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Sample records for rapidly evolving analytical

  1. The Evolving Leadership Path of Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluse, Michael; Peurrung, Anthony J.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2012-01-02

    This is a requested book chapter for an internationally authored book on visual analytics and related fields, coordianted by a UK university and to be published by Springer in 2012. This chapter is an overview of the leadship strategies that PNNL's Jim Thomas and other stakeholders used to establish visual analytics as a field, and how those strategies may evolve in the future.

  2. Developing Collective Learning Extension for Rapidly Evolving Information System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…

  3. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on April ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1997-04-15

    The active region NOAA 8032 of April 15, 1997 was observed to evolve rapidly. The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. The magnetic evolution of this region is studied to ascertain its role in flare production. Large changes were observed in magnetic ...

  4. ON THE NATURE OF RAPIDLY ROTATING SINGLE EVOLVED STARS

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    Da Silva, R. Rodrigues; Canto Martins, B. L.; De Medeiros, J. R., E-mail: renan@dfte.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitário, Natal RN (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the nature of the rapidly rotating, apparently single giant based on rotational and radial velocity measurements carried out by the CORAVEL spectrometers. From the analyzed sample, composed of 2010 spectroscopic, apparently single, evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II, and Ib with spectral types G and K, we classified 30 stars that presented unusual, moderate to rapid rotation. This work reports, for the first time, the presence of these abnormal rotators among subgiant, bright giant, and Ib supergiant stars. To date, this class of stars was reported only among giant stars of luminosity class III. Most of these abnormal rotators present an IRAS infrared excess, which, in principle, can be related to dust around these stars.

  5. Microsatellites evolve more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees

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    Rubinsztein, D.C.; Leggo, J.; Amos, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-10

    Microsatellites are highly polymorphic markers consisting of varying numbers of tandem repeats. At different loci, these repeats can consist of one to five nucleotides. Microsatellites have been used in many fields of genetics, including genetic mapping, linkage disequilibrium analyses, forensic studies, and population genetics. It is important that we understand their mutational processes better so that they can be exploited optimally for studies of human diversity and evolutionary genetics. We have analyzed 24 microsatellite loci in chimpanzees, East Anglians, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The stepwise-weighted genetic distances between the humans and the chimpanzees and between the two human populations were calculated according to the method described by Deka et al. The ratio of the genetic distances between the chimpanzees and the humans relative to that between the Africans and the East Anglians was more than 10 times smaller than expected. This suggests that microsatellites have evolved more rapidly in humans than in chimpanzees. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Histone variant innovation in a rapidly evolving chordate lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Pascal WTC

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone variants alter the composition of nucleosomes and play crucial roles in transcription, chromosome segregation, DNA repair, and sperm compaction. Modification of metazoan histone variant lineages occurs on a background of genome architecture that shows global similarities from sponges to vertebrates, but the urochordate, Oikopleura dioica, a member of the sister group to vertebrates, exhibits profound modification of this ancestral architecture. Results We show that a histone complement of 47 gene loci encodes 31 histone variants, grouped in distinct sets of developmental expression profiles throughout the life cycle. A particularly diverse array of 15 male-specific histone variants was uncovered, including a testes-specific H4t, the first metazoan H4 sequence variant reported. Universal histone variants H3.3, CenH3, and H2A.Z are present but O. dioica lacks homologs of macroH2A and H2AX. The genome encodes many H2A and H2B variants and the repertoire of H2A.Z isoforms is expanded through alternative splicing, incrementally regulating the number of acetylatable lysine residues in the functionally important N-terminal "charge patch". Mass spectrometry identified 40 acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation posttranslational modifications (PTMs and showed that hallmark PTMs of "active" and "repressive" chromatin were present in O. dioica. No obvious reduction in silent heterochromatic marks was observed despite high gene density in this extraordinarily compacted chordate genome. Conclusions These results show that histone gene complements and their organization differ considerably even over modest phylogenetic distances. Substantial innovation among all core and linker histone variants has evolved in concert with adaptation of specific life history traits in this rapidly evolving chordate lineage.

  7. Multivariate sexual selection in a rapidly evolving speciation phenotype.

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    Oh, Kevin P; Shaw, Kerry L

    2013-06-22

    Estimating the fitness surface of rapidly evolving secondary sexual traits can elucidate the origins of sexual isolation and thus speciation. Evidence suggests that sexual selection is highly complex in nature, often acting on multivariate sexual characters that sometimes include non-heritable components of variation, thus presenting a challenge for predicting patterns of sexual trait evolution. Laupala crickets have undergone an explosive species radiation marked by divergence in male courtship song and associated female preferences, yet patterns of sexual selection that might explain this diversification remain unknown. We used female phonotaxis trials to estimate the fitness surface for acoustic characters within one population of Laupala cerasina, a species with marked geographical variation in male song and female preferences. Results suggested significant directional sexual selection on three major song traits, while canonical rotation of the matrix of nonlinear selection coefficients (γ) revealed the presence of significant convex (stabilizing) sexual selection along combinations of characters. Analysis of song variation within and among males indicated significantly higher repeatability along the canonical axis of greatest stabilizing selection than along the axis of greatest linear selection. These results are largely consistent with patterns of song divergence that characterize speciation and suggest that different song characters have the potential to indicate distinct information to females during courtship.

  8. Reproductive behaviour evolves rapidly when intralocus sexual conflict is removed.

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    Stéphanie Bedhomme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intralocus sexual conflict can inhibit the evolution of each sex towards its own fitness optimum. In a previous study, we confirmed this prediction through the experimental removal of female selection pressures in Drosophila melanogaster, achieved by limiting the expression of all major chromosomes to males. Compared to the control populations (C(1-4 where the genomes are exposed to selection in both sexes, the populations with male-limited genomes (ML(1-4 showed rapid increases in male fitness, whereas the fitness of females expressing ML-evolved chromosomes decreased. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examine the behavioural phenotype underlying this sexual antagonism. We show that males expressing the ML genomes have a reduced courtship level but acquire the same number of matings. On the other hand, our data suggest that females expressing the ML genomes had reduced attractiveness, stimulating a lower rate of courtship from males. Moreover, females expressing ML genomes tend to display reduced yeast-feeding behaviour, which is probably linked to the reduction of their fecundity. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that reproductive behaviour is shaped by opposing selection on males and females, and that loci influencing attractiveness and foraging were polymorphic for alleles with sexually antagonistic expression patterns prior to ML selection. Hence, intralocus sexual conflict appears to play a role in the evolution of a wide range of fitness-related traits and may be a powerful mechanism for the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness.

  9. Co-evolving prisoner's dilemma: Performance indicators and analytic approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Choi, C. W.; Li, Y. S.; Xu, C.; Hui, P. M.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the intrinsic relation between the dynamical processes in a co-evolving network and the necessary ingredients in formulating a reliable theory is an important question and a challenging task. Using two slightly different definitions of performance indicator in the context of a co-evolving prisoner's dilemma game, it is shown that very different cooperative levels result and theories of different complexity are required to understand the key features. When the payoff per opponent is used as the indicator (Case A), non-cooperative strategy has an edge and dominates in a large part of the parameter space formed by the cutting-and-rewiring probability and the strategy imitation probability. When the payoff from all opponents is used (Case B), cooperative strategy has an edge and dominates the parameter space. Two distinct phases, one homogeneous and dynamical and another inhomogeneous and static, emerge and the phase boundary in the parameter space is studied in detail. A simple theory assuming an average competing environment for cooperative agents and another for non-cooperative agents is shown to perform well in Case A. The same theory, however, fails badly for Case B. It is necessary to include more spatial correlation into a theory for Case B. We show that the local configuration approximation, which takes into account of the different competing environments for agents with different strategies and degrees, is needed to give reliable results for Case B. The results illustrate that formulating a proper theory requires both a conceptual understanding of the effects of the adaptive processes in the problem and a delicate balance between simplicity and accuracy.

  10. How rapidly does the human mitochondrial genome evolve?

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    Howell, N.; Kubacka, I. [Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Mackey, D.A. [Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)]|[Univ. of Tasmania, Launceston (Australia)

    1996-09-01

    The results of an empirical nucleotide-sequencing approach indicate that the evolution of the human mitochondrial noncoding D-loop is both more rapid and more complex than is revealed by standard phylogenetic approaches. The nucleotide sequence of the D-loop region of the mitochondrial genome was determined for 45 members of a large matrilineal Leber hereditary optic neuropathy pedigree. Two germ-line mutations have arisen in members of one branch of the family, thereby leading to triplasmic descendants with three mitochondrial genotypes. Segregation toward the homoplasmic state can occur within a single generation in some of these descendants, a result that suggests rapid fixation of mitochondrial mutations as a result of developmental bottlenecking. However, slow segregation was observed in other offspring, and therefore no single or simple pattern of segregation can be generalized from the available data. Evidence for rare mtDNA recombination within the D-loop was obtained for one family member. In addition to these germ-line mutations, a somatic mutation was found in the D-loop of one family member. When this genealogical approach was applied to the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial coding regions, the results again indicated a very rapid rate of evolution. 44 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Genetic basis for rapidly evolved tolerance in the wild ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) residing in some urban and industrialized estuaries of the US eastern seaboard demonstrate recently evolved and extreme tolerance to toxic aryl hydrocarbon pollutants, characterized as dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). Here we provide an unusually comprehensive accounting (69%) through Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis of the genetic basis for DLC tolerance in killifish inhabiting an urban estuary contaminated with PCB congeners, the most toxic of which are DLCs. Consistent with mechanistic knowledge of DLC toxicity in fish and other vertebrates, the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (ahr2) region accounts for 17% of trait variation; however, QTLs on independent linkage groups and their interactions have even greater explanatory power (44%). QTLs interpreted within the context of recently available Fundulus genomic resources and shared synteny among fish species suggest adaptation via inter-acting components of a complex stress response network. Some QTLs were also enriched in other killifish populations characterized as DLC tolerant and residing in distant urban estuaries contaminated with unique mixtures of pollutants. Together, our results suggest that DLC tolerance in killifish represents an emerging example of parallel contemporary evolution that has been driven by intense human-mediated selection on natural populations. This manuscript describes experimental studies that contribute to our understanding of the ecological

  12. A rapidly evolving secretome builds and patterns a sea shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Kathryn

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Instructions to fabricate mineralized structures with distinct nanoscale architectures, such as seashells and coral and vertebrate skeletons, are encoded in the genomes of a wide variety of animals. In mollusks, the mantle is responsible for the extracellular production of the shell, directing the ordered biomineralization of CaCO3 and the deposition of architectural and color patterns. The evolutionary origins of the ability to synthesize calcified structures across various metazoan taxa remain obscure, with only a small number of protein families identified from molluskan shells. The recent sequencing of a wide range of metazoan genomes coupled with the analysis of gene expression in non-model animals has allowed us to investigate the evolution and process of biomineralization in gastropod mollusks. Results Here we show that over 25% of the genes expressed in the mantle of the vetigastropod Haliotis asinina encode secreted proteins, indicating that hundreds of proteins are likely to be contributing to shell fabrication and patterning. Almost 85% of the secretome encodes novel proteins; remarkably, only 19% of these have identifiable homologues in the full genome of the patellogastropod Lottia scutum. The spatial expression profiles of mantle genes that belong to the secretome is restricted to discrete mantle zones, with each zone responsible for the fabrication of one of the structural layers of the shell. Patterned expression of a subset of genes along the length of the mantle is indicative of roles in shell ornamentation. For example, Has-sometsuke maps precisely to pigmentation patterns in the shell, providing the first case of a gene product to be involved in molluskan shell pigmentation. We also describe the expression of two novel genes involved in nacre (mother of pearl deposition. Conclusion The unexpected complexity and evolvability of this secretome and the modular design of the molluskan mantle enables

  13. EVOLVE

    CERN Document Server

    Deutz, André; Schütze, Oliver; Legrand, Pierrick; Tantar, Emilia; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises nine selected works on numerical and computational methods for solving multiobjective optimization, game theory, and machine learning problems. It provides extended versions of selected papers from various fields of science such as computer science, mathematics and engineering that were presented at EVOLVE 2013 held in July 2013 at Leiden University in the Netherlands. The internationally peer-reviewed papers include original work on important topics in both theory and applications, such as the role of diversity in optimization, statistical approaches to combinatorial optimization, computational game theory, and cell mapping techniques for numerical landscape exploration. Applications focus on aspects including robustness, handling multiple objectives, and complex search spaces in engineering design and computational biology.

  14. Adaptive cyclically dominating game on co-evolving networks: numerical and analytic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chi Wun; Xu, Chen; Hui, Pak Ming

    2017-10-01

    A co-evolving and adaptive Rock (R)-Paper (P)-Scissors (S) game (ARPS) in which an agent uses one of three cyclically dominating strategies is proposed and studied numerically and analytically. An agent takes adaptive actions to achieve a neighborhood to his advantage by rewiring a dissatisfying link with a probability p or switching strategy with a probability 1 - p. Numerical results revealed two phases in the steady state. An active phase for p pc has three separate clusters of agents using only R, P, and S, respectively with terminated adaptive actions. A mean-field theory based on the link densities in co-evolving network is formulated and the trinomial closure scheme is applied to obtain analytical solutions. The analytic results agree with simulation results on ARPS well. In addition, the different probabilities of winning, losing, and drawing a game among the agents are identified as the origin of the small discrepancy between analytic and simulation results. As a result of the adaptive actions, agents of higher degrees are often those being taken advantage of. Agents with a smaller (larger) degree than the mean degree have a higher (smaller) probability of winning than losing. The results are informative for future attempts on formulating more accurate theories.

  15. A fibre based triature interferometer for measuring rapidly evolving, ablatively driven plasma densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J.; Bland, S. N.; Threadgold, J.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the first use of a fibre interferometer incorporating triature analysis for measuring rapidly evolving plasma densities of ne ˜ 1013/cm3 and above, such as those produced by simple coaxial plasma guns. The resultant system is extremely portable, easy to field in experiments, relatively cheap to produce, and—with the exception of a small open area in which the plasma is sampled—safe in operation as all laser light is enclosed.

  16. Development of Multiple Big Data Analytics Platforms with Rapid Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crucial problem of the integration of multiple platforms is how to adapt for their own computing features so as to execute the assignments most efficiently and gain the best outcome. This paper introduced the new approaches to big data platform, RHhadoop and SparkR, and integrated them to form a high-performance big data analytics with multiple platforms as part of business intelligence (BI to carry out rapid data retrieval and analytics with R programming. This paper aims to develop the optimization for job scheduling using MSHEFT algorithm and implement the optimized platform selection based on computing features for improving the system throughput significantly. In addition, users would simply give R commands rather than run Java or Scala program to perform the data retrieval and analytics in the proposed platforms. As a result, according to performance index calculated for various methods, although the optimized platform selection can reduce the execution time for the data retrieval and analytics significantly, furthermore scheduling optimization definitely increases the system efficiency a lot.

  17. Protein coalitions in a core mammalian biochemical network linked by rapidly evolving proteins

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    Tsoka Sophia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellular ATP levels are generated by glucose-stimulated mitochondrial metabolism and determine metabolic responses, such as glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS from the β-cells of pancreatic islets. We describe an analysis of the evolutionary processes affecting the core enzymes involved in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mammals. The proteins involved in this system belong to ancient enzymatic pathways: glycolysis, the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Results We identify two sets of proteins, or protein coalitions, in this group of 77 enzymes with distinct evolutionary patterns. Members of the glycolysis, TCA cycle, metabolite transport, pyruvate and NADH shuttles have low rates of protein sequence evolution, as inferred from a human-mouse comparison, and relatively high rates of evolutionary gene duplication. Respiratory chain and glutathione pathway proteins evolve faster, exhibiting lower rates of gene duplication. A small number of proteins in the system evolve significantly faster than co-pathway members and may serve as rapidly evolving adapters, linking groups of co-evolving genes. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the evolution of the involved proteins. We find evidence for two coalitions of proteins and the role of co-adaptation in protein evolution is identified and could be used in future research within a functional context.

  18. Snake venoms are integrated systems, but abundant venom proteins evolve more rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Steven D; Aggarwal, Shikha; Villar-Briones, Alejandro; Tin, Mandy Man-Ying; Terada, Kouki; Mikheyev, Alexander S

    2015-08-28

    While many studies have shown that extracellular proteins evolve rapidly, how selection acts on them remains poorly understood. We used snake venoms to understand the interaction between ecology, expression level, and evolutionary rate in secreted protein systems. Venomous snakes employ well-integrated systems of proteins and organic constituents to immobilize prey. Venoms are generally optimized to subdue preferred prey more effectively than non-prey, and many venom protein families manifest positive selection and rapid gene family diversification. Although previous studies have illuminated how individual venom protein families evolve, how selection acts on venoms as integrated systems, is unknown. Using next-generation transcriptome sequencing and mass spectrometry, we examined microevolution in two pitvipers, allopatrically separated for at least 1.6 million years, and their hybrids. Transcriptomes of parental species had generally similar compositions in regard to protein families, but for a given protein family, the homologs present and concentrations thereof sometimes differed dramatically. For instance, a phospholipase A2 transcript comprising 73.4 % of the Protobothrops elegans transcriptome, was barely present in the P. flavoviridis transcriptome (venoms. Protein evolutionary rates were positively correlated with transcriptomic and proteomic abundances, and the most abundant proteins showed positive selection. This pattern holds with the addition of four other published crotaline transcriptomes, from two more genera, and also for the recently published king cobra genome, suggesting that rapid evolution of abundant proteins may be generally true for snake venoms. Looking more broadly at Protobothrops, we show that rapid evolution of the most abundant components is due to positive selection, suggesting an interplay between abundance and adaptation. Given log-scale differences in toxin abundance, which are likely correlated with biosynthetic costs, we

  19. Rodent-specific alternative exons are more frequent in rapidly evolving genes and in paralogs

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    Mironov Andrey A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing is an important mechanism for generating functional and evolutionary diversity of proteins in eukaryotes. Here, we studied the frequency and functionality of recently gained, rodent-specific alternative exons. Results We projected the data about alternative splicing of mouse genes to the rat, human, and dog genomes, and identified exons conserved in the rat genome, but missing in more distant genomes. We estimated the frequency of rodent-specific exons while controlling for possible residual conservation of spurious exons. The frequency of rodent-specific exons is higher among predominantly skipped exons and exons disrupting the reading frame. Separation of all genes by the rate of sequence evolution and by gene families has demonstrated that rodent-specific cassette exons are more frequent in rapidly evolving genes and in rodent-specific paralogs. Conclusion Thus we demonstrated that recently gained exons tend to occur in fast-evolving genes, and their inclusion rate tends to be lower than that of older exons. This agrees with the theory that gain of alternative exons is one of the major mechanisms of gene evolution.

  20. Cancer immunotherapy: Opportunities and challenges in the rapidly evolving clinical landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emens, Leisha A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Darcy, Phillip K; Demaria, Sandra; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Redmond, William L; Seliger, Barbara; Marincola, Francesco M

    2017-08-01

    Cancer immunotherapy is now established as a powerful way to treat cancer. The recent clinical success of immune checkpoint blockade (antagonists of CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1) highlights both the universal power of treating the immune system across tumour types and the unique features of cancer immunotherapy. Immune-related adverse events, atypical clinical response patterns, durable responses, and clear overall survival benefit distinguish cancer immunotherapy from cytotoxic cancer therapy. Combination immunotherapies that transform non-responders to responders are under rapid development. Current challenges facing the field include incorporating immunotherapy into adjuvant and neoadjuvant cancer therapy, refining dose, schedule and duration of treatment and developing novel surrogate endpoints that accurately capture overall survival benefit early in treatment. As the field rapidly evolves, we must prioritise the development of biomarkers to guide the use of immunotherapies in the most appropriate patients. Immunotherapy is already transforming cancer from a death sentence to a chronic disease for some patients. By making smart, evidence-based decisions in developing next generation immunotherapies, cancer should become an imminently treatable, curable and even preventable disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Navigating the Perfect Storm: Research Strategies for Socialecological Systems in a Rapidly Evolving World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, John A.; Bullock, Seth; Costanza, Robert; Dawson, Terry P.; Edwards, Mary E.; Poppy, Guy M.; Smith, Graham M.

    2012-04-01

    The `Perfect Storm' metaphor describes a combination of events that causes a surprising or dramatic impact. It lends an evolutionary perspective to how social-ecological interactions change. Thus, we argue that an improved understanding of how social-ecological systems have evolved up to the present is necessary for the modelling, understanding and anticipation of current and future social-ecological systems. Here we consider the implications of an evolutionary perspective for designing research approaches. One desirable approach is the creation of multi-decadal records produced by integrating palaeoenvironmental, instrument and documentary sources at multiple spatial scales. We also consider the potential for improved analytical and modelling approaches by developing system dynamical, cellular and agent-based models, observing complex behaviour in social-ecological systems against which to test systems dynamical theory, and drawing better lessons from history. Alongside these is the need to find more appropriate ways to communicate complex systems, risk and uncertainty to the public and to policy-makers.

  2. A Low-Effort Analytics Platform for Visualizing Evolving Flask-Based Python Web Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Patrick; Klooster, Thijs; Andrikopoulos, Vasilios OR Vasileios; Lungu, Micea-Filip

    2017-01-01

    Tens of thousands of web applications are written in Flask, a Python-based web framework. Despite a rich ecosystem of extensions, there is none that supports the developer in gaining insight into the evolving performance of their service. In this paper, we introduce Flask Dashboard, a library that

  3. Rapid and continuous analyte processing in droplet microfluidic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strey, Helmut; Kimmerling, Robert; Bakowski, Tomasz

    2017-04-18

    The compositions and methods described herein are designed to introduce functionalized microparticles into droplets that can be manipulated in microfluidic devices by fields, including electric (dielectrophoretic) or magnetic fields, and extracted by splitting a droplet to separate the portion of the droplet that contains the majority of the microparticles from the part that is largely devoid of the microparticles. Within the device, channels are variously configured at Y- or T junctions that facilitate continuous, serial isolation and dilution of analytes in solution. The devices can be limited in the sense that they can be designed to output purified analytes that are then further analyzed in separate machines or they can include additional channels through which purified analytes can be further processed and analyzed.

  4. Authentic Oral Language Production and Interaction in CALL: An Evolving Conceptual Framework for the Use of Learning Analytics within the SpeakApps Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Giolla Mhichíl, Mairéad; van Engen, Jeroen; Ó Ciardúbháin, Colm; Ó Cléircín, Gearóid; Appel, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to construct and present the evolving conceptual framework of the SpeakApps projects to consider the application of learning analytics to facilitate synchronous and asynchronous oral language skills within this CALL context. Drawing from both the CALL and wider theoretical and empirical literature of learner analytics, the…

  5. Genome-Wide Analysis in Three Fusarium Pathogens Identifies Rapidly Evolving Chromosomes and Genes Associated with Pathogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperschneider, Jana; Gardiner, Donald M.; Thatcher, Louise F.; Lyons, Rebecca; Singh, Karam B.; Manners, John M.; Taylor, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens and hosts are in an ongoing arms race and genes involved in host–pathogen interactions are likely to undergo diversifying selection. Fusarium plant pathogens have evolved diverse infection strategies, but how they interact with their hosts in the biotrophic infection stage remains puzzling. To address this, we analyzed the genomes of three Fusarium plant pathogens for genes that are under diversifying selection. We found a two-speed genome structure both on the chromosome and gene group level. Diversifying selection acts strongly on the dispensable chromosomes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and on distinct core chromosome regions in Fusarium graminearum, all of which have associations with virulence. Members of two gene groups evolve rapidly, namely those that encode proteins with an N-terminal [SG]-P-C-[KR]-P sequence motif and proteins that are conserved predominantly in pathogens. Specifically, 29 F. graminearum genes are rapidly evolving, in planta induced and encode secreted proteins, strongly pointing toward effector function. In summary, diversifying selection in Fusarium is strongly reflected as genomic footprints and can be used to predict a small gene set likely to be involved in host–pathogen interactions for experimental verification. PMID:25994930

  6. Sensationalistic journalism and tales of snakebite: are rattlesnakes rapidly evolving more toxic venom?

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    Hayes, William K; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2010-03-01

    Recent reports in the lay press have suggested that bites by rattlesnakes in the last several years have been more severe than those in the past. The explanation, often citing physicians, is that rattlesnakes are evolving more toxic venom, perhaps in response to anthropogenic causes. We suggest that other explanations are more parsimonious, including factors dependent on the snake and factors associated with the bite victim's response to envenomation. Although bites could become more severe from an increased proportion of bites from larger or more provoked snakes (ie, more venom injected), the venom itself evolves much too slowly to explain the severe symptoms occasionally seen. Increased snakebite severity could also result from a number of demographic changes in the victim profile, including age and body size, behavior toward the snake (provocation), anatomical site of bite, clothing, and general health including asthma prevalence and sensitivity to foreign antigens. Clinical management of bites also changes perpetually, rendering comparisons of snakebite severity over time tenuous. Clearly, careful study taking into consideration many factors will be essential to document temporal changes in snakebite severity or venom toxicity. Presently, no published evidence for these changes exists. The sensationalistic coverage of these atypical bites and accompanying speculation is highly misleading and can produce many detrimental results, such as inappropriate fear of the outdoors and snakes, and distraction from proven snakebite management needs, including a consistent supply of antivenom, adequate health care, and training. We urge healthcare providers to avoid propagating misinformation about snakes and snakebites. Copyright (c) 2010 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From Rapid to Delayed and Remote Postconditioning: the Evolving Concept of Ischemic Postconditioning in Brain Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Ren, Chuancheng; Chen, Xingmiao; Shen, Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic postconditioning is a concept originally defined to contrast with that of ischemic preconditioning. While both preconditioning and postconditioning confer a neuroprotective effect on brain ischemia, preconditioning is a sublethal insult performed in advance of brain ischemia, and postconditioning, which conventionally refers to a series of brief occlusions and reperfusions of the blood vessels, is conducted after ischemia/reperfusion. In this article, we first briefly review the history of preconditioning, including the experimentation that initially uncovered its neuroprotective effects and later revealed its underlying mechanisms-of-action. We then discuss how preconditioning research evolved into that of postconditioning – a concept that now represents a broad range of stimuli or triggers, including delayed postconditioning, pharmacological postconditioning, remote postconditioning – and its underlying protective mechanisms involving the Akt, MAPK, PKC and KATP channel cell-signaling pathways. Because the concept of postconditioning is so closely associated with that of preconditioning, and both share some common protective mechanisms, we also discuss whether a combination of preconditioning and postconditioning offers greater protection than preconditioning or postconditioning alone. PMID:22204317

  8. Cloning of novel rice blast resistance genes from two rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Changjiang; Sun, Xiaoguang; Chen, Xiao; Yang, Sihai; Li, Jing; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Most rice blast resistance genes (R-genes) encode proteins with nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains. Our previous study has shown that more rice blast R-genes can be cloned in rapidly evolving NBS-LRR gene families. In the present study, two rapidly evolving R-gene families in rice were selected for cloning a subset of genes from their paralogs in three resistant rice lines. A total of eight functional blast R-genes were identified among nine NBS-LRR genes, and some of these showed resistance to three or more blast strains. Evolutionary analysis indicated that high nucleotide diversity of coding regions served as important parameters in the determination of gene resistance. We also observed that amino-acid variants (nonsynonymous mutations, insertions, or deletions) in essential motifs of the NBS domain contribute to the blast resistance capacity of NBS-LRR genes. These results suggested that the NBS regions might also play an important role in resistance specificity determination. On the other hand, different splicing patterns of introns were commonly observed in R-genes. The results of the present study contribute to improving the effectiveness of R-gene identification by using evolutionary analysis method and acquisition of novel blast resistance genes.

  9. Analytical workflow for rapid screening and purification of bioactives from venom proteomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otvos, R.A.; Heus, F.A.M.; Vonk, F.J.; Halff, J.; Bruynzeel, B.; Paliukhovich, I.; Smit, A.B.; Niessen, W.M.A.; Kool, J.

    2013-01-01

    Animal venoms are important sources for finding new pharmaceutical lead molecules. We used an analytical platform for initial rapid screening and identification of bioactive compounds from these venoms followed by fast and straightforward LC-MS only guided purification to obtain bioactives for

  10. RAPID: real-time analytics platform for interactive data-mining in a decision support scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanni, Michelle; Kase, Sue E.; Karunasekara, Shanika; Falzon, Lucia; Harwood, Aaron

    2017-05-01

    Real-time Analytics Platform for Interactive Data-mining (RAPID), a collaboration of University of Melbourne and Australia's Defense Science and Technology Group (DSTG), consumes data streams, performs analytics computations, and produces high-quality knowledge for analysts. RAPID takes topic seed words and autonomously identifies emerging keywords in the data. Users direct the system, setting time-windowing parameters, thresholds, update intervals and sample rates. Apache Storm and Apache Kafka permit real-time streaming while logging options support off-line processing. Decision-support scenarios feature Commander Critical Information Requirements involving comparisons over time and time-sequencing of events, capabilities particularly well-served by RAPID technology, to be demonstrated in the presentation.

  11. Consumer Health Informatics: Past, Present, and Future of a Rapidly Evolving Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, G

    2016-05-20

    Consumer Health Informatics (CHI) is a rapidly growing domain within the field of biomedical and health informatics. The objective of this paper is to reflect on the past twenty five years and showcase informatics concepts and applications that led to new models of care and patient empowerment, and to predict future trends and challenges for the next 25 years. We discuss concepts and systems based on a review and analysis of published literature in the consumer health informatics domain in the last 25 years. The field was introduced with the vision that one day patients will be in charge of their own health care using informatics tools and systems. Scientific literature in the field originally focused on ways to assess the quality and validity of available printed health information, only to grow significantly to cover diverse areas such as online communities, social media, and shared decision-making. Concepts such as home telehealth, mHealth, and the quantified-self movement, tools to address transparency of health care organizations, and personal health records and portals provided significant milestones in the field. Consumers are able to actively participate in the decision-making process and to engage in health care processes and decisions. However, challenges such as health literacy and the digital divide have hindered us from maximizing the potential of CHI tools with a significant portion of underserved populations unable to access and utilize them. At the same time, at a global scale consumer tools can increase access to care for underserved populations in developing countries. The field continues to grow and emerging movements such as precision medicine and the sharing economy will introduce new opportunities and challenges.

  12. Linking rapid magma reservoir assembly and eruption trigger mechanisms at evolved Yellowstone-type supervolcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, J.F.; Bindeman, I.N.; Watts, Kathryn E.; Schmitt, A.K.; Caricchi, L.; Schaltegger, U.

    2014-01-01

    The geological record contains evidence of volcanic eruptions that were as much as two orders of magnitude larger than the most voluminous eruption experienced by modern civilizations, the A.D. 1815 Tambora (Indonesia) eruption. Perhaps nowhere on Earth are deposits of such supereruptions more prominent than in the Snake River Plain–Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) volcanic province (northwest United States). While magmatic activity at Yellowstone is still ongoing, the Heise volcanic field in eastern Idaho represents the youngest complete caldera cycle in the SRP-YP, and thus is particularly instructive for current and future volcanic activity at Yellowstone. The Heise caldera cycle culminated 4.5 Ma ago in the eruption of the ∼1800 km3 Kilgore Tuff. Accessory zircons in the Kilgore Tuff display significant intercrystalline and intracrystalline oxygen isotopic heterogeneity, and the vast majority are 18O depleted. This suggests that zircons crystallized from isotopically distinct magma batches that were generated by remelting of subcaldera silicic rocks previously altered by low-δ18O meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Prior to eruption these magma batches were assembled and homogenized into a single voluminous reservoir. U-Pb geochronology of isotopically diverse zircons using chemical abrasion–isotope dilution–thermal ionization mass spectrometry yielded indistinguishable crystallization ages with a weighted mean 206Pb/238U date of 4.4876 ± 0.0023 Ma (MSWD = 1.5; n = 24). These zircon crystallization ages are also indistinguishable from the sanidine 40Ar/39Ar dates, and thus zircons crystallized close to eruption. This requires that shallow crustal melting, assembly of isolated batches into a supervolcanic magma reservoir, homogenization, and eruption occurred extremely rapidly, within the resolution of our geochronology (103–104 yr). The crystal-scale image of the reservoir configuration, with several isolated magma batches, is very similar to the

  13. Rapidly evolving marmoset MSMB genes are differently expressed in the male genital tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceder Yvonne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-microseminoprotein, an abundant component in prostatic fluid, is encoded by the potential tumor suppressor gene MSMB. Some New World monkeys carry several copies of this gene, in contrast to most mammals, including humans, which have one only. Here we have investigated the background for the species difference by analyzing the chromosomal organization and expression of MSMB in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. Methods Genes were identified in the Callithrix jacchus genome database using bioinformatics and transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR and quantified by real time PCR in the presence of SYBR green. Results The common marmoset has five MSMB: one processed pseudogene and four functional genes. The latter encompass homologous genomic regions of 32-35 kb, containing the genes of 12-14 kb and conserved upstream and downstream regions of 14-19 kb and 3-4 kb. One gene, MSMB1, occupies the same position on the chromosome as the single human gene. On the same chromosome, but several Mb away, is another MSMB locus situated with MSMB2, MSMB3 and MSMB4 arranged in tandem. Measurements of transcripts demonstrated that all functional genes are expressed in the male genital tract, generating very high transcript levels in the prostate. The transcript levels in seminal vesicles and testis are two and four orders of magnitude lower. A single gene, MSMB3, accounts for more than 90% of MSMB transcripts in both the prostate and the seminal vesicles, whereas in the testis around half of the transcripts originate from MSMB2. These genes display rapid evolution with a skewed distribution of mutated nucleotides; in MSMB2 they affect nucleotides encoding the N-terminal Greek key domain, whereas in MSMB3 it is the C-terminal MSMB-unique domain that is affected. Conclusion Callitrichide monkeys have four functional MSMB that are all expressed in the male genital tract, but the product from one gene, MSMB3, will predominate in seminal

  14. De novo ORFs in Drosophila are important to organismal fitness and evolved rapidly from previously non-coding sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine A Reinhardt

    Full Text Available How non-coding DNA gives rise to new protein-coding genes (de novo genes is not well understood. Recent work has revealed the origins and functions of a few de novo genes, but common principles governing the evolution or biological roles of these genes are unknown. To better define these principles, we performed a parallel analysis of the evolution and function of six putatively protein-coding de novo genes described in Drosophila melanogaster. Reconstruction of the transcriptional history of de novo genes shows that two de novo genes emerged from novel long non-coding RNAs that arose at least 5 MY prior to evolution of an open reading frame. In contrast, four other de novo genes evolved a translated open reading frame and transcription within the same evolutionary interval suggesting that nascent open reading frames (proto-ORFs, while not required, can contribute to the emergence of a new de novo gene. However, none of the genes arose from proto-ORFs that existed long before expression evolved. Sequence and structural evolution of de novo genes was rapid compared to nearby genes and the structural complexity of de novo genes steadily increases over evolutionary time. Despite the fact that these genes are transcribed at a higher level in males than females, and are most strongly expressed in testes, RNAi experiments show that most of these genes are essential in both sexes during metamorphosis. This lethality suggests that protein coding de novo genes in Drosophila quickly become functionally important.

  15. The Genomics, Epigenomics, and Transcriptomics of HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer--Understanding the Basis of a Rapidly Evolving Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, M; Fenton, T R

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been shown to represent a major independent risk factor for head and neck squamous cell cancer, in particular for oropharyngeal carcinoma. This type of cancer is rapidly evolving in the Western world, with rising trends particularly in the young, and represents a distinct epidemiological, clinical, and molecular entity. It is the aim of this review to give a detailed description of genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and posttranscriptional changes that underlie the phenotype of this deadly disease. The review will also link these changes and examine what is known about the interactions between the host genome and viral genome, and investigate changes specific for the viral genome. These data are then integrated into an updated model of HPV-induced head and neck carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Patient with rapidly evolving neurological disease with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Lewy body dementia, chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Maria Gabriella; Tiple, Dorina; Bizzarro, Alessandra; Ladogana, Anna; Colaizzo, Elisa; Capellari, Sabina; Rossi, Marcello; Parchi, Piero; Masullo, Carlo; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of rapidly evolving neurological disease in a patient with neuropathological lesions of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), chronic subcortical vascular encephalopathy and meningothelial meningioma. The coexistence of severe multiple pathologies in a single patient strengthens the need to perform accurate clinical differential diagnoses in rapidly progressive dementias. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Analytical and clinical sensitivity of the 3M rapid detection influenza A+B assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Suzanne E; Mayer, Christine; Mayer, Marie C; Menegus, Marilyn A

    2008-11-01

    The performance of the 3M rapid detection influenza A+B (3M flu) assay was compared to the performance of other immunochromatographic assays. The clinical and analytical performance of the 3M flu assay was superior to that of BinaxNOW and Directigen EZ assays and equivalent to that of the QuickVue assay. The 3M flu assay offers an objective output and direct linkage to laboratory information systems.

  18. Analytical and Clinical Sensitivity of the 3M Rapid Detection Influenza A+B Assay ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Suzanne E.; Mayer, Christine; Mayer, Marie C.; Menegus, Marilyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of the 3M rapid detection influenza A+B (3M flu) assay was compared to the performance of other immunochromatographic assays. The clinical and analytical performance of the 3M flu assay was superior to that of BinaxNOW and Directigen EZ assays and equivalent to that of the QuickVue assay. The 3M flu assay offers an objective output and direct linkage to laboratory information systems. PMID:18832133

  19. An Analytical Model of Fickian and Non-Fickian Dispersion in Evolving-Scale Log-Conductivity Distributions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marilena Pannone

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of solute transport within log-conductivity fields represented by power-law semi-variograms are investigated by an analytical Lagrangian approach that accounts for the automatic...

  20. A PACS maturity model: a systematic meta-analytic review on maturation and evolvability of PACS in the hospital enterprise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With PACS and medical imaging technology maturing, the importance of organizational maturity and effective deployment of PACS in the hospital enterprise are becoming significant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, PACS literature on maturity and evolvability in

  1. Rapid Determination of Optimal Conditions in a Continuous Flow Reactor Using Process Analytical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F. Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous flow reactors (CFRs are an emerging technology that offer several advantages over traditional batch synthesis methods, including more efficient mixing schemes, rapid heat transfer, and increased user safety. Of particular interest to the specialty chemical and pharmaceutical manufacturing industries is the significantly improved reliability and product reproducibility over time. CFR reproducibility can be attributed to the reactors achieving and maintaining a steady state once all physical and chemical conditions have stabilized. This work describes the implementation of a smart CFR with univariate physical and multivariate chemical monitoring that allows for rapid determination of steady state, requiring less than one minute. Additionally, the use of process analytical technology further enabled a significant reduction in the time and cost associated with offline validation methods. The technology implemented for this study is chemistry and hardware agnostic, making this approach a viable means of optimizing the conditions of any CFR.

  2. Phylogenetic utility of rapidly evolving DNA at high taxonomical levels: contrasting matK, trnT-F, and rbcL in basal angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kai F; Borsch, Thomas; Hilu, Khidir W

    2006-10-01

    The prevailing view in molecular systematics is that relationships among distantly related taxa should be inferred using DNA segments with low rates of evolution. However, recent analyses of sequences from the rapidly evolving matK and trnT-trnF regions yielded well resolved and highly supported trees for early diverging angiosperms. We compare here the phylogenetic structure in matK, trnT-F, and rbcL datasets for the same 42, primarily basal angiosperm taxa. Phylogenetic trees based on matK or trnT-F are far more robust than those based on rbcL. Combined analysis of the rapidly evolving regions provides support for higher-level relationships stronger than that derived from analyses of multi-gene datasets of up to several fold the number of characters analyzed here. In addition to displaying a higher percentage of parsimony-informative characters, the average phylogenetic signal per informative character is significantly higher in the datasets from rapidly evolving DNA than in the more slowly evolving rbcL, as detected using resampling of identical numbers of parsimony-informative characters from the data matrices and subjecting different statistics for overall tree robustness and phylogenetic signal to significance tests. Automated via a set of scripts, the method used here should be easily extendable to comparisons of a broader range of genomic regions for varying taxon samplings. The relative performance of markers correlates not only with a lower mean homoplasy in matK and trnT-trnF compared to rbcL, but in particular correlates negatively with the percentage of sites exhibiting maximum or close to maximum homoplasy. A likelihood ratio test confirms that the rapidly evolving gene matK evolves significantly closer to neutrality, which may be one of the underlying factors for lower levels of overall homoplasy. Our results are in line with evidence from simulation studies suggesting that the deleterious effect of multiple hits in using rapidly evolving DNA at

  3. Gold Nanoparticles as a Direct and Rapid Sensor for Sensitive Analytical Detection of Biogenic Amines

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nour, K. M. A.; Salam, E. T. A.; Soliman, H. M.; Orabi, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    A new optical sensor was developed for rapid screening with high sensitivity for the existence of biogenic amines (BAs) in poultry meat samples. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with particle size 11-19 nm function as a fast and sensitive biosensor for detection of histamine resulting from bacterial decarboxylation of histidine as a spoilage marker for stored poultry meat. Upon reaction with histamine, the red color of the GNPs converted into deep blue. The appearance of blue color favorably coincides with the concentration of BAs that can induce symptoms of poisoning. This biosensor enables a semi-quantitative detection of analyte in real samples by eye-vision. Quality evaluation is carried out by measuring histamine and histidine using different analytical techniques such as UV-vis, FTIR, and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as TEM. A rapid quantitative readout of samples by UV-vis and fluorescence methods with standard instrumentation were proposed in a short time unlike chromatographic and electrophoretic methods. Sensitivity and limit of detection (LOD) of 6.59 × 10-4 and 0.6 μM, respectively, are determined for histamine as a spoilage marker with a correlation coefficient ( R 2) of 0.993.

  4. Toward rapid learning in cancer treatment selection: An analytical engine for practice-based clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Samuel G; Levy, Mia; Reddy, Sunil; Rubin, Daniel L

    2016-04-01

    Wide-scale adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) has created an unprecedented opportunity for the implementation of Rapid Learning Systems (RLSs) that leverage primary clinical data for real-time decision support. In cancer, where large variations among patient features leave gaps in traditional forms of medical evidence, the potential impact of a RLS is particularly promising. We developed the Melanoma Rapid Learning Utility (MRLU), a component of the RLS, providing an analytical engine and user interface that enables physicians to gain clinical insights by rapidly identifying and analyzing cohorts of patients similar to their own. A new approach for clinical decision support in Melanoma was developed and implemented, in which patient-centered cohorts are generated from practice-based evidence and used to power on-the-fly stratified survival analyses. A database to underlie the system was generated from clinical, pharmaceutical, and molecular data from 237 patients with metastatic melanoma from two academic medical centers. The system was assessed in two ways: (1) ability to rediscover known knowledge and (2) potential clinical utility and usability through a user study of 13 practicing oncologists. The MRLU enables physician-driven cohort selection and stratified survival analysis. The system successfully identified several known clinical trends in melanoma, including frequency of BRAF mutations, survival rate of patients with BRAF mutant tumors in response to BRAF inhibitor therapy, and sex-based trends in prevalence and survival. Surveyed physician users expressed great interest in using such on-the-fly evidence systems in practice (mean response from relevant survey questions 4.54/5.0), and generally found the MRLU in particular to be both useful (mean score 4.2/5.0) and useable (4.42/5.0). The MRLU is an RLS analytical engine and user interface for Melanoma treatment planning that presents design principles useful in building RLSs. Further research is

  5. Rapid emergence and predominance of a broadly recognizing and fast-evolving norovirus GII.17 variant in late 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Martin C. W.; Lee, Nelson; Hung, Tin-Nok; Kwok, Kirsty; Cheung, Kelton; Tin, Edith K. Y.; Lai, Raymond W. M.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Leung, Ting F.; Chan, Paul K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) has been the predominant cause of viral gastroenteritis since 1996. Here we show that during the winter of 2014–2015, an emergent variant of a previously rare norovirus GII.17 genotype, Kawasaki 2014, predominated in Hong Kong and outcompeted contemporary GII.4 Sydney 2012 in hospitalized cases. GII.17 cases were significantly older than GII.4 cases. Root-to-tip and Bayesian BEAST analyses estimate GII.17 viral protein 1 (VP1) evolves one order of magnitude faster than GII.4 VP1. Residue substitutions and insertion occur in four of five inferred antigenic epitopes, suggesting immune evasion. Sequential GII.4-GII.17 infections are noted, implicating a lack of cross-protection. Virus bound to saliva of secretor histo-blood groups A, B and O, indicating broad susceptibility. This fast-evolving, broadly recognizing and probably immune-escaped emergent GII.17 variant causes severe gastroenteritis and hospitalization across all age groups, including populations who were previously less vulnerable to GII.4 variants; therefore, the global spread of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 needs to be monitored. PMID:26625712

  6. Rapidly evolving genes in pathogens: methods for detecting positive selection and examples among fungi, bacteria, viruses and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Refrégier, Guislaine; Yockteng, Roxana; Fournier, Elisabeth; Giraud, Tatiana

    2009-07-01

    The ongoing coevolutionary struggle between hosts and pathogens, with hosts evolving to escape pathogen infection and pathogens evolving to escape host defences, can generate an 'arms race', i.e., the occurrence of recurrent selective sweeps that each favours a novel resistance or virulence allele that goes to fixation. Host-pathogen coevolution can alternatively lead to a 'trench warfare', i.e., balancing selection, maintaining certain alleles at loci involved in host-pathogen recognition over long time scales. Recently, technological and methodological progress has enabled detection of footprints of selection directly on genes, which can provide useful insights into the processes of coevolution. This knowledge can also have practical applications, for instance development of vaccines or drugs. Here we review the methods for detecting genes under positive selection using divergence data (i.e., the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates, d(N)/d(S)). We also review methods for detecting selection using polymorphisms, such as methods based on F(ST) measures, frequency spectrum, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure. In the second part, we review examples where targets of selection have been identified in pathogens using these tests. Genes under positive selection in pathogens have mostly been sought among viruses, bacteria and protists, because of their paramount importance for human health. Another focus is on fungal pathogens owing to their agronomic importance. We finally discuss promising directions in pathogen studies, such as detecting selection in non-coding regions.

  7. Exploration of Simple Analytical Approaches for Rapid Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Salma [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Many of the current methods for pathogenic bacterial detection require long sample-preparation and analysis time, as well as complex instrumentation. This dissertation explores simple analytical approaches (e.g., flow cytometry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy) that may be applied towards ideal requirements of a microbial detection system, through method and instrumentation development, and by the creation and characterization of immunosensing platforms. This dissertation is organized into six sections. In the general Introduction section a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work is presented. First, different approaches for detection of pathogenic bacteria will be reviewed, with a comparison of the relative strengths and weaknesses of each approach, A general overview regarding diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is then presented. Next, the structure and function of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) formed from organosulfur molecules at gold and micrometer and sub-micrometer patterning of biomolecules using SAMs will be discussed. This section is followed by four research chapters, presented as separate manuscripts. Chapter 1 describes the efforts and challenges towards the creation of imunosensing platforms that exploit the flexibility and structural stability of SAMs of thiols at gold. 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyl-1-thiol SAM (PFDT) and dithio-bis(succinimidyl propionate)-(DSP)-derived SAMs were used to construct the platform. Chapter 2 describes the characterization of the PFDT- and DSP-derived SAMs, and the architectures formed when it is coupled to antibodies as well as target bacteria. These studies used infrared reflection spectroscopy (IRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), Chapter 3 presents a new sensitive, and portable diffuse reflection based technique for the rapid identification and quantification of pathogenic bacteria. Chapter 4 reports research efforts in the

  8. Geometrical Alignment of Multiple Fabrication Steps for Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Paper-Based Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Mohammad; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett; Macka, Mirek

    2017-11-21

    Three main fabrication steps for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) were fully integrated with accurate geometrical alignment between the individual steps in a simple and rapid manner. A wax printer for creating hydrophobic barriers was integrated with an inexpensive (ca. $300) electronic craft plotter/cutter for paper cutting, followed by colorimetric reagent deposition using technical pens. The principal shortcoming in the lack of accurate and precise alignment of the features created by these three individual fabrication steps was addressed in this work by developing appropriate alignment procedures during the multistep fabrication process. The wax printing step was geometrically aligned with the following cutting and plotting (deposition) steps in a highly accurate and precise manner using optical scanning function of the plotter/cutter based on registration marks printed on the paper using the wax printer and scanned by the plotter/cutter. The accuracy and precision of alignment in a two-dimensional plane were quantified by cutting and plotting cross-shaped features and measuring their center coordinates relative to wax printed reference lines. The average accuracy along the X- and Y-axis was 0.12 and 0.16 mm for cutting and 0.19 and 0.17 mm for plotting, respectively. The potential of this approach was demonstrated by fabricating μPADs for instrument-free determination of cobalt in waters using distance-based readout, with excellent precision (%RSD = 5.7) and detection limit (LOD) of 2.5 ng and 0.5 mg/L (mass and concentration LODs, respectively).

  9. Utility of characters evolving at diverse rates of evolution to resolve quartet trees with unequal branch lengths: analytical predictions of long-branch effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhuo; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2015-05-14

    The detection and avoidance of "long-branch effects" in phylogenetic inference represents a longstanding challenge for molecular phylogenetic investigations. A consequence of parallelism and convergence, long-branch effects arise in phylogenetic inference when there is unequal molecular divergence among lineages, and they can positively mislead inference based on parsimony especially, but also inference based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Long-branch effects have been exhaustively examined by simulation studies that have compared the performance of different inference methods in specific model trees and branch length spaces. In this paper, by generalizing the phylogenetic signal and noise analysis to quartets with uneven subtending branches, we quantify the utility of molecular characters for resolution of quartet phylogenies via parsimony. Our quantification incorporates contributions toward the correct tree from either signal or homoplasy (i.e. "the right result for either the right reason or the wrong reason"). We also characterize a highly conservative lower bound of utility that incorporates contributions to the correct tree only when they correspond to true, unobscured parsimony-informative sites (i.e. "the right result for the right reason"). We apply the generalized signal and noise analysis to classic quartet phylogenies in which long-branch effects can arise due to unequal rates of evolution or an asymmetrical topology. Application of the analysis leads to identification of branch length conditions in which inference will be inconsistent and reveals insights regarding how to improve sampling of molecular loci and taxa in order to correctly resolve phylogenies in which long-branch effects are hypothesized to exist. The generalized signal and noise analysis provides analytical prediction of utility of characters evolving at diverse rates of evolution to resolve quartet phylogenies with unequal branch lengths. The analysis can be applied to

  10. Rapidly evolving asymptomatic eosinophilia in a patient with lung adenocarcinoma causes cognitive disturbance and respiratory insufficiency: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Cheng-Hsiang; Jen, Yee-Min; Tsai, Wen-Chiuan; Chung, Ping-Ying; Kao, Woei-Yau

    2013-02-01

    Paraneoplastic eosinophilia is an unusual manifestation that usually remains asymptomatic. In this report, we presented the case of an 82-year-old patient with poorly differentiated lung adenocarcinoma and asymptomatic eosinophilia. The patient's condition worsened rapidly over a week, with episodes of cognitive disturbance, shortness of breath and acute kidney dysfunction. These symptoms were associated with a 4-fold increase in circulating eosinophil counts. The poor condition hindered further anticancer treatment. Treatment of the eosinophilia with corticosteroids and hydroxyurea significantly reduced circulating eosinophil counts to below the initial levels. Results of this case report suggested that lung cancer patients should be monitored closely for rapidly worsening symptoms of cognitive disturbance and respiratory insufficiency as signs of life-threatening asymptomatic eosinophilia, in order to initiate corticosteroid treatment.

  11. Congenic strain analysis reveals genes that are rapidly evolving components of a prezygotic isolation mechanism mediating incipient reinforcement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Laukaitis

    Full Text Available Two decades ago, we developed a congenic strain of Mus musculus, called b-congenic, by replacing the androgen-binding protein Abpa27(a allele in the C3H/HeJ genome with the Abpa27(b allele from DBA/2J. We and other researchers used this b-congenic strain and its C3H counterpart, the a-congenic strain, to test the hypothesis that, given the choice between signals from two strains with different a27 alleles on the same genetic background, test subjects would prefer the homosubspecific one. It was our purpose in undertaking this study to characterize the segment transferred from DBA to the C3H background in producing the b-congenic strain on which a role for ABPA27 in behavior has been predicated. We determined the size of the chromosome 7 segment transferred from DBA and the genes it contains that might influence preference. We found that the "functional" DBA segment is about 1% the size of the mouse haploid genome and contains at least 29 genes expressed in salivary glands, however, only three of these encode proteins identified in the mouse salivary proteome. At least two of the three genes Abpa27, Abpbg26 and Abpbg27 encoding the subunits of androgen-binding protein ABP dimers evolved under positive selection and the third one may have also. In the sense that they are subunits of the same two functional entities, the ABP dimers, we propose that their evolutionary histories might not be independent of each other.

  12. Rapidly Evolving Genes Are Key Players in Host Specialization and Virulence of the Fungal Wheat Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici (Mycosphaerella graminicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Poppe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The speciation of pathogens can be driven by divergent host specialization. Specialization to a new host is possible via the acquisition of advantageous mutations fixed by positive selection. Comparative genome analyses of closely related species allows for the identification of such key substitutions via inference of genome-wide signatures of positive selection. We previously used a comparative genomics framework to identify genes that have evolved under positive selection during speciation of the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici (synonym Mycosphaerella graminicola. In this study, we conducted functional analyses of four genes exhibiting strong signatures of positive selection in Z. tritici. We deleted the four genes in Z. tritici and confirm a virulence-related role of three of the four genes ΔZt80707, ΔZt89160 and ΔZt103264. The two mutants ΔZt80707 and ΔZt103264 show a significant reduction in virulence during infection of wheat; the ΔZt89160 mutant causes a hypervirulent phenotype in wheat. Mutant phenotypes of ΔZt80707, ΔZt89160 and ΔZt103264 can be restored by insertion of the wild-type genes. However, the insertion of the Zt80707 and Zt89160 orthologs from Z. pseudotritici and Z. ardabiliae do not restore wild-type levels of virulence, suggesting that positively selected substitutions in Z. tritici may relate to divergent host specialization. Interestingly, the gene Zt80707 encodes also a secretion signal that targets the protein for cell secretion. This secretion signal is however only transcribed in Z. tritici, suggesting that Z. tritici-specific substitutions relate to a new function of the protein in the extracellular space of the wheat-Z. tritici interaction. Together, the results presented here highlight that Zt80707, Zt103264 and Zt89160 represent key genes involved in virulence and host-specific disease development of Z. tritici. Our findings illustrate that evolutionary predictions provide a powerful tool

  13. A history into genetic and epigenetic evolution of food tolerance: how humanity rapidly evolved by drinking milk and eating wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Carine

    2017-12-01

    Human exposure to wheat and milk is almost global worldwide. Yet the introduction of milk and wheat is very recent (5000-10 000 years) when compared to the human evolution. The last 4 decades have seen a rise in food allergy and food intolerance to milk and wheat. Often described as plurifactorial, the cause of allergic diseases is the result from an interplay between genetic predisposition and epigenetic in the context of environmental changes. Genetic and epigenetic understanding and their contribution to allergy or other antigen-driven diseases have considerably advanced in the last few years. Yet, environmental factors are also quite difficult to identify and associate with disease risk. Can we rethink our old findings and learn from human history and recent genetic studies? More than one million years separate Homo habilis to today's mankind, more than 1 million years to develop abilities to obtain food by foraging in diverse environments. One million year to adjust and fine-tune our genetic code and adapt; and only 1% of this time, 10 000 years, to face the three biggest revolutions of the human kind: the agricultural revolution, the industrial revolution and the postindustrial revolution. With big and rapid environmental changes come adaptation but with no time for fine-tuning. Today tolerance and adverse reactions to food may be a testimony of adaptation successes and mistakes.

  14. Experimental validation of analytical models for a rapid determination of cycle parameters in thermoplastic injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignon, Baptiste; Sobotka, Vincent; Boyard, Nicolas; Delaunay, Didier

    2017-10-01

    Two different analytical models were presented to determine cycle parameters of thermoplastics injection process. The aim of these models was to provide quickly a first set of data for mold temperature and cooling time. The first model is specific to amorphous polymers and the second one is dedicated to semi-crystalline polymers taking the crystallization into account. In both cases, the nature of the contact between the polymer and the mold could be considered as perfect or not (thermal contact resistance was considered). Results from models are compared with experimental data obtained with an instrumented mold for an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and a polypropylene (PP). Good agreements were obtained for mold temperature variation and for heat flux. In the case of the PP, the analytical crystallization times were compared with those given by a coupled model between heat transfer and crystallization kinetics.

  15. Innovations in the Speciation of Organolead Compounds in Water: Towards a More Rational, Rapid, and Simple Analytical Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Baena

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Speciation analysis calls for rapid, simple systems for minimizing errors made in the most troublesome of all steps in the analytical process: sample preparation. In this context, continuous-flow systems are of great help. The evolution in the different methodologies enabled solutions to the main shortcomings occurring from the lack of selectivity of using RP–C18 as sorbent material. One solution was a shift to more sensitive and selective, but only partially automated, systems employing C60 fullerene and Grignard’s reagent; another was a shift to completely automated systems employing sodium tetrapropylborate; and a final solution was to employ the simplest possible configuration by removing the reagent stream. The analytical methods developed allowed the identification and quantification of different organolead species at the pg/ml levels in rainwater samples, with precision (RSD of about 5% and recoveries ranging from 92 to 100%.

  16. Rapid detection of transition metals in welding fumes using paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cate, David M; Nanthasurasak, Pavisara; Riwkulkajorn, Pornpak; L'Orange, Christian; Henry, Charles S; Volckens, John

    2014-05-01

    Metals in particulate matter (PM) are considered a driving factor for many pathologies. Despite the hazards associated with particulate metals, personal exposures for at-risk workers are rarely assessed due to the cost and effort associated with monitoring. As a result, routine exposure assessments are performed for only a small fraction of the exposed workforce. The objective of this research was to evaluate a relatively new technology, microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs), for measuring the metals content in welding fumes. Fumes from three common welding techniques (shielded metal arc, metal inert gas, and tungsten inert gas welding) were sampled in two welding shops. Concentrations of acid-extractable Fe, Cu, Ni, and Cr were measured and independently verified using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results from the µPAD sensors agreed well with ICP-OES analysis; the two methods gave statistically similar results in >80% of the samples analyzed. Analytical costs for the µPAD technique were ~50 times lower than market-rate costs with ICP-OES. Further, the µPAD method was capable of providing same-day results (as opposed several weeks for ICP laboratory analysis). Results of this work suggest that µPAD sensors are a viable, yet inexpensive alternative to traditional analytic methods for transition metals in welding fume PM. These sensors have potential to enable substantially higher levels of hazard surveillance for a given resource cost, especially in resource-limited environments.

  17. Rapid Analytical Methods for On-Site Triage for Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Stella H.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Taitt, Chris R.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2012-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from an event that causes rapid acceleration and deceleration of the brain or penetration of the skull with an object. Responses to stimuli and questions, loss of consciousness, and altered behavior are symptoms currently used to justify brain imaging for diagnosis and therapeutic guidance. Tests based on such symptoms are susceptible to false-positive and false-negative results due to stress, fatigue, and medications. Biochemical markers of neuronal damage and the physiological response to that damage are being identified. Biosensors capable of rapid measurement of such markers in the circulation offer a solution for on-site triage, as long as three criteria are met: (a) Recognition reagents can be identified that are sufficiently sensitive and specific, (b) the biosensor can provide quantitative assessment of multiple markers rapidly and simultaneously, and (c) both the sensor and reagents are designed for use outside the laboratory.

  18. Rapid perfusion quantification using Welch-Satterthwaite approximation and analytical spectral filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Karthik; Reddy, Kasireddy V.; Ajani, Bhavya; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2017-02-01

    CT and MR perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) enable quantification of perfusion parameters in stroke studies. These parameters are calculated from the residual impulse response function (IRF) based on a physiological model for tissue perfusion. The standard approach for estimating the IRF is deconvolution using oscillatory-limited singular value decomposition (oSVD) or Frequency Domain Deconvolution (FDD). FDD is widely recognized as the fastest approach currently available for deconvolution of CT Perfusion/MR PWI. In this work, three faster methods are proposed. The first is a direct (model based) crude approximation to the final perfusion quantities (Blood flow, Blood volume, Mean Transit Time and Delay) using the Welch-Satterthwaite approximation for gamma fitted concentration time curves (CTC). The second method is a fast accurate deconvolution method, we call Analytical Fourier Filtering (AFF). The third is another fast accurate deconvolution technique using Showalter's method, we call Analytical Showalter's Spectral Filtering (ASSF). Through systematic evaluation on phantom and clinical data, the proposed methods are shown to be computationally more than twice as fast as FDD. The two deconvolution based methods, AFF and ASSF, are also shown to be quantitatively accurate compared to FDD and oSVD.

  19. Use of Tethered Enzymes as a Platform Technology for Rapid Analyte Detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Cohen

    Full Text Available Rapid diagnosis for time-sensitive illnesses such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and septic shock is essential for successful treatment. Much attention has therefore focused on new strategies for rapid and objective diagnosis, such as Point-of-Care Tests (PoCT for blood biomarkers. Here we use a biomimicry-based approach to demonstrate a new diagnostic platform, based on enzymes tethered to nanoparticles (NPs. As proof of principle, we use oriented immobilization of pyruvate kinase (PK and luciferase (Luc on silica NPs to achieve rapid and sensitive detection of neuron-specific enolase (NSE, a clinically relevant biomarker for multiple diseases ranging from acute brain injuries to lung cancer. We hypothesize that an approach capitalizing on the speed and catalytic nature of enzymatic reactions would enable fast and sensitive biomarker detection, suitable for PoCT devices.We performed in-vitro, animal model, and human subject studies. First, the efficiency of coupled enzyme activities when tethered to NPs versus when in solution was tested, demonstrating a highly sensitive and rapid detection of physiological and pathological concentrations of NSE. Next, in rat stroke models the enzyme-based assay was able in minutes to show a statistically significant increase in NSE levels in samples taken 1 hour before and 0, 1, 3 and 6 hours after occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery. Finally, using the tethered enzyme assay for detection of NSE in samples from 20 geriatric human patients, we show that our data match well (r = 0.815 with the current gold standard for biomarker detection, ELISA-with a major difference being that we achieve detection in 10 minutes as opposed to the several hours required for traditional ELISA.Oriented enzyme immobilization conferred more efficient coupled activity, and thus higher assay sensitivity, than non-tethered enzymes. Together, our findings provide proof of concept for using oriented immobilization of active

  20. Use of Tethered Enzymes as a Platform Technology for Rapid Analyte Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Roy; Lata, James P.; Lee, Yurim; Hernández, Jean C. Cruz; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B.; Mukai, Chinatsu; Nelson, Jacquelyn L.; Brangman, Sharon A.; Agrawal, Yash; Travis, Alexander J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rapid diagnosis for time-sensitive illnesses such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and septic shock is essential for successful treatment. Much attention has therefore focused on new strategies for rapid and objective diagnosis, such as Point-of-Care Tests (PoCT) for blood biomarkers. Here we use a biomimicry-based approach to demonstrate a new diagnostic platform, based on enzymes tethered to nanoparticles (NPs). As proof of principle, we use oriented immobilization of pyruvate kinase (PK) and luciferase (Luc) on silica NPs to achieve rapid and sensitive detection of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a clinically relevant biomarker for multiple diseases ranging from acute brain injuries to lung cancer. We hypothesize that an approach capitalizing on the speed and catalytic nature of enzymatic reactions would enable fast and sensitive biomarker detection, suitable for PoCT devices. Methods and findings We performed in-vitro, animal model, and human subject studies. First, the efficiency of coupled enzyme activities when tethered to NPs versus when in solution was tested, demonstrating a highly sensitive and rapid detection of physiological and pathological concentrations of NSE. Next, in rat stroke models the enzyme-based assay was able in minutes to show a statistically significant increase in NSE levels in samples taken 1 hour before and 0, 1, 3 and 6 hours after occlusion of the distal middle cerebral artery. Finally, using the tethered enzyme assay for detection of NSE in samples from 20 geriatric human patients, we show that our data match well (r = 0.815) with the current gold standard for biomarker detection, ELISA—with a major difference being that we achieve detection in 10 minutes as opposed to the several hours required for traditional ELISA. Conclusions Oriented enzyme immobilization conferred more efficient coupled activity, and thus higher assay sensitivity, than non-tethered enzymes. Together, our findings provide proof of concept for using

  1. Targeted disruption in mice of a neural stem cell-maintaining, KRAB-Zn finger-encoding gene that has rapidly evolved in the human lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Chieh Chien

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic basis of the physical and behavioral traits that separate humans from other primates is a challenging but intriguing topic. The adaptive functions of the expansion and/or reduction in human brain size have long been explored. From a brain transcriptome project we have identified a KRAB-Zn finger protein-encoding gene (M003-A06 that has rapidly evolved since the human-chimpanzee separation. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of different human tissues indicates that M003-A06 expression is enriched in the human fetal brain in addition to the fetal heart. Furthermore, analysis with use of immunofluorescence staining, neurosphere culturing and Western blotting indicates that the mouse ortholog of M003-A06, Zfp568, is expressed mainly in the embryonic stem (ES cells and fetal as well as adult neural stem cells (NSCs. Conditional gene knockout experiments in mice demonstrates that Zfp568 is both an NSC maintaining- and a brain size-regulating gene. Significantly, molecular genetic analyses show that human M003-A06 consists of 2 equilibrated allelic types, H and C, one of which (H is human-specific. Combined contemporary genotyping and database mining have revealed interesting genetic associations between the different genotypes of M003-A06 and the human head sizes. We propose that M003-A06 is likely one of the genes contributing to the uniqueness of the human brain in comparison to other higher primates.

  2. Applying green analytical chemistry for rapid analysis of drugs: Adding health to pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Haq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Green RP-HPLC method for a rapid analysis of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM in bulk drugs, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS and marketed tablets was developed and validated in the present investigation. The chromatographic identification was achieved on Lichrosphere 250 × 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of green solvents ethyl acetate:ethanol (50:50% v/v as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 250 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The utility of the proposed method was verified by an assay of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be selective, precise, reproducible, accurate, robust, sensitive and specific. The amount of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets was found to be 101.25% and 98.67% respectively. The proposed method successfully resolved OLM peak in the presence of its degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the proposed method can be successfully employed for a routine analysis of OLM in bulk drugs and commercial formulations.

  3. Optimization of Analytical Conditions for a Rapid Determination of Aniline in Environmental Water by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Koji; Hashimoto, Makoto; Kaneco, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    A rapid determination of aniline in environmental water was examined based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Environmental water samples were diluted 20-fold with Mill-Q water and measured by LC/MS/MS after adding a surrogate substance (aniline-d5). In the results of the present study, the calibration curve of aniline showed good linearity in the range of 0.05 - 2.0 μg/L. Since the RSD (repeatability) by measuring repeatedly an aniline standard solution (0.05 μg/L, n = 7) was 3.2%, the repeatability of this work was very excellent. In addition, the recovery rate of aniline in environmental water was in the range of 99.0 - 102% with RSD 3.4 - 7.7%, and very good recovery test results were obtained. From these results, this analytical method was confirmed to be effective for aniline measurements of environmental water samples. Also, it is possible to conduct rapid analyses of aniline in environmental water without any solid-phase extraction process, compared to the solid-phase extraction-GC/MS method.

  4. A rapid analytical method to quantify complex organohalogen contaminant mixtures in large samples of high lipid mammalian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Eulaers, Igor; Periard, Luke; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    In vitro investigations of the health impact of individual chemical compounds have traditionally been used in risk assessments. However, humans and wildlife are exposed to a plethora of potentially harmful chemicals, including organohalogen contaminants (OHCs). An alternative exposure approach to individual or simple mixtures of synthetic OHCs is to isolate the complex mixture present in free-ranging wildlife, often non-destructively sampled from lipid rich adipose. High concentration stock volumes required for in vitro investigations do, however, pose a great analytical challenge to extract sufficient amounts of complex OHC cocktails. Here we describe a novel method to easily, rapidly and efficiently extract an environmentally accumulated and therefore relevant contaminant cocktail from large (10-50 g) marine mammal blubber samples. We demonstrate that lipid freeze-filtration with acetonitrile removes up to 97% of blubber lipids, with minimal effect on the efficiency of OHC recovery. Sample extracts after freeze-filtration were further processed to remove residual trace lipids via high-pressure gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction. Average recoveries of OHCs from triplicate analysis of killer whale (Orcinus orca), polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and pilot whale (Globicephala spp.) blubber standard reference material (NIST SRM-1945) ranged from 68 to 80%, 54-92% and 58-145%, respectively, for 13C-enriched internal standards of six polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 16 organochlorine pesticides and four brominated flame retardants. This approach to rapidly generate OHC mixtures shows great potential for experimental exposures using complex contaminant mixtures, research or monitoring driven contaminant quantification in biological samples, as well as the untargeted identification of emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maintaining evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, James F

    2008-12-01

    Although molecular methods, such as QTL mapping, have revealed a number of loci with large effects, it is still likely that the bulk of quantitative variability is due to multiple factors, each with small effect. Typically, these have a large additive component. Conventional wisdom argues that selection, natural or artificial, uses up additive variance and thus depletes its supply. Over time, the variance should be reduced, and at equilibrium be near zero. This is especially expected for fitness and traits highly correlated with it. Yet, populations typically have a great deal of additive variance, and do not seem to run out of genetic variability even after many generations of directional selection. Long-term selection experiments show that populations continue to retain seemingly undiminished additive variance despite large changes in the mean value. I propose that there are several reasons for this. (i) The environment is continually changing so that what was formerly most fit no longer is. (ii) There is an input of genetic variance from mutation, and sometimes from migration. (iii) As intermediate-frequency alleles increase in frequency towards one, producing less variance (as p --> 1, p(1 - p) --> 0), others that were originally near zero become more common and increase the variance. Thus, a roughly constant variance is maintained. (iv) There is always selection for fitness and for characters closely related to it. To the extent that the trait is heritable, later generations inherit a disproportionate number of genes acting additively on the trait, thus increasing genetic variance. For these reasons a selected population retains its ability to evolve. Of course, genes with large effect are also important. Conspicuous examples are the small number of loci that changed teosinte to maize, and major phylogenetic changes in the animal kingdom. The relative importance of these along with duplications, chromosome rearrangements, horizontal transmission and polyploidy

  6. Evaluating the Use of Commercial West Nile Virus Antigens as Positive Controls in the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform West Nile Virus Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Kristen L; Savage, Harry M

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the utility of 2 types of commercially available antigens as positive controls in the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP®) West Nile virus (WNV) assay. Purified recombinant WNV envelope antigens and whole killed virus antigens produced positive RAMP results and either type would be useful as a positive control. Killed virus antigens provide operational and economic advantages and we recommend their use over purified recombinant antigens. We also offer practical applications for RAMP positive controls and recommendations for preparing them.

  7. Variability among the most rapidly evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific: implications of pairwise genome comparisons in Pyrus (Rosaceae and other angiosperms for marker choice.

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    Nadja Korotkova

    Full Text Available Plastid genomes exhibit different levels of variability in their sequences, depending on the respective kinds of genomic regions. Genes are usually more conserved while noncoding introns and spacers evolve at a faster pace. While a set of about thirty maximum variable noncoding genomic regions has been suggested to provide universally promising phylogenetic markers throughout angiosperms, applications often require several regions to be sequenced for many individuals. Our project aims to illuminate evolutionary relationships and species-limits in the genus Pyrus (Rosaceae-a typical case with very low genetic distances between taxa. In this study, we have sequenced the plastid genome of Pyrus spinosa and aligned it to the already available P. pyrifolia sequence. The overall p-distance of the two Pyrus genomes was 0.00145. The intergenic spacers between ndhC-trnV, trnR-atpA, ndhF-rpl32, psbM-trnD, and trnQ-rps16 were the most variable regions, also comprising the highest total numbers of substitutions, indels and inversions (potentially informative characters. Our comparative analysis of further plastid genome pairs with similar low p-distances from Oenothera (representing another rosid, Olea (asterids and Cymbidium (monocots showed in each case a different ranking of genomic regions in terms of variability and potentially informative characters. Only two intergenic spacers (ndhF-rpl32 and trnK-rps16 were consistently found among the 30 top-ranked regions. We have mapped the occurrence of substitutions and microstructural mutations in the four genome pairs. High AT content in specific sequence elements seems to foster frequent mutations. We conclude that the variability among the fastest evolving plastid genomic regions is lineage-specific and thus cannot be precisely predicted across angiosperms. The often lineage-specific occurrence of stem-loop elements in the sequences of introns and spacers also governs lineage-specific mutations. Sequencing

  8. Analytical Studies on Ride Quality and Ride Comfort in Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) Railroad Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadharan, K. V.; Chandramohan, Sujatha

    2017-12-01

    In this paper analytical ride index studies and ISO 2631 based ride comfort analysis of a suburban MRTS railroad vehicle is presented. Track power spectral densities (PSDs) were used as inputs to a finite element (FE) model of the vehicle and track and the acceleration responses were computed using random vibration theory. From these responses, ride quality and ride comfort have been computed at different locations of the vehicle at different speeds in the vertical and lateral directions.

  9. Orbital and physical parameters of eclipsing binaries from the All-Sky Automated Survey catalogue. III. Two new low-mass systems with rapidly evolving spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.; Złoczewski, K.; Ratajczak, M.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Crain, J. A.; Foster, A. C.; Nysewander, M. C.; Lacluyze, A. P.

    2011-03-01

    Aims: We present the results of our spectroscopic and photometric analysis of two newly discovered low-mass detached eclipsing binaries found in the All-Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalogue: ASAS J093814-0104.4 and ASAS J212954-5620.1. Methods: Using the Grating Instrument for Radiation Analysis with a Fibre-Fed Echelle (GIRAFFE) on the 1.9-m Radcliffe telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and the University College London Echelle Spectrograph (UCLES) on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope, we obtained high-resolution spectra of both objects and derived their radial velocities (RVs) at various orbital phases. The RVs of both objects were measured with the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique (TODCOR) using synthetic template spectra as references. We also obtained V and I band photometry using the 1.0-m Elizabeth telescope at SAAO and the 0.4-m Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT) located at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The orbital and physical parameters of the systems were derived with PHOEBE and JKTEBOP codes. We compared our results with several sets of widely-used isochrones. Results: Our multi-epoch photometric observations demonstrate that both objects show significant out-of-eclipse modulations, which vary in time. We believe that this effect is caused by stellar spots, which evolve on time scales of tens of days. For this reason, we constructed our models on the basis of photometric observations spanning short time scales (less than a month). Our modeling indicates that (1) ASAS J093814-0104.04 is a main sequence active system with nearly-twin components with masses of M1 = 0.771 ± 0.033 M⊙, M2 = 0.768 ± 0.021 M⊙ and radii of R1 = 0.772 ± 0.012 R⊙ and R2 = 0.769 ± 0.013 R⊙. (2) ASAS J212954-5620.1 is a main sequence active binary with component masses of M1 = 0.833 ± 0.017 M⊙, M2 = 0.703 ± 0.013 M⊙ and radii of R1 = 0.845 ± 0.012 R⊙ and R2

  10. A Rapid Analytical Method for Determination of Aflatoxins in Plant-Derived Dietary Supplement and Cosmetic Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Noreen; Molyneux, Russell J.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of edible oils derived from conventional crop plants is increasing because they are generally regarded as more healthy alternatives to animal based fats and oils. More recently there has been increased interest in the use of alternative specialty plant-derived oils, including those from tree nuts (almonds, pistachios and walnuts) and botanicals (borage, evening primrose and perilla) both for direct human consumption (e.g. as salad dressings) but also for preparation of cosmetics, soaps, and fragrance oils. This has raised the issue as to whether or not exposure to aflatoxins can result from such oils. Although most crops are subject to analysis and control, it has generally been assumed that plant oils do not retain aflatoxins due to their high polarity and lipophobicity of these compounds. There is virtually no scientific evidence to support this supposition and available information is conflicting. To improve the safety and consistency of botanicals and dietary supplements, research is needed to establish whether or not oils used directly, or in the formulation of products, contain aflatoxins. A validated analytical method for the analysis of aflatoxins in plant-derived oils is essential, in order to establish the safety of dietary supplements for consumption or cosmetic use that contain such oils. The aim of this research was therefore to develop an HPLC method applicable to a wide variety of oils from different plant sources spiked with aflatoxins, thereby providing a basis for a comprehensive project to establish an intra- and inter-laboratory validated analytical method for analysis of aflatoxins in dietary supplements and cosmetics formulated with plant oils. PMID:20235534

  11. High resolution melting analytical platform for rapid prenatal and postnatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia common among Southeast Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajantasen, Thanet; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa

    2015-02-20

    High resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a powerful technology for scanning sequence alteration. We have applied this HRM assay to screen common β-thalassemia mutations found among Southeast Asian population. Known DNA samples with 8 common mutations were used in initial development of the methods including -28 A-G, codon 17 A-T, IVSI-1G-T, IVSI-5G-C, codon 26G-A (Hb E), codons 41/42 -TTCT, codons 71/72+A and IVSII-654 C-T. Further validation was done on 60 postnatal and 6 prenatal diagnoses of β-thalassemia. Each mutation has specific HRM profile which could be used in rapid screening. Apart from those with DNA deletions, the results of HRM assay matched 100% with those of routine diagnosis made by routine allele specific PCR. In addition, the HRM assay could initially recognize three unknown mutations including a hitherto un-described one in Thai population. The established HRM assay should prove useful for rapid and high throughput platform for screening and prenatal diagnosis of β-thalassemia common in the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analytical performance of the Alere™ i Influenza A&B assay for the rapid detection of influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazzo, Cristina; Pérez-Ruiz, Mercedes; Sanbonmatsu-Gámez, Sara; Pedrosa-Corral, Irene; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José; Navarro-Marí, José-María

    The analytical performance of the new Alere™ i Influenza A&B kit (AL-Flu) assay, based on isothermal nucleic acids amplification, was evaluated and compared with an antigen detection method, SD Bioline Influenza Virus Antigen Test (SDB), and an automated real-time RT-PCR, Simplexa™ Flu A/B & VRS Direct assay (SPX), for detection of influenza viruses. An "in-house" RT-PCR was used as the reference method. Sensitivity of AL-Flu, SDB, and SPX was 71.7%, 34.8%, and 100%, respectively. Specificity was 100% for all techniques. The turnaround time was 13min for AL-Flu, 15min for SDB, and 75min for SPX. The Alere™ i Influenza A&B assay is an optimal point-of-care assay for influenza diagnosis in clinical emergency settings, and is more sensitive and specific than antigen detection methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  13. A lab-on-a-chip for rapid blood separation and quantification of hematocrit and serum analytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Andrew W; Ramasamy, Lakshminarayanan; Cripe, Timothy P; Ahn, Chong H

    2011-07-21

    In this work, a new lab-on-a-chip for rapid analysis of low volume blood samples was designed, fabricated and demonstrated for integration of serum separation, hematocrit evaluation, and protein quantitation. Blood separation was achieved using microchannel flow-based separation. A novel method for evaluating hematocrit from microfluidic flow-separated blood samples was developed using gray scale analysis of a point-and-shoot digital photograph of separated blood in a micochannel. Protein quantitation was subsequently performed in a high surface area-to-volume ratio microfluidic chemiluminescent immunoassay using cell depleted serum produced by microfluidic flow-based separation of whole blood samples. All three steps were achieved in a single microchannel with separation of blood samples and hematocrit evaluation in less than 1 min, and protein quantitation in 5 min.

  14. Electrochemical Sensing for a Rapidly Evolving World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Max Robertson

    This dissertation focuses on three projects involving the development of harsh environment gas sensors. The first project discusses the development of a multipurpose oxygen sensor electrode for use in sealing with the common electrolyte yttria stabilized zirconia. The purpose of the sealing function is to produce an internal reference environment maintained by a metal/metal oxide mixture, a criteria for miniaturization of potentiometric oxygen sensing technology. This sensor measures a potential between the internal reference and a sensing environment. The second project discusses the miniaturization of an oxygen sensor and the fabrication of a more generalized electrochemical sensing platform. The third project discusses the discovery of a new mechanism in the electrochemical sensing of ammonia through molecular recognition and the utilization of a sensor taking advantage of the new mechanism. An initial study involving the development of a microwave synthesized La0.8Sr0.2Al0.9Mn0.1O3 sensor electrode material illustrates the ability of the material developed to meet ionic and electronic conducting requirements for effective and Nernstian oxygen sensing. In addition the material deforms plastically under hot isostatic pressing conditions in a similar temperature and pressure regime with yttria stabilized zirconia to produce a seal and survive temperatures up to 1350 °C. In the second project we show novel methods to seal an oxygen environment inside a device cavity to produce an electrochemical sensor body using room temperature plasma-activated bonding and low temperature and pressure assisted plasma-activated bonding with silicon bodies, both in a clean room environment. The evolution from isostatic hot pressing methods towards room temperature complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible technologies using single crystal silicon substrates in the clean room allows the sealing of devices on a much larger scale. Through this evolution in bonding technology we move from performing non-scalable experiments to produce one sensor at a time to scalable experiments producing six. The bonding methods we use are compatible with wafer scale processing. Practically speaking this means that the oxygen sensor design is scalable to produce thousands of sensors from one single bond. Using this bonding technology we develop a generalized sensing platform that could be used for a variety of sensing applications, including oxygen sensing, but also potentially involving CO2 or NOx as well. Future efforts will involve completing of O2 sensor construction and adaption of the design for CO2 and NOx sensing. The final project focuses on a novel ammonia sensor and sensing mechanism in Ag loaded zeolite Y. The sensor resistance changes upon exposure to ammonia due to the molecular recognition of Ag+ and ammonia, producing Ag(NH3)x+ species. The sensing mechanism is a Grothuss like mechanism based on the hoping of Ag+ centers. The hopping frequency of Ag+ changes upon introduction of ammonia due to the reduced electrostatic interactions between Ag+ and the negatively charged zeolite framework upon formation of Ag(NH3) x+. The change in hopping frequency results in a measurable change in impedance.

  15. A Simple Modification to the Mosquito Homogenization Protocol Safely Inactivates West Nile Virus and Allows Virus Detection by the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP®) ASSAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Kristen L; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Savage, Harry M

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the ability of the Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP(®)) mosquito-grinding buffer to inactivate West Nile virus (WNV) by subjecting WNV-positive samples ground in RAMP buffer to incubation intervals ranging from 5 min to 60 min. At each time point an aliquot was removed and serially diluted in bovine albumin (BA)-1 cell culture media to stop the inactivation process by RAMP buffer. Each BA-1 sample was tested for viable virus using Vero 6-well cell culture plaque assay and observed for plaques. We observed very limited inactivation of WNV (1-2 log10 plaque-forming units/ml) by RAMP buffer. Concerned for RAMP operators who may be using this assay in low-level biocontainment facilities, we developed an alternate sample homogenization protocol using Triton X-100 detergent that ensures complete WNV inactivation without compromising the performance of the RAMP assay.

  16. Cisapride a green analytical reagent for rapid and sensitive determination of bromate in drinking water, bread and flour additives by oxidative coupling spectrophotometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Okab, Riyad Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Green analytical methods using Cisapride (CPE) as green analytical reagent was investigated in this work. Rapid, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of bromate in water sample, bread and flour additives were developed. The proposed methods based on the oxidative coupling between phenoxazine and Cisapride in the presence of bromate to form red colored product with max at 520 nm. Phenoxazine and Cisapride and its reaction products were found to be environmentally friendly under the optimum experimental condition. The method obeys beers law in concentration range 0.11-4.00 g ml-1 and molar absorptivity 1.41 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. All variables have been optimized and the presented reaction sequences were applied to the analysis of bromate in water, bread and flour additive samples. The performance of these method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference method. The combination of pharmaceutical drugs reagents with low concentration create some unique green chemical analyses.

  17. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  18. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  19. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  20. Target-responsive DNA hydrogel mediated "stop-flow" microfluidic paper-based analytic device for rapid, portable and visual detection of multiple targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaofeng; Tian, Tian; Jia, Shasha; Zhu, Zhi; Ma, Yanli; Sun, Jianjun; Lin, Zhenyu; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2015-04-21

    A versatile point-of-care assay platform was developed for simultaneous detection of multiple targets based on a microfluidic paper-based analytic device (μPAD) using a target-responsive hydrogel to mediate fluidic flow and signal readout. An aptamer-cross-linked hydrogel was used as a target-responsive flow regulator in the μPAD. In the absence of a target, the hydrogel is formed in the flow channel, stopping the flow in the μPAD and preventing the colored indicator from traveling to the final observation spot, thus yielding a "signal off" readout. In contrast, in the presence of a target, no hydrogel is formed because of the preferential interaction of target and aptamer. This allows free fluidic flow in the μPAD, carrying the indicator to the observation spot and producing a "signal on" readout. The device is inexpensive to fabricate, easy to use, and disposable after detection. Testing results can be obtained within 6 min by the naked eye via a simple loading operation without the need for any auxiliary equipment. Multiple targets, including cocaine, adenosine, and Pb(2+), can be detected simultaneously, even in complex biological matrices such as urine. The reported method offers simple, low cost, rapid, user-friendly, point-of-care testing, which will be useful in many applications.

  1. A Social Media Practicum: An Action-Learning Approach to Social Media Marketing and Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwong, Catherine T.

    2015-01-01

    To prepare students for the rapidly evolving field of digital marketing, which requires more and more technical skills every year, a social media practicum creates a learning environment in which students can apply marketing principles and become ready for collaborative work in social media marketing and analytics. Using student newspapers as…

  2. Evaluation of a rapid analyte measurement platform and real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay West Nile virus detection system in mosquito pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Kristen L; Horiuchi, Kalanthe; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Savage, Harry M; Nasci, Roger S

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the commercially available Rapid Analyte Measurement Platform (RAMP) West Nile virus (WNV) antigen detection test for sensitivity and consistency with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmation testing. Panels of samples consisting of WNV-spiked mosquito pools and negative control pools were sent to 20 mosquito abatement districts (MADs) that processed the pools using the RAMP assay. The samples were then sent to the reference laboratories used by the MADs for confirmation by real-time RT-PCR. Positive pools with virus titers of roughly 1-3 log10 PFU/ml had RAMP scores above the RAMP test positive cutoff score of 30 RAMP units, but these virus-positive samples could not be reliably confirmed by real-time RT-PCR testing. Pools with virus titers > or =4 log10 PFU/ml scored > or =50 RAMP units. Real-time RT-PCR results varied among the confirmation laboratories. With few exceptions, pools returning a RAMP score of > or =100 were confirmed with real-time RT-PCR, while pools returning a RAMP score of 50-99 appeared to be at the limit of real-time RT-PCR detection. Therefore, we recommend using a positive cutoff of 50 RAMP units with no real-time RT-PCR confirmation to maximize speed, efficiency, and economy of the RAMP assay. A more conservative approach would be to implement a "gray zone" range of 50-100 RAMP units. Pools scoring within the gray zone could be submitted for real-time RT-PCR confirmation with the understanding that positive pools may not confirm due to the inhibitory effect of the RAMP buffer on the real-time RT-PCR assay. We also conducted a series of experiments using laboratory-prepared mosquito pools spiked with WNV to compare mosquito homogenization buffers, pool sizes, and grinding methods in order to determine how these variables affect the RAMP and real-time RT-PCR assay results.

  3. Discrimination and quantification of two isomeric antineoplastic drugs by rapid and non-invasive analytical control using a handheld Raman spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, L M M; Tfayli, A; Zhou, J; Prognon, P; Baillet-Guffroy, A; Caudron, E

    2016-12-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapid, non-destructive and non-invasive method that is a promising tool for real-time analytical control of drug concentrations. This study evaluated a handheld Raman device to discriminate and quantify two isomeric drugs used to treat cancer. Doxorubicin (DOXO) and epirubicin (EPIR) samples were analyzed at therapeutic concentrations from 0.1 to 2mg/mL (n=90) and 0.08-2mg/mL (n=90) by non-invasive measurements using a portable Raman spectrometer. The discrimination of these two molecules was demonstrated for all concentrations (n=180) by qualitative analysis using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) with 100% classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity and 0% error rate. For each molecule, quantitative analyses were performed using PLS regression. The validity of the model was evaluated using root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) and prediction (RMSEP) that furnished 0.05 and 0.02mg/mL for DOXO and 0.17 and 0.16mg/mL for EPIR after pretreatment optimization. Based on the accuracy profile, the linearity range was from 1.256 to 2.000mg/mL for DOXO (R2=0.9988) and from 0.553 to 2.000mg/Ml for EPIR (R2=0.9240) and repeatability (CV% max of 1.8% for DOXO and 3.2% for EPIR) and intermediate precision (CV% max of 2.8% for DOXO and 4.5% for EPIR) were both acceptable. Despite the narrow validated concentration range for quantitative analysis, this study shows the potential of a handheld Raman spectrometer coupled to chemometric approaches for real-time quantification of cytotoxic drugs, as well for discriminating between two drugs with similar UV absorption profiles. Finally, the use of a handheld spectrometer with the possibility of a direct measurement of substances in containers is a potentially valuable tool for combining patient safety with security of healthcare workers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  5. Evolving digital ecological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Fortuna

    Full Text Available "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism. Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved.

  6. Mentoring: An Evolving Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Michelle; Florczak, Kristine L

    2017-04-01

    The column concerns itself with mentoring as an evolving relationship between mentor and mentee. The collegiate mentoring model, the transformational transcendence model, and the humanbecoming mentoring model are considered in light of a dialogue with mentors at a Midwest university and conclusions are drawn.

  7. Measurably evolving populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... understanding of evolutionary processes in diverse organisms, from viruses to vertebrates....

  8. EVOLVE 2014 International Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Tantar, Emilia; Sun, Jian-Qiao; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian; Schütze, Oliver; Emmerich, Michael; Legrand, Pierrick; Moral, Pierre; Coello, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    This volume encloses research articles that were presented at the EVOLVE 2014 International Conference in Beijing, China, July 1–4, 2014.The book gathers contributions that emerged from the conference tracks, ranging from probability to set oriented numerics and evolutionary computation; all complemented by the bridging purpose of the conference, e.g. Complex Networks and Landscape Analysis, or by the more application oriented perspective. The novelty of the volume, when considering the EVOLVE series, comes from targeting also the practitioner’s view. This is supported by the Machine Learning Applied to Networks and Practical Aspects of Evolutionary Algorithms tracks, providing surveys on new application areas, as in the networking area and useful insights in the development of evolutionary techniques, from a practitioner’s perspective. Complementary to these directions, the conference tracks supporting the volume, follow on the individual advancements of the subareas constituting the scope of the confe...

  9. Evolvable Neural Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The Evolvable Neural Software System (ENSS) is composed of sets of Neural Basis Functions (NBFs), which can be totally autonomously created and removed according to the changing needs and requirements of the software system. The resulting structure is both hierarchical and self-similar in that a given set of NBFs may have a ruler NBF, which in turn communicates with other sets of NBFs. These sets of NBFs may function as nodes to a ruler node, which are also NBF constructs. In this manner, the synthetic neural system can exhibit the complexity, three-dimensional connectivity, and adaptability of biological neural systems. An added advantage of ENSS over a natural neural system is its ability to modify its core genetic code in response to environmental changes as reflected in needs and requirements. The neural system is fully adaptive and evolvable and is trainable before release. It continues to rewire itself while on the job. The NBF is a unique, bilevel intelligence neural system composed of a higher-level heuristic neural system (HNS) and a lower-level, autonomic neural system (ANS). Taken together, the HNS and the ANS give each NBF the complete capabilities of a biological neural system to match sensory inputs to actions. Another feature of the NBF is the Evolvable Neural Interface (ENI), which links the HNS and ANS. The ENI solves the interface problem between these two systems by actively adapting and evolving from a primitive initial state (a Neural Thread) to a complicated, operational ENI and successfully adapting to a training sequence of sensory input. This simulates the adaptation of a biological neural system in a developmental phase. Within the greater multi-NBF and multi-node ENSS, self-similar ENI s provide the basis for inter-NBF and inter-node connectivity.

  10. A rapid analytical and quantitative evaluation of formaldehyde in squid based on Tri-step IR and partial least squares (PLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dong-Chen; Zou, Meng-Jun; Guo, Xiao-Xi; Yu, Pan; Lin, Zhi-Wei; Hu, Tu; Wu, Ya-Fen; Liu, Yuan; Gan, Jian-Hong; Sun, Su-Qin; Wang, Xi-Chang; Xu, Chang-Hua

    2017-08-15

    Formaldehyde abuse for retaining squid freshness is detrimental to public health. The aim is to establish a rapid and quantitative detection method of formaldehyde in squid for screening massive samples. A linear relationship between formaldehyde concentration in squid and formaldehyde concentration in squid soaked water was observed using HPLC. Chemical profile variances of squids were rapidly analyzed by Tri-step infrared spectroscopy. Specifically, with increasing formaldehyde concentration, peak intensities of 2927cm -1 (v as (CH 2 )), 1081cm -1 (glycogen), 1631cm -1 (β-sheet proteins) decreased while 1655cm -1 (α-helix proteins) increased. Spectral curve-fitting results further disclosed that β-sheet proteins were transformed to α-helix and β-turn conformations. Furthermore, a quantitative prediction model based on IR spectra was established by PLS (R 2 , 0.9787; RMSEC, 5.51). The developed method was applicable for rapid (c.a. 5min) and quantitative analysis of formaldehyde in squids with LOD of 15mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases

  12. Turbulent transport of a passive contaminant in an initially anisotropic turbulence subjected to rapid rotation: an analytical study using linear theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bach, A.; Salhi, A.; Cambon, Claude

    2008-04-01

    The linear effect of rapid rotation is studied on the transport by homogeneous turbulence of a passive scalar with vertical mean scalar gradient. Connection with one-particle diffusion studied by Cambon et al. [C. Cambon, F.S. Godeferd, F. Nicolleau, J.C. Vassilicos, Turbulent diffusion in rapidly rotating turbulence with and without stable stratification, J. Fluid Mech. 499 (2004) 231-255] is discussed. The input of the initial anisotropy of the velocity field is then investigated in the axisymmetric case, using a general and systematic way to construct axisymmetric initial data: a classical expansion in terms of scalar spherical harmonics for the 3D spectral density of kinetic energy and a modified expansion for the polarization anisotropy. The scalar variance exhibits a quadratic evolution (∝t) for short times and a linear one (∝t) for larger times. The long-time behaviour looks similar to the classical 'Brownian' evolution but it has a very different origin: a linear impact of dispersive inertial waves via phase-mixing instead of a nonlinearly-induced random walk. It is shown that this trend is not altered by the polarization anisotropy. The vertical scalar flux varies linearly with time for short times and tends to a plateau for larger times. To cite this article: A. El Bach et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  13. Evolving haloalkane dehalogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, D.B.

    Mechanistic insight into the biochemistry of carbon–halogen bond cleavage is rapidly growing because of recent structural, biochemical and computational studies that have provided further insight into how haloalkane dehalogenases achieve their impressive catalytic activity. An occluded water-free

  14. Chemometrics-assisted excitation-emission fluorescence analytical data for rapid and selective determination of optical brighteners in the presence of uncalibrated interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ali; Masoum, Saeed; Mohsenikia, Atefeh; Abbasi, Saleheh

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a novel approach for the simultaneous determination of CBS-X and CXT as widely used optical brighteners in household detergent, by combining the advantage of the high sensitivity of molecular fluorescence, and the selectivity of second-order chemometric methods. The proposed method is assisted by second-order chemometric analyses employing the PARAFAC, SWATLD and APTLD that help us to determine CBS-X and CXT in laundry powders and environmental samples, through the unique decomposition of the three-way data array. Proposed method can provide the extraction of relative concentrations of the analytes, as well as the spectral profiles. This approach achieves the second-order advantage and in principle could be able to overcome the spectral uncalibrated interference problems in the determination of CBS-X and CXT at the ng g- 1 level. By spiking the known concentrations of these compounds to the real samples, the accuracy of the proposed methods was validated and recoveries of the spiked values were calculated. High recoveries (90.00%-113.33%) for the spiked laundry powders and real environmental samples indicate the present method successfully faces this complex challenge without the necessity of applying separation and preconcentration steps in environmental contaminations.

  15. Evaluation of rapid post-mortem test kits for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) screening in Japan: Their analytical sensitivity to atypical BSE prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Ken'ichi; Iwamaru, Yoshifumi; Tabeta, Naoko; Yokoyama, Takashi; Tobiume, Minoru

    2017-03-04

    A classical type of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (C-BSE), recognized in 1987, had a large impact on public health due to its zoonotic link to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by the human consumption of dietary products contaminated with the C-BSE prion. Thus, a number of countries implemented BSE surveillance using rapid post-mortem test kits that were approved for detection of the C-BSE prion in the cattle brain. However, as atypical BSE (L- and H-BSE) cases emerged in subsequent years, the efficacy of the kits for the detection of atypical BSE prions became a matter of concern. In response to this, laboratories in the European Union and Canada evaluated the kits used in their countries. Here, we carried out an evaluation study of NippiBL®, a kit currently used for BSE screening in Japan. By applying the kit to cattle brains of field cases of C-BSE and L-BSE, and an experimental case of H-BSE, we showed its comparable sensitivities to C, L-, and H-BSE prions, and satisfactory performance required by the European Food Safety Authority. In addition to NippiBL®, two kits (TeSeE® and FRELISA®) formerly used in Japan were effective for detection of the L-BSE prion, although the two kits were unable to be tested for the H-BSE prion due to the discontinuation of domestic sales during this study. These results indicate that BSE screening in Japan is as effective as those in other countries, and it is unlikely that cases of atypical BSE have been overlooked.

  16. Fat: an evolving issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Speakman

    2012-09-01

    Work on obesity is evolving, and obesity is a consequence of our evolutionary history. In the space of 50 years, we have become an obese species. The reasons why can be addressed at a number of different levels. These include separating between whether the primary cause lies on the food intake or energy expenditure side of the energy balance equation, and determining how genetic and environmental effects contribute to weight variation between individuals. Opinion on whether increased food intake or decreased energy expenditure drives the obesity epidemic is still divided, but recent evidence favours the idea that food intake, rather than altered expenditure, is most important. There is more of a consensus that genetics explains most (probably around 65% of weight variation between individuals. Recent advances in genome-wide association studies have identified many polymorphisms that are linked to obesity, yet much of the genetic variance remains unexplained. Finding the causes of this unexplained variation will be an impetus of genetic and epigenetic research on obesity over the next decade. Many environmental factors – including gut microbiota, stress and endocrine disruptors – have been linked to the risk of developing obesity. A better understanding of gene-by-environment interactions will also be key to understanding obesity in the years to come.

  17. Evolving Concepts of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Anuradha; Wenzel, Sally E.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of asthma has evolved over time from a singular disease to a complex of various phenotypes, with varied natural histories, physiologies, and responses to treatment. Early therapies treated most patients with asthma similarly, with bronchodilators and corticosteroids, but these therapies had varying degrees of success. Similarly, despite initial studies that identified an underlying type 2 inflammation in the airways of patients with asthma, biologic therapies targeted toward these type 2 pathways were unsuccessful in all patients. These observations led to increased interest in phenotyping asthma. Clinical approaches, both biased and later unbiased/statistical approaches to large asthma patient cohorts, identified a variety of patient characteristics, but they also consistently identified the importance of age of onset of disease and the presence of eosinophils in determining clinically relevant phenotypes. These paralleled molecular approaches to phenotyping that developed an understanding that not all patients share a type 2 inflammatory pattern. Using biomarkers to select patients with type 2 inflammation, repeated trials of biologics directed toward type 2 cytokine pathways saw newfound success, confirming the importance of phenotyping in asthma. Further research is needed to clarify additional clinical and molecular phenotypes, validate predictive biomarkers, and identify new areas for possible interventions. PMID:26161792

  18. Evolving endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Paulo; Faintuch, Joel

    2014-06-01

    Since the days of Albukasim in medieval Spain, natural orifices have been regarded not only as a rather repugnant source of bodily odors, fluids and excreta, but also as a convenient invitation to explore and treat the inner passages of the organism. However, surgical ingenuity needed to be matched by appropriate tools and devices. Lack of technologically advanced instrumentation was a strong deterrent during almost a millennium until recent decades when a quantum jump materialized. Endoscopic surgery is currently a vibrant and growing subspecialty, which successfully handles millions of patients every year. Additional opportunities lie ahead which might benefit millions more, however, requiring even more sophisticated apparatuses, particularly in the field of robotics, artificial intelligence, and tissue repair (surgical suturing). This is a particularly exciting and worthwhile challenge, namely of larger and safer endoscopic interventions, followed by seamless and scarless recovery. In synthesis, the future is widely open for those who use together intelligence and creativity to develop new prototypes, new accessories and new techniques. Yet there are many challenges in the path of endoscopic surgery. In this new era of robotic endoscopy, one will likely need a virtual simulator to train and assess the performance of younger doctors. More evidence will be essential in multiple evolving fields, particularly to elucidate whether more ambitious and complex pathways, such as intrathoracic and intraperitoneal surgery via natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), are superior or not to conventional techniques. © 2014 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Asymmetric evolving random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulomb, S.; Bauer, M.

    2003-10-01

    We generalize the Poissonian evolving random graph model of M. Bauer and D. Bernard (2003), to deal with arbitrary degree distributions. The motivation comes from biological networks, which are well-known to exhibit non Poissonian degree distributions. A node is added at each time step and is connected to the rest of the graph by oriented edges emerging from older nodes. This leads to a statistical asymmetry between incoming and outgoing edges. The law for the number of new edges at each time step is fixed but arbitrary. Thermodynamical behavior is expected when this law has a large time limit. Although (by construction) the incoming degree distributions depend on this law, this is not the case for most qualitative features concerning the size distribution of connected components, as long as the law has a finite variance. As the variance grows above 1/4, the average being < 1/2, a giant component emerges, which connects a finite fraction of the vertices. Below this threshold, the distribution of component sizes decreases algebraically with a continuously varying exponent. The transition is of infinite order, in sharp contrast with the case of static graphs. The local-in-time profiles for the components of finite size allow to give a refined description of the system.

  20. Evolving a photosynthetic organelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakayama Takuro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria is believed to represent a singularity in the history of life. The enigmatic amoeba Paulinella and its 'recently' acquired photosynthetic inclusions provide a fascinating system through which to gain fresh insight into how endosymbionts become organelles. The plastids, or chloroplasts, of algae and plants evolved from cyanobacteria by endosymbiosis. This landmark event conferred on eukaryotes the benefits of photosynthesis - the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy - and in so doing had a huge impact on the course of evolution and the climate of Earth 1. From the present state of plastids, however, it is difficult to trace the evolutionary steps involved in this momentous development, because all modern-day plastids have fully integrated into their hosts. Paulinella chromatophora is a unicellular eukaryote that bears photosynthetic entities called chromatophores that are derived from cyanobacteria and has thus received much attention as a possible example of an organism in the early stages of organellogenesis. Recent studies have unlocked the genomic secrets of its chromatophore 23 and provided concrete evidence that the Paulinella chromatophore is a bona fide photosynthetic organelle 4. The question is how Paulinella can help us to understand the process by which an endosymbiont is converted into an organelle.

  1. Assessing SfM-Photogrammetry potential at micro-scale on a rapidly evolving mud-bank: case study on a mesocosm study within pioneer mangroves in French Guiana (South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Jules; Brunier, Guillaume; Michaud, Emma; Anthony, Edward; Dussouillez, Philippe; Morvan, Sylvain

    2016-04-01

    Mud banks are the loci of rich bio-geo-chemical processes occuring rapidly at infra-tide frequency. Their surface topography is commonly affected by many of these processes, including bioturbation, water drainage or dessication. Quantifying surface morphology and changes on a mud bank at the micro-scale is a challenging task due to a number of issues. First, the water-saturated nature of the soil makes it difficult to measure High Resolution Topography (HRT) with classical methods. Second, setting up an instrumented experiment without disrupting the signal being studied is hardly achieved at micro-scale. Finally, the highly mobile nature of this environment enhancing strong spatio-temporal heterogeneity is hard to capture. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and SfM (Surface from Motion)-Photogrammetry are two techniques that enable mapping of micro-scale features, but the first technique is not suitable because of the poor quality of the backscattered laser signal on wet surfaces and the need to set up several measuring stations on a complex, unstable substrate. Thus, we set up an experiment to assess the feasibility and the accuracy of SfM in such a context. We took the opportunity of the installation of a pontoon dedicated to the study of bio-geochemical processes within benthic mesocosms installed on a mud bank inhabited by pioneer mangroves trees to develop an adapted photogrammetry protocol based on a full-frame remotely triggered camera sensor mounted on a pole. The incident light on the surface was also controlled with a light-diffusing device. We obtained sub-millimetric resolution 3D-topography and visible imagery. Surveys were carried out every 2 hours at low tide to detect surface changes due to water content variation as well as bioturbation mainly caused by crabs digging galleries and feeding on sediment surface. Both the qualitative and quantitative results seem very promising and lead us to expect new insights into heterogeneous surface processes on a

  2. A simple and rapid analytical method based on solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of free catecholamines and metanephrines in urine and its application to routine clinical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hye In; Yang, Jeong Soo; Oh, Hyeon Ju; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-05-01

    Urinary catecholamines and metanephrines are biochemical indicators of pheochromocytoma. We developed and validated a rapid and precise analytical method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography separation coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for measuring urinary free catecholamines and metanephrines in a clinical setting. Following SPE purification of catecholamines and metanephrines from urine specimens, chromatographic separation and quantitative detection were performed using LC-MS/MS. The developed method for simultaneous measurement of urinary free catecholamines and metanephrines was validated with clinical urine specimens and was compared with other clinical and biochemical results, including urinary total metanephrines, vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), and plasma free metanephrines. The performance of our newly developed method for measuring urinary free epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), metanephrine (MN), and normetanephrine (NMN), was acceptable. The recoveries and matrix effects of analytes were 61-107% and 84.5-130.7%. The linear ranges of each analyte were 3.8-2163μg/L, 7.4-2,359μg/L, 5.4-2,825μg/L, 3.5-2,466μg/L, and 3.7-2,569μg/L, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were less than 10% with respect to imprecision. Carryover and sample stability were also validated. Validation using clinical urine specimens by comparison with various biochemical results showed that urinary free metanephrines had comparable sensitivity (100%) and superior specificity (97.1%) to urinary total and plasma free metanephrines. The facile and reliable simultaneous measurement method for urinary free catecholamines and metanephrines using LC-MS/MS developed in this study is helpful in obtaining information about multiple metabolites and is applicable to routine clinical settings for the screening of pheochromocytoma. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Analytical Improvements in PV Degradation Rate Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    As photovoltaic (PV) penetration of the power grid increases, it becomes vital to know how decreased power output may affect cost over time. In order to predict power delivery, the decline or degradation rates must be determined accurately. For non-spectrally corrected data several complete seasonal cycles (typically 3-5 years) are required to obtain reasonably accurate degradation rates. In a rapidly evolving industry such a time span is often unacceptable and the need exists to determine degradation rates accurately in a shorter period of time. Occurrence of outliers and data shifts are two examples of analytical problems leading to greater uncertainty and therefore to longer observation times. In this paper we compare three methodologies of data analysis for robustness in the presence of outliers, data shifts and shorter measurement time periods.

  4. Analytic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Graeme W

    2016-11-01

    The theory of inhomogeneous analytic materials is developed. These are materials where the coefficients entering the equations involve analytic functions. Three types of analytic materials are identified. The first two types involve an integer p. If p takes its maximum value, then we have a complete analytic material. Otherwise, it is incomplete analytic material of rank p. For two-dimensional materials, further progress can be made in the identification of analytic materials by using the well-known fact that a 90(°) rotation applied to a divergence-free field in a simply connected domain yields a curl-free field, and this can then be expressed as the gradient of a potential. Other exact results for the fields in inhomogeneous media are reviewed. Also reviewed is the subject of metamaterials, as these materials provide a way of realizing desirable coefficients in the equations.

  5. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  6. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graves, C.J.; Ros, V.I.D.; Stevenson, B.; Sniegowski, P.D.; Brisson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide

  7. Disgust: Evolved function and structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.; Kurzban, R.; DeScioli, P.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in and research on disgust has surged over the past few decades. The field, however, still lacks a coherent theoretical framework for understanding the evolved function or functions of disgust. Here we present such a framework, emphasizing 2 levels of analysis: that of evolved function and

  8. Evolving virtual creatures and catapults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, Nicolas; Egli, Richard; Adami, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    We present a system that can evolve the morphology and the controller of virtual walking and block-throwing creatures (catapults) using a genetic algorithm. The system is based on Sims' work, implemented as a flexible platform with an off-the-shelf dynamics engine. Experiments aimed at evolving Sims-type walkers resulted in the emergence of various realistic gaits while using fairly simple objective functions. Due to the flexibility of the system, drastically different morphologies and functions evolved with only minor modifications to the system and objective function. For example, various throwing techniques evolved when selecting for catapults that propel a block as far as possible. Among the strategies and morphologies evolved, we find the drop-kick strategy, as well as the systematic invention of the principle behind the wheel, when allowing mutations to the projectile.

  9. Tissue Microarray: A rapidly evolving diagnostic and research tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawhar, Nazar M.T.

    2009-01-01

    Tissue microarray is a recent innovation in the field of pathology. A microarray contains many small representative tissue samples from hundreds of different cases assembled on a single histologic slide, and therefore allows high throughput analysis of multiple specimens at the same time. Tissue microarrays are paraffin blocks produced by extracting cylindrical tissue cores from different paraffin donor blocks and re-embedding these into a single recipient (microarray) block at defined array coordinates. Using this technique, up to 1000 or more tissue samples can be arrayed into a single paraffin block. It can permit simultaneous analysis of molecular targets at the DNA, mRNA, and protein levels under identical, standardized conditions on a single glass slide, and also provide maximal preservation and use of limited and irreplaceable archival tissue samples. This versatile technique, in which data analysis is automated facilitates retrospective and prospective human tissue studies. It is a practical and effective tool for high-throughput molecular analysis of tissues that is helping to identify new diagnostic and prognostic markers and targets in human cancers, and has a range of potential applications in basic research, prognostic oncology and drug discovery. This article summarizes the technical aspects of tissue microarray construction and sectioning, advantages, application, and limitations. PMID:19318744

  10. Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordi, Licia; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Lalle, Eleonora; Vairo, Francesco; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults. The primary mode of transmission of Zika virus between humans is through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the Aedes genus, but also sexual and blood transfusion transmission may occur. Moreover, a case of non-sexual spread from one person to another has been described, indicating that we still have more to learn about Zika transmission.Biological basis for pathogenetic effects are under investigation. Laboratory diagnosis is challenging since, so far, there are no "gold standard" diagnostic tools, and the low and short viremia in the acute phase, and together with the high cross-reactivity among the members of flavivirus genus are the most challenging aspects to be overcome.

  11. A Rapidly Evolving Active Region NOAA 8032 observed on April ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    1997-04-15

    Apr 15, 1997 ... The GOES X-ray data showed a number of sub-flares and two C-class flares during the 8-9 hours of its evolution. ... (1991), where they observed X-class flares near the sites of. EFR. Wang & Shi (1993) suggested that ... region using the USΟ video magnetograph (Mathew et al. 1998). The active region. 233 ...

  12. The Rapidly Evolving Concept of Whole Heart Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Iop

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole heart engineering represents an incredible journey with as final destination the challenging aim to solve end-stage cardiac failure with a biocompatible and living organ equivalent. Its evolution started in 2008 with rodent organs and is nowadays moving closer to clinical application thanks to scaling-up strategies to human hearts. This review will offer a comprehensive examination on the important stages to be reached for the bioengineering of the whole heart, by describing the approaches of organ decellularization, repopulation, and maturation so far applied and the novel technologies of potential interest. In addition, it will carefully address important demands that still need to be satisfied in order to move to a real clinical translation of the whole bioengineering heart concept.

  13. "Reinventing Life": Introductory Biology for a Rapidly Evolving World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Jeffrey Scott

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary concepts are essential for a scientific understanding of most issues surrounding modern medicine, agriculture, biotechnology, and the environment. If the mantra for biology education in the 20th century was, "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution," the mantra for the 21st century must be, "Nothing in biology…

  14. L'authentification rapide des poulets de chair sous label: distinction entre poulets issus de souches à croissance lente ou rapide par la spectrometrie dans le proche infrarouge. Analytical methods for the authentification of agro-food products. Gembloux (Belgium. 20 Oct 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiere O.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid authentification of certified chicken meat: distinguishing slow and fast growing chicken strains using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Chicken meat market is characterized by numerous quality marks in Belgium and in Europe: ""Label de Qualite Wallon"" in Belgium, ""Label Rouge"" in France, Labels for geographical origin, organic agriculture, ... The authors have already tested, Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS to authenticate slow growing chicken meats. Their study was extended on a larger set and takes account of special labelling according to European regulation 91/1538/CEE. Our results show that the technique could be integrated in an analytical system of surveillance of slow-growing chicken meat products with quality mark.

  15. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  16. When did oxygenic photosynthesis evolve?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roger Buick

    2008-01-01

    ...2.4 Ga ago, but when the photosynthetic oxygen production began is debatable. However, geological and geochemical evidence from older sedimentary rocks indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before this oxygenation event...

  17. Marshal: Maintaining Evolving Models Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIFT proposes to design and develop the Marshal system, a mixed-initiative tool for maintaining task models over the course of evolving missions. Marshal-enabled...

  18. A local-world evolving hypernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Complex hypernetworks are ubiquitous in the real system. It is very important to investigate the evolution mechanisms. In this paper, we present a local-world evolving hypernetwork model by taking into account the hyperedge growth and local-world hyperedge preferential attachment mechanisms. At each time step, a newly added hyperedge encircles a new coming node and a number of nodes from a randomly selected local world. The number of the selected nodes from the local world obeys the uniform distribution and its mean value is m. The analytical and simulation results show that the hyperdegree approximately obeys the power-law form and the exponent of hyperdegree distribution is γ = 2 + 1/m. Furthermore, we numerically investigate the node degree, hyperedge degree, clustering coefficient, as well as the average distance, and find that the hypernetwork model shares the scale-free and small-world properties, which shed some light for deeply understanding the evolution mechanism of the real systems.

  19. Analytical quadrics

    CERN Document Server

    Spain, Barry; Ulam, S; Stark, M

    1960-01-01

    Analytical Quadrics focuses on the analytical geometry of three dimensions. The book first discusses the theory of the plane, sphere, cone, cylinder, straight line, and central quadrics in their standard forms. The idea of the plane at infinity is introduced through the homogenous Cartesian coordinates and applied to the nature of the intersection of three planes and to the circular sections of quadrics. The text also focuses on paraboloid, including polar properties, center of a section, axes of plane section, and generators of hyperbolic paraboloid. The book also touches on homogenous coordi

  20. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real W...

  1. The Evolving Status of Photojournalism Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookman, Claude

    Noting that new technologies are resulting in extensive changes in the field of photojournalism, both as it is practiced and taught, this Digest reviews this rapidly evolving field of education and professional practice. It discusses what digital photography is; the history of digital photography; how digital photography has changed…

  2. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition...

  3. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    include: re-identification, consumer behavior analysis, utilizing pupillary response for task difficulty measurement, logo detection, saliency prediction, classification of facial expressions, face recognition, face verification, age estimation, super-resolution, pose estimation, and pain recognition......This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...

  4. Analytical history

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand M. Roehner

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explain what is "analytical history", a modular and testable analysis of historical events introduced in a book published in 2002 (Roehner and Syme 2002). Broadly speaking, it is a comparative methodology for the analysis of historical events. Comparison is the keystone and hallmark of science. For instance, the extrasolar planets are crucial for understanding our own solar system. Until their discovery, astronomers could observe only one instance. Single instan...

  5. Supramolecular analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslyn, Eric V

    2007-02-02

    A large fraction of the field of supramolecular chemistry has focused in previous decades upon the study and use of synthetic receptors as a means of mimicking natural receptors. Recently, the demand for synthetic receptors is rapidly increasing within the analytical sciences. These classes of receptors are finding uses in simple indicator chemistry, cellular imaging, and enantiomeric excess analysis, while also being involved in various truly practical assays of bodily fluids. Moreover, one of the most promising areas for the use of synthetic receptors is in the arena of differential sensing. Although many synthetic receptors have been shown to yield exquisite selectivities, in general, this class of receptor suffers from cross-reactivities. Yet, cross-reactivity is an attribute that is crucial to the success of differential sensing schemes. Therefore, both selective and nonselective synthetic receptors are finding uses in analytical applications. Hence, a field of chemistry that herein is entitled "Supramolecular Analytical Chemistry" is emerging, and is predicted to undergo increasingly rapid growth in the near future.

  6. The Evolving Resource Metadata Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    The search and discovery mechanisms that will facilitate and simplify systematic research on the Internet depend on systematic classifications of resources, as well as on standardized access to such metadata. The principles and technologies that will make this possible are evolving in the work of the Internet Engineering Task Force and the digital library initiatives, among others. The desired outcome is a set of standards, tools, and practices that permits both cataloging and retrieval to be comprehensive and efficient.

  7. Video Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book collects the papers presented at two workshops during the 23rd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR): the Third Workshop on Video Analytics for Audience Measurement (VAAM) and the Second International Workshop on Face and Facial Expression Recognition (FFER) from Real...... World Videos. The workshops were run on December 4, 2016, in Cancun in Mexico. The two workshops together received 13 papers. Each paper was then reviewed by at least two expert reviewers in the field. In all, 11 papers were accepted to be presented at the workshops. The topics covered in the papers...

  8. Schedule Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    led several cost research initiatives in cloud computing, service-oriented architecture , and agile development and various independent schedule...systems and platforms. Manring is trained and experienced on a number of commercial parametric software cost models and risk analysis tools. She has...and he supports DoD and federal acquisition efforts with a focus on rapid and agile practices to speed solutions with the lowest practical program

  9. The evolvability of programmable hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Karthik; Wagner, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In biological systems, individual phenotypes are typically adopted by multiple genotypes. Examples include protein structure phenotypes, where each structure can be adopted by a myriad individual amino acid sequence genotypes. These genotypes form vast connected ‘neutral networks’ in genotype space. The size of such neutral networks endows biological systems not only with robustness to genetic change, but also with the ability to evolve a vast number of novel phenotypes that occur near any one neutral network. Whether technological systems can be designed to have similar properties is poorly understood. Here we ask this question for a class of programmable electronic circuits that compute digital logic functions. The functional flexibility of such circuits is important in many applications, including applications of evolutionary principles to circuit design. The functions they compute are at the heart of all digital computation. We explore a vast space of 1045 logic circuits (‘genotypes’) and 1019 logic functions (‘phenotypes’). We demonstrate that circuits that compute the same logic function are connected in large neutral networks that span circuit space. Their robustness or fault-tolerance varies very widely. The vicinity of each neutral network contains circuits with a broad range of novel functions. Two circuits computing different functions can usually be converted into one another via few changes in their architecture. These observations show that properties important for the evolvability of biological systems exist in a commercially important class of electronic circuitry. They also point to generic ways to generate fault-tolerant, adaptable and evolvable electronic circuitry. PMID:20534598

  10. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  11. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Helrich, Carl S

    2017-01-01

    This advanced undergraduate textbook begins with the Lagrangian formulation of Analytical Mechanics and then passes directly to the Hamiltonian formulation and the canonical equations, with constraints incorporated through Lagrange multipliers. Hamilton's Principle and the canonical equations remain the basis of the remainder of the text. Topics considered for applications include small oscillations, motion in electric and magnetic fields, and rigid body dynamics. The Hamilton-Jacobi approach is developed with special attention to the canonical transformation in order to provide a smooth and logical transition into the study of complex and chaotic systems. Finally the text has a careful treatment of relativistic mechanics and the requirement of Lorentz invariance. The text is enriched with an outline of the history of mechanics, which particularly outlines the importance of the work of Euler, Lagrange, Hamilton and Jacobi. Numerous exercises with solutions support the exceptionally clear and concise treatment...

  12. Primordial evolvability: Impasses and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasas, Vera; Fernando, Chrisantha; Szilágyi, András; Zachár, István; Santos, Mauro; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2015-09-21

    While it is generally agreed that some kind of replicating non-living compounds were the precursors of life, there is much debate over their possible chemical nature. Metabolism-first approaches propose that mutually catalytic sets of simple organic molecules could be capable of self-replication and rudimentary chemical evolution. In particular, the graded autocatalysis replication domain (GARD) model, depicting assemblies of amphiphilic molecules, has received considerable interest. The system propagates compositional information across generations and is suggested to be a target of natural selection. However, evolutionary simulations indicate that the system lacks selectability (i.e. selection has negligible effect on the equilibrium concentrations). We elaborate on the lessons learnt from the example of the GARD model and, more widely, on the issue of evolvability, and discuss the implications for similar metabolism-first scenarios. We found that simple incorporation-type chemistry based on non-covalent bonds, as assumed in GARD, is unlikely to result in alternative autocatalytic cycles when catalytic interactions are randomly distributed. An even more serious problem stems from the lognormal distribution of catalytic factors, causing inherent kinetic instability of such loops, due to the dominance of efficiently catalyzed components that fail to return catalytic aid. Accordingly, the dynamics of the GARD model is dominated by strongly catalytic, but not auto-catalytic, molecules. Without effective autocatalysis, stable hereditary propagation is not possible. Many repetitions and different scaling of the model come to no rescue. Despite all attempts to show the contrary, the GARD model is not evolvable, in contrast to reflexively autocatalytic networks, complemented by rare uncatalyzed reactions and compartmentation. The latter networks, resting on the creation and breakage of chemical bonds, can generate novel ('mutant') autocatalytic loops from a given set of

  13. Peripartum hysterectomy: an evolving picture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    Peripartum hysterectomy (PH) is one of the obstetric catastrophes. Evidence is emerging that the role of PH in modern obstetrics is evolving. Improving management of postpartum hemorrhage and newer surgical techniques should decrease PH for uterine atony. Rising levels of repeat elective cesarean deliveries should decrease PH following uterine scar rupture in labor. Increasing cesarean rates, however, have led to an increase in the number of PHs for morbidly adherent placenta. In the case of uterine atony or rupture where PH is required, a subtotal PH is often sufficient. In the case of pathological placental localization involving the cervix, however, a total hysterectomy is required. Furthermore, the involvement of other pelvic structures may prospectively make the diagnosis difficult and the surgery challenging. If resources permit, PH for pathological placental localization merits a multidisciplinary approach. Despite advances in clinical practice, it is likely that peripartum hysterectomy will be more challenging for obstetricians in the future.

  14. Extreme evolved solar systems (EESS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2017-08-01

    In just 20 years, we went from not knowing if the solar system is a fluke of Nature to realising that it is totally normal for stars to have planets. More remarkably, it is now clear that planet formation is a robust process, as rich multi-planet systems are found around stars more massive and less massive than the Sun. More recently, planetary systems have been identified in increasingly complex architectures, including circumbinary planets, wide binaries with planets orbiting one or both stellar components, and planets in triple stellar systems.We have also learned that many planetary systems will survive the evolution of their host stars into the white dwarf phase. Small bodies are scattered by unseen planets into the gravitational field of the white dwarfs, tidally disrupt, form dust discs, and eventually accrete onto the white dwarf, where they can be spectroscopically detected. HST/COS has played a critical role in the study these evolved planetary systems, demonstrating that overall the bulk composition of the debris is rocky and resembles in composition the inner the solar system, including evidence for water-rich planetesimals. Past observations of planetary systems at white dwarfs have focused on single stars with main-sequence progenitors of 1.5 to 2.5Msun. Here we propose to take the study of evolved planetary systems into the extremes of parameter ranges to answer questions such as: * How efficient is planet formation around 4-10Msun stars? * What are the metallicities of the progenitors of debris-accreting white dwarfs?* What is the fate of circumbinary planets?* Can star-planet interactions generate magnetic fields in the white dwarf host?

  15. Orbital Decay in Binaries with Evolved Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Weinberg, Nevin N.; Troup, Nicholas; Majewski, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Two mechanisms are often invoked to explain tidal friction in binary systems. The ``dynamical tide” is the resonant excitation of internal gravity waves by the tide, and their subsequent damping by nonlinear fluid processes or thermal diffusion. The ``equilibrium tide” refers to non-resonant excitation of fluid motion in the star’s convection zone, with damping by interaction with the turbulent eddies. There have been numerous studies of these processes in main sequence stars, but less so on the subgiant and red giant branches. Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), we have performed calculations of both the dynamical and equilibrium tide processes for stars over a range of mass as the star’s cease core hydrogen burning and evolve to shell burning. Even for stars which had a radiative core on the main sequence, the dynamical tide may have very large amplitude in the newly radiative core in post-main sequence, giving rise to wave breaking. The resulting large dynamical tide dissipation rate is compared to the equilibrium tide, and the range of secondary masses and orbital periods over which rapid orbital decay may occur will be discussed, as well as applications to close APOGEE binaries.

  16. CERN internal communication is evolving

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    CERN news will now be regularly updated on the CERN People page (see here).      Dear readers, All over the world, communication is becoming increasingly instantaneous, with news published in real time on websites and social networks. In order to keep pace with these changes, CERN's internal communication is evolving too. From now on, you will be informed of what’s happening at CERN more often via the “CERN people” page, which will frequently be updated with news. The Bulletin is following this trend too: twice a month, we will compile the most important articles published on the CERN site, with a brand-new layout. You will receive an e-mail every two weeks as soon as this new form of the Bulletin is available. If you have interesting news or stories to share, tell us about them through the form at: https://communications.web.cern.ch/got-story-cern-website​. You can also find out about news from CERN in real time...

  17. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar Al-Hajj

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology—group analytics (GA. GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders’ observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of ‘common ground’ among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders’ verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ‘common ground’ among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  18. Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajj, Samar; Fisher, Brian; Smith, Jennifer; Pike, Ian

    2017-09-12

    Background: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; Methods: Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; Results: The GA methodology triggered the emergence of 'common ground' among stakeholders. This common ground evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; Conclusions: Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve 'common ground' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.

  19. Understanding Business Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-05

    analytic resource for the enter- prise , individual Air Force domain areas see the value of integrating analytic capabilities into their own decision ...Business Analytics, Decision Analytics, Business Intelligence, Advanced Analytics, Data Science. . . to a certain degree, to label is to limit - if only...providing a quantitative basis for complex decisions . Decision Analysis: a systematic, quantitative and visual approach to addressing and evaluating important

  20. Normality in Analytical Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Myers

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although C.G. Jung’s interest in normality wavered throughout his career, it was one of the areas he identified in later life as worthy of further research. He began his career using a definition of normality which would have been the target of Foucault’s criticism, had Foucault chosen to review Jung’s work. However, Jung then evolved his thinking to a standpoint that was more aligned to Foucault’s own. Thereafter, the post Jungian concept of normality has remained relatively undeveloped by comparison with psychoanalysis and mainstream psychology. Jung’s disjecta membra on the subject suggest that, in contemporary analytical psychology, too much focus is placed on the process of individuation to the neglect of applications that consider collective processes. Also, there is potential for useful research and development into the nature of conflict between individuals and societies, and how normal people typically develop in relation to the spectrum between individuation and collectivity.

  1. Evolvable mathematical models: A new artificial Intelligence paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grouchy, Paul

    We develop a novel Artificial Intelligence paradigm to generate autonomously artificial agents as mathematical models of behaviour. Agent/environment inputs are mapped to agent outputs via equation trees which are evolved in a manner similar to Symbolic Regression in Genetic Programming. Equations are comprised of only the four basic mathematical operators, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as input and output variables and constants. From these operations, equations can be constructed that approximate any analytic function. These Evolvable Mathematical Models (EMMs) are tested and compared to their Artificial Neural Network (ANN) counterparts on two benchmarking tasks: the double-pole balancing without velocity information benchmark and the challenging discrete Double-T Maze experiments with homing. The results from these experiments show that EMMs are capable of solving tasks typically solved by ANNs, and that they have the ability to produce agents that demonstrate learning behaviours. To further explore the capabilities of EMMs, as well as to investigate the evolutionary origins of communication, we develop NoiseWorld, an Artificial Life simulation in which interagent communication emerges and evolves from initially noncommunicating EMM-based agents. Agents develop the capability to transmit their x and y position information over a one-dimensional channel via a complex, dialogue-based communication scheme. These evolved communication schemes are analyzed and their evolutionary trajectories examined, yielding significant insight into the emergence and subsequent evolution of cooperative communication. Evolved agents from NoiseWorld are successfully transferred onto physical robots, demonstrating the transferability of EMM-based AIs from simulation into physical reality.

  2. Evolving fuzzy rules for relaxed-criteria negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Kwang Mong

    2008-12-01

    In the literature on automated negotiation, very few negotiation agents are designed with the flexibility to slightly relax their negotiation criteria to reach a consensus more rapidly and with more certainty. Furthermore, these relaxed-criteria negotiation agents were not equipped with the ability to enhance their performance by learning and evolving their relaxed-criteria negotiation rules. The impetus of this work is designing market-driven negotiation agents (MDAs) that not only have the flexibility of relaxing bargaining criteria using fuzzy rules, but can also evolve their structures by learning new relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules to improve their negotiation outcomes as they participate in negotiations in more e-markets. To this end, an evolutionary algorithm for adapting and evolving relaxed-criteria fuzzy rules was developed. Implementing the idea in a testbed, two kinds of experiments for evaluating and comparing EvEMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are evolved using the evolutionary algorithm) and EMDAs (MDAs with relaxed-criteria rules that are manually constructed) were carried out through stochastic simulations. Empirical results show that: 1) EvEMDAs generally outperformed EMDAs in different types of e-markets and 2) the negotiation outcomes of EvEMDAs generally improved as they negotiated in more e-markets.

  3. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  4. Evolving Deep Networks Using HPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Steven R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Rose, Derek C. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Johnston, Travis [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Heller, William T. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Karnowski, thomas P. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Potok, Thomas E. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Patton, Robert M. [ORNL, Oak Ridge; Perdue, Gabriel [Fermilab; Miller, Jonathan [Santa Maria U., Valparaiso

    2017-01-01

    While a large number of deep learning networks have been studied and published that produce outstanding results on natural image datasets, these datasets only make up a fraction of those to which deep learning can be applied. These datasets include text data, audio data, and arrays of sensors that have very different characteristics than natural images. As these “best” networks for natural images have been largely discovered through experimentation and cannot be proven optimal on some theoretical basis, there is no reason to believe that they are the optimal network for these drastically different datasets. Hyperparameter search is thus often a very important process when applying deep learning to a new problem. In this work we present an evolutionary approach to searching the possible space of network hyperparameters and construction that can scale to 18, 000 nodes. This approach is applied to datasets of varying types and characteristics where we demonstrate the ability to rapidly find best hyperparameters in order to enable practitioners to quickly iterate between idea and result.

  5. Planning for Low End Analytics Disruptions in Business School Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienzo, Thomas; Chen, Kuanchin

    2018-01-01

    Analytics is getting a great deal of attention in both industrial and academic venues. Organizations of all types are becoming more serious about transforming data from a variety of sources into insight, and analytics is the key to that transformation. Academic institutions are rapidly responding to the demand for analytics talent, with hundreds…

  6. Future Supply of Pediatric Surgeons: Analytical Study of the Current and Projected Supply of Pediatric Surgeons in the Context of a Rapidly Changing Process for Specialty and Subspecialty Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas C; Adamson, William T; Fraher, Erin P; Knapton, Andy; Geiger, James D; Abdullah, Fizan; Klein, Michael D

    2017-03-01

    To describe the future supply and demand for pediatric surgeons using a physician supply model to determine what the future supply of pediatric surgeons will be over the next decade and a half and to compare that projected supply with potential indicators of demand and the growth of other subspecialties. Anticipating the supply of physicians and surgeons in the future has met with varying levels of success. However, there remains a need to anticipate supply given the rapid growth of specialty and subspecialty fellowships. This analysis is intended to support decision making on the size of future fellowships in pediatric surgery. The model used in the study is an adaptation of the FutureDocs physician supply and need tool developed to anticipate future supply and need for all physician specialties. Data from national inventories of physicians by specialty, age, sex, activity, and location are combined with data from residency and fellowship programs and accrediting bodies in an agent-based or microsimulation projection model that considers movement into and among specialties. Exits from practice and the geographic distribution of physician and the patient population are also included in the model. Three scenarios for the annual entry into pediatric surgery fellowships (28, 34, and 56) are modeled and their effects on supply through 2030 are presented. The FutureDocs model predicts a very rapid growth of the supply of surgeons who treat pediatric patients-including general pediatric surgeon and focused subspecialties. The supply of all pediatric surgeons will grow relatively rapidly through 2030 under current conditions. That growth is much faster than the rate of growth of the pediatric population. The volume of complex surgical cases will likely match this population growth rate meaning there will be many more surgeons trained for those procedures. The current entry rate into pediatric surgery fellowships (34 per year) will result in a slowing of growth after 2025

  7. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimerly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of propelling the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  8. DNA evolved to minimize frameshift mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Agoni, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Point mutations can surely be dangerous but what is worst than to lose the reading frame?! Does DNA evolved a strategy to try to limit frameshift mutations?! Here we investigate if DNA sequences effectively evolved a system to minimize frameshift mutations analyzing the transcripts of proteins with high molecular weights.

  9. Evolvable Smartphone-Based Point-of-Care Systems For In-Vitro Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François

    for the detection of biological analytes at ultra low concentrations. We discuss extensively the sensitivity and instrumentation requirements set by the technology before we present the design and implementation of an evolvable smartphone-based platform capable of interfacing lab-on-chips embedding such sensors. We...

  10. Rapid and Green Analytical Method for the Determination of Quinoline Alkaloids from Cinchona succirubra Based on Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) Prior to High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Elomri, Abdelhakim; Blanckaert, Axelle; Seguin, Elisabeth; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Chemat, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Quinas contains several compounds, such as quinoline alkaloids, principally quinine, quinidine, cinchonine and cichonidine. Identified from barks of Cinchona, quinine is still commonly used to treat human malaria. Microwave-Integrated Extraction and Leaching (MIEL) is proposed for the extraction of quinoline alkaloids from bark of Cinchona succirubra. The process is performed in four steps, which ensures complete, rapid and accurate extraction of the samples. Optimal conditions for extraction were obtained using a response surface methodology reached from a central composite design. The MIEL extraction has been compared with a conventional technique soxhlet extraction. The extracts of quinoline alkaloids from C. succirubra obtained by these two different methods were compared by HPLC. The extracts obtained by MIEL in 32 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (quinine, quinidine, cinchonine, cinchonidine) similar to those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in 3 hours. MIEL is a green technology that serves as a good alternative for the extraction of Cinchona alkaloids. PMID:22174637

  11. A rapid and efficient analytical method for the quantification of a novel anticholinergic compound, R-phencynonate, by stable isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS and its application to bioavailability and dose proportionality studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinglai; Liao, Sha; Wang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qian; Meng, Fei; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Tianhong; Yang, Cuiping; Song, Xinyi; Luo, Huan; Wang, Juan; Li, Zheng; Zhong, Bohua; Zhang, Zhenqing

    2017-05-01

    A rapid, specific and high-throughput stable isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated with high sensitivity for the quantification of R-phencynonate (a eutomer of phencynonate racemate) in rat and dog plasma. Plasma samples were deproteinized using acetonitrile and then separated on a C 8 column with an isocratic mobile phase containing acetonitrile-water-formic acid mixture (60:40:0.1, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Each sample had a total run time of 3 min. Quantification was performed using triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in selected reaction monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The method was shown to be highly linear (r 2  > 0.99) and to have a wide dynamic range (0.1-100 ng/mL) with favourable accuracy and precision. No matrix effects were observed. The detailed pharmacokinetic profiles of R-phencynonate at therapeutic doses in rats and dogs were characterized by rapid oral absorption, quick clearance, high volume of distribution and poor absolute bioavailability. R-Phencynonate lacked dose proportionality over the oral dose range, based on the power model. However, the area under concentration-time curve and the maximum plasma concentration increased linearly in a dose-dependent manner in both animal models. The absolute bioavailability of R-phencynonate was 16.6 ± 2.75 and 4.78 ± 1.26% in dogs and rats, respectively. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The combination of four analytical methods to explore skeletal muscle metabolomics: Better coverage of metabolic pathways or a marketing argument?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, C; Patin, F; Bocca, C; Nadal-Desbarats, L; Bonnier, F; Reynier, P; Emond, P; Vourc'h, P; Joseph-Delafont, K; Corcia, P; Andres, C R; Blasco, H

    2018-01-30

    Metabolomics is an emerging science based on diverse high throughput methods that are rapidly evolving to improve metabolic coverage of biological fluids and tissues. Technical progress has led researchers to combine several analytical methods without reporting the impact on metabolic coverage of such a strategy. The objective of our study was to develop and validate several analytical techniques (mass spectrometry coupled to gas or liquid chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance) for the metabolomic analysis of small muscle samples and evaluate the impact of combining methods for more exhaustive metabolite covering. We evaluated the muscle metabolome from the same pool of mouse muscle samples after 2 metabolite extraction protocols. Four analytical methods were used: targeted flow injection analysis coupled with mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS), gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. We evaluated the global variability of each compound i.e., analytical (from quality controls) and extraction variability (from muscle extracts). We determined the best extraction method and we reported the common and distinct metabolites identified based on the number and identity of the compounds detected with low analytical variability (variation coefficientexplore muscle samples. This study reports the validation of several analytical methods, based on nuclear magnetic resonance and several mass spectrometry methods, to explore the muscle metabolome from a small amount of tissue, comparable to that obtained during a clinical trial. The combination of several techniques may be relevant for the exploration of muscle metabolism, with acceptable analytical variability and overlap between methods However, the difficult and time-consuming data pre-processing, processing, and statistical analysis steps do not justify systematically combining

  13. Quasi-simultaneous acquisition of hard electron ionization and soft single-photon ionization mass spectra during GC/MS analysis by rapid switching between both ionization methods: analytical concept, setup, and application on diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschner, Markus S; Gröger, Thomas M; Horvath, Thomas; Gonin, Marc; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-05-15

    This work describes the realization of rapid switching between hard electron ionization (EI) and soft single-photon ionization (SPI) integrated in a compact orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photons of 9.8 eV (126 nm) emitted from the innovative electron-beam-pumped rare-gas excimer light source (EBEL) filled with argon are focused into the ion chamber by an ellipsoidal mirror optic for accomplishing of SPI. This novel orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer with switching capability was hyphenated to one-dimensional gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) for the first time. Within this demonstration study, a maximum switching frequency of 80 Hz was applied for investigation of a mineral-oil-type diesel sample. This approach allows the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of complementary information about the fragmentation pattern (EI) as well as the molecular mass (SPI) of compounds within a single analysis. Furthermore, by application of a polar GC column for separation, the SPI data can be displayed in a 2D contour plot, leading to a comprehensive 2D characterization (GC × MS), whereas the typical group-type assignment for diesel is also met.

  14. Big data analytics in healthcare: promise and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, Wullianallur; Raghupathi, Viju

    2014-01-01

    To describe the promise and potential of big data analytics in healthcare. The paper describes the nascent field of big data analytics in healthcare, discusses the benefits, outlines an architectural framework and methodology, describes examples reported in the literature, briefly discusses the challenges, and offers conclusions. The paper provides a broad overview of big data analytics for healthcare researchers and practitioners. Big data analytics in healthcare is evolving into a promising field for providing insight from very large data sets and improving outcomes while reducing costs. Its potential is great; however there remain challenges to overcome.

  15. WSC-07: Evolving the Web Services Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blake, M. Brian; Cheung, William K.W.; Jaeger, Michael C.; Wombacher, Andreas

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an evolving architectural paradigm where businesses can expose their capabilities as modular, network-accessible software services. By decomposing capabilities into modular services, organizations can share their offerings at multiple levels of granularity

  16. Satcom access in the evolved packet core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, M.D.; Norp, A.H.J.; Popova, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite communications (Satcom) networks are increasingly integrating with terrestrial communications networks, namely Next Generation Networks (NGN). In the area of NGN the Evolved Packet Core (EPC) is a new network architecture that can support multiple access technologies. When Satcom is

  17. Acquisition: Acquisition of the Evolved SEASPARROW Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...

  18. Biomimetic molecular design tools that learn, evolve, and adapt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, David A

    2017-01-01

    A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known "S curve", with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine.

  19. Biomimetic molecular design tools that learn, evolve, and adapt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Winkler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known “S curve”, with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine.

  20. Higher rates of sex evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becks, Lutz; Agrawal, Aneil F

    2010-11-04

    The evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction has puzzled biologists for decades. Although this field is rich in hypotheses, experimental evidence is scarce. Some important experiments have demonstrated differences in evolutionary rates between sexual and asexual populations; other experiments have documented evolutionary changes in phenomena related to genetic mixing, such as recombination and selfing. However, direct experiments of the evolution of sex within populations are extremely rare (but see ref. 12). Here we use the rotifer, Brachionus calyciflorus, which is capable of both sexual and asexual reproduction, to test recent theory predicting that there is more opportunity for sex to evolve in spatially heterogeneous environments. Replicated experimental populations of rotifers were maintained in homogeneous environments, composed of either high- or low-quality food habitats, or in heterogeneous environments that consisted of a mix of the two habitats. For populations maintained in either type of homogeneous environment, the rate of sex evolves rapidly towards zero. In contrast, higher rates of sex evolve in populations experiencing spatially heterogeneous environments. The data indicate that the higher level of sex observed under heterogeneity is not due to sex being less costly or selection against sex being less efficient; rather sex is sufficiently advantageous in heterogeneous environments to overwhelm its inherent costs. Counter to some alternative theories for the evolution of sex, there is no evidence that genetic drift plays any part in the evolution of sex in these populations.

  1. Biomimetic molecular design tools that learn, evolve, and adapt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A dominant hallmark of living systems is their ability to adapt to changes in the environment by learning and evolving. Nature does this so superbly that intensive research efforts are now attempting to mimic biological processes. Initially this biomimicry involved developing synthetic methods to generate complex bioactive natural products. Recent work is attempting to understand how molecular machines operate so their principles can be copied, and learning how to employ biomimetic evolution and learning methods to solve complex problems in science, medicine and engineering. Automation, robotics, artificial intelligence, and evolutionary algorithms are now converging to generate what might broadly be called in silico-based adaptive evolution of materials. These methods are being applied to organic chemistry to systematize reactions, create synthesis robots to carry out unit operations, and to devise closed loop flow self-optimizing chemical synthesis systems. Most scientific innovations and technologies pass through the well-known “S curve”, with slow beginning, an almost exponential growth in capability, and a stable applications period. Adaptive, evolving, machine learning-based molecular design and optimization methods are approaching the period of very rapid growth and their impact is already being described as potentially disruptive. This paper describes new developments in biomimetic adaptive, evolving, learning computational molecular design methods and their potential impacts in chemistry, engineering, and medicine. PMID:28694872

  2. Cyberspace Operations: Influence Upon Evolving War Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t CYBERSPACE OPERATIONS: INFLUENCE UPON EVOLVING WAR THEORY BY COLONEL KRISTIN BAKER United States...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cyberspace Operations: Influence Upon Evolving War Theory 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... Leadership 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S

  3. Evolving effective incremental SAT solvers with GP

    OpenAIRE

    Bader, Mohamed; Poli, R.

    2008-01-01

    Hyper-Heuristics could simply be defined as heuristics to choose other heuristics, and it is a way of combining existing heuristics to generate new ones. In a Hyper-Heuristic framework, the framework is used for evolving effective incremental (Inc*) solvers for SAT. We test the evolved heuristics (IncHH) against other known local search heuristics on a variety of benchmark SAT problems.

  4. Analytical strategy for rapid identification and quantification of lubricant additives in mineral oil by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with UV absorption and fluorescence detection combined with mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dytkiewitz, Elisabeth; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2008-01-01

    A simple strategy for identification and quantification of lubricant additives in mineral oil was demonstrated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with UV absorption and fluorescence detection using various coupling options, e.g., with attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). For the additives zinc bis(O,O'-diisobutyl dithiophosphate), zinc bis(O,O'-didodecyl dithiophosphate), and Anglamol 99, 2 chromatographic systems were developed, i.e., a reversed-phase (RP) system on RP2 plates using an acetonitrile-based mobile phase and a normal-phase system on silica gel 60 plates using a toluene-based gradient. Densitometry was performed by absorption measurement at 220 nm. Repeatabilities (relative standard deviation, n = 6) between 2.2 and 5.5% and correlation coefficients >0.9973 were highly satisfactory for the analysis of these additives in the mineral oil. Primuline reagent was used to improve the detection limit of the lipophilic additives by a factor of 2, followed by fluorescence measurement at UV 366/>400 nm. For rapid identification by ATR-IR and FTIR, the respective additive zones on the plate were online extracted by an interface called ChromeXtract, concentrated, and directly applied for measurements in the wave number range of 4000-400 cm(-1). Identification was confirmed by online ESI-MS within a minute using ChromeXtract and by DART-MS within seconds.

  5. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-01-01

    Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals...

  6. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  7. Evolvability Search: Directly Selecting for Evolvability in order to Study and Produce It

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengistu, Henok; Lehman, Joel Anthony; Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of natural organisms is their significant evolvability, i.e.,their increased potential for further evolution. However, reproducing such evolvability in artificial evolution remains a challenge, which both reduces the performance of evolutionary algorithms and inhibits the study...... of evolvable digital phenotypes. Although some types of selection in evolutionary computation indirectly encourage evolvability, one unexplored possibility is to directly select for evolvability. To do so, we estimate an individual's future potential for diversity by calculating the behavioral diversity of its...... immediate offspring, and select organisms with increased offspring variation. While the technique is computationally expensive, we hypothesized that direct selection would better encourage evolvability than indirect methods. Experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains confirm this hypothesis: in both...

  8. Evolved atmospheric entry corridor with safety factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zixuan; Ren, Zhang; Li, Qingdong

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric entry corridors are established in previous research based on the equilibrium glide condition which assumes the flight-path angle to be zero. To get a better understanding of the highly constrained entry flight, an evolved entry corridor that considers the exact flight-path angle is developed in this study. Firstly, the conventional corridor in the altitude vs. velocity plane is extended into a three-dimensional one in the space of altitude, velocity, and flight-path angle. The three-dimensional corridor is generated by a series of constraint boxes. Then, based on a simple mapping method, an evolved two-dimensional entry corridor with safety factor is obtained. The safety factor is defined to describe the flexibility of the flight-path angle for a state within the corridor. Finally, the evolved entry corridor is simulated for the Space Shuttle and the Common Aero Vehicle (CAV) to demonstrate the effectiveness of the corridor generation approach. Compared with the conventional corridor, the evolved corridor is much wider and provides additional information. Therefore, the evolved corridor would benefit more to the entry trajectory design and analysis.

  9. Simulating DNA coding sequence evolution with EvolveAGene 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Barry G

    2008-04-01

    Phylogenetic reconstruction based upon multiple alignments of molecular sequences is important to most branches of modern biology and is central to molecular evolution. Understanding the historical relationships among macromolecules depends upon computer programs that implement a variety of analytical methods. Because it is impossible to know those historical relationships with certainty, assessment of the accuracy of methods and the programs that implement them requires the use of programs that realistically simulate the evolution of DNA sequences. EvolveAGene 3 is a realistic coding sequence simulation program that separates mutation from selection and allows the user to set selection conditions, including variable regions of selection intensity within the sequence and variation in intensity of selection over branches. Variation includes base substitutions, insertions, and deletions. To the best of my knowledge, it is the only program available that simulates the evolution of intact coding sequences. Output includes the true tree and true alignments of the resulting coding sequence and corresponding protein sequences. A log file reports the frequencies of each kind of base substitution, the ratio of transition to transversion substitutions, the ratio of indel to base substitution mutations, and the numbers of silent and amino acid replacement mutations. The realism of the data sets has been assessed by comparing the d(N)/d(S) ratio, the ratio of transition to transversion substitutions, and the ratio of indel to base substitution mutations of the simulated data sets with those parameters of real data sets from the "gold standard" BaliBase collection of structural alignments. Results show that the data sets produced by EvolveAGene 3 are very similar to real data sets, and EvolveAGene 3 is therefore a realistic simulation program that can be used to evaluate a variety of programs and methods in molecular evolution.

  10. Environmental noise, genetic diversity and the evolution of evolvability and robustness in model gene networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F Steiner

    Full Text Available The ability of organisms to adapt and persist in the face of environmental change is accepted as a fundamental feature of natural systems. More contentious is whether the capacity of organisms to adapt (or "evolvability" can itself evolve and the mechanisms underlying such responses. Using model gene networks, I provide evidence that evolvability emerges more readily when populations experience positively autocorrelated environmental noise (red noise compared to populations in stable or randomly varying (white noise environments. Evolvability was correlated with increasing genetic robustness to effects on network viability and decreasing robustness to effects on phenotypic expression; populations whose networks displayed greater viability robustness and lower phenotypic robustness produced more additive genetic variation and adapted more rapidly in novel environments. Patterns of selection for robustness varied antagonistically with epistatic effects of mutations on viability and phenotypic expression, suggesting that trade-offs between these properties may constrain their evolutionary responses. Evolution of evolvability and robustness was stronger in sexual populations compared to asexual populations indicating that enhanced genetic variation under fluctuating selection combined with recombination load is a primary driver of the emergence of evolvability. These results provide insight into the mechanisms potentially underlying rapid adaptation as well as the environmental conditions that drive the evolution of genetic interactions.

  11. Analytical methods in untargeted metabolomics: state of the art in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnald eAlonso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics comprises the methods and techniques that are used to measure the small molecule composition of biofluids and tissues, and is actually one of the most rapidly evolving research fields. The determination of the metabolomic profile –the metabolome- has multiple applications in many biological sciences, including the developing of new diagnostic tools in medicine. Recent technological advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS are significantly improving our capacity to obtain more data from each biological sample. Consequently, there is a need for fast and accurate statistical and bioinformatic tools that can deal with the complexity and volume of the data generated in metabolomic studies. In this review we provide an update of the most commonly used analytical methods in metabolomics, starting from raw data processing and ending with pathway analysis and biomarker identification. Finally, the integration of metabolomic profiles with molecular data from other high throughput biotechnologies is also reviewed.

  12. Interactively Evolving Compositional Sound Synthesis Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Björn Þór; Hoover, Amy K.; Risi, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    While the success of electronic music often relies on the uniqueness and quality of selected timbres, many musicians struggle with complicated and expensive equipment and techniques to create their desired sounds. Instead, this paper presents a technique for producing novel timbres that are evolved......, CPPNs can theoretically compute any function and can build on those present in traditional synthesizers (e.g. square, sawtooth, triangle, and sine waves functions) to produce completely novel timbres. Evolved with NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT), the aim of this paper is to explore...... the space of potential sounds that can be generated through such compositional sound synthesis networks (CSSNs). To study the effect of evolution on subjective appreciation, participants in a listener study ranked evolved timbres by personal preference, resulting in preferences skewed toward the first...

  13. Quantifying evolvability in small biological networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemenman, Ilya [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mugler, Andrew [COLUMBIA UNIV; Ziv, Etay [COLUMBIA UNIV; Wiggins, Chris H [COLUMBIA UNIV

    2008-01-01

    The authors introduce a quantitative measure of the capacity of a small biological network to evolve. The measure is applied to a stochastic description of the experimental setup of Guet et al. (Science 2002, 296, pp. 1466), treating chemical inducers as functional inputs to biochemical networks and the expression of a reporter gene as the functional output. The authors take an information-theoretic approach, allowing the system to set parameters that optimise signal processing ability, thus enumerating each network's highest-fidelity functions. All networks studied are highly evolvable by the measure, meaning that change in function has little dependence on change in parameters. Moreover, each network's functions are connected by paths in the parameter space along which information is not significantly lowered, meaning a network may continuously change its functionality without completely losing it along the way. This property further underscores the evolvability of the networks.

  14. Evolution of evolvability in gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Crombach

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory networks are perhaps the most important organizational level in the cell where signals from the cell state and the outside environment are integrated in terms of activation and inhibition of genes. For the last decade, the study of such networks has been fueled by large-scale experiments and renewed attention from the theoretical field. Different models have been proposed to, for instance, investigate expression dynamics, explain the network topology we observe in bacteria and yeast, and for the analysis of evolvability and robustness of such networks. Yet how these gene regulatory networks evolve and become evolvable remains an open question. An individual-oriented evolutionary model is used to shed light on this matter. Each individual has a genome from which its gene regulatory network is derived. Mutations, such as gene duplications and deletions, alter the genome, while the resulting network determines the gene expression pattern and hence fitness. With this protocol we let a population of individuals evolve under Darwinian selection in an environment that changes through time. Our work demonstrates that long-term evolution of complex gene regulatory networks in a changing environment can lead to a striking increase in the efficiency of generating beneficial mutations. We show that the population evolves towards genotype-phenotype mappings that allow for an orchestrated network-wide change in the gene expression pattern, requiring only a few specific gene indels. The genes involved are hubs of the networks, or directly influencing the hubs. Moreover, throughout the evolutionary trajectory the networks maintain their mutational robustness. In other words, evolution in an alternating environment leads to a network that is sensitive to a small class of beneficial mutations, while the majority of mutations remain neutral: an example of evolution of evolvability.

  15. How the first biopolymers could have evolved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkevich, V I; Gutin, A M; Shakhnovich, E I

    1996-01-01

    In this work, we discuss a possible origin of the first biopolymers with stable unique structures. We suggest that at the prebiotic stage of evolution, long organic polymers had to be compact to avoid hydrolysis and had to be soluble and thus must not be exceedingly hydrophobic. We present an algorithm that generates such sequences for model proteins. The evolved sequences turn out to have a stable unique structure, into which they quickly fold. This result illustrates the idea that the unique three-dimensional native structures of first biopolymers could have evolved as a side effect of nonspecific physicochemical factors acting at the prebiotic stage of evolution. PMID:8570645

  16. Evolving Intelligent Systems Methodology and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Angelov, Plamen; Kasabov, Nik

    2010-01-01

    From theory to techniques, the first all-in-one resource for EIS. There is a clear demand in advanced process industries, defense, and Internet and communication (VoIP) applications for intelligent yet adaptive/evolving systems. Evolving Intelligent Systems is the first self- contained volume that covers this newly established concept in its entirety, from a systematic methodology to case studies to industrial applications. Featuring chapters written by leading world experts, it addresses the progress, trends, and major achievements in this emerging research field, with a strong emphasis on th

  17. Recent analytical applications of nanoparticle sensitized lucigenin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There is an ever-increasing demand for rapid, sensitive, cost effective and selective detection methods for the analysis of many essential compounds.When chemiluminescence has been introduced to analytical chemistry as a detection technique, it has been shown to meet many of these requirements. This method has ...

  18. Preface: evolving rotifers, evolving science: Proceedings of the XIV International Rotifer Symposium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devetter, Miloslav; Fontaneto, D.; Jersabek, Ch.D.; Welch, D.B.M.; May, L.; Walsh, E.J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 796, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0018-8158 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : evolving rotifers * 14th International Rotifer Symposium * evolving science Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.056, year: 2016

  19. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Apollo 16 Evolved Lithology Sodic Ferrogabbro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    Evolved lunar igneous lithologies, often referred to as the alkali suite, are a minor but important component of the lunar crust. These evolved samples are incompatible-element rich samples, and are, not surprisingly, most common in the Apollo sites in (or near) the incompatible-element rich region of the Moon known as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT). The most commonly occurring lithologies are granites (A12, A14, A15, A17), monzogabbro (A14, A15), alkali anorthosites (A12, A14), and KREEP basalts (A15, A17). The Feldspathic Highlands Terrane is not entirely devoid of evolved lithologies, and rare clasts of alkali gabbronorite and sodic ferrogabbro (SFG) have been identified in Apollo 16 station 11 breccias 67915 and 67016. Curiously, nearly all pristine evolved lithologies have been found as small clasts or soil particles, exceptions being KREEP basalts 15382/6 and granitic sample 12013 (which is itself a breccia). Here we reexamine the petrography and geochemistry of two SFG-like particles found in a survey of Apollo 16 2-4 mm particles from the Cayley Plains 62283,7-15 and 62243,10-3 (hereafter 7-15 and 10-3 respectively). We will compare these to previously reported SFG samples, including recent analyses on the type specimen of SFG from lunar breccia 67915.

  1. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  2. Analytical Chemistry in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, Yuri

    2016-09-06

    Research in Russian analytical chemistry (AC) is carried out on a significant scale, and the analytical service solves practical tasks of geological survey, environmental protection, medicine, industry, agriculture, etc. The education system trains highly skilled professionals in AC. The development and especially manufacturing of analytical instruments should be improved; in spite of this, there are several good domestic instruments and other satisfy some requirements. Russian AC has rather good historical roots.

  3. Analytical Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Titan 80-300 is a transmission electron microscope (TEM) equipped with spectroscopic detectors to allow chemical, elemental, and other analytical measurements to...

  4. Multiplexed plasmon sensor for rapid label-free analyte detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, Christina; Prasad, Janak; Neiser, Andreas; Henkel, Andreas; Edgar, Jonathan; Sönnichsen, Carsten

    2013-07-10

    Efficient and cost-effective multiplexed detection schemes for proteins in small liquid samples would bring drastic advances to fields like disease detection or water quality monitoring. We present a novel multiplexed sensor with randomly deposited aptamer functionalized gold nanorods. The spectral position of plasmon resonances of individual nanorods, monitored by dark-field spectroscopy, respond specifically to different proteins. We demonstrate nanomolar sensitivity, sensor recycling, and the potential to upscale to hundreds or thousands of targets.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamics in Gene Regulation Promote Robustness and Evolvability of Gene Expression Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Steinacher

    Full Text Available Cellular phenotypes underpinned by regulatory networks need to respond to evolutionary pressures to allow adaptation, but at the same time be robust to perturbations. This creates a conflict in which mutations affecting regulatory networks must both generate variance but also be tolerated at the phenotype level. Here, we perform mathematical analyses and simulations of regulatory networks to better understand the potential trade-off between robustness and evolvability. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics, through the creation of regions presenting sudden changes in phenotype with small changes in genotype. For genotypes embedding low levels of nonlinearity, robustness and evolvability correlate negatively and almost perfectly. By contrast, genotypes embedding nonlinear dynamics allow expression levels to be robust to small perturbations, while generating high diversity (evolvability under larger perturbations. Thus, nonlinearity breaks the robustness-evolvability trade-off in gene expression levels by allowing disparate responses to different mutations. Using analytical derivations of robustness and system sensitivity, we show that these findings extend to a large class of gene regulatory network architectures and also hold for experimentally observed parameter regimes. Further, the effect of nonlinearity on the robustness-evolvability trade-off is ensured as long as key parameters of the system display specific relations irrespective of their absolute values. We find that within this parameter regime genotypes display low and noisy expression levels. Examining the phenotypic effects of mutations, we find an inverse correlation between robustness and evolvability that breaks only with nonlinearity in the network dynamics. Our results provide a possible solution to the robustness-evolvability trade-off, suggest

  6. Why, when, and how did yeast evolve alcoholic fermentation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashko, Sofia; Zhou, Nerve; Compagno, Concetta; Piškur, Jure

    2014-09-01

    The origin of modern fruits brought to microbial communities an abundant source of rich food based on simple sugars. Yeasts, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, usually become the predominant group in these niches. One of the most prominent and unique features and likely a winning trait of these yeasts is their ability to rapidly convert sugars to ethanol at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Why, when, and how did yeasts remodel their carbon metabolism to be able to accumulate ethanol under aerobic conditions and at the expense of decreasing biomass production? We hereby review the recent data on the carbon metabolism in Saccharomycetaceae species and attempt to reconstruct the ancient environment, which could promote the evolution of alcoholic fermentation. We speculate that the first step toward the so-called fermentative lifestyle was the exploration of anaerobic niches resulting in an increased metabolic capacity to degrade sugar to ethanol. The strengthened glycolytic flow had in parallel a beneficial effect on the microbial competition outcome and later evolved as a "new" tool promoting the yeast competition ability under aerobic conditions. The basic aerobic alcoholic fermentation ability was subsequently "upgraded" in several lineages by evolving additional regulatory steps, such as glucose repression in the S. cerevisiae clade, to achieve a more precise metabolic control. © 2014 The Authors. FEMS Yeast Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  7. IR Spectroscopy of Gasses Evolved During Roasting Coffee Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clain, Alexander; Capaldi, Xavier; Amanuel, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    We measured the IR spectra of the gasses that evolve during roasting of coffee beans. The spectra recorded at different temperature revealed that the intensity of certain IR bands increase as the temperature increases. For instance, the intensity of the CO2 band increased by a factor of four and reached a plateau as the roasting temperature approached 200°C. The intensity further increased as the temperature increased above 200°C, however, in two steps. Similarly the intensity of the OH bands monotonically increased until 200°C and then increased further in two rapid steps above 200°C. The temperature ranges where IR intensities change in two steps coincides with the temperature ranges where typically commercial roasting is done and where the first and second ``cracks'' are heard during roasting.

  8. Streaming Visual Analytics Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Kristin A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burtner, Edwin R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kritzstein, Brian P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brisbois, Brooke R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitson, Anna E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    How can we best enable users to understand complex emerging events and make appropriate assessments from streaming data? This was the central question addressed at a three-day workshop on streaming visual analytics. This workshop was organized by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a government sponsor. It brought together forty researchers and subject matter experts from government, industry, and academia. This report summarizes the outcomes from that workshop. It describes elements of the vision for a streaming visual analytic environment and set of important research directions needed to achieve this vision. Streaming data analysis is in many ways the analysis and understanding of change. However, current visual analytics systems usually focus on static data collections, meaning that dynamically changing conditions are not appropriately addressed. The envisioned mixed-initiative streaming visual analytics environment creates a collaboration between the analyst and the system to support the analysis process. It raises the level of discourse from low-level data records to higher-level concepts. The system supports the analyst’s rapid orientation and reorientation as situations change. It provides an environment to support the analyst’s critical thinking. It infers tasks and interests based on the analyst’s interactions. The system works as both an assistant and a devil’s advocate, finding relevant data and alerts as well as considering alternative hypotheses. Finally, the system supports sharing of findings with others. Making such an environment a reality requires research in several areas. The workshop discussions focused on four broad areas: support for critical thinking, visual representation of change, mixed-initiative analysis, and the use of narratives for analysis and communication.

  9. Expression of human A53T alpha-synuclein in the rat substantia nigra using a novel AAV1/2 vector produces a rapidly evolving pathology with protein aggregation, dystrophic neurite architecture and nigrostriatal degeneration with potential to model the pathology of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Xuan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD include the presence of alpha-synuclein (α-syn rich Lewy bodies and neurites and the loss of dopaminergic (DA neurons of the substantia nigra (SN. Animal models of PD based on viral vector-mediated over-expression of α-syn have been developed and show evidence of DA toxicity to varying degrees depending on the type of virus used, its concentration, and the serotype of vector employed. To date these models have been variable, difficult to reproduce, and slow in their evolution to achieve a desired phenotype, hindering their use as a model for testing novel therapeutics. To address these issues we have taken a novel vector in this context, that can be prepared in high titer and which possesses an ability to produce neuronally-directed expression, with expression dynamics optimised to provide a rapid rise in gene product expression. Thus, in the current study, we have used a high titer chimeric AAV1/2 vector, to express human A53T α-syn, an empty vector control (EV, or green fluorescent protein (GFP, the latter to control for the possibility that high levels of protein in themselves might contribute to damage. Results We show that following a single 2 μl injection into the rat SN there is near complete coverage of the structure and expression of A53T α-syn or GFP appears throughout the striatum. Within 3 weeks of SN delivery of their respective vectors, aggregations of insoluble α-syn were observed in SN DA neurons. The numbers of DA neurons in the SN were significantly reduced by expression of A53T α-syn (52%, and to a lesser extent by GFP (24%, compared to EV controls (both P P Conclusions In the current implementation of the model, we recapitulate the primary pathological hallmarks of PD, although a proportion of the SN damage may relate to general protein overload and may not be specific for A53T α-syn. Future studies will thus be required to optimise the dose of

  10. Expression of human A53T alpha-synuclein in the rat substantia nigra using a novel AAV1/2 vector produces a rapidly evolving pathology with protein aggregation, dystrophic neurite architecture and nigrostriatal degeneration with potential to model the pathology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprich, James B; Johnston, Tom H; Reyes, M Gabriela; Sun, Xuan; Brotchie, Jonathan M

    2010-10-28

    The pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) include the presence of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) rich Lewy bodies and neurites and the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN). Animal models of PD based on viral vector-mediated over-expression of α-syn have been developed and show evidence of DA toxicity to varying degrees depending on the type of virus used, its concentration, and the serotype of vector employed. To date these models have been variable, difficult to reproduce, and slow in their evolution to achieve a desired phenotype, hindering their use as a model for testing novel therapeutics. To address these issues we have taken a novel vector in this context, that can be prepared in high titer and which possesses an ability to produce neuronally-directed expression, with expression dynamics optimised to provide a rapid rise in gene product expression. Thus, in the current study, we have used a high titer chimeric AAV1/2 vector, to express human A53T α-syn, an empty vector control (EV), or green fluorescent protein (GFP), the latter to control for the possibility that high levels of protein in themselves might contribute to damage. We show that following a single 2 μl injection into the rat SN there is near complete coverage of the structure and expression of A53T α-syn or GFP appears throughout the striatum. Within 3 weeks of SN delivery of their respective vectors, aggregations of insoluble α-syn were observed in SN DA neurons. The numbers of DA neurons in the SN were significantly reduced by expression of A53T α-syn (52%), and to a lesser extent by GFP (24%), compared to EV controls (both P AAV1/2-A53T α-syn injection produced dystrophic neurites and a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels (by 53%, P AAV1/2-GFP condition. In the current implementation of the model, we recapitulate the primary pathological hallmarks of PD, although a proportion of the SN damage may relate to general protein overload and

  11. Quine's "Strictly Vegetarian" Analyticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Decock, L.B.

    2017-01-01

    I analyze Quine’s later writings on analyticity from a linguistic point of view. In Word and Object Quine made room for a “strictly vegetarian” notion of analyticity. In later years, he developed this notion into two more precise notions, which I have coined “stimulus analyticity” and “behaviorist

  12. Some Heterodox Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo E. Rosado Haddock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Analytic philosophy has been the most influential philosophical movement in 20th century philosophy. It has surely contributed like no other movement to the elucidation and demarcation of philosophical problems. Nonetheless, the empiricist and sometimes even nominalist convictions of orthodox analytic philosophers have served them to inadequately render even philosophers they consider their own and to propound very questionable conceptions.

  13. The Analytical Hierarchy Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn

    2007-01-01

    The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use.......The technical note gathers the theory behind the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and present its advantages and disadvantages in practical use....

  14. Validating Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  15. Evolving wormhole geometries within nonlinear electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arellano, Aaron V B [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, El Cerrillo, Piedras Blancas, CP 50200, Toluca (Mexico); Lobo, Francisco S N [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed C8 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2006-10-21

    In this work, we explore the possibility of evolving (2 + 1) and (3 + 1)-dimensional wormhole spacetimes, conformally related to the respective static geometries, within the context of nonlinear electrodynamics. For (3 + 1)-dimensional spacetime, it is found that the Einstein field equation imposes a contracting wormhole solution and the obedience of the weak energy condition. Nevertheless, in the presence of an electric field, the latter presents a singularity at the throat; however, for a pure magnetic field the solution is regular. For (2 + 1)-dimensional case, it is also found that the physical fields are singular at the throat. Thus, taking into account the principle of finiteness, which states that a satisfactory theory should avoid physical quantities becoming infinite, one may rule out evolving (3 + 1)-dimensional wormhole solutions, in the presence of an electric field, and (2 + 1)-dimensional case coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics.

  16. Continual Learning through Evolvable Neural Turing Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüders, Benno; Schläger, Mikkel; Risi, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Continual learning, i.e. the ability to sequentially learn tasks without catastrophic forgetting of previously learned ones, is an important open challenge in machine learning. In this paper we take a step in this direction by showing that the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENT......) approach is able to perform one-shot learning in a reinforcement learning task without catastrophic forgetting of previously stored associations.......Continual learning, i.e. the ability to sequentially learn tasks without catastrophic forgetting of previously learned ones, is an important open challenge in machine learning. In this paper we take a step in this direction by showing that the recently proposed Evolving Neural Turing Machine (ENTM...

  17. Designing Garments to Evolve Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Grose, Lynda

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest a...... to a REDO of design education, to further research and the future fashion and textile industry.......This paper proposes a REDO of the current fashion paradigm by investigating how garments might be designed to evolve over time. The purpose is to discuss ways of expanding the traditional role of the designer to include temporal dimensions of creating, producing and using clothes and to suggest...... a range of potential fashion futures that decouple from declining resources. In the first part literature on 'Past and Present' historical and current aspects of sustainability in fashion and textiles are presented. In the second part, three exploratory case studies are described: Two projects by students...

  18. Quo vadis, analytical chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an open, personal, fresh approach to the future of Analytical Chemistry in the context of the deep changes Science and Technology are anticipated to experience. Its main aim is to challenge young analytical chemists because the future of our scientific discipline is in their hands. A description of not completely accurate overall conceptions of our discipline, both past and present, to be avoided is followed by a flexible, integral definition of Analytical Chemistry and its cornerstones (viz., aims and objectives, quality trade-offs, the third basic analytical reference, the information hierarchy, social responsibility, independent research, transfer of knowledge and technology, interfaces to other scientific-technical disciplines, and well-oriented education). Obsolete paradigms, and more accurate general and specific that can be expected to provide the framework for our discipline in the coming years are described. Finally, the three possible responses of analytical chemists to the proposed changes in our discipline are discussed.

  19. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    The European Analytical Column has once more invited a guest columnist to give his views on various matters related to analytical chemistry in Europe. This year, we have invited Professor Manfred Grasserbauer of the Vienna University of Technology to present some of the current challenges...... for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...... a major branch of chemistry, namely analytical chemistry. The global financial crisis is affecting all branches of chemistry, but analytical chemistry, in particular, since our discipline by tradition has many close links to industry. We have already noticed decreased industrial commitment with respect...

  20. Antibody therapeutics - the evolving patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Jenny; McManamny, Patrick; Honeyman, Jane

    2011-09-01

    The antibody patent landscape has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years, particularly in areas of technology relating to antibody modification to reduce immunogenicity in humans or improve antibody function. In some cases antibody techniques that were developed in the 1980s are still the subject of patent protection in the United States or Canada. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The evolving epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, Fergus

    2009-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include assessments of disease burden and evolving patterns of disease presentation. Although it is hoped that sound epidemiologic studies provide aetiological clues, traditional risk factor-based epidemiology has provided limited insights into either Crohn\\'s disease or ulcerative colitis etiopathogenesis. In this update, we will summarize how the changing epidemiology of IBD associated with modernization can be reconciled with current concepts of disease mechanisms and will discuss studies of clinically significant comorbidity in IBD.

  2. Directional Communication in Evolved Multiagent Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    networks. Artificial Life, 15(2):185– 212, 2009. [23] K. O. Stanley and R. Miikkulainen. Evolving neural networks through augmenting topologies ...paper. 2.2 Neuroevolution of Augmenting Topologies The HyperNEAT approach is itself an extension of the original NEAT (Neu- roevolution of Augmenting ...Gauci and K. O. Stanley. Autonomous evolution of topographic regu- larities in artificial neural networks. Neural Computation, 22(7):1860–1898, 2010

  3. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving to hemicrania continua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzukowiak, Tina Renae

    2015-04-01

    Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia is most commonly characterized as deep, boring, nonpulsatile, severe, unilateral facial and head pain in the distribution of the V1 area combined with ipsilateral oculosympathetic palsy and autonomic symptoms. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving into hemicrania continua, a rare primary, chronic headache syndrome characterized by unilateral pain and response to indomethacin, has rarely been documented. The purpose of this case report is to contribute to the medical literature a single case of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia presenting as multiple cranial nerve palsies that evolved into hemicrania continua that was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA. A 52-year-old white woman presented to the emergency department with the complaint of severe, aching, constant eye pain radiating to the V1 area for 1 week with associated ptosis and photophobia of the left eye. Ocular examination revealed involvement of cranial nerves II, III, V, and VI. Additional symptoms included ipsilateral lacrimation, eyelid edema, and rhinorrhea. Extensive medical work-up showed normal results. Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia was diagnosed with multiple cranial nerve involvement; the headache component became chronic with periodic exacerbations of autonomic symptoms evolving to a diagnosis of hemicrania continua. The patient was intolerant to traditional indomethacin treatment, and the headache was successfully treated with onabotulinumtoxinA injections. Recognition of ipsilateral signs such as miosis, ptosis, hydrosis, eyelid edema, hyperemia, rhinorrhea, or nasal congestion is useful in the differential diagnosis of painful ophthalmoplegia, particularly in the diagnosis of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia and hemicrania continua. This case study illustrates a rare presentation of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia evolving into hemicrania continua presenting as a painful ophthalmoplegia with multiple cranial nerve involvement. The example supports the

  4. Evolvability of Amyloidogenic Proteins in Human Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Ho, Gilbert; Sugama, Shuei; Takamatsu, Yoshiki; Shimizu, Yuka; Takenouchi, Takato; Waragai, Masaaki; Masliah, Eliezer

    2018-01-01

     Currently, the physiological roles of amyloidogenic proteins (APs) in human brain, such as amyloid-β and α-synuclein, are elusive. Given that many APs arose by gene duplication and have been resistant against the pressures of natural selection, APs may be associated with some functions that are advantageous for survival of offspring. Nonetheless, evolvability is the sole physiological quality of APs that has been characterized in microorganisms such as yeast. Since yeast and human brain may share similar strategies in coping with diverse range of critical environmental stresses, the objective of this paper was to discuss the potential role of evolvability of APs in aging-associated neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Given the heterogeneity of APs in terms of structure and cytotoxicity, it is argued that APs might be involved in preconditioning against diverse stresses in human brain. It is further speculated that these stress-related APs, most likely protofibrillar forms, might be transmitted to offspring via the germline, conferring preconditioning against forthcoming stresses. Thus, APs might represent a vehicle for the inheritance of the acquired characteristics against environmental stresses. Curiously, such a characteristic of APs is reminiscent of Charles Darwin’s ‘gemmules’, imagined molecules of heritability described in his pangenesis theory. We propose that evolvability might be a physiological function of APs during the reproductive stage and neurodegenerative diseases could be a by-product effect manifested later in aging. Collectively, our evolvability hypothesis may play a complementary role in the pathophysiology of APs with the conventional amyloid cascade hypothesis. PMID:29439348

  5. High-order evolving surface finite element method for parabolic problems on evolving surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kovács, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    High-order spatial discretisations and full discretisations of parabolic partial differential equations on evolving surfaces are studied. We prove convergence of the high-order evolving surface finite element method, by showing high-order versions of geometric approximation errors and perturbation error estimates and by the careful error analysis of a modified Ritz map. Furthermore, convergence of full discretisations using backward difference formulae and implicit Runge-Kutta methods are als...

  6. Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, S.M. [Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc., Annapolis, MD (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The goal of the Road Transportable Analytical Laboratory (RTAL) Project is the development and demonstration of a system to meet the unique needs of the DOE for rapid, accurate analysis of a wide variety of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface waters. This laboratory system has been designed to provide the field and laboratory analytical equipment necessary to detect and quantify radionuclides, organics, heavy metals and other inorganic compounds. The laboratory system consists of a set of individual laboratory modules deployable independently or as an interconnected group to meet each DOE site`s specific needs.

  7. Visual Analytics 101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jean; Burtner, Edwin R.; Cook, Kristin A.

    2016-06-13

    This course will introduce the field of Visual Analytics to HCI researchers and practitioners highlighting the contributions they can make to this field. Topics will include a definition of visual analytics along with examples of current systems, types of tasks and end users, issues in defining user requirements, design of visualizations and interactions, guidelines and heuristics, the current state of user-centered evaluations, and metrics for evaluation. We encourage designers, HCI researchers, and HCI practitioners to attend to learn how their skills can contribute to advancing the state of the art of visual analytics

  8. Google analytics integrations

    CERN Document Server

    Waisberg, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    A roadmap for turning Google Analytics into a centralized marketing analysis platform With Google Analytics Integrations, expert author Daniel Waisberg shows you how to gain a more meaningful, complete view of customers that can drive growth opportunities. This in-depth guide shows not only how to use Google Analytics, but also how to turn this powerful data collection and analysis tool into a central marketing analysis platform for your company. Taking a hands-on approach, this resource explores the integration and analysis of a host of common data sources, including Google AdWords, AdSens

  9. The Evolution of Big Data and Learning Analytics in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciano, Anthony G.

    2012-01-01

    Data-driven decision making, popularized in the 1980s and 1990s, is evolving into a vastly more sophisticated concept known as big data that relies on software approaches generally referred to as analytics. Big data and analytics for instructional applications are in their infancy and will take a few years to mature, although their presence is…

  10. Evolvability Is an Evolved Ability: The Coding Concept as the Arch-Unit of Natural Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Srdja; Ćirković, Milan M

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes that characterize living matter are qualitatively distinct in that they involve encoding and transfer of specific types of information. Such information plays an active part in the control of events that are ultimately linked to the capacity of the system to persist and multiply. This algorithmicity of life is a key prerequisite for its Darwinian evolution, driven by natural selection acting upon stochastically arising variations of the encoded information. The concept of evolvability attempts to define the total capacity of a system to evolve new encoded traits under appropriate conditions, i.e., the accessible section of total morphological space. Since this is dependent on previously evolved regulatory networks that govern information flow in the system, evolvability itself may be regarded as an evolved ability. The way information is physically written, read and modified in living cells (the "coding concept") has not changed substantially during the whole history of the Earth's biosphere. This biosphere, be it alone or one of many, is, accordingly, itself a product of natural selection, since the overall evolvability conferred by its coding concept (nucleic acids as information carriers with the "rulebook of meanings" provided by codons, as well as all the subsystems that regulate various conditional information-reading modes) certainly played a key role in enabling this biosphere to survive up to the present, through alterations of planetary conditions, including at least five catastrophic events linked to major mass extinctions. We submit that, whatever the actual prebiotic physical and chemical processes may have been on our home planet, or may, in principle, occur at some time and place in the Universe, a particular coding concept, with its respective potential to give rise to a biosphere, or class of biospheres, of a certain evolvability, may itself be regarded as a unit (indeed the arch-unit) of natural selection.

  11. Pesticide Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide manufacturers must develop and submit analytical methods for their pesticide products to support registration of their products under FIFRA. Learn about these methods as well as SOPs for testing of antimicrobial products against three organisms.

  12. Mobility Data Analytics Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mobility Data Analytics Center aims at building a centralized data engine to efficiently manipulate : large-scale data for smart decision making. Integrating and learning the massive data are the key to : the data engine. The ultimate goal of underst...

  13. Survivability is more fundamental than evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Palmer

    Full Text Available For a lineage to survive over long time periods, it must sometimes change. This has given rise to the term evolvability, meaning the tendency to produce adaptive variation. One lineage may be superior to another in terms of its current standing variation, or it may tend to produce more adaptive variation. However, evolutionary outcomes depend on more than standing variation and produced adaptive variation: deleterious variation also matters. Evolvability, as most commonly interpreted, is not predictive of evolutionary outcomes. Here, we define a predictive measure of the evolutionary success of a lineage that we call the k-survivability, defined as the probability that the lineage avoids extinction for k generations. We estimate the k-survivability using multiple experimental replicates. Because we measure evolutionary outcomes, the initial standing variation, the full spectrum of generated variation, and the heritability of that variation are all incorporated. Survivability also accounts for the decreased joint likelihood of extinction of sub-lineages when they 1 disperse in space, or 2 diversify in lifestyle. We illustrate measurement of survivability with in silico models, and suggest that it may also be measured in vivo using multiple longitudinal replicates. The k-survivability is a metric that enables the quantitative study of, for example, the evolution of 1 mutation rates, 2 dispersal mechanisms, 3 the genotype-phenotype map, and 4 sexual reproduction, in temporally and spatially fluctuating environments. Although these disparate phenomena evolve by well-understood microevolutionary rules, they are also subject to the macroevolutionary constraint of long-term survivability.

  14. Present weather and climate: evolving conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerling, Martin P; Dettinger, Michael; Wolter, Klaus; Lukas, Jeff; Eischeid, Jon K.; Nemani, Rama; Liebmann, Brant; Kunkel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter assesses weather and climate variability and trends in the Southwest, using observed climate and paleoclimate records. It analyzes the last 100 years of climate variability in comparison to the last 1,000 years, and links the important features of evolving climate conditions to river flow variability in four of the region’s major drainage basins. The chapter closes with an assessment of the monitoring and scientific research needed to increase confidence in understanding when climate episodes, events, and phenomena are attributable to human-caused climate change.

  15. f( R) gravity solutions for evolving wormholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Subhra; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2017-08-01

    The scalar-tensor f( R) theory of gravity is considered in the framework of a simple inhomogeneous space-time model. In this research we use the reconstruction technique to look for possible evolving wormhole solutions within viable f( R) gravity formalism. These f( R) models are then constrained so that they are consistent with existing experimental data. Energy conditions related to the matter threading the wormhole are analyzed graphically and are in general found to obey the null energy conditions (NEC) in regions around the throat, while in the limit f(R)=R, NEC can be violated at large in regions around the throat.

  16. Information theory, evolutionary innovations and evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas

    2017-12-05

    How difficult is it to 'discover' an evolutionary adaptation or innovation? I here suggest that information theory, in combination with high-throughput DNA sequencing, can help answer this question by quantifying a new phenotype's information content. I apply this framework to compute the phenotypic information associated with novel gene regulation and with the ability to use novel carbon sources. The framework can also help quantify how DNA duplications affect evolvability, estimate the complexity of phenotypes and clarify the meaning of 'progress' in Darwinian evolution.This article is part of the themed issue 'Process and pattern in innovations from cells to societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Evolving Random Forest for Preference Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Shaker, Noor

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for pairwise preference learning through a combination of an evolutionary method and random forest. Grammatical evolution is used to describe the structure of the trees in the Random Forest (RF) and to handle the process of evolution. Evolved random forests ...... obtained for predicting pairwise self-reports of users for the three emotional states engagement, frustration and challenge show very promising results that are comparable and in some cases superior to those obtained from state-of-the-art methods....

  18. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  19. Learning analytics in education

    OpenAIRE

    Štrukelj, Tajda

    2015-01-01

    Learning analytics is a young field in computer supported learning, which could have a great impact on education in the future. It is a set of analytical tools which measure, collect, analyze and report about students' data for the purpose of understanding and optimizing students' learning and environments in which this learning occurs. Today, more and more learning related activities are placed on the web. Teachers are creating virtual learning environments (VLE), in which a great set of...

  20. Encyclopedia of analytical surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Krivoshapko, S N

    2015-01-01

    This encyclopedia presents an all-embracing collection of analytical surface classes. It provides concise definitions  and description for more than 500 surfaces and categorizes them in 38 classes of analytical surfaces. All classes are cross references to the original literature in an excellent bibliography. The encyclopedia is of particular interest to structural and civil engineers and serves as valuable reference for mathematicians.

  1. SRL online Analytical Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications.

  2. SRL online Analytical Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The Savannah River Site is operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Co. for the Department of Energy to produce special nuclear materials for defense. R&D support for site programs is provided by the Savannah River Laboratory, which I represent. The site is known primarily for its nuclear reactors, but actually three fourths of the efforts at the site are devoted to fuel/target fabrication, fuel/target reprocessing, and waste management. All of these operations rely heavily on chemical processes. The site is therefore a large chemical plant. There are then many potential applications for process analytical chemistry at SRS. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) has an Analytical Development Section of roughly 65 personnel that perform analyses for R&D efforts at the lab, act as backup to the site Analytical Laboratories Department and develop analytical methods and instruments. I manage a subgroup of the Analytical Development Section called the Process Control & Analyzer Development Group. The Prime mission of this group is to develop online/at-line analytical systems for site applications.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the scope of a number of emerging contaminant issues in environmental analysis, one area that has received a great deal of public interest has been the assessment of the role of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) as stressors and agents of change in ecosystems as well as their role in unplanned human exposure. The relationship between personal actions and the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment is clear-cut and comprehensible to the public. In this overview, we attempt to examine the separations aspect of the analytical approach to the vast array of potential analytes among this class of compounds. We also highlight the relationship between these compounds and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and between PPCPs and EDCs and the more traditional environmental analytes such as the persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Although the spectrum of chemical behavior extends from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, the current focus has shifted to moderately and highly polar analytes. Thus, emphasis on HPLC and LC/MS has grown and MS/MS has become a detection technique of choice with either electrospray ionization or atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. This contrasts markedly with the bench mark approach of capillary GC, GC/MS and electron ionization in traditional environmental analysis. The expansion of the analyte list has fostered new vigor in the development of environmental analytical chemistry, modernized the range of tools appli

  4. Netgram: Visualizing Communities in Evolving Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghvendra Mall

    Full Text Available Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems.

  5. Evolving MEMS Resonator Designs for Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S.; Kraus, William F.; Lohn, Jason D.

    2008-01-01

    Because of their small size and high reliability, microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices have the potential to revolution many areas of engineering. As with conventionally-sized engineering design, there is likely to be a demand for the automated design of MEMS devices. This paper describes our current status as we progress toward our ultimate goal of using an evolutionary algorithm and a generative representation to produce designs of a MEMS device and successfully demonstrate its transfer to an actual chip. To produce designs that are likely to transfer to reality, we present two ways to modify evaluation of designs. The first is to add location noise, differences between the actual dimensions of the design and the design blueprint, which is a technique we have used for our work in evolving antennas and robots. The second method is to add prestress to model the warping that occurs during the extreme heat of fabrication. In future we expect to fabricate and test some MEMS resonators that are evolved in this way.

  6. Netgram: Visualizing Communities in Evolving Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Raghvendra; Langone, Rocco; Suykens, Johan A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Real-world complex networks are dynamic in nature and change over time. The change is usually observed in the interactions within the network over time. Complex networks exhibit community like structures. A key feature of the dynamics of complex networks is the evolution of communities over time. Several methods have been proposed to detect and track the evolution of these groups over time. However, there is no generic tool which visualizes all the aspects of group evolution in dynamic networks including birth, death, splitting, merging, expansion, shrinkage and continuation of groups. In this paper, we propose Netgram: a tool for visualizing evolution of communities in time-evolving graphs. Netgram maintains evolution of communities over 2 consecutive time-stamps in tables which are used to create a query database using the sql outer-join operation. It uses a line-based visualization technique which adheres to certain design principles and aesthetic guidelines. Netgram uses a greedy solution to order the initial community information provided by the evolutionary clustering technique such that we have fewer line cross-overs in the visualization. This makes it easier to track the progress of individual communities in time evolving graphs. Netgram is a generic toolkit which can be used with any evolutionary community detection algorithm as illustrated in our experiments. We use Netgram for visualization of topic evolution in the NIPS conference over a period of 11 years and observe the emergence and merging of several disciplines in the field of information processing systems. PMID:26356538

  7. BOOK REVIEW: OPENING SCIENCE, THE EVOLVING GUIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The way we get our funding, collaborate, do our research, and get the word out has evolved over hundreds of years but we can imagine a more open science world, largely facilitated by the internet. The movement towards this more open way of doing and presenting science is coming, and it is not taking hundreds of years. If you are interested in these trends, and would like to find out more about where this is all headed and what it means to you, consider downloding Opening Science, edited by Sönke Bartling and Sascha Friesike, subtitled The Evolving Guide on How the Internet is Changing Research, Collaboration, and Scholarly Publishing. In 26 chapters by various authors from a range of disciplines the book explores the developing world of open science, starting from the first scientific revolution and bringing us to the next scientific revolution, sometimes referred to as “Science 2.0”. Some of the articles deal with the impact of the changing landscape of how science is done, looking at the impact of open science on Academia, or journal publishing, or medical research. Many of the articles look at the uses, pitfalls, and impact of specific tools, like microblogging (think Twitter), social networking, and reference management. There is lots of discussion and definition of terms you might use or misuse like “altmetrics” and “impact factor”. Science will probably never be completely open, and Twitter will probably never replace the journal article,

  8. Decision support, analytics, and business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Competition is becoming more intense and decision makers are encountering increasing complexity, rapid change, and higher levels of risk. In many situations, the solution is more and better computerized decision support, especially analytics and business intelligence. Today managers need to learn about and understand computerized decision support. If a business is to succeed, managers must know much more about information technology solutions. This second edition of a powerful introductory book is targeted at busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support, including the following: What are analytics? What is a decision support system? How can managers identify opportunities to create innovative computerized support? Inside, the author addresses these questions and some 60 more fundamental questions that are key to understanding the rapidly changing realm of computerized decision support. In a short period of time, you'll "get up to speed" on decision support, anal...

  9. Croatian Analytical Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kastelan-Macan; M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of analytical research are necessary in all human activities. They are inevitable in making decisions in the environmental chemistry, agriculture, forestry, veterinary medicine, pharmaceutical industry, and biochemistry. Without analytical measurements the quality of materials and products cannot be assessed, so that analytical chemistry is an essential part of technical sciences and disciplines.The language of Croatian science, and analytical chemistry within it, was one of the goals of our predecessors. Due to the political situation, they did not succeed entirely, but for the scientists in independent Croatia this is a duty, because language is one of the most important features of the Croatian identity. The awareness of the need to introduce Croatian terminology was systematically developed in the second half of the 19th century, along with the founding of scientific societies and the wish of scientists to write their scientific works in Croatian, so that the results of their research may be applied in economy. Many authors of textbooks from the 19th and the first half of the 20th century contributed to Croatian analytical terminology (F. Rački, B. Šulek, P. Žulić, G. Pexidr, J. Domac, G. Janeček , F. Bubanović, V. Njegovan and others. M. DeŢelić published the first systematic chemical terminology in 1940, adjusted to the IUPAC recommendations. In the second half of 20th century textbooks in classic analytical chemistry were written by V. Marjanović-Krajovan, M. Gyiketta-Ogrizek, S. Žilić and others. I. Filipović wrote the General and Inorganic Chemistry textbook and the Laboratory Handbook (in collaboration with P. Sabioncello and contributed greatly to establishing the terminology in instrumental analytical methods.The source of Croatian nomenclature in modern analytical chemistry today are translated textbooks by Skoog, West and Holler, as well as by Günnzler i Gremlich, and original textbooks by S. Turina, Z.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS will propel the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  11. A numerical analytical investigation of lee cyclogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, John L.

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The effect of topography on the evolution of a disturbance in a baroclinically unstable mean flow is studied using analytical and numerical simulations. In particular, dynamical mechanisms involved in cyclogenesis in the lee of long, meridional barriers similar to the Rocky Mountains are explored. The rapid growth observed in lee cyclogenesis is highly dependent on the superposition of a growing baroclinic wave with a ...

  12. User-Centered Evaluation of Visual Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholtz, Jean C.

    2017-10-01

    visual analytics. A history of analysis and analysis techniques and problems is provided as well as an introduction to user-centered evaluation and various evaluation techniques for readers from different disciplines. The understanding of these techniques is imperative if we wish to support analysis in the visual analytics software we develop. Currently the evaluations that are conducted and published for visual analytics software are very informal and consist mainly of comments from users or potential users. Our goal is to help researchers in visual analytics to conduct more formal user-centered evaluations. While these are time-consuming and expensive to carryout, the outcomes of these studies will have a defining impact on the field of visual analytics and help point the direction for future features and visualizations to incorporate. While many researchers view work in user-centered evaluation as a less-than-exciting area to work, the opposite is true. First of all, the goal is user-centered evaluation is to help visual analytics software developers, researchers, and designers improve their solutions and discover creative ways to better accommodate their users. Working with the users is extremely rewarding as well. While we use the term “users” in almost all situations there are a wide variety of users that all need to be accommodated. Moreover, the domains that use visual analytics are varied and expanding. Just understanding the complexities of a number of these domains is exciting. Researchers are trying out different visualizations and interactions as well. And of course, the size and variety of data are expanding rapidly. User-centered evaluation in this context is rapidly changing. There are no standard processes and metrics and thus those of us working on user-centered evaluation must be creative in our work with both the users and with the researchers and developers.

  13. Information theory in analytical chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eckschlager, Karel; Danzer, Klaus

    1994-01-01

    Contents: The aim of analytical chemistry - Basic concepts of information theory - Identification of components - Qualitative analysis - Quantitative analysis - Multicomponent analysis - Optimum analytical...

  14. Counseling and Family Therapy in India: Evolving Professions in a Rapidly Developing Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, David K.; Jain, Sachin; Ramirez, Sylvia

    2009-01-01

    Outpatient counseling is a relatively new concept and form of clinical practice in India. This article provides an overview of the need for and current status of counseling and family therapy in India. Examples of training programs are presented, and future prospects for the counseling and family therapy professions are highlighted. The authors…

  15. Origin of a rapidly evolving homeostatic control system programming testis function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Pengli; Yagi, Shintaro; Shiota, Kunio; Alam, S M Khorshed; Vivian, Jay L; Wolfe, Michael W; Rumi, M A Karim; Chakraborty, Damayanti; Kubota, Kaiyu; Dhakal, Pramod; Soares, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Mammals share common strategies for regulating reproduction, including a conserved hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; yet, individual species exhibit differences in reproductive performance. In this report, we describe the discovery of a species-restricted homeostatic control system programming testis growth and function. Prl3c1 is a member of the prolactin gene family and its protein product (PLP-J) was discovered as a uterine cytokine contributing to the establishment of pregnancy. We utilized mouse mutagenesis of Prl3c1 and revealed its involvement in the regulation of the male reproductive axis. The Prl3c1-null male reproductive phenotype was characterized by testiculomegaly and hyperandrogenism. The larger testes in the Prl3c1-null mice were associated with an expansion of the Leydig cell compartment. Prl3c1 locus is a template for two transcripts (Prl3c1-v1 and Prl3c1-v2) expressed in a tissue-specific pattern. Prl3c1-v1 is expressed in uterine decidua, while Prl3c1-v2 is expressed in Leydig cells of the testis. 5'RACE, chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA methylation analyses were used to define cell-specific promoter usage and alternative transcript expression. We examined the Prl3c1 locus in five murid rodents and showed that the testicular transcript and encoded protein are the result of a recent retrotransposition event at the Mus musculus Prl3c1 locus. Prl3c1-v1 encodes PLP-J V1 and Prl3c1-v2 encodes PLP-J V2. Each protein exhibits distinct intracellular targeting and actions. PLP-J V2 possesses Leydig cell-static actions consistent with the Prl3c1-null testicular phenotype. Analysis of the biology of the Prl3c1 gene has provided insight into a previously unappreciated homeostatic setpoint control system programming testicular growth and function. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. The Information Technology Program Manager’s Dilemma: Rapidly Evolving Technology and Stagnant Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    information technology systems. The current DoDI 5000.02 leaves IT project and program managers wondering how the current process applies to them, as the guidance is fairly rigid and does not allow for the flexibility required to appropriately manage IT programs. Until very recently, in comparison to the development of a traditional weapons system, IT programs seemed to have been viewed as a utility or service instead of a critical component to national security. Perhaps that is because data passing through cables cannot be observed with the naked senses and therefore an

  17. INDIAN BUSINESSMEN IN FRANCE: AN INITIAL EXAMINATION OF THEIR ACTIVITIES IN A RAPIDLY-EVOLVING CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasoodeven Vuddamalay

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the implications of the recent economic and political evolution of Indian immigration in Europe, and specifically in France, their businesses and entrepreneurial groups, as well as their links with the countries of origin/welcoming countries and their transnational networks, using an historical and geoanthropological approach. The analysis also covers the essential links that the transnational entrepreneurs establish between France/Europe and the rest of the world, particularly with the emerging cities of Asia, the Middle East and, possibly, certain parts of Africa, such as South Africa, the Mascarene Islands and East Africa. To that end, the author begins by contextualising Indian business projects in France, before going on to examine the current situation of ethnic shops, the transnational companies of traditional trading communities and, to some extent, their Institute of Information Technology networks. The author also carries out a study of the “Mittal Case” as a new paradigm of research within the changing world economy, as the traditional North-South separation is undermined and the complexities of fields in research on trading and business groups is renewed. Finally, the author situates these debates within the growing world knowledge of the communities of Indian immigrants in France and their small ethnic businessmen and traders.

  18. Development of rapidly evolving intron markers to estimate multilocus species trees of rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez-Prieto

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in the analysis of closely related species, speciation and phylogeography is the identification of variable sequence markers that allow the determination of genealogical relationships in multiple genomic regions using coalescent and species tree approaches. Rodent species represent nearly half of the mammalian diversity, but so far no systematic study has been carried out to detect suitable informative markers for this group. Here, we used a bioinformatic pipeline to extract intron sequences from rodent genomes available in databases and applied a series of filters that allowed the identification of 208 introns that adequately fulfilled several criteria for these studies. The main required characteristics of the introns were that they had the maximum possible mutation rates, that they were part of single-copy genes, that they had an appropriate sequence length for amplification, and that they were flanked by exons with suitable regions for primer design. In addition, in order to determine the validity of this approach, we chose ten of these introns for primer design and tested them in a panel of eleven rodent species belonging to different representative families. We show that all these introns can be amplified in the majority of species and that, overall, 79% of the amplifications worked with minimum optimization of the annealing temperature. In addition, we confirmed for a pair of sister species the relatively high level of sequence divergence of these introns. Therefore, we provide here a set of adequate intron markers that can be applied to different species of Rodentia for their use in studies that require significant sequence variability.

  19. The rapidly evolving therapies for advanced melanoma--Towards immunotherapy, molecular targeted therapy, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziqiang; Liu, Wei; Gotlieb, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of melanoma in both males and females continues to rise during the past 40 years despite the stable or declining trends for most cancer types. Due to the tremendous advance in immunobiology and molecular biology, breakthroughs in both immunotherapies and molecular targeted therapies have recently revolutionized the standard of care for patients with advanced melanoma. In 2011, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody for metastatic melanoma therapy. Since then, novel drugs including antibodies to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab (both approved in 2014), selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib (approved in 2011), dabrafenib (approved in 2013); and MEK inhibitor trametinib (approved in 2013), have greatly extended the potential of immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy for advanced melanoma. All of which have been demonstrated a significant increase in overall survival rate, and long-term benefits in multiple large clinical trials. Several new agents and novel therapies are currently under phase III clinical trials with the hope of being approved in the near future. We already entered a golden era in oncology that are providing significant survival improvement. In the meantime, new challenges for clinicians also started to emerge. In this review, we presented the existing evidence for the newest treatments for advanced melanoma, including CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF, MEK inhibitors. We also discussed the strengths, limitations and challenges of using these novel therapies, and potential solutions as well as highlighted the areas requiring further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapidly evolving circularly polarized emission during the 1994 outburst of GRO J1655-40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macquart, JP; Wu, K; Sault, RJ; Hannikainen, DC

    2002-01-01

    We report the detection of circular polarization during the 1994 outburst of the Galactic microquasar GRO J1655-40. The circular polarization is clearly detected at 1.4 and 2.4 GHz, but not at 4.8 and 8.4 GHz, where its magnitude never exceeds 5 mJy. Both the sign and magnitude of the circular

  1. Evolving Technology, Shifting Expectations: Cultivating Pedagogy for a Rapidly Changing GIS Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, Britta; Thatcher, Jim

    2017-01-01

    As humans and natural processes continuously reshape the surface of the Earth, there is an unceasing need to document and analyze them through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The public is gaining more access to spatial technologies that were once only available to highly trained professionals. With technological evolution comes a…

  2. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  3. An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pollard, Katherine S; Salama, Sofie R; Lambert, Nelle

    2006-01-01

    of the human brain. We devised a ranking of regions in the human genome that show significant evolutionary acceleration. Here we report that the most dramatic of these 'human accelerated regions', HAR1, is part of a novel RNA gene (HAR1F) that is expressed specifically in Cajal-Retzius neurons...

  4. Doing social media analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Brooker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the few years since the advent of ‘Big Data’ research, social media analytics has begun to accumulate studies drawing on social media as a resource and tool for research work. Yet, there has been relatively little attention paid to the development of methodologies for handling this kind of data. The few works that exist in this area often reflect upon the implications of ‘grand’ social science methodological concepts for new social media research (i.e. they focus on general issues such as sampling, data validity, ethics, etc.. By contrast, we advance an abductively oriented methodological suite designed to explore the construction of phenomena played out through social media. To do this, we use a software tool – Chorus – to illustrate a visual analytic approach to data. Informed by visual analytic principles, we posit a two-by-two methodological model of social media analytics, combining two data collection strategies with two analytic modes. We go on to demonstrate each of these four approaches ‘in action’, to help clarify how and why they might be used to address various research questions.

  5. Evolving Digital Publishing Opportunities across Composition Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawishler, Gail E.; Selfe, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors report since the early 1980s, the profession has seen plenty of changes in the arena of digital scholarly publishing: during this time, while the specific challenges have seldom remained the same, the presence and the pressures of rapid technological change endure. In fact, as an editorial team that has, in part,…

  6. Evolving chromosomes and gene regulatory networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aswin

    Many processes change genomes. Koonin and Wolf. 2008. Page 5 .. including horizontal gene transfer. Koonin and Wolf. 2008. Page 6. Horizontal gene transfer. Drastic modification of genetic material. Rapid exploration of ne niches and phenot pes. Page 7. Horizontal gene transfer regulates. New selective forces for gene ...

  7. Duplicated genes evolve independently in allopolyploid cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cronn; Randall L. Small; Jonathan F. Wendel

    1999-01-01

    Of the many processes that generate gene duplications, polyploidy is unique in that entire genomes are duplicated. This process has been important in the evolution of many eukaryotic groups, and it occurs with high frequency in plants. Recent evidence suggests that polyploidization may be accompanied by rapid genomic changes, but the evolutionary fate of discrete loci...

  8. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, H.H.G.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Zaag, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between man and water since the industrial revolution, the period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet.We show how the rapidly changing reality urges us to continuously improve our

  9. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, H.H.G.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; van der Zaag, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between human beings and water since the Industrial Revolution, a period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet during this time. We show how the rapidly changing world urges us to

  10. Evolvability as a Quality Attribute of Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciraci, S.; van den Broek, P.M.; Duchien, Laurence; D'Hondt, Maja; Mens, Tom

    We review the definition of evolvability as it appears on the literature. In particular, the concept of software evolvability is compared with other system quality attributes, such as adaptability, maintainability and modifiability.

  11. Tracking correlated, simultaneously evolving target populations, II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Ronald

    2017-05-01

    This paper is the sixth in a series aimed at weakening the independence assumptions that are typically presumed in multitarget tracking. Earlier papers investigated Bayes …lters that propagate the correlations between two evolving multitarget systems. Last year at this conference we attempted to derive PHD …lter-type approximations that account for both spatial correlation and cardinality correlation (i.e., correlation between the target numbers of the two systems). Unfortunately, this approach required heuristic models of both clutter and target appearance in order to incorporate both spatial and cardinality correlation. This paper describes a fully rigorous approach- provided, however, that spatial correlation between the two populations is ignored and only their cardinality correlations are taken into account. We derive the time-update and measurement-update equations for a CPHD …lter describing the evolution of such correlated multitarget populations.

  12. Resiliently evolving supply-demand networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubido, Nicolás; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design a transport network such that commodities are brought from suppliers to consumers in a steady, optimal, and stable way is of great importance for distribution systems nowadays. In this work, by using the circuit laws of Kirchhoff and Ohm, we provide the exact capacities of the edges that an optimal supply-demand network should have to operate stably under perturbations, i.e., without overloading. The perturbations we consider are the evolution of the connecting topology, the decentralization of hub sources or sinks, and the intermittence of supplier and consumer characteristics. We analyze these conditions and the impact of our results, both on the current United Kingdom power-grid structure and on numerically generated evolving archetypal network topologies.

  13. The Evolving Theory of Evolutionary Radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, M; Breitkreuz, L; Alvarado, M; Baca, S; Cooper, J C; Heins, L; Herzog, K; Lieberman, B S

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary radiations have intrigued biologists for more than 100 years, and our understanding of the patterns and processes associated with these radiations continues to grow and evolve. Recently it has been recognized that there are many different types of evolutionary radiation beyond the well-studied adaptive radiations. We focus here on multifarious types of evolutionary radiations, paying special attention to the abiotic factors that might trigger diversification in clades. We integrate concepts such as exaptation, species selection, coevolution, and the turnover-pulse hypothesis (TPH) into the theoretical framework of evolutionary radiations. We also discuss other phenomena that are related to, but distinct from, evolutionary radiations that have relevance for evolutionary biology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemic spreading on evolving signed networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saeedian, M; Jafari, G R; Kertesz, J

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences peoples willingness to contact others: A friendly contact may be turned to unfriendly to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected (SI) disease spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heiders theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte-Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find loc...

  15. Finch: A System for Evolving Java (Bytecode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Michael; Sipper, Moshe

    The established approach in genetic programming (GP) involves the definition of functions and terminals appropriate to the problem at hand, after which evolution of expressions using these definitions takes place. We have recently developed a system, dubbed FINCH (Fertile Darwinian Bytecode Harvester), to evolutionarily improve actual, extant software, which was not intentionally written for the purpose of serving as a GP representation in particular, nor for evolution in general. This is in contrast to existing work that uses restricted subsets of the Java bytecode instruction set as a representation language for individuals in genetic programming. The ability to evolve Java programs will hopefully lead to a valuable new tool in the software engineer's toolkit.

  16. Competing on talent analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Thomas H; Harris, Jeanne; Shapiro, Jeremy

    2010-10-01

    Do investments in your employees actually affect workforce performance? Who are your top performers? How can you empower and motivate other employees to excel? Leading-edge companies such as Google, Best Buy, Procter & Gamble, and Sysco use sophisticated data-collection technology and analysis to answer these questions, leveraging a range of analytics to improve the way they attract and retain talent, connect their employee data to business performance, differentiate themselves from competitors, and more. The authors present the six key ways in which companies track, analyze, and use data about their people-ranging from a simple baseline of metrics to monitor the organization's overall health to custom modeling for predicting future head count depending on various "what if" scenarios. They go on to show that companies competing on talent analytics manage data and technology at an enterprise level, support what analytical leaders do, choose realistic targets for analysis, and hire analysts with strong interpersonal skills as well as broad expertise.

  17. Advanced business analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Lev, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The book describes advanced business analytics and shows how to apply them to many different professional areas of engineering and management. Each chapter of the book is contributed by a different author and covers a different area of business analytics. The book connects the analytic principles with business practice and provides an interface between the main disciplines of engineering/technology and the organizational, administrative and planning abilities of management. It also refers to other disciplines such as economy, finance, marketing, behavioral economics and risk analysis. This book is of special interest to engineers, economists and researchers who are developing new advances in engineering management but also to practitioners working on this subject.

  18. Advances in analytical chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendale, W. F.; Congo, Richard T.; Nielsen, Bruce J.

    1991-01-01

    Implementation of computer programs based on multivariate statistical algorithms makes possible obtaining reliable information from long data vectors that contain large amounts of extraneous information, for example, noise and/or analytes that we do not wish to control. Three examples are described. Each of these applications requires the use of techniques characteristic of modern analytical chemistry. The first example, using a quantitative or analytical model, describes the determination of the acid dissociation constant for 2,2'-pyridyl thiophene using archived data. The second example describes an investigation to determine the active biocidal species of iodine in aqueous solutions. The third example is taken from a research program directed toward advanced fiber-optic chemical sensors. The second and third examples require heuristic or empirical models.

  19. ESIP Earth Sciences Data Analytics (ESDA) Cluster - Work in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this poster is to promote a common understanding of the usefulness of, and activities that pertain to, Data Analytics and more broadly, the Data Scientist; Facilitate collaborations to better understand the cross usage of heterogeneous datasets and to provide accommodating data analytics expertise, now and as the needs evolve into the future; Identify gaps that, once filled, will further collaborative activities. Objectives Provide a forum for Academic discussions that provides ESIP members a better understanding of the various aspects of Earth Science Data Analytics Bring in guest speakers to describe external efforts, and further teach us about the broader use of Data Analytics. Perform activities that:- Compile use cases generated from specific community needs to cross analyze heterogeneous data- Compile sources of analytics tools, in particular, to satisfy the needs of the above data users- Examine gaps between needs and sources- Examine gaps between needs and community expertise- Document specific data analytics expertise needed to perform Earth science data analytics Seek graduate data analytics Data Science student internship opportunities.

  20. Business Analytics in Practice and in Education: A Competency-Based Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamonov, Stanislav; Misra, Ram; Jain, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Business analytics is a fast-growing area in practice. The rapid growth of business analytics in practice in the recent years is mirrored by a corresponding fast evolution of new educational programs. While more than 130 graduate and undergraduate degree programs in business analytics have been launched in the past 5 years, no commonly accepted…

  1. Foundations of predictive analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, James

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' two decades of experience in applied modeling and data mining, Foundations of Predictive Analytics presents the fundamental background required for analyzing data and building models for many practical applications, such as consumer behavior modeling, risk and marketing analytics, and other areas. It also discusses a variety of practical topics that are frequently missing from similar texts. The book begins with the statistical and linear algebra/matrix foundation of modeling methods, from distributions to cumulant and copula functions to Cornish--Fisher expansion and o

  2. Social network data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2011-01-01

    Social network analysis applications have experienced tremendous advances within the last few years due in part to increasing trends towards users interacting with each other on the internet. Social networks are organized as graphs, and the data on social networks takes on the form of massive streams, which are mined for a variety of purposes. Social Network Data Analytics covers an important niche in the social network analytics field. This edited volume, contributed by prominent researchers in this field, presents a wide selection of topics on social network data mining such as Structural Pr

  3. An analytic thomism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alejandro Pérez Chamorro.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 50 years the philosophers of the Anglo-Saxon analytic tradition (E. Anscombre, P. Geach, A. Kenny, P. Foot have tried to follow the Thomas Aquinas School which they use as a source to surpass the Cartesian Epistemology and to develop the virtue ethics. Recently, J. Haldane has inaugurated a program of “analytical thomism” which main result until the present has been his “theory of identity mind/world”. Nevertheless, none of Thomás’ admirers has still found the means of assimilating his metaphysics of being.

  4. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  5. Flurry Analytics pelikehityksen apuna

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusisto, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Flurry Analytics on Yahoo Mobile Developer Suiten osa, joka keskittyy analytiikkaan. Opinnäytetyössä kerrotaan Flurry Analytics SDK:n implementoimisesta sovellukseen, Flurry Analyticsin tarjoaman web-portaalin käytöstä, sekä siitä, miten näitä ominaisuuksia käytettiin toteutettaessa pelin Cabals: Legends analytiikkatoteutusta. Työssä tarkastellaan myös miten jo kehitettyä analytiikkatoteutusta voitaisiin käyttää pohjana vielä pidemmälle viedylle analytiikkatoteutukselle ja kuinka pystyttäisii...

  6. Star formation in evolving molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völschow, M.; Banerjee, R.; Körtgen, B.

    2017-09-01

    Molecular clouds are the principle stellar nurseries of our universe; they thus remain a focus of both observational and theoretical studies. From observations, some of the key properties of molecular clouds are well known but many questions regarding their evolution and star formation activity remain open. While numerical simulations feature a large number and complexity of involved physical processes, this plethora of effects may hide the fundamentals that determine the evolution of molecular clouds and enable the formation of stars. Purely analytical models, on the other hand, tend to suffer from rough approximations or a lack of completeness, limiting their predictive power. In this paper, we present a model that incorporates central concepts of astrophysics as well as reliable results from recent simulations of molecular clouds and their evolutionary paths. Based on that, we construct a self-consistent semi-analytical framework that describes the formation, evolution, and star formation activity of molecular clouds, including a number of feedback effects to account for the complex processes inside those objects. The final equation system is solved numerically but at much lower computational expense than, for example, hydrodynamical descriptions of comparable systems. The model presented in this paper agrees well with a broad range of observational results, showing that molecular cloud evolution can be understood as an interplay between accretion, global collapse, star formation, and stellar feedback.

  7. User Behavior Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Melissa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Juston Shane [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-28

    User Behaviour Analytics is the tracking, collecting and assessing of user data and activities. The goal is to detect misuse of user credentials by developing models for the normal behaviour of user credentials within a computer network and detect outliers with respect to their baseline.

  8. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2016-08-20

    Aug 20, 2016 ... sharpener (with picture and prices) when you place an order for a knife. If you order a book it will give you a list of other books you would probably like to buy .... use of predictive analytics is in marketing by comprehending customers' needs and preferences. An example is the advertise- ment on socks that ...

  9. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Analytical Chemistry and Material Development Group maintains a capability in chemical analysis, materials R&D failure analysis and contamination control. The uniquely qualified staff and facility support the needs of flight projects, science instrument development and various technical tasks, as well as Cal Tech.

  10. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Kohji

    2002-01-01

    The book includes several survey articles on prime numbers, divisor problems, and Diophantine equations, as well as research papers on various aspects of analytic number theory such as additive problems, Diophantine approximations and the theory of zeta and L-function Audience Researchers and graduate students interested in recent development of number theory

  11. Explanatory analytics in OLAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, E.A.M.; Daniëls, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe a method to integrate explanatory business analytics in OLAP information systems. This method supports the discovery of exceptional values in OLAP data and the explanation of such values by giving their underlying causes. OLAP applications offer a support tool for

  12. Big Data Analytics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    But analysing massiveamounts of data available in the Internet has the potential ofimpinging on our privacy. Inappropriate analysis of big datacan lead to misleading conclusions. In this article, we explainwhat is big data, how it is analysed, and give some case studiesillustrating the potentials and pitfalls of big data analytics ...

  13. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  14. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors

  15. Data sharing and the evolving role of statisticians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Manamley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greater transparency and, in particular, sharing of clinical study reports and patient level data for further research is an increasingly important topic for the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry and other organisations who sponsor and conduct clinical research as well as academic researchers and patient advocacy groups. Statisticians are ambassadors for data sharing and are central to its success. They play an integral role in data sharing discussions within their companies and also externally helping to shape policy and processes while providing input into practical solutions to aid data sharing. Data sharing is generating changes in the required profile for statisticians in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry, as well as academic institutions and patient advocacy groups. Discussion Successful statisticians need to possess many qualities required in today’s pharmaceutical environment such as collaboration, diplomacy, written and oral skills and an ability to be responsive; they are also knowledgeable when debating strategy and analytical techniques. However, increasing data transparency will require statisticians to evolve and learn new skills and behaviours during their career which may not have been an accepted part of the traditional role. Statisticians will move from being the gate-keepers of data to be data facilitators. To adapt successfully to this new environment, the role of the statistician is likely to be broader, including defining new responsibilities that lie beyond the boundaries of the traditional role. Statisticians should understand how data transparency can benefit them and the potential strategic advantage it can bring and be fully aware of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry commitments to data transparency and the policies within their company or research institute in addition to focusing on reviewing requests and provisioning data. Summary Data transparency will evolve

  16. Genetic structure and evolved malaria resistance in Hawaiian honeycreepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Eggert, L.E.; Hart, P.J.; Palmer, D.; Duffy, D.C.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases now threaten wildlife populations worldwide but population recovery following local extinction has rarely been observed. In such a case, do resistant individuals recolonize from a central remnant population, or do they spread from small, perhaps overlooked, populations of resistant individuals? Introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has devastated low-elevation populations of native birds in Hawaii, but at least one species (Hawaii amakihi, Hemignathus virens) that was greatly reduced at elevations below about 1000 m tolerates malaria and has initiated a remarkable and rapid recovery. We assessed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers from amakihi and two other Hawaiian honeycreepers, apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), at nine primary study sites from 2001 to 2003 to determine the source of re-establishing birds. In addition, we obtained sequences from tissue from amakihi museum study skins (1898 and 1948-49) to assess temporal changes in allele distributions. We found that amakihi in lowland areas are, and have historically been, differentiated from birds at high elevations and had unique alleles retained through time; that is, their genetic signature was not a subset of the genetic variation at higher elevations. We suggest that high disease pressure rapidly selected for resistance to malaria at low elevation, leaving small pockets of resistant birds, and this resistance spread outward from the scattered remnant populations. Low-elevation amakihi are currently isolated from higher elevations (> 1000 m) where disease emergence and transmission rates appear to vary seasonally and annually. In contrast to results from amakihi, no genetic differentiation between elevations was found in apapane and iiwi, indicating that slight variation in genetic or life-history attributes can determine disease resistance and population recovery. Determining the conditions that allow for the development of resistance to disease is

  17. Microfluidic Immunoassays as Rapid Saliva-Based Clinical Diagnostics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amy E. Herr; Anson V. Hatch; Daniel J. Throckmorton; Huu M. Tran; James S. Brennan; William V. Giannobile; Anup K. Singh

    2007-01-01

    .... Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument...

  18. The evolving energy budget of accretionary wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeck, Jessica; Cooke, Michele; Maillot, Bertrand; Souloumiac, Pauline

    2017-04-01

    The energy budget of evolving accretionary systems reveals how deformational processes partition energy as faults slip, topography uplifts, and layer-parallel shortening produces distributed off-fault deformation. The energy budget provides a quantitative framework for evaluating the energetic contribution or consumption of diverse deformation mechanisms. We investigate energy partitioning in evolving accretionary prisms by synthesizing data from physical sand accretion experiments and numerical accretion simulations. We incorporate incremental strain fields and cumulative force measurements from two suites of experiments to design numerical simulations that represent accretionary wedges with stronger and weaker detachment faults. One suite of the physical experiments includes a basal glass bead layer and the other does not. Two physical experiments within each suite implement different boundary conditions (stable base versus moving base configuration). Synthesizing observations from the differing base configurations reduces the influence of sidewall friction because the force vector produced by sidewall friction points in opposite directions depending on whether the base is fixed or moving. With the numerical simulations, we calculate the energy budget at two stages of accretion: at the maximum force preceding the development of the first thrust pair, and at the minimum force following the development of the pair. To identify the appropriate combination of material and fault properties to apply in the simulations, we systematically vary the Young's modulus and the fault static and dynamic friction coefficients in numerical accretion simulations, and identify the set of parameters that minimizes the misfit between the normal force measured on the physical backwall and the numerically simulated force. Following this derivation of the appropriate material and fault properties, we calculate the components of the work budget in the numerical simulations and in the

  19. Systematic analytical characterization of new psychoactive substances: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo Vicente, Joana; Chassaigne, Hubert; Holland, Margaret V; Reniero, Fabiano; Kolář, Kamil; Tirendi, Salvatore; Vandecasteele, Ine; Vinckier, Inge; Guillou, Claude

    2016-08-01

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are synthesized compounds that are not usually covered by European and/or international laws. With a slight alteration in the chemical structure of existing illegal substances registered in the European Union (EU), these NPS circumvent existing controls and are thus referred to as "legal highs". They are becoming increasingly available and can easily be purchased through both the internet and other means (smart shops). Thus, it is essential that the identification of NPS keeps up with this rapidly evolving market. In this case study, the Belgian Customs authorities apprehended a parcel, originating from China, containing two samples, declared as being "white pigments". For routine identification, the Belgian Customs Laboratory first analysed both samples by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry and Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The information obtained by these techniques is essential and can give an indication of the chemical structure of an unknown substance but not the complete identification of its structure. To bridge this gap, scientific and technical support is ensured by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) to the European Commission Directorate General for Taxation and Customs Unions (DG TAXUD) and the Customs Laboratory European Network (CLEN) through an Administrative Arrangement for fast recognition of NPS and identification of unknown chemicals. The samples were sent to the JRC for a complete characterization using advanced techniques and chemoinformatic tools. The aim of this study was also to encourage the development of a science-based policy driven approach on NPS. These samples were fully characterized and identified as 5F-AMB and PX-3 using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution tandem mass-spectrometry (HR-MS/MS) and Raman spectroscopy. A chemoinformatic platform was used to manage, unify analytical data from multiple techniques and instruments, and combine it with chemical and

  20. The Evolving Diagnostic and Genetic Landscapes of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziats, Mark N; Rennert, Owen M

    2016-01-01

    The autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  1. The evolving diagnostic and genetic landscapes of autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Nicholas Ziats

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The autism spectrum disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental syndromes defined by impairments in verbal and non-verbal communication, restricted social interaction, and the presence of stereotyped patterns of behavior. The prevalence of ASD is rising, and the diagnostic criteria and clinical perspectives on the disorder continue to evolve in parallel. Although the majority of individuals with ASD will not have an identifiable genetic cause, almost 25% of cases have identifiable causative DNA variants. The rapidly improving ability to identify genetic mutations because of advances in next generation sequencing, coupled with previous epidemiological studies demonstrating high heritability of ASD, have led to many recent attempts to identify causative genetic mutations underlying the ASD phenotype. However, although hundreds of mutations have been identified to date, they are either rare variants affecting only a handful of ASD patients, or are common variants in the general population conferring only a small risk for ASD. Furthermore, the genes implicated thus far are heterogeneous in their structure and function, hampering attempts to understand shared molecular mechanisms among all ASD patients; an understanding that is crucial for the development of targeted diagnostics and therapies. However, new work is beginning to suggest that the heterogeneous set of genes implicated in ASD may ultimately converge on a few common pathways. In this review, we discuss the parallel evolution of our diagnostic and genetic understanding of autism spectrum disorders, and highlight recent attempts to infer common biology underlying this complicated syndrome.

  2. Evolving Nonthermal Electron Distributions in Simulations of Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chael, Andrew; Narayan, Ramesh

    2018-01-01

    The accretion flow around Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the black hole at the Galactic Center, produces strong variability from the radio to X-rays on timescales of minutes to hours. This rapid, powerful variability is thought to be powered by energetic particle acceleration by plasma processes like magnetic reconnection and shocks. These processes can accelerate particles into non-thermal distributions which do not quickly isothermal in the low densities found around hot accretion flows. Current state-of-the-art simulations of accretion flows around black holes assume either a single-temperature gas or, at best, a two-temperature gas with thermal ions and electrons. We present results from incorporating the self-consistent evolution of a non-thermal electron population in a GRRMHD simulation of Sgr A*. The electron distribution is evolved across space, time, and Lorentz factor in parallel with background thermal ion, electron, and radiation fluids. Energy injection into the non-thermal distribution is modeled with a sub-grid prescription based on results from particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection. The energy distribution of the non-thermal electrons shows strong variability, and the spectral shape traces the complex interplay between the local viscous heating rate, magnetic field strength, and fluid velocity. Results from these simulations will be used in interpreting forthcoming data from the Event Horizon Telescope that resolves Sgr A*'s sub-mm variability in both time and space.

  3. Meiosis evolves: adaptation to external and internal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomblies, Kirsten; Higgins, James D; Yant, Levi

    2015-10-01

    306 I. 306 II. 307 III. 312 IV. 317 V. 318 319 References 319 SUMMARY: Meiosis is essential for the fertility of most eukaryotes and its structures and progression are conserved across kingdoms. Yet many of its core proteins show evidence of rapid or adaptive evolution. What drives the evolution of meiosis proteins? How can constrained meiotic processes be modified in response to challenges without compromising their essential functions? In surveying the literature, we found evidence of two especially potent challenges to meiotic chromosome segregation that probably necessitate adaptive evolutionary responses: whole-genome duplication and abiotic environment, especially temperature. Evolutionary solutions to both kinds of challenge are likely to involve modification of homologous recombination and synapsis, probably via adjustments of core structural components important in meiosis I. Synthesizing these findings with broader patterns of meiosis gene evolution suggests that the structural components of meiosis coevolve as adaptive modules that may change in primary sequence and function while maintaining three-dimensional structures and protein interactions. The often sharp divergence of these genes among species probably reflects periodic modification of entire multiprotein complexes driven by genomic or environmental changes. We suggest that the pressures that cause meiosis to evolve to maintain fertility may cause pleiotropic alterations of global crossover rates. We highlight several important areas for future research. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. No surviving evolved companions of the progenitor of SN 1006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Hernández, Jonay I; Ruiz-Lapuente, Pilar; Tabernero, Hugo M; Montes, David; Canal, Ramon; Méndez, Javier; Bedin, Luigi R

    2012-09-27

    Type Ia supernovae are thought to occur when a white dwarf made of carbon and oxygen accretes sufficient mass to trigger a thermonuclear explosion. The accretion could be slow, from an unevolved (main-sequence) or evolved (subgiant or giant) star (the single-degenerate channel), or rapid, as the primary star breaks up a smaller orbiting white dwarf (the double-degenerate channel). A companion star will survive the explosion only in the single-degenerate channel. Both channels might contribute to the production of type Ia supernovae, but the relative proportions of their contributions remain a fundamental puzzle in astronomy. Previous searches for remnant companions have revealed one possible case for SN 1572 (refs 8, 9), although that has been questioned. More recently, observations have restricted surviving companions to be small, main-sequence stars, ruling out giant companions but still allowing the single-degenerate channel. Here we report the results of a search for surviving companions of the progenitor of SN 1006 (ref. 14). None of the stars within 4 arc minutes of the apparent site of the explosion is associated with the supernova remnant, and we can firmly exclude all giant and subgiant stars from being companions of the progenitor. In combination with previous results, our findings indicate that fewer than 20 per cent of type Ia supernovae occur through the single-degenerate channel.

  5. On the Critical Role of Divergent Selection in Evolvability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Lehman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An ambitious goal in evolutionary robotics is to evolve increasingly complex robotic behaviors with minimal human design effort. Reaching this goal requires evolutionary algorithms that can unlock from genetic encodings their latent potential for evolvability. One issue clouding this goal is conceptual confusion about evolvability, which often obscures the aspects of evolvability that are important or desirable. The danger from such confusion is that it may establish unrealistic goals for evolvability that prove unproductive in practice. An important issue separate from conceptual confusion is the common misalignment between selection and evolvability in evolutionary robotics. While more expressive encodings can represent higher-level adaptations (e.g. sexual reproduction or developmental systems that increase long-term evolutionary potential (i.e. evolvability, realizing such potential requires gradients of fitness and evolvability to align. In other words, selection is often a critical factor limiting increasing evolvability. Thus, drawing from a series of recent papers, this article seeks to both (1 clarify and focus the ways in which the term evolvability is used within artificial evolution, and (2 argue for the importance of one type of selection, i.e. divergent selection, for enabling evolvability. The main argument is that there is a fundamental connection between divergent selection and evolvability (on both the individual and population level that does not hold for typical goal-oriented selection. The conclusion is that selection pressure plays a critical role in realizing the potential for evolvability, and that divergent selection in particular provides a principled mechanism for encouraging evolvability in artificial evolution.

  6. PANTHER. Pattern ANalytics To support High-performance Exploitation and Reasoning.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czuchlewski, Kristina Rodriguez [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hart, William E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Sandia has approached the analysis of big datasets with an integrated methodology that uses computer science, image processing, and human factors to exploit critical patterns and relationships in large datasets despite the variety and rapidity of information. The work is part of a three-year LDRD Grand Challenge called PANTHER (Pattern ANalytics To support High-performance Exploitation and Reasoning). To maximize data analysis capability, Sandia pursued scientific advances across three key technical domains: (1) geospatial-temporal feature extraction via image segmentation and classification; (2) geospatial-temporal analysis capabilities tailored to identify and process new signatures more efficiently; and (3) domain- relevant models of human perception and cognition informing the design of analytic systems. Our integrated results include advances in geographical information systems (GIS) in which we discover activity patterns in noisy, spatial-temporal datasets using geospatial-temporal semantic graphs. We employed computational geometry and machine learning to allow us to extract and predict spatial-temporal patterns and outliers from large aircraft and maritime trajectory datasets. We automatically extracted static and ephemeral features from real, noisy synthetic aperture radar imagery for ingestion into a geospatial-temporal semantic graph. We worked with analysts and investigated analytic workflows to (1) determine how experiential knowledge evolves and is deployed in high-demand, high-throughput visual search workflows, and (2) better understand visual search performance and attention. Through PANTHER, Sandia's fundamental rethinking of key aspects of geospatial data analysis permits the extraction of much richer information from large amounts of data. The project results enable analysts to examine mountains of historical and current data that would otherwise go untouched, while also gaining meaningful, measurable, and defensible insights into

  7. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Luke J.; Hare, Brian A.; Nunn, Charles L.; Anderson, Rindy C.; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M.; Emery, Nathan J.; Haun, Daniel B. M.; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F.; Platt, Michael L.; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Sandel, Aaron A.; Schroepfer, Kara K.; Seed, Amanda M.; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P.; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution. PMID:21927850

  8. Approximating centrality in evolving graphs: toward sublinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Benjamin W.; Cybenko, George

    2017-05-01

    The identification of important nodes is a ubiquitous problem in the analysis of social networks. Centrality indices (such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, betweenness centrality, PageRank, and others) are used across many domains to accomplish this task. However, the computation of such indices is expensive on large graphs. Moreover, evolving graphs are becoming increasingly important in many applications. It is therefore desirable to develop on-line algorithms that can approximate centrality measures using memory sublinear in the size of the graph. We discuss the challenges facing the semi-streaming computation of many centrality indices. In particular, we apply recent advances in the streaming and sketching literature to provide a preliminary streaming approximation algorithm for degree centrality utilizing CountSketch and a multi-pass semi-streaming approximation algorithm for closeness centrality leveraging a spanner obtained through iteratively sketching the vertex-edge adjacency matrix. We also discuss possible ways forward for approximating betweenness centrality, as well as spectral measures of centrality. We provide a preliminary result using sketched low-rank approximations to approximate the output of the HITS algorithm.

  9. How does cognition evolve? Phylogenetic comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Evan L; Matthews, Luke J; Hare, Brian A; Nunn, Charles L; Anderson, Rindy C; Aureli, Filippo; Brannon, Elizabeth M; Call, Josep; Drea, Christine M; Emery, Nathan J; Haun, Daniel B M; Herrmann, Esther; Jacobs, Lucia F; Platt, Michael L; Rosati, Alexandra G; Sandel, Aaron A; Schroepfer, Kara K; Seed, Amanda M; Tan, Jingzhi; van Schaik, Carel P; Wobber, Victoria

    2012-03-01

    Now more than ever animal studies have the potential to test hypotheses regarding how cognition evolves. Comparative psychologists have developed new techniques to probe the cognitive mechanisms underlying animal behavior, and they have become increasingly skillful at adapting methodologies to test multiple species. Meanwhile, evolutionary biologists have generated quantitative approaches to investigate the phylogenetic distribution and function of phenotypic traits, including cognition. In particular, phylogenetic methods can quantitatively (1) test whether specific cognitive abilities are correlated with life history (e.g., lifespan), morphology (e.g., brain size), or socio-ecological variables (e.g., social system), (2) measure how strongly phylogenetic relatedness predicts the distribution of cognitive skills across species, and (3) estimate the ancestral state of a given cognitive trait using measures of cognitive performance from extant species. Phylogenetic methods can also be used to guide the selection of species comparisons that offer the strongest tests of a priori predictions of cognitive evolutionary hypotheses (i.e., phylogenetic targeting). Here, we explain how an integration of comparative psychology and evolutionary biology will answer a host of questions regarding the phylogenetic distribution and history of cognitive traits, as well as the evolutionary processes that drove their evolution.

  10. On the Discovery of Evolving Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaliang; Li, Qi; Gao, Jing; Su, Lu; Zhao, Bo; Fan, Wei; Han, Jiawei

    2015-08-01

    In the era of big data, information regarding the same objects can be collected from increasingly more sources. Unfortunately, there usually exist conflicts among the information coming from different sources. To tackle this challenge, truth discovery, i.e., to integrate multi-source noisy information by estimating the reliability of each source, has emerged as a hot topic. In many real world applications, however, the information may come sequentially, and as a consequence, the truth of objects as well as the reliability of sources may be dynamically evolving. Existing truth discovery methods, unfortunately, cannot handle such scenarios. To address this problem, we investigate the temporal relations among both object truths and source reliability, and propose an incremental truth discovery framework that can dynamically update object truths and source weights upon the arrival of new data. Theoretical analysis is provided to show that the proposed method is guaranteed to converge at a fast rate. The experiments on three real world applications and a set of synthetic data demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method over state-of-the-art truth discovery methods.

  11. Sexual regret: evidence for evolved sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Andrew; Haselton, Martie G; Frederick, David A; Poore, Joshua; von Hippel, William; Buss, David M; Gonzaga, Gian C

    2013-10-01

    Regret and anticipated regret enhance decision quality by helping people avoid making and repeating mistakes. Some of people's most intense regrets concern sexual decisions. We hypothesized evolved sex differences in women's and men's experiences of sexual regret. Because of women's higher obligatory costs of reproduction throughout evolutionary history, we hypothesized that sexual actions, particularly those involving casual sex, would be regretted more intensely by women than by men. In contrast, because missed sexual opportunities historically carried higher reproductive fitness costs for men than for women, we hypothesized that poorly chosen sexual inactions would be regretted more by men than by women. Across three studies (Ns = 200, 395, and 24,230), we tested these hypotheses using free responses, written scenarios, detailed checklists, and Internet sampling to achieve participant diversity, including diversity in sexual orientation. Across all data sources, results supported predicted psychological sex differences and these differences were localized in casual sex contexts. These findings are consistent with the notion that the psychology of sexual regret was shaped by recurrent sex differences in selection pressures operating over deep time.

  12. Extracting evolving pathologies via spectral clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardis, Elena; Pohl, Kilian M; Davatzikos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    A bottleneck in the analysis of longitudinal MR scans with white matter brain lesions is the temporally consistent segmentation of the pathology. We identify pathologies in 3D+t(ime) within a spectral graph clustering framework. Our clustering approach simultaneously segments and tracks the evolving lesions by identifying characteristic image patterns at each time-point and voxel correspondences across time-points. For each 3D image, our method constructs a graph where weights between nodes capture the likeliness of two voxels belonging to the same region. Based on these weights, we then establish rough correspondences between graph nodes at different time-points along estimated pathology evolution directions. We combine the graphs by aligning the weights to a reference time-point, thus integrating temporal information across the 3D images, and formulate the 3D+t segmentation problem as a binary partitioning of this graph. The resulting segmentation is very robust to local intensity fluctuations and yields better results than segmentations generated for each time-point.

  13. Functional Topology of Evolving Urban Drainage Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Soohyun; Paik, Kyungrock; McGrath, Gavan S.; Urich, Christian; Krueger, Elisabeth; Kumar, Praveen; Rao, P. Suresh C.

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the scaling and topology of engineered urban drainage networks (UDNs) in two cities, and further examined UDN evolution over decades. UDN scaling was analyzed using two power law scaling characteristics widely employed for river networks: (1) Hack's law of length (L)-area (A) [L∝Ah] and (2) exceedance probability distribution of upstream contributing area (δ) [P>(A≥δ>)˜aδ-ɛ]. For the smallest UDNs ((A≥δ>) plots for river networks are abruptly truncated, those for UDNs display exponential tempering [P>(A≥δ>)=aδ-ɛexp⁡>(-cδ>)]. The tempering parameter c decreases as the UDNs grow, implying that the distribution evolves in time to resemble those for river networks. However, the power law exponent ɛ for large UDNs tends to be greater than the range reported for river networks. Differences in generative processes and engineering design constraints contribute to observed differences in the evolution of UDNs and river networks, including subnet heterogeneity and nonrandom branching.

  14. The Evolving Classification of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshat, Michelle; Boroumand, Nahal

    2017-05-01

    - An explosion of information on pulmonary hypertension has occurred during the past few decades. The perception of this disease has shifted from purely clinical to incorporate new knowledge of the underlying pathology. This transfer has occurred in light of advancements in pathophysiology, histology, and molecular medical diagnostics. - To update readers about the evolving understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension and to demonstrate how pathology has shaped the current classification. - Information presented at the 5 World Symposia on pulmonary hypertension held since 1973, with the last meeting occurring in 2013, was used in this review. - Pulmonary hypertension represents a heterogeneous group of disorders that are differentiated based on differences in clinical, hemodynamic, and histopathologic features. Early concepts of pulmonary hypertension were largely influenced by pharmacotherapy, hemodynamic function, and clinical presentation of the disease. The initial nomenclature for pulmonary hypertension segregated the clinical classifications from pathologic subtypes. Major restructuring of this disease classification occurred between the first and second symposia, which was the first to unite clinical and pathologic information in the categorization scheme. Additional changes were introduced in subsequent meetings, particularly between the third and fourth World Symposia meetings, when additional pathophysiologic information was gained. Discoveries in molecular diagnostics significantly progressed the understanding of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Continued advancements in imaging modalities, mechanistic pathogenicity, and molecular biomarkers will enable physicians to define pulmonary hypertension phenotypes based on the pathobiology and allow for treatment customization.

  15. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Roveri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Norberto Roveri, Michele IafiscoLaboratory of Environmental and Biological Structural Chemistry (LEBSC, Dipartimento di Chimica ‘G. Ciamician’, Alma Mater Studiorum, Università di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical–physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical–physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical–physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.Keywords: hydroxyapatite, nanocrystals, biomimetism, biomaterials, drug delivery, remineralization

  16. Evolving application of biomimetic nanostructured hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roveri, Norberto; Iafisco, Michele

    2010-11-09

    By mimicking Nature, we can design and synthesize inorganic smart materials that are reactive to biological tissues. These smart materials can be utilized to design innovative third-generation biomaterials, which are able to not only optimize their interaction with biological tissues and environment, but also mimic biogenic materials in their functionalities. The biomedical applications involve increasing the biomimetic levels from chemical composition, structural organization, morphology, mechanical behavior, nanostructure, and bulk and surface chemical-physical properties until the surface becomes bioreactive and stimulates cellular materials. The chemical-physical characteristics of biogenic hydroxyapatites from bone and tooth have been described, in order to point out the elective sides, which are important to reproduce the design of a new biomimetic synthetic hydroxyapatite. This review outlines the evolving applications of biomimetic synthetic calcium phosphates, details the main characteristics of bone and tooth, where the calcium phosphates are present, and discusses the chemical-physical characteristics of biomimetic calcium phosphates, methods of synthesizing them, and some of their biomedical applications.

  17. Epidemic spreading on evolving signed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedian, M.; Azimi-Tafreshi, N.; Jafari, G. R.; Kertesz, J.

    2017-02-01

    Most studies of disease spreading consider the underlying social network as obtained without the contagion, though epidemic influences people's willingness to contact others: A "friendly" contact may be turned to "unfriendly" to avoid infection. We study the susceptible-infected disease-spreading model on signed networks, in which each edge is associated with a positive or negative sign representing the friendly or unfriendly relation between its end nodes. In a signed network, according to Heider's theory, edge signs evolve such that finally a state of structural balance is achieved, corresponding to no frustration in physics terms. However, the danger of infection affects the evolution of its edge signs. To describe the coupled problem of the sign evolution and disease spreading, we generalize the notion of structural balance by taking into account the state of the nodes. We introduce an energy function and carry out Monte Carlo simulations on complete networks to test the energy landscape, where we find local minima corresponding to the so-called jammed states. We study the effect of the ratio of initial friendly to unfriendly connections on the propagation of disease. The steady state can be balanced or a jammed state such that a coexistence occurs between susceptible and infected nodes in the system.

  18. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, R. D. [UK Atomic Energy Authority, UKAEA, Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  19. An evolving model of online bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chu-Xu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Liu, Chuang

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the structure and evolution of online bipartite networks is a significant task since they play a crucial role in various e-commerce services nowadays. Recently, various attempts have been tried to propose different models, resulting in either power-law or exponential degree distributions. However, many empirical results show that the user degree distribution actually follows a shifted power-law distribution, the so-called Mandelbrot’s law, which cannot be fully described by previous models. In this paper, we propose an evolving model, considering two different user behaviors: random and preferential attachment. Extensive empirical results on two real bipartite networks, Delicious and CiteULike, show that the theoretical model can well characterize the structure of real networks for both user and object degree distributions. In addition, we introduce a structural parameter p, to demonstrate that the hybrid user behavior leads to the shifted power-law degree distribution, and the region of power-law tail will increase with the increment of p. The proposed model might shed some lights in understanding the underlying laws governing the structure of real online bipartite networks.

  20. Developments in analytical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, G.

    The situation regarding photogrammetric instrumentation has changed quite dramatically over the last 2 or 3 years with the withdrawal of most analogue stereo-plotting machines from the market place and their replacement by analytically based instrumentation. While there have been few new developments in the field of comparators, there has been an explosive development in the area of small, relatively inexpensive analytical stereo-plotters based on the use of microcomputers. In particular, a number of new instruments have been introduced by manufacturers who mostly have not been associated previously with photogrammetry. Several innovative concepts have been introduced in these small but capable instruments, many of which are aimed at specialised applications, e.g. in close-range photogrammetry (using small-format cameras); for thematic mapping (by organisations engaged in environmental monitoring or resources exploitation); for map revision, etc. Another innovative and possibly significant development has been the production of conversion kits to convert suitable analogue stereo-plotting machines such as the Topocart, PG-2 and B-8 into fully fledged analytical plotters. The larger and more sophisticated analytical stereo-plotters are mostly being produced by the traditional mainstream photogrammetric systems suppliers with several new instruments and developments being introduced at the top end of the market. These include the use of enlarged photo stages to handle images up to 25 × 50 cm format; the complete integration of graphics workstations into the analytical plotter design; the introduction of graphics superimposition and stereo-superimposition; the addition of correlators for the automatic measurement of height, etc. The software associated with this new analytical instrumentation is now undergoing extensive re-development with the need to supply photogrammetric data as input to the more sophisticated G.I.S. systems now being installed by clients, instead

  1. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  2. Implementation of rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.

  3. Analytical applications of aptamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombelli, S.; Minunni, M.; Mascini, M.

    2007-05-01

    Aptamers are single stranded DNA or RNA ligands which can be selected for different targets starting from a library of molecules containing randomly created sequences. Aptamers have been selected to bind very different targets, from proteins to small organic dyes. Aptamers are proposed as alternatives to antibodies as biorecognition elements in analytical devices with ever increasing frequency. This in order to satisfy the demand for quick, cheap, simple and highly reproducible analytical devices, especially for protein detection in the medical field or for the detection of smaller molecules in environmental and food analysis. In our recent experience, DNA and RNA aptamers, specific for three different proteins (Tat, IgE and thrombin), have been exploited as bio-recognition elements to develop specific biosensors (aptasensors). These recognition elements have been coupled to piezoelectric quartz crystals and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) devices as transducers where the aptamers have been immobilized on the gold surface of the crystals electrodes or on SPR chips, respectively.

  4. Exploring the Design Space of Immersive Urban Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhutian; Wang, Yifang; Sun, Tianchen; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Wei; Pan, Zhigeng; Qu, Huamin; Wu, Yingcai

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid development and wide adoption of immersive head-mounted devices, such as HTC VIVE, Oculus Rift, and Microsoft HoloLens. These immersive devices have the potential to significantly extend the methodology of urban visual analytics by providing critical 3D context information and creating a sense of presence. In this paper, we propose an theoretical model to characterize the visualizations in immersive urban analytics. Further more, based on our comprehensiv...

  5. Inorganic Analytical Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.

    The book is a treatise on inorganic analytical reactions in aqueous solution. It covers about half of the elements in the periodic table, i.e. the most important ones : H, Li, B, C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, I, Ba, W,...

  6. Social Data Analytics Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and demonstrative case studies of the Social Data Analytics Tool, SODATO. Adopting Action Design Framework [1], the objective of SODATO [2] is to collect, store, analyze, and report big social data emanating from the social media engagement of and social...... media conversations about organizations. We report and discuss results from two demonstrative case studies that were conducted using SODATO and conclude with implications and future work....

  7. Analytical strategies for phosphoproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Larsen, Martin R

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a key regulator of cellular signaling pathways. It is involved in most cellular events in which the complex interplay between protein kinases and protein phosphatases strictly controls biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Defective...... sensitive and specific strategies. Today, most phosphoproteomic studies are conducted by mass spectrometric strategies in combination with phospho-specific enrichment methods. This review presents an overview of different analytical strategies for the characterization of phosphoproteins. Emphasis...

  8. Teaching Analytical Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, John E.

    1981-01-01

    The maintenance of individual practice quality requires that the family physician continually evaluate and improve his performance, selectively using new information. This means that the physician must possess certain basic analytical abilities. The minimum skills necessary for critical appraisal are outlined in the CFPC's educational objectives. These objectives are used as a background to discuss curriculum content and teaching methods. Despite obstacles, there is a growing stimulus to expa...

  9. Doing social media analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, P; Barnett, J; Cribbin, TF

    2016-01-01

    'The era of Big Data has begun' (boyd and Crawford, 2012: 662). In the few years since this statement, social media analytics has begun to accumulate studies drawing on social media as a resource and tool for research work. Yet, there has been relatively little attention paid to the development of methodologies for handling this kind of data. The few works that exist in this area often reflect upon the implications of 'grand' social science methodological concepts for new social media researc...

  10. Analytical and physical electrochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Girault, Hubert H

    2004-01-01

    The study of electrochemistry is pertinent to a wide variety of fields, including bioenergetics, environmental sciences, and engineering sciences. In addition, electrochemistry plays a fundamental role in specific applications as diverse as the conversion and storage of energy and the sequencing of DNA.Intended both as a basic course for undergraduate students and as a reference work for graduates and researchers, Analytical and Physical Electrochemistry covers two fundamental aspects of electrochemistry: electrochemistry in solution and interfacial electrochemistry. By bringing these two subj

  11. Sensitivity analysis of a branching process evolving on a network with application in epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Hautphenne, Sophie; Delvenne, Jean-Charles; Blondel, Vincent D

    2015-01-01

    We perform an analytical sensitivity analysis for a model of a continuous-time branching process evolving on a fixed network. This allows us to determine the relative importance of the model parameters to the growth of the population on the network. We then apply our results to the early stages of an influenza-like epidemic spreading among a set of cities connected by air routes in the United States. We also consider vaccination and analyze the sensitivity of the total size of the epidemic with respect to the fraction of vaccinated people. Our analysis shows that the epidemic growth is more sensitive with respect to transmission rates within cities than travel rates between cities. More generally, we highlight the fact that branching processes offer a powerful stochastic modeling tool with analytical formulas for sensitivity which are easy to use in practice.

  12. Quantum mechanics in an evolving Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artacho, Emilio; O'Regan, David D.

    2017-03-01

    Many basis sets for electronic structure calculations evolve with varying external parameters, such as moving atoms in dynamic simulations, giving rise to extra derivative terms in the dynamical equations. Here we revisit these derivatives in the context of differential geometry, thereby obtaining a more transparent formalization, and a geometrical perspective for better understanding the resulting equations. The effect of the evolution of the basis set within the spanned Hilbert space separates explicitly from the effect of the turning of the space itself when moving in parameter space, as the tangent space turns when moving in a curved space. New insights are obtained using familiar concepts in that context such as the Riemann curvature. The differential geometry is not strictly that for curved spaces as in general relativity, a more adequate mathematical framework being provided by fiber bundles. The language used here, however, will be restricted to tensors and basic quantum mechanics. The local gauge implied by a smoothly varying basis set readily connects with Berry's formalism for geometric phases. Generalized expressions for the Berry connection and curvature are obtained for a parameter-dependent occupied Hilbert space spanned by nonorthogonal Wannier functions. The formalism is applicable to basis sets made of atomic-like orbitals and also more adaptative moving basis functions (such as in methods using Wannier functions as intermediate or support bases), but should also apply to other situations in which nonorthogonal functions or related projectors should arise. The formalism is applied to the time-dependent quantum evolution of electrons for moving atoms. The geometric insights provided here allow us to propose new finite-difference time integrators, and also better understand those already proposed.

  13. The evolving role of tiotropium in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIvor ER

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emma R McIvor,1 R Andrew McIvor2 1Queen’s University, Belfast, UK; 2Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Firestone Institute for Respiratory Health, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Abstract: Tiotropium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA that exerts its bronchodilatory effect by blocking endogenous acetylcholine receptors in the airways. Its safety and efficacy are well established for the treatment of COPD, and it is now being recognized for its role in improving lung function and control in asthma. This review discusses the evolving role of tiotropium delivered by the Respimat® in patients across the range of asthma severities and ages, and provides an overview of safety and efficacy data. Tiotropium is the only LAMA currently approved for the treatment of asthma, and evidence from a large-scale clinical trial program, including several Phase III studies in adults, has demonstrated that tiotropium improves lung function and asthma control, with a safety profile comparable with that of placebo. Clinical trials in adolescent patients (aged 12–17 years have also shown improvements in lung function and trends toward improved asthma control. Of note, the efficacy and safety profiles are consistent regardless of baseline characteristics and phenotype. Given the large and growing body of evidence, it is likely that as clinical experience with tiotropium increases, this treatment may possibly emerge as the key choice for add-on therapy to inhaled corticosteroids/long-acting β2-agonists, and in patients who do not tolerate long-acting bronchodilators or other medications, in the future. Keywords: tiotropium, anticholinergics, asthma, efficacy

  14. Emergent spacetime in stochastically evolving dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afshordi, Niayesh [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States); Stojkovic, Dejan, E-mail: ds77@buffalo.edu [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14260-1500 (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Changing the dimensionality of the space–time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem) can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of “evolving dimensions” in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger–Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3+1)-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3+1)-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.

  15. Emergent spacetime in stochastically evolving dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshordi, Niayesh; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2014-12-01

    Changing the dimensionality of the space-time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem) can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of ;evolving dimensions; in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger-Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3 + 1)-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3 + 1)-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.

  16. Emergent spacetime in stochastically evolving dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niayesh Afshordi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changing the dimensionality of the space–time at the smallest and largest distances has manifold theoretical advantages. If the space is lower dimensional in the high energy regime, then there are no ultraviolet divergencies in field theories, it is possible to quantize gravity, and the theory of matter plus gravity is free of divergencies or renormalizable. If the space is higher dimensional at cosmological scales, then some cosmological problems (including the cosmological constant problem can be attacked from a completely new perspective. In this paper, we construct an explicit model of “evolving dimensions” in which the dimensions open up as the temperature of the universe drops. We adopt the string theory framework in which the dimensions are fields that live on the string worldsheet, and add temperature dependent mass terms for them. At the Big Bang, all the dimensions are very heavy and are not excited. As the universe cools down, dimensions open up one by one. Thus, the dimensionality of the space we live in depends on the energy or temperature that we are probing. In particular, we provide a kinematic Brandenberger–Vafa argument for how a discrete causal set, and eventually a continuum (3+1-dim spacetime along with Einstein gravity emerges in the Infrared from the worldsheet action. The (3+1-dim Planck mass and the string scale become directly related, without any compactification. Amongst other predictions, we argue that LHC might be blind to new physics even if it comes at the TeV scale. In contrast, cosmic ray experiments, especially those that can register the very beginning of the shower, and collisions with high multiplicity and density of particles, might be sensitive to the dimensional cross-over.

  17. Evolvable Cryogenics (ECRYO) Pressure Transducer Calibration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Carlos E., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the findings of recent activities conducted by Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) In-Space Propulsion Branch and MSFC's Metrology and Calibration Lab to assess the performance of current "state of the art" pressure transducers for use in long duration storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. A brief historical narrative in this paper describes the Evolvable Cryogenics program and the relevance of these activities to the program. This paper also provides a review of three separate test activities performed throughout this effort, including: (1) the calibration of several pressure transducer designs in a liquid nitrogen cryogenic environmental chamber, (2) the calibration of a pressure transducer in a liquid helium Dewar, and (3) the calibration of several pressure transducers at temperatures ranging from 20 to 70 degrees Kelvin (K) using a "cryostat" environmental chamber. These three separate test activities allowed for study of the sensors along a temperature range from 4 to 300 K. The combined data shows that both the slope and intercept of the sensor's calibration curve vary as a function of temperature. This homogeneous function is contrary to the linearly decreasing relationship assumed at the start of this investigation. Consequently, the data demonstrates the need for lookup tables to change the slope and intercept used by any data acquisition system. This ultimately would allow for more accurate pressure measurements at the desired temperature range. This paper concludes with a review of a request for information (RFI) survey conducted amongst different suppliers to determine the availability of current "state of the art" flight-qualified pressure transducers. The survey identifies requirements that are most difficult for the suppliers to meet, most notably the capability to validate the sensor's performance at temperatures below 70 K.

  18. Business analytics a practitioner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to businesses on how to use analytics to help drive from ideas to execution. Analytics used in this way provides "full lifecycle support" for business and helps during all stages of management decision-making and execution.The framework presented in the book enables the effective interplay of business, analytics, and information technology (business intelligence) both to leverage analytics for competitive advantage and to embed the use of business analytics into the business culture. It lays out an approach for analytics, describes the processes used, and provides gu

  19. Emergence of segregation in evolving social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Adam Douglas; Prałat, Paweł; Zhang, Cun-Quan

    2011-05-24

    In many social networks, there is a high correlation between the similarity of actors and the existence of relationships between them. This paper introduces a model of network evolution where actors are assumed to have a small aversion from being connected to others who are dissimilar to themselves, and yet no actor strictly prefers a segregated network. This model is motivated by Schelling's [Schelling TC (1969) Models of segregation. Am Econ Rev 59:488-493] classic model of residential segregation, and we show that Schelling's results also apply to the structure of networks; namely, segregated networks always emerge regardless of the level of aversion. In addition, we prove analytically that attribute similarity among connected network actors always reaches a stationary distribution, and this distribution is independent of network topology and the level of aversion bias. This research provides a basis for more complex models of social interaction that are driven in part by the underlying attributes of network actors and helps advance our understanding of why dysfunctional social network structures may emerge.

  20. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Current and Evolving Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Adamska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, which constitutes 90% of pancreatic cancers, is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Due to the broad heterogeneity of genetic mutations and dense stromal environment, PDAC belongs to one of the most chemoresistant cancers. Most of the available treatments are palliative, with the objective of relieving disease-related symptoms and prolonging survival. Currently, available therapeutic options are surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and use of targeted drugs. However, thus far, therapies targeting cancer-associated molecular pathways have not given satisfactory results; this is due in part to the rapid upregulation of compensatory alternative pathways as well as dense desmoplastic reaction. In this review, we summarize currently available therapies and clinical trials, directed towards a plethora of pathways and components dysregulated during PDAC carcinogenesis. Emerging trends towards targeted therapies as the most promising approach will also be discussed.

  1. Orthogonally Evolved AI to Improve Difficulty Adjustment in Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintze, Arend; Olson, Randal; Lehman, Joel Anthony

    2016-01-01

    (i.e. agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highly-evolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating...... opponents. Furthermore, human interaction can modulate (and be informed by) the performance and behavior of collaborating agents. In this way, orthogonally evolved AI both facilitates smoother difficulty adjustment and enables new game experiences....

  2. Risk analytics for hedge funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Ankur

    2005-05-01

    The rapid growth of the hedge fund industry presents significant business opportunity for the institutional investors particularly in the form of portfolio diversification. To facilitate this, there is a need to develop a new set of risk analytics for investments consisting of hedge funds, with the ultimate aim to create transparency in risk measurement without compromising the proprietary investment strategies of hedge funds. As well documented in the literature, use of dynamic options like strategies by most of the hedge funds make their returns highly non-normal with fat tails and high kurtosis, thus rendering Value at Risk (VaR) and other mean-variance analysis methods unsuitable for hedge fund risk quantification. This paper looks at some unique concerns for hedge fund risk management and will particularly concentrate on two approaches from physical world to model the non-linearities and dynamic correlations in hedge fund portfolio returns: Self Organizing Criticality (SOC) and Random Matrix Theory (RMT).Random Matrix Theory analyzes correlation matrix between different hedge fund styles and filters random noise from genuine correlations arising from interactions within the system. As seen in the results of portfolio risk analysis, it leads to a better portfolio risk forecastability and thus to optimum allocation of resources to different hedge fund styles. The results also prove the efficacy of self-organized criticality and implied portfolio correlation as a tool for risk management and style selection for portfolios of hedge funds, being particularly effective during non-linear market crashes.

  3. Online Visual Analytics of Text Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shixia; Yin, Jialun; Wang, Xiting; Cui, Weiwei; Cao, Kelei; Pei, Jian

    2016-11-01

    We present an online visual analytics approach to helping users explore and understand hierarchical topic evolution in high-volume text streams. The key idea behind this approach is to identify representative topics in incoming documents and align them with the existing representative topics that they immediately follow (in time). To this end, we learn a set of streaming tree cuts from topic trees based on user-selected focus nodes. A dynamic Bayesian network model has been developed to derive the tree cuts in the incoming topic trees to balance the fitness of each tree cut and the smoothness between adjacent tree cuts. By connecting the corresponding topics at different times, we are able to provide an overview of the evolving hierarchical topics. A sedimentation-based visualization has been designed to enable the interactive analysis of streaming text data from global patterns to local details. We evaluated our method on real-world datasets and the results are generally favorable.

  4. Evolving R Coronae Borealis Stars with MESA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Lauer, Amber; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil; Frank, Juhan

    2018-01-01

    being a WD. Solving the mystery of how the RCB stars evolve will lead to a better understanding of other important types of stellar merger events such as Type Ia SNe.

  5. Mars Analytical Microimager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Krzysztof J.; Govindjee; Andersen, Dale; Presley, John; Lucas, John M.; Sears, S. Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah

    Unambiguous detection of extraterrestrial nitrogenous hydrocarbon microbiology requires an instrument both to recognize potential biogenic specimens and to successfully discriminate them from geochemical settings. Such detection should ideally be in-situ and not jeopardize other experiments by altering samples. Taken individually most biomarkers are inconclusive. For example, since amino acids can be synthesized abiotically they are not always considered reliable biomarkers. An enantiomeric imbalance, which is characteristic of all terrestrial life, may be questioned because chirality can also be altered abiotically. However, current scientific understanding holds that aggregates of identical proteins or proteinaceous complexes, with their well-defined amino acid residue sequences, are indisputable biomarkers. Our paper describes the Mars Analytical Microimager, an instrument for the simultaneous imaging of generic autofluorescent biomarkers and overall morphology. Autofluorescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared is emitted by all known terrestrial biology, and often as consistent complex bands uncharacteristic of abiotic mineral luminescence. The MAM acquires morphology, and even sub-micron morphogenesis, at a 3-centimeter working distance with resolution approaching a laser scanning microscope. Luminescence is simultaneously collected via a 2.5-micron aperture, thereby permitting accurate correlation of multi-dimensional optical behavior with specimen morphology. A variable wavelength excitation source and photospectrometer serve to obtain steady-state and excitation spectra of biotic and luminescent abiotic sources. We believe this is the first time instrumentation for detecting hydrated or desiccated microbiology non-destructively in-situ has been demonstrated. We have obtained excellent preliminary detection of biota and inorganic matrix discrimination from terrestrial polar analogues, and perimetric morphology of individual magnetotactic bacteria. Proposed

  6. Elements of analytical dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M

    1976-01-01

    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  7. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  8. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  9. Analytic aspects of convexity

    CERN Document Server

    Colesanti, Andrea; Gronchi, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the international conference Analytic Aspects in Convexity, which was held in Rome in October 2016. It offers a collection of selected articles, written by some of the world’s leading experts in the field of Convex Geometry, on recent developments in this area: theory of valuations; geometric inequalities; affine geometry; and curvature measures. The book will be of interest to a broad readership, from those involved in Convex Geometry, to those focusing on Functional Analysis, Harmonic Analysis, Differential Geometry, or PDEs. The book is a addressed to PhD students and researchers, interested in Convex Geometry and its links to analysis.

  10. Analytical chemistry in space

    CERN Document Server

    Wainerdi, Richard E

    1970-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry in Space presents an analysis of the chemical constitution of space, particularly the particles in the solar wind, of the planetary atmospheres, and the surfaces of the moon and planets. Topics range from space engineering considerations to solar system atmospheres and recovered extraterrestrial materials. Mass spectroscopy in space exploration is also discussed, along with lunar and planetary surface analysis using neutron inelastic scattering. This book is comprised of seven chapters and opens with a discussion on the possibilities for exploration of the solar system by

  11. Division of Analytical Chemistry, 1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elo Harald

    1999-01-01

    The article recounts the 1998 activities of the Division of Analytical Chemistry (DAC- formerly the Working Party on Analytical Chemistry, WPAC), which body is a division of the Federation of European Chemical Societies (FECS). Elo Harald Hansen is the Danish delegate, representing The Danish...... Chemical Society/The Society for Analytical Chemistry....

  12. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; van der Zaag, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between human beings and water since the Industrial Revolution, a period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet during this time. We show how the rapidly changing world urges us to continuously improve our understanding of the complex interactions between humans and the water system. The paper starts by demonstrating that hydrology and the science of managing water resources have played key roles in human and economic development throughout history; yet these roles have often been marginalised or obscured. Knowledge of hydrology and water resources engineering and management helped to transform the landscape, and thus also the very hydrology within catchments itself. It is only fairly recent that water experts have become conscious of such mechanisms, exemplified by several concepts that try to incorporate them - integrated water resources management, eco-hydrology, socio-hydrology. We have reached a stage at which a more systemic understanding of scale interdependencies can inform the sustainable governance of water systems, using new concepts like precipitation sheds, virtual water transfers, water footprints, and water value flow.

  13. Evolving Perspectives on Lyme Borreliosis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, JLH; Middelveen, MJ; Klein, D; Sperling, FAH

    2012-01-01

    With cases now documented in every province, Lyme borreliosis (LB) is emerging as a serious public health risk in Canada. Controversy over the contribution of LB to the burden of chronic disease is maintained by difficulty in capturing accurate Canadian statistics, especially early clinical cases of LB. The use of dogs as sentinel species demon-strates that potential contact with Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, as detected by C6 peptide, extends across the country. Dissemination of infected ticks by migratory birds and rapid establishment of significant levels of infection have been well described. Canadian public health response has focused on identification of established populations of the tick vectors, Ixodes scapularis and I. pacificus, on the assumption that these are the only important vectors of the disease across Canada. Strains of B. burgdorferi circulating in Canada and the full range of their reservoir species and coinfections remain to be explored. Ongoing surveys and historical records demonstrate that Borrelia-positive Ixodes species are regu-larly present in regions of Canada that have previously been considered to be outside of the ranges of these species in re-cent modeling efforts. We present data demonstrating that human cases of LB are found across the nation. Consequently, physician education and better early diagnoses are needed to prevent long term sequelae. An international perspective will be paramount for developing improved Canadian guidelines that recognize the complexity and diversity of Lyme borreliosis. PMID:23091570

  14. Human Resource Predictive Analytics HRPA For HR Management In Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet N. Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resource predictive analytics is an evolving application field of analytics for HRM purposes. The purpose of HRM is measuring employee performance and engagement studying workforce collaboration patterns analyzing employee churn and turnover and modelling employee lifetime value. The motive of applying HRPA is to optimize performances and produce better return on investment for organizations through decision making based on data collection HR metrics and predictive models. The paper is divided into three sections to understand the emergence of HR predictive analytics for HRM. Firstly the paper introduces the concept of HRPA. Secondly the paper discusses three aspects of HRPA a Need b Approach amp Application c Impact. Lastly the paper leads to the conclusion on HRPA.

  15. A two-step iterative method for evolving nonlinear acoustic systems to a steady-state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Myers, Michael K.

    1990-01-01

    A new approach for evolving two-dimensional nonlinear acoustic systems with flow to a steady state is presented. The approach is a two-step iterative method which is tested on a benchmark acoustic problem for which an exact analytical solution is available. Results are also calculated for a nonlinear acoustic problem for which an exact analytical solution is not known. Results indicate that the two-step method represents a powerful, efficient, and stable method for evolving two-dimensional acoustic systems to a steady state, and that the method is applicable to any number of spatial dimensions and to other hyperbolic systems. It is noted that for the benchmark problem only a single iteration on the method is required when the transient and steady-state field are of the same order of magnitude; however, four iterations are required when the steady-state field is several orders of magnitude smaller than the transient field. This method requires six iterations before achieving a steady state for the nonlinear test problem.

  16. Smart city analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper; Hansen, Christian; Alstrup, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013 ...... is very useful when full records are not accessible or available. Smart city analytics does not necessarily require full city records. To our knowledge this preliminary study is the first to predict large increases in home care for smart city analytics.......We present an ensemble learning method that predicts large increases in the hours of home care received by citizens. The method is supervised, and uses different ensembles of either linear (logistic regression) or non-linear (random forests) classifiers. Experiments with data available from 2013...... to 2017 for every citizen in Copenhagen receiving home care (27,775 citizens) show that prediction can achieve state of the art performance as reported in similar health related domains (AUC=0.715). We further find that competitive results can be obtained by using limited information for training, which...

  17. The analytic renormalization group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ferrari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k∈Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk=2πk/β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct “Analytic Renormalization Group” linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|<μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0, together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk|≥μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  18. Evolving Techniques for Surgical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Tubaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is one of the most topical areas in urology. Although most patients are adequately managed conservatively, many still require surgery to reduce bladder outlet obstruction or relieve symptoms by removing the inflamed adenomatous tissue. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP remains the gold standard treatment in all national and international guidelines, with open prostatectomy and laser enucleation reserved for patients with a prostate >80 ml. The current trend in the surgical management of BPH is threefold: replacing open prostatectomy with transurethral enucleation of the adenoma, managing high-risk patients by photoselective vaporisation of the prostate thus minimising blood loss, and moving BPH surgery to ambulatory day surgery and one-day surgery units in selected patients. Laser enucleation has been pioneered using the Holmium laser, although the GreenLightTM laser has been recently proposed as an alternative approach. The absence of any bleeding in photovaporisation of the prostate allows surgery to be performed in a growing population of patients on anti-aggregant and anticoagulant medications. Randomised trials of the GreenLight XPSTM laser with the MoXy™ fibre versus TURP proved the effectiveness of photovaporisation in the surgical management of BPH and suggested that 50% of patients could be discharged within 24 hours. The demand for BPH surgery remains high and urologists have rapidly adapted to the increasing demand for minimally invasive surgery. Prostate surgery evolved from a heroic procedure that remained in the memories of the entire patient family for life into a day-case procedure, and the future hopefully holds ejaculation-sparing surgery.

  19. Adoption of Geospatial Systems towards evolving Sustainable Himalayan Mountain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, M. S. R.; Bajracharya, B.; Pradhan, S.; Shestra, B.; Bajracharya, R.; Shakya, K.; Wesselmann, S.; Ali, M.; Bajracharya, S.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    Natural resources dependence of mountain communities, rapid social and developmental changes, disaster proneness and climate change are conceived as the critical factors regulating sustainable Himalayan mountain development. The Himalayan region posed by typical geographic settings, diverse physical and cultural diversity present a formidable challenge to collect and manage data, information and understands varied socio-ecological settings. Recent advances in earth observation, near real-time data, in-situ measurements and in combination of information and communication technology have transformed the way we collect, process, and generate information and how we use such information for societal benefits. Glacier dynamics, land cover changes, disaster risk reduction systems, food security and ecosystem conservation are a few thematic areas where geospatial information and knowledge have significantly contributed to informed decision making systems over the region. The emergence and adoption of near-real time systems, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), board-scale citizen science (crowd-sourcing), mobile services and mapping, and cloud computing have paved the way towards developing automated environmental monitoring systems, enhanced scientific understanding of geophysical and biophysical processes, coupled management of socio-ecological systems and community based adaptation models tailored to mountain specific environment. There are differentiated capacities among the ICIMOD regional member countries with regard to utilization of earth observation and geospatial technologies. The region can greatly benefit from a coordinated and collaborative approach to capture the opportunities offered by earth observation and geospatial technologies. The regional level data sharing, knowledge exchange, and Himalayan GEO supporting geospatial platforms, spatial data infrastructure, unique region specific satellite systems to address trans-boundary challenges would go a long way in

  20. Novel Drugs of Abuse: A Snapshot of an Evolving Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrey, Ryan; Johnson, Matthew W.; Johnson, Patrick S.; Khalil, Miral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives Over the past decade, non-medical use of novel drugs has proliferated worldwide. In most cases these are synthetic drugs first synthesized in academic or pharmaceutical laboratories for research or drug development purposes, but also include naturally occurring substances that do not fit the typical pharmacological or behavioral profile of traditional illicit substances. Perhaps most unique to this generation of new drugs is that they are being sold over the counter and on the Internet as “legal highs” or substitutes for traditional illicit drugs such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, MDMA, and LSD. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of novel drugs in current use, including the epidemiology of use and toxicologic and pharmacological properties, and to offer some guidelines to clinicians who see patients experiencing adverse effects from these drugs. Method We review the known scientific literature on recently introduced synthetic drug types, synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones, and the hallucinogen Salvia divinorum. Results These substances comprise part of a rapidly evolving and controversial drug market that has challenged definitions of what is legal and illegal, has benefitted from open commercial sales without regulatory oversight, and is noteworthy for the pace at which new substances are introduced. Conclusions This emerging trend in substance use presents significant and unique public health and criminal justice challenges. At this time, these substances are not detected in routine drug screens and substance-specific treatment for cases of use-related toxicity are not available. Clinicians are encouraged to learn characteristic signs associated with misuse of novel drugs to recognize cases in their practice, and are recommended to use a symptom-specific approach for treatment in each case. PMID:24921061

  1. Spatio-Temporal Data Model for Integrating Evolving Nation-Level Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokine, A.; Stewart, R. N.

    2017-10-01

    Ability to easily combine the data from diverse sources in a single analytical workflow is one of the greatest promises of the Big Data technologies. However, such integration is often challenging as datasets originate from different vendors, governments, and research communities that results in multiple incompatibilities including data representations, formats, and semantics. Semantics differences are hardest to handle: different communities often use different attribute definitions and associate the records with different sets of evolving geographic entities. Analysis of global socioeconomic variables across multiple datasets over prolonged time is often complicated by the difference in how boundaries and histories of countries or other geographic entities are represented. Here we propose an event-based data model for depicting and tracking histories of evolving geographic units (countries, provinces, etc.) and their representations in disparate data. The model addresses the semantic challenge of preserving identity of geographic entities over time by defining criteria for the entity existence, a set of events that may affect its existence, and rules for mapping between different representations (datasets). Proposed model is used for maintaining an evolving compound database of global socioeconomic and environmental data harvested from multiple sources. Practical implementation of our model is demonstrated using PostgreSQL object-relational database with the use of temporal, geospatial, and NoSQL database extensions.

  2. SPATIO-TEMPORAL DATA MODEL FOR INTEGRATING EVOLVING NATION-LEVEL DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sorokine

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ability to easily combine the data from diverse sources in a single analytical workflow is one of the greatest promises of the Big Data technologies. However, such integration is often challenging as datasets originate from different vendors, governments, and research communities that results in multiple incompatibilities including data representations, formats, and semantics. Semantics differences are hardest to handle: different communities often use different attribute definitions and associate the records with different sets of evolving geographic entities. Analysis of global socioeconomic variables across multiple datasets over prolonged time is often complicated by the difference in how boundaries and histories of countries or other geographic entities are represented. Here we propose an event-based data model for depicting and tracking histories of evolving geographic units (countries, provinces, etc. and their representations in disparate data. The model addresses the semantic challenge of preserving identity of geographic entities over time by defining criteria for the entity existence, a set of events that may affect its existence, and rules for mapping between different representations (datasets. Proposed model is used for maintaining an evolving compound database of global socioeconomic and environmental data harvested from multiple sources. Practical implementation of our model is demonstrated using PostgreSQL object-relational database with the use of temporal, geospatial, and NoSQL database extensions.

  3. Loops and autonomy promote evolvability of ecosystem networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jianxi

    2014-09-29

    The structure of ecological networks, in particular food webs, determines their ability to evolve further, i.e. evolvability. The knowledge about how food web evolvability is determined by the structures of diverse ecological networks can guide human interventions purposefully to either promote or limit evolvability of ecosystems. However, the focus of prior food web studies was on stability and robustness; little is known regarding the impact of ecological network structures on their evolvability. To correlate ecosystem structure and evolvability, we adopt the NK model originally from evolutionary biology to generate and assess the ruggedness of fitness landscapes of a wide spectrum of model food webs with gradual variation in the amount of feeding loops and link density. The variation in network structures is controlled by linkage rewiring. Our results show that more feeding loops and lower trophic link density, i.e. higher autonomy of species, of food webs increase the potential for the ecosystem to generate heritable variations with improved fitness. Our findings allow the prediction of the evolvability of actual food webs according to their network structures, and provide guidance to enhancing or controlling the evolvability of specific ecosystems.

  4. Protein structural modularity and robustness are associated with evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorick, Mary M; Wagner, Günter P

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that biological modularity and robustness allow for maintenance of fitness under mutational change, and when this change is adaptive, for evolvability. Empirical demonstrations that these traits promote evolvability in nature remain scant however. This is in part because modularity, robustness, and evolvability are difficult to define and measure in real biological systems. Here, we address whether structural modularity and/or robustness confer evolvability at the level of proteins by looking for associations between indices of protein structural modularity, structural robustness, and evolvability. We propose a novel index for protein structural modularity: the number of regular secondary structure elements (helices and strands) divided by the number of residues in the structure. We index protein evolvability as the proportion of sites with evidence of being under positive selection multiplied by the average rate of adaptive evolution at these sites, and we measure this as an average over a phylogeny of 25 mammalian species. We use contact density as an index of protein designability, and thus, structural robustness. We find that protein evolvability is positively associated with structural modularity as well as structural robustness and that the effect of structural modularity on evolvability is independent of the structural robustness index. We interpret these associations to be the result of reduced constraints on amino acid substitutions in highly modular and robust protein structures, which results in faster adaptation through natural selection.

  5. Adaptation of Escherichia coli to glucose promotes evolvability in lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kelly N; Castillo, Gerardo; Wünsche, Andrea; Cooper, Tim F

    2016-02-01

    The selective history of a population can influence its subsequent evolution, an effect known as historical contingency. We previously observed that five of six replicate populations that were evolved in a glucose-limited environment for 2000 generations, then switched to lactose for 1000 generations, had higher fitness increases in lactose than populations started directly from the ancestor. To test if selection in glucose systematically increased lactose evolvability, we started 12 replay populations--six from a population subsample and six from a single randomly selected clone--from each of the six glucose-evolved founder populations. These replay populations and 18 ancestral populations were evolved for 1000 generations in a lactose-limited environment. We found that replay populations were initially slightly less fit in lactose than the ancestor, but were more evolvable, in that they increased in fitness at a faster rate and to higher levels. This result indicates that evolution in the glucose environment resulted in genetic changes that increased the potential of genotypes to adapt to lactose. Genome sequencing identified four genes--iclR, nadR, spoT, and rbs--that were mutated in most glucose-evolved clones and are candidates for mediating increased evolvability. Our results demonstrate that short-term selective costs during selection in one environment can lead to changes in evolvability that confer longer term benefits. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  7. Analytical applications of dithizone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, H.M.N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The organic reagent best known under its common name dithizone was introduced into analytical practice by Hellmuth Fischer just over 50 years ago. By virtue of its thiol group, it can form formally unchanged chelate complexes with a small group of metals (notably, Co, Ni, Zn, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, and Bi) and organometallic ions (such as R/sub 2/Tl/sup +/, R/sub 3/Su/sup +/, R/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/, RHg/sup +/) and since, like the reagent itself, these are intensely colored and very sparingly soluble in water though soluble in chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and other water-immiscible organic solvents, dithizone lends itself to liquid-liquid extraction procedures and the spectrophotometric determination of trace metals at around the microgram level. With the increasing popularity of atomic abosption spectrophotometry, this technique has tended to supplant spectrophotometry as the preferred finish in quantitative trace-metal determinations, but many other physical procedures are in current use. The ability to preconcentrate certain metals by liquid-liquid extraction of their dithizonates plays an increasing role in environmental analysis, and chromatographic techniques now extend from thin layer chromatography to the use of columns for specific separations. The present review summarizes the basic analytical applications of dithizone that have become well established in the past half-century but highlights the more recent developments through a detailed review of papers published during the last 10 years. Particular attention is paid to the applications of dithizone in preconcentration and separation techniques, in electroanalytical procedures, in substoichiometry and in the design of liquid-membrane ion-selective electrodes. 4 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Analytical profile of the fluoroquinolone antibacterials. I. Ofloxacin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent years, there has been rapid progress in quinolone research and development resulting in the production of many clinically important fluoroquinolones which have been subjected to diverse analytical or assay methods. This is the first review article in this series of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents with focus ...

  9. Local analytic first integrals of planar analytic differential systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colak, Ilker E., E-mail: ilkercolak@mat.uab.cat [Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Llibre, Jaume, E-mail: jllibre@mat.uab.cat [Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Valls, Claudia, E-mail: cvalls@math.ist.utl.pt [Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-06-17

    We study the existence of local analytic first integrals of a class of analytic differential systems in the plane, obtained from the Chua's system studied in L.O. Chua (1992, 1995), N.V. Kuznetsov et al. (2011), G.A. Leonov et al. (2012) [6,7,11,13]. The method used can be applied to other analytic differential systems.

  10. Self-Evolvable Systems Machine Learning in Social Media

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2012-01-01

    This monograph presents key method to successfully manage the growing  complexity of systems  where conventional engineering and scientific methodologies and technologies based on learning and adaptability come to their limits and new ways are nowadays required. The transition from adaptable to evolvable and finally to self-evolvable systems is highlighted, self-properties such as self-organization, self-configuration, and self-repairing are introduced and challenges and limitations of the self-evolvable engineering systems are evaluated.

  11. Immersive Analytics (Dagstuhl Seminar 16231)

    OpenAIRE

    Dwyer, Tim; Henry Riche, Nathalie; Klein, Karsten; Stuerzlinger, Wolfgang; Thomas, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 16231 "Immersive Analytics". Close to 40 researchers and practitioners participated in this seminar to discuss and define the field of Immersive Analytics, to create a community around it, and to identify its research challenges. As the participants had a diverse background in a variety of disciplines, including Human-Computer-Interaction, Augmented and Virtual Reality, Information Visualization, and Visual Analytics, the ...

  12. Analytic definition of spin structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Zhirayr; Fang, Yan-Long; Saveliev, Nikolai; Vassiliev, Dmitri

    2017-08-01

    We work on a parallelizable time-orientable Lorentzian 4-manifold and prove that in this case, the notion of spin structure can be equivalently defined in a purely analytic fashion. Our analytic definition relies on the use of the concept of a non-degenerate two-by-two formally self-adjoint first order linear differential operator and gauge transformations of such operators. We also give an analytic definition of spin structure for the 3-dimensional Riemannian case.

  13. Rorty, Pragmatism, and Analytic Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Misak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of Richard Rorty's legacies is to have put a Jamesian version of pragmatism on the contemporary philosophical map. Part of his argument has been that pragmatism and analytic philosophy are set against each other, with pragmatism almost having been killed off by the reigning analytic philosophy. The argument of this paper is that there is a better and more interesting reading of both the history of pragmatism and the history of analytic philosophy.

  14. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Woong; Kim, Geun-Dong; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid–liquid extraction and liquid–liquid extraction in test tubes ...

  15. Analytics for managers with Excel

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Analytics is one of a number of terms which are used to describe a data-driven more scientific approach to management. Ability in analytics is an essential management skill: knowledge of data and analytics helps the manager to analyze decision situations, prevent problem situations from arising, identify new opportunities, and often enables many millions of dollars to be added to the bottom line for the organization.The objective of this book is to introduce analytics from the perspective of the general manager of a corporation. Rather than examine the details or attempt an encyclopaedic revie

  16. Analytics for metabolic engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Petzold

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizing the promise of metabolic engineering has been slowed by challenges related to moving beyond proof-of-concept examples to robust and economically viable systems. Key to advancing metabolic engineering beyond trial-and-error research is access to parts with well-defined performance metrics that can be readily applied in vastly different contexts with predictable effects. As the field now stands, research depends greatly on analytical tools that assay target molecules, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites across different hosts and pathways. Screening technologies yield specific information for many thousands of strain variants while deep omics analysis provide a systems-level view of the cell factory. Efforts focused on a combination of these analyses yield quantitative information of dynamic processes between parts and the host chassis that drive the next engineering steps. Overall, the data generated from these types of assays aid better decision-making at the design and strain construction stages to speed progress in metabolic engineering research.

  17. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Pangsap, S; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    To investigate evolving food retail systems in Thailand. Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods including interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits. Seven fresh markets located in the four main regions of Thailand. Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven fresh markets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Fresh markets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As fresh markets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women's jobs and social capital, with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand.

  18. In situ regeneration of bioactive coatings enabled by an evolved Staphylococcus aureus sortase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Hyun Ok; Qu, Zheng; Haller, Carolyn A.; Dorr, Brent M.; Dai, Erbin; Kim, Wookhyun; Liu, David R.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2016-04-01

    Surface immobilization of bioactive molecules is a central paradigm in the design of implantable devices and biosensors with improved clinical performance capabilities. However, in vivo degradation or denaturation of surface constituents often limits the long-term performance of bioactive films. Here we demonstrate the capacity to repeatedly regenerate a covalently immobilized monomolecular thin film of bioactive molecules through a two-step stripping and recharging cycle. Reversible transpeptidation by a laboratory evolved Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (eSrtA) enabled the rapid immobilization of an anti-thrombogenic film in the presence of whole blood and permitted multiple cycles of film regeneration in vitro that preserved its biological activity. Moreover, eSrtA transpeptidation facilitated surface re-engineering of medical devices in situ after in vivo implantation through removal and restoration film constituents. These studies establish a rapid, orthogonal and reversible biochemical scheme to regenerate selective molecular constituents with the potential to extend the lifetime of bioactive films.

  19. Adapting Morphology to Multiple Tasks in Evolved Virtual Creatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessin, Dan; Fussell, Don; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2014-01-01

    The ESP method for evolving virtual creatures (Lessin et al., 2013) consisted of an encapsulation mechanism to preserve learned skills, a human-designed syllabus to build higherlevel skills by combining lower-level skills systematically, and a pandemonium mechanism to resolve conflicts between...... encapsulated skills in a single creature’s brain. Previous work with ESP showed that it is possible to evolve much more complex behavior than before, even when fundamental morphology (i.e., skeletal segments and joints) was evolved only for the first skill. This paper introduces a more general form of ESP...... in which full morphological development can continue beyond the first skill, allowing creatures to adapt their morphology to multiple tasks. This extension increases the variety and quality of evolved creature results significantly, while maintaining the original ESP system’s ability to incrementally...

  20. Orthogonally Evolved AI to Improve Difficulty Adjustment in Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hintze, Arend; Olson, Randal; Lehman, Joel Anthony

    2016-01-01

    (i.e. agents subject to fewer generations of evolution) make for easier opponents, while highly-evolved agents are more challenging to overcome. In this publication we test a new approach for difficulty adjustment in games: orthogonally evolved AI, where the player receives support from collaborating...... agents that are co-evolved with opponent agents (where collaborators and opponents have orthogonal incentives). The advantage is that game difficulty can be adjusted more granularly by manipulating two independent axes: by having more or less adept collaborators, and by having more or less adept...... opponents. Furthermore, human interaction can modulate (and be informed by) the performance and behavior of collaborating agents. In this way, orthogonally evolved AI both facilitates smoother difficulty adjustment and enables new game experiences....

  1. Transient analytical solution of a solar still integrated with a tubular solar energy collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Y.P. [L.N. Mithila Univ., Physics Dept., Bihar (India); Yadav, B.P. [R.J. Coll., Physics Dept., Chapra, Bihar (India)

    1998-12-01

    A transient analytical solution has been obtained of a solar still integrated with a tubular solar energy collector. Explicit expressions were derived for the temperatures of various components of the system as a function of time and space coordinates and in terms of geometrical, operational and meteorological parameters. This facilitates evolving the optimum design of the system. (Author)

  2. Web analytics 2.0: the art of online accountability & science of customer centricity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaushik, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    ... them evolve their online marketing and analytics strategies to become data-driven and customercentric organizations. He recently received the 2009 Statistical Advocate of the Year award from the American Statistical Association. He is also a frequent speaker at industry conferences in the United States and Europe, such as Ad-Tech, Monaco...

  3. Evolving the Evolving: Territory, Place and Rewilding in the California Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Milligan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current planning and legislation in California’s Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta call for the large-scale ecological restoration of aquatic and terrestrial habitats. These ecological mandates have emerged in response to the region’s infrastructural transformation and the Delta’s predominant use as the central logistical hub in the state’s vast water conveyance network. Restoration is an attempt to recover what was externalized by the logic and abstractions of this logistical infrastructure. However, based on findings from our research, which examined how people are using restored and naturalized landscapes in the Delta and how these landscapes are currently planned for, we argue that as mitigatory response, restoration planning continues some of the same spatial abstractions and inequities by failing to account for the Delta as an urbanized, cultural and unique place. In interpreting how these conditions have come to be, we give attention to a pluralistic landscape approach and a coevolutionary reading of planning, policy, science and landscapes to discuss the conservation challenges presented by “Delta as an Evolving Place”. We suggest that for rewilding efforts to be successful in the Delta, a range of proactive, opportunistic, grounded and participatory tactics will be required to shift towards a more socio-ecological approach.

  4. Chemiluminescence microarrays in analytical chemistry: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Multi-analyte immunoassays on microarrays and on multiplex DNA microarrays have been described for quantitative analysis of small organic molecules (e.g., antibiotics, drugs of abuse, small molecule toxins), proteins (e.g., antibodies or protein toxins), and microorganisms, viruses, and eukaryotic cells. In analytical chemistry, multi-analyte detection by use of analytical microarrays has become an innovative research topic because of the possibility of generating several sets of quantitative data for different analyte classes in a short time. Chemiluminescence (CL) microarrays are powerful tools for rapid multiplex analysis of complex matrices. A wide range of applications for CL microarrays is described in the literature dealing with analytical microarrays. The motivation for this review is to summarize the current state of CL-based analytical microarrays. Combining analysis of different compound classes on CL microarrays reduces analysis time, cost of reagents, and use of laboratory space. Applications are discussed, with examples from food safety, water safety, environmental monitoring, diagnostics, forensics, toxicology, and biosecurity. The potential and limitations of research on multiplex analysis by use of CL microarrays are discussed in this review.

  5. Analytical detection techniques for droplet microfluidics—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ying [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); State Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Institute of Cyber-Systems and Control, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China); Fang, Qun, E-mail: fangqun@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Microanalytical Systems, Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058 (China)

    2013-07-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •This is the first review paper focused on the analytical techniques for droplet-based microfluidics. •We summarized the analytical methods used in droplet-based microfluidic systems. •We discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each method through its application. •We also discuss the future development direction of analytical methods for droplet-based microfluidic systems. -- Abstract: In the last decade, droplet-based microfluidics has undergone rapid progress in the fields of single-cell analysis, digital PCR, protein crystallization and high throughput screening. It has been proved to be a promising platform for performing chemical and biological experiments with ultra-small volumes (picoliter to nanoliter) and ultra-high throughput. The ability to analyze the content in droplet qualitatively and quantitatively is playing an increasing role in the development and application of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In this review, we summarized the analytical detection techniques used in droplet systems and discussed the advantage and disadvantage of each technique through its application. The analytical techniques mentioned in this paper include bright-field microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, laser induced fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, electrochemistry, capillary electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, absorption detection, chemiluminescence, and sample pretreatment techniques. The importance of analytical detection techniques in enabling new applications is highlighted. We also discuss the future development direction of analytical detection techniques for droplet-based microfluidic systems.

  6. (N+1)-dimensional Lorentzian evolving wormholes supported by polytropic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataldo, Mauricio [Universidad del Bio-Bio, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Concepcion (Chile); Arostica, Fernanda; Bahamonde, Sebastian [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile)

    2013-08-15

    In this paper we study (N+1)-dimensional evolving wormholes supported by energy satisfying a polytropic equation of state. The considered evolving wormhole models are described by a constant redshift function and generalizes the standard flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. The polytropic equation of state allows us to consider in (3+1)-dimensions generalizations of the phantom energy and the generalized Chaplygin gas sources. (orig.)

  7. Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Brian; Conti, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The "Search for Life" via imaging of exoplanets is a mission that requires extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. The High Definition Space Telescope (HDST) envisioned for this mission would have an aperture >10 m, which is a larger payload than what can be delivered to space using a single launch vehicle. Building and assembling the mirror segments enabling large telescopes will likely require multiple launches and assembly in space. Space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to system architectures.The Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA) for HDST is a primary mission cost driver. Enabling and affordable solutions for this next generation of large aperture space-based telescope are needed.This paper reports on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST), which demonstrates on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of a precision optical telescope in space. It will also facilitate demonstration of active correction of phase and mirror shape. MODEST is proposed to be delivered to the ISS using standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets. Post-assembly value includes space, ground, and environmental studies, and a testbed for new instruments. This demonstration program for next generation mirror technology provides significant risk reduction and demonstrates the technology in a six-mirror phased telescope. Other key features of the demonstration include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control that allows on-orbit optimization and demonstration of precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal

  8. A Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Alberto; Arenberg, Jonathan; Baldauf, Brian

    2017-01-01

    The “Search for Life” (direct imaging of earth-like planets) will require extremely stable telescopes with apertures in the 10 m to 20 m range. Such apertures are larger than what can be delivered to space using current or planned future launch vehicles. Building and assembling large telescopes in space is therefore likely to require not only multiple launches but importantly assembly in spce. As a result, space-based telescopes with large apertures will require major changes to our conventional telescope design and architecture.Here we report on the concept for the Modular Orbital Demonstration of an Evolvable Space Telescope (MODEST) to demonstrates the on-orbit robotic and/or astronaut assembly of an optical telescope in space. MODEST is a proposed International Space Station (ISS demonstration that will make use of the standard Express Logistics Carriers (ELCs) and can mounted to one of a variety of ISS pallets.MODEST will provides significant risk reduction for the next generation of space observatories, and demonstrates the technology needed to assemble a six-mirror phased telescope. Key modest features include the use of an active primary optical surface with wavefront feedback control to allow on-orbit optimization, and the precise surface control to meet optical system wavefront and stability requirements.MODEST will also be used to evaluate advances in lightweight mirror and metering structure materials such as SiC or Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties, e.g. high stiffness, high modulus, high thermal conductivity, and low thermal expansion. Mirrors built from these materials can be rapidly replicated in a highly cost effective manner, making them an excellent candidate for a low cost, high performance Optical Telescope Assembly paving the way for enabling affordable solutions for the next generation of large aperture space-based telescope.MODEST post-assembly value includes space, ground, and

  9. Evolving treatment strategies for management of cardiorenal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandamudi, Sanjay; Chen, Horng H

    2011-12-01

    aspects about our evolving understanding of the cardiorenal system are the innovative treatments that have emerged as a result. The creation of chimeric natriuretic peptides, targeted intra-renal pharmacotherapy, the novel use of phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and combination treatment strategies demonstrate that despite our varied success in treating cardiorenal syndrome in the past, there are highly encouraging translational therapies rapidly developing in the pipeline.

  10. Climate in Context - How partnerships evolve in regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2015, NOAA's RISA program will celebrate its 20th year of exploration in the development of usable climate information. In the mid-1990s, a vision emerged to develop interdisciplinary research efforts at the regional scale for several important reasons. Recognizable climate patterns, such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), emerge at the regional level where our understanding of observations and models coalesce. Critical resources for society are managed in a context of regional systems, such as water supply and human populations. Multiple scales of governance (local, state, and federal) with complex institutional relationships can be examined across a region. Climate information (i.e. data, science, research etc) developed within these contexts has greater potential for use. All of this work rests on a foundation of iterative engagement between scientists and decision makers. Throughout these interactions, RISAs have navigated diverse politics, extreme events and disasters, socio-economic and ecological disruptions, and advances in both science and technology. Our understanding of information needs is evolving into a richer understanding of complex institutional, legal, political, and cultural contexts within which people can use science to make informed decisions. The outcome of RISA work includes both cases where climate information was used in decisions and cases where capacity for using climate information and making climate resilient decisions has increased over time. In addition to balancing supply and demand of scientific information, RISAs are engaged in a social process of reconciling climate information use with important drivers of society. Because partnerships are critical for sustained engagement, and because engagement is critically important to the use of science, the rapid development of new capacity in regionally-based science programs focused on providing climate decision support is both needed and challenging. New actors can bolster

  11. Creative Analytics of Mission Ops Event Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Historically, tremendous effort has been put into processing and displaying mission health and safety telemetry data; and relatively little attention has been paid to extracting information from missions time-tagged event log messages. Todays missions may log tens of thousands of messages per day and the numbers are expected to dramatically increase as satellite fleets and constellations are launched, as security monitoring continues to evolve, and as the overall complexity of ground system operations increases. The logs may contain information about orbital events, scheduled and actual observations, device status and anomalies, when operators were logged on, when commands were resent, when there were data drop outs or system failures, and much much more. When dealing with distributed space missions or operational fleets, it becomes even more important to systematically analyze this data. Several advanced information systems technologies make it appropriate to now develop analytic capabilities which can increase mission situational awareness, reduce mission risk, enable better event-driven automation and cross-mission collaborations, and lead to improved operations strategies: Industry Standard for Log Messages. The Object Management Group (OMG) Space Domain Task Force (SDTF) standards organization is in the process of creating a formal standard for industry for event log messages. The format is based on work at NASA GSFC. Open System Architectures. The DoD, NASA, and others are moving towards common open system architectures for mission ground data systems based on work at NASA GSFC with the full support of the commercial product industry and major integration contractors. Text Analytics. A specific area of data analytics which applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources. This presentation describes work now underway at NASA to increase situational awareness through the collection of non

  12. Statistical Model Based HPLC Analytical Method Adjustment Strategy to Adapt to Different Sets of Analytes in Complicated Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Binjun; Bai, Xue; Sheng, Yunjie; Li, Fanzhu

    2017-09-01

    On account of the complicated compositions of the products like traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) and functional foods, it is a common practice to determine different sets of analytes in the same product for different purposes. To efficiently develop the corresponding HPLC methods, a statistical model based analytical method adjustment (SMB-AMA) strategy was proposed. In this strategy, the HPLC data acquired with design of experiments methodology were efficiently utilised to build the retention models for all the analytes and interferences shown in the chromatograms with multivariate statistical modelling methods. According to the set of analytes under research, Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted based on these retention models to estimate the probability of achieving adequate separations between all the analytes and their interferences. Then the analytical parameters were mathematically optimised to the point giving a high value of this probability to compose a robust HPLC method. Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS) and its TCM formula with Folium Epimedii (FE) were taken as the complicated samples for case studies. The retention models for the compounds in RAS and FE were built independently with correlation coefficients all above 0.9799. The analytical parameters were tactfully adjusted to adapt to six cases of different sets of analytes and different sample matrices. In the validation experiments using the adjusted analytical parameters, satisfactory separations were acquired. The results demonstrated that the SMB-AMA strategy was able to develop HPLC methods rationally and rapidly in the adaption of different sets of analytes. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Learning Analytics: Challenges and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna; Watson, Cate; Thompson, Terrie Lynn; Drew, Valerie; Doyle, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Learning analytic implementations are increasingly being included in learning management systems in higher education. We lay out some concerns with the way learning analytics--both data and algorithms--are often presented within an unproblematized Big Data discourse. We describe some potential problems with the often implicit assumptions about…

  14. Analytics for Cyber Network Defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plantenga, Todd. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kolda, Tamara Gibson [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    This report provides a brief survey of analytics tools considered relevant to cyber network defense (CND). Ideas and tools come from elds such as statistics, data mining, and knowledge discovery. Some analytics are considered standard mathematical or statistical techniques, while others re ect current research directions. In all cases the report attempts to explain the relevance to CND with brief examples.

  15. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  16. The machine in multimedia analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahálka, J.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis investigates the role of the machine in multimedia analytics, a discipline that combines visual analytics with multimedia analysis algorithms in order to unlock the potential of multimedia collections as sources of knowledge in scientific and applied domains. Specifically, the central

  17. Effective but costly, evolved mechanisms of defense against a virulent opportunistic pathogen in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixin H Ye

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila harbor substantial genetic variation for antibacterial defense, and investment in immunity is thought to involve a costly trade-off with life history traits, including development, life span, and reproduction. To understand the way in which insects invest in fighting bacterial infection, we selected for survival following systemic infection with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa in wild-caught Drosophila melanogaster over 10 generations. We then examined genome-wide changes in expression in the selected flies relative to unselected controls, both of which had been infected with the pathogen. This powerful combination of techniques allowed us to specifically identify the genetic basis of the evolved immune response. In response to selection, population-level survivorship to infection increased from 15% to 70%. The evolved capacity for defense was costly, however, as evidenced by reduced longevity and larval viability and a rapid loss of the trait once selection pressure was removed. Counter to expectation, we observed more rapid developmental rates in the selected flies. Selection-associated changes in expression of genes with dual involvement in developmental and immune pathways suggest pleiotropy as a possible mechanism for the positive correlation. We also found that both the Toll and the Imd pathways work synergistically to limit infectivity and that cellular immunity plays a more critical role in overcoming P. aeruginosa infection than previously reported. This work reveals novel pathways by which Drosophila can survive infection with a virulent pathogen that may be rare in wild populations, however, due to their cost.

  18. Whole-genome sequencing of a laboratory-evolved yeast strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunham Maitreya J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental evolution of microbial populations provides a unique opportunity to study evolutionary adaptation in response to controlled selective pressures. However, until recently it has been difficult to identify the precise genetic changes underlying adaptation at a genome-wide scale. New DNA sequencing technologies now allow the genome of parental and evolved strains of microorganisms to be rapidly determined. Results We sequenced >93.5% of the genome of a laboratory-evolved strain of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its ancestor at >28× depth. Both single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number amplifications were found, with specific gains over array-based methodologies previously used to analyze these genomes. Applying a segmentation algorithm to quantify structural changes, we determined the approximate genomic boundaries of a 5× gene amplification. These boundaries guided the recovery of breakpoint sequences, which provide insights into the nature of a complex genomic rearrangement. Conclusions This study suggests that whole-genome sequencing can provide a rapid approach to uncover the genetic basis of evolutionary adaptations, with further applications in the study of laboratory selections and mutagenesis screens. In addition, we show how single-end, short read sequencing data can provide detailed information about structural rearrangements, and generate predictions about the genomic features and processes that underlie genome plasticity.

  19. Rapid prototyping of composite aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott

    The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.

  20. Páramo is the world’s fastest evolving and coolest biodiversity hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago eMadriñán

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes that cause speciation is a key aim of evolutionary biology. Lineages or biomes that exhibit recent and rapid diversification are ideal model systems for determining these processes. Species rich biomes reported to be of relatively recent origin, i.e., since the beginning of the Miocene, include Mediterranean ecosystems such as the California Floristic Province, oceanic islands such as the Hawaiian archipelago and the Neotropical high elevation ecosystem of the Páramos. Páramos constitute grasslands above the forest tree-line (at elevations of c. 2800–4700 m with high species endemism. Organisms that occupy this ecosystem are a likely product of unique adaptations to an extreme environment that evolved during the last three to five million years when the Andes reached an altitude that was capable of sustaining this type of vegetation. We compared net diversification rates of lineages in fast evolving biomes using 73 dated molecular phylogenies. Based on our sample, we demonstrate that average net diversification rates of Páramo plant lineages are faster than those of other reportedly fast evolving hotspots and that the faster evolving lineages are more likely to be found in Páramos than the other hotspots. Páramos therefore represent the ideal model system for studying diversification processes. Most of the speciation events that we observed in the Páramos (144 out of 177 occurred during the Pleistocene possibly due to the effects of species range contraction and expansion that may have resulted from the well-documented climatic changes during that period. Understanding these effects will assist with efforts to determine how future climatic changes will impact plant populations.

  1. Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis Evolving From Radiologically Isolated Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Orhun H; Lebrun, Christine; Siva, Aksel; Keegan, Mark B; Azevedo, Christina J; Inglese, Matilde; Tintoré, Mar; Newton, Braeden D; Durand-Dubief, Francoise; Amato, Maria Pia; De Stefano, Nicola; Sormani, Maria Pia; Pelletier, Daniel; Okuda, Darin T

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the preprogressive phase in subjects with radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) who evolve to primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). A multicenter RIS cohort was previously established. Demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics of subjects with RIS that evolved directly to PPMS were compared to those that developed a relapsing disease course from onset (clinically isolated syndrome [CIS] or relapsing-remitting MS) and were also compared to two other population- and clinic-based PPMS cohorts. Of the 453 subjects with RIS, 128 evolved to symptomatic MS during the follow-up (113 developed a first acute clinical event consistent with CIS/MS, 15 evolved to PPMS). PPMS prevalence (11.7%) and onset age (mean ± standard deviation; 49.1 ± 12.1) in the RIS group were comparable to other PPMS populations (p > 0.05). Median time to PPMS was 3.5 years (range, 1.6-5.4). RIS evolved to PPMS more commonly in men (p = 0.005) and at an older age (p < 0.001) when compared to CIS/MS, independent of follow-up duration. Subjects who evolved to PPMS had more spinal cord lesions (100%) before symptomatic evolution than those that developed CIS/MS (64%) and those that remained asymptomatic (23%) within the follow-up period (P = 0.005). Other MRI characteristics in the preprogressive phase of PPMS were indistinguishable from CIS/MS. Subjects with RIS evolve to PPMS at the same frequency as expected from general MS populations in an age-dependent manner. Besides age, unequivocal presence of spinal cord lesions and being male predicted evolution to PPMS. Our findings further suggest that RIS is biologically part of the MS spectrum. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  2. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  3. Semantic Interaction for Visual Analytics: Toward Coupling Cognition and Computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endert, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    The dissertation discussed in this article [1] was written in the midst of an era of digitization. The world is becoming increasingly instrumented with sensors, monitoring, and other methods for generating data describing social, physical, and natural phenomena. Thus, data exist with the potential of being analyzed to uncover, or discover, the phenomena from which it was created. However, as the analytic models leveraged to analyze these data continue to increase in complexity and computational capability, how can visualizations and user interaction methodologies adapt and evolve to continue to foster discovery and sensemaking?

  4. Fast analytical scatter estimation using graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Harry; Lippuner, Jonas; Rickey, Daniel W; Li, Yue; Elbakri, Idris

    2015-01-01

    To develop a fast patient-specific analytical estimator of first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in cone-beam computed tomography, implemented using graphics processing units. The authors developed an analytical estimator for first-order Compton and Rayleigh scatter in a cone-beam computed tomography geometry. The estimator was coded using NVIDIA's CUDA environment for execution on an NVIDIA graphics processing unit. Performance of the analytical estimator was validated by comparison with high-count Monte Carlo simulations for two different numerical phantoms. Monoenergetic analytical simulations were compared with monoenergetic and polyenergetic Monte Carlo simulations. Analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates were compared both qualitatively, from visual inspection of images and profiles, and quantitatively, using a scaled root-mean-square difference metric. Reconstruction of simulated cone-beam projection data of an anthropomorphic breast phantom illustrated the potential of this method as a component of a scatter correction algorithm. The monoenergetic analytical and Monte Carlo scatter estimates showed very good agreement. The monoenergetic analytical estimates showed good agreement for Compton single scatter and reasonable agreement for Rayleigh single scatter when compared with polyenergetic Monte Carlo estimates. For a voxelized phantom with dimensions 128 × 128 × 128 voxels and a detector with 256 × 256 pixels, the analytical estimator required 669 seconds for a single projection, using a single NVIDIA 9800 GX2 video card. Accounting for first order scatter in cone-beam image reconstruction improves the contrast to noise ratio of the reconstructed images. The analytical scatter estimator, implemented using graphics processing units, provides rapid and accurate estimates of single scatter and with further acceleration and a method to account for multiple scatter may be useful for practical scatter correction schemes.

  5. Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Reimann, Peter; Halb, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Teaching Analytics is conceived as a subfield of learning analytics that focuses on the design, development, evaluation, and education of visual analytics methods and tools for teachers in primary, secondary, and tertiary educational settings. The Second International Workshop on Teaching Analytics...... (IWTA) 2013 seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners in the fields of education, learning sciences, learning analytics, and visual analytics to investigate the design, development, use, evaluation, and impact of visual analytical methods and tools for teachers’ dynamic diagnostic decision...

  6. Building smart cities analytics, ICT, and design thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Stimmel, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    The term "smart city" defines the new urban environment, one that is designed for performance through information and communication technologies. Given that the majority of people across the world will live in urban environments within the next few decades, it's not surprising that massive effort and investment is being placed into efforts to develop strategies and plans for achieving "smart" urban growth. Building Smart Cities: Analytics, ICT, and Design Thinking explains the technology and a methodology known as design thinking for building smart cities. Information and communications technologies form the backbone of smart cities. A comprehensive and robust data analytics program enables the right choices to be made in building these cities. Design thinking helps to create smart cities that are both livable and able to evolve. This book examines all of these components in the context of smart city development and shows how to use them in an integrated manner. Using the principles of design thinking to refr...

  7. Modeling and clustering users with evolving profiles in usage streams

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Chongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Today, there is an increasing need of data stream mining technology to discover important patterns on the fly. Existing data stream models and algorithms commonly assume that users\\' records or profiles in data streams will not be updated or revised once they arrive. Nevertheless, in various applications such asWeb usage, the records/profiles of the users can evolve along time. This kind of streaming data evolves in two forms, the streaming of tuples or transactions as in the case of traditional data streams, and more importantly, the evolving of user records/profiles inside the streams. Such data streams bring difficulties on modeling and clustering for exploring users\\' behaviors. In this paper, we propose three models to summarize this kind of data streams, which are the batch model, the Evolving Objects (EO) model and the Dynamic Data Stream (DDS) model. Through creating, updating and deleting user profiles, these models summarize the behaviors of each user as a profile object. Based upon these models, clustering algorithms are employed to discover interesting user groups from the profile objects. We have evaluated all the proposed models on a large real-world data set, showing that the DDS model summarizes the data streams with evolving tuples more efficiently and effectively, and provides better basis for clustering users than the other two models. © 2012 IEEE.

  8. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  9. Nuclear techniques in analytical chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Alfred J; Gordon, L

    1964-01-01

    Nuclear Techniques in Analytical Chemistry discusses highly sensitive nuclear techniques that determine the micro- and macro-amounts or trace elements of materials. With the increasingly frequent demand for the chemical determination of trace amounts of elements in materials, the analytical chemist had to search for more sensitive methods of analysis. This book accustoms analytical chemists with nuclear techniques that possess the desired sensitivity and applicability at trace levels. The topics covered include safe handling of radioactivity; measurement of natural radioactivity; and neutron a

  10. Banach spaces of analytic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    A classic of pure mathematics, this advanced graduate-level text explores the intersection of functional analysis and analytic function theory. Close in spirit to abstract harmonic analysis, it is confined to Banach spaces of analytic functions in the unit disc.The author devotes the first four chapters to proofs of classical theorems on boundary values and boundary integral representations of analytic functions in the unit disc, including generalizations to Dirichlet algebras. The fifth chapter contains the factorization theory of Hp functions, a discussion of some partial extensions of the f

  11. Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany: from 1936 to the end of World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenl, William

    2014-04-01

    This article first shows Jung's evolving views of Nazi Germany from 1936 to the beginning of World War II. In a lecture at the Tavistock Clinic, London, in October 1936, he made his strongest and most negative statements to that date about Nazi Germany. While in Berlin in September 1937 for lectures to the Jung Gesellschaft, his observations of Hitler at a military parade led him to conclude that should the catastrophe of war come it would be far more and bloodier than he had previously supposed. After the Sudetenland Crisis in Fall 1938, Jung in interviews made stronger comments on Hitler and Nazi Germany. The article shows how strongly anti-Nazi Jung's views were in relation to events during World War II such as Nazi Germany's invasion of Poland, the fall of France, the bombings of Britain, the U.S. entry into the War, and Allied troops advancing into Germany. Schoenl and Peck, 'An Answer to the Question: Was Jung, for a Time, a "Nazi Sympathizer" or Not?' (2012) demonstrated how his views of Nazi Germany changed from 1933 to March 1936. The present article shows how his views evolved from 1936 to the War's end in 1945. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  12. Impact of the spatial distribution of morphological pattern on the efficiency of electrocatalytic gas evolving reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žerađanin Aleksandar R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of electrocatalytic gas evolving reactions (hydrogen, chlorine and oxygen evolution is a key challenge for the important industrial processes, such as chlor-alkali electrolysis or water electrolysis. Central issue for the aforementioned electrocatalytic processes is huge power consumption. Experimental results accumulated in the past, as well as some predictive models ("volcano" plots indicate that altering the nature of the electrode material cannot significantly increase the activity of mentioned reactions. Consequently, it is necessary to find a qualitatively different strategy for improving the energy efficiency of electrocatalytic gas evolving reactions. Usually disregarded fact is that the gas evolution is an oscillatory phenomenon. Given the oscillatory behavior, a key parameter of macrokinetics of gas electrode is the frequency of gas-bubble detachment. Bearing in mind that the gas evolution greatly depends on the surface morphology, a methodology is proposed that establishes a rational link between the morphological pattern of electrode with electrode activity and stability. Characterization was performed using advanced analytical tools. Frequency of gas-bubble detachment is obtained in the configuration of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM while the corrosion stability is analyzed using miniaturized scanning flow electrochemical cell connected to the mass spectrometer (SFC-ICPMS.

  13. Evolvable Smartphone-Based Platforms for Point-of-Care In-Vitro Diagnostics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Patou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The association of smart mobile devices and lab-on-chip technologies offers unprecedented opportunities for the emergence of direct-to-consumer in vitro medical diagnostics applications. Despite their clear transformative potential, obstacles remain to the large-scale disruption and long-lasting success of these systems in the consumer market. For instance, the increasing level of complexity of instrumented lab-on-chip devices, coupled to the sporadic nature of point-of-care testing, threatens the viability of a business model mainly relying on disposable/consumable lab-on-chips. We argued recently that system evolvability, defined as the design characteristic that facilitates more manageable transitions between system generations via the modification of an inherited design, can help remedy these limitations. In this paper, we discuss how platform-based design can constitute a formal entry point to the design and implementation of evolvable smart device/lab-on-chip systems. We present both a hardware/software design framework and the implementation details of a platform prototype enabling at this stage the interfacing of several lab-on-chip variants relying on current- or impedance-based biosensors. Our findings suggest that several change-enabling mechanisms implemented in the higher abstraction software layers of the system can promote evolvability, together with the design of change-absorbing hardware/software interfaces. Our platform architecture is based on a mobile software application programming interface coupled to a modular hardware accessory. It allows the specification of lab-on-chip operation and post-analytic functions at the mobile software layer. We demonstrate its potential by operating a simple lab-on-chip to carry out the detection of dopamine using various electroanalytical methods.

  14. A rapid two step protocol of in vitro propagation of an important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation aimed at developing rapid micro propagation protocol, which can be used for conservation of Centella asiatica and mass multiplication of a valuable medicinal plant to meet out the pharmaceutical demand and its conservation. Attempts were made to evolve a rapid in vitro technology to conserve, ...

  15. A rapid two step protocol of in vitro propagation of an important ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chandrakant tiwari

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... The present investigation aimed at developing rapid micro propagation protocol, which can be used for conservation of Centella asiatica and mass multiplication of a valuable medicinal plant to meet out the pharmaceutical demand and its conservation. Attempts were made to evolve a rapid in vitro ...

  16. Synthesis of Evolving Cells for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, J.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The concept of Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems (RMSs) was formulated due to the global necessity for production systems that are able to economically evolve according to changes in markets and products. Technologies and design methods are under development to enable RMSs to exhibit transformable system layouts, reconfigurable processes, cells and machines. Existing factory design methods and software have not yet advanced to include reconfigurable manufacturing concepts. This paper presents the underlying group technology framework for the design of manufacturing cells that are able to evolve according to a changing product mix by mechanisms of reconfiguration. The framework is based on a Norton- Bass forecast and time variant BOM models. An adaptation of legacy group technology methods is presented for the synthesis of evolving cells and two optimization problems are presented within this context.

  17. Evolving Systems: An Outcome of Fondest Hopes and Wildest Dreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    New theory is presented for evolving systems, which are autonomously controlled subsystems that self-assemble into a new evolved system with a higher purpose. Evolving systems of aerospace structures often require additional control when assembling to maintain stability during the entire evolution process. This is the concept of Adaptive Key Component Control that operates through one specific component to maintain stability during the evolution. In addition, this control must often overcome persistent disturbances that occur while the evolution is in progress. Theoretical results will be presented for Adaptive Key Component control for persistent disturbance rejection. An illustrative example will demonstrate the Adaptive Key Component controller on a system composed of rigid body and flexible body modes.

  18. Computational Genetic Regulatory Networks Evolvable, Self-organizing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Knabe, Johannes F

    2013-01-01

    Genetic Regulatory Networks (GRNs) in biological organisms are primary engines for cells to enact their engagements with environments, via incessant, continually active coupling. In differentiated multicellular organisms, tremendous complexity has arisen in the course of evolution of life on earth. Engineering and science have so far achieved no working system that can compare with this complexity, depth and scope of organization. Abstracting the dynamics of genetic regulatory control to a computational framework in which artificial GRNs in artificial simulated cells differentiate while connected in a changing topology, it is possible to apply Darwinian evolution in silico to study the capacity of such developmental/differentiated GRNs to evolve. In this volume an evolutionary GRN paradigm is investigated for its evolvability and robustness in models of biological clocks, in simple differentiated multicellularity, and in evolving artificial developing 'organisms' which grow and express an ontogeny starting fr...

  19. Study on evolving phases of accelerating generalized polygon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntian; Dong, Fengliang; Qian, Kemao; Zhang, Qingchuan; Chu, Weiguo; Ma, Xuan; Wu, Xiaoping

    2016-03-07

    Recently, accelerating beam is becoming a hotspot in optics research. In this paper, we studied the evolving phases of accelerating generalized polygon beams (AGPBs) and proposed a novel method to generate this beam family. An important discovery has been made about reconstructing AGPBs only by evolving low-frequency phases in high power region, which confirms the dominant role of phase terms in the AGPBs' evolution. We also succeeded controlling the size and quantity of AGPB's intensity peaks in an easy and direct manner by manipulating the evolving phases in low frequency. This result not only explains the self-healing property of AGPBs but also confirms that AGPBs can be a great candidate to function as an optical tweezer to trap and free microparticles and microcreatures for certain purpose.

  20. Cosmic Biology How Life Could Evolve on Other Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Louis Neil

    2011-01-01

    It is very unlikely that little green humanoids are living on Mars. But what are the possible life forms that might exist in our Solar System and how might they have evolved? This uniquely authoritative and imaginative book on the possibilties for alien life addresses the intrinsic interest that we have about life on other worlds - reinforcing some of our assumptions and reshaping others. It introduces new possibilties that will enlarge our understanding of the issue overall, in particular the enormous range of environments and planetary conditions within which life might evolve. Cosmic Biology -discusses a broad range of possible environments where alien life might have evolved; -explains why carbon-based, water-borne life is more likely that its alternatives, but is not the only possiblity; -applies the principles of planetary science and modern biology to evolutionary scenarios on other worlds; -looks at the future fates of living systems, including those on Earth.

  1. Qualitative Functional Decomposition Analysis of Evolved Neuromorphic Flight Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay K. Boddhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the previous work, it was demonstrated that one can effectively employ CTRNN-EH (a neuromorphic variant of EH method methodology to evolve neuromorphic flight controllers for a flapping wing robot. This paper describes a novel frequency grouping-based analysis technique, developed to qualitatively decompose the evolved controllers into explainable functional control blocks. A summary of the previous work related to evolving flight controllers for two categories of the controller types, called autonomous and nonautonomous controllers, is provided, and the applicability of the newly developed decomposition analysis for both controller categories is demonstrated. Further, the paper concludes with appropriate discussion of ongoing work and implications for possible future work related to employing the CTRNN-EH methodology and the decomposition analysis techniques presented in this paper.

  2. The Scalable Reasoning System: Lightweight Visualization for Distributed Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, William A.; Bruce, Joseph R.; Baddeley, Robert L.; Best, Daniel M.; Franklin, Lyndsey; May, Richard A.; Rice, Douglas M.; Riensche, Roderick M.; Younkin, Katarina

    2009-03-01

    A central challenge in visual analytics is the creation of accessible, widely distributable analysis applications that bring the benefits of visual discovery to as broad a user base as possible. Moreover, to support the role of visualization in the knowledge creation process, it is advantageous to allow users to describe the reasoning strategies they employ while interacting with analytic environments. We introduce an application suite called the Scalable Reasoning System (SRS), which provides web-based and mobile interfaces for visual analysis. The service-oriented analytic framework that underlies SRS provides a platform for deploying pervasive visual analytic environments across an enterprise. SRS represents a “lightweight” approach to visual analytics whereby thin client analytic applications can be rapidly deployed in a platform-agnostic fashion. Client applications support multiple coordinated views while giving analysts the ability to record evidence, assumptions, hypotheses and other reasoning artifacts. We describe the capabilities of SRS in the context of a real-world deployment at a regional law enforcement organization.

  3. "Analytical" vector-functions I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Vladimir Todorov

    2017-12-01

    In this note we try to give a new (or different) approach to the investigation of analytical vector functions. More precisely a notion of a power xn; n ∈ ℕ+ of a vector x ∈ ℝ3 is introduced which allows to define an "analytical" function f : ℝ3 → ℝ3. Let furthermore f (ξ )= ∑n =0 ∞ anξn be an analytical function of the real variable ξ. Here we replace the power ξn of the number ξ with the power of a vector x ∈ ℝ3 to obtain a vector "power series" f (x )= ∑n =0 ∞ anxn . We research some properties of the vector series as well as some applications of this idea. Note that an "analytical" vector function does not depend of any basis, which may be used in research into some problems in physics.

  4. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2017-01-01

    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  5. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    -economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...... of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing...... with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system...

  6. Labour Market Driven Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vladimer; Mol, Stefan T.; Kismihók, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines a project about integrating labour market information in a learning analytics goal-setting application that provides guidance to students in their transition from education to employment.

  7. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Grossman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  8. Organizational Models for Big Data and Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Grossman; Kevin P. Siegel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a framework for determining how analytics capability should be distributed within an organization. Our framework stresses the importance of building a critical mass of analytics staff, centralizing or decentralizing the analytics staff to support business processes, and establishing an analytics governance structure to ensure that analytics processes are supported by the organization as a whole.

  9. Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S S-L; Gao, G; Koch, S

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare". The amount of data being generated in the healthcare industry is growing at a rapid rate. This has generated immense interest in leveraging the availability of healthcare data (and "big data") to improve health outcomes and reduce costs. However, the nature of healthcare data, and especially big data, presents unique challenges in processing and analyzing big data in healthcare. This Focus Theme aims to disseminate some novel approaches to address these challenges. More specifically, approaches ranging from efficient methods of processing large clinical data to predictive models that could generate better predictions from healthcare data are presented.

  10. Developing a Learning Analytics tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Christian; Belle, Gianna; Clemmensen, Anita Lykke

    This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities.......This poster describes how learning analytics and collective intelligence can be combined in order to develop a tool for providing support and feedback to learners and teachers regarding students self-initiated learning activities....

  11. A Primer on Spreadsheet Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides guidance to an analyst who wants to extract insight from a spreadsheet model. It discusses the terminology of spreadsheet analytics, how to prepare a spreadsheet model for analysis, and a hierarchy of analytical techniques. These techniques include sensitivity analysis, tornado charts,and backsolving (or goal-seeking). This paper presents native-Excel approaches for automating these techniques, and discusses add-ins that are even more efficient. Spreadsheet optimization an...

  12. Functionalized magnetic nanoparticle analyte sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Maryin G; Warner, Cynthia L; Addleman, Raymond S; Fryxell, Glen E; Timchalk, Charles; Toloczko, Mychailo B

    2014-03-25

    A method and system for simply and efficiently determining quantities of a preselected material in a particular solution by the placement of at least one superparamagnetic nanoparticle having a specified functionalized organic material connected thereto into a particular sample solution, wherein preselected analytes attach to the functionalized organic groups, these superparamagnetic nanoparticles are then collected at a collection site and analyzed for the presence of a particular analyte.

  13. The cartography of pain: the evolving contribution of pain maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Geoffrey D

    2010-09-01

    Pain maps are nowadays widely used in clinical practice. This article aims to critically review the fundamental principles that underlie the mapping of pain, to analyse the evolving iconography of pain maps and their sometimes straightforward and sometimes contentious nature when used in the clinic, and to draw attention to some more recent developments in mapping pain. It is concluded that these maps are intriguing and evolving cartographic tools which can be used for depicting not only the spatial features but also the interpretative or perceptual components and accompaniments of pain. Copyright 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 1. History, evolution, and evolving standards of contact lens care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Ahearn, Donald G; Barr, Joseph; Benjamin, William Joe; Kiang, Tina; Nichols, Jason J; Schein, Oliver D; Stone, Ralph P; Winterton, Lynn

    2013-01-15

    Contact lenses and lens care regimens are an important part of eyecare practices and vital to lens-wearing patients. New contact lens materials and cleaning options continue to come to market and affect how patients wear and care for their lenses. In this section we look at how the contact lens and lens solution revolution started, how it has evolved over the last 40 years, and how standards have evolved and impacted these new offerings. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Active Printed Materials for Complex Self-Evolving Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-12-01

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus.

  16. Framework for behavioral analytics in anomaly identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Maroun; Bertino, Elisa; Rivera, Brian; Verma, Dinesh; Calo, Seraphin

    2017-05-01

    Behavioral Analytics (BA) relies on digital breadcrumbs to build user profiles and create clusters of entities that exhibit a large degree of similarity. The prevailing assumption is that an entity will assimilate the group behavior of the cluster it belongs to. Our understanding of BA and its application in different domains continues to evolve and is a direct result of the growing interest in Machine Learning research. When trying to detect security threats, we use BA techniques to identify anomalies, defined in this paper as deviation from the group behavior. Early research papers in this field reveal a high number of false positives where a security alert is triggered based on deviation from the cluster learned behavior but still within the norm of what the system defines as an acceptable behavior. Further, domain specific security policies tend to be narrow and inadequately represent what an entity can do. Hence, they: a) limit the amount of useful data during the learning phase; and, b) lead to violation of policy during the execution phase. In this paper, we propose a framework for future research on the role of policies and behavior security in a coalition setting with emphasis on anomaly detection and individual's deviation from group activities.

  17. Nutritional lipidomics: molecular metabolism, analytics, and diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Zivkovic, Angela M; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne; Watkins, Steve M; Nording, Malin L; Hammock, Bruce D; German, J Bruce

    2013-08-01

    The field of lipidomics is providing nutritional science a more comprehensive view of lipid intermediates. Lipidomics research takes advantage of the increase in accuracy and sensitivity of mass detection of MS with new bioinformatics toolsets to characterize the structures and abundances of complex lipids. Yet, translating lipidomics to practice via nutritional interventions is still in its infancy. No single instrumentation platform is able to solve the varying analytical challenges of the different molecular lipid species. Biochemical pathways of lipid metabolism remain incomplete and the tools to map lipid compositional data to pathways are still being assembled. Biology itself is dauntingly complex and simply separating biological structures remains a key challenge to lipidomics. Nonetheless, the strategy of combining tandem analytical methods to perform the sensitive, high-throughput, quantitative, and comprehensive analysis of lipid metabolites of very large numbers of molecules is poised to drive the field forward rapidly. Among the next steps for nutrition to understand the changes in structures, compositions, and function of lipid biomolecules in response to diet is to describe their distribution within discrete functional compartments lipoproteins. Additionally, lipidomics must tackle the task of assigning the functions of lipids as signaling molecules, nutrient sensors, and intermediates of metabolic pathways. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. RAPID: Collaborative Commanding and Monitoring of Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Powell, Mark W.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Crockett, Thomas M.; Abramyan, Lucy; Shams, Khawaja S.; Wallick, Michael; Allan, Mark; hide

    2011-01-01

    RAPID (Robot Application Programming Interface Delegate) software utilizes highly robust technology to facilitate commanding and monitoring of lunar assets. RAPID provides the ability for intercenter communication, since these assets are developed in multiple NASA centers. RAPID is targeted at the task of lunar operations; specifically, operations that deal with robotic assets, cranes, and astronaut spacesuits, often developed at different NASA centers. RAPID allows for a uniform way to command and monitor these assets. Commands can be issued to take images, and monitoring is done via telemetry data from the asset. There are two unique features to RAPID: First, it allows any operator from any NASA center to control any NASA lunar asset, regardless of location. Second, by abstracting the native language for specific assets to a common set of messages, an operator may control and monitor any NASA lunar asset by being trained only on the use of RAPID, rather than the specific asset. RAPID is easier to use and more powerful than its predecessor, the Astronaut Interface Device (AID). Utilizing the new robust middleware, DDS (Data Distribution System), developing in RAPID has increased significantly over the old middleware. The API is built upon the Java Eclipse Platform, which combined with DDS, provides platform-independent software architecture, simplifying development of RAPID components. As RAPID continues to evolve and new messages are being designed and implemented, operators for future lunar missions will have a rich environment for commanding and monitoring assets.

  19. An evolving model for the lodging-service network in a tourism destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Juan M.; González-Martel, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Tourism is a complex dynamic system including multiple actors which are related each other composing an evolving social network. This paper presents a growing model that explains how part of the supply components in a tourism system forms a social network. Specifically, the lodgings and services in a destination are the network nodes and a link between them appears if a representative tourist hosted in the lodging visits/consumes the service during his/her stay. The specific link between both categories are determined by a random and preferential attachment rule. The analytic results show that the long-term degree distribution of services follows a shifted power-law distribution. The numerical simulations show slight disagreements with the theoretical results in the case of the one-mode degree distribution of services, due to the low order of convergence to zero of X-motifs. The model predictions are compared with real data coming from a popular tourist destination in Gran Canaria, Spain, showing a good agreement between analytical and empirical data for the degree distribution of services. The theoretical model was validated assuming four type of perturbations in the real data.

  20. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  1. A Bright Fluorescent Probe for H2S Enables Analyte-Responsive, 3D Imaging in Live Zebrafish Using Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Matthew D; Taormina, Michael J; Cerda, Matthew M; Montoya, Leticia A; Seidenkranz, Daniel T; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Pluth, Michael D

    2015-08-19

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a critical gaseous signaling molecule emerging at the center of a rich field of chemical and biological research. As our understanding of the complexity of physiological H2S in signaling pathways evolves, advanced chemical and technological investigative tools are required to make sense of this interconnectivity. Toward this goal, we have developed an azide-functionalized O-methylrhodol fluorophore, MeRho-Az, which exhibits a rapid >1000-fold fluorescence response when treated with H2S, is selective for H2S over other biological analytes, and has a detection limit of 86 nM. Additionally, the MeRho-Az scaffold is less susceptible to photoactivation than other commonly used azide-based systems, increasing its potential application in imaging experiments. To demonstrate the efficacy of this probe for H2S detection, we demonstrate the ability of MeRho-Az to detect differences in H2S levels in C6 cells and those treated with AOAA, a common inhibitor of enzymatic H2S synthesis. Expanding the use of MeRho-Az to complex and heterogeneous biological settings, we used MeRho-Az in combination with light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to visualize H2S in the intestinal tract of live zebrafish. This application provides the first demonstration of analyte-responsive 3D imaging with LSFM, highlighting the utility of combining new probes and live imaging methods for investigating chemical signaling in complex multicellular systems.

  2. Evolving matched filter transform pairs for satellite image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael R.; Horner, Toby; Moore, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Wavelets provide an attractive method for efficient image compression. For transmission across noisy or bandwidth limited channels, a signal may be subjected to quantization in which the signal is transcribed onto a reduced alphabet in order to save bandwidth. Unfortunately, the performance of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) degrades at increasing levels of quantization. In recent years, evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been employed to optimize wavelet-inspired transform filters to improve compression performance in the presence of quantization. Wavelet filters consist of a pair of real-valued coefficient sets; one set represents the compression filter while the other set defines the image reconstruction filter. The reconstruction filter is defined as the biorthogonal inverse of the compression filter. Previous research focused upon two approaches to filter optimization. In one approach, the original wavelet filter is used for image compression while the reconstruction filter is evolved by an EA. In the second approach, both the compression and reconstruction filters are evolved. In both cases, the filters are not biorthogonally related to one another. We propose a novel approach to filter evolution. The EA optimizes a compression filter. Rather than using a wavelet filter or evolving a second filter for reconstruction, the reconstruction filter is computed as the biorthogonal inverse of the evolved compression filter. The resulting filter pair retains some of the mathematical properties of wavelets. This paper compares this new approach to existing filter optimization approaches to determine its suitability for the optimization of image filters appropriate for defense applications of image processing.

  3. Functional properties of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.H.

    1996-01-01


    This Thesis presents the results of a study by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and measurements of oxygen evolution of the Oxygen Evolving Complex of Photosystem 11 (PS-II) in PS-II enriched membranes from spinach.

    The experimental part of this Thesis is preceded by a

  4. On the Benefits of Divergent Search for Evolved Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Risi, Sebastian; Stanley, Kenneth O

    2012-01-01

    explicit objectives that are consequently divergent may implicitly reward lineages that continually diverge, thereby indirectly selecting for evolvable representations that are better able to diverge further. This paper reviews a range of past results that support such a hypothesis from a method called...

  5. Fast, comfortable or economical: Evolving platooning strategies with many objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, W. van; Haasdijk, E.; Kester, L.J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The research in this paper is inspired by a vision of intelligent vehicles that autonomously move along motorways: they join and leave trains of vehicles (platoons), overtake other vehicles, etc. We propose a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm that evolves high-level controllers for such

  6. Evolving Robot Controllers for Structured Environments Through Environment Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Faiña, Andres; Støy, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    into four different sub-environments and evolve controllers that generalize to traverse two larger environments composed of the sub-environments. We also study two strategies for presenting the sub-environments to the evolutionary algorithm: all sub-environments at the same time and in sequence. Results...

  7. The urban watershed continuum: evolving spatial and temporal dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujay S. Kaushal; Kenneth T. Belt

    2012-01-01

    Urban ecosystems are constantly evolving, and they are expected to change in both space and time with active management or degradation. An urban watershed continuum framework recognizes a continuum of engineered and natural hydrologic flowpaths that expands hydrologic networks in ways that are seldom considered. It recognizes that the nature of hydrologic connectivity...

  8. Optimization as side-effect of evolving allelopathic diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagie, L.; Hogeweg, P.

    2001-01-01

    Many bacteria carry gene complexes that code for a toxin-antidote pair, e.g. colicin systems. Such gene complexes can be advantageous for its host by killing competitor bacteria while the antidote protects the host. However, in order to evolve a novel and useful toxin first a proper antidote must

  9. Did language evolve like the vertebrate eye? | Botha | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Did language evolve like the vertebrate eye? R P Botha. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.5774/34-0-33 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  10. A Review of Microbiology: An Evolving Science, Second Edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara May

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Microbiology: An Evolving Science, 2nd ed.; Joan L Slonczweski and John W. Foster; (2011. W.W. Norton & Company, New York NY. 1096 pages. ISBN: 978-0-393-93447-2. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  11. The Evolving Military Learner Population: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kate; Vignare, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This literature review examines the evolving online military learner population with emphasis on current generation military learners, who are most frequently Post-9/11 veterans. The review synthesizes recent scholarly and grey literature on military learner demographics and attributes, college experiences, and academic outcomes against a backdrop…

  12. Evolving Nature of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourian, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the historical and evolving terminology, constructs, and ideologies that inform the language used by those who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and same-gender loving, who may identify as queer, as well as those who are members of trans* communities from multiple and intersectional perspectives.

  13. Optimists' Creed: Brave New Cyberlearning, Evolving Utopias (Circa 2041)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Winslow; Lewis, Armanda

    2016-01-01

    This essay imagines the role that artificial intelligence innovations play in the integrated living, learning and research environments of 2041. Here, in 2041, in the context of increasingly complex wicked challenges, whose solutions by their very nature continue to evade even the most capable experts, society and technology have co-evolved to…

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Evolving, Recommender Online Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, K. Dharini Amitha; Gallupe, R. Brent

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive conceptual framework is developed and described for evolving recommender-driven online learning systems (ROLS). This framework describes how such systems can support students, course authors, course instructors, systems administrators, and policy makers in developing and using these ROLS. The design science information systems…

  15. Disaggregating soil erosion processes within an evolving experimental landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-mantled landscapes subjected to rainfall, runoff events, and downstream base level adjustments will erode and evolve in time and space. Yet the precise mechanisms for soil erosion also will vary, and such variations may not be adequately captured by soil erosion prediction technology. This st...

  16. Thermogravimetry-evolved gas analysis–mass spectrometry system ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This system which gives complete information on weight change, heat change, nature and content of evolved gases is being used for. temperature programmed decomposition (TPD),; synthesis of nanocrystalline materials,; gas–solid interactions and; analysis of gas mixtures. The TPD of various inorganic oxyanion solids ...

  17. Generic, Property Based Queries for Evolvable Weaving Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, I.; Bergmans, Lodewijk; Gülesir, G.; Durr, P.E.A.; Aksit, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    In the current aspect-oriented languages, advices and pointcuts are explicitly associated in general. This results in weaving specifications that are less evolvable and need more maintenance during the development of a system. To address this issue, we propose associative access to advices and

  18. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.B.G.; Arhonditsis, G.B.; Beusen, Arthur; Bolding, Karsten; Bruce, Louise; Bruggeman, Jorn; Couture, Raoul Marie; Downing, Andrea S.; Alex Elliott, J.; Frassl, M.A.; Gal, Gideon; Gerla, Daan J.; Hipsey, M.R.; Hu, Fenjuan; Ives, S.C.; Janse, J.H.; Jeppesen, Erik; Jöhnk, K.D.; Kneis, David; Kong, Xiangzhen; Kuiper, J.J.; Lehmann, M.K.; Lemmen, Carsten; Özkundakci, Deniz; Petzoldt, Thomas; Rinke, Karsten; Robson, B.J.; Sachse, René; Schep, S.A.; Schmid, Martin; Scholten, Huub; Teurlincx, Sven; Trolle, Dennis; Troost, T.A.; Dam, Van A.A.; Gerven, Van L.P.A.; Weijerman, Mariska; Wells, S.A.; Mooij, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality

  19. Intelligent reservoir operation system based on evolving artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Paulo; Chang, Fi-John

    2008-06-01

    We propose a novel intelligent reservoir operation system based on an evolving artificial neural network (ANN). Evolving means the parameters of the ANN model are identified by the GA evolutionary optimization technique. Accordingly, the ANN model should represent the operational strategies of reservoir operation. The main advantages of the Evolving ANN Intelligent System (ENNIS) are as follows: (i) only a small number of parameters to be optimized even for long optimization horizons, (ii) easy to handle multiple decision variables, and (iii) the straightforward combination of the operation model with other prediction models. The developed intelligent system was applied to the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir in North Taiwan, to investigate its applicability and practicability. The proposed method is first built to a simple formulation for the operation of the Shihmen Reservoir, with single objective and single decision. Its results were compared to those obtained by dynamic programming. The constructed network proved to be a good operational strategy. The method was then built and applied to the reservoir with multiple (five) decision variables. The results demonstrated that the developed evolving neural networks improved the operation performance of the reservoir when compared to its current operational strategy. The system was capable of successfully simultaneously handling various decision variables and provided reasonable and suitable decisions.

  20. Sextant: Visualizing time-evolving linked geospatial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Nikolaou (Charalampos); K. Dogani (Kallirroi); K. Bereta (Konstantina); G. Garbis (George); M. Karpathiotakis (Manos); K. Kyzirakos (Konstantinos); M. Koubarakis (Manolis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe linked open data cloud is constantly evolving as datasets get continuously updated with newer versions. As a result, representing, querying, and visualizing the temporal dimension of linked data is crucial. This is especially important for geospatial datasets that form the backbone

  1. SexTant: Visualizing Time-Evolving Linked Geospatial Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Bereta (Konstantina); C. Nikolaou (Charalampos); M. Karpathiotakis (Manos); K. Kyzirakos (Konstantinos); M. Koubarakis (Manolis); E. Blomqvist; T. Groza

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractWe present SexTant, a Web-based system for the visualization and exploration of time-evolving linked geospatial data and the creation, sharing, and collaborative editing of "temporally-enriched" thematic maps which are produced by combining dierent sources of such data.

  2. Evolving user needs and late-mover advantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querbes, Adrien; Frenken, Koen

    2017-01-01

    We propose a generalized NK-model of late-mover advantage where late-mover firms leapfrog first-mover firms as user needs evolve over time. First movers face severe trade-offs between the provision of functionalities in which their products already excel and the additional functionalities requested

  3. Water Footprint Assessment : Evolvement of a New Research Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the evolvement of water footprint assessment (WFA) as a new research field over the past fifteen years. The research is rooted in four basic thoughts: (1) there is a global dimension to water management because water-intensive commodities are internationally traded, so we must

  4. Evolving information systems: meeting the ever-changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, J.L.H.; Proper, H.A.; Falkenberg, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    To meet the demands of organizations and their ever-changing environment, information systems are required which are able to evolve to the same extent as organizations do. Such a system has to support changes in all time-and application-dependent aspects. In this paper, requirements and a conceptual

  5. Heritage – A Conceptually Evolving and Dissonant Phenomenon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I therefore, drawing from literature and experiences gained during field observations and focus group interviews, came up with the idea of working with three viewpoints of heritage. Drawing on real life cases I argue that current heritage management and education practices' failure to recognise and respect the evolving, ...

  6. Evolving strategies for cancer and autoimmunity: back to the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter John Lane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although current thinking has focused on genetic variation between individuals and environmental influences as underpinning susceptibility to both autoimmunity and cancer, an alternative view is that human susceptibility to these diseases is a consequence of the way the immune system evolved. It is important to remember that the immunological genes that we inherit and the systems that they control were shaped by the drive for reproductive success rather than for individual survival. It is our view that human susceptibility to autoimmunity and cancer are the evolutionarily acceptable side effects of the immune adaptations that evolved in early placental mammals to accommodate a fundamental change in reproductive strategy. Studies of immune function in mammals shows that high affinity antibodies and CD4 memory, along with its regulation, co-evolved with placentation. By dissection of the immunologically active genes and proteins that evolved to regulate this step change in the mammalian immune system, clues have emerged that may reveal ways of detuning both effector and regulatory arms of the immune system to abrogate autoimmune responses whilst preserving protection against infection. Paradoxically, it appears that such a detuned and deregulated immune system is much better equipped to mount anti-tumor immune responses against cancers.

  7. Baby dumping and evolving baby factories in Nigeria: their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baby dumping and evolving baby factories in Nigeria: their implication for child right and social protection. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... a society-based approach which involves a thorough overhaul of our rigid social orientation which will create room for a conducive environment for child rights and social ...

  8. Evolving Concepts of Development through the Experience of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... facing developing countries; how thinking has evolved on particular aspects of development; and how different organizations espouse and use ideas to influence development. The edited volume will be submitted to an academic press for publication, along with a companion volume appropriate for university teaching.

  9. Cyperus difformis evolves resistance to propanil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valverde Mena, Bernal Eduardo; Boddy, Louis G.; Pedroso, Rafael M.

    2014-01-01

    Cyperus difformis L. is one of the worst weeds of rice world-wide and has evolved resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in rice fields of California. Propanil use was intensified to control the widespread resistant biotypes. Rice growers have recently experienced poor co...

  10. Evolutionary genetics: you are what you evolve to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Ian; Jones, Corbin D

    2015-04-20

    The evolution of host specialization can potentially limit future evolutionary opportunities. A new study now shows how Drosophila sechellia, specialized on the toxic Morinda fruit, has evolved new nutritional needs influencing its reproduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  12. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  13. High Performance Visualization using Query-Driven Visualizationand Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Campbell, Scott; Dart, Eli; Shalf, John; Stockinger, Kurt; Wu, Kesheng

    2006-06-15

    Query-driven visualization and analytics is a unique approach for high-performance visualization that offers new capabilities for knowledge discovery and hypothesis testing. The new capabilities akin to finding needles in haystacks are the result of combining technologies from the fields of scientific visualization and scientific data management. This approach is crucial for rapid data analysis and visualization in the petascale regime. This article describes how query-driven visualization is applied to a hero-sized network traffic analysis problem.

  14. A New Approach to Spreadsheet Analytics Management in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Sentence, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Spreadsheets in financial markets are frequently used as database, calculator and reporting application combined. This paper describes an alternative approach in which spreadsheet design and database technology have been brought together in order to alleviate management and regulatory concerns over the operational risks of spreadsheet usage. In particular, the paper focuses on the rapid creation and centralised deployment of statistical analytics within a software system now in use by major i...

  15. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  16. Analytical Standard Uncertainty Evaluation Using Mellin Transform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajan, Arvind; Ooi, Melanie Po-Leen; Ye Chow Kuang; Demidenko, Serge N

    2015-01-01

    ...) analytical methods using mathematical representation of the probability density function (pdf). The analytic linear approximation method is inaccurate for highly nonlinear systems, which limits its application...

  17. Rapid prototyping and evaluation of programmable SIMD SDR processors in LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Liu, Hengzhu; Zhang, Botao; Liu, Dongpei

    2013-03-01

    With the development of international wireless communication standards, there is an increase in computational requirement for baseband signal processors. Time-to-market pressure makes it impossible to completely redesign new processors for the evolving standards. Due to its high flexibility and low power, software defined radio (SDR) digital signal processors have been proposed as promising technology to replace traditional ASIC and FPGA fashions. In addition, there are large numbers of parallel data processed in computation-intensive functions, which fosters the development of single instruction multiple data (SIMD) architecture in SDR platform. So a new way must be found to prototype the SDR processors efficiently. In this paper we present a bit-and-cycle accurate model of programmable SIMD SDR processors in a machine description language LISA. LISA is a language for instruction set architecture which can gain rapid model at architectural level. In order to evaluate the availability of our proposed processor, three common baseband functions, FFT, FIR digital filter and matrix multiplication have been mapped on the SDR platform. Analytical results showed that the SDR processor achieved the maximum of 47.1% performance boost relative to the opponent processor.

  18. Analytic Model for Tangential YORP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubov, Oleksiy

    2017-12-01

    The tangential YORP effect (TYORP) plays a significant role in the dynamical evolution of asteroids, and up to now has only been studied numerically. This paper describes the first analytic model of the TYORP effect. Although the model rests on numerous physical and mathematical simplifications, the final analytic expression for TYORP is found to be in agreement with the results of rigorous numeric simulations to the accuracy of several tens of percent. The analytic expression obtained is used to estimate the TYORP produced by the non-flat surface of regolith—a contribution to TYORP that has never been considered. It is found that the contribution to TYORP arising from regolith can be comparable to the conventional TYORP produced by boulders. Then, the analytic expression is fitted with a log-normal function and used to integrate TYORP over all boulder sizes. The general trend of TYORP for multiple boulders appears qualitatively similar to the trend of one boulder, and it also demonstrates a maximal TYORP at some particular rotation rate. The expression obtained for integrated TYORP may be instrumental for simulations of the evolution of asteroids subject to TYORP. The physical origin of TYORP is discussed in light of the constructed analytic model.

  19. Emergence of a Norovirus GII.4 Strain Correlates with Changes in Evolving Blockade Epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindesmith, Lisa C.; Costantini, Verónica; Swanstrom, Jesica; Debbink, Kari; Donaldson, Eric F.; Vinjé, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The major capsid protein of norovirus GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in epidemic strains with altered antigenicity. GII.4.2006 Minerva strains circulated at pandemic levels in 2006 and persisted at lower levels until 2009. In 2009, a new GII.4 variant, GII.4.2009 New Orleans, emerged and since then has become the predominant strain circulating in human populations. To determine whether changes in evolving blockade epitopes correlate with the emergence of the GII.4.2009 New Orleans strains, we compared the antibody reactivity of a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 virus-like particles (VLPs). Both anti-GII.4.2006 and GII.4.2009 MAbs effectively differentiated the two strains by VLP-carbohydrate ligand blockade assay. Most of the GII.4.2006 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2006, while all of the GII.4.2009 MAbs preferentially blocked GII.4.2009, although 8 of 12 tested blockade MAbs blocked both VLPs. Using mutant VLPs designed to alter predicted antigenic epitopes, binding of seven of the blockade MAbs was impacted by alterations in epitope A, identifying residues 294, 296, 297, 298, 368, and 372 as important antigenic sites in these strains. Convalescent-phase serum collected from a GII.4.2009 outbreak confirmed the immunodominance of epitope A, since alterations of epitope A affected serum reactivity by 40%. These data indicate that the GII.4.2009 New Orleans variant has evolved a key blockade epitope, possibly allowing for at least partial escape from protective herd immunity and provide epidemiological support for the utility of monitoring changes in epitope A in emergent strain surveillance. PMID:23269783

  20. Semi-analytical MBS Pricing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom-Poulsen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-factor valuation model for fixed-rate callable mortgage backed securities (MBS). The model yields semi-analytic solutions for the value of MBS in the sense that the MBS value is found by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Instead of modelling the cond......This paper presents a multi-factor valuation model for fixed-rate callable mortgage backed securities (MBS). The model yields semi-analytic solutions for the value of MBS in the sense that the MBS value is found by solving a system of ordinary differential equations. Instead of modelling...... interest rate model. However, if the pool size is specified in a way that makes the expectations solvable using transform methods, semi-analytic pricing formulas are achieved. The affine and quadratic pricing frameworks are combined to get flexible and sophisticated prepayment functions. We show...

  1. Analytic methods for cosmological likelihoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, A. N.; Kitching, T. D.

    2010-10-01

    We present general, analytic methods for cosmological likelihood analysis and solve the `many parameters' problem in cosmology. Maxima are found by Newton's method, while marginalization over nuisance parameters, and parameter errors and covariances are estimated by analytic marginalization of an arbitrary likelihood function, expanding the log-likelihood to second order, with flat or Gaussian priors. We show that information about remaining parameters is preserved by marginalization. Marginalizing over all parameters, we find an analytic expression for the Bayesian evidence for model selection. We apply these methods to data described by Gaussian likelihoods with parameters in the mean and covariance. These methods can speed up conventional likelihood analysis by orders of magnitude when combined with Markov chain Monte Carlo methods, while Bayesian model selection becomes effectively instantaneous.

  2. An Evolving Identity: How Chronic Care Is Transforming What it Means to Be a Physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogetz, Alyssa L; Bogetz, Jori F

    2015-12-01

    Physician identity and the professional role physicians play in health care is rapidly evolving. Over 130 million adults and children in the USA have complex and chronic diseases, each of which is shaped by aspects of the patient's social, psychological, and economic status. These patients have lifelong health care needs that require the ongoing care of multiple health care providers, access to community services, and the involvement of patients' family support networks. To date, physician professional identity formation has centered on autonomy, authority, and the ability to "heal." These notions of identity may be counterproductive in chronic disease care, which demands interdependency between physicians, their patients, and teams of multidisciplinary health care providers. Medical educators can prepare trainees for practice in the current health care environment by providing training that legitimizes and reinforces a professional identity that emphasizes this interdependency. This commentary outlines the important challenges related to this change and suggests potential strategies to reframe professional identity to better match the evolving role of physicians today.

  3. The Evolving Role of the Program Coordinator: Five Essential Skills for the Coordinator Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckelman, Joseph; Zavatchen, Sylvia E; Jones, Sally A

    2017-06-01

    As ACGME (Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education) requirements have expanded and become increasingly more complex, so has the role of the program coordinator. Over the last decade, the knowledge and skills required to capably administer residency and fellowship training programs have increased in both volume and complexity. Today's coordinators are responsible for more than clerical tasks. They also function as managers and have greater roles in the development and implementation of program initiatives, policies, and outcomes. As a result, coordinators' roles and responsibilities have evolved to include management skills. To keep pace with the rapid and continuing change, it is imperative that coordinators continue to develop these skill sets to add value to their programs, institutions, and careers. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Microfluidic Techniques for Analytes Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunlu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidics has been undergoing fast development in the past two decades due to its promising applications in biotechnology, medicine, and chemistry. Towards these applications, enhancing concentration sensitivity and detection resolution are indispensable to meet the detection limits because of the dilute sample concentrations, ultra-small sample volumes and short detection lengths in microfluidic devices. A variety of microfluidic techniques for concentrating analytes have been developed. This article presents an overview of analyte concentration techniques in microfluidics. We focus on discussing the physical mechanism of each concentration technique with its representative advancements and applications. Finally, the article is concluded by highlighting and discussing advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed techniques.

  5. The Yoccoz Combinatorial Analytic Invariant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Roesch, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    define an explicit combinatorial analytic modelspace, which is sufficiently abstract that it can serve as a go-between for proving that other sets such as the parabolic Mandelbrot set M1 has the same combinatorial structure as M. As an immediate application we use here the combinatorial-analytic model...... to reprove that the dyadic veins of M are arcs and that more generally any two Yoccoz parameters are joined by a unique ruled (in the sense of Douady-Hubbard) arc in M....

  6. Analytical applications of ion exchangers

    CERN Document Server

    Inczédy, J

    1966-01-01

    Analytical Applications of Ion Exchangers presents the laboratory use of ion-exchange resins. This book discusses the development in the analytical application of ion exchangers. Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the history and significance of ion exchangers for technical purposes. This text then describes the properties of ion exchangers, which are large molecular water-insoluble polyelectrolytes having a cross-linked structure that contains ionic groups. Other chapters consider the theories concerning the operation of ion-exchange resins and investigate th

  7. Organic Photodetectors in Analytical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeshita Manna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the utilization of organic photodetectors (OPDs in optical analytical applications, highlighting examples of chemical and biological sensors and lab-on-a-chip spectrometers. The integration of OPDs with other organic optical sensor components, such as organic light emitting diode (OLED excitation sources and thin organic sensing films, presents a step toward achieving compact, eventually disposable all-organic analytical devices. We discuss recent advances in developing and integrating OPDs for various applications as well as challenges faced in this area.

  8. The Dynamical Classification of Centaurs which Evolve into Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jeremy R.; Horner, Jonathan; Hinse, Tobias; Marsden, Stephen; Swinburne University of Technology

    2016-10-01

    Centaurs are small Solar system bodies with semi-major axes between Jupiter and Neptune and perihelia beyond Jupiter. Centaurs can be further subclassified into two dynamical categories - random walk and resonance hopping. Random walk Centaurs have mean square semi-major axes () which vary in time according to a generalized diffusion equation where ~t2H. H is the Hurst exponent with 0 for resonance hopping Centaurs is not well described by generalized diffusion.The aim of this study is to determine which dynamical type of Centaur is most likely to evolve into each class of comet. 31,722 fictional massless test particles were integrated for 3 Myr in the 6-body problem (Sun, Jovian planets, test particle). Initially each test particle was a member of one of four groups. The semi-major axes of all test particles in a group were clustered within 0.27 au from a first order, interior Mean Motion resonance of Neptune. The resonances were centered at 18.94 au, 22.95 au, 24.82 au and 28.37 au.If the perihelion of a test particle reached particle was considered to be a comet and classified as either a random walk or resonance hopping Centaur. The results showed that over 4,000 test particles evolved into comets within 3 Myr. 59% of these test particles were random walk and 41% were resonance hopping. The behavior of the semi-major axis in time was usually well described by generalized diffusion for random walk Centaurs (ravg = 0.98) and poorly described for resonance hopping Centaurs (ravg = 0.52). The average Hurst exponent was 0.48 for random walk Centaurs and 0.20 for resonance hopping Centaurs. Random walk Centaurs were more likely to evolve into short period comets while resonance hopping Centaurs were more likely to evolve into long period comets. For each initial cluster, resonance hopping Centaurs took longer to evolve into comets than random walk Centaurs. Overall the population of random walk Centaurs averaged 143 kyr to evolve into comets, and the population of

  9. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  10. The evolution of analytical chemistry methods in foodomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Monica; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2016-01-08

    The methodologies of food analysis have greatly evolved over the past 100 years, from basic assays based on solution chemistry to those relying on the modern instrumental platforms. Today, the development and optimization of integrated analytical approaches based on different techniques to study at molecular level the chemical composition of a food may allow to define a 'food fingerprint', valuable to assess nutritional value, safety and quality, authenticity and security of foods. This comprehensive strategy, defined foodomics, includes emerging work areas such as food chemistry, phytochemistry, advanced analytical techniques, biosensors and bioinformatics. Integrated approaches can help to elucidate some critical issues in food analysis, but also to face the new challenges of a globalized world: security, sustainability and food productions in response to environmental world-wide changes. They include the development of powerful analytical methods to ensure the origin and quality of food, as well as the discovery of biomarkers to identify potential food safety problems. In the area of nutrition, the future challenge is to identify, through specific biomarkers, individual peculiarities that allow early diagnosis and then a personalized prognosis and diet for patients with food-related disorders. Far from the aim of an exhaustive review of the abundant literature dedicated to the applications of omic sciences in food analysis, we will explore how classical approaches, such as those used in chemistry and biochemistry, have evolved to intersect with the new omics technologies to produce a progress in our understanding of the complexity of foods. Perhaps most importantly, a key objective of the review will be to explore the development of simple and robust methods for a fully applied use of omics data in food science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Evolving Role of Emergency Departments in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Kristy Gonzalez; Bauhoff, Sebastian; Blanchard, Janice C; Abir, Mahshid; Iyer, Neema; Smith, Alexandria; Vesely, Joseph V; Okeke, Edward N; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2013-01-01

    The research described in this article was performed to develop a more complete picture of how hospital emergency departments (EDs) contribute to the U.S. health care system, which is currently evolving in response to economic, clinical, and political pressures. Using a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods, it explores the evolving role that EDs and the personnel who staff them play in evaluating and managing complex and high-acuity patients, serving as the key decisionmaker for roughly half of all inpatient hospital admissions, and serving as "the safety net of the safety net" for patients who cannot get care elsewhere. The report also examines the role that EDs may soon play in either contributing to or helping to control the rising costs of health care.

  12. AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS OF EVOLVING TAKAGI-SUGENO-KANG FUZZY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Emil Precup

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical and application results concerning the development of evolving Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy models for two dynamic systems, which will be viewed as controlled processes, in the field of automotive applications. The two dynamic systems models are nonlinear dynamics of the longitudinal slip in the Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS and the vehicle speed in vehicles with the Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT systems. The evolving Takagi-Sugeno-Kang fuzzy models are obtained as discrete-time fuzzy models by incremental online identification algorithms. The fuzzy models are validated against experimental results in the case of the ABS and the first principles simulation results in the case of the vehicle with the CVT.

  13. Duplication Detection When Evolving Feature Models of Software Product Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Khtira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available After the derivation of specific applications from a software product line, the applications keep evolving with respect to new customer’s requirements. In general, evolutions in most industrial projects are expressed using natural language, because it is the easiest and the most flexible way for customers to express their needs. However, the use of this means of communication has shown its limits in detecting defects, such as inconsistency and duplication, when evolving the existing models of the software product line. The aim of this paper is to transform the natural language specifications of new evolutions into a more formal representation using natural language processing. Then, an algorithm is proposed to automatically detect duplication between these specifications and the existing product line feature models. In order to instantiate the proposed solution, a tool is developed to automatize the two operations.

  14. Real-time evolvable pulse shaper for radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanchares, Juan, E-mail: julandan@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garnica, Oscar, E-mail: ogarnica@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Risco-Martín, José L., E-mail: jlrisco@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ignacio Hidalgo, J., E-mail: hidalgo@dacya.ucm.es [Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), C/Prof. José García Santesmases s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Regadío, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.regadio@insa.es [Área de Tecnologías Electrónicas, Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA), 28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    In the last two decades, recursive algorithms for real-time digital pulse shaping in pulse height measurements have been developed and published in number of articles and textbooks. All these algorithms try to synthesize in real time optimum or near optimum shapes in the presence of noise. Even though some of these shapers can be considered effective designs, some side effects like aging cannot be ignored. We may observe that after sensors degradation, the signal obtained is not valid. In this regard, we present in this paper a novel technique that, based on evolvable hardware concepts, is able to evolve the degenerated shaper into a new design with better performance than the original one under the new sensor features.

  15. Exploring, exploiting and evolving diversity of aquatic ecosystem models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Annette B. G.; Arhonditsis, George B.; Beusen, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a community perspective on how to explore, exploit and evolve the diversity in aquatic ecosystem models. These models play an important role in understanding the functioning of aquatic ecosystems, filling in observation gaps and developing effective strategies for water quality...... management. In this spirit, numerous models have been developed since the 1970s. We set off to explore model diversity by making an inventory among 42 aquatic ecosystem modellers, by categorizing the resulting set of models and by analysing them for diversity. We then focus on how to exploit model diversity...... by comparing and combining different aspects of existing models. Finally, we discuss how model diversity came about in the past and could evolve in the future. Throughout our study, we use analogies from biodiversity research to analyse and interpret model diversity. We recommend to make models publicly...

  16. The Use of Genetic Programming to Evolve Passive Filter Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Ogri J. Ushie; Abbod, Maysam F.; Julie C. Ogbulezie

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces the use of Genetic Programming (GP), Genetic Folding and symbolic circuit analysis in Matlab for the evolution of passive filter circuits. Instead of combining MATLAB and PSPICE in electronic circuit simulation, in this work, only MATLAB is used. It helps to reduce elapsed time for transferring the simulation between the two software packages. The circuit evolved from GP using the Matlab program and is automatically converted into a symbolic netlist also by using a Matla...

  17. Evolving Pacing Strategies for Team Pursuit Track Cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Markus; Day, Jareth; Jordan, Diora; Kroeger, Trent; Neumann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Team pursuit track cycling is a bicycle racing sport held on velodromes and is part of the Summer Olympics. It involves the use of strategies to minimize the overall time that a team of cyclists needs to complete a race. We present an optimisation framework for team pursuit track cycling and show how to evolve strategies using metaheuristics for this interesting real-world problem. Our experimental results show that these heuristics lead to significantly better strategies than state-of-art st...

  18. ONMCGP: Orthogonal Neighbourhood Mutation Cartesian Genetic Programming for Evolvable Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    I, Fuchuan N.; I, Yuanxiang L.; E, Peng K.

    2014-03-01

    Evolvable Hardware is facing the problems of scalability and stalling effect. This paper proposed a novel Orthogonal Neighbourhood Mutation (ONM) operator in Cartesian genetic programming (CGP), to reduce the stalling effect in CGP and improve the efficiency of the algorithms.The method incorporates with Differential Evolution strategy. Demonstrated by experiments on benchmark, the proposed Orthogonal Neighbourhood Search can jump out of Local optima, reduce the stalling effect in CGP and the algorithm convergence faster.

  19. Engineering Therapies that Evolve to Autonomously Control Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Grant No. D15AP00024 “ Engineering Therapies that Evolve to Autonomously Control Epidemics” PI: Leor Weinberger...viruses could be engineered into therapeutics, known as Therapeutic Interfering Particles (’TIPs’), using the virus HIV as a model system. By engineering ... engineered TIPs could have indefinite, population-scale impact. To achieve this aim, we developed novel multi-scale models that connected the measured

  20. india's northward drift and collision with asia: evolving faunal response

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDIA'S NORTHWARD DRIFT AND COLLISION WITH ASIA: EVOLVING FAUNAL RESPONSE · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19 · Slide 20 · Slide 21 · Slide 22 · Slide 23 · Slide 24.

  1. New nuclear build and evolving radiation protection challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Radiological protection has continued to evolve in order to meet emerging challenges and will continue to do so. This paper will discuss the scientific and social challenges that will or may be faced by the radiological protection community in the coming 10 to 20 y and how these may affect what is expected to be a renewed interest in building and operating nuclear power plants for electricity generation. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society

  2. TRICARE Policy and Operations: Evolving to Support the Quadruple Aim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-24

    Examples of Evolution – TRICARE in Alaska – Autism Services Demonstration 2011 MHS Conference 3 Track L  Evolving to achieve the Quadruple Aim...Heidelberg MEDDAC Lessons Learned 1, 2, 3, 4 1, 2, 3, 4 2 a. TRICARE in Alaska b. Autism Services Demonstration c. A Regional View 3 1 1, 2...3, 4 3 TRICARE Pharmacy Programs 3, 4 4 TRICARE for Reserves and National Guard 1, 2, 3 5 TRICARE Dental Programs 1, 2, 4 6 a

  3. Establishing credibility: Evolving perceptions of the European Central Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Linda S. Goldberg; Klein, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    The credibility of a central bank’s anti-inflation stance, a key determinant of its success, may reflect institutional structure or, more dynamically, the history of policy decisions. The first years of the European Central Bank (ECB) provide a natural experiment for considering whether, and how, central bank credibility evolves. In this paper, we present a model demonstrating how the high-frequency response of asset prices to news reflects market perceptions of the anti-inflation stance of a...

  4. Hemicrania continua evolving from cluster headache responsive to valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambru, Giorgio; Castellini, Paola; Bini, Annamaria; Evangelista, Andrea; Manzoni, Gian Camillo; Torelli, Paola

    2008-10-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a rare type of primary headache characterized by a prompt and enduring response to indomethacin. We describe a patient who suffered from cluster headache evolving into ipsilateral HC, who does not tolerate a long-term indomethacin therapy. The case was complex in terms of diagnosis, associated comorbidity, and choice of treatment; after several trials with different therapeutic regimens, we started the patient on a therapy with valproic acid and obtained an improvement of her HC.

  5. Rapid evolutionary adaptation to elevated salt concentrations in pathogenic freshwater bacteria Serratia marcescens

    OpenAIRE

    Ketola, Tarmo; Hiltunen, Teppo

    2014-01-01

    Rapid evolutionary adaptions to new and previously detrimental environmental conditions can increase the risk of invasion by novel pathogens. We tested this hypothesis with a 133-day-long evolutionary experiment studying the evolution of the pathogenic Serratia marcescens bacterium at salinity niche boundary and in fluctuating conditions. We found that S. marcescens evolved at harsh (80 g/L) and extreme (100 g/L) salt conditions had clearly improved salt tolerance than those evolved in the ot...

  6. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  7. Cognitive Analytics Driven Personalized Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudivada, Venkat N.

    2017-01-01

    Various types of structured data collected by learning management systems such as Moodle have been used to improve student learning outcomes. Learning analytics refers to an assortment of data analysis methods used for this task. These methods typically do not consider unstructured data such as blogs, discussions, e-mail, and course messages.…

  8. Realistic analytical polyhedral MRI phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Tri M; Fung, George S K; Han, Shuo; Chen, Min; Prince, Jerry L; Tsui, Benjamin M W; McVeigh, Elliot R; Herzka, Daniel A

    2016-08-01

    Analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and are used to simulate MRI acquisitions. Existing three-dimensional (3D) analytical phantoms are unable to accurately model shapes of biomedical interest. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polyhedral analytical phantoms have closed form Fourier transform expressions and can accurately represent 3D biomedical shapes. The Fourier transform of a polyhedron was implemented and its accuracy in representing faceted and smooth surfaces was characterized. Realistic anthropomorphic polyhedral brain and torso phantoms were constructed and their use in simulated 3D and two-dimensional (2D) MRI acquisitions was described. Using polyhedra, the Fourier transform of faceted shapes can be computed to within machine precision. Smooth surfaces can be approximated with increasing accuracy by increasing the number of facets in the polyhedron; the additional accumulated numerical imprecision of the Fourier transform of polyhedra with many faces remained small. Simulations of 3D and 2D brain and 2D torso cine acquisitions produced realistic reconstructions free of high frequency edge aliasing compared with equivalent voxelized/rasterized phantoms. Analytical polyhedral phantoms are easy to construct and can accurately simulate shapes of biomedical interest. Magn Reson Med 76:663-678, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Visual analytics of brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Faraco, Carlos; Zhu, Dajiang; Chen, Hanbo; Yuan, Yixuan; Lv, Jinglei; Deng, Fan; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Zhang, Degang; Miller, L Stephen; Liu, Tianming

    2012-05-15

    Identification of regions of interest (ROIs) is a fundamental issue in brain network construction and analysis. Recent studies demonstrate that multimodal neuroimaging approaches and joint analysis strategies are crucial for accurate, reliable and individualized identification of brain ROIs. In this paper, we present a novel approach of visual analytics and its open-source software for ROI definition and brain network construction. By combining neuroscience knowledge and computational intelligence capabilities, visual analytics can generate accurate, reliable and individualized ROIs for brain networks via joint modeling of multimodal neuroimaging data and an intuitive and real-time visual analytics interface. Furthermore, it can be used as a functional ROI optimization and prediction solution when fMRI data is unavailable or inadequate. We have applied this approach to an operation span working memory fMRI/DTI dataset, a schizophrenia DTI/resting state fMRI (R-fMRI) dataset, and a mild cognitive impairment DTI/R-fMRI dataset, in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of visual analytics. Our experimental results are encouraging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Productivity Measurement: An Analytic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    LMDC-TR-83-4 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Leadership and Management Development Center (AU) 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL (If applicable) 7a. NAME... model which provides senior management with objective, analytically derived indexes upon which to make manpower decisions. 20. DISTRIBUTION...Charles R. White, USAFRES September 1983 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. \\\\ LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT CENTER, AIR

  11. Fuzzy Weighted Average: Analytical Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm is presented for the computation of analytical expressions for the extremal values of the α-cuts of the fuzzy weighted average, for triangular or trapeizoidal weights and attributes. Also, an algorithm for the computation of the inverses of these expressions is given, providing exact

  12. Analytical Chemistry of Perfluoroalkylated Substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Saez Ribas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Polyfluorinated alkylated substances have recently gainedscientific interest because they have been found to be present in appreciable concentrations in human serum, in surface waters, and in tissues of wildlife from remote areas. The developments in analytical chemistry of these mainly neutral or

  13. Methodological practicalities in analytical generalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the existing literature on qualitative methodologies tend to discuss analytical generalization at a relatively abstract and general theoretical level. It is, however, not particularly straightforward to “translate” such abstract epistemological principles into more...

  14. RapidIO as a multi-purpose interconnect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymani, Simaolhoda; Alexopoulos, Konstantinos; Valat, Sébastien

    2017-10-01

    RapidIO (http://rapidio.org/) technology is a packet-switched high-performance fabric, which has been under active development since 1997. Originally meant to be a front side bus, it developed into a system level interconnect which is today used in all 4G/LTE base stations world wide. RapidIO is often used in embedded systems that require high reliability, low latency and scalability in a heterogeneous environment - features that are highly interesting for several use cases, such as data analytics and data acquisition (DAQ) networks. We will present the results of evaluating RapidIO in a data analytics environment, from setup to benchmark. Specifically, we will share the experience of running ROOT and Hadoop on top of RapidIO. To demonstrate the multi-purpose characteristics of RapidIO, we will also present the results of investigating RapidIO as a technology for high-speed DAQ networks using a generic multi-protocol event-building emulation tool. In addition we will present lessons learned from implementing native ports of CERN applications to RapidIO.

  15. A weighted network evolving model with capacity constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XiaoHuan; Zhu, JinFu; Wu, WeiWei; Ge, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Most of existing works on complex network assumed that the nodes and edges were uncapacitated during the evolving process, and displayed "rich club" phenomenon. Here we will show that the "rich club" could be changed to "common rich" if we consider the node capacity. In this paper, we define the node and edge attractive index with node capacity, and propose a new evolving model on the base of BBV model, with evolving simulations of the networks. In the new model, an entering node is linked with an existing node according to the preferential attachment mechanism defined with the attractive index of the existing node. We give the theoretical approximation and simulation solutions. If node capacity is finite, the rich node may not be richer further when the node strength approaches or gets to the node capacity. This is confirmed by analyzing the passenger traffic and routes of Chinese main airports. Due to node strength being function of time t, we can use the theoretical approximation solution to forecast how node strength changes and the time when node strength reaches its maximum value.

  16. Social networks: Evolving graphs with memory dependent edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark

    2011-10-01

    The plethora of digital communication technologies, and their mass take up, has resulted in a wealth of interest in social network data collection and analysis in recent years. Within many such networks the interactions are transient: thus those networks evolve over time. In this paper we introduce a class of models for such networks using evolving graphs with memory dependent edges, which may appear and disappear according to their recent history. We consider time discrete and time continuous variants of the model. We consider the long term asymptotic behaviour as a function of parameters controlling the memory dependence. In particular we show that such networks may continue evolving forever, or else may quench and become static (containing immortal and/or extinct edges). This depends on the existence or otherwise of certain infinite products and series involving age dependent model parameters. We show how to differentiate between the alternatives based on a finite set of observations. To test these ideas we show how model parameters may be calibrated based on limited samples of time dependent data, and we apply these concepts to three real networks: summary data on mobile phone use from a developing region; online social-business network data from China; and disaggregated mobile phone communications data from a reality mining experiment in the US. In each case we show that there is evidence for memory dependent dynamics, such as that embodied within the class of models proposed here.

  17. Fuzzily Connected Multimodel Systems Evolving Autonomously From Data Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, P

    2011-08-01

    A general framework and a holistic concept are proposed in this paper that combine computationally light machine learning from streaming data with the online identification and adaptation of dynamic systems in regard to their structure and parameters. According to this concept, the system is assumed to be decomposable into a set of fuzzily connected simple local models. The main thrust of this paper is in the development of an original approach for the self-design, self-monitoring, self-management, and self-learning of such systems in a dynamic manner from data streams which automatically detect and react to the shift in the data distribution by evolving the system structure. Novelties of this contribution lie in the following: 1) the computationally simple approach (simpl_e_Clustering-simplified evolving Clustering) to data space partitioning by recursive evolving clustering based on the relative position of the new data sample to the mean of the overall data, 2) the learning technique for online structure evolution as a reaction to the shift in the data distribution, 3) the method for online system structure simplification based on utility and inputs/feature selection, and 4) the novel graphical illustration of the spatiotemporal evolution of the data stream. The application domain for this computationally efficient technique ranges from clustering, modeling, prognostics, classification, and time-series prediction to pattern recognition, image segmentation, vector quantization, etc., to more general problems in various application areas, e.g., intelligent sensors, mobile robotics, advanced manufacturing processes, etc.

  18. Evolving Human Alteration of the Carbon Cycle: the Watershed Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Newcomer Johnson, T.; Pennino, M. J.; Smith, R. M.; Beaulieu, J. J.; Belt, K.; Grese, M.; Blomquist, J.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Likens, G.; Mayer, P. M.; Murthy, S.; Utz, R.; Yepsen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing land development are constantly evolving, and their biogeochemical signatures are expected to evolve across both space and time in drainage waters. We investigate how land development influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Eastern U.S. Along the watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and bioavailability of carbon; (2) carbon retention/release at the reach scale; and (3) ecosystem metabolism of carbon from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon "pulses" in watersheds. Amounts and forms of carbon pulses in agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered organic carbon concentrations in tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay, and there have been increased bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. due to human activities. In summary, our analyses indicates that the form and reactivity of carbon have evolved over space and time along the watershed continuum with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  19. The Pyrolysis Behavior of Evolved Species from Date Palm Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babiker Mohammed Elamen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolytic behavior of evolved gases from date palm seeds (DPSs were measured to gain insight into the mechanism of DPSs pyrolysis. Six different cultivars were used in this study, namely Deglet nour, Piarom, Suffry, Safawi, Mabroom and Aliya. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA and a real-time gas analyzer (GA were used to calculate the mass losses and the mole fraction of evolved gases, respectively. DPSs samples were pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere condition using argon with a purge rate of 100 mL/minute. The samples were subjected to non-isothermal operation. An independent single model and parallel reaction model were adopted to interpret the empirical data collected from TGA and GA, respectively. The results reveled that there are three types of pyrolysis zones depending on the main constituents of every cultivars. Moreover, the potentialty of the zones in controlling the pyrolysis behavior was noticeable. The dominant hydrocarbon species in DPSs were CO and CH4 (40 to 50% higher than the rest of species. The mole fraction of CO was 2 to 4 times higher than the mole fraction of CO2. The activation energy and frequency factor of DPSs evolved species showed that Mabroom has the highest activation energy regarding H2 (63.21kJ/mol and CO (74.32 kJ/mol.

  20. Iowa Lakes Community College: Partnerships for Academic and Economic Success in a Rapidly Evolving Wind-Energy Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohni, Mary; Rogers, Jolene; Zeitz, Al

    2007-01-01

    Iowa Lakes Community College responded to a national need for wind-energy technicians. The Wind-Energy and Turbine Program aligned industry and academic competencies with experiential learning components to foster exploration of additional renewable energy applications. Completers understand both the physical and academic rigor a career in wind…