with recombination load is a primary driver of the emergence of evolvability. These results provide insight into the mechanisms potentially underlying rapid adaptation as well as the environmental conditions that drive the evolution of genetic interactions.
The thesis "Spinning Worlds" is about the characterisation of two types of gas-giant exoplanets: Hot Jupiters, with orbital periods of fewer than five days, and young, wide-orbit gas giants, with orbital periods as long as thousands of years. The thesis is based on near-infrared observations of 1
Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian
While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved......, CPPNs can theoretically compute any function and can build on those present in traditional synthesizers (e.g. square, sawtooth, triangle, and sine waves functions) to produce completely novel timbres. Evolved with NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), the aim of this paper is to explore...... the space of potential sounds that can be generated through such compositional sound synthesis networks (CSSNs). To study the effect of evolution on subjective appreciation, participants in a listener study ranked evolved timbres by personal preference, resulting in preferences skewed toward the first...
Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mugler, Andrew [COLUMBIA UNIV; Ziv, Etay [COLUMBIA UNIV; Wiggins, Chris H [COLUMBIA UNIV
The authors introduce a quantitative measure of the capacity of a small biological network to evolve. The measure is applied to a stochastic description of the experimental setup of Guet et al. (Science 2002, 296, pp. 1466), treating chemical inducers as functional inputs to biochemical networks and the expression of a reporter gene as the functional output. The authors take an information-theoretic approach, allowing the system to set parameters that optimise signal processing ability, thus enumerating each network's highest-fidelity functions. All networks studied are highly evolvable by the measure, meaning that change in function has little dependence on change in parameters. Moreover, each network's functions are connected by paths in the parameter space along which information is not significantly lowered, meaning a network may continuously change its functionality without completely losing it along the way. This property further underscores the evolvability of the networks.
Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks are perhaps the most important organizational level in the cell where signals from the cell state and the outside environment are integrated in terms of activation and inhibition of genes. For the last decade, the study of such networks has been fueled by large-scale experiments and renewed attention from the theoretical field. Different models have been proposed to, for instance, investigate expression dynamics, explain the network topology we observe in bacteria and yeast, and for the analysis of evolvability and robustness of such networks. Yet how these gene regulatory networks evolve and become evolvable remains an open question. An individual-oriented evolutionary model is used to shed light on this matter. Each individual has a genome from which its gene regulatory network is derived. Mutations, such as gene duplications and deletions, alter the genome, while the resulting network determines the gene expression pattern and hence fitness. With this protocol we let a population of individuals evolve under Darwinian selection in an environment that changes through time. Our work demonstrates that long-term evolution of complex gene regulatory networks in a changing environment can lead to a striking increase in the efficiency of generating beneficial mutations. We show that the population evolves towards genotype-phenotype mappings that allow for an orchestrated network-wide change in the gene expression pattern, requiring only a few specific gene indels. The genes involved are hubs of the networks, or directly influencing the hubs. Moreover, throughout the evolutionary trajectory the networks maintain their mutational robustness. In other words, evolution in an alternating environment leads to a network that is sensitive to a small class of beneficial mutations, while the majority of mutations remain neutral: an example of evolution of evolvability.
Abkevich, V I; Gutin, A M; Shakhnovich, E I
In this work, we discuss a possible origin of the first biopolymers with stable unique structures. We suggest that at the prebiotic stage of evolution, long organic polymers had to be compact to avoid hydrolysis and had to be soluble and thus must not be exceedingly hydrophobic. We present an algorithm that generates such sequences for model proteins. The evolved sequences turn out to have a stable unique structure, into which they quickly fold. This result illustrates the idea that the unique three-dimensional native structures of first biopolymers could have evolved as a side effect of nonspecific physicochemical factors acting at the prebiotic stage of evolution. PMID:8570645
Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.
The world has recently experienced rapid change to market-driven economies and increasing reliance on petroleum supplies from areas of political instability. The interplay of unprecedented growth of the global population, increasing worldwide energy demand, and political instability in two major petroleum exporting regions (the former Soviet Union and the Middle East) requires that the United States maintains a current, reliable, objective assessment of the world's energy resources. The need is compounded by the environmental implications of rapid increases in coal use in the Far East and international pressure on consumption of fossil fuels.
Devetter, Miloslav; Fontaneto, D.; Jersabek, Ch.D.; Welch, D.B.M.; May, L.; Walsh, E.J.
Roč. 796, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : evolving rotifers * 14th International Rotifer Symposium * evolving science Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016
Kim, T D
South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.
IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.
This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
Zeigler, Ryan; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.
Evolved lunar igneous lithologies, often referred to as the alkali suite, are a minor but important component of the lunar crust. These evolved samples are incompatible-element rich samples, and are, not surprisingly, most common in the Apollo sites in (or near) the incompatible-element rich region of the Moon known as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). The most commonly occurring lithologies are granites (A12, A14, A15, A17), monzogabbro (A14, A15), alkali anorthosites (A12, A14), and KREEP basalts (A15, A17). The Feldspathic Highlands Terrane is not entirely devoid of evolved lithologies, and rare clasts of alkali gabbronorite and sodic ferrogabbro (SFG) have been identified in Apollo 16 station 11 breccias 67915 and 67016. Curiously, nearly all pristine evolved lithologies have been found as small clasts or soil particles, exceptions being KREEP basalts 15382/6 and granitic sample 12013 (which is itself a breccia). Here we reexamine the petrography and geochemistry of two SFG-like particles found in a survey of Apollo 16 2-4 mm particles from the Cayley Plains 62283,7-15 and 62243,10-3 (hereafter 7-15 and 10-3 respectively). We will compare these to previously reported SFG samples, including recent analyses on the type specimen of SFG from lunar breccia 67915.
Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.
Bartle, Richard A.
Today's massively multiplayer online role-playing games are the direct descendants of the textual worlds of the 1980s, not only in design and implementation terms but also in the way they are evolving thematically.
Conlon, M K
In a world of increased competition and changing consumer expectations, one of the keys to a fiscally sound health plan is having a dynamic marketing strategy that takes into account the shifting attitudes of consumers as managed care markets mature. The primary goal of any health plan marketing strategy should be the acquisition and retention of members. Providing cost-efficient and convenient service for enrollees, offering low or no deductibles, having convenient office locations, and minimizing paper-work are important elements of such a marketing strategy. Factors such as brand awareness and the perceived image of a health plan also are important considerations in acquiring and retaining market share. The relative importance of these consumer satisfaction criteria change as a managed care market evolves and matures. Financial and marketing managers, thus, should ascertain their market's stage of development and respond with appropriate marketing strategies.
Ivancevic, Tijana; Gojkovic, Zoran; Greenberg, Ronald; Greenberg, Helen; Jovanovic, Bojan; Lukman, Aleksandar
This handbook provides insights into becoming a better and more evolved athlete. It offers aspiring athletes, regardless of skill level, a better understanding of their bodies and how to unlock the unlimited potential of muscles without injury. It focuses on the “superhero” muscle: the iliopsoas, and also sheds light on Diamond-Corporation’s new technology and elite athleticism, and how these can contribute to a healthier life. Lastly, the authors explore the mindset of success and provide exercises for remaining calm under pressure. This stand-alone book is the sequel to Paradigm Shift for Future Tennis and Enhancing Performance and Reducing Stress in Sport (2014, Springer). This book is written by scientists, whose expertise collectively spans the fields of biomechanics, clinical surgery, current and former elite athleticism, engineering and naturopath doctoral work. Together, they aim to inspire and educate athletes on how to improve their sports performance by using new technologies, world class bio...
Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri
The legacy paradigm for electricity service in most of the electrified world today is based on the centralized generation-transmission-distribution infrastructure that evolved under a regulated environment. More recently, a quest for effective economic investments, responsive markets, and sensitivity to the availability of resources, has led to various degrees of deregulation and unbundling of services. In this context, a new paradigm is emerging wherein electricity generation is intimately embedded with the load in microgrids. Development and decay of the familiar macrogrid is discussed. Three salient features of microgrids are examined to suggest that cohabitation of micro and macro grids is desirable, and that overall energy efficiency can be increased, while power is delivered to loads at appropriate levels of quality.
Frequent subgraph mining is a core graph operation used in many domains, such as graph data management and knowledge exploration, bioinformatics and security. Most existing techniques target static graphs. However, modern applications, such as social networks, utilize large evolving graphs. Mining these graphs using existing techniques is infeasible, due to the high computational cost. In this paper, we propose IncGM+, a fast incremental approach for continuous frequent subgraph mining problem on a single large evolving graph. We adapt the notion of “fringe” to the graph context, that is the set of subgraphs on the border between frequent and infrequent subgraphs. IncGM+ maintains fringe subgraphs and exploits them to prune the search space. To boost the efficiency, we propose an efficient index structure to maintain selected embeddings with minimal memory overhead. These embeddings are utilized to avoid redundant expensive subgraph isomorphism operations. Moreover, the proposed system supports batch updates. Using large real-world graphs, we experimentally verify that IncGM+ outperforms existing methods by up to three orders of magnitude, scales to much larger graphs and consumes less memory.
Cully, A; Mouret, J-B
Numerous algorithms have been proposed to allow legged robots to learn to walk. However, most of these algorithms are devised to learn walking in a straight line, which is not sufficient to accomplish any real-world mission. Here we introduce the Transferability-based Behavioral Repertoire Evolution algorithm (TBR-Evolution), a novel evolutionary algorithm that simultaneously discovers several hundreds of simple walking controllers, one for each possible direction. By taking advantage of solutions that are usually discarded by evolutionary processes, TBR-Evolution is substantially faster than independently evolving each controller. Our technique relies on two methods: (1) novelty search with local competition, which searches for both high-performing and diverse solutions, and (2) the transferability approach, which combines simulations and real tests to evolve controllers for a physical robot. We evaluate this new technique on a hexapod robot. Results show that with only a few dozen short experiments performed on the robot, the algorithm learns a repertoire of controllers that allows the robot to reach every point in its reachable space. Overall, TBR-Evolution introduced a new kind of learning algorithm that simultaneously optimizes all the achievable behaviors of a robot.
Seino, S; Blackstone, C D; Chan, S J; Whittaker, J; Bell, G I; Steiner, D F
Studies of guinea pig genomic and/or cDNA clones encoding the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) hormones--insulin, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide--as well as portions of the insulin receptor, are described. Multiple clustered substitutions (localized rapid mutation acceptance) altering the biological properties of both insulin and glucagon have been revealed, but this does not appear to be the case with either pancreatic polypeptide or those regions of guinea pig insulin receptor cDNAs that have been examined thus far. These findings suggest that novel selective pressures operative in the New World environment, in which these animals evolved in isolation from Old World mammalian species, have led to altered solutions to problems related to the regulation of growth and carbohydrate metabolism.
Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Compagno, Concetta; Piškur, Jure
The origin of modern fruits brought to microbial communities an abundant source of rich food based on simple sugars. Yeasts, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, usually become the predominant group in these niches. One of the most prominent and unique features and likely a winning trait of these yeasts is their ability to rapidly convert sugars to ethanol at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Why, when, and how did yeasts remodel their carbon metabolism to be able to accumulate ethanol under aerobic conditions and at the expense of decreasing biomass production? We hereby review the recent data on the carbon metabolism in Saccharomycetaceae species and attempt to reconstruct the ancient environment, which could promote the evolution of alcoholic fermentation. We speculate that the first step toward the so-called fermentative lifestyle was the exploration of anaerobic niches resulting in an increased metabolic capacity to degrade sugar to ethanol. The strengthened glycolytic flow had in parallel a beneficial effect on the microbial competition outcome and later evolved as a "new" tool promoting the yeast competition ability under aerobic conditions. The basic aerobic alcoholic fermentation ability was subsequently "upgraded" in several lineages by evolving additional regulatory steps, such as glucose repression in the S. cerevisiae clade, to achieve a more precise metabolic control. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Yeast Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
Clain, Alexander; Capaldi, Xavier; Amanuel, Samuel
We measured the IR spectra of the gasses that evolve during roasting of coffee beans. The spectra recorded at different temperature revealed that the intensity of certain IR bands increase as the temperature increases. For instance, the intensity of the CO2 band increased by a factor of four and reached a plateau as the roasting temperature approached 200°C. The intensity further increased as the temperature increased above 200°C, however, in two steps. Similarly the intensity of the OH bands monotonically increased until 200°C and then increased further in two rapid steps above 200°C. The temperature ranges where IR intensities change in two steps coincides with the temperature ranges where typically commercial roasting is done and where the first and second ``cracks'' are heard during roasting.
Expression of human A53T alpha-synuclein in the rat substantia nigra using a novel AAV1/2 vector produces a rapidly evolving pathology with protein aggregation, dystrophic neurite architecture and nigrostriatal degeneration with potential to model the pathology of Parkinson's disease
Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD include the presence of alpha-synuclein (α-syn rich Lewy bodies and neurites and the loss of dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN. Animal models of PD based on viral vector-mediated over-expression of α-syn have been developed and show evidence of DA toxicity to varying degrees depending on the type of virus used, its concentration, and the serotype of vector employed. To date these models have been variable, difficult to reproduce, and slow in their evolution to achieve a desired phenotype, hindering their use as a model for testing novel therapeutics. To address these issues we have taken a novel vector in this context, that can be prepared in high titer and which possesses an ability to produce neuronally-directed expression, with expression dynamics optimised to provide a rapid rise in gene product expression. Thus, in the current study, we have used a high titer chimeric AAV1/2 vector, to express human A53T α-syn, an empty vector control (EV, or green fluorescent protein (GFP, the latter to control for the possibility that high levels of protein in themselves might contribute to damage. Results We show that following a single 2 μl injection into the rat SN there is near complete coverage of the structure and expression of A53T α-syn or GFP appears throughout the striatum. Within 3 weeks of SN delivery of their respective vectors, aggregations of insoluble α-syn were observed in SN DA neurons. The numbers of DA neurons in the SN were significantly reduced by expression of A53T α-syn (52%, and to a lesser extent by GFP (24%, compared to EV controls (both P P Conclusions In the current implementation of the model, we recapitulate the primary pathological hallmarks of PD, although a proportion of the SN damage may relate to general protein overload and may not be specific for A53T α-syn. Future studies will thus be required to optimise the dose of
Expression of human A53T alpha-synuclein in the rat substantia nigra using a novel AAV1/2 vector produces a rapidly evolving pathology with protein aggregation, dystrophic neurite architecture and nigrostriatal degeneration with potential to model the pathology of Parkinson's disease.
Koprich, James B; Johnston, Tom H; Reyes, M Gabriela; Sun, Xuan; Brotchie, Jonathan M
The pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) include the presence of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) rich Lewy bodies and neurites and the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN). Animal models of PD based on viral vector-mediated over-expression of α-syn have been developed and show evidence of DA toxicity to varying degrees depending on the type of virus used, its concentration, and the serotype of vector employed. To date these models have been variable, difficult to reproduce, and slow in their evolution to achieve a desired phenotype, hindering their use as a model for testing novel therapeutics. To address these issues we have taken a novel vector in this context, that can be prepared in high titer and which possesses an ability to produce neuronally-directed expression, with expression dynamics optimised to provide a rapid rise in gene product expression. Thus, in the current study, we have used a high titer chimeric AAV1/2 vector, to express human A53T α-syn, an empty vector control (EV), or green fluorescent protein (GFP), the latter to control for the possibility that high levels of protein in themselves might contribute to damage. We show that following a single 2 μl injection into the rat SN there is near complete coverage of the structure and expression of A53T α-syn or GFP appears throughout the striatum. Within 3 weeks of SN delivery of their respective vectors, aggregations of insoluble α-syn were observed in SN DA neurons. The numbers of DA neurons in the SN were significantly reduced by expression of A53T α-syn (52%), and to a lesser extent by GFP (24%), compared to EV controls (both P AAV1/2-A53T α-syn injection produced dystrophic neurites and a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels (by 53%, P AAV1/2-GFP condition. In the current implementation of the model, we recapitulate the primary pathological hallmarks of PD, although a proportion of the SN damage may relate to general protein overload and
Arellano, Aaron V B [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, El Cerrillo, Piedras Blancas, CP 50200, Toluca (Mexico); Lobo, Francisco S N [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed C8 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)
In this work, we explore the possibility of evolving (2 + 1) and (3 + 1)-dimensional wormhole spacetimes, conformally related to the respective static geometries, within the context of nonlinear electrodynamics. For (3 + 1)-dimensional spacetime, it is found that the Einstein field equation imposes a contracting wormhole solution and the obedience of the weak energy condition. Nevertheless, in the presence of an electric field, the latter presents a singularity at the throat; however, for a pure magnetic field the solution is regular. For (2 + 1)-dimensional case, it is also found that the physical fields are singular at the throat. Thus, taking into account the principle of finiteness, which states that a satisfactory theory should avoid physical quantities becoming infinite, one may rule out evolving (3 + 1)-dimensional wormhole solutions, in the presence of an electric field, and (2 + 1)-dimensional case coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics.
Lüders, Benno; Schläger, Mikkel; Risi, Sebastian
Continual learning, i.e. the ability to sequentially learn tasks without catastrophic forgetting of previously learned ones, is an important open challenge in machine learning. In this paper we take a step in this direction by showing that the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENT......) approach is able to perform one-shot learning in a reinforcement learning task without catastrophic forgetting of previously stored associations.......Continual learning, i.e. the ability to sequentially learn tasks without catastrophic forgetting of previously learned ones, is an important open challenge in machine learning. In this paper we take a step in this direction by showing that the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENTM...
Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda
This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest a...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry.......This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... a range of potential fashion futures that decouple from declining resources. In the first part literature on 'Past and Present' historical and current aspects of sustainability in fashion and textiles are presented. In the second part, three exploratory case studies are described: Two projects by students...
A comparative world map of scientific misconduct reveals that countries with the most rapid growth in scientific publications also have the highest retraction rate. To avoid polluting the scientific record further, these nations must urgently commit to enforcing research integrity among their academic communities.
Petering, Jenny; McManamny, Patrick; Honeyman, Jane
The antibody patent landscape has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years, particularly in areas of technology relating to antibody modification to reduce immunogenicity in humans or improve antibody function. In some cases antibody techniques that were developed in the 1980s are still the subject of patent protection in the United States or Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.
networks. Artificial Life, 15(2):185– 212, 2009.  K. O. Stanley and R. Miikkulainen. Evolving neural networks through augmenting topologies ...paper. 2.2 Neuroevolution of Augmenting Topologies The HyperNEAT approach is itself an extension of the original NEAT (Neu- roevolution of Augmenting ...Gauci and K. O. Stanley. Autonomous evolution of topographic regu- larities in artificial neural networks. Neural Computation, 22(7):1860–1898, 2010
Kluse, Michael; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Gracio, Deborah K.
This is a requested book chapter for an internationally authored book on visual analytics and related fields, coordianted by a UK university and to be published by Springer in 2012. This chapter is an overview of the leadship strategies that PNNL's Jim Thomas and other stakeholders used to establish visual analytics as a field, and how those strategies may evolve in the future.
Porzukowiak, Tina Renae
Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia is most commonly characterized as deep, boring, nonpulsatile, severe, unilateral facial and head pain in the distribution of the V1 area combined with ipsilateral oculosympathetic palsy and autonomic symptoms. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving into hemicrania continua, a rare primary, chronic headache syndrome characterized by unilateral pain and response to indomethacin, has rarely been documented. The purpose of this case report is to contribute to the medical literature a single case of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia presenting as multiple cranial nerve palsies that evolved into hemicrania continua that was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA. A 52-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with the complaint of severe, aching, constant eye pain radiating to the V1 area for 1 week with associated ptosis and photophobia of the left eye. Ocular examination revealed involvement of cranial nerves II, III, V, and VI. Additional symptoms included ipsilateral lacrimation, eyelid edema, and rhinorrhea. Extensive medical work-up showed normal results. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed with multiple cranial nerve involvement; the headache component became chronic with periodic exacerbations of autonomic symptoms evolving to a diagnosis of hemicrania continua. The patient was intolerant to traditional indomethacin treatment, and the headache was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA injections. Recognition of ipsilateral signs such as miosis, ptosis, hydrosis, eyelid edema, hyperemia, rhinorrhea, or nasal congestion is useful in the differential diagnosis of painful ophthalmoplegia, particularly in the diagnosis of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia and hemicrania continua. This case study illustrates a rare presentation of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving into hemicrania continua presenting as a painful ophthalmoplegia with multiple cranial nerve involvement. The example supports the
Hashimoto, Makoto; Ho, Gilbert; Sugama, Shuei; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Yuka; Takenouchi, Takato; Waragai, Masaaki; Masliah, Eliezer
Currently, the physiological roles of amyloidogenic proteins (APs) in human brain, such as amyloid-β and α-synuclein, are elusive. Given that many APs arose by gene duplication and have been resistant against the pressures of natural selection, APs may be associated with some functions that are advantageous for survival of offspring. Nonetheless, evolvability is the sole physiological quality of APs that has been characterized in microorganisms such as yeast. Since yeast and human brain may share similar strategies in coping with diverse range of critical environmental stresses, the objective of this paper was to discuss the potential role of evolvability of APs in aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Given the heterogeneity of APs in terms of structure and cytotoxicity, it is argued that APs might be involved in preconditioning against diverse stresses in human brain. It is further speculated that these stress-related APs, most likely protofibrillar forms, might be transmitted to offspring via the germline, conferring preconditioning against forthcoming stresses. Thus, APs might represent a vehicle for the inheritance of the acquired characteristics against environmental stresses. Curiously, such a characteristic of APs is reminiscent of Charles Darwin’s ‘gemmules’, imagined molecules of heritability described in his pangenesis theory. We propose that evolvability might be a physiological function of APs during the reproductive stage and neurodegenerative diseases could be a by-product effect manifested later in aging. Collectively, our evolvability hypothesis may play a complementary role in the pathophysiology of APs with the conventional amyloid cascade hypothesis. PMID:29439348
Barrett, Jeffrey A.
Hugh Everett III presented pure wave mechanics, sometimes referred to as the many-worlds interpretation, as a solution to the quantum measurement problem. While pure wave mechanics is an objectively deterministic physical theory with no probabilities, Everett sought to show how the theory might be understood as making the standard quantum statistical predictions as appearances to observers who were themselves described by the theory. We will consider his argument and how it depends on a particular notion of branch typicality. We will also consider responses to Everett and the relationship between typicality and probability. The suggestion will be that pure wave mechanics requires a number of significant auxiliary assumptions in order to make anything like the standard quantum predictions.
High-order spatial discretisations and full discretisations of parabolic partial differential equations on evolving surfaces are studied. We prove convergence of the high-order evolving surface finite element method, by showing high-order versions of geometric approximation errors and perturbation error estimates and by the careful error analysis of a modified Ritz map. Furthermore, convergence of full discretisations using backward difference formulae and implicit Runge-Kutta methods are als...
From May 31 to June 30 the biggest single-sport event in the world, the 2002 FIFA World Cup (tm), will be taking place in Asia. South Korea and Japan are acting as hosts for the event which is being held in Asia for the first time. This true-color image of the southern Korean peninsula and southern Japan was acquired on May 25, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Thirty-two nations are represented at this year's Finals including the 1998 champion France, European powers England and Italy, tournament favorite Argentina, and the United States. The finals are the culmination of a 2-year qualifying process which started with 132 nations competing in regional qualification tournaments. In the round-robin first round of the World Cup, the U.S. team will be competing against teams from Portugal, Poland, and South Korea. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC
Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M
Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.
Michael E Palmer
Full Text Available For a lineage to survive over long time periods, it must sometimes change. This has given rise to the term evolvability, meaning the tendency to produce adaptive variation. One lineage may be superior to another in terms of its current standing variation, or it may tend to produce more adaptive variation. However, evolutionary outcomes depend on more than standing variation and produced adaptive variation: deleterious variation also matters. Evolvability, as most commonly interpreted, is not predictive of evolutionary outcomes. Here, we define a predictive measure of the evolutionary success of a lineage that we call the k-survivability, defined as the probability that the lineage avoids extinction for k generations. We estimate the k-survivability using multiple experimental replicates. Because we measure evolutionary outcomes, the initial standing variation, the full spectrum of generated variation, and the heritability of that variation are all incorporated. Survivability also accounts for the decreased joint likelihood of extinction of sub-lineages when they 1 disperse in space, or 2 diversify in lifestyle. We illustrate measurement of survivability with in silico models, and suggest that it may also be measured in vivo using multiple longitudinal replicates. The k-survivability is a metric that enables the quantitative study of, for example, the evolution of 1 mutation rates, 2 dispersal mechanisms, 3 the genotype-phenotype map, and 4 sexual reproduction, in temporally and spatially fluctuating environments. Although these disparate phenomena evolve by well-understood microevolutionary rules, they are also subject to the macroevolutionary constraint of long-term survivability.
Hoerling, Martin P; Dettinger, Michael; Wolter, Klaus; Lukas, Jeff; Eischeid, Jon K.; Nemani, Rama; Liebmann, Brant; Kunkel, Kenneth E.
This chapter assesses weather and climate variability and trends in the Southwest, using observed climate and paleoclimate records. It analyzes the last 100 years of climate variability in comparison to the last 1,000 years, and links the important features of evolving climate conditions to river flow variability in four of the region’s major drainage basins. The chapter closes with an assessment of the monitoring and scientific research needed to increase confidence in understanding when climate episodes, events, and phenomena are attributable to human-caused climate change.
Bhattacharya, Subhra; Chakraborty, Subenoy
The scalar-tensor f( R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f( R) gravity formalism. These f( R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R)=R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat.
How difficult is it to 'discover' an evolutionary adaptation or innovation? I here suggest that information theory, in combination with high-throughput DNA sequencing, can help answer this question by quantifying a new phenotype's information content. I apply this framework to compute the phenotypic information associated with novel gene regulation and with the ability to use novel carbon sources. The framework can also help quantify how DNA duplications affect evolvability, estimate the complexity of phenotypes and clarify the meaning of 'progress' in Darwinian evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'Process and pattern in innovations from cells to societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor
This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through a combination of an evolutionary method and random forest. Grammatical evolution is used to describe the structure of the trees in the Random Forest (RF) and to handle the process of evolution. Evolved random forests ...... obtained for predicting pairwise self-reports of users for the three emotional states engagement, frustration and challenge show very promising results that are comparable and in some cases superior to those obtained from state-of-the-art methods....
Calude, Andreea S; Pagel, Mark
We present data from 17 languages on the frequency with which a common set of words is used in everyday language. The languages are drawn from six language families representing 65 per cent of the world's 7000 languages. Our data were collected from linguistic corpora that record frequencies of use for the 200 meanings in the widely used Swadesh fundamental vocabulary. Our interest is to assess evidence for shared patterns of language use around the world, and for the relationship of language use to rates of lexical replacement, defined as the replacement of a word by a new unrelated or non-cognate word. Frequencies of use for words in the Swadesh list range from just a few per million words of speech to 191 000 or more. The average inter-correlation among languages in the frequency of use across the 200 words is 0.73 (p languages tend to be more conserved, and that this relationship holds separately for different parts of speech. A regression model combining the principal factor loadings derived from the worldwide sample along with their part of speech predicts 46 per cent of the variance in the rates of lexical replacement in the Indo-European languages. This suggests that Indo-European lexical replacement rates might be broadly representative of worldwide rates of change. Evidence for this speculation comes from using the same factor loadings and part-of-speech categories to predict a word's position in a list of 110 words ranked from slowest to most rapidly evolving among 14 of the world's language families. This regression model accounts for 30 per cent of the variance. Our results point to a remarkable regularity in the way that human speakers use language, and hint that the words for a shared set of meanings have been slowly evolving and others more rapidly evolving throughout human history.
Creech, Stephen D.; Vane, Greg
Whether life exists on worlds other than Earth is one of the most compelling questions facing space science today. Given that, on Earth, life exists wherever water is found, worlds harboring large amounts of water are prime targets in the search for an answer to this question. Jovian moons Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede; Saturnian moons Enceladus and Titan; and possibly Neptune's Triton are all worlds in the outer solar system on which large quantities of water can be found in solid and liquid form. So compelling are these worlds as targets for scientific study that the United States Congress recently initiated a directive to NASA to create an "Ocean Worlds Exploration Program, comprised of frequent small, medium and large missions that poses the potential to revolutionize our understanding of the solar system and life within it, perhaps more profoundly event than the modern-day search for past or extant life on Mars. Any life detected at the remote "ocean worlds" in the outer solar system would likely have formed and evolved along an independent path from life on Earth itself, giving us a deeper understanding of the potential for broad variety amongst life in the universe. In NASA's robotic study of Mars, a key to the success of the "search for water" was the ability to conduct iterative exploration via a series of missions launched on a regular cadence based on 26-month cycles of prime planetary-alignment windows of reduced transit time. Through this cadence, NASA was able to send to Mars a series of orbiters and landers, using the knowledge gained from each mission to inform and refine the goals of the next. The ability to conduct iterative exploration in this manner could have a substantial impact on exploration of the "ocean worlds," allowing scientists to narrow their targets of interest in the search for life based on data sent back by successive missions. This ability is currently limited by the transit periods available from contemporary evolved expendable
Hornby, Gregory S.; Kraus, William F.; Lohn, Jason D.
Because of their small size and high reliability, microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices have the potential to revolution many areas of engineering. As with conventionally-sized engineering design, there is likely to be a demand for the automated design of MEMS devices. This paper describes our current status as we progress toward our ultimate goal of using an evolutionary algorithm and a generative representation to produce designs of a MEMS device and successfully demonstrate its transfer to an actual chip. To produce designs that are likely to transfer to reality, we present two ways to modify evaluation of designs. The first is to add location noise, differences between the actual dimensions of the design and the design blueprint, which is a technique we have used for our work in evolving antennas and robots. The second method is to add prestress to model the warping that occurs during the extreme heat of fabrication. In future we expect to fabricate and test some MEMS resonators that are evolved in this way.
The world appears to be emerging from the worst economic crisis in decades. Many countries have made pledges under the Copenhagen Accord to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions. Commitments have also been made by the G-20 and APEC to phase out inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies. Are we, at last, on the path to a secure, reliable and environmentally sustainable energy system? Updated projections of energy demand, production, trade and investment, fuel by fuel and region by region to 2035 are provided in the 2010 edition of the World Energy Outlook (WEO). It includes, for the first time, a new scenario that anticipates future actions by governments to meet the commitments they have made to tackle climate change and growing energy insecurity. WEO-2010 shows: what more must be done and spent to achieve the goal of the Copenhagen Accord to limit the global temperature increase to 2 deg. C and how these actions would impact on oil markets; how emerging economies -- led by China and India -- will increasingly shape the global energy landscape; what role renewables can play in a clean and secure energy future; what removing fossil-fuel subsidies would mean for energy markets, climate change and state budgets; the trends in Caspian energy markets and the implications for global energy supply; the prospects for unconventional oil; and how to give the entire global population access to modern energy services. With extensive data, projections and analysis, this publication provides invaluable insights into how the energy system could evolve over the next quarter of a century. The book is essential reading for anyone with a stake in the energy sector.
Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.
A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS will propel the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.
Paquette, William A.
Reviews whether textbook publishers have put the "world" in world history textbooks by comparing the editions of four different world history textbooks over 25 years. Evaluates 10 current editions of world history textbooks. Offers questions to consider and discusses additional content concerns. Includes charts and references of the reviewed…
Carson, David K.; Jain, Sachin; Ramirez, Sylvia
Outpatient counseling is a relatively new concept and form of clinical practice in India. This article provides an overview of the need for and current status of counseling and family therapy in India. Examples of training programs are presented, and future prospects for the counseling and family therapy professions are highlighted. The authors…
Bu, Pengli; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio; Alam, S M Khorshed; Vivian, Jay L; Wolfe, Michael W; Rumi, M A Karim; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Kubota, Kaiyu; Dhakal, Pramod; Soares, Michael J
Mammals share common strategies for regulating reproduction, including a conserved hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; yet, individual species exhibit differences in reproductive performance. In this report, we describe the discovery of a species-restricted homeostatic control system programming testis growth and function. Prl3c1 is a member of the prolactin gene family and its protein product (PLP-J) was discovered as a uterine cytokine contributing to the establishment of pregnancy. We utilized mouse mutagenesis of Prl3c1 and revealed its involvement in the regulation of the male reproductive axis. The Prl3c1-null male reproductive phenotype was characterized by testiculomegaly and hyperandrogenism. The larger testes in the Prl3c1-null mice were associated with an expansion of the Leydig cell compartment. Prl3c1 locus is a template for two transcripts (Prl3c1-v1 and Prl3c1-v2) expressed in a tissue-specific pattern. Prl3c1-v1 is expressed in uterine decidua, while Prl3c1-v2 is expressed in Leydig cells of the testis. 5'RACE, chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA methylation analyses were used to define cell-specific promoter usage and alternative transcript expression. We examined the Prl3c1 locus in five murid rodents and showed that the testicular transcript and encoded protein are the result of a recent retrotransposition event at the Mus musculus Prl3c1 locus. Prl3c1-v1 encodes PLP-J V1 and Prl3c1-v2 encodes PLP-J V2. Each protein exhibits distinct intracellular targeting and actions. PLP-J V2 possesses Leydig cell-static actions consistent with the Prl3c1-null testicular phenotype. Analysis of the biology of the Prl3c1 gene has provided insight into a previously unappreciated homeostatic setpoint control system programming testicular growth and function. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.
information technology systems. The current DoDI 5000.02 leaves IT project and program managers wondering how the current process applies to them, as the guidance is fairly rigid and does not allow for the flexibility required to appropriately manage IT programs. Until very recently, in comparison to the development of a traditional weapons system, IT programs seemed to have been viewed as a utility or service instead of a critical component to national security. Perhaps that is because data passing through cables cannot be observed with the naked senses and therefore an
Full Text Available One of the major challenges in the analysis of closely related species, speciation and phylogeography is the identification of variable sequence markers that allow the determination of genealogical relationships in multiple genomic regions using coalescent and species tree approaches. Rodent species represent nearly half of the mammalian diversity, but so far no systematic study has been carried out to detect suitable informative markers for this group. Here, we used a bioinformatic pipeline to extract intron sequences from rodent genomes available in databases and applied a series of filters that allowed the identification of 208 introns that adequately fulfilled several criteria for these studies. The main required characteristics of the introns were that they had the maximum possible mutation rates, that they were part of single-copy genes, that they had an appropriate sequence length for amplification, and that they were flanked by exons with suitable regions for primer design. In addition, in order to determine the validity of this approach, we chose ten of these introns for primer design and tested them in a panel of eleven rodent species belonging to different representative families. We show that all these introns can be amplified in the majority of species and that, overall, 79% of the amplifications worked with minimum optimization of the annealing temperature. In addition, we confirmed for a pair of sister species the relatively high level of sequence divergence of these introns. Therefore, we provide here a set of adequate intron markers that can be applied to different species of Rodentia for their use in studies that require significant sequence variability.
Zhu, Ziqiang; Liu, Wei; Gotlieb, Vladimir
The incidence of melanoma in both males and females continues to rise during the past 40 years despite the stable or declining trends for most cancer types. Due to the tremendous advance in immunobiology and molecular biology, breakthroughs in both immunotherapies and molecular targeted therapies have recently revolutionized the standard of care for patients with advanced melanoma. In 2011, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody for metastatic melanoma therapy. Since then, novel drugs including antibodies to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab (both approved in 2014), selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib (approved in 2011), dabrafenib (approved in 2013); and MEK inhibitor trametinib (approved in 2013), have greatly extended the potential of immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy for advanced melanoma. All of which have been demonstrated a significant increase in overall survival rate, and long-term benefits in multiple large clinical trials. Several new agents and novel therapies are currently under phase III clinical trials with the hope of being approved in the near future. We already entered a golden era in oncology that are providing significant survival improvement. In the meantime, new challenges for clinicians also started to emerge. In this review, we presented the existing evidence for the newest treatments for advanced melanoma, including CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF, MEK inhibitors. We also discussed the strengths, limitations and challenges of using these novel therapies, and potential solutions as well as highlighted the areas requiring further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Macquart, JP; Wu, K; Sault, RJ; Hannikainen, DC
We report the detection of circular polarization during the 1994 outburst of the Galactic microquasar GRO J1655-40. The circular polarization is clearly detected at 1.4 and 2.4 GHz, but not at 4.8 and 8.4 GHz, where its magnitude never exceeds 5 mJy. Both the sign and magnitude of the circular
Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim
As humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly trained professionals. With technological evolution comes a…
German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.
This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.
Pollard, Katherine S; Salama, Sofie R; Lambert, Nelle
of the human brain. We devised a ranking of regions in the human genome that show significant evolutionary acceleration. Here we report that the most dramatic of these 'human accelerated regions', HAR1, is part of a novel RNA gene (HAR1F) that is expressed specifically in Cajal-Retzius neurons...
Ariel E. Lugo
The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...
Hawishler, Gail E.; Selfe, Cynthia L.
In this article, the authors report since the early 1980s, the profession has seen plenty of changes in the arena of digital scholarly publishing: during this time, while the specific challenges have seldom remained the same, the presence and the pressures of rapid technological change endure. In fact, as an editorial team that has, in part,…
Many processes change genomes. Koonin and Wolf. 2008. Page 5 .. including horizontal gene transfer. Koonin and Wolf. 2008. Page 6. Horizontal gene transfer. Drastic modification of genetic material. Rapid exploration of ne niches and phenot pes. Page 7. Horizontal gene transfer regulates. New selective forces for gene ...
Richard C. Cronn; Randall L. Small; Jonathan F. Wendel
Of the many processes that generate gene duplications, polyploidy is unique in that entire genomes are duplicated. This process has been important in the evolution of many eukaryotic groups, and it occurs with high frequency in plants. Recent evidence suggests that polyploidization may be accompanied by rapid genomic changes, but the evolutionary fate of discrete loci...
Savenije, H.H.G.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Zaag, P.
This paper reviews the changing relation between man and water since the industrial revolution, the period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet.We show how the rapidly changing reality urges us to continuously improve our
Ciraci, S.; van den Broek, P.M.; Duchien, Laurence; D'Hondt, Maja; Mens, Tom
We review the definition of evolvability as it appears on the literature. In particular, the concept of software evolvability is compared with other system quality attributes, such as adaptability, maintainability and modifiability.
Full Text Available Given that the modern world cannot be conceived without the existence of the steel and its use, the crude steel consumption may be considered as an indicator characterizing the economic development of a country. The purpose of this paper is to establish the evolution of the world, regional and state consumption of crude steel, both per total, as well as per inhabitant, but also the impact of the economic and financial crisis it had on the evolving evolution of using the crude steel. Data subject to the study are related to the period 2004 – 2014 and concern nine regions of development and ten countries.
Wagener, T.; Sivapalan, M.; Troch, P.A.; McGlynn, B.L.; Harman, C.J.; Gupta, H.V.; Kumar, P.; Rao, P.S.C.; Basu, N.B.; Wilson, J.S.
Human activities exert global-scale impacts on our environment with significant implications for freshwater-driven services and hazards for humans and nature. Our approach to the science of hydrology needs to significantly change so that we can understand and predict these implications. Such an
The International Climate Change Partnership presents this report as one of its efforts to present current information on climate change to the public. One often hears about the expenses entailed in protecting the environment. Unfortunately, one hears less about the economic benefits that may be associated with prudent actions to counter environmental threats. This conference is particularly useful because it focuses attention on profitable business opportunities in the United States and elsewhere that arise from practical efforts to mitigate the risks of climate change. The report contains a brief synopsis of each speaker`s address on climate change.
Maagd, de R.; Bravo, A.; Crickmore, N.
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium of great agronomic and scientific interest. Together the subspecies of this bacterium colonize and kill a large variety of host insects and even nematodes, but each strain does so with a high degree of specificity. This is mainly determined by the arsenal of
Motycka, Carol; Williams, Jennifer S.; Hogan, Thanh; Gray, Matthew; Hartman, Jennifer
The primary purpose of schools and colleges of pharmacy is to produce pharmacists capable of providing competent patient centered care. To accomplish this goal, pharmacy students must learn and retain a great deal of knowledge as well as develop professional attitudes and behaviors. In recent years, several articles have been published questioning…
Stone, Bradley V
Bossen, Claus; Ehn, Pelle; Karasti, Helena
The workshop will examine issues around emerging participation in (re-)designing technological and/or societal infrastructures. Contributions should provide cases and/or methodological reflections on connecting ongoing social or professional practices involving infrastructure usages with emerging...... and/or collaborative processes of changing/improving those infrastructures. Contributions may provide an analytical perspective or methods/tools to stimulate and support processes and activities of infrastructuring....
Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.
This paper is the sixth in a series aimed at weakening the independence assumptions that are typically presumed in multitarget tracking. Earlier papers investigated Bayes …lters that propagate the correlations between two evolving multitarget systems. Last year at this conference we attempted to derive PHD …lter-type approximations that account for both spatial correlation and cardinality correlation (i.e., correlation between the target numbers of the two systems). Unfortunately, this approach required heuristic models of both clutter and target appearance in order to incorporate both spatial and cardinality correlation. This paper describes a fully rigorous approach- provided, however, that spatial correlation between the two populations is ignored and only their cardinality correlations are taken into account. We derive the time-update and measurement-update equations for a CPHD …lter describing the evolution of such correlated multitarget populations.
Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S
The ability to design a transport network such that commodities are brought from suppliers to consumers in a steady, optimal, and stable way is of great importance for distribution systems nowadays. In this work, by using the circuit laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm, we provide the exact capacities of the edges that an optimal supply-demand network should have to operate stably under perturbations, i.e., without overloading. The perturbations we consider are the evolution of the connecting topology, the decentralization of hub sources or sinks, and the intermittence of supplier and consumer characteristics. We analyze these conditions and the impact of our results, both on the current United Kingdom power-grid structure and on numerically generated evolving archetypal network topologies.
Simões, M; Breitkreuz, L; Alvarado, M; Baca, S; Cooper, J C; Heins, L; Herzog, K; Lieberman, B S
Evolutionary radiations have intrigued biologists for more than 100 years, and our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with these radiations continues to grow and evolve. Recently it has been recognized that there are many different types of evolutionary radiation beyond the well-studied adaptive radiations. We focus here on multifarious types of evolutionary radiations, paying special attention to the abiotic factors that might trigger diversification in clades. We integrate concepts such as exaptation, species selection, coevolution, and the turnover-pulse hypothesis (TPH) into the theoretical framework of evolutionary radiations. We also discuss other phenomena that are related to, but distinct from, evolutionary radiations that have relevance for evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Saeedian, M; Jafari, G R; Kertesz, J
Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences peoples willingness to contact others: A friendly contact may be turned to unfriendly to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected (SI) disease spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heiders theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte-Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find loc...
Orlov, Michael; Sipper, Moshe
The established approach in genetic programming (GP) involves the definition of functions and terminals appropriate to the problem at hand, after which evolution of expressions using these definitions takes place. We have recently developed a system, dubbed FINCH (Fertile Darwinian Bytecode Harvester), to evolutionarily improve actual, extant software, which was not intentionally written for the purpose of serving as a GP representation in particular, nor for evolution in general. This is in contrast to existing work that uses restricted subsets of the Java bytecode instruction set as a representation language for individuals in genetic programming. The ability to evolve Java programs will hopefully lead to a valuable new tool in the software engineer's toolkit.
Full Text Available The XII World Congress on Cardiac Pacing and Electrophysiology is co-organised by the International Cardiac Pacing & Electrophysiology Society (ICPES and the Hong Kong College of Cardiology (HKCC. It will take place at the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre on February 19-22, 2003. The World Congress has been organized in various countries, including USA, France, The Netherlands, Japan, Canada, Austria, Israel, Argentina and Germany. The coming Congress is going to be held in the centre of Asia where East meets West Hong Kong, which is now a Special Administrative Region of China since 1997. Hong Kong continues to enjoy a high degree of autonomy, and has remained an important center of finance, information technology, tourism, trade and exchange in Asia. In addition, it enjoys increasing interaction with the rapidly developing Mainland China. Developed with the assistance of a broadly represented International Scientific Advisory Committee, the scientific programme will feature 11 major topics - Electrophysiology, Catheter Ablation, Pacing, Defibrillation, Pharmacology, Hybrid Therapy, Pediatric Arrhythmias, Arrhythmias for Allied Professionals, Genetics & Gene Therapy, ECG, Noninvasive Evaluation & Risk Stratification and Implantable Monitoring Devices. It includes Plenary Sessions, Core Sessions, Expert Sessions, Featured Symposia, Live Demonstration, Teaching Courses, Abstract Presentations and Poster Sessions.
Zai, Gwyneth; Alberry, Bonnie; Arloth, Janine; Bánlaki, Zsófia; Bares, Cristina; Boot, Erik; Camilo, Caroline; Chadha, Kartikay; Chen, Qi; Cole, Christopher B.; Cost, Katherine Tombeau; Crow, Megan; Ekpor, Ibene; Fischer, Sascha B.; Flatau, Laura; Gagliano, Sarah; Kirli, Umut; Kukshal, Prachi; Labrie, Viviane; Lang, Maren; Lett, Tristram A.; Maffioletti, Elisabetta; Maier, Robert; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mittal, Kirti; Monson, Eric T.; O'Brien, Niamh L.; Østergaard, Søren Dinesen; Ovenden, Ellen; Patel, Sejal; Peterson, Roseann E.; Pouget, Jennie G.; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Seaman, Lauren; Shankarappa, Bhagya; Tsetsos, Fotis; Vereczkei, Andrea; Wang, Chenyao; Xulu, Khethelo; Yuen, Ryan K. C.; Zhao, Jingjing; Zai, Clement C.; Kennedy, James L.
The XXIIIrd World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics (WCPG) meeting, sponsored by the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics (ISPG), was held in Toronto, ON, Canada, on October 16-20, 2015. Approximately 700 participants attended to discuss the latest state-of-the-art findings in this rapidly advancing and evolving field. The following report was written by trainee travel awardees. Each was assigned one session as a rapporteur. This manuscript represents the highlights and topics that were covered in the plenary sessions, symposia, and oral sessions during the conference, and contains major notable and new findings. PMID:27606929
Terblanche, D. E.
Many of the milestones of human development can be traced back to people assembled in urban settings where economies of scale, competition and social interaction stimulated innovation. Considering that more than half the global pollution now lives in cities and towns and that most of the growth in the global pollution in the remainder of this century will continue to take place in the urban environment, the question could be asked whether humankind will continue to capitalize on the traditional benefits of city life to find solutions for growing environmental challenges? In the past cities developed organically. They evolved through trial and error into livable environments. Things have now changed. The global population is larger, urbanization is rapid, pressure on Earth's limited resources is constraining and we are faced with a changing climate. If cities are now allowed to develop in a haphazard manner, the fight for survival in the city will overshadow its entrepreneurial spirit. It is for this reason that the 11th Sustainable Development Goal will focus on: 'Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable'. There is now a window of opportunity for weather, climate, water and environmental scientists to contribute towards a more sustainable urban future by ensuring that science based services form an integrated part of urban planning, development and management. WMO recognizes that rapid urbanization will require new types of new and enhanced services. Such integrated urban weather, environment and climate services will assist cities to deal better with hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in a changing climate. From a research perspective the World Climate Research Programme, the World Weather Research Programme and the Global Atmosphere Watch Programme all have a unique contribution to make in this regard.
Foster, J.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Eggert, L.E.; Hart, P.J.; Palmer, D.; Duffy, D.C.; Fleischer, R.C.
Infectious diseases now threaten wildlife populations worldwide but population recovery following local extinction has rarely been observed. In such a case, do resistant individuals recolonize from a central remnant population, or do they spread from small, perhaps overlooked, populations of resistant individuals? Introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has devastated low-elevation populations of native birds in Hawaii, but at least one species (Hawaii amakihi, Hemignathus virens) that was greatly reduced at elevations below about 1000 m tolerates malaria and has initiated a remarkable and rapid recovery. We assessed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers from amakihi and two other Hawaiian honeycreepers, apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), at nine primary study sites from 2001 to 2003 to determine the source of re-establishing birds. In addition, we obtained sequences from tissue from amakihi museum study skins (1898 and 1948-49) to assess temporal changes in allele distributions. We found that amakihi in lowland areas are, and have historically been, differentiated from birds at high elevations and had unique alleles retained through time; that is, their genetic signature was not a subset of the genetic variation at higher elevations. We suggest that high disease pressure rapidly selected for resistance to malaria at low elevation, leaving small pockets of resistant birds, and this resistance spread outward from the scattered remnant populations. Low-elevation amakihi are currently isolated from higher elevations (> 1000 m) where disease emergence and transmission rates appear to vary seasonally and annually. In contrast to results from amakihi, no genetic differentiation between elevations was found in apapane and iiwi, indicating that slight variation in genetic or life-history attributes can determine disease resistance and population recovery. Determining the conditions that allow for the development of resistance to disease is
The 2008 report provides invaluable analysis to help policy makers around the world assess and address the challenges posed by worsening oil supply prospects, higher energy prices and rising emissions of greenhouse gases. In the WEO-2008 Reference Scenario, which assumes no new government policies, world primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 - an increase of 45%. This is slower than projected last year, mainly due to the impact of the economic slowdown, prospects for higher energy prices and some new policy initiatives. Demand for oil rises from 85 million barrels per day now to 106 mb/d in 2030 - 10 mb/d less than projected last year. Demand for coal rises more than any other fuel in absolute terms, accounting for over a third of the increase in energy use. Modern renewables grow most rapidly, overtaking gas to become the second-largest source of electricity soon after 2010. China and India account for over half of incremental energy demand to 2030 while the Middle East emerges as a major new demand centre. The share of the world's energy consumed in cities grows from two-thirds to almost three-quarters in 2030. Almost all of the increase in fossil-energy production occurs in non-OECD countries. These trends call for energy-supply investment of $26.3 trillion to 2030, or over 1 trillion US dollars/year. Yet the credit squeeze could delay spending, potentially setting up a supply-crunch that could choke economic recovery. In addition to providing a comprehensive update of long-term energy projections to 2030, WEO-2008 takes a detailed look at the prospects for oil and gas production. Oil will remain the world's main source of energy for many years to come, even under the most optimistic of assumptions about the development of alternative technology. But the sources of oil, the cost of producing it and the prices that consumers will have to pay for it are extremely uncertain. It is far from certain that companies
McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline
The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the
Craymer, M.; Sella, G.
The World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) and North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) are the most widely- used spatial reference systems in North America. NAD83 is the national reference system used for georeferencing by most federal and provincial/state agencies while WGS84 is the default "native" system used by the Global Positioning System (GPS) and commercial GPS receivers. The physical realization of these reference systems have undergone several updates since they were first introduced over two decades ago. NAD83 has evolved from a traditional, ground-based horizontal control network to a space-based 3D realization fully supporting modern GPS techniques and the integration of both horizontal and vertical reference systems. WGS84, on the other hand, has no publicly accessible ground-based network. It is accessible only via broadcast orbits that provide positions with an accuracy of about a meter at best (with augmented corrections). More recently, a new reference systems called the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF) has been created primarily in support of Plate Boundary Observatory component of the EarthScope project. We explain the differences between these global and regional reference frames and as well as their relationship to each other. We also discuss some problems that occur when these relationships are not properly represented as done, for example, with NAD83 in the vast majority of GPS receivers.
Holiday, A.; Kevrekidis, I. G.
In order to illustrate the adaptation of traditional continuum numerical techniques to the study of complex network systems, we use the equation-free framework to analyze a dynamically evolving multigraph. This approach is based on coupling short intervals of direct dynamic network simulation with appropriately-defined lifting and restriction operators, mapping the detailed network description to suitable macroscopic (coarse-grained) variables and back. This enables the acceleration of direct simulations through Coarse Projective Integration (CPI), as well as the identification of coarse stationary states via a Newton-GMRES method. We also demonstrate the use of data-mining, both linear (principal component analysis, PCA) and nonlinear (diffusion maps, DMAPS) to determine good macroscopic variables (observables) through which one can coarse-grain the model. These results suggest methods for decreasing simulation times of dynamic real-world systems such as epidemiological network models. Additionally, the data-mining techniques could be applied to a diverse class of problems to search for a succint, low-dimensional description of the system in a small number of variables.
Kochevar, Deborah T
The Association of American Veterinary Medical College's (AAVMC's) role in the progression of academic veterinary medical education has been about building successful partnerships in the US and internationally. Membership in the association has evolved over the past 50 years, as have traditions of collaboration that strengthen veterinary medical education and the association. The AAVMC has become a source of information and a place for debate on educational trends, innovative pedagogy, and the value of a diverse learning environment. The AAVMC's relationship with the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education (AVMA COE), the accreditor of veterinary medical education recognized by the United Sates Department of Education (DOE), is highlighted here because of the key role that AAVMC members have played in the evolution of veterinary accreditation. The AAVMC has also been a partner in the expansion of veterinary medical education to include global health and One Health and in the engagement of international partners around shared educational opportunities and challenges. Recently, the association has reinforced its desire to be a truly international organization rather than an American organization with international members. To that end, strategic AAVMC initiatives aim to expand and connect the global community of veterinary educators to the benefit of students and the profession around the world. Tables in this article are intended to provide historical context, chronology, and an accessible way to view highlights.
Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M
The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.
Mark Nicholas Ziats
Full Text Available The autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.
Chael, Andrew; Narayan, Ramesh
The accretion flow around Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the black hole at the Galactic Center, produces strong variability from the radio to X-rays on timescales of minutes to hours. This rapid, powerful variability is thought to be powered by energetic particle acceleration by plasma processes like magnetic reconnection and shocks. These processes can accelerate particles into non-thermal distributions which do not quickly isothermal in the low densities found around hot accretion flows. Current state-of-the-art simulations of accretion flows around black holes assume either a single-temperature gas or, at best, a two-temperature gas with thermal ions and electrons. We present results from incorporating the self-consistent evolution of a non-thermal electron population in a GRRMHD simulation of Sgr A*. The electron distribution is evolved across space, time, and Lorentz factor in parallel with background thermal ion, electron, and radiation fluids. Energy injection into the non-thermal distribution is modeled with a sub-grid prescription based on results from particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection. The energy distribution of the non-thermal electrons shows strong variability, and the spectral shape traces the complex interplay between the local viscous heating rate, magnetic field strength, and fluid velocity. Results from these simulations will be used in interpreting forthcoming data from the Event Horizon Telescope that resolves Sgr A*'s sub-mm variability in both time and space.
Bomblies, Kirsten; Higgins, James D; Yant, Levi
306 I. 306 II. 307 III. 312 IV. 317 V. 318 319 References 319 SUMMARY: Meiosis is essential for the fertility of most eukaryotes and its structures and progression are conserved across kingdoms. Yet many of its core proteins show evidence of rapid or adaptive evolution. What drives the evolution of meiosis proteins? How can constrained meiotic processes be modified in response to challenges without compromising their essential functions? In surveying the literature, we found evidence of two especially potent challenges to meiotic chromosome segregation that probably necessitate adaptive evolutionary responses: whole-genome duplication and abiotic environment, especially temperature. Evolutionary solutions to both kinds of challenge are likely to involve modification of homologous recombination and synapsis, probably via adjustments of core structural components important in meiosis I. Synthesizing these findings with broader patterns of meiosis gene evolution suggests that the structural components of meiosis coevolve as adaptive modules that may change in primary sequence and function while maintaining three-dimensional structures and protein interactions. The often sharp divergence of these genes among species probably reflects periodic modification of entire multiprotein complexes driven by genomic or environmental changes. We suggest that the pressures that cause meiosis to evolve to maintain fertility may cause pleiotropic alterations of global crossover rates. We highlight several important areas for future research. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
González Hernández, Jonay I; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Tabernero, Hugo M; Montes, David; Canal, Ramon; Méndez, Javier; Bedin, Luigi R
Type Ia supernovae are thought to occur when a white dwarf made of carbon and oxygen accretes sufficient mass to trigger a thermonuclear explosion. The accretion could be slow, from an unevolved (main-sequence) or evolved (subgiant or giant) star (the single-degenerate channel), or rapid, as the primary star breaks up a smaller orbiting white dwarf (the double-degenerate channel). A companion star will survive the explosion only in the single-degenerate channel. Both channels might contribute to the production of type Ia supernovae, but the relative proportions of their contributions remain a fundamental puzzle in astronomy. Previous searches for remnant companions have revealed one possible case for SN 1572 (refs 8, 9), although that has been questioned. More recently, observations have restricted surviving companions to be small, main-sequence stars, ruling out giant companions but still allowing the single-degenerate channel. Here we report the results of a search for surviving companions of the progenitor of SN 1006 (ref. 14). None of the stars within 4 arc minutes of the apparent site of the explosion is associated with the supernova remnant, and we can firmly exclude all giant and subgiant stars from being companions of the progenitor. In combination with previous results, our findings indicate that fewer than 20 per cent of type Ia supernovae occur through the single-degenerate channel.
Full Text Available An ambitious goal in evolutionary robotics is to evolve increasingly complex robotic behaviors with minimal human design effort. Reaching this goal requires evolutionary algorithms that can unlock from genetic encodings their latent potential for evolvability. One issue clouding this goal is conceptual confusion about evolvability, which often obscures the aspects of evolvability that are important or desirable. The danger from such confusion is that it may establish unrealistic goals for evolvability that prove unproductive in practice. An important issue separate from conceptual confusion is the common misalignment between selection and evolvability in evolutionary robotics. While more expressive encodings can represent higher-level adaptations (e.g. sexual reproduction or developmental systems that increase long-term evolutionary potential (i.e. evolvability, realizing such potential requires gradients of fitness and evolvability to align. In other words, selection is often a critical factor limiting increasing evolvability. Thus, drawing from a series of recent papers, this article seeks to both (1 clarify and focus the ways in which the term evolvability is used within artificial evolution, and (2 argue for the importance of one type of selection, i.e. divergent selection, for enabling evolvability. The main argument is that there is a fundamental connection between divergent selection and evolvability (on both the individual and population level that does not hold for typical goal-oriented selection. The conclusion is that selection pressure plays a critical role in realizing the potential for evolvability, and that divergent selection in particular provides a principled mechanism for encouraging evolvability in artificial evolution.
Matthews, Luke J.; Hare, Brian A.; Nunn, Charles L.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M.; Emery, Nathan J.; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F.; Platt, Michael L.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Sandel, Aaron A.; Schroepfer, Kara K.; Seed, Amanda M.; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P.; Wobber, Victoria
Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution. PMID:21927850
Priest, Benjamin W.; Cybenko, George
The identification of important nodes is a ubiquitous problem in the analysis of social networks. Centrality indices (such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, PageRank, and others) are used across many domains to accomplish this task. However, the computation of such indices is expensive on large graphs. Moreover, evolving graphs are becoming increasingly important in many applications. It is therefore desirable to develop on-line algorithms that can approximate centrality measures using memory sublinear in the size of the graph. We discuss the challenges facing the semi-streaming computation of many centrality indices. In particular, we apply recent advances in the streaming and sketching literature to provide a preliminary streaming approximation algorithm for degree centrality utilizing CountSketch and a multi-pass semi-streaming approximation algorithm for closeness centrality leveraging a spanner obtained through iteratively sketching the vertex-edge adjacency matrix. We also discuss possible ways forward for approximating betweenness centrality, as well as spectral measures of centrality. We provide a preliminary result using sketched low-rank approximations to approximate the output of the HITS algorithm.
MacLean, Evan L; Matthews, Luke J; Hare, Brian A; Nunn, Charles L; Anderson, Rindy C; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M; Emery, Nathan J; Haun, Daniel B M; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F; Platt, Michael L; Rosati, Alexandra G; Sandel, Aaron A; Schroepfer, Kara K; Seed, Amanda M; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P; Wobber, Victoria
Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution.
Galperin, Andrew; Haselton, Martie G; Frederick, David A; Poore, Joshua; von Hippel, William; Buss, David M; Gonzaga, Gian C
Regret and anticipated regret enhance decision quality by helping people avoid making and repeating mistakes. Some of people's most intense regrets concern sexual decisions. We hypothesized evolved sex differences in women's and men's experiences of sexual regret. Because of women's higher obligatory costs of reproduction throughout evolutionary history, we hypothesized that sexual actions, particularly those involving casual sex, would be regretted more intensely by women than by men. In contrast, because missed sexual opportunities historically carried higher reproductive fitness costs for men than for women, we hypothesized that poorly chosen sexual inactions would be regretted more by men than by women. Across three studies (Ns = 200, 395, and 24,230), we tested these hypotheses using free responses, written scenarios, detailed checklists, and Internet sampling to achieve participant diversity, including diversity in sexual orientation. Across all data sources, results supported predicted psychological sex differences and these differences were localized in casual sex contexts. These findings are consistent with the notion that the psychology of sexual regret was shaped by recurrent sex differences in selection pressures operating over deep time.
Bernardis, Elena; Pohl, Kilian M; Davatzikos, Christos
A bottleneck in the analysis of longitudinal MR scans with white matter brain lesions is the temporally consistent segmentation of the pathology. We identify pathologies in 3D+t(ime) within a spectral graph clustering framework. Our clustering approach simultaneously segments and tracks the evolving lesions by identifying characteristic image patterns at each time-point and voxel correspondences across time-points. For each 3D image, our method constructs a graph where weights between nodes capture the likeliness of two voxels belonging to the same region. Based on these weights, we then establish rough correspondences between graph nodes at different time-points along estimated pathology evolution directions. We combine the graphs by aligning the weights to a reference time-point, thus integrating temporal information across the 3D images, and formulate the 3D+t segmentation problem as a binary partitioning of this graph. The resulting segmentation is very robust to local intensity fluctuations and yields better results than segmentations generated for each time-point.
Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan S.; Urich, Christian; Krueger, Elisabeth; Kumar, Praveen; Rao, P. Suresh C.
We investigated the scaling and topology of engineered urban drainage networks (UDNs) in two cities, and further examined UDN evolution over decades. UDN scaling was analyzed using two power law scaling characteristics widely employed for river networks: (1) Hack's law of length (L)-area (A) [L∝Ah] and (2) exceedance probability distribution of upstream contributing area (δ) [P>(A≥δ>)˜aδ-ɛ]. For the smallest UDNs ((A≥δ>) plots for river networks are abruptly truncated, those for UDNs display exponential tempering [P>(A≥δ>)=aδ-ɛexp>(-cδ>)]. The tempering parameter c decreases as the UDNs grow, implying that the distribution evolves in time to resemble those for river networks. However, the power law exponent ɛ for large UDNs tends to be greater than the range reported for river networks. Differences in generative processes and engineering design constraints contribute to observed differences in the evolution of UDNs and river networks, including subnet heterogeneity and nonrandom branching.
Full Text Available Norberto Roveri, Michele IafiscoLaboratory of Environmental and Biological Structural Chemistry (LEBSC, Dipartimento di Chimica ‘G. Ciamician’, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, nanocrystals, biomimetism, biomaterials, drug delivery, remineralization
Roveri, Norberto; Iafisco, Michele
By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical-physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical-physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical-physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.
Saeedian, M.; Azimi-Tafreshi, N.; Jafari, G. R.; Kertesz, J.
Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences people's willingness to contact others: A "friendly" contact may be turned to "unfriendly" to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected disease-spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heider's theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find local minima corresponding to the so-called jammed states. We study the effect of the ratio of initial friendly to unfriendly connections on the propagation of disease. The steady state can be balanced or a jammed state such that a coexistence occurs between susceptible and infected nodes in the system.
Nicol, R. D. [UK Atomic Energy Authority, UKAEA, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)
The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)
Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang
Understanding the structure and evolution of online bipartite networks is a significant task since they play a crucial role in various e-commerce services nowadays. Recently, various attempts have been tried to propose different models, resulting in either power-law or exponential degree distributions. However, many empirical results show that the user degree distribution actually follows a shifted power-law distribution, the so-called Mandelbrot’s law, which cannot be fully described by previous models. In this paper, we propose an evolving model, considering two different user behaviors: random and preferential attachment. Extensive empirical results on two real bipartite networks, Delicious and CiteULike, show that the theoretical model can well characterize the structure of real networks for both user and object degree distributions. In addition, we introduce a structural parameter p, to demonstrate that the hybrid user behavior leads to the shifted power-law degree distribution, and the region of power-law tail will increase with the increment of p. The proposed model might shed some lights in understanding the underlying laws governing the structure of real online bipartite networks.
Koenen, E.J.M.; Clarkson, J.J.; Pennington, T.D.; Chatrou, L.W.
•Tropical rainforest hyperdiversity is often suggested to have evolved over a long time-span (the ‘museum’ model), but there is also evidence for recent rainforest radiations. The mahoganies (Meliaceae) are a prominent plant group in lowland tropical rainforests world-wide but also occur in all
The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, ...
rapidly over the next two decades, provided policymakers stay the course with their policy goals. This project relied on a scenario-based analysis to study global biofuel markets. Scenarios were designed to evaluate the impact of different policy proposals and market conditions. World biofuel supply for selected scenarios is shown in Figure 1. The reference case total biofuel production increases from 12 billion gallons of ethanol equivalent in 2005 to 54 billion gallons in 2020 and 83 billion gallons in 2030. The scenarios analyzed show volumes ranging from 46 to 64 billion gallons in 2020, and from about 72 to about 100 billion gallons in 2030. The highest production worldwide occurs in the scenario with high feedstock availability combined with high oil prices and more rapid improvements in cellulosic biofuel conversion technologies. The lowest global production is found in the scenario with low feedstock availability, low oil prices and slower technology progress.
Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie
Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.
Doxley, Charles A.
In the current world of applications that use reconfigurable technology implemented on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), there is a need for flexible architectures that can grow as the systems evolve. A project has limited resources and a fixed set of requirements that development efforts are tasked to meet. Designers must develop robust solutions that practically meet the current customer demands and also have the ability to grow for future performance. This paper describes the development of a high speed serial data streaming algorithm that allows for transmission of multiple data channels over a single serial link. The technique has the ability to change to meet new applications developed for future design considerations. This approach uses the Xilinx Serial RapidIO LOGICORE Solution to implement a flexible infrastructure to meet the current project requirements with the ability to adapt future system designs.
World Bank, Washington, DC.
This executive summary examines the rapid changes occurring in economic markets and employment around the world. The report concludes that problems of low incomes, poor working conditions, and insecurity affecting many of the world's workers can be tackled effectively in ways that reduce poverty and regional inequality. Sound domestic policy and a…
Cook-Deegan Robert M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past two decades, genomics has evolved as a scientific research discipline. Genomics research was fueled initially by government and nonprofit funding sources, later augmented by private research and development (R&D funding. Citizens and taxpayers of many countries have funded much of the research, and have expectations about access to the resulting information and knowledge. While access to knowledge gained from all publicly funded research is desired, access is especially important for fields that have broad social impact and stimulate public dialogue. Genomics is one such field, where public concerns are raised for reasons such as health care and insurance implications, as well as personal and ancestral identification. Thus, genomics has grown rapidly as a field, and attracts considerable interest. Results One way to study the growth of a field of research is to examine its funding. This study focuses on public funding of genomics research, identifying and collecting data from major government and nonprofit organizations around the world, and updating previous estimates of world genomics research funding, including information about geographical origins. We initially identified 89 publicly funded organizations; we requested information about each organization's funding of genomics research. Of these organizations, 48 responded and 34 reported genomics research expenditures (of those that responded but did not supply information, some did not fund such research, others could not quantify it. The figures reported here include all the largest funders and we estimate that we have accounted for most of the genomics research funding from government and nonprofit sources. Conclusion Aggregate spending on genomics research from 34 funding sources averaged around $2.9 billion in 2003 – 2006. The United States spent more than any other country on genomics research, corresponding to 35% of the overall worldwide public
Artacho, Emilio; O'Regan, David D.
Many basis sets for electronic structure calculations evolve with varying external parameters, such as moving atoms in dynamic simulations, giving rise to extra derivative terms in the dynamical equations. Here we revisit these derivatives in the context of differential geometry, thereby obtaining a more transparent formalization, and a geometrical perspective for better understanding the resulting equations. The effect of the evolution of the basis set within the spanned Hilbert space separates explicitly from the effect of the turning of the space itself when moving in parameter space, as the tangent space turns when moving in a curved space. New insights are obtained using familiar concepts in that context such as the Riemann curvature. The differential geometry is not strictly that for curved spaces as in general relativity, a more adequate mathematical framework being provided by fiber bundles. The language used here, however, will be restricted to tensors and basic quantum mechanics. The local gauge implied by a smoothly varying basis set readily connects with Berry's formalism for geometric phases. Generalized expressions for the Berry connection and curvature are obtained for a parameter-dependent occupied Hilbert space spanned by nonorthogonal Wannier functions. The formalism is applicable to basis sets made of atomic-like orbitals and also more adaptative moving basis functions (such as in methods using Wannier functions as intermediate or support bases), but should also apply to other situations in which nonorthogonal functions or related projectors should arise. The formalism is applied to the time-dependent quantum evolution of electrons for moving atoms. The geometric insights provided here allow us to propose new finite-difference time integrators, and also better understand those already proposed.
Full Text Available Emma R McIvor,1 R Andrew McIvor2 1Queen’s University, Belfast, UK; 2Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Tiotropium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA that exerts its bronchodilatory effect by blocking endogenous acetylcholine receptors in the airways. Its safety and efficacy are well established for the treatment of COPD, and it is now being recognized for its role in improving lung function and control in asthma. This review discusses the evolving role of tiotropium delivered by the Respimat® in patients across the range of asthma severities and ages, and provides an overview of safety and efficacy data. Tiotropium is the only LAMA currently approved for the treatment of asthma, and evidence from a large-scale clinical trial program, including several Phase III studies in adults, has demonstrated that tiotropium improves lung function and asthma control, with a safety profile comparable with that of placebo. Clinical trials in adolescent patients (aged 12–17 years have also shown improvements in lung function and trends toward improved asthma control. Of note, the efficacy and safety profiles are consistent regardless of baseline characteristics and phenotype. Given the large and growing body of evidence, it is likely that as clinical experience with tiotropium increases, this treatment may possibly emerge as the key choice for add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting β2-agonists, and in patients who do not tolerate long-acting bronchodilators or other medications, in the future. Keywords: tiotropium, anticholinergics, asthma, efficacy
Afshordi, Niayesh [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Stojkovic, Dejan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States)
Changing the dimensionality of the space–time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem) can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of “evolving dimensions” in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger–Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3+1)-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3+1)-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.
Afshordi, Niayesh; Stojkovic, Dejan
Changing the dimensionality of the space-time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem) can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of ;evolving dimensions; in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger-Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3 + 1)-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3 + 1)-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.
Full Text Available Changing the dimensionality of the space–time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of “evolving dimensions” in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger–Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3+1-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3+1-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.
Diaz, Carlos E., Jr.
This paper provides a summary of the findings of recent activities conducted by Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) In-Space Propulsion Branch and MSFC's Metrology and Calibration Lab to assess the performance of current "state of the art" pressure transducers for use in long duration storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. A brief historical narrative in this paper describes the Evolvable Cryogenics program and the relevance of these activities to the program. This paper also provides a review of three separate test activities performed throughout this effort, including: (1) the calibration of several pressure transducer designs in a liquid nitrogen cryogenic environmental chamber, (2) the calibration of a pressure transducer in a liquid helium Dewar, and (3) the calibration of several pressure transducers at temperatures ranging from 20 to 70 degrees Kelvin (K) using a "cryostat" environmental chamber. These three separate test activities allowed for study of the sensors along a temperature range from 4 to 300 K. The combined data shows that both the slope and intercept of the sensor's calibration curve vary as a function of temperature. This homogeneous function is contrary to the linearly decreasing relationship assumed at the start of this investigation. Consequently, the data demonstrates the need for lookup tables to change the slope and intercept used by any data acquisition system. This ultimately would allow for more accurate pressure measurements at the desired temperature range. This paper concludes with a review of a request for information (RFI) survey conducted amongst different suppliers to determine the availability of current "state of the art" flight-qualified pressure transducers. The survey identifies requirements that are most difficult for the suppliers to meet, most notably the capability to validate the sensor's performance at temperatures below 70 K.
Bowman, Jessica C; Hud, Nicholas V; Williams, Loren Dean
An RNA World that predated the modern world of polypeptide and polynucleotide is one of the most widely accepted models in origin of life research. In this model, the translation system shepherded the RNA World into the extant biology of DNA, RNA, and protein. Here, we examine the RNA World Hypothesis in the context of increasingly detailed information available about the origins, evolution, functions, and mechanisms of the translation system. We conclude that the translation system presents critical challenges to RNA World Hypotheses. Firstly, a timeline of the RNA World is problematic when the ribosome is incorporated. The mechanism of peptidyl transfer of the ribosome appears distinct from evolved enzymes, signaling origins in a chemical rather than biological milieu. Secondly, we have no evidence that the basic biochemical toolset of life is subject to substantive change by Darwinian evolution, as required for the transition from the RNA world to extant biology. Thirdly, we do not see specific evidence for biological takeover of ribozyme function by protein enzymes. Finally, we can find no basis for preservation of the ribosome as ribozyme or the universality of translation, if it were the case that other information transducing ribozymes, such as ribozyme polymerases, were replaced by protein analogs and erased from the phylogenetic record. We suggest that an updated model of the RNA World should address the current state of knowledge of the translation system.
Leshner, Alan I.
The relationship between science and the rest of society is critical both to the support it receives from the public and to the receptivity of the broader citizenry to science's explanations of the nature of the world and to its other outputs. Science's ultimate usefulness depends on a receptive public. For example, given that science and technology are imbedded in virtually every issue of modern life, either as a cause or a cure, it is critical that the relationship be strong and that the role of science is well appreciated by society, or the impacts of scientific advances will fall short of their great potential. Unfortunately, a variety of problems have been undermining the science-society relationship for over a decade. Some problems emerge from within the scientific enterprise - like scientific misconduct or conflicts of interest - and tarnish or weaken its image and credibility. Other problems and stresses come from outside the enterprise. The most obvious external pressure is that the world economic situation is undermining the financial support of both the conduct and infrastructure of science. Other examples of external pressures include conflicts between what science is revealing and political or economic expediency - e.g., global climate change - or instances where scientific advances encroach upon core human values or beliefs - e.g., scientific understanding of the origins and evolution of the universe as compared to biblical accounts of creation. Significant efforts - some dramatically non-traditional for many in the scientific community - are needed to restore balance to the science-society relationship.
Hintze, Arend; Olson, Randal; Lehman, Joel Anthony
(i.e. agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highly-evolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating...... opponents. Furthermore, human interaction can modulate (and be informed by) the performance and behavior of collaborating agents. In this way, orthogonally evolved AI both facilitates smoother difficulty adjustment and enables new game experiences....
Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Lauer, Amber; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Frank, Juhan
being a WD. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.
Talati, Jamsheer Jehangir
To summarise the concepts critical for understanding the content and value of lifelong learning (LL). Ideas generated by personal experience were combined with those of philosophers, social scientists, educational institutions, governments and UNESCO, to facilitate an understanding of the importance of the basic concepts of LL. Autopoietic, continuous, self-determined, informal, vicarious, biographical, lifelong reflexive learning, from and for society, when supported by self-chosen formal courses, can build capacities and portable skills that allow useful responses to challenges and society's new structures of governance. The need for LL is driven by challenges. LL flows continuously in pursuit of one agenda, which could either be citizenship, as is conventional, or as this article proposes, health. LL cannot be wholly centred on vocation. Continuous medical education and continuous professional development, important in their own right, cannot supply all that is needed. LL aids society with its learning, and it requires an awareness of the environment and structures of society. It is heavily vicarious, draws on formal learning and relies for effectiveness on reflection, self-assessment and personal shaping of views of the world from different perspectives. Health is critical to rational thought and peace, and determines society's capacity to govern itself, and improve its health. LL should be reshaped to focus on health not citizenship. Therefore, embedding learning in society and environment is critical. Each urologist must develop an understanding of the numerous concepts in LL, of which 'biographicisation' is the seed that will promote innovative strategies.
Sperling, JLH; Middelveen, MJ; Klein, D; Sperling, FAH
With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23091570
In line with the origin of life from the chemical world, biological mortality kinetics is suggested to originate from chemical decomposition kinetics described by the Arrhenius equation k = A*exp(-E/RT). Another chemical legacy of living bodies is that, by using the appropriate properties of their constituent molecules, they incorporate all their potencies, including adverse ones. In early evolution, acquiring an ability to use new molecules to increase disintegration barrier E might be associated with new adverse interactions, yielding products that might accumulate in organisms and compromise their viability. Thus, the main variable of the Arrhenius equation changed from T in chemistry to E in biology; mortality turned to rise exponentially as E declined with increasing age; and survivorship patterns turned to feature slow initial and fast late descent making the bulk of each finite cohort to expire within a short final period of its lifespan. Numerical modelling shows that such acquisition of new functions associated with faster functional decline may increase the efficiency of investing resources into progeny, in line with the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of ageing. Any evolved time trajectories of functional changes were translated into changes in mortality through exponent according to the generalised Gompertz-Makeham law mu = C(t)+Lambda*exp[-E(t)], which is reduced to the conventional form when E(t) = E0-gammat and C is constant. The proposed model explains the origin of the linear mid-age functional decline followed by its deceleration at later ages and the positive correlation between the initial vitality and the rate of ageing.
Puma, Michael J.; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.
The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18 year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85% of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90%, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9% (3.8%) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11% (5.7%) for 2005-2009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2% (2.2%) to 14% (5.2%). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.
Puma, Michael Joseph; Bose, Satyajit; Chon, So Young; Cook, Benjamin I.
The world food crisis in 2008 highlighted the susceptibility of the global food system to price shocks. Here we use annual staple food production and trade data from 1992-2009 to analyse the changing properties of the global food system. Over the 18-year study period, we show that the global food system is relatively homogeneous (85 of countries have low or marginal food self-sufficiency) and increases in complexity, with the number of global wheat and rice trade connections doubling and trade flows increasing by 42 and 90, respectively. The increased connectivity and flows within these global trade networks suggest that the global food system is vulnerable to systemic disruptions, especially considering the tendency for exporting countries to switch to non-exporting states during times of food scarcity in the global markets. To test this hypothesis, we superimpose continental-scale disruptions on the wheat and rice trade networks. We find greater absolute reductions in global wheat and rice exports along with larger losses in network connectivity as the networks evolve due to disruptions in European wheat and Asian rice production. Importantly, our findings indicate that least developed countries suffer greater import losses in more connected networks through their increased dependence on imports for staple foods (due to these large-scale disturbances): mean (median) wheat losses as percentages of staple food supply are 8.9 (3.8) for 1992-1996, increasing to 11 (5.7) for 20052009. Over the same intervals, rice losses increase from 8.2 (2.2) to 14 (5.2). Our work indicates that policy efforts should focus on balancing the efficiency of international trade (and its associated specialization) with increased resilience of domestic production and global demand diversity.
Full Text Available The management of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is one of the most topical areas in urology. Although most patients are adequately managed conservatively, many still require surgery to reduce bladder outlet obstruction or relieve symptoms by removing the inflamed adenomatous tissue. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP remains the gold standard treatment in all national and international guidelines, with open prostatectomy and laser enucleation reserved for patients with a prostate >80 ml. The current trend in the surgical management of BPH is threefold: replacing open prostatectomy with transurethral enucleation of the adenoma, managing high-risk patients by photoselective vaporisation of the prostate thus minimising blood loss, and moving BPH surgery to ambulatory day surgery and one-day surgery units in selected patients. Laser enucleation has been pioneered using the Holmium laser, although the GreenLightTM laser has been recently proposed as an alternative approach. The absence of any bleeding in photovaporisation of the prostate allows surgery to be performed in a growing population of patients on anti-aggregant and anticoagulant medications. Randomised trials of the GreenLight XPSTM laser with the MoXy™ fibre versus TURP proved the effectiveness of photovaporisation in the surgical management of BPH and suggested that 50% of patients could be discharged within 24 hours. The demand for BPH surgery remains high and urologists have rapidly adapted to the increasing demand for minimally invasive surgery. Prostate surgery evolved from a heroic procedure that remained in the memories of the entire patient family for life into a day-case procedure, and the future hopefully holds ejaculation-sparing surgery.
Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.
Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in
Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Khalil, Miral A.
Background & objectives Over the past decade, non-medical use of novel drugs has proliferated worldwide. In most cases these are synthetic drugs first synthesized in academic or pharmaceutical laboratories for research or drug development purposes, but also include naturally occurring substances that do not fit the typical pharmacological or behavioral profile of traditional illicit substances. Perhaps most unique to this generation of new drugs is that they are being sold over the counter and on the Internet as “legal highs” or substitutes for traditional illicit drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA, and LSD. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of novel drugs in current use, including the epidemiology of use and toxicologic and pharmacological properties, and to offer some guidelines to clinicians who see patients experiencing adverse effects from these drugs. Method We review the known scientific literature on recently introduced synthetic drug types, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones, and the hallucinogen Salvia divinorum. Results These substances comprise part of a rapidly evolving and controversial drug market that has challenged definitions of what is legal and illegal, has benefitted from open commercial sales without regulatory oversight, and is noteworthy for the pace at which new substances are introduced. Conclusions This emerging trend in substance use presents significant and unique public health and criminal justice challenges. At this time, these substances are not detected in routine drug screens and substance-specific treatment for cases of use-related toxicity are not available. Clinicians are encouraged to learn characteristic signs associated with misuse of novel drugs to recognize cases in their practice, and are recommended to use a symptom-specific approach for treatment in each case. PMID:24921061
Kuan-Yu Chen; Hsiu-Yu Liao; Jyun-Hung Chen; Duen-Ren Liu
Virtual worlds (VWs) are computer-simulated environments which allow users to create their own virtual character as an avatar. With the rapidly growing user volume in VWs, platform providers launch virtual goods in haste and stampede users to increase sales revenue. However, the rapidity of development incurs virtual unrelated items which will be difficult to remarket. It not only wastes virtual global companies’ intelligence resources, but also makes it difficult for users to find suitable v...
Zohary, D; Spiegel-Roy, P
The article reviews the available information on the start of fruit tree cultivation in the Old World. On the basis of (i) evaluation of the available archeological remains and (ii) examination of the wild relatives of the cultivated crops, it was concluded that olive, grape, date, and fig were the first important horticultural additions to the Mediterranean grain agriculture. They were most likely domesticated in the Near East in protohistoric time (fourth and third millennia B.C.) and they emerge as important food elements in the early Bronze Age. Domestication of all four fruit trees was based on a shift from sexual reproduction (in the wild) to vegetative propagation of clones (under domestication). Olive, grape, date, and fig can be vegetatively propagated by simple techniques (cuttings, basal knobs, suckers) and were thus preadapted for domestication early in the development of agriculture. The shift to clonal propagation placed serious limitations on selection and on fruit set under cultivation. We have examined the consequences of this shift in terms of the genetic makeup of the cultivars and traced the various countermeasures that evolved to ensure fruit set. Finally, it was pointed out that in each of these classic fruit trees we are confronted with a variable complex of genuinely wild types, secondary weedy derivatives and feral plants, and groups of the domesticated clones, which are all interfertile and interconnected by occasional hybridization. It was concluded that introgression from the diversified wild gene pool facilitated the rapid buildup of variation in the domesticated crops.
Having just returned from a visit to India and China I'm conscious of something that has changed greatly in the way CERN works over recent years, and is continuing rapidly to evolve. Today, CERN provides for collaboration not only among European states, but among states the world over. Joining CERN's 20 European member states are six observers and a further 35 countries that have signed cooperation agreements with us. Furthermore we have a number of memoranda of understanding with scientific agencies around the world. And among our user community, you will find representatives of 111 nationalities. There is no other organization in the world quite like it, where people of so many different cultures and backgrounds work harmoniously towards common goals. The LHC project has allowed CERN to take international collaboration in science beyond the regional model that it pioneered in the 1950s, blazing the trail for future global projects in science. Although over 90% funded by our Member States, the LHC is the f...
The structure of ecological networks, in particular food webs, determines their ability to evolve further, i.e. evolvability. The knowledge about how food web evolvability is determined by the structures of diverse ecological networks can guide human interventions purposefully to either promote or limit evolvability of ecosystems. However, the focus of prior food web studies was on stability and robustness; little is known regarding the impact of ecological network structures on their evolvability. To correlate ecosystem structure and evolvability, we adopt the NK model originally from evolutionary biology to generate and assess the ruggedness of fitness landscapes of a wide spectrum of model food webs with gradual variation in the amount of feeding loops and link density. The variation in network structures is controlled by linkage rewiring. Our results show that more feeding loops and lower trophic link density, i.e. higher autonomy of species, of food webs increase the potential for the ecosystem to generate heritable variations with improved fitness. Our findings allow the prediction of the evolvability of actual food webs according to their network structures, and provide guidance to enhancing or controlling the evolvability of specific ecosystems.
Rorick, Mary M; Wagner, Günter P
Theory suggests that biological modularity and robustness allow for maintenance of fitness under mutational change, and when this change is adaptive, for evolvability. Empirical demonstrations that these traits promote evolvability in nature remain scant however. This is in part because modularity, robustness, and evolvability are difficult to define and measure in real biological systems. Here, we address whether structural modularity and/or robustness confer evolvability at the level of proteins by looking for associations between indices of protein structural modularity, structural robustness, and evolvability. We propose a novel index for protein structural modularity: the number of regular secondary structure elements (helices and strands) divided by the number of residues in the structure. We index protein evolvability as the proportion of sites with evidence of being under positive selection multiplied by the average rate of adaptive evolution at these sites, and we measure this as an average over a phylogeny of 25 mammalian species. We use contact density as an index of protein designability, and thus, structural robustness. We find that protein evolvability is positively associated with structural modularity as well as structural robustness and that the effect of structural modularity on evolvability is independent of the structural robustness index. We interpret these associations to be the result of reduced constraints on amino acid substitutions in highly modular and robust protein structures, which results in faster adaptation through natural selection.
Phillips, Kelly N; Castillo, Gerardo; Wünsche, Andrea; Cooper, Tim F
The selective history of a population can influence its subsequent evolution, an effect known as historical contingency. We previously observed that five of six replicate populations that were evolved in a glucose-limited environment for 2000 generations, then switched to lactose for 1000 generations, had higher fitness increases in lactose than populations started directly from the ancestor. To test if selection in glucose systematically increased lactose evolvability, we started 12 replay populations--six from a population subsample and six from a single randomly selected clone--from each of the six glucose-evolved founder populations. These replay populations and 18 ancestral populations were evolved for 1000 generations in a lactose-limited environment. We found that replay populations were initially slightly less fit in lactose than the ancestor, but were more evolvable, in that they increased in fitness at a faster rate and to higher levels. This result indicates that evolution in the glucose environment resulted in genetic changes that increased the potential of genotypes to adapt to lactose. Genome sequencing identified four genes--iclR, nadR, spoT, and rbs--that were mutated in most glucose-evolved clones and are candidates for mediating increased evolvability. Our results demonstrate that short-term selective costs during selection in one environment can lead to changes in evolvability that confer longer term benefits. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Kleinman, Steven M
As World War II unfolded, the strategic interrogation programs established by the British, German, and American forces evolved into robust collection entities that proved to be a unique source of critical intelligence...
Sharma, N; Rowe, R
Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing
The explosion of mobile devices around the world is transforming the nature of digital publishing. Publishers and digital content developers must rethink every node of the publishing process in order to take advantage of the fast-approaching mobile future. Mobile Strategies for Digital Publishing: A Practical Guide to the Evolving Landscape offers an in-depth look at the latest mobile trends and how they're changing the shape of the industry. Publishing analyst Thad McIlroy, founder of the Future of Publishing blog, assembles and a reviews a wide range of recent data on e-reading prac
This monograph presents key method to successfully manage the growing complexity of systems where conventional engineering and scientific methodologies and technologies based on learning and adaptability come to their limits and new ways are nowadays required. The transition from adaptable to evolvable and finally to self-evolvable systems is highlighted, self-properties such as self-organization, self-configuration, and self-repairing are introduced and challenges and limitations of the self-evolvable engineering systems are evaluated.
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal (GI cancers are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in Iran, with stomach adenocarcinoma as the most common cancer in men and the second common cancer in women. Also, some parts of Northern Iran have one of the highest incidences of esophageal cancer in the world. Multi-disciplinary organ-based joint clinics and tumor boards are a well-recognized necessity for modern treatment of cancer and are routinely utilized in developed countries, especially in major academic centres. But this concept is relatively new in developing countries, where cancer treatment centres are burdened by huge loads of patients and have to cope with a suboptimum availability of resources and facilities. Cancer Institute of Tehran University of Medical Sciences is the oldest and the only comprehensive cancer treatment centre in Iran, with a long tradition of a general tumor board for all cancers. But with the requirements of modern oncology, there has been a very welcome attention to sub-specialized organ-based tumor boards and joint clinics here in the past few years. Considering this, we started a multi-disciplinary tumor board for GI cancers in our institute in early 2010 as the first such endeavor here. We hereby review this 2-year evolving experience. The process of establishment of a GI tumor board, participations from different oncology disciplines and related specialties, the cancers presented and discussed in the 2 years of this tumor board, the general intents of treatment for the decisions made and the development of interest in this tumor board among the Tehran oncology community will be reviewed. The GI tumor board of Tehran Cancer Institute started its work in January 2010, with routine weekly sessions. A core group of 2 physicians from each surgical, radiation and medical oncology departments plus one gastroenterologist, GI pathologist and radiologist was formed, but participation from all interested physicians was encouraged. An
Reeves, Thomas C.; Reeves, Patricia M.
The status of educational technology research in a VUCA world is examined. The acronym, VUCA, stands for "Volatility" (rapidly changing contexts and conditions), "Uncertainty" (information missing that is critical to problem solving), "Complexity" (multiple factors difficult to categorize or control), and…
Tanner, John Sears
Relates personal experiences about what constitutes the "real world." Shows how experiences from philosophy, history, literature, art, and the movies add meaning to "reality." Stresses a compromise of imagination and sensation to make the real world palatable. (RL)
Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Laboratory
HIV's rapid global spread and the human suffering it has left in its wake have made AIDS a global heath priority for the 25 years since its discovery. Yet its capacity to rapidly evolve has made combating this virus a tremendous challenge. The obstacles to creating an effective HIV vaccine are formidable, but there are advances in the field on many fronts, in terms of novel vectors, adjuvants, and antigen design strategies. SIV live attenuated vaccine models are able to confer protection against heterologous challenge, and this continues to provide opportunities to explore the biological underpinnings of a protective effect (9). More indirect, but equally important, is new understanding regarding the biology of acute infection (43), the role of immune response in long-term non-progression (6,62, 81), and defining characteristics of broadly neutralizing antibodies (4). In this review we will focus on summarizing strategies directed towards a single issue, that of contending with HIV variation in terms of designing aT-cell vaccine. The strategies that prove most effective in this area can ultimately be combined with the best strategies under development in other areas, with the hope of ultimately converging on a viable vaccine candidate. Only two large HIV vaccine efficacy trials have been completed and both have failed to prevent infection or confer a benefit to infected individual (23,34), but there is ample reason to continue our efforts. A historic breakthrough came in 1996, when it was realized that although the virus could escape from a single antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, it could be thwarted by a combination of medications that simultaneously targeted different parts of the virus (HAART) (38). This revelation came after 15 years of research, thought, and clinical testing; to enable that vital progress the research and clinical communities had to first define and understand, then develop a strategy to counter, the remarkable evolutionary potential of the
Schulze-Cleven, Tobias; Olson, Jennifer R.
This article explores the changing character and consequences of state authorities' evolving relationships with universities in the United States, Germany, and Norway--typical cases for different national worlds of higher education. It argues that across the three OECD countries, welfare states have strengthened market principles in university…
Details the 1990 meeting of the World Council of the World Organization for Early Childhood Education (OMEP) in Lagos, Nigeria. OMEP's Statement to the World Summit for Children is provided. The conditions of Nigerian children and female children in India are considered. (BG)
The visual quality of game worlds increased massively in the last three decades. However, the closer game worlds depict reality, the more noticeable it is for gamers when objects do not behave accordingly. An important problem is that the data of a game world is often scattered across different
Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Pangsap, S; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian
To investigate evolving food retail systems in Thailand. Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods including interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits. Seven fresh markets located in the four main regions of Thailand. Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven fresh markets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Fresh markets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As fresh markets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women's jobs and social capital, with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand.
Ham, Hyun Ok; Qu, Zheng; Haller, Carolyn A.; Dorr, Brent M.; Dai, Erbin; Kim, Wookhyun; Liu, David R.; Chaikof, Elliot L.
Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules is a central paradigm in the design of implantable devices and biosensors with improved clinical performance capabilities. However, in vivo degradation or denaturation of surface constituents often limits the long-term performance of bioactive films. Here we demonstrate the capacity to repeatedly regenerate a covalently immobilized monomolecular thin film of bioactive molecules through a two-step stripping and recharging cycle. Reversible transpeptidation by a laboratory evolved Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (eSrtA) enabled the rapid immobilization of an anti-thrombogenic film in the presence of whole blood and permitted multiple cycles of film regeneration in vitro that preserved its biological activity. Moreover, eSrtA transpeptidation facilitated surface re-engineering of medical devices in situ after in vivo implantation through removal and restoration film constituents. These studies establish a rapid, orthogonal and reversible biochemical scheme to regenerate selective molecular constituents with the potential to extend the lifetime of bioactive films.
Lessin, Dan; Fussell, Don; Miikkulainen, Risto
The ESP method for evolving virtual creatures (Lessin et al., 2013) consisted of an encapsulation mechanism to preserve learned skills, a human-designed syllabus to build higherlevel skills by combining lower-level skills systematically, and a pandemonium mechanism to resolve conflicts between...... encapsulated skills in a single creature’s brain. Previous work with ESP showed that it is possible to evolve much more complex behavior than before, even when fundamental morphology (i.e., skeletal segments and joints) was evolved only for the first skill. This paper introduces a more general form of ESP...... in which full morphological development can continue beyond the first skill, allowing creatures to adapt their morphology to multiple tasks. This extension increases the variety and quality of evolved creature results significantly, while maintaining the original ESP system’s ability to incrementally...
Hintze, Arend; Olson, Randal; Lehman, Joel Anthony
(i.e. agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highly-evolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating...... agents that are co-evolved with opponent agents (where collaborators and opponents have orthogonal incentives). The advantage is that game difficulty can be adjusted more granularly by manipulating two independent axes: by having more or less adept collaborators, and by having more or less adept...... opponents. Furthermore, human interaction can modulate (and be informed by) the performance and behavior of collaborating agents. In this way, orthogonally evolved AI both facilitates smoother difficulty adjustment and enables new game experiences....
Full Text Available Current planning and legislation in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta call for the large-scale ecological restoration of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These ecological mandates have emerged in response to the region’s infrastructural transformation and the Delta’s predominant use as the central logistical hub in the state’s vast water conveyance network. Restoration is an attempt to recover what was externalized by the logic and abstractions of this logistical infrastructure. However, based on findings from our research, which examined how people are using restored and naturalized landscapes in the Delta and how these landscapes are currently planned for, we argue that as mitigatory response, restoration planning continues some of the same spatial abstractions and inequities by failing to account for the Delta as an urbanized, cultural and unique place. In interpreting how these conditions have come to be, we give attention to a pluralistic landscape approach and a coevolutionary reading of planning, policy, science and landscapes to discuss the conservation challenges presented by “Delta as an Evolving Place”. We suggest that for rewilding efforts to be successful in the Delta, a range of proactive, opportunistic, grounded and participatory tactics will be required to shift towards a more socio-ecological approach.
The 21. of April 2005, was held in Paris the 6. international petroleum meeting whose main theme was: the supply and demand. The participants of this summit have in majority argued for a greater opening of the productive countries to the international investments which are indispensable to face with a world demand of oil in full expansion. Total has announced the approval by the British authorities of the development of the gas and condensates deposit of north Forvie, located at about 440 km at the nord-east of Aberdeen. Technip and Kerr-McGee Oil and Gas Corp., have received the prestigious price of the Offshore Technology Conference 2005. The Norway and the United Kingdom have signed a cooperation treaty for stimulating the development of petroleum and natural gas deposits in North sea. The petroleum groups Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil think to sale their shares in three fields in the North sea. Total and Lubrifin, one of the main manufacturers and distributors of lubricants and greases on the Romanian market, have just finalize an agreement for the establishment of a common firm: Total Lubrifin. The IEA has published a study for the governments to rapidly reduce the petroleum consumption in transports in the case of crisis or breakdown of the supply. In order to avoid an accident risk which could have disastrous environmental consequences, by the important transit in the Bosphore pass, a plan (dating from 1995) provides that the petroleum of the Caspian sea transiting by the Russian harbour of Novorossiisk, on North sea, be conveyed by sea way to the Bulgarian harbour of Bourgas, to be transported by pipeline on 320 km to the Alexandroupolis harbour. Vladimir Poutine has received last April to the Kremlin John Browne, general director of the British firm BP, came ask for its investment in Russia in the common firm: TNK-BP. The Algerian petroleum firm Sonatrach is in the 12. world place among the hundred first petroleum firms in the world. Shell Ivory Coast
Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Arostica, Fernanda; Bahamonde, Sebastian [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)
In this paper we study (N+1)-dimensional evolving wormholes supported by energy satisfying a polytropic equation of state. The considered evolving wormhole models are described by a constant redshift function and generalizes the standard flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The polytropic equation of state allows us to consider in (3+1)-dimensions generalizations of the phantom energy and the generalized Chaplygin gas sources. (orig.)
Baldauf, Brian; Conti, Alberto
The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than what can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. Space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to system architectures.The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling and affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This paper reports on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST), which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will also facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, and a testbed for new instruments. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Other key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal
Conti, Alberto; Arenberg, Jonathan; Baldauf, Brian
The “Search for Life” (direct imaging of earth-like planets) will require extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. Such apertures are larger than what can be delivered to space using current or planned future launch vehicles. Building and assembling large telescopes in space is therefore likely to require not only multiple launches but importantly assembly in spce. As a result, space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to our conventional telescope design and architecture.Here we report on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST) to demonstrates the on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of an optical telescope in space. MODEST is a proposed International Space Station (ISS demonstration that will make use of the standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets.MODEST will provides significant risk reduction for the next generation of space observatories, and demonstrates the technology needed to assemble a six-mirror phased telescope. Key modest features include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control to allow on-orbit optimization, and the precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion. Mirrors built from these materials can be rapidly replicated in a highly cost effective manner, making them an excellent candidate for a low cost, high performance Optical Telescope Assembly paving the way for enabling affordable solutions for the next generation of large aperture space-based telescope.MODEST post-assembly value includes space, ground, and
Dandamudi, Sanjay; Chen, Horng H
aspects about our evolving understanding of the cardiorenal system are the innovative treatments that have emerged as a result. The creation of chimeric natriuretic peptides, targeted intra-renal pharmacotherapy, the novel use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and combination treatment strategies demonstrate that despite our varied success in treating cardiorenal syndrome in the past, there are highly encouraging translational therapies rapidly developing in the pipeline.
Parris, A. S.
In 2015, NOAA's RISA program will celebrate its 20th year of exploration in the development of usable climate information. In the mid-1990s, a vision emerged to develop interdisciplinary research efforts at the regional scale for several important reasons. Recognizable climate patterns, such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), emerge at the regional level where our understanding of observations and models coalesce. Critical resources for society are managed in a context of regional systems, such as water supply and human populations. Multiple scales of governance (local, state, and federal) with complex institutional relationships can be examined across a region. Climate information (i.e. data, science, research etc) developed within these contexts has greater potential for use. All of this work rests on a foundation of iterative engagement between scientists and decision makers. Throughout these interactions, RISAs have navigated diverse politics, extreme events and disasters, socio-economic and ecological disruptions, and advances in both science and technology. Our understanding of information needs is evolving into a richer understanding of complex institutional, legal, political, and cultural contexts within which people can use science to make informed decisions. The outcome of RISA work includes both cases where climate information was used in decisions and cases where capacity for using climate information and making climate resilient decisions has increased over time. In addition to balancing supply and demand of scientific information, RISAs are engaged in a social process of reconciling climate information use with important drivers of society. Because partnerships are critical for sustained engagement, and because engagement is critically important to the use of science, the rapid development of new capacity in regionally-based science programs focused on providing climate decision support is both needed and challenging. New actors can bolster
Full Text Available Influence maximization problem aims to identify the most influential individuals so as to help in developing effective viral marketing strategies over social networks. Previous studies mainly focus on designing efficient algorithms or heuristics on a static social network. As a matter of fact, real-world social networks keep evolving over time and a recalculation upon the changed network inevitably leads to a long running time. In this paper, we propose an incremental approach, IncInf, which can efficiently locate the top-K influential individuals in evolving social networks based on previous information instead of calculation from scratch. In particular, IncInf quantitatively analyzes the influence spread changes of nodes by localizing the impact of topology evolution to only local regions, and a pruning strategy is further proposed to narrow the search space into nodes experiencing major increases or with high degrees. To evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness, we carried out extensive experiments on real-world dynamic social networks: Facebook, NetHEPT, and Flickr. Experimental results demonstrate that, compared with the state-of-the-art static algorithm, IncInf achieves remarkable speedup in execution time while maintaining matching performance in terms of influence spread.
Koonin, Eugene V.
The wide spread of gene exchange and loss in the prokaryotic world has prompted the concept of ‘lateral genomics’ to the point of an outright denial of the relevance of phylogenetic trees for evolution. However, the pronounced coherence congruence of the topologies of numerous gene trees, particularly those for (nearly) universal genes, translates into the notion of a statistical tree of life (STOL), which reflects a central trend of vertical evolution. The STOL can be employed as a framework for reconstruction of the evolutionary processes in the prokaryotic world. Quantitatively, however, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) dominates microbial evolution, with the rate of gene gain and loss being comparable to the rate of point mutations and much greater than the duplication rate. Theoretical models of evolution suggest that HGT is essential for the survival of microbial populations that otherwise deteriorate due to the Muller’s ratchet effect. Apparently, at least some bacteria and archaea evolved dedicated vehicles for gene transfer that evolved from selfish elements such as plasmids and viruses. Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that episodes of massive HGT were pivotal for the emergence of major groups of organisms such as multiple archaeal phyla as well as eukaryotes. Similar analyses appear to indicate that, in addition to donating hundreds of genes to the emerging eukaryotic lineage, mitochondrial endosymbiosis severely curtailed HGT. These results shed new light on the routes of evolutionary transitions, but caution is due given the inherent uncertainty of deep phylogenies. PMID:27508073
Koonin, Eugene V
The wide spread of gene exchange and loss in the prokaryotic world has prompted the concept of 'lateral genomics' to the point of an outright denial of the relevance of phylogenetic trees for evolution. However, the pronounced coherence congruence of the topologies of numerous gene trees, particularly those for (nearly) universal genes, translates into the notion of a statistical tree of life (STOL), which reflects a central trend of vertical evolution. The STOL can be employed as a framework for reconstruction of the evolutionary processes in the prokaryotic world. Quantitatively, however, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) dominates microbial evolution, with the rate of gene gain and loss being comparable to the rate of point mutations and much greater than the duplication rate. Theoretical models of evolution suggest that HGT is essential for the survival of microbial populations that otherwise deteriorate due to the Muller's ratchet effect. Apparently, at least some bacteria and archaea evolved dedicated vehicles for gene transfer that evolved from selfish elements such as plasmids and viruses. Recent phylogenomic analyses suggest that episodes of massive HGT were pivotal for the emergence of major groups of organisms such as multiple archaeal phyla as well as eukaryotes. Similar analyses appear to indicate that, in addition to donating hundreds of genes to the emerging eukaryotic lineage, mitochondrial endosymbiosis severely curtailed HGT. These results shed new light on the routes of evolutionary transitions, but caution is due given the inherent uncertainty of deep phylogenies.
lyophilization (FLYP). TEG analysis: measurements of R time in seconds (clotting time), alpha angle in degrees (clot kinetic ), and maximum amplitude in millimeters...O R I G I N A L A R T I C L E The evolving role of lyophilized plasma in remote damage control resuscitation in the French Armed Forces Health...combat casualties during World War II. The French Military Blood Institute began producing French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 1949, in accordance
Butterfield, Andrew; Vedagiri, Vivek; Lang, Edward; Lawrence, Cath; Wakefield, Matthew J; Isaev, Alexander; Huttley, Gavin A
Examining the distribution of variation has proven an extremely profitable technique in the effort to identify sequences of biological significance. Most approaches in the field, however, evaluate only the conserved portions of sequences - ignoring the biological significance of sequence differences. A suite of sophisticated likelihood based statistical models from the field of molecular evolution provides the basis for extracting the information from the full distribution of sequence variation. The number of different problems to which phylogeny-based maximum likelihood calculations can be applied is extensive. Available software packages that can perform likelihood calculations suffer from a lack of flexibility and scalability, or employ error-prone approaches to model parameterisation. Here we describe the implementation of PyEvolve, a toolkit for the application of existing, and development of new, statistical methods for molecular evolution. We present the object architecture and design schema of PyEvolve, which includes an adaptable multi-level parallelisation schema. The approach for defining new methods is illustrated by implementing a novel dinucleotide model of substitution that includes a parameter for mutation of methylated CpG's, which required 8 lines of standard Python code to define. Benchmarking was performed using either a dinucleotide or codon substitution model applied to an alignment of BRCA1 sequences from 20 mammals, or a 10 species subset. Up to five-fold parallel performance gains over serial were recorded. Compared to leading alternative software, PyEvolve exhibited significantly better real world performance for parameter rich models with a large data set, reducing the time required for optimisation from approximately 10 days to approximately 6 hours. PyEvolve provides flexible functionality that can be used either for statistical modelling of molecular evolution, or the development of new methods in the field. The toolkit can be used
Wakefield Matthew J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Examining the distribution of variation has proven an extremely profitable technique in the effort to identify sequences of biological significance. Most approaches in the field, however, evaluate only the conserved portions of sequences – ignoring the biological significance of sequence differences. A suite of sophisticated likelihood based statistical models from the field of molecular evolution provides the basis for extracting the information from the full distribution of sequence variation. The number of different problems to which phylogeny-based maximum likelihood calculations can be applied is extensive. Available software packages that can perform likelihood calculations suffer from a lack of flexibility and scalability, or employ error-prone approaches to model parameterisation. Results Here we describe the implementation of PyEvolve, a toolkit for the application of existing, and development of new, statistical methods for molecular evolution. We present the object architecture and design schema of PyEvolve, which includes an adaptable multi-level parallelisation schema. The approach for defining new methods is illustrated by implementing a novel dinucleotide model of substitution that includes a parameter for mutation of methylated CpG's, which required 8 lines of standard Python code to define. Benchmarking was performed using either a dinucleotide or codon substitution model applied to an alignment of BRCA1 sequences from 20 mammals, or a 10 species subset. Up to five-fold parallel performance gains over serial were recorded. Compared to leading alternative software, PyEvolve exhibited significantly better real world performance for parameter rich models with a large data set, reducing the time required for optimisation from ~10 days to ~6 hours. Conclusion PyEvolve provides flexible functionality that can be used either for statistical modelling of molecular evolution, or the development of new methods in the
Yixin H Ye
Full Text Available Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide changes in expression in the selected flies relative to unselected controls, both of which had been infected with the pathogen. This powerful combination of techniques allowed us to specifically identify the genetic basis of the evolved immune response. In response to selection, population-level survivorship to infection increased from 15% to 70%. The evolved capacity for defense was costly, however, as evidenced by reduced longevity and larval viability and a rapid loss of the trait once selection pressure was removed. Counter to expectation, we observed more rapid developmental rates in the selected flies. Selection-associated changes in expression of genes with dual involvement in developmental and immune pathways suggest pleiotropy as a possible mechanism for the positive correlation. We also found that both the Toll and the Imd pathways work synergistically to limit infectivity and that cellular immunity plays a more critical role in overcoming P. aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost.
Dunham Maitreya J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evolution of microbial populations provides a unique opportunity to study evolutionary adaptation in response to controlled selective pressures. However, until recently it has been difficult to identify the precise genetic changes underlying adaptation at a genome-wide scale. New DNA sequencing technologies now allow the genome of parental and evolved strains of microorganisms to be rapidly determined. Results We sequenced >93.5% of the genome of a laboratory-evolved strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its ancestor at >28× depth. Both single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number amplifications were found, with specific gains over array-based methodologies previously used to analyze these genomes. Applying a segmentation algorithm to quantify structural changes, we determined the approximate genomic boundaries of a 5× gene amplification. These boundaries guided the recovery of breakpoint sequences, which provide insights into the nature of a complex genomic rearrangement. Conclusions This study suggests that whole-genome sequencing can provide a rapid approach to uncover the genetic basis of evolutionary adaptations, with further applications in the study of laboratory selections and mutagenesis screens. In addition, we show how single-end, short read sequencing data can provide detailed information about structural rearrangements, and generate predictions about the genomic features and processes that underlie genome plasticity.
Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott
The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.
Full Text Available Understanding the processes that cause speciation is a key aim of evolutionary biology. Lineages or biomes that exhibit recent and rapid diversification are ideal model systems for determining these processes. Species rich biomes reported to be of relatively recent origin, i.e., since the beginning of the Miocene, include Mediterranean ecosystems such as the California Floristic Province, oceanic islands such as the Hawaiian archipelago and the Neotropical high elevation ecosystem of the Páramos. Páramos constitute grasslands above the forest tree-line (at elevations of c. 2800–4700 m with high species endemism. Organisms that occupy this ecosystem are a likely product of unique adaptations to an extreme environment that evolved during the last three to five million years when the Andes reached an altitude that was capable of sustaining this type of vegetation. We compared net diversification rates of lineages in fast evolving biomes using 73 dated molecular phylogenies. Based on our sample, we demonstrate that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineages are more likely to be found in Páramos than the other hotspots. Páramos therefore represent the ideal model system for studying diversification processes. Most of the speciation events that we observed in the Páramos (144 out of 177 occurred during the Pleistocene possibly due to the effects of species range contraction and expansion that may have resulted from the well-documented climatic changes during that period. Understanding these effects will assist with efforts to determine how future climatic changes will impact plant populations.
Singh, Navin Kumar
This book presents evolving language education trends by drawing examples and case studies from around the world. Over the past few decades, significant economic and political changes have taken place around the world which have had a significant impact on language teaching and learning practices across the globe. With globalization, the focus of language education has shifted from monolingualism towards bilingualism and multilingualism, in that multilingual practices have become the norm rather than the exception in most parts of the world. This book brings together some of latest controversi
Williams, Bronwyn T.
As the use of English spreads around the world, it is important to remember that there is not now just one English but multiple "world englishes." Many scholars and teachers have argued that language changes to adapt to different cultural contexts. This world of rapid cross-cultural communication is the world in which our students read and write.…
Kantarci, Orhun H; Lebrun, Christine; Siva, Aksel; Keegan, Mark B; Azevedo, Christina J; Inglese, Matilde; Tintoré, Mar; Newton, Braeden D; Durand-Dubief, Francoise; Amato, Maria Pia; De Stefano, Nicola; Sormani, Maria Pia; Pelletier, Daniel; Okuda, Darin T
The aim of this work was to evaluate the preprogressive phase in subjects with radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) who evolve to primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). A multicenter RIS cohort was previously established. Demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics of subjects with RIS that evolved directly to PPMS were compared to those that developed a relapsing disease course from onset (clinically isolated syndrome [CIS] or relapsing-remitting MS) and were also compared to two other population- and clinic-based PPMS cohorts. Of the 453 subjects with RIS, 128 evolved to symptomatic MS during the follow-up (113 developed a first acute clinical event consistent with CIS/MS, 15 evolved to PPMS). PPMS prevalence (11.7%) and onset age (mean ± standard deviation; 49.1 ± 12.1) in the RIS group were comparable to other PPMS populations (p > 0.05). Median time to PPMS was 3.5 years (range, 1.6-5.4). RIS evolved to PPMS more commonly in men (p = 0.005) and at an older age (p < 0.001) when compared to CIS/MS, independent of follow-up duration. Subjects who evolved to PPMS had more spinal cord lesions (100%) before symptomatic evolution than those that developed CIS/MS (64%) and those that remained asymptomatic (23%) within the follow-up period (P = 0.005). Other MRI characteristics in the preprogressive phase of PPMS were indistinguishable from CIS/MS. Subjects with RIS evolve to PPMS at the same frequency as expected from general MS populations in an age-dependent manner. Besides age, unequivocal presence of spinal cord lesions and being male predicted evolution to PPMS. Our findings further suggest that RIS is biologically part of the MS spectrum. © 2015 American Neurological Association.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...
Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...
Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.
Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach…
Towner, E; Towner, J
The importance of child injuries has now been recognised as a significant public health problem internationally. The World Health Organisation (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have recently published the first world report on child injury prevention. As infectious diseases decline, the relative importance of injury has increased, but the pace of change of global processes means that absolute increases in injury may occur over the next 20-30 years. This paper examines child injury in a changing world by outlining the ways in which the forces of globalisation, urbanisation, motorisation and environmental change could have an impact on injury epidemiology and policy. We consider how those in public health and those in the injury field should respond to the changing world of injury. Child injury prevention needs to be incorporated into planning for the rapidly changing urban environments of low-income countries and strategies devised for the large numbers of people displaced by environmental change.
Seitzinger, S.P.; Svedin, U.; Crumley, C.L.; Steffen, W.; Abdullah, S.A.; Alfsen, C.; Broadgate, W.J.; Biermann, F.; Bondre, N.R.; Dearing, J.A.; Deutsch, L.; Dhakal, S.; Elmqvist, T.; Farahbakhshazad, N.; Gaffney, O.; Haberl, H.; Lavorel, S.; Mbow, C.; McMichael, A.J.; Demorais, J.M.; Olsson, P.; Pinho, P.F.; Seto, K.C.; Sinclair, P.; Stafford Smith, M.; Sugar, L.
Cities are rapidly increasing in importance as a major factor shaping the Earth system, and therefore, must take corresponding responsibility. With currently over half the world's population, cities are supported by resources originating from primarily rural regions often located around the world
World of Warcraft has become one of the most significant computer games of recent years. The massively multiplayer online role-playing game (or MMORPG) has introduced millions of players around the world to new forms of community-based play within a constantly evolving virtual environment. The game
The present investigation aimed at developing rapid micro propagation protocol, which can be used for conservation of Centella asiatica and mass multiplication of a valuable medicinal plant to meet out the pharmaceutical demand and its conservation. Attempts were made to evolve a rapid in vitro technology to conserve, ...
Mar 6, 2013 ... The present investigation aimed at developing rapid micro propagation protocol, which can be used for conservation of Centella asiatica and mass multiplication of a valuable medicinal plant to meet out the pharmaceutical demand and its conservation. Attempts were made to evolve a rapid in vitro ...
Ware, Sharon Douglass; Winters-Moorhead, Carol
As our society becomes more diverse, it is important for nursing students to become culturally competent and to view the world from a global perspective. Traveling abroad enlightens the senses and expands the worldview. Traveling for study abroad is more than taking a vacation; it affords students the opportunity to learn experientially and it can be a transforming encounter that influences the way an evolving nurse will practice. Nursing students at North Carolina Central University in Durham, North Carolina, had the opportunity to bridge two worlds, urban life at the university and village life in Dodowa, Ghana, West Africa. The purpose of this article is to explore the role that studying abroad has in nurturing experiential learning. The experiences of students from a southern historically Black university that were enrolled concurrently in two summer independent study courses focusing on global healthcare in Ghana, West Africa, are described.
Padayachee, J.; Bright, G.
The concept of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMSs) was formulated due to the global necessity for production systems that are able to economically evolve according to changes in markets and products. Technologies and design methods are under development to enable RMSs to exhibit transformable system layouts, reconfigurable processes, cells and machines. Existing factory design methods and software have not yet advanced to include reconfigurable manufacturing concepts. This paper presents the underlying group technology framework for the design of manufacturing cells that are able to evolve according to a changing product mix by mechanisms of reconfiguration. The framework is based on a Norton- Bass forecast and time variant BOM models. An adaptation of legacy group technology methods is presented for the synthesis of evolving cells and two optimization problems are presented within this context.
Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.
New theory is presented for evolving systems, which are autonomously controlled subsystems that self-assemble into a new evolved system with a higher purpose. Evolving systems of aerospace structures often require additional control when assembling to maintain stability during the entire evolution process. This is the concept of Adaptive Key Component Control that operates through one specific component to maintain stability during the evolution. In addition, this control must often overcome persistent disturbances that occur while the evolution is in progress. Theoretical results will be presented for Adaptive Key Component control for persistent disturbance rejection. An illustrative example will demonstrate the Adaptive Key Component controller on a system composed of rigid body and flexible body modes.
Knabe, Johannes F
Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) in biological organisms are primary engines for cells to enact their engagements with environments, via incessant, continually active coupling. In differentiated multicellular organisms, tremendous complexity has arisen in the course of evolution of life on earth. Engineering and science have so far achieved no working system that can compare with this complexity, depth and scope of organization. Abstracting the dynamics of genetic regulatory control to a computational framework in which artificial GRNs in artificial simulated cells differentiate while connected in a changing topology, it is possible to apply Darwinian evolution in silico to study the capacity of such developmental/differentiated GRNs to evolve. In this volume an evolutionary GRN paradigm is investigated for its evolvability and robustness in models of biological clocks, in simple differentiated multicellularity, and in evolving artificial developing 'organisms' which grow and express an ontogeny starting fr...
Zhang, Yuntian; Dong, Fengliang; Qian, Kemao; Zhang, Qingchuan; Chu, Weiguo; Ma, Xuan; Wu, Xiaoping
Recently, accelerating beam is becoming a hotspot in optics research. In this paper, we studied the evolving phases of accelerating generalized polygon beams (AGPBs) and proposed a novel method to generate this beam family. An important discovery has been made about reconstructing AGPBs only by evolving low-frequency phases in high power region, which confirms the dominant role of phase terms in the AGPBs' evolution. We also succeeded controlling the size and quantity of AGPB's intensity peaks in an easy and direct manner by manipulating the evolving phases in low frequency. This result not only explains the self-healing property of AGPBs but also confirms that AGPBs can be a great candidate to function as an optical tweezer to trap and free microparticles and microcreatures for certain purpose.
Sanjay K. Boddhu
Full Text Available In the previous work, it was demonstrated that one can effectively employ CTRNN-EH (a neuromorphic variant of EH method methodology to evolve neuromorphic flight controllers for a flapping wing robot. This paper describes a novel frequency grouping-based analysis technique, developed to qualitatively decompose the evolved controllers into explainable functional control blocks. A summary of the previous work related to evolving flight controllers for two categories of the controller types, called autonomous and nonautonomous controllers, is provided, and the applicability of the newly developed decomposition analysis for both controller categories is demonstrated. Further, the paper concludes with appropriate discussion of ongoing work and implications for possible future work related to employing the CTRNN-EH methodology and the decomposition analysis techniques presented in this paper.
Schott, Geoffrey D
Pain maps are nowadays widely used in clinical practice. This article aims to critically review the fundamental principles that underlie the mapping of pain, to analyse the evolving iconography of pain maps and their sometimes straightforward and sometimes contentious nature when used in the clinic, and to draw attention to some more recent developments in mapping pain. It is concluded that these maps are intriguing and evolving cartographic tools which can be used for depicting not only the spatial features but also the interpretative or perceptual components and accompaniments of pain. Copyright 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Ahearn, Donald G; Barr, Joseph; Benjamin, William Joe; Kiang, Tina; Nichols, Jason J; Schein, Oliver D; Stone, Ralph P; Winterton, Lynn
Contact lenses and lens care regimens are an important part of eyecare practices and vital to lens-wearing patients. New contact lens materials and cleaning options continue to come to market and affect how patients wear and care for their lenses. In this section we look at how the contact lens and lens solution revolution started, how it has evolved over the last 40 years, and how standards have evolved and impacted these new offerings. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar
We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus.
Tucker, Marc S.
A century ago, the United States was a world leader in industrial benchmarking. However, after World War II, once no one could compete with the U.S., it became complacent. Many industrialized countries now have higher student achievement and more equitable and efficient education systems. A higher proportion of young people in their workforces…
Mische, Patricia, Ed.; And Others
The papers in this publication discuss the land and how what happens to the land affects us. The publication is one in a series of monographs that examine the linkages between local and global concerns and explore alternative world futures. Examples of topics discussed in the papers follow. The paper "Land and World Order" examines…
Beegle, Amy C.
As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…
Future leaders' creativity and problem-solving skills have been honed in leadership courses, but that doesn't mean they are ready to use those skills to further a company's place in the world. With emerging markets in Asia, South America, and other areas of the world, a workforce needs to have an understanding of and interest in cultures beyond…
Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn
This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…
Items 1 - 39 of 39 ... Archives: Science World Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Science World Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 39 of 39 Items. 2017 ...
In this article, the author reviews several books on world history from the 1920s to the 1940s. These include books authored by a diverse group: H.G. Wells, "Outline of History" (Macmillan, 1920); James Henry Breasted, "Ancient Times, A History of the Early World" (published in 1916 by Ginn and Company and largely rewritten in 1935); M.…
Dunn, Ross E.
In the arenas where the two world histories have taken shape, educators vigorously debate among themselves intellectual, pedagogical, and policy issues surrounding world history as a school subject. The people in each arena tend to share, despite internal disagreements, a common set of premises and assumptions for ordering the discussion of world…
Bolton, Kingsley; Graddol, David; Meierkord, Christiane
Over the last three decades scholars promoting the world Englishes paradigm (WE) have worked towards establishing a more positive attitude towards international varieties of English. However, despite the best intentions of Western linguists working in this field, there is an obvious imbalance between the developed and developing world in many…
Examines the theoretical concept of the world Englishes in light of globalization. Outlines phenomena in the organic spread of English around the globe and raises the issue of opportunism in English language teaching. Ethical implications and implications for research on world English are discussed. (Author/VWL)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate discourses on globalisation and world society and to disclose the commonalities and differences of both scientific debates. In particular, it draws attention to theoretical concepts of globalisation and world society. This is considered fruitful for comprehending the complex mechanisms of…
RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.
Smith, Robert E.
RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool
Rhodes, Paul A; Anderson, Todd O
To provide a platform to enable the study of simulated olfactory circuitry in context, we have integrated a simulated neural olfactorimotor system with a virtual world which simulates both computational fluid dynamics as well as a robotic agent capable of exploring the simulated plumes. A number of the elements which we developed for this purpose have not, to our knowledge, been previously assembled into an integrated system, including: control of a simulated agent by a neural olfactorimotor system; continuous interaction between the simulated robot and the virtual plume; the inclusion of multiple distinct odorant plumes and background odor; the systematic use of artificial evolution driven by olfactorimotor performance (e.g., time to locate a plume source) to specify parameter values; the incorporation of the realities of an imperfect physical robot using a hybrid model where a physical robot encounters a simulated plume. We close by describing ongoing work toward engineering a high dimensional, reversible, low power electronic olfactory sensor which will allow olfactorimotor neural circuitry evolved in the virtual world to control an autonomous olfactory robot in the physical world. The platform described here is intended to better test theories of olfactory circuit function, as well as provide robust odor source localization in realistic environments.
Yan, Yongnian; Hong, Guodong
The definition of the rapid prototyping is given in this paper. Various RP processes, which build the prototypes with 2.5 or 3 dimensional layers, are introduced. The relative techniques of RP and the differences between RP technique and CNC manufacturing are analyzed. The paper discusses the RP's applied fields and methods and presents the RP development in the world. According to the idea that requirements determine the developing, the RP's tendency is discussed.
Peterson, Michael R.; Horner, Toby; Moore, Frank
Wavelets provide an attractive method for efficient image compression. For transmission across noisy or bandwidth limited channels, a signal may be subjected to quantization in which the signal is transcribed onto a reduced alphabet in order to save bandwidth. Unfortunately, the performance of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) degrades at increasing levels of quantization. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been employed to optimize wavelet-inspired transform filters to improve compression performance in the presence of quantization. Wavelet filters consist of a pair of real-valued coefficient sets; one set represents the compression filter while the other set defines the image reconstruction filter. The reconstruction filter is defined as the biorthogonal inverse of the compression filter. Previous research focused upon two approaches to filter optimization. In one approach, the original wavelet filter is used for image compression while the reconstruction filter is evolved by an EA. In the second approach, both the compression and reconstruction filters are evolved. In both cases, the filters are not biorthogonally related to one another. We propose a novel approach to filter evolution. The EA optimizes a compression filter. Rather than using a wavelet filter or evolving a second filter for reconstruction, the reconstruction filter is computed as the biorthogonal inverse of the evolved compression filter. The resulting filter pair retains some of the mathematical properties of wavelets. This paper compares this new approach to existing filter optimization approaches to determine its suitability for the optimization of image filters appropriate for defense applications of image processing.
Vliet, van P.H.
This Thesis presents the results of a study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and measurements of oxygen evolution of the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem 11 (PS-II) in PS-II enriched membranes from spinach.
The experimental part of this Thesis is preceded by a
Lehman, Joel; Risi, Sebastian; Stanley, Kenneth O
explicit objectives that are consequently divergent may implicitly reward lineages that continually diverge, thereby indirectly selecting for evolvable representations that are better able to diverge further. This paper reviews a range of past results that support such a hypothesis from a method called...
Willigen, W. van; Haasdijk, E.; Kester, L.J.H.M.
The research in this paper is inspired by a vision of intelligent vehicles that autonomously move along motorways: they join and leave trains of vehicles (platoons), overtake other vehicles, etc. We propose a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm that evolves high-level controllers for such
Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper
into four different sub-environments and evolve controllers that generalize to traverse two larger environments composed of the sub-environments. We also study two strategies for presenting the sub-environments to the evolutionary algorithm: all sub-environments at the same time and in sequence. Results...
Sujay S. Kaushal; Kenneth T. Belt
Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time with active management or degradation. An urban watershed continuum framework recognizes a continuum of engineered and natural hydrologic flowpaths that expands hydrologic networks in ways that are seldom considered. It recognizes that the nature of hydrologic connectivity...
Pagie, L.; Hogeweg, P.
Many bacteria carry gene complexes that code for a toxin-antidote pair, e.g. colicin systems. Such gene complexes can be advantageous for its host by killing competitor bacteria while the antidote protects the host. However, in order to evolve a novel and useful toxin first a proper antidote must
Did language evolve like the vertebrate eye? R P Botha. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.5774/34-0-33 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Full Text Available Review of: Microbiology: An Evolving Science, 2nd ed.; Joan L Slonczweski and John W. Foster; (2011. W.W. Norton & Company, New York NY. 1096 pages. ISBN: 978-0-393-93447-2. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE
Ford, Kate; Vignare, Karen
This literature review examines the evolving online military learner population with emphasis on current generation military learners, who are most frequently Post-9/11 veterans. The review synthesizes recent scholarly and grey literature on military learner demographics and attributes, college experiences, and academic outcomes against a backdrop…
Jourian, T. J.
This chapter discusses the historical and evolving terminology, constructs, and ideologies that inform the language used by those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-gender loving, who may identify as queer, as well as those who are members of trans* communities from multiple and intersectional perspectives.
Burleson, Winslow; Lewis, Armanda
This essay imagines the role that artificial intelligence innovations play in the integrated living, learning and research environments of 2041. Here, in 2041, in the context of increasingly complex wicked challenges, whose solutions by their very nature continue to evade even the most capable experts, society and technology have co-evolved to…
Peiris, K. Dharini Amitha; Gallupe, R. Brent
A comprehensive conceptual framework is developed and described for evolving recommender-driven online learning systems (ROLS). This framework describes how such systems can support students, course authors, course instructors, systems administrators, and policy makers in developing and using these ROLS. The design science information systems…
Soil-mantled landscapes subjected to rainfall, runoff events, and downstream base level adjustments will erode and evolve in time and space. Yet the precise mechanisms for soil erosion also will vary, and such variations may not be adequately captured by soil erosion prediction technology. This st...
This system which gives complete information on weight change, heat change, nature and content of evolved gases is being used for. temperature programmed decomposition (TPD),; synthesis of nanocrystalline materials,; gas–solid interactions and; analysis of gas mixtures. The TPD of various inorganic oxyanion solids ...
Nagy, I.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Gülesir, G.; Durr, P.E.A.; Aksit, Mehmet
In the current aspect-oriented languages, advices and pointcuts are explicitly associated in general. This results in weaving specifications that are less evolvable and need more maintenance during the development of a system. To address this issue, we propose associative access to advices and
Janssen, A.B.G.; Arhonditsis, G.B.; Beusen, Arthur; Bolding, Karsten; Bruce, Louise; Bruggeman, Jorn; Couture, Raoul Marie; Downing, Andrea S.; Alex Elliott, J.; Frassl, M.A.; Gal, Gideon; Gerla, Daan J.; Hipsey, M.R.; Hu, Fenjuan; Ives, S.C.; Janse, J.H.; Jeppesen, Erik; Jöhnk, K.D.; Kneis, David; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kuiper, J.J.; Lehmann, M.K.; Lemmen, Carsten; Özkundakci, Deniz; Petzoldt, Thomas; Rinke, Karsten; Robson, B.J.; Sachse, René; Schep, S.A.; Schmid, Martin; Scholten, Huub; Teurlincx, Sven; Trolle, Dennis; Troost, T.A.; Dam, Van A.A.; Gerven, Van L.P.A.; Weijerman, Mariska; Wells, S.A.; Mooij, W.M.
Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality
Chaves, Paulo; Chang, Fi-John
We propose a novel intelligent reservoir operation system based on an evolving artificial neural network (ANN). Evolving means the parameters of the ANN model are identified by the GA evolutionary optimization technique. Accordingly, the ANN model should represent the operational strategies of reservoir operation. The main advantages of the Evolving ANN Intelligent System (ENNIS) are as follows: (i) only a small number of parameters to be optimized even for long optimization horizons, (ii) easy to handle multiple decision variables, and (iii) the straightforward combination of the operation model with other prediction models. The developed intelligent system was applied to the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir in North Taiwan, to investigate its applicability and practicability. The proposed method is first built to a simple formulation for the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir, with single objective and single decision. Its results were compared to those obtained by dynamic programming. The constructed network proved to be a good operational strategy. The method was then built and applied to the reservoir with multiple (five) decision variables. The results demonstrated that the developed evolving neural networks improved the operation performance of the reservoir when compared to its current operational strategy. The system was capable of successfully simultaneously handling various decision variables and provided reasonable and suitable decisions.
C. Nikolaou (Charalampos); K. Dogani (Kallirroi); K. Bereta (Konstantina); G. Garbis (George); M. Karpathiotakis (Manos); K. Kyzirakos (Konstantinos); M. Koubarakis (Manolis)
textabstractThe linked open data cloud is constantly evolving as datasets get continuously updated with newer versions. As a result, representing, querying, and visualizing the temporal dimension of linked data is crucial. This is especially important for geospatial datasets that form the backbone
K. Bereta (Konstantina); C. Nikolaou (Charalampos); M. Karpathiotakis (Manos); K. Kyzirakos (Konstantinos); M. Koubarakis (Manolis); E. Blomqvist; T. Groza
htmlabstractWe present SexTant, a Web-based system for the visualization and exploration of time-evolving linked geospatial data and the creation, sharing, and collaborative editing of "temporally-enriched" thematic maps which are produced by combining dierent sources of such data.
Querbes, Adrien; Frenken, Koen
We propose a generalized NK-model of late-mover advantage where late-mover firms leapfrog first-mover firms as user needs evolve over time. First movers face severe trade-offs between the provision of functionalities in which their products already excel and the additional functionalities requested
Hoekstra, Arjen Y.
This paper reviews the evolvement of water footprint assessment (WFA) as a new research field over the past fifteen years. The research is rooted in four basic thoughts: (1) there is a global dimension to water management because water-intensive commodities are internationally traded, so we must
Oei, J.L.H.; Proper, H.A.; Falkenberg, E.D.
To meet the demands of organizations and their ever-changing environment, information systems are required which are able to evolve to the same extent as organizations do. Such a system has to support changes in all time-and application-dependent aspects. In this paper, requirements and a conceptual
I therefore, drawing from literature and experiences gained during field observations and focus group interviews, came up with the idea of working with three viewpoints of heritage. Drawing on real life cases I argue that current heritage management and education practices' failure to recognise and respect the evolving, ...
Peter John Lane
Full Text Available Although current thinking has focused on genetic variation between individuals and environmental influences as underpinning susceptibility to both autoimmunity and cancer, an alternative view is that human susceptibility to these diseases is a consequence of the way the immune system evolved. It is important to remember that the immunological genes that we inherit and the systems that they control were shaped by the drive for reproductive success rather than for individual survival. It is our view that human susceptibility to autoimmunity and cancer are the evolutionarily acceptable side effects of the immune adaptations that evolved in early placental mammals to accommodate a fundamental change in reproductive strategy. Studies of immune function in mammals shows that high affinity antibodies and CD4 memory, along with its regulation, co-evolved with placentation. By dissection of the immunologically active genes and proteins that evolved to regulate this step change in the mammalian immune system, clues have emerged that may reveal ways of detuning both effector and regulatory arms of the immune system to abrogate autoimmune responses whilst preserving protection against infection. Paradoxically, it appears that such a detuned and deregulated immune system is much better equipped to mount anti-tumor immune responses against cancers.
Baby dumping and evolving baby factories in Nigeria: their implication for child right and social protection. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... a society-based approach which involves a thorough overhaul of our rigid social orientation which will create room for a conducive environment for child rights and social ...
... facing developing countries; how thinking has evolved on particular aspects of development; and how different organizations espouse and use ideas to influence development. The edited volume will be submitted to an academic press for publication, along with a companion volume appropriate for university teaching.
Dworkin, Ian; Jones, Corbin D
The evolution of host specialization can potentially limit future evolutionary opportunities. A new study now shows how Drosophila sechellia, specialized on the toxic Morinda fruit, has evolved new nutritional needs influencing its reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...
... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...
The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.
Meretoja, Atte; Acciarresi, Monica; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Campbell, Bruce; Dowlatshahi, Dar; English, Coralie; Henninger, Nils; Poppe, Alexandre; Putaala, Jukka; Saini, Monica; Sato, Shoichiro; Wu, Bo; Brainin, Michael; Norrving, Bo; Davis, Stephen
Background Specialist training provides skilled workforce for service delivery. Stroke medicine has evolved rapidly in the past years. No prior information exists on background or training of stroke doctors globally. Aims To describe the specialties that represent stroke doctors, their training requirements, and the scientific organizations ensuring continuous medical education. Methods The World Stroke Organization conducted an expert survey between June and November 2014 using e-mailed questionnaires. All Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries with >1 million population and other countries with >50 million population were included ( n = 49, total 5.6 billion inhabitants, 85% of global strokes). Two stroke experts from each selected country were surveyed, discrepancies resolved, and further information on identified stroke-specific curricula sought. Results We received responses from 48 (98%) countries. Of ischemic stroke patients, 64% were reportedly treated by neurologists, ranging from 5% in Ireland to 95% in the Netherlands. Per thousand annual strokes there were average six neurologists, ranging from 0.3 in Ethiopia to 33 in Israel. Of intracerebral hemorrhage patients, 29% were reportedly treated by neurosurgeons, ranging from 5% in Sweden to 79% in Japan, with three neurosurgeons per thousand strokes, ranging from 0.1 in Ethiopia to 24 in South Korea. Most countries had a stroke society (86%) while only 10 (21%) had a degree or subspecialty for stroke medicine. Conclusions Stroke doctor numbers, background specialties, and opportunities to specialize in stroke vary across the globe. Most countries have a scientific society to pursue advancement of stroke medicine, but few have stroke curricula.
Shane, Harold G.; Silvernail, David L.
In a world in the throes of rapid and irreversible transitions--a world in which the common experiences of its peoples are converging--teachers of foreign languages have new needs and responsibilities. First, language teachers need an insightful world view characterized by empathy with others. Second, teachers need to have an even more intimate…
Lazarus, Eli D.; Ellis, Michael A.; Brad Murray, A.; Hall, Damon M.
Within the broad discourses of environmental change, sustainability science, and anthropogenic Earth-surface systems, a focused body of work involves the coupled economic and physical dynamics of developed shorelines. Rapid rates of change in coastal environments, from wetlands and deltas to inlets and dune systems, help researchers recognize, observe, and investigate coupling in natural (non-human) morphodynamics and biomorphodynamics. This same intrinsic quality of fast-paced change also makes developed coastal zones exemplars of observable coupling between physical processes and human activities. In many coastal communities, beach erosion is a natural hazard with economic costs that coastal management counters through a variety of mitigation strategies, including beach replenishment, groynes, revetments, and seawalls. As cycles of erosion and mitigation iterate, coastline change and economically driven interventions become mutually linked. Emergent dynamics of two-way economic-physical coupling is a recent research discovery. Having established a strong theoretical basis, research into coupled human-coastal systems has passed its early proof-of-concept phase. This paper frames three major challenges that need resolving in order to advance theoretical and empirical treatments of human-coastal systems: (1) codifying salient individual and social behaviors of decision-making in ways that capture societal actions across a range of scales (thus engaging economics, social science, and policy disciplines); (2) quantifying anthropogenic effects on alongshore and cross-shore sediment pathways and long-term landscape evolution in coastal zones through time, including direct measurement of cumulative changes to sediment cells resulting from coastal development and management practices (e.g., construction of buildings and artificial dunes, bulldozer removal of overwash after major storms); and (3) reciprocal knowledge and data exchange between researchers in coastal
Cloern, James E.
A primary focus of coastal science during the past 3 decades has been the question: How does anthropogenic nutrient enrichment cause change in the structure or function of nearshore coastal ecosystems? This theme of environmental science is recent, so our conceptual model of the coastal eutrophication problem continues to change rapidly. In this review, I suggest that the early (Phase I) conceptual model was strongly influenced by limnologists, who began intense study of lake eutrophication by the 1960s. The Phase I model emphasized changing nutrient input as a signal, and responses to that signal as increased phytoplankton biomass and primary production, decomposition of phytoplankton-derived organic matter, and enhanced depletion of oxygen from bottom waters. Coastal research in recent decades has identified key differences in the responses of lakes and coastal-estuarine ecosystems to nutrient enrichment. The contemporary (Phase II) conceptual model reflects those differences and includes explicit recognition of (1) system-specific attributes that act as a filter to modulate the responses to enrichment (leading to large differences among estuarine-coastal systems in their sensitivity to nutrient enrichment); and (2) a complex suite of direct and indirect responses including linked changes in: water transparency, distribution of vascular plants and biomass of macroalgae, sediment biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling, nutrient ratios and their regulation of phytoplankton community composition, frequency of toxic/harmful algal blooms, habitat quality for metazoans, reproduction/growth/survival of pelagic and benthic invertebrates, and subtle changes such as shifts in the seasonality of ecosystem functions. Each aspect of the Phase II model is illustrated here with examples from coastal ecosystems around the world. In the last section of this review I present one vision of the next (Phase III) stage in the evolution of our conceptual model, organized around 5
some Fascists served as the central governments institutional knowledge base. Some authors argue this indirectly allowed the rise of the mafia in...Sicily and Italy. For further reading see Gene Santoro’s Mafia Allies: The True Story of America’s Secret Alliance with the Mob in World War II. 73...certainly would dissipate following withdrawal, given the rapid expansion of the Italian Carabinieri and the presence of the mafia .79 The primacy of
Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Costantini, Verónica; Swanstrom, Jesica; Debbink, Kari; Donaldson, Eric F.; Vinjé, Jan
The major capsid protein of norovirus GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in epidemic strains with altered antigenicity. GII.4.2006 Minerva strains circulated at pandemic levels in 2006 and persisted at lower levels until 2009. In 2009, a new GII.4 variant, GII.4.2009 New Orleans, emerged and since then has become the predominant strain circulating in human populations. To determine whether changes in evolving blockade epitopes correlate with the emergence of the GII.4.2009 New Orleans strains, we compared the antibody reactivity of a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both anti-GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 MAbs effectively differentiated the two strains by VLP-carbohydrate ligand blockade assay. Most of the GII.4.2006 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2006, while all of the GII.4.2009 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2009, although 8 of 12 tested blockade MAbs blocked both VLPs. Using mutant VLPs designed to alter predicted antigenic epitopes, binding of seven of the blockade MAbs was impacted by alterations in epitope A, identifying residues 294, 296, 297, 298, 368, and 372 as important antigenic sites in these strains. Convalescent-phase serum collected from a GII.4.2009 outbreak confirmed the immunodominance of epitope A, since alterations of epitope A affected serum reactivity by 40%. These data indicate that the GII.4.2009 New Orleans variant has evolved a key blockade epitope, possibly allowing for at least partial escape from protective herd immunity and provide epidemiological support for the utility of monitoring changes in epitope A in emergent strain surveillance. PMID:23269783
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...
Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.
Esilinastus katastroofifilm "World Trade Center" : stsenarist Andrea Berloff : režissöör Oliver Stone : kunstnik Jan Roelfs : osades Nicholas Cage, Michael Pena, Stephen Dorff jpt : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2006. Ka filmi prototüüpidest
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...
Mitchell, Allee J.
The live and taped portions of a speech concerning human needs, particularly the need to find one's own identity, and the responsibility of educators in helping young children answer the question "who in the world am I?" are presented. (KM)
Roth, Wolff-Michael; Boutonne, Sylvie; Lucas, Keith B.; McRobbie, Campbell J.
Reports on a study of a physics class in which few interactions occur among students. Concludes, through observations and interviews. that students describe both the social and physical world in different ways. Contains 33 references. (DDR)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Magnetic Model is the standard model used by the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.K. Ministry of Defence, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...
Full Text Available Globalization became more and more prominent during the last decades. There is no way to argue that globalization led to more interconnected economies, facilitating the communication and the collaboration around the world. But where is this going? Doesglobalization mean uniformity or diversity? As the world begins to resemble more, the people are trying to distinguish between them more, which can exacerbate nationalistic feeling. Friedman argues that globalization made the world smaller and flatter, allowing all countries to take chance of the available opportunities equally. But is this really true? Although politic and cultural factors can stand in front of a really flat world, what is the key for Chinese and Indian success and which are theirs perspectives?
Garifullina, A.; Ilyasova, I.
Globalization is objective process of formation, development and action of new world, global system. Undoubtedly, consequences of globalization can carry both positive, and negative character, however to it isn’t present alternative
According to CERN, our understanding of the Universe is about the change. Meet the Imperial alumni and staff who are involved in CERN's Large Hadron Collider, the world's biggest experiment. (3 pages)
Full Text Available Sometimes a player will stray from the path described by a game, moving into new spaces, developing new possible modes of interaction, and often discovering the rougher edges of the game world, where physics models break down, textures become incongruous, and the pieces don’t quite fit together. Gameplay that seeks out these spaces and these phenomena, that searches for such clues to the underlying construction of the virtual environment, is a kind of virtual-world naturalism, at once a return to an investigative urge that has been subsumed to the exhaustive mapping and description of the real world and a form of resistance to the very idea of pre-defined paths of action, of externally imposed limits, in virtual worlds as well as in our own.
Full Text Available Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence, content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias, content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias, and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world.
Priestley, Maria; Mesoudi, Alex
Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence), content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias), content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias), and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world.
Yuan, Wu-Jie; Zhou, Jian-Fang; Sendiña-Nadal, Irene; Boccaletti, Stefano; Wang, Zhen
In real-world networked systems, the underlying structure is often affected by external and internal unforeseen factors, making its evolution typically inaccessible. An adaptive strategy was introduced for maintaining synchronization on unpredictably evolving networks [Sorrentino and Ott, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 114101 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.114101], which yet does not consider the noise disturbances widely existing in networks' environments. We provide here strategies to control dynamical synchronization on slowly and unpredictably evolving networks subjected to noise disturbances which are observed at the node and at the communication channel level. With our strategy, the nodes' coupling strength is adaptively adjusted with the aim of controlling synchronization, and according only to their received signal and noise disturbances. We first provide a theoretical analysis of the control scheme by introducing an error potential function to seek for the minimization of the synchronization error. Then, we show numerical experiments which verify our theoretical results. In particular, it is found that our adaptive strategy is effective even for the case in which the dynamics of the uncontrolled network would be explosive (i.e., the states of all the nodes would diverge to infinity).
Priestley, Maria; Mesoudi, Alex
Online votes or ratings can assist internet users in evaluating the credibility and appeal of the information which they encounter. For example, aggregator websites such as Reddit allow users to up-vote submitted content to make it more prominent, and down-vote content to make it less prominent. Here we argue that decisions over what to up- or down-vote may be guided by evolved features of human cognition. We predict that internet users should be more likely to up-vote content that others have also up-voted (social influence), content that has been submitted by particularly liked or respected users (model-based bias), content that constitutes evolutionarily salient or relevant information (content bias), and content that follows group norms and, in particular, prosocial norms. 489 respondents from the online social voting community Reddit rated the extent to which they felt different traits influenced their voting. Statistical analyses confirmed that norm-following and prosociality, as well as various content biases such as emotional content and originality, were rated as important motivators of voting. Social influence had a smaller effect than expected, while attitudes towards the submitter had little effect. This exploratory empirical investigation suggests that online voting communities can provide an important test-bed for evolutionary theories of human social information use, and that evolved features of human cognition may guide online behaviour just as it guides behaviour in the offline world. PMID:26066657
Ampatzis, Christos; Tuci, Elio; Trianni, Vito; Christensen, Anders Lyhne; Dorigo, Marco
This research work illustrates an approach to the design of controllers for self-assembling robots in which the self-assembly is initiated and regulated by perceptual cues that are brought forth by the physical robots through their dynamical interactions. More specifically, we present a homogeneous control system that can achieve assembly between two modules (two fully autonomous robots) of a mobile self-reconfigurable system without a priori introduced behavioral or morphological heterogeneities. The controllers are dynamic neural networks evolved in simulation that directly control all the actuators of the two robots. The neurocontrollers cause the dynamic specialization of the robots by allocating roles between them based solely on their interaction. We show that the best evolved controller proves to be successful when tested on a real hardware platform, the swarm-bot. The performance achieved is similar to the one achieved by existing modular or behavior-based approaches, also due to the effect of an emergent recovery mechanism that was neither explicitly rewarded by the fitness function, nor observed during the evolutionary simulation. Our results suggest that direct access to the orientations or intentions of the other agents is not a necessary condition for robot coordination: Our robots coordinate without direct or explicit communication, contrary to what is assumed by most research works in collective robotics. This work also contributes to strengthening the evidence that evolutionary robotics is a design methodology that can tackle real-world tasks demanding fine sensory-motor coordination.
Full Text Available Abstract Background During the RNA World, molecular populations were probably very small and highly susceptible to the force of strong random drift. In conjunction with Muller's Ratchet, this would have imposed difficulties for the preservation of the genetic information and the survival of the populations. Mechanisms that allowed these nascent populations to overcome this problem must have been advantageous. Results Using continuous in vitro evolution experimentation with an increased mutation rate imposed by MnCl2, it was found that clonal 100-molecule populations of ribozymes clearly exhibit certain characteristics of a quasispecies. This is the first time this has been seen with a catalytic RNA. Extensive genotypic sampling from two replicate lineages was gathered and phylogenetic networks were constructed to elucidate the structure of the evolving RNA populations. A common distribution was found in which a mutant sequence was present at high frequency, surrounded by a cloud of mutant with lower frequencies. This is a typical distribution of quasispecies. Most of the mutants in these clouds were connected by short Hamming distance values, indicating their close relatedness. Conclusions The quasispecies nature of mutant RNA clouds facilitates the recovery of genotypes under pressure of being removed from the population by random drift. The empirical populations therefore evolved a genotypic resiliency despite a high mutation rate by adopting the characteristics of quasispecies, implying that primordial RNA pools could have used this strategy to avoid extinction.
Loersch, Chris; Arbuckle, Nathan L
As prominently highlighted by Charles Darwin, music is one of the most mysterious aspects of human nature. Despite its ubiquitous presence across cultures and throughout recorded history, the reason humans respond emotionally to music remains unknown. Although many scientists and philosophers have offered hypotheses, there is little direct empirical evidence for any perspective. Here we address this issue, providing data which support the idea that music evolved in service of group living. Using 7 studies, we demonstrate that people's emotional responses to music are intricately tied to the other core social phenomena that bind us together into groups. In sum, this work establishes human musicality as a special form of social cognition and provides the first direct support for the hypothesis that music evolved as a tool of social living. In addition, the findings provide a reason for the intense psychological pull of music in modern life, suggesting that the pleasure we derive from listening to music results from its innate connection to the basic social drives that create our interconnected world. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Robert L. Olson; David N. Bengston
We live in a world on fire. In just the past few years, major wildland fires have struck at least 13 U.S. states, as well as Indonesia, Australia, China, southern Europe, Russia, Canada, Bolivia, and other parts of the world. Wildland fires are increasing in number, size, and intensity. In particular, there has been an increase in large fire eventsâmegafiresâthat...
J. van Zyl
Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.
Wiseman, Howard; Hall, Michael; Deckert, Dirk-Andre
We investigate how quantum theory can be understood as the continuum limit of a mechanical theory, in which there is a huge, but countable, number of classical ``worlds,'' and quantum effects arise solely from a universal interaction between these worlds, without reference to any wave function. Here a ``world'' means an entire universe with well-defined properties, determined by the classical configuration of its particles and fields. In our approach each world evolves deterministically; probabilities arise due to ignorance as to which world a given observer occupies; and we argue that in the limit of infinitely many worlds the wave function can be recovered (as a secondary object) from the motion of these worlds. We introduce a simple model of such a ``many interacting worlds'' approach and show that it can reproduce some generic quantum phenomena-such as Ehrenfest's theorem, wavepacket spreading, barrier tunneling and zero point energy-as a direct consequence of mutual repulsion between worlds. Finally, we perform numerical simulations using our approach. We demonstrate, first, that it can be used to calculate quantum ground states, and second, that it is capable of reproducing, at least qualitatively, the double-slit interference phenomenon.
Hall, Michael J. W.; Deckert, Dirk-André; Wiseman, Howard M.
We investigate whether quantum theory can be understood as the continuum limit of a mechanical theory, in which there is a huge, but finite, number of classical "worlds," and quantum effects arise solely from a universal interaction between these worlds, without reference to any wave function. Here, a "world" means an entire universe with well-defined properties, determined by the classical configuration of its particles and fields. In our approach, each world evolves deterministically, probabilities arise due to ignorance as to which world a given observer occupies, and we argue that in the limit of infinitely many worlds the wave function can be recovered (as a secondary object) from the motion of these worlds. We introduce a simple model of such a "many interacting worlds" approach and show that it can reproduce some generic quantum phenomena—such as Ehrenfest's theorem, wave packet spreading, barrier tunneling, and zero-point energy—as a direct consequence of mutual repulsion between worlds. Finally, we perform numerical simulations using our approach. We demonstrate, first, that it can be used to calculate quantum ground states, and second, that it is capable of reproducing, at least qualitatively, the double-slit interference phenomenon.
Bogetz, Alyssa L; Bogetz, Jori F
Physician identity and the professional role physicians play in health care is rapidly evolving. Over 130 million adults and children in the USA have complex and chronic diseases, each of which is shaped by aspects of the patient's social, psychological, and economic status. These patients have lifelong health care needs that require the ongoing care of multiple health care providers, access to community services, and the involvement of patients' family support networks. To date, physician professional identity formation has centered on autonomy, authority, and the ability to "heal." These notions of identity may be counterproductive in chronic disease care, which demands interdependency between physicians, their patients, and teams of multidisciplinary health care providers. Medical educators can prepare trainees for practice in the current health care environment by providing training that legitimizes and reinforces a professional identity that emphasizes this interdependency. This commentary outlines the important challenges related to this change and suggests potential strategies to reframe professional identity to better match the evolving role of physicians today.
Stuckelman, Joseph; Zavatchen, Sylvia E; Jones, Sally A
As ACGME (Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education) requirements have expanded and become increasingly more complex, so has the role of the program coordinator. Over the last decade, the knowledge and skills required to capably administer residency and fellowship training programs have increased in both volume and complexity. Today's coordinators are responsible for more than clerical tasks. They also function as managers and have greater roles in the development and implementation of program initiatives, policies, and outcomes. As a result, coordinators' roles and responsibilities have evolved to include management skills. To keep pace with the rapid and continuing change, it is imperative that coordinators continue to develop these skill sets to add value to their programs, institutions, and careers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wood, Jeremy R.; Horner, Jonathan; Hinse, Tobias; Marsden, Stephen; Swinburne University of Technology
Centaurs are small Solar system bodies with semi-major axes between Jupiter and Neptune and perihelia beyond Jupiter. Centaurs can be further subclassified into two dynamical categories - random walk and resonance hopping. Random walk Centaurs have mean square semi-major axes () which vary in time according to a generalized diffusion equation where ~t2H. H is the Hurst exponent with 0 for resonance hopping Centaurs is not well described by generalized diffusion.The aim of this study is to determine which dynamical type of Centaur is most likely to evolve into each class of comet. 31,722 fictional massless test particles were integrated for 3 Myr in the 6-body problem (Sun, Jovian planets, test particle). Initially each test particle was a member of one of four groups. The semi-major axes of all test particles in a group were clustered within 0.27 au from a first order, interior Mean Motion resonance of Neptune. The resonances were centered at 18.94 au, 22.95 au, 24.82 au and 28.37 au.If the perihelion of a test particle reached particle was considered to be a comet and classified as either a random walk or resonance hopping Centaur. The results showed that over 4,000 test particles evolved into comets within 3 Myr. 59% of these test particles were random walk and 41% were resonance hopping. The behavior of the semi-major axis in time was usually well described by generalized diffusion for random walk Centaurs (ravg = 0.98) and poorly described for resonance hopping Centaurs (ravg = 0.52). The average Hurst exponent was 0.48 for random walk Centaurs and 0.20 for resonance hopping Centaurs. Random walk Centaurs were more likely to evolve into short period comets while resonance hopping Centaurs were more likely to evolve into long period comets. For each initial cluster, resonance hopping Centaurs took longer to evolve into comets than random walk Centaurs. Overall the population of random walk Centaurs averaged 143 kyr to evolve into comets, and the population of
Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc
Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).
Yang, Juan; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Ding, Lu-Lu; Kensler, Thomas W; Chen, Jian-Guo
Lung cancer has been a major health problem in developed countries for several decades, and has emerged recently as the leading cause of cancer death in many developing countries. The incidence of lung cancer appears to be increasing more rapidly in rural than in urban areas of China. This paper presents the trends of lung cancer incidence and survival derived from a 40-year population-based cancer monitoring program in a rural area, Qidong, China. The Qidong cancer registration data of 1972- 2011 were used to calculate the crude rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR), birth cohort rates, and other descriptive features. Active and passive methods were used to construct the data set, with a deadline of the latest follow-up of April 30, 2012. The total number of lung cancer cases was 15,340, accounting for 16.5% of all sites combined. The crude incidence rate, CASR and WASR of this cancer were 34.1, 15.7 and 25.4 per 100,000, respectively. Males had higher crude rates than females (49.7 vs 19.0). Rapidly increasing trends were found in annual percent change resulting in lung cancer being a number one cancer site after year 2010 in Qidong. Birth cohort analysis showed incidence rates have increased for all age groups over 24 years old. The 5 year observed survival rates were 3.55% in 1973-1977, 3.92 in 1983-1987, 3.69% in 1993-1997, and 6.32% in 2003-2007. Males experienced poorer survival than did females. Lung cancer has become a major cancer-related health problem in this rural area. The rapid increases in incidence likely result from an increased cigarette smoking rate and evolving environmental risk factors. Lung cancer survival, while showing some improvement in prognosis, still remains well below that observed in the developed areas of the world.
J. K. Wang
Full Text Available I present a model of stock market price fluctuations incorporating effects of share supply as a history-dependent function of previous purchases and share demand as a function of price deviation from moving averages. Price charts generated show intervals of oscillations switching amplitude and frequency suddenly in time, forming price and trading volume patterns well-known in market technical analysis. Ultimate price trends agree with traditional predictions for specific patterns. The consideration of dynamically evolving supply and demand in this model resolves the apparent contradiction with the Efficient Market Hypothesis: perceptions of imprecise equity values by a world of investors evolve over non-negligible periods of time, with dependence on price history.
Rocatti, Guido; Aristide, Leandro; Rosenberger, Alfred L; Perez, S Ivan
New World monkeys (order Primates) are an example of a major mammalian evolutionary radiation in the Americas, with a contentious fossil record. There is evidence of an early platyrrhine occupation of this continent by the Eocene-Oligocene transition, evolving in isolation from the Old World primates from then on, and developing extensive morphological and size variation. Previous studies postulated that the platyrrhine clade arose as a local version of the Simpsonian ecospace model, with an early phase involving a rapid increase in morphological and ecological diversity driven by selection and ecological opportunity, followed by a diversification rate that slowed due to niche-filling. Under this model, variation in extant platyrrhines, in particular anatomical complexes, may resemble patterns seen among middle-late Miocene (10-14 Ma) platyrrhines as a result of evolutionary stasis. Here we examine the mandible in this regard, which may be informative about the dietary and phylogenetic history of the New World monkeys. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that the Simpsonian ecospace model applies to the platyrrhine mandible through a geometric morphometric analysis of digital images of the jaws of extant and extinct species, and we compare these results to those obtained using a phylogenetic comparative approach based on extant species. The results show a marked phylogenetic structure in the mandibular morphology of platyrrhines. Principal component analyses highlight the morphological diversity among modern forms, and reveal a similar range of variation for the clade when fossil specimens are included. Disparity-Through-Time analysis shows that most of the shape variation between platyrrhines originated early in their evolution (between 20 and 15 Ma). Our results converge with previous studies of body mass, cranial shape, the brain and the basicranium to show that platyrrhine evolution might have been shaped by an early increase in morphological variation
Morganti, Kristy Gonzalez; Bauhoff, Sebastian; Blanchard, Janice C; Abir, Mahshid; Iyer, Neema; Smith, Alexandria; Vesely, Joseph V; Okeke, Edward N; Kellermann, Arthur L
The research described in this article was performed to develop a more complete picture of how hospital emergency departments (EDs) contribute to the U.S. health care system, which is currently evolving in response to economic, clinical, and political pressures. Using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods, it explores the evolving role that EDs and the personnel who staff them play in evaluating and managing complex and high-acuity patients, serving as the key decisionmaker for roughly half of all inpatient hospital admissions, and serving as "the safety net of the safety net" for patients who cannot get care elsewhere. The report also examines the role that EDs may soon play in either contributing to or helping to control the rising costs of health care.
Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and application results concerning the development of evolving Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy models for two dynamic systems, which will be viewed as controlled processes, in the field of automotive applications. The two dynamic systems models are nonlinear dynamics of the longitudinal slip in the Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS and the vehicle speed in vehicles with the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT systems. The evolving Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy models are obtained as discrete-time fuzzy models by incremental online identification algorithms. The fuzzy models are validated against experimental results in the case of the ABS and the first principles simulation results in the case of the vehicle with the CVT.
Full Text Available After the derivation of specific applications from a software product line, the applications keep evolving with respect to new customer’s requirements. In general, evolutions in most industrial projects are expressed using natural language, because it is the easiest and the most flexible way for customers to express their needs. However, the use of this means of communication has shown its limits in detecting defects, such as inconsistency and duplication, when evolving the existing models of the software product line. The aim of this paper is to transform the natural language specifications of new evolutions into a more formal representation using natural language processing. Then, an algorithm is proposed to automatically detect duplication between these specifications and the existing product line feature models. In order to instantiate the proposed solution, a tool is developed to automatize the two operations.
Lanchares, Juan, E-mail: email@example.com [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garnica, Oscar, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Risco-Martín, José L., E-mail: email@example.com [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ignacio Hidalgo, J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: email@example.com [Área de Tecnologías Electrónicas, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)
In the last two decades, recursive algorithms for real-time digital pulse shaping in pulse height measurements have been developed and published in number of articles and textbooks. All these algorithms try to synthesize in real time optimum or near optimum shapes in the presence of noise. Even though some of these shapers can be considered effective designs, some side effects like aging cannot be ignored. We may observe that after sensors degradation, the signal obtained is not valid. In this regard, we present in this paper a novel technique that, based on evolvable hardware concepts, is able to evolve the degenerated shaper into a new design with better performance than the original one under the new sensor features.
Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur
Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...... by comparing and combining different aspects of existing models. Finally, we discuss how model diversity came about in the past and could evolve in the future. Throughout our study, we use analogies from biodiversity research to analyse and interpret model diversity. We recommend to make models publicly...
Ogri J. Ushie; Abbod, Maysam F.; Julie C. Ogbulezie
This paper introduces the use of Genetic Programming (GP), Genetic Folding and symbolic circuit analysis in Matlab for the evolution of passive filter circuits. Instead of combining MATLAB and PSPICE in electronic circuit simulation, in this work, only MATLAB is used. It helps to reduce elapsed time for transferring the simulation between the two software packages. The circuit evolved from GP using the Matlab program and is automatically converted into a symbolic netlist also by using a Matla...
I, Fuchuan N.; I, Yuanxiang L.; E, Peng K.
Evolvable Hardware is facing the problems of scalability and stalling effect. This paper proposed a novel Orthogonal Neighbourhood Mutation (ONM) operator in Cartesian genetic programming (CGP), to reduce the stalling effect in CGP and improve the efficiency of the algorithms.The method incorporates with Differential Evolution strategy. Demonstrated by experiments on benchmark, the proposed Orthogonal Neighbourhood Search can jump out of Local optima, reduce the stalling effect in CGP and the algorithm convergence faster.
FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Grant No. D15AP00024 “ Engineering Therapies that Evolve to Autonomously Control Epidemics” PI: Leor Weinberger...viruses could be engineered into therapeutics, known as Therapeutic Interfering Particles (’TIPs’), using the virus HIV as a model system. By engineering ... engineered TIPs could have indefinite, population-scale impact. To achieve this aim, we developed novel multi-scale models that connected the measured
INDIA'S NORTHWARD DRIFT AND COLLISION WITH ASIA: EVOLVING FAUNAL RESPONSE · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24.
Radiological protection has continued to evolve in order to meet emerging challenges and will continue to do so. This paper will discuss the scientific and social challenges that will or may be faced by the radiological protection community in the coming 10 to 20 y and how these may affect what is expected to be a renewed interest in building and operating nuclear power plants for electricity generation. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society
Examples of Evolution – TRICARE in Alaska – Autism Services Demonstration 2011 MHS Conference 3 Track L Evolving to achieve the Quadruple Aim...Heidelberg MEDDAC Lessons Learned 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4 2 a. TRICARE in Alaska b. Autism Services Demonstration c. A Regional View 3 1 1, 2...3, 4 3 TRICARE Pharmacy Programs 3, 4 4 TRICARE for Reserves and National Guard 1, 2, 3 5 TRICARE Dental Programs 1, 2, 4 6 a
Linda S. Goldberg; Klein, Michael W
The credibility of a central bank’s anti-inflation stance, a key determinant of its success, may reflect institutional structure or, more dynamically, the history of policy decisions. The first years of the European Central Bank (ECB) provide a natural experiment for considering whether, and how, central bank credibility evolves. In this paper, we present a model demonstrating how the high-frequency response of asset prices to news reflects market perceptions of the anti-inflation stance of a...
Lambru, Giorgio; Castellini, Paola; Bini, Annamaria; Evangelista, Andrea; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola
Hemicrania continua (HC) is a rare type of primary headache characterized by a prompt and enduring response to indomethacin. We describe a patient who suffered from cluster headache evolving into ipsilateral HC, who does not tolerate a long-term indomethacin therapy. The case was complex in terms of diagnosis, associated comorbidity, and choice of treatment; after several trials with different therapeutic regimens, we started the patient on a therapy with valproic acid and obtained an improvement of her HC.
Ketola, Tarmo; Hiltunen, Teppo
Rapid evolutionary adaptions to new and previously detrimental environmental conditions can increase the risk of invasion by novel pathogens. We tested this hypothesis with a 133-day-long evolutionary experiment studying the evolution of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens bacterium at salinity niche boundary and in fluctuating conditions. We found that S. marcescens evolved at harsh (80 g/L) and extreme (100 g/L) salt conditions had clearly improved salt tolerance than those evolved in the ot...
The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.
Wu, XiaoHuan; Zhu, JinFu; Wu, WeiWei; Ge, Wei
Most of existing works on complex network assumed that the nodes and edges were uncapacitated during the evolving process, and displayed "rich club" phenomenon. Here we will show that the "rich club" could be changed to "common rich" if we consider the node capacity. In this paper, we define the node and edge attractive index with node capacity, and propose a new evolving model on the base of BBV model, with evolving simulations of the networks. In the new model, an entering node is linked with an existing node according to the preferential attachment mechanism defined with the attractive index of the existing node. We give the theoretical approximation and simulation solutions. If node capacity is finite, the rich node may not be richer further when the node strength approaches or gets to the node capacity. This is confirmed by analyzing the passenger traffic and routes of Chinese main airports. Due to node strength being function of time t, we can use the theoretical approximation solution to forecast how node strength changes and the time when node strength reaches its maximum value.
Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark
The plethora of digital communication technologies, and their mass take up, has resulted in a wealth of interest in social network data collection and analysis in recent years. Within many such networks the interactions are transient: thus those networks evolve over time. In this paper we introduce a class of models for such networks using evolving graphs with memory dependent edges, which may appear and disappear according to their recent history. We consider time discrete and time continuous variants of the model. We consider the long term asymptotic behaviour as a function of parameters controlling the memory dependence. In particular we show that such networks may continue evolving forever, or else may quench and become static (containing immortal and/or extinct edges). This depends on the existence or otherwise of certain infinite products and series involving age dependent model parameters. We show how to differentiate between the alternatives based on a finite set of observations. To test these ideas we show how model parameters may be calibrated based on limited samples of time dependent data, and we apply these concepts to three real networks: summary data on mobile phone use from a developing region; online social-business network data from China; and disaggregated mobile phone communications data from a reality mining experiment in the US. In each case we show that there is evidence for memory dependent dynamics, such as that embodied within the class of models proposed here.
A general framework and a holistic concept are proposed in this paper that combine computationally light machine learning from streaming data with the online identification and adaptation of dynamic systems in regard to their structure and parameters. According to this concept, the system is assumed to be decomposable into a set of fuzzily connected simple local models. The main thrust of this paper is in the development of an original approach for the self-design, self-monitoring, self-management, and self-learning of such systems in a dynamic manner from data streams which automatically detect and react to the shift in the data distribution by evolving the system structure. Novelties of this contribution lie in the following: 1) the computationally simple approach (simpl_e_Clustering-simplified evolving Clustering) to data space partitioning by recursive evolving clustering based on the relative position of the new data sample to the mean of the overall data, 2) the learning technique for online structure evolution as a reaction to the shift in the data distribution, 3) the method for online system structure simplification based on utility and inputs/feature selection, and 4) the novel graphical illustration of the spatiotemporal evolution of the data stream. The application domain for this computationally efficient technique ranges from clustering, modeling, prognostics, classification, and time-series prediction to pattern recognition, image segmentation, vector quantization, etc., to more general problems in various application areas, e.g., intelligent sensors, mobile robotics, advanced manufacturing processes, etc.
Kaushal, S.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Newcomer Johnson, T.; Pennino, M. J.; Smith, R. M.; Beaulieu, J. J.; Belt, K.; Grese, M.; Blomquist, J.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Likens, G.; Mayer, P. M.; Murthy, S.; Utz, R.; Yepsen, M.
Watersheds experiencing land development are constantly evolving, and their biogeochemical signatures are expected to evolve across both space and time in drainage waters. We investigate how land development influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Eastern U.S. Along the watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and bioavailability of carbon; (2) carbon retention/release at the reach scale; and (3) ecosystem metabolism of carbon from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon "pulses" in watersheds. Amounts and forms of carbon pulses in agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered organic carbon concentrations in tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay, and there have been increased bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. due to human activities. In summary, our analyses indicates that the form and reactivity of carbon have evolved over space and time along the watershed continuum with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.
Babiker Mohammed Elamen
Full Text Available The pyrolytic behavior of evolved gases from date palm seeds (DPSs were measured to gain insight into the mechanism of DPSs pyrolysis. Six different cultivars were used in this study, namely Deglet nour, Piarom, Suffry, Safawi, Mabroom and Aliya. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA and a real-time gas analyzer (GA were used to calculate the mass losses and the mole fraction of evolved gases, respectively. DPSs samples were pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere condition using argon with a purge rate of 100 mL/minute. The samples were subjected to non-isothermal operation. An independent single model and parallel reaction model were adopted to interpret the empirical data collected from TGA and GA, respectively. The results reveled that there are three types of pyrolysis zones depending on the main constituents of every cultivars. Moreover, the potentialty of the zones in controlling the pyrolysis behavior was noticeable. The dominant hydrocarbon species in DPSs were CO and CH4 (40 to 50% higher than the rest of species. The mole fraction of CO was 2 to 4 times higher than the mole fraction of CO2. The activation energy and frequency factor of DPSs evolved species showed that Mabroom has the highest activation energy regarding H2 (63.21kJ/mol and CO (74.32 kJ/mol.
World Bank Group
This pamphlet presents the World Bank Group and World Bank Corporate Scorecards updated with latest data available for Tier 3 (Performance Tier) as of December 31, 2015. Tiers 1 and 2 present data from end of fiscal year 2015. The World Bank Group Corporate Scorecard monitors the implementation of the World Bank Group Strategy. The Scorecard provides an apex view of the results and performance indicators of the three World Bank Group institutions—the World Bank (WB), ...
Bainbridge, William Sims
The future of a virtual world depends on whether it can grow in subjective size, cultural content, and numbers of human participants. In one form of growth, exemplified by Second Life, the scope of a world increases gradually as new sponsors pay for new territory and inhabitants create content. A very different form of growth is sudden expansion, as when World of Warcraft (WoW) added entire new continents in its Burning Crusade and Lich King expansions (Lummis and Kern 2006, 2008; Corneliussen and Rettberg 2008; Sims et al. 2008). Well-established gamelike worlds have often undergone many expansions. Both the pioneer science fiction game Anarchy Online, which was launched in 2001, and Star Wars Galaxies dating from 2003, have had three, and EVE Online also from 2003 has had nine, although smaller ones. This chapter reports research on WoW's 2008 Lich King expansion, using both quantitative and qualitative methods, in order to develop theoretical ideas of the implications of expansion for virtual worlds.
Mohni, Mary; Rogers, Jolene; Zeitz, Al
Iowa Lakes Community College responded to a national need for wind-energy technicians. The Wind-Energy and Turbine Program aligned industry and academic competencies with experiential learning components to foster exploration of additional renewable energy applications. Completers understand both the physical and academic rigor a career in wind…
While there are numerous particular IPR and regulatory issues to be resolved across the intersection between Big Data and the life sciences there is a growing awareness of the importance of data and specifically Big Data by market authorities. Antitrust enforcement agencies, those in the United...... the merger on the condition that the merged firm would make copies of its database available for purchase by existing and new potential competitors. The previous decision of the European Court of Justice in the IMS Health case has already set out that there are limitations to the extent IPRs can be used......, regulatory or de facto is not a concern and the technology or data owner is in general obliged to license on fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory terms. These are issues that remain unanswered in the antitrust narrative but all indications are that the future holds more application of the antitrust rules...
Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao
Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.
Armbrust, E. V.
Every drop of seawater contains fantastically diverse groups of microbes that control key biogeochemical processes in the ocean and determine the habitability of our planet. The challenge is to scale from this world of individual cells to ecosystem function and ultimately to ocean basin processes. Our work begins with microscopic marine diatoms because they are responsible for about twenty percent of the photosynthesis that occurs on Earth each year, they form the base of highly productive marine food webs, and they help regulate past and current fluxes of CO2 into the ocean. Diatoms evolved in a dilute environment where they are never free from the influences of other microbes. We explore the specifics of these interactions via model diatom/bacteria systems that can be manipulated in the laboratory - one includes an antagonistic bacterium that inhibits the growth of diatoms and a second includes a synergistic bacterium that enhances the growth of diatoms. We scale up from the cellular level to population-level interactions through use of our continuous flow cytometer, SeaFlow, which taps into a ship's seawater intake system to provide a continuous read-out of abundance, size and type of the smallest phytoplankton. We use this data to estimate division rates and mortality rates of these phytoplankton across thousands of kilometers of ocean basins. We tie these scales together with genomic approaches in both laboratory experiments and in open ocean field studies to document how interactions with the environment and between microbes drive specific adaptations. Our ultimate goal is to understand how microbial communities will respond to and will help shape future ocean conditions.
... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...
Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch
Gürsimsek, Remzi Ates
The online social platforms known as virtual worlds present their users various affordances for avatar based co-presence, social interaction and provide tools for collaborative content creation, including objects, textures and animations. The users of these worlds navigate their avatars as personal...... world known as Second Life by the collaborative efforts of its so-called residents. The social semiotic perspective is used to develop a multimodal analytical framework and to analyze the co-creation of meaning potentials by various social actors who use the available semiotic resources as mediational...... means. The findings show that co-design and co-creation practices do not only depend on various actors and their mediated interactions, but also on a variety of tools, practices and resources that digital media platforms provide. Moreover, the multimodal analysis of these places demonstrates how...
Levin, Frank S
The ideas and phenomena of the quantum world are strikingly unlike those encountered in our visual world. Surfing the Quantum World shows why and how this is so. It does this via a historical review and a gentle introduction to the fundamental principles of quantum theory, whose core concepts and symbolic representations are used to explain not only "ordinary" microscopic phenomena like the properties of the hydrogen atom and the structure of the Periodic Table of the Elements, but also a variety of mind-bending phenomena. Readers will learn that particles such as electrons and photons can behave like waves, allowing them to be in two places simultaneously, why white dwarf and neutron stars are gigantic quantum objects, how the maximum height of mountains has a quantum basis, and why quantum objects can tunnel through seemingly impenetrable barriers. Included among the various interpretational issues addressed is whether Schrodinger's cat is ever both dead and alive.
The World Energy Insight 2011 is the official publication of the World Energy Council. It includes interviews, articles and case studies from a distinguished panel of World Energy Council Officers, CEOs, government ministers, academics and opinion formers from all areas of the energy sector and provides perspectives from around the globe. Government, industry and NGO's offer both policy and technology perspectives. The insights within this publication add to the work that WEC is doing to provide the forum for energy leaders, along with the on-going WEC studies and programmes on Energy Policies, 2050 Energy Scenarios, Energy Resources & Technologies, Energy for Urban Innovation, Rules Of Energy Trade and Global Energy Access.
Vilslev, Annette Thorsen
The PhD dissertation compares the literary theory and novels of modern Japanese writer Natsume Sōseki. It reads Sōseki’s Theory of Literature (2009, Bungakuron, 1907) as an inherently comparative and interdisciplinary approach to theorizing feelings in world literature. More broadly......, the dissertation investigates the critical negotiation of the novel as a travelling genre in Japan in the beginning of the 20th century, and, more specifically, Sōseki’s work in relation to world literature and affect theory. Sōseki’s work is highly influential in Japan and East Asia, and his novels widely...... circulated beyond Japan. Using Sōseki’s theory as an example, and by comparing it to other theories, the dissertation argues that comparative literature needs to include not only more non-Western literature but also more non-Western literary theories in the ongoing debate of world literature. Close...
Rockström, Johan; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim; Hoskins, Brian; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Schlosser, Peter; Brasseur, Guy Pierre; Gaffney, Owen; Nobre, Carlos; Meinshausen, Malte; Rogelj, Joeri; Lucht, Wolfgang
The scale of the decarbonisation challenge to meet the Paris Agreement is underplayed in the public arena. It will require precipitous emissions reductions within 40 years and a new carbon sink on the scale of the ocean sink. Even then, the world is extremely likely to overshoot. A catastrophic failure of policy, for example, waiting another decade for transformative policy and full commitments to fossil-free economies, will have irreversible and deleterious repercussions for humanity's remaining time on Earth. Only a global zero carbon roadmap will put the world on a course to phase-out greenhouse gas emissions and create the essential carbon sinks for Earth-system stability, without which, world prosperity is not possible.
Théroux-Rancourt, Guillaume; Mason Earles, J.; Gilbert, Matthew E.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.; Boyce, C. Kevin; McElrone, Andrew; Brodersen, Craig
Variation in leaf mesophyll structure strongly affects CO2 diffusion and photosynthetic rates. One key trait is the surface of mesophyll cells exposed to intercellular airspace (Sm) which increases mesophyll conductance. Consequently, Sm is a key control of CO2 diffusion among species and genotypes. Using Sm values from the literature (> 200 species with 500 data points) and from our high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (μCT) dataset (currently 117 species), Sm shows little variation from pteridophytes to early angiosperms, while eudicots show the greatest structural diversity. However, Sm increases with total thickness of the mesophyll. By considering the exposed surface of the mesophyll to the intercellular air space (IAS) on a leaf or mesophyll volume (Ames/V mes) rather than leaf area basis (Sm), we demonstrate that angiosperms, and most specifically commelinids and non-basal eudicots, have constructed leaves with more surface per volume, while gymnosperms keep a constant Ames/V mes ratio. Thus, this strong phylogenetic signal suggests that angiosperms have developed IAS properties favoring leaves with higher surface to volume ratio, trait that allowed for the potential of high productivity even as atmospheric CO2 declined over the Cenozoic.
Shelton, P G; Corral, Irma; Kyle, Brandon
Restructuring of undergraduate medical education (UGME) has occurred from time to time over the past century. Many influences, including the persuasive report of Abraham Flexner in 1910, acted to reorganize medical education in the early twentieth century [1, 2]. In his report, Flexner called on American medical schools to enact higher graduation standards and to stringently adhere to the protocols of mainstream science in their teaching. Prior to this report, UGME had changed little over the previous century but over the last several decades, reform within medical education has become routine. This increasing rate of change has been challenging for those within the realm of undergraduate medical education and can be frustrating to those outside this sphere. Today, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) are typically the driving forces behind such changes, along with acceleration of advances in medical care and technology. The number of changes in the last decade is significant and warrants review by those interested or involved in education of medical students. This article aims to provide a summary of recent changes within UGME. Within the article, changes in both the pre-clerkship (1st and 2nd years) and clinical years (3rd and 4th) will be discussed. Finally, this review will attempt to clarify new terminology and concepts such as the recently released Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs). The goal of these UGME changes, as with Flexner's reform, is to ensure future physicians are better prepared for patient care.
Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...
Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)
PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.
Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…
Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.
Robertson, Maria Louise Bønnelykke; Rubow, Cecilie
traps, whales, coastal protection devices, and scientific findings of sand sedimentation processes and sea level rise, we demonstrate how the island worlds are constantly made and remade by social and natural forces, and somewhat surprisingly, how the rising sea is conspicuously absent at many island......Drawing on fieldwork in Kiribati and the Cook Islands, this chapter shows how atoll islands and tropical lagoons, considered highly vulnerable to present and future sea level rise, are extraordinary malleable socio-natural worlds. Revolving around sacred islands submerged by sea water, ancient fish...
Cockell, Charles S
'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers.
This Asia Focus provides an overview of shadow banking activities in China, their close ties with banks, reasons behind their rapid rise, the range of participants and products, and regulatory issues.
Reed, P. M.
Climate change, population demands, and evolving land-use represent strong risks to the sustainable development and stability of world-wide urban water supplies. There is a growing consensus that non-structural supply management instruments such as water markets have significant potential to reduce the risks and vulnerabilities in complex urban water systems. This paper asks a common question, what are the tradeoffs for a city using water market supply instruments?. This question emerges quickly in policy and management, but its answer is deceptively difficult to attain using traditional planning tools and management frameworks. This research demonstrates new frameworks that facilitate rapid evaluation of hypotheses on the reliability, resiliency, adaptability, and cost-effectiveness of urban water supply systems. This study considers a broader exploration of the issues of "nonstationarity" and "uncertainty" in urban water planning. As we invest in new information and prediction frameworks for the coupled human-natural systems that define our water, our problem definitions (i.e., objectives, constraints, preferences, and hypotheses) themselves evolve. From a formal mathematical perspective, this means that our management problems are structurally uncertain and nonstationary (i.e., the definition of optimality changes across regions, times, and stakeholders). This uncertainty and nonstationarity in our problem definitions needs to be more explicitly acknowledged in adaptive management and integrated water resources management. This study demonstrates the potential benefits of exploring these issues in the context of a city in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of Texas, USA determining how to use its regional water market to manage population and drought risks.
Krems, Jaimie Arona; Dunbar, R I M
Hyperlink cinema is an emergent film genre that seeks to push the boundaries of the medium in order to mirror contemporary life in the globalized community. Films in the genre thus create an interacting network across space and time in such a way as to suggest that people's lives can intersect on scales that would not have been possible without modern technologies of travel and communication. This allows us to test the hypothesis that new kinds of media might permit us to break through the natural cognitive constraints that limit the number and quality of social relationships we can manage in the conventional face-to-face world. We used network analysis to test this hypothesis with data from 12 hyperlink films, using 10 motion pictures from a more conventional film genre as a control. We found few differences between hyperlink cinema films and the control genre, and few differences between hyperlink cinema films and either the real world or classical drama (e.g., Shakespeare's plays). Conversation group size seems to be especially resilient to alteration. It seems that, despite many efficiency advantages, modern media are unable to circumvent the constraints imposed by our evolved psychology.
Full Text Available More than million foods have been made by people from all over the world in the latest years. People now try to create new cooks and make some creativity on it. Then, cooking which the field is culinary has become an art because it needs an artistic value to decorate the food, a good taste and proper technique in processing delicious food in order to make it a masterpiece. French culinary is as famous as the Eiffel tower in the heart of the country, Paris. Most of fine dining international restaurants apply the French menu and cooking. This article presents an overview about the French element in culinary world; starts from its history, kitchen organization, French menu spelling, and French cooking vocabulary. The discussion proceeds library research to compile the data. Later, the art of culinary is interesting to be learned because it contains the classical history of world civilization, in this case French civilization. The issue of cooking trend “nouvelle cuisine” was a masterpiece of one of the greatest chef in his time, Escoffier. French culinary is widely well-known in all over the world because of innovation, creativity, and proud. Those are spirits that we must learn.
Cheok, Adrian David; Romão, Teresa; Yu, Gino; Cheok, A.D.; Nijholt, Antinus; Romão, T.
Entertainment media are entertainment products and services that rely on digital technology. Mostly the digital entertainment industry is focused on the developed world such as USA, Europe, and Japan. However, due to the decreasing cost of computer and programming technologies, developing countries
"Optimists might believe Microsoft suffered a setback last week that will impede its progress toward world domination, but I suspect the company has already found a way to prevail. At issue before the European Union was Microsoft's bundling of its Windows Media Player with its operating system" (1 page)
For World Heart Day, learn more about what heart-healthy steps you can take in the workplace. Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 9/9/2009.
R. Veenhoven (Ruut)
textabstractABSTRACT The World Database of Happiness is an ongoing register of research on subjective appreciation of life. Its purpose is to make the wealth of scattered findings accessible, and to create a basis for further meta-analytic studies. The database involves four sections:
... Fact sheet Creative campaigns spread awareness on antibiotic resistance Climate change impact on health in Small Island Developing States ... November 2017 Antibiotic resistance Updated November 2017 Antimicrobial resistance ... and Climate Change at COP23 6–17 November 2017 World Antibiotic ...
Plauborg, Helle; Juelskjær, Malou
on the care and concerns of and about the worlds that we are of. We will be dialoging with soil (radioactive or not) (de la Bellacasa 2015)(Barad, 2016) land and race (Rose 2004) leaf bugs ((Schrader 2015) and Hesse-Honegger 2008) and other non-humans and technologies (Haraway 2008, Haraway 2016, de la...
J. Tinbergen (Jan)
textabstractA very neat illustration of the skilful use of small, manageable, world models to consider pressing policy questions of great current relevance. Ron Smith, The Economic Journal" Jan Tinbergen, in this book as in his earlier work, has the courage to address central issues. Dietrich
Meadows, D.L. (New Hampshire Univ. (USA). Inst. for Policy and Social Science Research)
The Author presents several arguments explaining and backing the mechanics of a world strategy of zero growth. First, attention is brought to Aurelio Peccei's concerns regarding the short-sightedness of the energy and economic policies of industrialized nations. In his book (entitled 'Verso l'Abisso'), written almost 25 years ago, he correctly predicted the severity and timing of current global environmental problems such as the greenhouse effect and acid rain. Urgent and concerted action by world governments is recommended to contain and and remedy damage being caused by a diverse mix of integrated factors - over-population, uncontrolled food production, pollution, over-production by industry, and the improper use of energy and other natural resources. The Author sets guidelines for the creation of a world of steady-state growth in which an equilibrium is reached between overall standards of living and population dynamics. To meet this goal of global man/environment peaceful coexistence, he strongly urges the creation and instillation of a new set of values through the placing of emphasis on the research and development of cultural, psychological, institutional and moral philosophies which, in the last century, have been almost entirely supplanted world-wide by growing materialistic ideals and the pursuit of technological perfection.
Weerkamp, W.; Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.
We describe Streamwatchr, a real-time system for analyzing the music listening behavior of people around the world. Streamwatchr collects music-related tweets, extracts artists and songs, and visualizes the results in three ways: (i) currently trending songs and artists, (ii) newly discovered songs,