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Sample records for rapidly digestible slowly

  1. Slowly and rapidly digested fat emulsions are equally satiating but their triglycerides are differentially absorbed and metabolized in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Jennifer B; Wooster, Tim J; Golding, Matthew; Day, Li; Otto, Bärbel; Clifton, Peter M

    2011-05-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary fat emulsion microstructure on plasma TG concentrations, satiety hormones, and food intake. The aim of this study was to structure dietary fat to slow digestion and flatten postprandial plasma TG concentrations but not increase food intake. Emulsions were stabilized by egg lecithin (control), sodium sterol lactylate, or sodium caseinate/monoglyceride (CasMag) with either liquid oil or a liquid oil/solid fat mixture. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 4 emulsions containing 30 g of fat in a 350-mL preload were consumed by 10 men and 10 women (BMI = 25.1 ± 2.8 kg/m(2); age = 58.8 ± 4.8 y). Pre- and postprandial plasma TG, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations and food intake were measured. In a second experiment in a subset of the participants (n = 8, 4 men and 4 women), (13)C-labeled mixed TG was incorporated into 2 different emulsions and breath (13)C was measured over 6 h. In the first experiment, the postprandial rise in plasma TG concentrations following the CasMag-stabilized emulsion containing 30% solid fat was lower than all other emulsions at 90 and 120 min (P structured to decrease its effect on plasma TG concentrations without increasing food intake.

  2. Slowly Digestible Carbohydrate for Balanced Energy: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnupriya Gourineni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is growing interest among consumers in foods for sustained energy management, and an increasing number of ingredients are emerging to address this demand. The SUSTRA™ 2434 slowly digestible carbohydrate is a blend of tapioca flour and corn starch, with the potential to provide balanced energy after a meal. The aim of the study was to characterize this starch’s digestion profile in vitro (modified Englyst assay and in vivo (intact and cecectomized rooster study, and to determine its effects on available energy, by measuring post-prandial glycemia in healthy adults (n = 14, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with two food forms: cold-pressed bar and pudding. The in vitro starch digestion yielded a high slowly digestible fraction (51% compared to maltodextrin (9%. In the rooster digestibility model, the starch was highly digestible (94%. Consumption of slowly digestible starch (SDS, in an instant pudding or bar, yielded a significantly lower glycemic index compared to a control. At individual time points, the SDS bar and pudding yielded blood glucose levels with significantly lower values at 30–60 min and significantly higher values at 120–240 min, demonstrating a balanced energy release. This is the first study to comprehensively characterize the physiological responses to slowly digestible starch (tapioca and corn blend in in vitro and in vivo studies.

  3. Slowly Digestible Carbohydrate for Balanced Energy: In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Stewart, Maria L.; Skorge, Rob; Sekula, Bernard C.

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest among consumers in foods for sustained energy management, and an increasing number of ingredients are emerging to address this demand. The SUSTRA™ 2434 slowly digestible carbohydrate is a blend of tapioca flour and corn starch, with the potential to provide balanced energy after a meal. The aim of the study was to characterize this starch’s digestion profile in vitro (modified Englyst assay) and in vivo (intact and cecectomized rooster study), and to determine its effects on available energy, by measuring post-prandial glycemia in healthy adults (n = 14), in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, with two food forms: cold-pressed bar and pudding. The in vitro starch digestion yielded a high slowly digestible fraction (51%) compared to maltodextrin (9%). In the rooster digestibility model, the starch was highly digestible (94%). Consumption of slowly digestible starch (SDS), in an instant pudding or bar, yielded a significantly lower glycemic index compared to a control. At individual time points, the SDS bar and pudding yielded blood glucose levels with significantly lower values at 30–60 min and significantly higher values at 120–240 min, demonstrating a balanced energy release. This is the first study to comprehensively characterize the physiological responses to slowly digestible starch (tapioca and corn blend) in in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:29125542

  4. Delineating slowly and rapidly evolving fractions of the Drosophila genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Jonathan M; Adams, Peter; Stephen, Stuart; Mattick, John S

    2008-05-01

    Evolutionary conservation is an important indicator of function and a major component of bioinformatic methods to identify non-protein-coding genes. We present a new Bayesian method for segmenting pairwise alignments of eukaryotic genomes while simultaneously classifying segments into slowly and rapidly evolving fractions. We also describe an information criterion similar to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) for determining the number of classes. Working with pairwise alignments enables detection of differences in conservation patterns among closely related species. We analyzed three whole-genome and three partial-genome pairwise alignments among eight Drosophila species. Three distinct classes of conservation level were detected. Sequences comprising the most slowly evolving component were consistent across a range of species pairs, and constituted approximately 62-66% of the D. melanogaster genome. Almost all (>90%) of the aligned protein-coding sequence is in this fraction, suggesting much of it (comprising the majority of the Drosophila genome, including approximately 56% of non-protein-coding sequences) is functional. The size and content of the most rapidly evolving component was species dependent, and varied from 1.6% to 4.8%. This fraction is also enriched for protein-coding sequence (while containing significant amounts of non-protein-coding sequence), suggesting it is under positive selection. We also classified segments according to conservation and GC content simultaneously. This analysis identified numerous sub-classes of those identified on the basis of conservation alone, but was nevertheless consistent with that classification. Software, data, and results available at www.maths.qut.edu.au/-keithj/. Genomic segments comprising the conservation classes available in BED format.

  5. Slowly digestible properties of lotus seed starch-glycerine monostearin complexes formed by high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyan; Jia, Xiangze; Miao, Song; Zeng, Shaoxiao; Guo, Zebin; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Baodong

    2018-06-30

    Starch-lipid complexes were prepared using lotus seed starch (LS) and glycerin monostearate (GMS) via a high-pressure homogenization process, and the effect of high pressure homogenization (HPH) on the slow digestion properties of LS-GMS was investigated. The digestion profiles showed HPH treatment reduced the digestive rate of LS-GMS, and the extent of this change was dependent on homogenized pressure. Scanning electron microscopy displayed HPH treatment change the morphology of LS-GMS, with high pressure producing more compact block-shape structure to resist enzyme digestion. The results of Gel-permeation chromatography and Small-angle X-ray scattering revealed high homogenization pressure impacted molecular weight distribution and semi-crystalline region of complexes, resulting in the formation of new semi-crystalline with repeat unit distance of 16-18 nm and molecular weight distribution of 2.50-2.80 × 10 5  Da, which displayed strong enzymatic resistance. Differential scanning calorimeter results revealed new semi-crystalline lamellar may originate from type-II complexes that exhibited a high transition temperature. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pharmacological modulations of cardiac ultra-rapid and slowly activating delayed rectifier currents: potential antiarrhythmic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A

    2010-01-01

    Despite the emerging new insights into our understandings of the cellular mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmia, medical therapy for this disease remains unsatisfactory. Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most prevalent arrhythmia, is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. On the other hand, ventricular fibrillation results in sudden cardiac deaths in many instances. Prolongation of cardiac action potential (AP) is a proven principle of antiarrhythmic therapy. Class III antiarrhythmic agents prolong AP and QT interval by blocking rapidly activating delayed rectifier current (I(Kr)). However, I(Kr) blocking drugs carry the risk of life-threatening proarrhythmia. Recently, modulation of atrial-selective ultra-rapid delayed rectifier current (I(Kur)), has emerged as a novel therapeutic approach to treat AF. A number of I(Kur) blockers are being evaluated for the treatment of AF. The inhibition of slowly activating delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) has also been proposed as an effective and safer antiarrhythmic approach because of its distinguishing characteristics that differ in remarkable ways from other selective class III agents. Selective I(Ks) block may prolong AP duration (APD) at rapid rates without leading to proarrhythmia. This article reviews the pathophysiological roles of I(Kur) and I(Ks) in cardiac repolarization and the implications of newly developed I(Kur) and I(Ks) blocking agents as promising antiarrhythmic approaches. Several recent patents pertinent to antiarrhythmic drug development have been discussed. Further research will be required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these agents in the clinical setting.

  7. Structural and Digestion Properties of Soluble-, Slowly Digestible and Resistant Maltodextrin from Cassava Starch by Enzymatic Modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorndech, Waraporn

    The combination of branching enzyme (BE) and amylomaltase (AM) were selected to modify cassava starch. AM were used to elongate the glucan chains in order to enhance BE activity to create branching linkages. Cassava starch were gelatinized and incubated with BE or AMBE or BEAMBE or simultaneous...... AM and BE. The molecular analysis of the products including amylopectin chain length distribution, content of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages, absolute molecular weight distribution and digestibility were examined. Only BE catalysis showed 7.8% of branching linkages. The sequential AMBE-treated starch...... showed 9.9%-10.0% branching linkages, while the sequential BEAMBE-treated starch gained 10.9%-13.1% of branching linkages. Moreover, the sequential AMBE and BEAMBE-treated starch retarded the digestion rate of α-amylase and glucoamylase. Overall, sequential BEAMBE catalysis resulted in more...

  8. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  9. The Effect of a Breakfast Rich in Slowly Digestible Starch on Glucose Metabolism: A Statistical Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoy, Sophie; Meynier, Alexandra; Goux, Aurélie; Jourdan-Salloum, Nathalie; Normand, Sylvie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brack, Olivier; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Péronnet, François; Laville, Martine

    2017-03-23

    Starch digestibility may have an effect on the postprandial blood glucose profile. The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the relationship between Slowly Digestible Starch (SDS) levels and plasma glucose appearance and disappearance rates, as well as other parameters of glucose metabolism, after healthy subjects consumed cereal products that differed in SDS content. Three randomized controlled clinical trials that included a total of 79 subjects were identified. Using binary classification for the variables (high versus low levels, more than 12 g of SDS per portion, and less than 1 g of SDS per portion, respectively), we found that there was a 15-fold higher chance of having a low rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE) after consumption of a high-SDS product. A high SDS content was also associated with a 12-fold and 4-fold higher chance of having a low rate of disappearance of exogenous glucose (RdE) and rate of disappearance of total plasma glucose (RdT), respectively. The RaE kinetics were further analyzed by modeling the contribution of SDS content to the different phases of the RaE response. We show that the higher the SDS content per portion of cereal product, the higher its contribution to the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of the RaE response after 165 min. Using the association rule technique, we found that glycemic iAUC and insulinemic iAUC values vary in the same direction. In conclusion, this meta-analysis confirms the effect of the SDS level in cereal products on the metabolic response, and shows for the first time that the degree to which SDS affects the RaE response differs depending on the SDS content of the food product, as well as the phase of the postprandial period.

  10. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid and efficient protein enzymatic digestion: An experimental comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dyčka, Filip; Bobáľ, P.; Mazanec, Karel; Bobálová, Janette

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2012), s. 288-295 ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk 1M06030; GA AV ČR IAA600040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : in-gel digestion * MALDI - TOF MS * protein Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.261, year: 2012

  12. Rapid microscale in-gel processing and digestion of proteins using surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ketav P; Ramarathinam, Sri H; Friend, James; Yeo, Leslie; Purcell, Anthony W; Perlmutter, Patrick

    2010-06-21

    A new method for in-gel sample processing and tryptic digestion of proteins is described. Sample preparation, rehydration, in situ digestion and peptide extraction from gel slices are dramatically accelerated by treating the gel slice with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Only 30 minutes total workflow time is required for this new method to produce base peak chromatograms (BPCs) of similar coverage and intensity to those observed for traditional processing and overnight digestion. Simple set up, good reproducibility, excellent peptide recoveries, rapid turnover of samples and high confidence protein identifications put this technology at the fore-front of the next generation of proteomics sample processing tools.

  13. Interaction between the cardiac rapidly (IKr) and slowly (IKs) activating delayed rectifier potassium channels revealed by low K+-induced hERG endocytic degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Wang, Tingzhong; Yang, Tonghua; Xu, Jianmin; Li, Wentao; Fridman, Michael D; Fisher, John T; Zhang, Shetuan

    2011-10-07

    Cardiac repolarization is controlled by the rapidly (I(Kr)) and slowly (I(Ks)) activating delayed rectifier potassium channels. The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes I(Kr), whereas KCNQ1 and KCNE1 together encode I(Ks). Decreases in I(Kr) or I(Ks) cause long QT syndrome (LQTS), a cardiac disorder with a high risk of sudden death. A reduction in extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+)](o)) induces LQTS and selectively causes endocytic degradation of mature hERG channels from the plasma membrane. In the present study, we investigated whether I(Ks) compensates for the reduced I(Kr) under low K(+) conditions. Our data show that when hERG and KCNQ1 were expressed separately in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, exposure to 0 mM K(+) for 6 h completely eliminated the mature hERG channel expression but had no effect on KCNQ1. When hERG and KCNQ1 were co-expressed, KCNQ1 significantly delayed 0 mM K(+)-induced hERG reduction. Also, hERG degradation led to a significant reduction in KCNQ1 in 0 mM K(+) conditions. An interaction between hERG and KCNQ1 was identified in hERG+KCNQ1-expressing HEK cells. Furthermore, KCNQ1 preferentially co-immunoprecipitated with mature hERG channels that are localized in the plasma membrane. Biophysical and pharmacological analyses indicate that although hERG and KCNQ1 closely interact with each other, they form distinct hERG and KCNQ1 channels. These data extend our understanding of delayed rectifier potassium channel trafficking and regulation, as well as the pathology of LQTS.

  14. Comparison of the effects of slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates on postprandial glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Meidjie; Linn, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Isomaltulose attenuates postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations compared with sucrose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the mechanism by which isomaltulose limits postprandial hyperglycemia has not been clarified. The objective was therefore to assess the effects of bolus administration of isomaltulose on glucose metabolism compared with sucrose in T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 11 participants with T2DM initially underwent a 3-h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (0.8 mU · kg(-1) · min(-1)) clamp that was subsequently combined with 1 g/kg body wt of an oral (13)C-enriched isomaltulose or sucrose load. Hormonal responses and glucose kinetics were analyzed during a 4-h postprandial period. Compared with sucrose, absorption of isomaltulose was prolonged by ∼50 min (P = 0.004). Mean plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide were ∼10-23% lower (P < 0.05). In contrast, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) was ∼64% higher (P < 0.001) after isomaltulose ingestion, which results in an increased insulin-to-glucagon ratio (P < 0.001) compared with sucrose. The cumulative amount of systemic glucose appearance was ∼35% lower after isomaltulose than after sucrose (P = 0.003) because of the reduction in orally derived and endogenously produced glucose and a higher first-pass splanchnic glucose uptake (SGU). Insulin action was enhanced after isomaltulose compared with sucrose (P = 0.013). Ingestion of slowly absorbed isomaltulose attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia by reducing oral glucose appearance, inhibiting endogenous glucose production (EGP), and increasing SGU compared with ingestion of rapidly absorbed sucrose in patients with T2DM. In addition, GLP-1 secretion contributes to a beneficial shift in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio, suppression of EGP, and enhancement of SGU after isomaltulose consumption. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  15. Slowly braked, rotating neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H.

    1975-01-01

    A slowly braked, rotating neutron star is believed to be a star which rapidly rotates, has no nebula, is nonpulsing, and has a long initial braking time of ten thousand to a million years because of a low magnetic field. Such an object might be observable as an extended weak source of infrared or radio wave radiation due to the scattering of low-frequency strong-wave photons by accelerated electrons. If these objects exist abundantly in the Galaxy, they would act as sources of relatively low-energy cosmic rays. Pulsars (rapidly braked neutron stars) are shown to have difficulties in providing an adequate amount of cosmic-ray matter, making these new sources seem necessary. The possibility that the acceleration mechanism around a slowly braked star may be not a direct acceleration by the strong wave but an acceleration due to plasma turbulence excited by the strong wave is briefly explored. It is shown that white dwarfs may also be slowly braked stars with braking times longer than 3.15 million years.

  16. Rapid and Efficient Protein Digestion using Trypsin Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles under Pressure Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byoungsoo; Lopez-Ferrer, Daniel; Kim, Byoung Chan; Na, Hyon Bin; Park, Yong Il; Weitz, Karl K.; Warner, Marvin G.; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Lee, Sang-Won; Smith, Richard D.; Kim, Jungbae

    2011-01-01

    Trypsin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (EC-TR/NPs), prepared via a simple crosslinking of the enzyme to magnetic nanoparticles, were highly stable and could be easily captured using a magnet after the digestion was complete. EC-TR/NPs showed a negligible loss of trypsin activity after multiple uses and continuous shaking, while a control sample of covalently-attached trypsin on NPs resulted in a rapid inactivation under the same conditions due to the denaturation and autolysis of trypsin. Digestions were carried out on a single model protein, a five protein mixture, and a whole mouse brain proteome, and also compared for digestion at atmospheric pressure and 37 ºC for 12 h, and in combination with pressure cycling technology (PCT) at room temperature for 1 min. In all cases, the EC-TR/NPs performed equally as well or better than free trypsin in terms of the number of peptide/protein identifications and reproducibility across technical replicates. However, the concomitant use of EC-TR/NPs and PCT resulted in very fast (~1 min) and more reproducible digestions.

  17. Rapid startup of thermophilic anaerobic digester to remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qing-Peng; Bai, Yang; Liu, Jian-Bo; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Yan-Ru; Xiong, Wei-Ping; Ahmad, Kito; Fan, Chang-Zheng

    2018-01-15

    Spread of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) originating from sewage sludge is highlighted as an eminent health threat. This study established a thermophilic anaerobic digester using one-step startup strategy to quickly remove tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes from sewage sludge. At least 20days were saved in the startup period from mesophilic to thermophilic condition. Based on the results of 16S rDNA amplicons sequencing and predicted metagenomic method, the successful startup largely relied on the fast colonization of core thermophilic microbial population (e.g. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria). Microbial metabolic gene pathways for substrate degradation and methane production was also increased by one-step mode. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR approach revealed that most targeted tetracycline and sulfonamides resistance genes ARGs (sulI, tetA, tetO, tetX) were substantially removed during thermophilic digestion (removal efficiency>80%). Network analysis showed that the elimination of ARGs was attributed to the decline of their horizontal (intI1 item) and vertical (potential hosts) transfer-related elements under high-temperature. This research demonstrated that rapid startup thermophilic anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids would be a suitable technology for reducing quantities of various ARGs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto; Bando, Mitsuaki.

    1991-01-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.)

  19. Catastrophic shifts in vegetation-soil systems may unfold rapidly or slowly independent of the rate of change in the system driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssenberg, Derek; Bierkens, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Complex systems may switch between contrasting stable states under gradual change of a driver. Such critical transitions often result in considerable long-term damage because strong hysteresis impedes reversion, and the transition becomes catastrophic. Critical transitions largely reduce our capability of forecasting future system states because it is hard to predict the timing of their occurrence [2]. Moreover, for many systems it is unknown how rapidly the critical transition unfolds when the tipping point has been reached. The rate of change during collapse, however, is important information because it determines the time available to take action to reverse a shift [1]. In this study we explore the rate of change during the degradation of a vegetation-soil system on a hillslope from a state with considerable vegetation cover and large soil depths, to a state with sparse vegetation and a bare rock or negligible soil depths. Using a distributed, stochastic model coupling hydrology, vegetation, weathering and water erosion, we derive two differential equations describing the vegetation and the soil system, and their interaction. Two stable states - vegetated and bare - are identified by means of analytical investigation, and it is shown that the change between these two states is a critical transition as indicated by hysteresis. Surprisingly, when the tipping point is reached under a very slow increase of grazing pressure, the transition between the vegetated and the bare state can either unfold rapidly, over a few years, or gradually, occurring over decennia up to millennia. These differences in the rate of change during the transient state are explained by differences in bedrock weathering rates. This finding emphasizes the considerable uncertainty associated with forecasting catastrophic shifts in ecosystems, which is due to both difficulties in forecasting the timing of the tipping point and the rate of change when the transition unfolds. References [1] Hughes

  20. Slowly and rapidly digestible starchy foods can elicit a similar glycemic response because of differential tissue glucose uptake in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, C.; Schepers, M.; Preston, T.; Vonk, R.J.; Oudhuis, L.; Priebe, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previously we observed that the consumption of pasta and bread resulted in a similar glycemic response, despite a slower intestinal influx rate of glucose from the pasta. Underlying mechanisms of this effect were not clear. Objective: The objective was to investigate the differences in

  1. Rapid startup and high rate nitrogen removal from anaerobic sludge digester liquor using a SNAP process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Sen; Nishiyama, Takashi; Fujii, Tatsuo; Bhatti, Zafar; Furukawa, Kenji

    2012-02-01

    In this study, a single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal reactor, packed with a novel acrylic fiber biomass carrier material (Biofix), was applied for nitrogen removal from sludge digester liquor. For rapid start-up, conventional activated sludge was added to the reactor soon after the attachment of anammox biomass on the Biofix carriers, which allowed conventional activated sludge to form a protective layer of biofilm around the anammox biomass. The Nitrogen removal efficiency reached 75% within 1 week at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.46 kg-N/m(3)/day for synthetic wastewater treatment. By the end of the synthetic wastewater treatment period, the maximum nitrogen removal rate had increased to 0.92 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 1.0 kg-N/m(3)/day. High nitrogen removal rate was also achieved during the actual raw digester liquor treatment with the highest nitrogen removal rate being 0.83 kg-N/m(3)/day at a nitrogen loading rate of 0.93 kg-N/m(3)/day. The thick biofilm on Biofix carriers allowed anammox bacteria to survive under high DO concentration of 5-6 mg/l resulting in stable and high nitrogen removal performance. FISH and CLSM analysis demonstrated that anammox bacteria coexisted and surrounded by ammonium oxidizing bacteria.

  2. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bassompierre

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro technique was superior. The presented method provides an ethical and cost effective means for rapid evaluation of fish meals and potentially, alternative protein sources for aquafeeds.

  4. Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta activity in seafood utilizing microwave digestion and liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel Sas; Jiri Janda; Alena Tokarova

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a method for rapid determination of gross alpha and beta activity in seafood using liquid scintillation counting and microwave digestion for fast sample decomposition. The general group of seafood was divided into two groups based on its structure, whether it has shell or not. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with respect to military significance, radiotoxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. 90 Sr and 239 Pu were selected as model radionuclides. (author)

  5. Spacetimes containing slowly evolving horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, William; Booth, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Slowly evolving horizons are trapping horizons that are ''almost'' isolated horizons. This paper reviews their definition and discusses several spacetimes containing such structures. These include certain Vaidya and Tolman-Bondi solutions as well as (perturbatively) tidally distorted black holes. Taking into account the mass scales and orders of magnitude that arise in these calculations, we conjecture that slowly evolving horizons are the norm rather than the exception in astrophysical processes that involve stellar-scale black holes

  6. State-of-the-art of the development and appliance of anaerobic digestion in Brazil; Estagio de desenvolvimento e aplicacao da digestao anaerobica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Yukie Saito; Craveiro, Americo Martins [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents the up-to-date situation of both research and application of anaerobic digestion in Brazil. Concerning application, rural digesters have accounted around 7520 units and this number is expected to increase very slowly. For anaerobic treatment of industrial and domestic effluents, inversely, a rapid growth is expected for the near future. (author) 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... to term pigs. CONCLUSION: Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, while some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 weeks. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal...

  8. Bio-electrolytic sensor for rapid monitoring of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Li, Xiaohu; Zhao, Nannan

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing...

  9. Rapid Microwave Digestion Procedures for the Elemental Analysis of Alloy and Slag Samples of Smelted Ocean Bed Polymetallic Nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Smita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microwave digester for digestion of alloy and slag samples of smelted ocean bed polymetallic nodules has permitted the complete digestion of samples, thereby replacing the tedious classical methods of digestion of samples. The digestion procedure includes two acid-closed digestions of samples in a microwave oven. Owing to the hazardous nature of perchloric acid, it was not used in developed digestion procedure. Digested sample solutions were analyzed for concentrations of various radicals and the effectiveness of the developed digestion methodology was tested using certified reference materials. It was found that the developed method is giving results comparable with that obtained from conventionally digested samples. In this digestion procedure, time required for digestion of samples was reduced to about 1 hour only from 8-9 hours of conventional digestion.

  10. Rapid Characterization of Insulin Modifications and Sequence Variations by Proteinase K Digestion and UHPLC-ESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong-Sheng; Tang, Weijuan; Sheng, Huaming; Meng, Fanyu

    2018-01-01

    Discovery of novel insulin analogs as therapeutics has remained an active area of research. Compared with native human insulin, insulin analog molecules normally incorporate either covalent modifications or amino acid sequence variations. From the drug discovery and development perspective, methods for efficient and detailed characterization of these primary structural changes are very important. In this report, we demonstrate that proteinase K digestion coupled with UPLC-ESI-MS analysis provides a simple and rapid approach to characterize the modifications and sequence variations of insulin molecules. A commercially available proteinase K digestion kit was used to process recombinant human insulin (RHI), insulin glargine, and fluorescein isothiocynate-labeled recombinant human insulin (FITC-RHI) samples. The LC-MS data clearly showed that RHI and insulin glargine samples can be differentiated, and the FITC modifications in all three amine sites of the RHI molecule are well characterized. The end-to-end experiment and data interpretation was achieved within 60 min. This approach is fast and simple, and can be easily implemented in early drug discovery laboratories to facilitate research on more advanced insulin therapeutics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Rapid Characterization of Insulin Modifications and Sequence Variations by Proteinase K Digestion and UHPLC-ESI-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong-Sheng; Tang, Weijuan; Sheng, Huaming; Meng, Fanyu

    2018-05-01

    Discovery of novel insulin analogs as therapeutics has remained an active area of research. Compared with native human insulin, insulin analog molecules normally incorporate either covalent modifications or amino acid sequence variations. From the drug discovery and development perspective, methods for efficient and detailed characterization of these primary structural changes are very important. In this report, we demonstrate that proteinase K digestion coupled with UPLC-ESI-MS analysis provides a simple and rapid approach to characterize the modifications and sequence variations of insulin molecules. A commercially available proteinase K digestion kit was used to process recombinant human insulin (RHI), insulin glargine, and fluorescein isothiocynate-labeled recombinant human insulin (FITC-RHI) samples. The LC-MS data clearly showed that RHI and insulin glargine samples can be differentiated, and the FITC modifications in all three amine sites of the RHI molecule are well characterized. The end-to-end experiment and data interpretation was achieved within 60 min. This approach is fast and simple, and can be easily implemented in early drug discovery laboratories to facilitate research on more advanced insulin therapeutics. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with [γ- 32 P]ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M r 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M r 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic 32 P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses

  13. In vitro batch fecal fermentation comparison of gas and short-chain fatty acid production using "slowly fermentable" dietary fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amandeep; Rose, Devin J; Rumpagaporn, Pinthip; Patterson, John A; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2011-01-01

    Sustained colonic fermentation supplies beneficial fermentative by-products to the distal colon, which is particularly prone to intestinal ailments. Blunted/delayed initial fermentation may also lead to less bloating. Previously, we reported that starch-entrapped alginate-based microspheres act as a slowly fermenting dietary fiber. This material was used in the present study to provide a benchmark to compare to other "slowly fermentable" fibers. Dietary fibers with previous reports of slow fermentation, namely, long-chain inulin, psyllium, alkali-soluble corn bran arabinoxylan, and long-chain β-glucan, as well as starch-entrapped microspheres were subjected to in vitro upper gastrointestinal digestion and human fecal fermentation and measured over 48 h for pH, gas, and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch was used as another form of fermentable starch and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) served as a fast fermenting control. Corn bran arabinoxylan and long-chain β-glucan initially appeared slower fermenting with comparatively low gas and SCFA production, but later fermented rapidly with little remaining in the final half of the fermentation period. Long-chain inulin and psyllium had slow and moderate, but incomplete, fermentation. The resistant fraction of cooked and cooled potato starch fermented rapidly and appeared similar to FOS. In conclusion, compared to the benchmark slowly fermentable starch-entrapped microspheres, a number of the purported slowly fermentable fibers fermented fairly rapidly overall and, of this group, only the starch-entrapped microspheres appreciably fermented in the second half of the fermentation period. Consumption of dietary fibers, particularly commercial prebiotics, leads to uncomfortable feelings of bloating and flatulence due to their rapid degradation in our large intestine. This article employs claimed potential slowly fermenting fibers and compares their fermentation rates

  14. Computations of slowly moving shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karni, S.; Canic, S.

    1997-01-01

    Computations of slowly moving shocks by shock capturing schemes may generate oscillations are generated already by first-order schemes, but become more pronounced in higher-order schemes which seem to exhibit different behaviors: (i) the first-order upwind (UW) scheme which generates strong oscillations and (ii) the Lax-Friedrichs scheme which appears not to generate any disturbances at all. A key observation is that in the UW case, the numerical viscosity in the shock family vanishes inside the slow shock layer. Simple scaling arguments show the third-order effects on the solution may no longer be neglected. We derive the third-order modified equation for the UW scheme and regard the oscillatory solution as a traveling wave solution of the parabolic modified equation for the perturbation. We then look at the governing equation for the perturbation, which points to a plausible mechanism by which postshock oscillations are generated. It contains a third-order source term that becomes significant inside the shock layer, and a nonlinear coupling term which projects the perturbation on all characteristic fields, including those not associated with the shock family. 5 refs., 8 figs

  15. Peat - a slowly renewable biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The international investigation group of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry suggest that peat should be classified as a slowly renewable energy source. Regeneration of peat can take up to thousands of years. Hence peat differs from wood energy, classified as renewable energy, and on the other hand from fossil fuels, such as coal. The report of the investigation group includes all the present research information on greenhouse gas balances of Finnish peatlands, i.e. how much greenhouse gases are liberated from Finnish mires, and on the other hand how much greenhouse gases they absorb. The net emissions of greenhouse gases of Finnish mires are over 10 million tons per year, and those of combustion of peat, mainly CO 2 , are over 8 million tons. The total greenhouse gas emissions of peat combustion and Finnish mire are estimated to be 19 (+- 9) % per year. This corresponds to about 25% of the total greenhouse gas emissions in Finland. The objective of the report was also to study the effects of the utilization of cutaway peat production areas (reforestation, returning the areas back to mires, agricultural utilization) on the greenhouse gas emission balances. The precise investigation of the effects of the greenhouse gas balances and the utilization of cutaway areas require further investigation and measurements at Finnish mires. The group consisted of Patrick Crill (USA), Ken Hargraves (GB) and Atte Korhola (FIN). The report of the group will be published in the Studies and Reports Serie of the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry both in English and in Finnish

  16. Comparison of three optimized digestion methods for rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand: Closed microwaves, open microwaves and ultrasound irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domini, Claudia E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Hidalgo, Montserrat [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Marken, Frank [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Canals, Antonio [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, Apdo. 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: a.canals@ua.es

    2006-03-02

    In the present work, experimental design was used for the fast optimization of three kinds of sample digestion procedures with the final aim of obtaining the COD value of wastewater samples. The digestion methods evaluated were 'closed microwave-assisted' (CMWD), 'open microwave-assisted' (OMWD) and 'ultrasound-assisted' (USD). Classical digestion was used as reference method. The optimum values for the different variables studied in each method were: 90 psi pressure, 475 W power and 4 min irradiation time (CMWD); 150 deg. C temperature and 4 min irradiation time (OMWD); 90% of maximum nominal power (180 W), 0.9 s (s{sup -1}) cycles and 1 min irradiation time (USD). In all cases, interference concentration that produces a deviation of 10% in COD values is 13.4, 23.4, 21.1 and 2819 mg/L for S{sup 2-}, Fe{sup 2+}, NO{sub 2} {sup -} and Cl{sup -}, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the proposed digestion methods have been successfully applied, with the exception of pyridine, to several pure organic compounds and COD recoveries for 10 real wastewater samples were ranged between 88 and 104% of the values obtained with the classical (open reflux) method used as reference, with R.S.D. lower than 4% in most cases. Thus, the use of ultrasound energy for COD determination seems to be an interesting and promising alternative to conventional open reflux and microwave-assisted digestion methods used for the same purpose since the instrumentation is simpler, cheaper and safer and the digestion step faster than the ones used for the same purpose.

  17. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  18. SIMULATING PROTEIN DIGESTION ON TROUT A RAPID AND INEXPENSIVE METHOD FOR DOCUMENTING FISH MEAL QUALITY AND SCREENING NOVEL PROTEIN SOURCES FOR USE IN AQUAFEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    M Bassompierre; A Kjar; Ewen McLean

    1997-01-01

    A novel in vitro digestion system, which simulated rainbow trout gastric and intestinal digestion was developed. The method was employed to evaluate the impact of the gastric phase of digestion upon degradation of three fish meals od differing quality. Results illustrated that two-phase gastric-intestinal digestion increased the discriminatory powers of the system when compared to one-step intestinal digestion. A comparison of the system with pH-STAT methods demonstrated that the in vitro tec...

  19. Digestive Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and provide energy. This process is called digestion. Your digestive system is a series of hollow organs joined ... are also involved. They produce juices to help digestion. There are many types of digestive disorders. The ...

  20. High speed capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry via an electrokinetically pumped sheath flow interface for rapid analysis of amino acids and a protein digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavone, Nicole M; Sarver, Scott A; Sun, Liangliang; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

    2015-06-01

    While capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has been used to produce very rapid and efficient separations, coupling these high-speed separations with mass spectrometry (MS) has been challenging. Now, with much faster and sensitive mass spectrometers, it is possible to take full advantage of the CZE speed and reconstruct the fast migrating peaks. Here are three high-speed CZE-MS analyses via an electrokinetically pumped sheath-flow interface. The first separation demonstrates CZE-ESI-MS of an amino acid mixture with a 2-min separation, >50,000 theoretical plates, low micromolar concentration detection limits, and subfemtomole mass detection limits (LTQ XL mass spectrometer). The second separation with our recently improved third-generation CE-MS interface illustrates a 20 amino acid separation in ∼7min with an average over 200,000 plate counts, and results in almost-baseline resolution of structural isomers, leucine and isoleucine. The third separation is of a BSA digest with a reproducible CZE separation and mass spectrometry detection in 2min. CZE-MS/MS analysis of the BSA digest identified 31 peptides, produced 52% sequence coverage, and generated a peak capacity of ∼40 across the 1-min separation window (Q-Exactive mass spectrometer). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “slowly digestible starch in starch-containing foods” and “reduction of postprandial glycaemic responses” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -prandial insulinaemic responses are not disproportionally increased), may be a beneficial physiological effect. The studies provided consistently showed that consumption of 40-50 % of digestible starch as “SDS” in cereal products containing about 55-70 % of available carbohydrates as starch and 30-45 % as sugars...... in the context of a meal providing at least 60 E% of available carbohydrates induced significantly lower post-prandial glycaemic responses (without leading to disproportionally increased post-prandial insulinaemic responses) than the consumption of all digestible starch as “RDS” in cereal products with a similar...... the consumption of “SDS”, as compared to the consumption of “RDS”, in cereal products and reduced post-prandial glycaemic responses (without disproportionally increased post-prandial insulinaemic responses). © European Food Safety Authority, 2011...

  2. Impact of α-amylase combined with hydrochloric acid hydrolysis on structure and digestion of waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyan; Zhu, Yanqiao; Jiao, Aiquan; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Xiaoming; Wei, Benxi; Hu, Xiuting; Wu, Chunsen; Jin, Zhengyu; Tian, Yaoqi

    2013-04-01

    The structure and in vitro digestibility of native waxy rice starch by the combined hydrolysis of α-amylase and hydrochloric acid were investigated in this study. The combined hydrolysis technique generated higher hydrolysis rate and extent than the enzymatic hydrolysis. The granular appearance and chromatograph profile demonstrated that α-amylase and hydrochloric acid exhibited different patterns of hydrolysis. The rise in the ratio of absorbance 1047/1022cm(-1), the melting temperature range (Tc-To), and the melting enthalpy (ΔH) were observed during the combined hydrolysis. These results suggest that α-amylase simultaneously cleaves the amorphous and crystalline regions, whereas the amorphous regions of starch granules are preferentially hydrolyzed during the acid hydrolysis. Furthermore, the combined hydrolysis increased rapidly digestible starch (RDS) while decreased slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS), indicating that the hydrolysis mode affected the digestion property of native waxy rice starch. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cesium levels in foodstuffs fall slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since spring 1986, radioactive decay has reduced the total amount of radioactive cesium 137 in the Finnish environment, originating in Chernobyl, by 17 per cent. The cesium content in fish keeps falling at a diminishing rate, depending on the species of fish and environmental factors. The use of fish from lakes need not be restricted anymore. The cesium contents of game, mushrooms and wild berries have remained steady for some years now. The same is true for agricultural produce. The contents in milk and meat still keep falling slowly. Most of the cesium ingested by finns comes from fish, then from game, reindeer and gathered foods; the lowest amounts are received from agricultural products. (orig.)

  4. Petroleum demand continues to grow but slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    While it is always entertaining and intellectually stimulating to look at all the marvelous technological alternatives just around the corner for transport, the transport task in Australia continues to grow and so does petroleum consumption. Australia presently consumes more than 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Latest figures are given for petroleum consumption up to the end of August 1998. They indicate that total demand for petrol has continued to grow, but very slowly. Growth in 1997-1998 compared with 1996-1997 was only 0.3%. This trend for very low growth has been continued into July and August, perhaps indicative of a slow down in the economy

  5. Starch Digestibility and Physicochemical and Cooking Properties of Irradiated Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fernando Polesi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the starch digestibility, physicochemical properties and cooking characteristics of polished rice (varieties IRGA417 and IAC202 subjected to the doses of 0 (as the control, 1, 2 and 5 kGy of gamma radiation. The highest dose decreased the apparent amylose content, peak viscosity, water absorption and volume expansion. Irradiation increased the solid loss by 119% and 187% for IAC202 and IRGA417, respectively, when comparing the higher dose with the control. For IAC202, irradiation decreased the rapidly digestible starch and increased the slowly digestible starch (SDS and resistant starch (RS. IRGA417 showed an elevation of SDS and a reduction in RS. And 1 kGy dose of gamma radiation generated the highest level of RS for both the two varieties and presented the smallest changes in other physicochemical and cooking properties.

  6. Exploitation of rapid acidification phenomena of food waste in reducing the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of high rate anaerobic digester without conceding on biogas yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruti, Kranti; Begum, Sameena; Ahuja, Shruti; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Juntupally, Sudharshan; Gandu, Bharath; Ahuja, Devender Kumar

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study and infer a full scale experience on co-digestion of 1000kg of FW (400kg cooked food waste and 600kg uncooked food waste) and 2000L of rice gruel (RG) on daily basis based on a high rate biomethanation technology called "Anaerobic gas lift reactor" (AGR). The pH of raw substrate was low (5.2-5.5) that resulted in rapid acidification phenomena with in 12h in the feed preparation tank that facilitated to obtain a lower hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 10days. At full load, AGR was fed with 245kg of total solids, 205kg of volatile solids (167kg of organic matter in terms of chemical oxygen demand) which resulted in the generation of biogas and bio manure of 140m 3 /day and 110kg/day respectively. The produced biogas replaced 60-70kg of LPG per day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Accumulation of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs) in canine ventricular myocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stengl, Milan; Volders, Paul G A; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard

    2003-01-01

    In guinea-pig ventricular myocytes, in which the deactivation of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKs) is slow, IKs can be increased by rapid pacing as a result of incomplete deactivation and subsequent current accumulation. Whether accumulation of IKs occurs in dogs, in which...

  8. Peat classified as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    thousands of years. The report states also that peat should be classified as biomass fuel instead of biofuels, such as wood, or fossil fuels such as coal. According to the report peat is a renewable biomass fuel like biofuels, but due to slow accumulation it should be considered as slowly renewable fuel. The report estimates that bonding of carbon in both virgin and forest drained peatlands are so high that it can compensate the emissions formed in combustion of energy peat

  9. Physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of Chinese noodles in relation to optimal cooking time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoting; Sui, Zhongquan

    2016-03-01

    Changes in the physicochemical properties and starch digestibility of white salted noodles (WSN) at different cooking stage were investigated. The noodles were dried in fresh air and then cooked for 2-12 min by boiling in distilled water to determine the properties of cooking quality, textural properties and optical characteristic. For starch digestibility, dry noodles were milled and sieved into various particle size classes ranging from 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm, and hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase. The optimal cooking time of WSN determined by squeezing between glasses was 6 min. The results showed that the kinetics of solvation of starch and protein molecules were responsible for changes of the physicochemical properties of WSN during cooking. The susceptibility of starch to α-amylase was influenced by the cooking time, particle size and enzyme treatment. The greater value of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and lower value of slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) were reached at the optimal cooking stage ranging between 63.14-71.97%, 2.47-10.74% and 23.94-26.88%, respectively, indicating the susceptibility on hydrolysis by enzyme was important in defining the cooked stage. The study suggested that cooking quality and digestibility were not correlated but the texture greatly controls the digestibility of the noodles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Sousbie, P; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the anaerobic digestion of by-products generated during the production and refining of oil with the objective of proposing an alternative solution (methanisation) to the conventional solutions while reducing the energy consumption of fossil origin on refinery sites. The production of sunflower oil was taken as example. Glycerine from the production of biodiesel was also included in this study. The results show that glycerine has a high potential for methanisation because of its high methane potential (465 ml CH4/g VS) and high metabolization rates (0.42 g VS/g VSS.d). The use of oil cake as substrate for anaerobic digestion is not interesting because it has a low methane potential of 215 ml CH4/g VS only and because it is easily recovered in animal feed. Six residues have quite a high methane potential (465 to 850 ml CH4/g VS) indicating a good potential for anaerobic digestion. However, they contain a mixture of rapidly and slowly biodegradable organic matter and the loading rates must remain quite low (0.03 to 0.09 g VS/g VSS.d) to prevent any accumulation of slowly biodegradable solids in the digesters. IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. Perturbation methods and the Melnikov functions for slowly varying oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakrad, Faouzi; Charafi, Moulay Mustapha

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to obtaining the Melnikov function for homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators is proposed. The present method applies the Lindstedt-Poincare method to determine an approximation of homoclinic solutions. It is shown that the resultant Melnikov condition is the same as that obtained in the usual way involving distance functions in three dimensions by Wiggins and Holmes [Homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators. SIAM J Math Anal 1987;18(3):612

  12. Effects of consumption of sucromalt, a slowly digestible carbohydrate, on mental and physical energy questionnaire responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Kristen W; Bell, Margie; Kanter, Mitch; Berger, Alvin

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate whether consumption of the low-glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate sucromalt improves healthy adults' perceptions of mental and physical energy and fatigue compared to dextrose (glucose), a high GI control. In this double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, subjects (n = 44 healthy adults) consumed a standardized dinner, and following an overnight fast, ingested 75 g of either sucromalt or glucose in solution at 7:30 AM the next day. Subjects completed validated questionnaires that assessed mental and physical energy, and fatigue, hunger, and sleepiness at baseline and hourly until 12:30 PM for a total of five post-consumption time points. Within-subject differences adjusted for baseline for individual questions and composite scores (Mental Energy State, Mental Fatigue State, Physical Energy State, and Physical Fatigue State) were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Mental Energy State, Physical Energy State, and Physical Fatigue State results favored sucromalt compared to glucose, with significant differences emerging particularly after 4-5 hours (P Mental Fatigue State was also observed with sucromalt compared to glucose (P mental and physical energy and rise in mental and physical fatigue that can occur 4-5 hours after ingestion of a high GI beverage. Trials examining effects of sucromalt on cognitive and physical performance are of future interest.

  13. Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances; Pan, Xiaoyan; Bellido, Vincent; Toole, Geraldine A; Gates, Fred K; Wickham, Martin S J; Shewry, Peter R; Bakalis, Serafim; Padfield, Philip; Mills, E N Clare

    2015-10-01

    Resistance of proteins to gastrointestinal digestion may play a role in determining immune-mediated adverse reactions to foods. However, digestion studies have largely been restricted to purified proteins and the impact of food processing and food matrices on protein digestibility is poorly understood. Digestibility of a total gliadin fraction (TGF), flour (cv Hereward), and bread was assessed using in vitro batch digestion with simulated oral, gastric, and duodenal phases. Protein digestion was monitored by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using monoclonal antibodies specific for celiac-toxic sequences (QQSF, QPFP) and starch digestion by measuring undigested starch. Whereas the TGF was rapidly digested during the gastric phase the gluten proteins in bread were virtually undigested and digested rapidly during the duodenal phase only if amylase was included. Duodenal starch digestion was also slower in the absence of duodenal proteases. The baking process reduces the digestibility of wheat gluten proteins, including those containing sequences active in celiac disease. Starch digestion affects the extent of protein digestion, probably because of gluten-starch complex formation during baking. Digestion studies using purified protein fractions alone are therefore not predictive of digestion in complex food matrices. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Starch digestibility and predicted glycemic index of fried sweet potato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaka Odenigbo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. is a very rich source of starch. There is increased interest in starch digestibility and the prevention and management of metabolic diseases.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of starch fractions and predicted glycemic index of different cultivars of sweet potato. Material and Method: French fries produced from five cultivars of sweet potato (‘Ginseng Red’, ‘Beauregard’, ‘White Travis’, ‘Georgia Jet clone #2010’ and ‘Georgia Jet’ were used. The level of total starch (TS, resistant starch (RS, digestible starch (DS, and starch digestion index starch digestion index in the samples were evaluated. In vitro starch hydrolysis at 30, 90, and 120 min were determined enzymatically for calculation of rapidly digestible starch (RDS, predicted glycemic index (pGI and slowly digestible starch (SDS respectively. Results: The RS content in all samples had an inversely significant correlation with pGI (-0.52; P<0.05 while RDS had positive and significant influence on both pGI (r=0.55; P<0.05 and SDI (r= 0.94; P<0.01. ‘White Travis’ and ‘Ginseng Red’ had higher levels of beneficial starch fractions (RS and SDS with low pGI and starch digestion Index (SDI, despite their higher TS content. Generally, all the cultivars had products with low to moderate GI values. Conclusion: The glycemic index of these food products highlights the health promoting characteristics of sweet potato cultivars.

  15. Digestive diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prolapse Esophagus problems, such as stricture (narrowing) and achalasia Liver problems, such as hepatitis B or hepatitis ... has received extra training in the diagnosis and treatment of the digestive disorders. Other health care providers ...

  16. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a series of reader’s digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28516028

  17. Digested disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a “Digested Disorder” project and represent a new issue of reader’s digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings. PMID:28232877

  18. Structural properties and digestibility of pulsed electric field treated waxy rice starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Feng; Gao, Qun-Yu; Han, Zhong; Zeng, Xin-An; Yu, Shu-Juan

    2016-03-01

    Waxy rice starch was subjected to pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at intensity of 30, 40 and 50kVcm(-1). The impact of PEF treatment on the granular morphology, molecular weight, semi-crystalline structure, thermal properties, and digestibility were investigated. The micrographs suggested that electric energy could act on the granule structure of starch granule, especially at high intensity of 50kVcm(-1). Gelatinization onset temperature, peak temperature, conclusion temperature and enthalpy value of PEF treated starches were lower than that of native starch. The 9nm lamellar peak of PEF treated starches decreased as revealed by small angle X-ray scattering. The relative crystallinity of treated starches decreased as the increase of electric field intensity. Increased rapidly digestible starch level and decreased slowly digestible starch level was found on PEF treated starches. These results would imply that PEF treatment induced structural changes in waxy rice starch significantly affected its digestibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High insoluble fibre content increases in vitro starch digestibility in partially baked breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronda, Felicidad; Rivero, Pablo; Caballero, Pedro A; Quilez, Joan

    2012-12-01

    Wheat breads prepared from frozen partially baked breads were characterized by their content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and slowly digestible starch (SDS) by the in vitro starch digestibility method developed by Englyst. Breads with different contents and types of fibre and breads prepared with different fermentation processes were studied. Bread with inulin and with a double fermentation had the lowest RDS content of 58.8 ± 1.7 and 60.0 ± 1.9 (% dry matter), respectively. Wheat bran bread, seeded bread, triple fermentation white bread and baguette-type bread showed values of RDS between 63.1 ± 1.7 and 65.7 ± 1.7 with no significant differences between them (p breads than in breads with added fibre. The highest values of the starch digestive rate index (SDRI) were obtained by the three types of breads with added fibre, which ranged from 91.8 ± 3.5 to 95.8 ± 3.5 versus 80.2 ± 3.5 to 87.5 ± 3.5 for white wheat breads. A significant (p bread crumbs corroborated this statement.

  20. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch altered by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Fan, Huanhuan; Cao, Rong; Blanchard, Christopher; Wang, Min

    2016-11-01

    A nonthermal processing technology, high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment, was investigated to assess its influence on the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sorghum starch (SS). There was no change in the 'A'-type crystalline pattern of SS after the pressure treatments at 120-480MPa. However, treatment at 600MPa produced a pattern similar to 'B'-type crystalline. HHP treatment also resulted in SS granules with rough surfaces. Measured amylose content, water absorption capacity, alkaline water retention, pasting temperature and thermostability increased with increasing pressure levels, while the oil absorption capacity, swelling power, relative crystallinity and viscosity decreased. Compared with native starch, HHP-modified SS samples had lower in vitro hydrolysis, reduced amount of rapidly digestible starch, as well as increased levels of slowly digestible starch and resistant starch. These results indicate that HHP treatment is an effective modification method for altering in vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of SS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Complexation of rice starch/flour and maize oil through heat moisture treatment: Structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Zhang, Bin; Huang, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of normal rice starch (NRS)/flour (NRF) complexed with maize oil (MO) through heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The NRS-/NRF-MO complex displayed an increased pasting temperature and a decreased peak viscosity. After HMT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for NRS-/NRF-MO complex. Meanwhile, more aggregation was observed in the HMT samples with higher moisture contents. We found that higher onset temperature, lower enthalpy change and relative crystallinity of the NRS-/NRF-MO complex were associated with a higher moisture content of HMT samples. The higher moisture content of HMT was also favorable for the amylose-lipid complex formation. Differences in starch digestion properties were found for NRS-MO and NRF-MO complex. All of the NRS/NRF complexed MO after cooking showed lower rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents compared with the control sample, therein NRS-/NRF- MO 20% exhibited the highest sum of the slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents. In general, HMT had a greater impact on the in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of flour samples compared with starch counterparts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of acid hydrolysis on morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingchi; Wen, Fanting; Zhang, Shurong; Shen, Ruru; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Effect of acid hydrolysis on the morphology, structure and digestion property of starch from Cynanchum auriculatum Royle ex Wight was investigated in this study. The hydrolysis degree of C. auriculatum starch rapidly increased to 63.69% after 4days and reached 78.67% at the end of 9days. Morphology observation showed that the starch granules remained intact during the first 4days of hydrolysis. However, serious erosion phenomenon was observed after 5days and starch granules completely fell into pieces after 7days. During acid hydrolysis process, the crystal type of hydrolyzed starch changed from original C B -type to final A-type. Small-angle X-ray scattering patterns showed the semi-crystalline growth rings started to be hydrolyzed after 4days. The proportions of single helix and amorphous components as well as amylose content in starch gradually decreased, whereas the proportion of double helix components continuously increased during acid hydrolysis. However, the contents of rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch and resistant starch were almost constant during acid hydrolysis process, indicating the in vitro digestion property of C. auriculatum starch was not affected by acid hydrolysis. Our results provided novel information on the inner structure of C. auriculatum starch granules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wholeness and primary and secondary food structure effects on in vitro digestion patterns determine nutritionally distinct carbohydrate fractions in cereal foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Suman; Monro, John

    2012-12-01

    Starchy foods of differing structure, including bakery products, breakfast cereals, pastas, and pulses were digested in vitro. Bakery products and processed breakfast cereals with little resilient structure yielded large amounts of rapidly available carbohydrate (RAC), less slowly digested starch (SDS) and little inaccessible digestible starch (IDS) (70:22:8%). Partially processed grains, such as rolled oats contained an increased proportion of SDS (55:38:7%). Pastas, being dense starch structures digested more gradually to completion by superficial erosion, yielding approximately equal proportions of RAC and SDS but little IDS (43:52:4%). Pulses, which retained their cellular morphology, digested more linearly yielding a lower proportion of RAC, a larger proportion of SDS and more IDS (9:69:22%). Preservation of native "primary" structure, and use of processing to create "secondary" structure, are both means by which wholeness, in the sense of intactness, can be used to influence carbohydrate digestion to make foods of lower glycaemic impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

  5. Weakly Coupled Oscillators in a Slowly Varying World

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngmin; Ermentrout, Bard

    2016-01-01

    We extend the theory of weakly coupled oscillators to incorporate slowly varying inputs and parameters. We employ a combination of regular perturbation and an adiabatic approximation to derive equations for the phase-difference between a pair of oscillators. We apply this to the simple Hopf oscillator and then to a biophysical model. The latter represents the behavior of a neuron that is subject to slow modulation of a muscarinic current such as would occur during transient attention through ...

  6. Bactericidal effects of antibiotics on slowly growing and nongrowing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, R H; Padberg, F T; Smith, S M; Tan, E N; Cherubin, C E

    1991-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are most often tested against bacteria in the log phase of multiplication to produce the maximum bactericidal effect. In an infection, bacteria may multiply less optimally. We examined the effects of several classes of antimicrobial agents to determine their actions on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria during nongrowing and slowly growing phases. Only ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin exhibited bactericidal activity against nongrowing gram-negative bacteria, and no antib...

  7. Development of an automated on-line pepsin digestion-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry configuration for the rapid analysis of protein adducts of chemical warfare agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol-Visser, J.; van der Schans, M.; Fidder, A.; Huist, A.G.; van Baar, B.L.M.; Irth, H.; Noort, D.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid monitoring and retrospective verification are key issues in protection against and non-proliferation of chemical warfare agents (CWA). Such monitoring and verification are adequately accomplished by the analysis of persistent protein adducts of these agents. Liquid chromatography-mass

  8. Digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    Scintiscanning of salivary glands with (sup 99m)Tc is commented. The uses of triolein - and oleic acid labelled with 131 I, 125 I or 82 Br are discussed in the study of fat absorption, as well as 14 C and 191 Y. The use of 57 Co as a radiotracer in the intestinal absorption of vitamin B 12 is analysed. Orientation is given about 51 Cr - albumin clearance in the study of plasmatic protein loss by digestive tract. The radiotracers 131 I, 125 I and 51 Cr are pointed out in the investigation of immunoglobulins. Consideration is given to the quantification of digestive bleedings by the use of 51 Cr [pt

  9. On the dynamics of slowly rotating stellar systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoust, E.

    1989-01-01

    Kinematical observations are now available for stellar systems which might rotate slowly. The study of periodic orbits in model stellar systems shows that a mean motion in epicyclic or circular orbits contributes to balance the centrifugal force, in addition to the velocity dispersions. Two dynamical models, the generalized Toomre and Plummer models, are adapted to the case of slow rotation. They are applied to two globular clusters, M 3 and 47 Tucanae, and 12 clusters of galaxies. 47 Tucanae is found to rotate, but none of the clusters of galaxies has any significant mean motion, except SC 316-44. 34 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs. (author)

  10. Slowly varying dilaton cosmologies and their field theory duals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awad, Adel; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Trivedi, Sandip P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a deformation of the AdS 5 xS 5 solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the anti-de Sitter (AdS) scale thereby introducing a small parameter ε. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the supergravity (sugra) solution to first nontrivial order in ε, and find that it is smooth, horizon-free, and asymptotically AdS 5 xS 5 in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analyzed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S 3 with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When Nε 5 xS 5 again. When Nε>>1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the 't Hooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 't Hooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS 5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.

  11. Heavy inertial particles in turbulent flows gain energy slowly but lose it rapidly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gupta, Anupam; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    We present an extensive numerical study of the time irreversibility of the dynamics of heavy inertial particles in three-dimensional, statistically homogeneous, and isotropic turbulent flows. We show that the probability density function (PDF) of the increment, W (τ ) , of a particle's energy over a time scale τ is non-Gaussian, and skewed toward negative values. This implies that, on average, particles gain energy over a period of time that is longer than the duration over which they lose energy. We call this slow gain and fast loss. We find that the third moment of W (τ ) scales as τ3 for small values of τ . We show that the PDF of power-input p is negatively skewed too; we use this skewness Ir as a measure of the time irreversibility and we demonstrate that it increases sharply with the Stokes number St for small St; this increase slows down at St≃1 . Furthermore, we obtain the PDFs of t+ and t-, the times over which p has, respectively, positive or negative signs, i.e., the particle gains or loses energy. We obtain from these PDFs a direct and natural quantification of the slow gain and fast loss of the energy of the particles, because these PDFs possess exponential tails from which we infer the characteristic loss and gain times tloss and tgain, respectively, and we obtain tlossprobability in the strain-dominated region than in the vortical one; in contrast, the slow gain in the energy of the particles is equally likely in vortical or strain-dominated regions of the flow.

  12. Heavy inertial particles in turbulent flows gain energy slowly but lose it rapidly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Akshay; Gupta, Anupam; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    We present an extensive numerical study of the time irreversibility of the dynamics of heavy inertial particles in three-dimensional, statistically homogeneous, and isotropic turbulent flows. We show that the probability density function (PDF) of the increment, W(τ), of a particle's energy over a time scale τ is non-Gaussian, and skewed toward negative values. This implies that, on average, particles gain energy over a period of time that is longer than the duration over which they lose energy. We call this slow gain and fast loss. We find that the third moment of W(τ) scales as τ^{3} for small values of τ. We show that the PDF of power-input p is negatively skewed too; we use this skewness Ir as a measure of the time irreversibility and we demonstrate that it increases sharply with the Stokes number St for small St; this increase slows down at St≃1. Furthermore, we obtain the PDFs of t^{+} and t^{-}, the times over which p has, respectively, positive or negative signs, i.e., the particle gains or loses energy. We obtain from these PDFs a direct and natural quantification of the slow gain and fast loss of the energy of the particles, because these PDFs possess exponential tails from which we infer the characteristic loss and gain times t_{loss} and t_{gain}, respectively, and we obtain t_{loss}

  13. In vitro digestion and physicochemical characteristics of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low pressure treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying

    2018-03-01

    The digestibility and molecular structure of corn starch mixed with amino acid modified by low-pressure treatment (LPT) was investigated. Amino acid induced a significant increase in the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and decrease in the rapidly digestible starch (RDS) after LPT. The reason is the formation of ester bond between the molecular chains of amino acid and starch. Low pressure treatment altered greatly the morphology of corn starch mixed with or without amino acid. After LPT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for starch-amino acid complex. An increase in size distribution was obvious after LPT and the size distribution curves provided from a new variety. We found that higher enthalpy and relative crystallinity of the starch-amino acid complex were associated with a higher SDS content. It can be inferred that LPT had a greater impact on the digestion and structural characterization of corn starch mixed with amino acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of energy supplementation on intake and digestion of early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementation of early and mid-season Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar) with maize meal, maize meal with NaHC03 buffer, or maize meal plus combinations of slowly degradable protein was studied. Supplements were administered via a rumen fistula. The effect on intake and digestion of ryegrass was ...

  15. The neuropsychological and neuroradiological correlates of slowly progressive visual agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovagnoli, Anna Rita; Aresi, Anna; Reati, Fabiola; Riva, Alice; Gobbo, Clara; Bizzi, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    The case of a 64-year-old woman affected by slowly progressive visual agnosia is reported aiming to describe specific cognitive-brain relationships. Longitudinal clinical and neuropsychological assessment, combined with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography (PET) were used. Sequential neuropsychological evaluations performed during a period of 9 years since disease onset showed the appearance of apperceptive and associative visual agnosia, alexia without agraphia, agraphia, finger agnosia, and prosopoagnosia, but excluded dementia. MRI showed moderate diffuse cortical atrophy, with predominant atrophy in the left posterior cortical areas (temporal, parietal, and lateral occipital cortical gyri). 18FDG-PET showed marked bilateral posterior cortical hypometabolism; proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging disclosed severe focal N-acetyl-aspartate depletion in the left temporoparietal and lateral occipital cortical areas. In conclusion, selective metabolic alterations and neuronal loss in the left temporoparietooccipital cortex may determine progressive visual agnosia in the absence of dementia.

  16. Λ( t ) cosmology induced by a slowly varying Elko field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, S.H.; Pinho, A.S.S.; Silva, J.M. Hoff da [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Faculdade de Engenharia, Guaratinguetá, Departamento de Física e Química Av. Dr. Ariberto Pereira da Cunha 333, 12516-410—Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Jesus, J.F., E-mail: shpereira@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: alexandre.pinho510@gmail.com, E-mail: hoff@feg.unesp.br, E-mail: jfjesus@itapeva.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Campus Experimental de Itapeva, R. Geraldo Alckmin, 519 Itapeva, SP (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    In this work the exact Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equations for an Elko spinor field coupled to gravity in an Einstein-Cartan framework are presented. The torsion functions coupling the Elko field spin-connection to gravity can be exactly solved and the FRW equations for the system assume a relatively simple form. In the limit of a slowly varying Elko spinor field there is a relevant contribution to the field equations acting exactly as a time varying cosmological model Λ( t )=Λ{sub *}+3β H {sup 2}, where Λ{sub *} and β are constants. Observational data using distance luminosity from magnitudes of supernovae constraint the parameters Ω {sub m} and β, which leads to a lower limit to the Elko mass. Such model mimics, then, the effects of a dark energy fluid, here sourced by the Elko spinor field. The density perturbations in the linear regime were also studied in the pseudo-Newtonian formalism.

  17. Unusual Slowly Rotating Brown Dwarfs Discovered through Precision Spitzer Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Aren; Metchev, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit low-amplitude rotationally modulated variability due to photospheric inhomogeneities caused by condensate clouds in their atmospheres. The Spitzer Space Telescope 'Weather on Other Worlds' (WoW) project has monitored 44 brown dwarfs at unprecedented photometric precision from space. We present one of several important new results from WoW: the discovery of brown dwarfs with unexpectedly slow rotation periods. While most brown dwarfs have periods of 2-12 hours, we have identified two with well-constrained periods of 13±1 and >20 hours, respectively, and 2 others that show more tentative evidence of longer than 20-hour periods. By serving as almost non-rotating standards, these objects will allow more accurate calibration of spectroscopic measurements of brown dwarfs' projected rotational velocities. The existence of such slowly-rotating objects also constrains models of brown dwarf formation and angular momentum evolution.

  18. Comparative Digestive Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasov, William H.; Douglas, Angela E.

    2015-01-01

    In vertebrates and invertebrates, morphological and functional features of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts generally reflect food chemistry, such as content of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and material(s) refractory to rapid digestion (e.g., cellulose). The expression of digestive enzymes and nutrient transporters approximately matches the dietary load of their respective substrates, with relatively modest excess capacity. Mechanisms explaining differences in hydrolase activity between populations and species include gene copy number variations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Transcriptional and posttranscriptional adjustments mediate phenotypic changes in the expression of hydrolases and transporters in response to dietary signals. Many species respond to higher food intake by flexibly increasing digestive compartment size. Fermentative processes by symbiotic microorganisms are important for cellulose degradation but are relatively slow, so animals that rely on those processes typically possess special enlarged compartment(s) to maintain a microbiota and other GI structures that slow digesta flow. The taxon richness of the gut microbiota, usually identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, is typically an order of magnitude greater in vertebrates than invertebrates, and the interspecific variation in microbial composition is strongly influenced by diet. Many of the nutrient transporters are orthologous across different animal phyla, though functional details may vary (e.g., glucose and amino acid transport with K+ rather than Na+ as a counter ion). Paracellular absorption is important in many birds. Natural toxins are ubiquitous in foods and may influence key features such as digesta transit, enzymatic breakdown, microbial fermentation, and absorption PMID:23720328

  19. Slowly rotating general relativistic superfluid neutron stars with relativistic entrainment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Neutron stars that are cold enough should have two or more superfluids or supercondutors in their inner crusts and cores. The implication of superfluidity or superconductivity for equilibrium and dynamical neutron star states is that each individual particle species that forms a condensate must have its own, independent number density current and equation of motion that determines that current. An important consequence of the quasiparticle nature of each condensate is the so-called entrainment effect; i.e., the momentum of a condensate is a linear combination of its own current and those of the other condensates. We present here the first fully relativistic modeling of slowly rotating superfluid neutron stars with entrainment that is accurate to the second-order in the rotation rates. The stars consist of superfluid neutrons, superconducting protons, and a highly degenerate, relativistic gas of electrons. We use a relativistic σ-ω mean field model for the equation of state of the matter and the entrainment. We determine the effect of a relative rotation between the neutrons and protons on a star's total mass, shape, and Kepler, mass-shedding limit

  20. Extended I-Love relations for slowly rotating neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon-Bischoff, Jérémie; Green, Stephen R.; Landry, Philippe; Ortiz, Néstor

    2018-03-01

    Observations of gravitational waves from inspiralling neutron star binaries—such as GW170817—can be used to constrain the nuclear equation of state by placing bounds on stellar tidal deformability. For slowly rotating neutron stars, the response to a weak quadrupolar tidal field is characterized by four internal-structure-dependent constants called "Love numbers." The tidal Love numbers k2el and k2mag measure the tides raised by the gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic components of the applied field, and the rotational-tidal Love numbers fo and ko measure those raised by couplings between the applied field and the neutron star spin. In this work, we compute these four Love numbers for perfect fluid neutron stars with realistic equations of state. We discover (nearly) equation-of-state independent relations between the rotational-tidal Love numbers and the moment of inertia, thereby extending the scope of I-Love-Q universality. We find that similar relations hold among the tidal and rotational-tidal Love numbers. These relations extend the applications of I-Love universality in gravitational-wave astronomy. As our findings differ from those reported in the literature, we derive general formulas for the rotational-tidal Love numbers in post-Newtonian theory and confirm numerically that they agree with our general-relativistic computations in the weak-field limit.

  1. A new digestion and chemical separation technique for rapid and highly reproducible determination of Lu/Hf and Hf isotope ratios in geological materials by mc-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, J.A.; Ulfbeck, D.

    2003-01-01

    for isotopic analysis of the Sm-Nd system and/or the other HFSE (Ti, Zr). Total procedural blanks for this technique are 5 g) samples. We present data from replicate digestions of international rock reference materials which....... The relative simplicity of this technique, coupled with the ease of digestion (and samplespike equilibration) of large difficult-to-dissolve samples, and the speed (2 days) with which samples can be digested and processed through the chemical separation scheme makes it an attractive new method for preparing...

  2. Engineering Digestion: Multiscale Processes of Food Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Gail M; Gouseti, Ourania; Wickham, Martin S J; Bakalis, Serafim

    2016-03-01

    Food digestion is a complex, multiscale process that has recently become of interest to the food industry due to the developing links between food and health or disease. Food digestion can be studied by using either in vitro or in vivo models, each having certain advantages or disadvantages. The recent interest in food digestion has resulted in a large number of studies in this area, yet few have provided an in-depth, quantitative description of digestion processes. To provide a framework to develop these quantitative comparisons, a summary is given here between digestion processes and parallel unit operations in the food and chemical industry. Characterization parameters and phenomena are suggested for each step of digestion. In addition to the quantitative characterization of digestion processes, the multiscale aspect of digestion must also be considered. In both food systems and the gastrointestinal tract, multiple length scales are involved in food breakdown, mixing, absorption. These different length scales influence digestion processes independently as well as through interrelated mechanisms. To facilitate optimized development of functional food products, a multiscale, engineering approach may be taken to describe food digestion processes. A framework for this approach is described in this review, as well as examples that demonstrate the importance of process characterization as well as the multiple, interrelated length scales in the digestion process. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Peat is regarded as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myllylae, I.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry commissioned an investigation on the role of peat in Finnish greenhouse gas balance in 1999. An international scientist group, consisting of Dr. Patrick Crill from USA, Dr. Ken Hargreaves from United Kingdom and docent Atte Korhola from Finland conducted the investigation. The scientist group made the proposition that peat should be classified as a slowly renewable biomass fuel, which is significant from the peat industry's point of view. An interesting detail of the investigation was the calculations, which showed that ditching of peatlands, have decreased the methane emissions from peatlands. Virgin peatlands bind carbon dioxide from the air, but simultaneously they emit methane, which is more harmful than CO 2 emissions. The carbon sink effect of Finnish peatlands is based on the CO 2 binding of virgin and ditched peatlands in Finland. The CO 2 emissions of peat production and combustion are smaller than the CO 2 binding. Virgin peatlands form a relative large source of methane. The investigation shows that when reviewing the effects of all the greenhouse gases on climate, the virgin peatlands may accelerate the greenhouse effect due to the methane emissions. The final conclusion is that ditching of virgin peatlands has reduced the radiation enforcement in Finland in some extent. When a virgin peatland is ditched the methane emissions from it are reduced significantly, and simultaneously more CO 2 is bound into vegetation. According to the investigation the net emissions of greenhouse gases in Finland exceed 10 million tonnes calculated as CO 2 . Of this the share of virgin peatlands is 8.4 million tonnes, which is of the same magnitude as the emissions from peat combustion. The life cycle analysis has shown that peat production should be directed to swampy fields removed from agricultural production. In most of the cases the combination of reforestation and repaludification into a functional peatland ecosystem could

  4. Effect of sourdough addition and storage time on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of tef bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumoy, Habtu; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Devecioglu, Dilara; Raes, Katleen

    2018-10-30

    The effect of sourdough amount and storage time on starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index (eGI) of tef bread was investigated. The rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) of 0-30% sourdough fresh tef breads ranged from 49 to 58, 16 to 29 and 20 to 26 g/100 g starch, respectively. Storage of tef breads up to 5 days decreased the RDS by more than 2-fold while SDS and RS increased by 2 and 3 fold, respectively. The eGI for fresh and stored breads ranged from 39 to 89. Addition of sourdough increased the eGI of fresh breads while no uniform pattern was seen in the stored breads. As the storage time increased, all the breads showed a decrease in eGI. In vivo study is necessary to further investigate the effect of sourdough on GI of tef bread. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The glycogen of Galdieria sulphuraria as alternative to starch for the production of slowly digestible and resistant glucose polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Garcia, Marta; Kormpa, Akrivi; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.

    2017-01-01

    Highly branched glucose polymers produced from starch are applied in various products, such as peritoneal dialysis solutions and sports drinks. Due to its insoluble, granular nature, the use of native starch as substrate requires an energy consuming pre-treatment to achieve solubilization at the

  6. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  7. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld eZeitler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e. an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal synchrony. The spatiotemporal sequence by which all stimulation sites are stimulated exactly once is called the stimulation site sequence, or briefly sequence. So far, in simulations, pre-clinical and clinical applications CR was applied either with fixed sequences or rapidly varying sequences (RVS. In this computational study we show that appropriate repetition of the sequence with occasional random switching to the next sequence may significantly improve the anti-kindling effect of CR. To this end, a sequence is applied many times before randomly switching to the next sequence. This new method is called SVS CR stimulation, i.e. CR with slowly varying sequences. In a neuronal network with strong short-range excitatory and weak long-range inhibitory dynamic couplings SVS CR stimulation turns out to be superior to CR stimulation with fixed sequences or RVS.

  8. Augmented brain function by coordinated reset stimulation with slowly varying sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Several brain disorders are characterized by abnormally strong neuronal synchrony. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation was developed to selectively counteract abnormal neuronal synchrony by desynchronization. For this, phase resetting stimuli are delivered to different subpopulations in a timely coordinated way. In neural networks with spike timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may eventually lead to an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and abnormal synchrony. The spatiotemporal sequence by which all stimulation sites are stimulated exactly once is called the stimulation site sequence, or briefly sequence. So far, in simulations, pre-clinical and clinical applications CR was applied either with fixed sequences or rapidly varying sequences (RVS). In this computational study we show that appropriate repetition of the sequence with occasional random switching to the next sequence may significantly improve the anti-kindling effect of CR. To this end, a sequence is applied many times before randomly switching to the next sequence. This new method is called SVS CR stimulation, i.e., CR with slowly varying sequences. In a neuronal network with strong short-range excitatory and weak long-range inhibitory dynamic couplings SVS CR stimulation turns out to be superior to CR stimulation with fixed sequences or RVS.

  9. Angular momentum transport by heat-driven g-modes in slowly pulsating B stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, R. H. D.; Goldstein, J.; Zweibel, E. G.

    2018-03-01

    Motivated by recent interest in the phenomenon of waves transport in massive stars, we examine whether the heat-driven gravity (g) modes excited in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars can significantly modify the stars' internal rotation. We develop a formalism for the differential torque exerted by g modes, and implement this formalism using the GYRE oscillation code and the MESASTAR stellar evolution code. Focusing first on a 4.21M⊙ model, we simulate 1 000 yr of stellar evolution under the combined effects of the torque due to a single unstable prograde g mode (with an amplitude chosen on the basis of observational constraints), and diffusive angular momentum transport due to convection, overshooting, and rotational instabilities. We find that the g mode rapidly extracts angular momentum from the surface layers, depositing it deeper in the stellar interior. The angular momentum transport is so efficient that by the end of the simulation, the initially non-rotating surface layers are spun in the retrograde direction to ≈ 30 per cent of the critical rate. However, the additional inclusion of magnetic stresses in our simulations almost completely inhibits this spin-up. Expanding our simulations to cover the whole instability strip, we show that the same general behaviour is seen in all SPB stars. After providing some caveats to contextualize our results, we hypothesize that the observed slower surface rotation of SPB stars (as compared to other B-type stars) may be the direct consequence of the angular momentum transport that our simulations demonstrate.

  10. Clinical and radiological aspects of limited forms of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis and slowly resolving pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraiani, Olga; Lesnic, Evelina; Niguleanu, Adriana; Niguleanu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Despite of a clearly defined diagnostic algorithm of pulmonary tuberculosis, low sensibility of contemporary laboratory methods in limited forms of pulmonary tuberculosis contributes to a difficult differential diagnosis with community acquired pneumonia, especially with slowly resolving pneumonia. A case-control, prospective, selective, comparative and descriptive study was performed using a group of 180 patients, divided into two samples: I group - 125 cases with limited form of pulmonary infiltrative tuberculosis; II group - 55 cases with slowly resolving community-acquired pneumonia. The findings identified the prevalence of intoxication syndrome in the slowly resolving pneumonia sample. Lung destructions and bronchogenous dissemination was identified only in the tuberculosis sample. A higher impact of comorbidities and old age was more relevant in slowly resolving pneumonia sample. Clinical and radiological improvement was established in most patients of both groups, but the considerable resorption of lung infiltrates predominated in slowly resolving pneumonia sample. (authors)

  11. Bio digester : anaerobic methanogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullema, Marten; Hulzen, Hans; Keizer, Melvin; Pruisscher, Gerlof; Smint, Martin; Vincent, Helene

    2014-01-01

    As part of the theme 13 and 14, our group have to realize a project in the field of the renewable energy. This project consist of the design of a bio-digester for the canteen of Zernikeplein. Gert Hofstede is our client. To produce energy, a bio-digester uses the anaerobic digestion, which is made

  12. Cytokinetic Analysis of Slowly Renewing Bone-Marrow Cells after Administration of Nitrogen Mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, R.; Fliedner, T. M.; Stehle, H. [Abteilung fuer Klinische Physiologie der Universitaet Ulm, Ulm/Donau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1968-08-15

    The continuous or repeated administration of tritiated thymidine into pregnant rats during organogenesis provides a method for the complete labelling of newborn rats. If these are continuously injected with tritiated thymidine for the first four weeks after birth, the fraction of labelled cells of all organs and cell-renewal systems is still 100% If completely labelled animals are sacrificed at regular intervals after the discontinuance of thymidine administration, one can distinguish two groups of cells with distinct differences in their cell renewal. While the reticular cells A and B, the endothelial cells and the bone-marrow lymphocytes belong to a slowly proliferating group of cells, the differentiated myelopoietic and erythropoietic cells of the bone marrow proliferate rapidly. That labelled erythropoietic or myelopoietic cells are not found later than 6-10 days after discontinuance of tritated thymidine injection in these animals argues strongly against the hypothesis that under normal steady-state conditions a G{sub 0} fraction exists in the bone-marrow, from which stem cells are deviated into the differentiated cell pools by adequate stimuli. The administration of nitrogen mustard in a dose sufficient to cause bone-marrow aplasia neither destroys nor stimulates the reticular cells and endothelial cells of the bone-marrow matrix. These cells retain their label and remain present in normal numbers throughout the period of observation after nitrogen mustard treatment: The only cell type in the marrow that changes its labelling intensity after nitrogen mustard administration is the marrow lymphocyte. The decrease in the fraction and intensity of labelled bone-marrow lymphocytes precedes the rapid regeneration of nitrogen mustard aplastic bone-marrow. This cell type, in our opinion, would be the only cell to qualify as a stem cell, although positive evidence is still lacking. (author)

  13. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-07-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  14. Anaerobic digestion of solid slaughterhouse waste chemically pretreated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, C.; Montoya, L.; Rodirguez, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the mayor problems facing the industrialized world today is to solve environmental contamination and identify efficient treatment to give solution to the current problems like the generation of enormous quantities of liquid and solid wastes. The solid slaughterhouse waste, due to its elevated concentration of biodegradable organics, can be efficiently treated by anaerobic digestion although the high content of lignocellulose materials, makes it a slowly process. (Author)

  15. Bondi flow from a slowly rotating hot atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ramesh; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2011-08-01

    A supermassive black hole in the nucleus of an elliptical galaxy at the centre of a cool-core group or cluster of galaxies is immersed in hot gas. Bondi accretion should occur at a rate determined by the properties of the gas at the Bondi radius and the mass of the black hole. X-ray observations of massive nearby elliptical galaxies, including M87 in the Virgo cluster, indicate a Bondi accretion rate ? which roughly matches the total kinetic power of the jets, suggesting that there is a tight coupling between the jet power and the mass accretion rate. While the Bondi model considers non-rotating gas, it is likely that the external gas has some angular momentum, which previous studies have shown could decrease the accretion rate drastically. We investigate here the possibility that viscosity acts at all radii to transport angular momentum outwards so that the accretion inflow proceeds rapidly and steadily. The situation corresponds to a giant advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) which extends from beyond the Bondi radius down to the black hole. We find solutions of the ADAF equations in which the gas accretes at just a factor of a few less than ?. These solutions assume that the atmosphere beyond the Bondi radius rotates with a sub-Keplerian velocity and that the viscosity parameter is large, α≥ 0.1, both of which are reasonable for the problem at hand. The infall time of the ADAF solutions is no more than a few times the free-fall time. Thus, the accretion rate at the black hole is closely coupled to the surrounding gas, enabling tight feedback to occur. We show that jet powers of a few per cent of ? are expected if either a fraction of the accretion power is channelled into the jet or the black hole spin energy is tapped by a strong magnetic field pressed against the black hole by the pressure of the accretion flow. We discuss the Bernoulli parameter of the flow, the role of convection and the possibility that these as well as magnetohydrodynamic effects

  16. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    Organic waste may degrade anaerobically in nature as well as in engineered systems. The latter is called anaerobic digestion or biogasification. Anaerobic digestion produces two main outputs: An energy-rich gas called biogas and an effluent. The effluent, which may be a solid as well as liquid...... with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  17. Physicochemical and digestibility properties of double-modified banana ( Musa paradisiaca L.) starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Amaya, Fandila; Osorio-Diaz, Perla; Agama-Acevedo, Edith; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo

    2011-02-23

    Banana starch was chemically modified using single (esterification or cross-linking) and dual modification (esterification-cross-linking and cross-linking-esterification), with the objective to increase the slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) concentrations. Physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility were analyzed. The degree of substitution of the esterified samples ranged from 0.006 to 0.020. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the modified samples did not show change; however, an increase in crystallinity level was determined (from 23.79 to 32.76%). The ungelatinized samples had low rapidly digestible starch (RDS) (4.23-9.19%), whereas the modified starches showed an increase in SDS (from 10.79 to 16.79%) and had high RS content (74.07-85.07%). In the cooked samples, the esterified starch increased the SDS content (21.32%), followed by cross-linked starch (15.13%). Dual modified starch (cross-linked-esterified) had the lowest SDS content, but the highest RS amount. The esterified and cross-linked-esterified samples had higher peak viscosity than cross-linked and esterified-cross-linked. This characteristic is due to the fact that in dual modification, the groups introduced in the first modification are replaced by the functional group of the second modification. Temperature and enthalpy of gelatinization decreased in modified starches (from 75.37 to 74.02 °C and from 10.42 to 8.68 J/g, respectively), compared with their unmodified starch (76.15 °C and 11.05 J/g). Cross-linked-esterified starch showed the lowest enthalpy of gelatinization (8.68 J/g). Retrogradation temperature decreased in modified starches compared with unmodified (59.04-57.47 °C), but no significant differences were found among the modified samples.

  18. Impact of heat-moisture and annealing treatments on physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches from different colored sweet potato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trung, Phan Thanh Bao; Ngoc, Luu Bui Bao; Hoa, Phan Ngoc; Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Thanh; Hung, Pham Van

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the change in physicochemical properties and digestibility of starches isolated from colored sweet potato varieties under heat-moisture treatment (HMT) or annealing treatment (ANN). The results showed that morphology and X-ray diffraction patterns of the sweet potato starches remained unchanged after the HMT or ANN. The HMT significantly reduced peak viscosity, breakdown and setback and significantly increased pasting temperature, trough and final viscosities of the sweet potato starches. The swelling powers and solubility of the heat-moisture treated starches were significantly lower than those of the native or annealed starches. The decreased rapid digestible starch and the increased slowly digestible and resistant starch contents of the sweet potato starches after HMT or ANN as compared to those of the native starches were observed. The resistant starch (RS) contents of the heat-moisture treated sweet potato starches were in a range of 30.6-39.3%, significantly higher than those of the annealed starches (28.8-32.0%). The strong impact of the HMT on physicochemical properties and RS formation of the sweet potato starches compared to the ANN might be due to the high stability of the occurred interactions between starch molecules and amylopectin chains during treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Biotechnology Education and the Internet. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Thomas

    The world of modern biotechnology is based on recent developments in molecular biology, especially those in genetic engineering. Since this is a relatively new and rapidly advancing field of study, there are few traditional sources of information and activities. This digest highlights biotechnology resources including those that can be found on…

  20. Synbiotic Microencapsulation from Slow Digestible Colored Rice and Its Effect on Yoghurt Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wattananapakasem, Isara; Valenberg, van Hein J.F.; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Costabile, Adele; Suwannaporn, Prisana

    2018-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum was encapsulated by slowly digestible hydrolyzed heat-moisture-treated (hydrolyzed-HMT) black waxy rice and applied in yoghurt. Incorporating these microcapsules in yoghurt resulted in higher viability of Lactobacillus bulgaricus C49 and Streptococcus thermophilus C44,

  1. Forced solitary Rossby waves under the influence of slowly varying topography with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong-Wei; Yin Bao-Shu; Yang De-Zhou; Xu Zhen-Hua

    2011-01-01

    By using a weakly nonlinear and perturbation method, the generalized inhomogeneous Korteweg—de Vries (KdV)—Burgers equation is derived, which governs the evolution of the amplitude of Rossby waves under the influence of dissipation and slowly varying topography with time. The analysis indicates that dissipation and slowly varying topography with time are important factors in causing variation in the mass and energy of solitary waves. (general)

  2. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The hydro digest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheil, Hermann [Itaipu Mondig, Power Generation Group (KWU), Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2000-12-01

    Digest WK is an analysis and diagnostics system for turbine generators in large hydroelectric plant: it was developed from the Digest system which has been used in steam turbine plants for many years. The system is in use at the world's biggest hydro plant in Itaipu Binacional between Paraguay and Brazil. The system is described under the sub-headings of (a) monitoring concept; (b) the Digest WK system; (c) vibration monitoring; (d) generator temperature analysis and (e) outlook.

  4. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  5. Evaluation of Kjeldahl digestion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Flowers, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of the Kjeldahl digestion method was investigated by comparing measured values of total nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium using three salt and catalyst mixture in Standard Kjeldahl digestion method and Salicyclic acid Modification method with certified values of plant material as well as comparison was made for determination of total nitrogen from steam distillation method verses the Technicon Auto-analyzer, and phosphorus Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method verses Molybdate/ Metavanadate method on the Technicon Auto-Analyzer. The 1 g salt/catalyst mixture recovered less nitrogen than the 2.5 g in the standard Kjeldahl method due to the lower temperature and incomplete digestion in both plant and soil samples. The 2.5 g catalyst mixture partially recovered nitrate in the standard Kjeldahl method and the salicylic acid modification fail to recover all over nitrate in plant material. Use of 2.5 g salt catalyst mixture and selenium appears to promote nitrogen losses in salicylic acid modification method but not in the standard Kjeldahl method of digestion for soil samples. No interference of selenium or copper was observed in Nitrogen and Phosphorus on calorimetric determination. The standard Kjeldahl method with 2.5 g of salt/catalyst mixture of sodium sulphate copper sulphate (10:1) in 5 ml sulfuric acid were found suitable for determination of total Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The steam distillation and the Technicon Auto-Analyzer technique measure similar amounts of ammonium nitrogen. However, the Technicon Auto analyzer technique is easier, rapid, higher degree of reproducibility, precise, accurate, reliable and free from human error. The amount of phosphorus measured by the Ascorbic acid/Molybdate method was more accurate than by the Molybdate/Metavanadate method on Technicon Auto-Analyzer. (author)

  6. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  7. Improvement of anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohanyos, Michael; Zabranska, Jana; Kutil, Josef; Jenicek, Pavel

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion improvement can be accomplished by different methods. Besides optimization of process conditions is frequently used pretreatment of input sludge and increase of process temperature. Thermophilic process brings a higher solids reduction and biogas production, the high resistance to foaming, no problems with odour, the higher effect of destroying pathogens and the improvement of the energy balance of the whole treatment plant. Disintegration of excess activated sludge in lysate centrifuge was proved in full-scale conditions causing increase of biogas production. The rapid thermal conditioning of digested sludge is acceptable method of particulate matter disintegration and solubilization. (author)

  8. Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  9. Thin accretion disk signatures of slowly rotating black holes in Horava gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu; Kovacs, Zoltan [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pok Fu Lam Road (Hong Kong); Lobo, Francisco S N, E-mail: harko@hkucc.hku.hk, E-mail: zkovacs@hku.hk, E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofisica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-08-21

    In this work, we consider the possibility of observationally testing Horava gravity by using the accretion disk properties around slowly rotating black holes of the Kehagias-Sfetsos (KS) solution in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The energy flux, temperature distribution, the emission spectrum as well as the energy conversion efficiency are obtained, and compared to the standard slowly rotating general relativistic Kerr solution. Comparing the mass accretion in a slowly rotating KS geometry in Horava gravity with the one of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole, we verify that the intensity of the flux emerging from the disk surface is greater for the slowly rotating Kehagias-Sfetsos solution than for rotating black holes with the same geometrical mass and accretion rate. We also present the conversion efficiency of the accreting mass into radiation, and show that the rotating KS solution provides a much more efficient engine for the transformation of the accreting mass into radiation than the Kerr black holes. Thus, distinct signatures appear in the electromagnetic spectrum, leading to the possibility of directly testing Horava gravity models by using astrophysical observations of the emission spectra from accretion disks.

  10. [Anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass with animal digestion mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhang, Pan-Yue; Guo, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2013-02-01

    Lignocellulosic material is the most abundant renewable resource in the earth. Herbivores and wood-eating insects are highly effective in the digestion of plant cellulose, while anaerobic digestion process simulating animal alimentary tract still remains inefficient. The digestion mechanisms of herbivores and wood-eating insects and the development of anaerobic digestion processes of lignocellulose were reviewed for better understanding of animal digestion mechanisms and their application in design and operation of the anaerobic digestion reactor. Highly effective digestion of lignocellulosic materials in animal digestive system results from the synergistic effect of various digestive enzymes and a series of physical and biochemical reactions. Microbial fermentation system is strongly supported by powerful pretreatment, such as rumination of ruminants, cellulase catalysis and alkali treatment in digestive tract of wood-eating insects. Oxygen concentration gradient along the digestive tract may stimulate the hydrolytic activity of some microorganisms. In addition, the excellent arrangement of solid retention time, digesta flow and end product discharge enhance the animal digestion of wood cellulose. Although anaerobic digestion processes inoculated with rumen microorganisms based rumen digestion mechanisms were developed to treat lignocellulose, the fermentation was more greatly limited by the environmental conditions in the anaerobic digestion reactors than that in rumen or hindgut. Therefore, the anaerobic digestion processes simulating animal digestion mechanisms can effectively enhance the degradation of wood cellulose and other organic solid wastes.

  11. Soliton-effect generation of Raman pulses in optical fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenhua Cao; Youwei Zhang

    1995-01-01

    We suggested that single-mode fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion (FSDD) should be used for the generation of tunable ultrashort RAman pulses. A mathematical model is obtained for the description of ultrafast stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion. Numerical simulations show that, under identical pump conditions, Raman pulse generated from this kind of fiber is shorter with a higher peak power than that generated from conventional fibers. This means that the Raman threshold of fibers with slowly decreasing dispersion may be lower than that of conventional fibers. Given pump conditions, we found that the highest peak power and narrowest width of the Raman pulse correspond to an optimal decrement velocity of the fiber dispersion

  12. Sophisticated digestive systems in early arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannier, Jean; Liu, Jianni; Lerosey-Aubril, Rudy; Vinther, Jakob; Daley, Allison C

    2014-05-02

    Understanding the way in which animals diversified and radiated during their early evolutionary history remains one of the most captivating of scientific challenges. Integral to this is the 'Cambrian explosion', which records the rapid emergence of most animal phyla, and for which the triggering and accelerating factors, whether environmental or biological, are still unclear. Here we describe exceptionally well-preserved complex digestive organs in early arthropods from the early Cambrian of China and Greenland with functional similarities to certain modern crustaceans and trace these structures through the early evolutionary lineage of fossil arthropods. These digestive structures are assumed to have allowed for more efficient digestion and metabolism, promoting carnivory and macrophagy in early arthropods via predation or scavenging. This key innovation may have been of critical importance in the radiation and ecological success of Arthropoda, which has been the most diverse and abundant invertebrate phylum since the Cambrian.

  13. Rheostatic control of tryptic digestion in a microscale fluidic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, Andrew J.; Schriemer, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated fluidic systems that unite bottom-up and top-down proteomic approaches have the potential to deliver complete protein characterization. To circumvent fraction collection, as is conducted in current blended approaches, a technique to regulate digestion efficiency in a flow-through system is required. The present study examined the concept of regulating tryptic digestion in an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER), incorporating mixed solvent systems for digestion acceleration. Using ovalbumin, cytochrome c, and myoglobin as protein standards, we demonstrate that tryptic digestion can be efficiently regulated between complete digestion and no digestion extremes by oscillating between 45 and 0% acetonitrile in the fluid stream. Solvent composition was tuned using programmable solvent waveforms in a closed system consisting of the IMER, a sample delivery stream, a dual gradient pumping system and a mass spectrometer. Operation in this rheostatic digestion mode provides access to novel peptide mass maps (due to substrate unfolding hysteresis) as well as the intact protein, in a reproducible and stable fashion. Although cycle times were on the order of 90 s for testing purposes, we show that regulated digestion is sufficiently rapid to be limited by solvent switching efficiency and kinetics of substrate unfolding/folding. Thus, regulated digestion should be useful in blending bottom-up and top-down proteomics in a single closed fluidic system.

  14. Thermal radiation and nonthermal radiation of the slowly changing dynamic Kerr–Newman black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Qingmiao; Wang Shuai; Jiang Jijian; Deng Deli

    2008-01-01

    Using the related formula of dynamic black hole, we have calculated the instantaneous radiation energy density of the slowly changing dynamic Kerr–Newman black hole. It is found that the instantaneous radiation energy density of a black hole is always proportional to the quartic of the temperature of the event horizon in the same direction. By using the Hamilton–Jacobin equation of scalar particles in the curved spacetime, the spontaneous radiation of the slowly changing dynamic Kerr–Newman black hole is studied. The energy condition for the occurrence of the spontaneous radiation is obtained. (general)

  15. Mycobacterium alsiense, a novel, slowly growing species isolated from two patients with pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Elvira; Tortoli, Enrico; Fischer, Arno

    2007-01-01

    A previously undescribed, slowly growing Mycobacterium species was isolated from pulmonary specimens of two patients, one from Denmark and one from Italy. The isolates showed unique 16S rRNA internal transcribed spacers and hsp65 sequences: the 16S rRNA was most closely related to Mycobacterium...

  16. Sound transmission in slowly varying circular and annular ducts with flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    Sound transmission through straight circular ducts with a uniform inviscid mean flow and a constant acoustic lining (impedance wall) is classically described by a modal expansion. A natural extension for ducts with axially slowly varying properties (diameter and mean flow, wall impedance) is a

  17. Uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom, part II: Deformation of travelling waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A new Korteweg-de Vries type of equation for uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom has been derived in Part I. The equation retains the Hamiltonian structure of the underlying complete set of equations for surface waves. For flat bottom it reduces to the standard Korteweg-de Vries

  18. Dimensional Modeling By Using a New Response to Slowly Changing Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, L.; Frank, C.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    solutions/responses to handling the aggregation problems caused by slowly changing dimensions. In this paper, we will describe a fourth solution. A special aspect of our new response is that it should be used before the other responses, as it will change the design of the data warehouse. Afterwards, it may...

  19. Nitrogen excess in slowly-rotating beta Cephei stars: deep mixing or diffusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morel, T.; Butler, K.; Aerts, C.C.; Neiner, C.; Briquet, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of an NLTE abundance study of a small sample of beta Cephei stars, which point to the existence of a population of slowly-rotating B-type pulsators exhibiting a significant amount of nitrogen-enriched material at their surface. Although the origin of this nitrogen excess

  20. Mycobacterium arosiense sp. nov., a slowly growing, scotochromogenic species causing osteomyelitis in an immunocompromised child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, D.; Herlin, T.; Stegger, M.

    2008-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented, scotochromogenic, slowly growing mycobacterial strain, designated T1921(T), was isolated from the disseminated osteomyelitic lesions of a 7-year-old child with an underlying partial gamma interferon receptor alpha-1 deficiency. Hybridization by the line probe assay indicated...

  1. Dimensional Modeling By Using a New Response to Slowly Changing Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, L.; Frank, C.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    Dimensions are defined as dynamic or slowly changing if the attributes or relationships of a dimension can be updated. Aggregations to dynamic dimensions might be misleading if the measures are aggregated without regarding the changes of the dimensions. Kimball et al. has described three classic ...

  2. Protein digestion in ruminants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a balance between synthesis and hydrolysis. Aside from .... be used to follow the synthesis of this protein fraction. (Clarke, 1977a) .... form of digestive enzymes, urea and ammonia (Egan, ..... decreasing urine-nitrogen excretion (Thornton, Bird,.

  3. Steam Digest 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles BestPractices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  4. Steam Digest 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-11-01

    Steam Digest 2002 is a collection of articles published in the last year on steam system efficiency. DOE directly or indirectly facilitated the publication of the articles through it's BestPractices Steam effort. Steam Digest 2002 provides a variety of operational, design, marketing, and program and program assessment observations. Plant managers, engineers, and other plant operations personnel can refer to the information to improve industrial steam system management, efficiency, and performance.

  5. Assessment and mitigation of the environmental burdens to air from land applied food-based digestate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, A.; Williams, I.D.; Pant, D.C.; Kishore, V.V.N.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) of putrescible urban waste for energy recovery has seen rapid growth over recent years. In order to ascertain its systems scale sustainability, however, determination of the environmental fate of the large volume of digestate generated during the process is indispensable. This paper evaluates the environmental burdens to air associated with land applied food-based digestate in terms of primary pollutants (ammonia, nitrogen dioxide) and greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide). The assessments have been made in two stages – first, the emissions from surface application of food-based digestate are quantified for the business as usual (BAU). In the next step, environmental burden minimisation potentials for the following three mitigation measures are estimated – mixed waste digestate (MWD), soil-incorporated digestate (SID), and post-methanated digestate (PMD). Overall, the mitigation scenarios demonstrated considerable NH 3 , CH 4 and N 2 O burden minimisation potentials, with positive implications for both climate change and urban pollution. - Highlights: • In situ air pollution assessment of land applied digestate is performed. • Environmental burden minimisation scenarios for digestate bio fertiliser presented. • Food-based digestate show high ammonia volatilisation potential. • Soil incorporated digestate effectively reduces NH 3 but elevates N 2 O emissions. • Managing digestate emissions mitigate both climate change and air pollution. - In situ monitoring and analyses demonstrate the role of post-processing in greenhouse gases and air pollution mitigation from food-based digestate use as bio fertiliser

  6. Kinetics of Cellulose Digestion by Fibrobacter succinogenes S85

    OpenAIRE

    Maglione, G.; Russell, J. B.; Wilson, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    Growing cultures of Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 digested cellulose at a rapid rate, but nongrowing cells and cell extracts did not have detectable crystalline cellulase activity. Cells that had been growing exponentially on cellobiose initiated cellulose digestion and succinate production immediately, and cellulose-dependent succinate production could be used as an index of enzyme activity against crystalline cellulose. Cells incubated with cellulose never produced detectable cellobiose, and...

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, L.

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  8. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge and fat, oil and grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Caixia; Zhou Quancheng; Fu Guiming; Li Yebo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) with fat, oil and grease (FOG). → Co-digestion of TWAS and FOG at 64% VS increased biogas production by 137%. → FOG addition ratio at 74% of total VS caused inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process. → Micronutrients addition did not significantly improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. - Abstract: Co-digestion of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) was conducted semi-continuously under mesophilic conditions. The results showed that daily methane yield at the steady state was 598 L/kg VS added when TWAS and FOG (64% of total VS) were co-digested, which was 137% higher than that obtained from digestion of TWAS alone. The biogas composition was stabilized at a CH 4 and CO 2 content of 66.8% and 29.5%, respectively. Micronutrients added to co-digestion did not improve the biogas production and digestion stabilization. With a higher addition of FOG (74% of total VS), the digester initially failed but was slowly self-recovered; however, the methane yield was only about 50% of a healthy reactor with the same organic loading rate.

  9. Slowly moving test charge in two-electron component non-Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Eliasson, B.

    2015-01-01

    Potential distributions around a slowly moving test charge are calculated by taking into account the electron-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma. Considering a neutralizing background of static positive ions, the supra-thermal hot and cold electrons are described by the Vlasov equations to account for the Kappa (power-law in velocity space) and Maxwell equilibrium distributions. Fourier analysis further leads to the derivation of electrostatic potential showing the impact of supra-thermal hot electrons. The test charge moves slowly in comparison with the hot and cold electron thermal speeds and is therefore shielded by the electrons. This gives rise to a short-range Debye-Hückel potential decaying exponentially with distance and to a far field potential decaying as inverse third power of the distance from the test charge. The results are relevant for both laboratory and space plasmas, where supra-thermal hot electrons with power-law distributions have been observed

  10. Electric and magnetic mirrors and grating for slowly moving neutral atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opat, G.I.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Wark, S.J.; Hajnal, J.V.; Cimmino, A.

    1990-01-01

    Those atoms or molecules which happen to have positive Stark or Zeeman energies (by virtue of their internal quantum state) are repelled by regions of high electrostatic or magnetostatic energy density, respectively. Using electrostatic or magnetostatic fields, which are periodic in a plane, it is possible to construct mirrors and gratings for slowly moving atoms and molecules. The theory of such devices is presented, together with some ideas for their fabrication. 10 refs., 4 figs

  11. Assessment of the slowly-imploding liner (LINUS) fusion reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Prospects for the slowly-imploding liner (LINUS) fusion reactor concept are reviewed. The concept envisages the nondestructive, repetitive and reversible implosion of a liquid-metal cylindrical annulus (liner) onto field-reversed DT plasmoids. Adiabatic heating of the plasmoid to ignition at ultra-high magnetic fields results in a compact, high power density fusion reactor with unique solutions to several technological problems and potentially favorable economics

  12. Signal shape registration in the JINR synchrophasotron slowly extracted beam parameter control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.I.; Kulikov, I.I.; Romanov, S.V.

    1982-01-01

    Signal shape registration in the JINR synchrophasotron slowly estracted beam parameter control system on-line with the ES-1010 computer is described. 32 input signals can be connected to the registrator. The maximum measurement rate of signal shape registration is about 38 kHz. The registrator consists of 32-channel analog multiplexer, 10-bit analog-to-digital converter, 1024-word buffer memory and control circuits. For information representation the colour TV monitor is used

  13. Quasi-stationary gravitational collapse of slowly rotating bodies in general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J C [Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics

    1977-05-01

    This paper presents results of quasi-stationary collapse calculations for a class of slowly rotating non-homogeneous bodies in general relativity. The results are qualitatively similar to those obtained previously for homogeneous models indicating that the effects described for the homogeneous models are likely to have some relevance for the gravitational collapse of real stars towards the black hole state. There is also a discussion of some basic questions associated with such calculations.

  14. Aquaporins in Digestive System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuai; Ran, Jianhua; Yang, Baoxue; Mei, Zhechuan

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we mainly discuss the expression and function of aquaporins (AQPs ) expressed in digestive system . AQPs in gastrointestinal tract include four members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP4, AQP5 and AQP8, and a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP3. In the digestive glands, especially the liver, we discuss three members of aquaporin subfamily: AQP1, AQP5 and AQP8, a member of aquaglyceroporin subfamily: AQP9. AQP3 is involved in the diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease; AQP5 is relevant to gastric carcinoma cell proliferation and migration; AQP9 plays considerable role in glycerol metabolism , urea transport and hepatocellular carcinoma. Further investigation is necessary for specific locations and functions of AQPs in digestive system.

  15. Perspectives for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    The modern society generates large amounts of waste that represent a tremendous threat to the environment and human and animal health. To prevent and control this, a range of different waste treatment and disposal methods are used. The choice of method must always be based on maximum safety...... to the soil. Anaerobic digestion (AD) is one way of achieving this goal and it will furthermore, reduce energy consumption or may even be net energy producing. This chapter aims at provide a basic understanding of the world in which anaerobic digestion is operating today. The newest process developments...

  16. The scid mutation does not affect slowly repairing potentially lethal damage that is sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Ikebuchi, Makoto; Fushiki, Masato; Komatsu, Kenshi.

    1996-01-01

    The repair of slowly repairing potentially lethal damage (PLD) in radiosensitive cells from the severe combined immunodeficient (scid) mouse was compared with that in Balb/c 3T3 cells with ''wild-type'' radiosensitivity and that in RD13B2 cells derived from scid cells whose sensitivity is normal because of the presence of fragments of human chromosome 8. Treatment with 0.23 M NaCl was used for fixation of slowly repairing PLD. The scid cells repaired PLD sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl to a great extent whin 3-4 h, similarly to Balb/c 3T3 and RD13B2 cells. This indicates that the scid mutation hardly affects the repair of PLD sensitive to 0.23 M NaCl. On the other hand, as reported previously, the rapidly repairing PLD that is sensitive to 0.5 M NaCl was repaired only slowly (3-4 h) in scid cells, in contrast to the rapid repair (within 1 h) seen with Balb/c 3T3 and RD13B2. This suggests that scid mutation is responsible for this repair at reduced rate. To confirm the independence of repair of 0.23 M NaCl-sensitive PLD from that of 0.5 M NaCl-sensitive PLD, both treatments with 0.23 M NaCl and 0.5 M NaCl were combined in each line. It is found that the repair of either PLD was not affected by the other treatment. The scid mutation impaired only the repair of 0.5 M NaCl-sensitive PLD. (author)

  17. Personal Relationships and Digestive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens Manage Your Health Finding a Doctor The Digestive System Symptoms & Causes How to Prepare for Tests ... Part in Studies Resources Publications Library En Español Digestive Health Matters Medical Definitions Links Books of Interest ...

  18. Obesity and Your Digestive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBESITY AND YOUR DIGESTIVE HEALTH Do You Know Your GI Risks? A Patient Education Resource from the American College of Gastroenterology GI Specialists ... reduce the quality and longevity of your life. Digestive Disorders Associated with Obesity Esophagus Gallbladder Pancreas Colon ...

  19. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  20. Digestive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the stomach. Sometimes, though, a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori or the chronic use of certain medications weakens ... can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus as well ... organs to produce enzymes and other substances that aid in digestion. ...

  1. Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2008-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Riparian Digest presents the many facets of riparian research at the station. Included are articles about protecting the riparian habitat, the social and economic values of riparian environments, watershed restoration, remote sensing tools, and getting kids interested in the science.

  2. Steam Digest: Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  3. Steam Digest Volume IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Steam Digest is a compendium of 2003 articles on the technical and financial benefits of steam efficiency, presented by the stakeholders of the U.S. Department of Energy's BestPractices Steam effort.

  4. Synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds in the rumen and their digestion in the small intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.H.; Salter, D.N.; McAllan, A.B.; Williams, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Pathways and efficiency of NPN utilization were studied after introducing isonitrogenous feeds containing urea labelled with 15 N with or without groundnut protein into the rumen of the young steer. The 15 N abundance in rumen ammonia decreased from 1 h after the dose whereas that in suspended bacteria (only a small part of the total population but regarded, with reservation, as representative) increased to a peak value at 3-5 h. Patterns of incorporation into different nitrogen constituents of the bacteria indicated that part of the 15 N first moved rapidly into a labile pool, which included amide nitrogen, and then moved from this pool into other amino acids. Different amino acids were labelled to different extents (lowest for proline and arginine, highest for aspartic acid and alanine), presumably as different amounts of pre-formed amino acids were used in protein synthesis. Differences largely disappeared when the diet with urea as the only nitrogen source was given. Estimates of microbial 15 N recovery at the duodenum confirmed earlier findings that overall incorporation was least when the latter diet was given, and no improvement was seen when the urea was given in three doses over 4 h instead of in a single dose. Lactosyl, like glucosyl, ureide was degraded fairly slowly in the rumen and is being studied as a possible NPN source likely to yield simultaneous ammonia and energy for microbial growth. Studies on the origin and composition of nitrogen compounds entering the duodenum showed that the RNA of rumen bacteria (labelled with 32 P) contributed 82-109% of the RNA entering the duodenum of the steer. It was also shown that protecting dietary casein with formaldehyde reduced its degradability in the rumen to such an extent that a deficiency of fermentable nitrogen in that organ ensued. In other experiments with two calves receiving flaked maize and hay, net digestibility of nitrogen compounds between duodenum and ileum was about 60%. True digestibility

  5. Anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobson, P N

    1984-01-01

    Farm digesters can operate satisfactorily and have a useful role on the farm. Gas production from the farm digester treating animal slurries could be boosted by adding silage liquid, old potatoes, waste cabbages and other crop wastes to the slurry, although the energy economics of maceration have not been calculated. Pollution control and types of digester are discussed. Uses of digested slurry other than for fertilizers are being tested - as protein supplement to farm animal feeds, silage making, hydroponics, fish farming and growing of worms on algae. Overall, digestion could be a contributor to power requirements especially in countries with high all year round crop production.

  6. The effects of digestion temperature and temperature shock on the biogas yields from the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, K J; Jang, Am; Yim, S K; Kim, In S

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain basic design criteria for anaerobic digesters of swine manure, the effects of different digesting temperatures, temperature shocks and feed loads, on the biogas yields and methane content were evaluated. The digester temperatures were set at 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, with four feed loads of 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% (feed volume/digester volume). At a temperature of 30 degrees C, the methane yield was reduced by only 3% compared to 35 degrees C, while a 17.4% reduction was observed when the digestion was performed at 25 degrees C. Ultimate methane yields of 327, 389 and 403 mL CH(4)/g VS(added) were obtained at 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, respectively; with moderate feed loads from 5% to 20% (V/V). From the elemental analysis of swine manure, the theoretical biogas and methane yields at standard temperature and pressure were 1.12L biogas/g VS(destroyed) and 0.724 L CH(4)/g VS(destroyed), respectively. Also, the methane content increased with increasing digestion temperatures, but only to a small degree. Temperature shocks from 35 to 30 degrees C and again from 30 to 32 degrees C led to a decrease in the biogas production rate, but it rapidly resumed the value of the control reactor. In addition, no lasting damage was observed for the digestion performance, once it had recovered.

  7. Seasonal nutrient yield and digestibility of deer forage from a young pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Blair; Henry L. Short; E.A. Epps

    1977-01-01

    Six classes of current herbaceous and woody forage were collected seasonally from a 5-year-old mixed loblolly (Pinus taeda)-shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) plantation (in Texas) and subjected to nutrient analyses and nylon bag dry-matter digestion trials. Forages were most nutritious and digestible in the spring when tissues were succulent and growing rapidly. Browse...

  8. Dewaterability of thermophilically digested biosolids: effects of temperature and cellular polymeric substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J.; Mavinic, D.S.; Kelly, H.G.; Ramey, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    Thermophilic processes digest sludge at high temperatures to produce Class A biosolids.Recent research work revealed that digestion temperature is the predominant factor affecting dewaterability of thermophilic biosolids. This paper presents findings of a laboratory study that investigated how various digestion temperatures affect dewaterability of digested biosolids, studied the phase partition of the substances affecting dewaterability in digested biosolids, and tested the role of cellular polymeric substances in affecting dewaterability.Secondary sludges were digested at 40-70 o C or 22 o C for up to 12 days. Centrate from thermophilically digested biosolids were treated with protease and boiling. This study found that, during the first few hours of digestion, higher temperatures resulted in more rapid and more significant deterioration in dewaterability than lower digestion temperatures. Continued digestion resulted in either improved (60 o C or 70 o C), or unchanged (40 o C or 50 o C), or gradually deteriorated dewaterability (22 o C). The substances affecting dewaterability were primarily located in the liquid phase of thermophilically digested biosolids. Boiling treatment did not result in significant changes in dewaterability. Protease treatment of the liquid phase of thermophilic biosolids improved dewaterability by 13-19%. Such an improvement confirmed the role of proteins in affecting dewaterability. (author)

  9. Slowly progressive fluent aphasia; Clinical features and an imaging study including MRI, SPECT and PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa; Momose, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ishikawa, Takashi; Iwata, Makoto (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Bando, Mitsuaki

    1991-05-01

    Three patients with slowly progressive fluent aphasia are reported. One of the patients presented with memory disturbance. They were characterized clinically by having selective deficits in vocabulary, which resulted in impairment of confrontation naming, and auditory comprehension. MRI showed an atrophy not only in the left temporal lobe (including the superior, middle and inferior temporal gyri), hippocampus, parahippocampual gyrus, and fusiform gyrus, but also in the left parietal lobe. I-123 IMP SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were used to determine regional cerebral blood flow and regional cerebral metabolic rate, respectively. In addition to the decreased tracer uptake in the left temporal and/or parietal lobe, a decreased uptake was seen in the bilateral basal ganglia, the inner side of the temporal lobe (including the bilateral hippocampus), the right anterior temporal lobe, and the left thalamus. These findings may deny the previous thought that lesions are localized in slowly progressive fluent aphasia. Furthermore, noticeable difficulty in naming, i.e., patients unable to recognize the right answer, are considered attributable to widespread lesions from the whole left temporal lobe, including the hippocampus, to the right temporal lobe. (N.K.).

  10. Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, M. G.

    2014-06-17

    This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  11. When a Slowly Rotating Aquaplanet is Coupled to a Dynamical Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, J.; Marotzke, J.

    2017-12-01

    Planets orbiting in close distance from their stars have a high probability to be detected, and are expected to be slowly rotating due to strong tidal forces. By increasing the rotation period from 1 Earth-day to 365 Earth-days, we previously found that the global-mean surface temperature of an aquaplanet with a static mixed-layer ocean decreases by up to 27 K. The cooling is attributed to an increase of the planetary albedo with the rotation period, which is associated with the different distributions of the sea ice and the deep convective clouds. However, we had there assumed a fixed mixed-layer depth and a zero oceanic heat transport in the aquaplanet configuration. The limitations of these assumptions in such exotic climates are still unclear. We therefore perform coupled atmosphere-ocean aquaplanet simulations with the general circulation model ICON for various rotation periods ranging from 1 Earth-day to 365 Earth-days. We investigate how the underlying oceanic circulation modifies the mean climate of slowly rotating aquaplanets, and whether the day-to-night oceanic heat transport reduces the surface-temperature gradients and the sea-ice extent.

  12. LH Dynamics in Overweight Girls with Premature Adrenarche and Slowly Progressive Sexual Precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenfield RobertL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excess adiposity and premature adrenarche (PA are risk factors for the development of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods. Girls with slowly progressive precocious breast development, who were overweight and had PA (SPPOPA, 6.2–8.2 years, , overweight PA (6.6–10.8 years, , and overweight premenarcheal controls (OW-PUB, 10.6–12.8 years, underwent hormonal sleep testing and GnRH agonist (GnRHag and ACTH tests. Results. Despite an insignificant sleep-related increase in LH and prepubertal baseline hormone levels, SPPOPA peak LH and estradiol responses to GnRHag were intermediate between those of PA and OW-PUB, the LH being significantly different from both. Conclusions. GnRHag tests indicate that SPPOPA is a slowly progressive form of true puberty with blunted LH dynamics. These results argue against the prepubertal hyperandrogenism of excess adiposity or PA enhancing LH secretion or causing ovarian hyperandrogenism prior to menarche. Excess adiposity may contribute to both the early onset and slow progression of puberty.

  13. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; Pmeal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (PIndex (quick: 0.1; slow: 0.2; Pmeal completion, pleasantness ratings tended to be higher under the slow condition (P=0.04; but not significant after Bonferroni adjustment). Ad libitum energy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.

  14. Dynamics of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture with a deformable upper surface

    KAUST Repository

    Hennessy, M. G.; Munch, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how surface deformations affect the stability of a slowly evaporating solvent-polymer mixture. The destabilizing effect of surface-tension variations arising from evaporation-induced concentration gradients and the counteracting influence of mean gravity and surface tension are incorporated into the mathematical model. A linear stability analysis that takes advantage of the separation between the characteristic time scales of the slowly evolving base state and the perturbations is carried out in combination with numerical solutions of the linearized system. It is shown that the onset of instability can occur for Marangoni numbers that are much lower than the critical value for a non-deformable surface. Moreover, two types of Marangoni instabilities appear in the system: one is associated with the traditional stationary instability, and the other is an oscillatory instability that is not present for a non-deformable liquid surface. A region of the parameter space where the oscillatory instability dominates is identified and used to formulate appropriate conditions for future experiments. © 2014 The authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  15. Model for analyzing growth kinetics of a slowly growing Mycobacterium sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.S.; Carriere, J.F.; Collins, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    This report describes a simple method for quantifying viable mycobacteria and for determining generation time. We used statistical models and computer analysis of growth curves generated for the slowly growing mycobacterium Mycobacterium paratuberculosis under controlled conditions to derive a mathematical formula relating the dependent variable, growth, to the independent variables, log10 number of organisms in the inoculum (inoculum size) and incubation time. Growth was measured by a radiometric method which detects 14 CO 2 release during metabolism of a 14 C-labeled substrate. The radiometric method allowed for early detection of growth and detected as few as three viable bacteria. The coefficient of variation between culture vials inoculated with the same number of M. paratuberculosis was 0.083. Radiometric measurements were highly correlated to spectrophotometric and plate count methods for measuring growth (r = 0.962 and 0.992, respectively). The proportion of the total variability explained by the model in a goodness of fit test was 0.9994. Application of the model to broth cultures provided accurate estimates of the number of M. paratuberculosis (standard error = 0.21, log10 scale) and the growth rate (coefficient of variation, 0.03). Generation time was observed to be dependent upon the number of organisms in the inoculum. The model accurately described all phases of growth of M. paratuberculosis and can likely be applied to other slowly growing microorganisms

  16. Propagation of 3D internal gravity wave beams in a slowly varying stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Boyu; Akylas, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    The time-mean flows induced by internal gravity wave beams (IGWB) with 3D variations have been shown to have dramatic implications for long-term IGWB dynamics. While uniform stratifications are convenient both theoretically and in the laboratory, stratifications in the ocean can vary by more than an order of magnitude over the ocean depth. Here, in view of this fact, we study the propagation of a 3D IGWB in a slowly varying stratification. We assume that the stratification varies slowly relative to the local variations in the wave profile. In the 2D case, the IGWB bends in response to the changing stratification, but nonlinear effects are minor even in the finite amplitude regime. For a 3D IGWB, in addition to bending, we find that nonlinearity results in the transfer of energy from waves to a large-scale time-mean flow associated with the mean potential vorticity, similar to IGWB behavior in a uniform stratification. In a weakly nonlinear setting, we derive coupled evolution equations that govern this process. We also use these equations to determine the stability properties of 2D IGWB to 3D perturbations. These findings indicate that 3D effects may be relevant and possibly fundamental to IGWB dynamics in nature. Supported by NSF Grant DMS-1512925.

  17. Relative Attitude Estimation for a Uniform Motion and Slowly Rotating Noncooperative Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel relative attitude estimation approach for a uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative spacecraft. It is assumed that the uniform motion and slowly rotating noncooperative chief spacecraft is in failure or out of control and there is no a priori rotation rate information. We utilize a very fast binary descriptor based on binary robust independent elementary features (BRIEF to obtain the features of the target, which are rotational invariance and resistance to noise. And then, we propose a novel combination of single candidate random sample consensus (RANSAC with extended Kalman filter (EKF that makes use of the available prior probabilistic information from the EKF in the RANSAC model hypothesis stage. The advantage of this combination obviously reduces the sample size to only one, which results in large computational savings without the loss of accuracy. Experimental results from real image sequence of a real model target show that the relative angular error is about 3.5% and the mean angular velocity error is about 0.1 deg/s.

  18. Cell cycle disturbances in slowly growing sublines isolated from X-irradiated L5178Y-S cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.Z.; Bocian, E.; Budzicka, E.; Szumiel, I.; Ziemba-Zak, B.; Kopec, M.

    1974-01-01

    Cell cycle was analyzed autoradiographically in a test line of murine leukaemic lymphoblasts L5178Y-S and in two slowly growing sublines isolated from cell cultures irradiated with 300 rad of X-rays. It was found that prolongation of the cell cycle in the slowly growing sublines is connected primarily with delayed progression through G2 phase. This conclusion was further supported by results of determination of DNA content per cell in 13 slowly growing cell sublines and karyotype analysis of 18 sublines. No correlation was found between a sublines' mean doubling time and its chromosome number whereas DNA content per cell was clearly dependent on the growth rate. (author)

  19. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  20. On homogenization of stokes flow in slowly varying media with applications to fluid–structure interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2011-09-11

    In this paper we establish corrector estimates for Stokes flow in slowly varying perforated media via two scale asymptotic analysis. Current methods and techniques are often not able to deal with changing geometries prevalent in applied problems. For example, in a deformable porous medium environment, the geometry does not remain periodic under mechanical deformation and if slow variation in the geometry occurs. For such problems, one cannot use classical homogenization results directly and new homogenization results and estimates are needed. Our work uses asymptotic techniques of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) where the authors constructed a downscaled velocity which converges to the fine-scale velocity at a rate of ε1/6 where ε is the characteristic length scale. We assume a slowly varying porous medium and study homogenization and corrector estimates for the Stokes equations. Slowly varying media arise, e. g., in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems (Popov et al. in Iterative upscaling of flows in deformable porous media, 2008), carbonation of porous concrete (Peter in C. R. Mecanique 335:357-362, 2007a; C. R. Mecanique 335:679-684, 2007b), and various other multiphysics processes. To homogenize Stokes flows in such media we restate the cell problems of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) in a moving RVE framework. Further, to recover the same convergence properties it is necessary to solve an additional cell problem and add one more corrector term to the downscaled velocity. We further extend the framework of Marusic-Paloka and Mikelic (Bollettino U. M. I 7:661-671, 1996) to three spatial dimensions in both periodic and variable pore-space cases. Next, we also propose an efficient algorithm for computing the correctors by solving a limited number of cell problems at selected spatial locations. We present two computational examples: one for a constructed medium of elliptical perforations, and

  1. An Efficient Hierarchical Multiscale Finite Element Method for Stokes Equations in Slowly Varying Media

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) of fluid flow in porous media with many scales is often not feasible, and an effective or homogenized description is more desirable. To construct the homogenized equations, effective properties must be computed. Computation of effective properties for nonperiodic microstructures can be prohibitively expensive, as many local cell problems must be solved for different macroscopic points. In addition, the local problems may also be computationally expensive. When the microstructure varies slowly, we develop an efficient numerical method for two scales that achieves essentially the same accuracy as that for the full resolution solve of every local cell problem. In this method, we build a dense hierarchy of macroscopic grid points and a corresponding nested sequence of approximation spaces. Essentially, solutions computed in high accuracy approximation spaces at select points in the the hierarchy are used as corrections for the error of the lower accuracy approximation spaces at nearby macroscopic points. We give a brief overview of slowly varying media and formal Stokes homogenization in such domains. We present a general outline of the algorithm and list reasonable and easily verifiable assumptions on the PDEs, geometry, and approximation spaces. With these assumptions, we achieve the same accuracy as the full solve. To demonstrate the elements of the proof of the error estimate, we use a hierarchy of macro-grid points in [0, 1]2 and finite element (FE) approximation spaces in [0, 1]2. We apply this algorithm to Stokes equations in a slowly porous medium where the microstructure is obtained from a reference periodic domain by a known smooth map. Using the arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE) formulation of the Stokes equations (cf. [G. P. Galdi and R. Rannacher, Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction, Contemporary Challenges in Mathematical Fluid Dynamics and Its Applications 1, World Scientific, Singapore, 2010]), we obtain

  2. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor on the Slowly Activating Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhao; Xing, Wenlu; Gao, Chuanyu; Wang, Xianpei; Qi, Datun; Dai, Guoyou; Zhao, Wen; Yan, Ganxin

    2018-01-26

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exerts a number of beneficial effects on ischemic myocardium via its angiogenic properties. However, little is known about whether VEGF has a direct effect on the electrical properties of cardiomyocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effects of different concentrations of VEGF on delayed rectifier potassium currents (I K ) in guinea pig ventricular myocytes and their effects on action potential (AP) parameters. I K and AP were recorded by the whole-cell patch clamp method in ventricular myocytes. Cells were superfused with control solution or solution containing VEGF at different concentrations for 10 minutes before recording. Some ventricular myocytes were pretreated with a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor for 1 hour before the addition of VEGF. We found that VEGF inhibited the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I K s ) in a concentration-dependent manner (18.13±1.04 versus 12.73±0.34, n=5, P =0.001; 12.73±0.34 versus 9.05±1.20, n=5, P =0.036) and prolonged AP duration (894.5±36.92 versus 746.3±33.71, n=5, P =0.021). Wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, eliminated these VEGF-induced effects. VEGF had no significant effect on the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I K r ), resting membrane potential, AP amplitude, or maximal velocity of depolarization. VEGF inhibited I K s in a concentration-dependent manner through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-mediated signaling pathway, leading to AP prolongation. The results indicate a promising therapeutic potential of VEGF in prevention of ventricular tachyarrhythmias under conditions of high sympathetic activity and ischemia. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. Decoherence approach to energy transfer and work done by slowly driven systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-ge

    2018-01-01

    A main problem, which is met when computing the energy transfer of or work done by a quantum system, comes from the fact that the system may lie in states with coherence in its energy eigenstates. As is well known, when the so-called environment-induced decoherence has happened with respect to a preferred basis given by the energy basis, no coherence exists among the energy basis and the energy change of the system can be computed in a definite way. I argue that one may make use of this property, in the search for an appropriate definition of quantum work for a total system that does not include any measuring apparatus. To show how this idea may work, in this paper, I study decoherence properties of a generic slowly driven system, which is weakly coupled to a huge environment whose main body is a complex quantum system. It is shown that decoherence may generically happen for such a system.

  5. Dynamical bifurcation in a system of coupled oscillators with slowly varying parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Parasyuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a fast-slow system representing n nonlinearly coupled oscillators with slowly varying parameters. We find conditions which guarantee that all omega-limit sets near the slow surface of the system are equilibria and invariant tori of all dimensions not exceeding n, the tori of dimensions less then n being hyperbolic. We show that a typical trajectory demonstrates the following transient process: while its slow component is far from the stationary points of the slow vector field, the fast component exhibits damping oscillations; afterwards, the former component enters and stays in a small neighborhood of some stationary point, and the oscillation amplitude of the latter begins to increase; eventually the trajectory is attracted by an n-dimesional invariant torus and a multi-frequency oscillatory regime is established.

  6. Reduced Incidence of Slowly Progressive Heymann Nephritis in Rats Immunized With a Modified Vaccination Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpad Z. Barabas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A slowly progressive Heymann nephritis (SPHN was induced in three groups of rats by weekly injections of a chemically modified renal tubular antigen in an aqueous medium. A control group of rats received the chemically unmodified version of the antigen in an aqueous solution. One group of SPHN rats were pre- and post-treated with weekly injections of IC made up of rKF3 and rarKF3 IgM antibody at antigen excess (MIC (immune complexes [ICs] containing sonicated ultracentrifuged [u/c] rat kidney fraction 3 [rKF3] antigen and IgM antibodies specific against the antigen, at slight antigen excess. One group of SPHN rats were post-treated with MIC 3 weeks after the induction of the disease and one group of SPHN animals received no treatment. The control group of rats received pre- and post-treatment with sonicated u/c rKF3.

  7. Slowly evolving connectivity in recurrent neural networks: I. The extreme dilution regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemmenhove, B; Skantzos, N S; Coolen, A C C

    2004-01-01

    We study extremely diluted spin models of neural networks in which the connectivity evolves in time, although adiabatically slowly compared to the neurons, according to stochastic equations which on average aim to reduce frustration. The (fast) neurons and (slow) connectivity variables equilibrate separately, but at different temperatures. Our model is exactly solvable in equilibrium. We obtain phase diagrams upon making the condensed ansatz (i.e. recall of one pattern). These show that, as the connectivity temperature is lowered, the volume of the retrieval phase diverges and the fraction of mis-aligned spins is reduced. Still one always retains a region in the retrieval phase where recall states other than the one corresponding to the 'condensed' pattern are locally stable, so the associative memory character of our model is preserved

  8. Feedback Control of Resistive Wall Modes in Slowly Rotating DIII-D Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, M.; Chance, M. S.; Takahashi, H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Reimerdes, H.; in, Y.; Chu, M. S.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.

    2006-10-01

    In slowly rotating plasmas on DIII-D, the requirement of RWM control feedback have been identified, using a MHD code along with measured power supply characteristics. It was found that a small time delay is essential for achieving high beta if no rotation stabilization exists. The overall system delay or the band pass time constant should be in the range of 0.4 of the RWM growth time. Recently the control system was upgraded using twelve linear audio amplifiers and a faster digital control system, reducing the time-delay from 600 to 100 μs. The advantage has been clearly observed when the RWMs excited by ELMs were effectively controlled by feedback even if the rotation transiently slowed nearly to zero. This study provides insight on stability in the low- rotation plasmasw with balanced NBI in DIII-D and also in ITER.

  9. [Clinico-psychological features of patients with favorable outcomes of slowly-progressive juvenile schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsul'kovskaia, M Ia; Bil'zho, A G; Kritskaia, V P; Meleshko, T K

    1986-01-01

    A follow-up study of patients with favourable outcomes of juvenile slowly progressing schizophrenia at the level of clinical cure (n = 84) revealed a number of clinical characteristics in the pattern of personality changes which correlated with a high level of the patients' social and occupational adaptation. The authors also determined external factors contributing to the achievement and stabilization of the "clinical cure" status. An experimental and psychological examination of these patients revealed finer mechanisms contributing to their social adaptation. These are high motivation of activities, compliance with social norms, a high level of voluntary regulation of activity and self-regulation, as well as the ability to overcome autistic trends in situations of interpersonal activities and cooperation.

  10. Isolated, slowly evolving, and dynamical trapping horizons: Geometry and mechanics from surface deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Ivan; Fairhurst, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    We study the geometry and dynamics of both isolated and dynamical trapping horizons by considering the allowed variations of their foliating two-surfaces. This provides a common framework that may be used to consider both their possible evolutions and their deformations as well as derive the well-known flux laws. Using this framework, we unify much of what is already known about these objects as well as derive some new results. In particular we characterize and study the ''almost isolated'' trapping horizons known as slowly evolving horizons. It is for these horizons that a dynamical first law holds and this is analogous and closely related to the Hawking-Hartle formula for event horizons

  11. One-dimensional free-electron laser equations without the slowly varying envelope approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Maroli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A set of one-dimensional equations has been deduced in the time domain from the Maxwell-Lorentz system with the aim of describing the free-electron laser radiation without using the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA. These equations are valid even in the case of arbitrarily short electron bunches and of current distributions with ripples on the scale of or shorter than the wavelength. Numerical examples are presented, showing that for long homogeneous bunches the new set of equations gives results in agreement with the SVEA free-electron laser theory and that the use of short or prebunched electron beams leads to a decrease of the emission lethargy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in all cases in which the backward low frequency wave has negligible effects, these equations can be reduced to a form similar to the usual 1D SVEA equations but with a different definition of the bunching term.

  12. Pinning, de-pinning and re-pinning of a slowly varying rivulet

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.; Wilson, S.K.; Duffy, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The solutions for the unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet with prescribed volume flux down an inclined planar substrate are used to describe the locally unidirectional flow of a rivulet with constant width (i.e. pinned contact lines) but slowly varying contact angle as well as the possible pinning and subsequent de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle and the possible de-pinning and subsequent re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width as they flow in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder. Despite being the same locally, the global behaviour of a rivulet with constant width can be very different from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle. In particular, while a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can always run from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, the behaviour of a rivulet with constant width depends on the value of the width. Specifically, while a narrow rivulet can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, a wide rivulet can run from the top of the cylinder only to a critical azimuthal angle. The scenario in which the hitherto pinned contact lines of the rivulet de-pin at the critical azimuthal angle and the rivulet runs from the critical azimuthal angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle but slowly varying width is discussed. The pinning and de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle, and the corresponding situation involving the de-pinning and re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width at a non-zero contact angle which generalises the de-pinning at zero contact angle discussed earlier, are described. In the latter situation, the mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the constant width. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Pinning, de-pinning and re-pinning of a slowly varying rivulet

    KAUST Repository

    Paterson, C.

    2013-09-01

    The solutions for the unidirectional flow of a thin rivulet with prescribed volume flux down an inclined planar substrate are used to describe the locally unidirectional flow of a rivulet with constant width (i.e. pinned contact lines) but slowly varying contact angle as well as the possible pinning and subsequent de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle and the possible de-pinning and subsequent re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width as they flow in the azimuthal direction from the top to the bottom of a large horizontal cylinder. Despite being the same locally, the global behaviour of a rivulet with constant width can be very different from that of a rivulet with constant contact angle. In particular, while a rivulet with constant non-zero contact angle can always run from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, the behaviour of a rivulet with constant width depends on the value of the width. Specifically, while a narrow rivulet can run all the way from the top to the bottom of the cylinder, a wide rivulet can run from the top of the cylinder only to a critical azimuthal angle. The scenario in which the hitherto pinned contact lines of the rivulet de-pin at the critical azimuthal angle and the rivulet runs from the critical azimuthal angle to the bottom of the cylinder with zero contact angle but slowly varying width is discussed. The pinning and de-pinning of a rivulet with constant contact angle, and the corresponding situation involving the de-pinning and re-pinning of a rivulet with constant width at a non-zero contact angle which generalises the de-pinning at zero contact angle discussed earlier, are described. In the latter situation, the mass of fluid on the cylinder is found to be a monotonically increasing function of the constant width. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov., a slowly growing mycobacterium isolated from human respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca M; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Marola, Jamie L; Buss, Sarah; Jones, Victoria; McNeil, Michael R; Freifeld, Alison G; Elaine Epperson, L; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Jackson, Mary; Iwen, Peter C; Salfinger, Max; Strong, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A novel slowly growing, non-chromogenic species of the class Actinobacteria was isolated from a human respiratory sample in Nebraska, USA, in 2012. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence supported placement into the genus Mycobacterium with high sequence similarity to a previously undescribed strain isolated from a patient respiratory sample from Oregon, USA, held in a collection in Colorado, USA, in 2000. The two isolates were subjected to phenotypic testing and whole genome sequencing and found to be indistinguishable. The bacteria were acid-fast stain-positive, rod-shaped and exhibited growth after 7-10 days on solid media at temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C. Colonies were non-pigmented, rough and slightly raised. Analyses of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight profiles showed no matches against a reference library of 130 mycobacterial species. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical for the two isolates, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) between their genomes was 99.7 % and phylogenetic comparisons classified the novel mycobacteria as the basal most species in the slowly growing Mycobacterium clade. Mycobacterium avium is the most closely related species based on rpoB gene sequence similarity (92 %), but the ANI between the genomes was 81.5 %, below the suggested cut-off for differentiating two species (95 %). Mycolic acid profiles were more similar to M. avium than to Mycobacterium simiae or Mycobacterium abscessus. The phenotypic and genomic data support the conclusion that the two related isolates represent a novel Mycobacterium species for which the name Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE-TNMC-100812T (=ATCC BAA-2683T=DSM 46873T).

  15. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Your Digestive System & How it Works What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ... you eat or drink each day. Why is digestion important? Digestion is important because your body needs ...

  16. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  17. Digestibility of nutrients and aspects of the digestive physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater cane rat, Thryonomys swinderianus, utilizes high fibrous plant material and is an important meat source in West Africa. An insight in its digestive physiology will enhance our understanding of its feeding habits. Digestibility coefficients of the food were determined during two seasons before the animals were ...

  18. Experimental assessment of factors influencing dewatering properties of thermophilically digested biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jianpeng; Mavinic, Donald S.; Kelly, Harlan G.; Ramey, William D.

    2003-07-01

    Beneficial land application of processed wastewater sludges (biosolids) is a cost-effective, and environmentally sustainable option for the final disposal of sludges, because nutrients and organic matters in the sludge are recovered and reused as a resource. Thermophilic sludge digestion produces Class A biosolids, which can be reused without restrictions. Recent experience from full-scale thermophilic sludge digestion facilities in North America revealed that, dewatering thermophilically digested biosolids required more polymers to condition than mesophilically digested biosolids. This paper reports a laboratory study that investigated factors having significant impacts on dewatering properties of digested biosolids, and assessed the relationship among digestion, dewatering properties, and characteristics of thermophilically digested biosolids. The experimental work used batch-operated, bench-scale aerobic sludge digesters. Dewaterability was measured as Capillary Suction Time (CST). The study found that feed sludge composition significantly affected dewaterability of digested sludge. Higher percentage of the secondary sludge in the feed sludge corresponded to more significant deterioration in dewaterability. The effect of thermophilic digestion temperatures on dewaterabilty was rapid, occurred within 3-hour of digestion, indicting a heat shock effect, rather than a microbiological effect. When a high shear was applied to the sludge in digesters, it resulted In a significant deterioration in dewaterability in the digested sludge. It appears there was a strong correlation between dewaterability and extracellular biopolymers. Enzymes (protease) treatment confirmed that role of extracellular proteins in affecting the dewatering properties of thermophilic biosolids, also revealed the complex nature of biopolymers' effect on dewaterability. Such effects might be due to protein-polysaccharides interactions, hydrogen bonding, or hydrophilic and hydrophobic

  19. Unexpected High Digestion Rate of Cooked Starch by the Ct-Maltase-Glucoamylase Small Intestine Mucosal α-Glucosidase Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Amy Hui-Mei; Nichols, Buford L.; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Avery, Stephen E.; Sim, Lyann; Rose, David R.; Naim, Hassan Y.; Hamaker, Bruce R.

    2012-01-01

    For starch digestion to glucose, two luminal α-amylases and four gut mucosal α-glucosidase subunits are employed. The aim of this research was to investigate, for the first time, direct digestion capability of individual mucosal α-glucosidases on cooked (gelatinized) starch. Gelatinized normal maize starch was digested with N- and C-terminal subunits of recombinant mammalian maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM) and sucrase-isomaltase (SI) of varying amounts and digestion periods. Without the aid of α-amylase, Ct-MGAM demonstrated an unexpected rapid and high digestion degree near 80%, while other subunits showed 20 to 30% digestion. These findings suggest that Ct-MGAM assists α-amylase in digesting starch molecules and potentially may compensate for developmental or pathological amylase deficiencies. PMID:22563462

  20. Radial modes of slowly rotating compact stars in the presence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, N.R. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India); Siksha ' O' Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar (India); Mohanta, K.K. [Rairangpur College, Rairangpur, Odisha (India); Sahu, P.K. [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar (India)

    2016-09-15

    Compact stars are composed of very high-density hadron matter. When the matter is above nuclear matter density, then there is a chance of different phases of matter such as hadron matter to quark matter. There is a possible phase which, having the quark core surrounded by a mixed phase followed by hadronic matter, may be considered as a hybrid phase inside the stars called hybrid star (HS). The star which consists of only u, d and s quarks is called quark star (QS) and the star which has only hadronic matter is called neutron star (NS). For the equation of state (EOS) of hadronic matter, we have considered the Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) theory and we incorporated the effect of strong magnetic fields. For the EOS of the quark phase we use the simple MIT bag model. We have assumed Gaussian parametrization to make the density dependent for both bag pressure in quark matter and magnetic field. We have constructed the intermediate mixed phase by using the Glendenning conjecture. Eigenfrequencies of radial pulsations of slowly rotating magnetized compact stars (NS, QS, HS) are calculated in a general relativistic formalism given by Chandrasekhar and Friedman. We have studied the effect of central density on the square of the frequencies of the compact stars in the presence of zero and strong magnetic field. (orig.)

  1. DISCOVERY OF 14 NEW SLOWLY PULSATING B STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7654

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y. P.; Han, Z. W.; Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out time-series BV CCD photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 7654 (Messier 52) to search for variable stars. Eighteen slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars have been detected, among which 14 candidates are newly discovered, three known ones are confirmed, and a previously found δ Scuti star is also identified as an SPB candidate. Twelve SPBs are probable cluster members based on membership analysis. This makes NGC 7654 the richest galactic open cluster in terms of SPB star content. It is also a new discovery that NGC 7654 hosts three γ Dor star candidates. We found that all these stars (18 SPB and 3 γ Dor stars) have periods longer than their corresponding fundamental radial mode. With such a big sample of g-mode pulsators in a single cluster, it is clear that multi-mode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower part. All the stars span a narrow strip on the period-luminosity plane, which also includes the γ Dor stars at the low-luminosity extension. This result implies that there may be a single period-luminosity relation applicable to all g-mode main-sequence pulsators. As a by-product, three EA-type eclipsing binaries and an EW-type eclipsing binary are also discovered.

  2. SLOWLY ADAPTING SENSORY UNITS HAVE MORE RECEPTORS IN LARGE AIRWAYS THAN IN SMALL AIRWAYS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensory units of pulmonary slowly adapting receptors (SARs are more active in large airways than in small airways. However, there is no explanation for this phenomenon. Although sensory structures in large airways resemble those in small airways, they are bigger and more complex. Possibly, a larger receptor provides greater surface area for depolarization, and thus has a lower activating threshold and/or a higher sensitivity to stretch, leading to more nerve electrical activities. Recently, a single sensory unit has been reported to contain multiple receptors. Therefore, sensory units in large airways may contain more SARs, which may contribute to high activities. To test this hypothesis, we used a double staining technique to identify sensory receptor sizes. We labeled the sensory structure with Na+/K+-ATPase antibodies and the myelin sheath with myelin basic protein (MBP antibodies. A SAR can be defined as the end formation beyond MBP labeling. Thus, we are able to compare sizes of sensory structures and SARs in large (trachea and bronchi vs small (bronchioles 0.05. However, the sensory structure contains more SARs in large airways than in small airways (9.6±0.6 vs 3.6±0.3; P<0.0001. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that greater numbers of SARs in sensory units of large airways may contribute to higher activities.

  3. A cyclostrophic transformed Eulerian zonal mean model for the middle atmosphere of slowly rotating planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K. F.; Yao, K.; Taketa, C.; Zhang, X.; Liang, M. C.; Jiang, X.; Newman, C. E.; Tung, K. K.; Yung, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    With the advance of modern computers, studies of planetary atmospheres have heavily relied on general circulation models (GCMs). Because these GCMs are usually very complicated, the simulations are sometimes difficult to understand. Here we develop a semi-analytic zonally averaged, cyclostrophic residual Eulerian model to illustrate how some of the large-scale structures of the middle atmospheric circulation can be explained qualitatively in terms of simple thermal (e.g. solar heating) and mechanical (the Eliassen-Palm flux divergence) forcings. This model is a generalization of that for fast rotating planets such as the Earth, where geostrophy dominates (Andrews and McIntyre 1987). The solution to this semi-analytic model consists of a set of modified Hough functions of the generalized Laplace's tidal equation with the cyclostrohpic terms. As examples, we apply this model to Titan and Venus. We show that the seasonal variations of the temperature and the circulation of these slowly-rotating planets can be well reproduced by adjusting only three parameters in the model: the Brunt-Väisälä bouyancy frequency, the Newtonian radiative cooling rate, and the Rayleigh friction damping rate. We will also discuss the application of this model to study the meridional transport of photochemically produced tracers that can be observed by space instruments.

  4. The noise of ultrashort pulse mode-locked lasers beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takushima, Y; Haus, H A; Kaertner, F X

    2004-01-01

    The zero-point fluctuations in an L-C circuit of finite Q are revisited. The zero-point energy is shown to approach the value of hbarω 0 /2 only in the limit of an infinite Q. A Fabry-Perot resonator, on the other hand, has bounded zero-point energies of its modes that are equal to hbarω n /2 for each resonance. Based on the Fabry-Perot resonator with broadband noise, we analyse the noise of an ultrafast mode-locked laser when the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA) is not valid. This is achieved by reinterpreting the quantized form of the master equation of mode locking as an equation of motion for the electric field rather than for the creation operator of a photon. It is found that in this formulation quantum correlations exist that are not present in the SVEA. The correlations become evident in the spectrum of the zero-point fluctuations and therefore in the background noise of the laser. This behaviour can be detected by homodyne detection of the laser output. The linewidth of the frequency comb generated by the mode-locked laser is not affected by these correlations and is given by the Schawlow-Townes linewidth of an equivalent continuous wave taking the additional intracavity loss due to the mode locking process into account

  5. Neutrino Astrophysics in Slowly Rotating Spacetimes Permeated by Nonlinear Electrodynamics Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.

    2017-02-01

    Many theoretical and astrophysical arguments involve consideration of the effects of super strong electromagnetic fields and the rotation during the late stages of core-collapse supernovae. In what follows, we solve Einstein field equations that are minimally coupled to an arbitrary (current-free) Born-Infeld nonlinear Lagrangian L(F,G) of electrodynamics (NLED) in the slow rotation regime a ≪ r+ (outer horizon size), up to first order in a/r. We cross-check the physical properties of such NLED spacetime w.r.t. against the Maxwell one. A study case on both neutrino flavor ({ν }e\\to {ν }μ ,{ν }τ ) oscillations and flavor+helicity (spin) flip ({ν }e\\to {\\overline{ν }}μ ,τ ) gyroscopic precession proves that in the spacetime of a slowly rotating nonlinear charged black hole (RNCBH), the neutrino dynamics translates into a positive enhancement of the r-process (reduction of the electron fraction Ye < 0.5). Consequently, it guarantees successful hyperluminous core-collapse supernova explosions due to the enlargement of the number and amount of decaying nuclide species. This posits that, as far as the whole luminosity is concerned, hypernovae will be a proof of the formation of astrophysical RNCBH.

  6. The Physical State of Emulsified Edible Oil Modulates Its in Vitro Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Bellissimo, Nick; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-10-18

    Emulsified lipid digestion was tailored by manipulating the physical state of dispersed oil droplets in whey protein stabilized oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, where the oil phase consisted of one of five ratios of soybean oil (SO) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO). The evolution in particle size distribution, structural changes during oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion, and free fatty acid release during intestinal digestion were all investigated. Irrespective of the physical state and structure of the dispersed oil/fat, all emulsions were stable against droplet size increases during oral digestion. During gastric digestion, the 50:50 SO:FHSO emulsion was more stable against physical breakdown than any other emulsion. All emulsions underwent flocculation and coalescence or partial coalescence upon intestinal digestion, with the SO emulsion being hydrolyzed the most rapidly. The melting point of all emulsions containing FHSO was above 37 °C, with the presence of solid fat within the dispersed oil droplets greatly limiting lipolysis. Fat crystal polymorph and nanoplatelet size did not play an important role in the rate and extent of lipid digestion. Free fatty acid release modeled by the Weibull distribution function showed that the rate of lipid digestion (κ) decreased with increasing solid fat content, and followed an exponential relationship (R 2 = 0.95). Overall, lipid digestion was heavily altered by the physical state of the dispersed oil phase within O/W emulsions.

  7. Arsenic volatilization in model anaerobic biogas digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestrot, Adrien; Xie, Wan-Ying; Xue, Ximei; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Arsenic is volatilized form all model anaerobic digesters, including the non-treated ones. • Volatile As species can be identified and quantified in all digesters. • Non-arsenic treated digesters volatilization rates are higher than Roxarsone treated ones. - Abstract: Arsenic is a class 1 non-threshold carcinogen which is highly ubiquitous. Arsenic undergoes many different transformations (biotic or abiotic) between and within environmental compartments, leading to a number of different chemical species possessing different properties and toxicities. One specific transformation is As biotic volatilization which is coupled with As biomethylation and has been scarcely studied due to inherent sampling issues. Arsenic methylation/volatilization is also linked with methanogenesis and occurs in anaerobic environments. In China, rice straw and animal manure are very often used to produce biogas and both can contain high amounts of As, especially if the rice is grown in areas with heavy mining or smelting industries and if Roxarsone is fed to the animals. Roxarsone is an As-containing drug which is widely used in China to control coccidian intestinal parasites, to improve feed efficiency and to promote rapid growth. Previous work has shown that this compound degrades to inorganic As under anaerobic conditions. In this study the focus is on biotic transformations of As in small microcosms designed as biogas digester models (BDMs) using recently validated As traps, thus, enabling direct quantification and identification of volatile As species. It is shown that although there was a loss of soluble As in the BDMs, their conditions favored biomethylation. All reactors produced volatile As, especially the monomethylarsonic acid spiked ones with 413 ± 148 ng As (mean ± SD, n = 3) which suggest that the first methylation step, from inorganic As, is a limiting factor. The most abundant species was trimethylarsine, but the toxic arsine was present in the

  8. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  9. Analysis of digester design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-01-29

    Engineering economic analyses were performed on various digester design concepts to determine the relative performance for various biomass feedstocks. A comprehensive literature survey describing the state-of-the-art of the various digestion designs is included. The digester designs included in the analyses are CSTR, plug flow, batch, CSTR in series, multi-stage digestion and biomethanation. Other process options investigated included pretreatment processes such as shredding, degritting, and chemical pretreatment, and post-digestion processes, such as dewatering and gas purification. The biomass sources considered include feedlot manure, rice straw, and bagasse. The results of the analysis indicate that the most economical (on a unit gas cost basis) digester design concept is the plug flow reactor. This conclusion results from this system providing a high gas production rate combined with a low capital hole-in-the-ground digester design concept. The costs determined in this analysis do not include any credits or penalties for feedstock or by-products, but present the costs only for conversion of biomass to methane. The batch land-fill type digester design was shown to have a unit gas cost comparable to that for a conventional stirred tank digester, with the potential of reducing the cost if a land-fill site were available for a lower cost per unit volume. The use of chemical pretreatment resulted in a higher unit gas cost, primarily due to the cost of pretreatment chemical. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the use of chemical pretreatment could improve the economics provided a process could be developed which utilized either less pretreatment chemical or a less costly chemical. The use of other process options resulted in higher unit gas costs. These options should only be used when necessary for proper process performance, or to result in production of a valuable by-product.

  10. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. I. Gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Cui, Jack; Olson, Trent D; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim was to study the in vivo gastric digestion of fat globules in bovine cream from raw, pasteurised or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Fasted rats were gavaged once and chyme samples were collected after 30, 120 and 180 min post-gavage. Proteins from raw (RC) and pasteurised (PC) creams appeared to be digested faster and to a greater extent. Free fatty acids (FAs) increased throughout the 3h postprandial period. Short and medium chain FAs were released more rapidly than long chain FAs which were hydrolysed to a greater degree from PC. The size of the fat globules of all creams increased in the stomach. Protein aggregates were observed in pasteurised and homogenised cream chyme. Protrusions, probably caused by the accumulation of insoluble lipolytic products, appeared at the surface of the globules in RC and PC chyme. Overall, PC proteins and lipids appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acid digestion of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    To overcome the high temperatures involved in straight incineration of organic waste and the difficulty of extracting actinides from the ash various research establishments throughout the world, including Winfrith and Harwell in the UK, have carried out studies on an alternative chemical combustion method known as acid digestion. The basis of the technique is to digest the waste in concentrated sulphuric acid containing a few percent of nitric acid at a temperature of about 250 0 C. Acid digestion residues consist mainly of non-refractory inorganic sulphates and oxides from which any actinide materials can easily be extracted. (author)

  12. Factors controlling pathogen destruction during anaerobic digestion of biowastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.R.; Lang, N.L.; Cheung, K.H.M.; Spanoudaki, K.

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is the principal method of stabilising biosolids from urban wastewater treatment in the UK, and it also has application for the treatment of other types of biowaste. Increasing awareness of the potential risks to human and animal health from environmental sources of pathogens has focused attention on the efficacy of waste treatment processes at destroying pathogenic microorganisms in biowastes recycled to agricultural land. The degree of disinfection achieved by a particular anaerobic digester is influenced by a variety of interacting operational variables and conditions, which can often deviate from the ideal. Experimental investigations demonstrate that Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. are not damaged by mesophilic temperatures, whereas rapid inactivation occurs by thermophilic digestion. A hydraulic, biokinetic and thermodynamic model of pathogen inactivation during anaerobic digestion showed that a 2 log 10 reduction in E. coli (the minimum removal required for agricultural use of conventionally treated biosolids) is likely to challenge most conventional mesophilic digesters, unless strict maintenance and management practices are adopted to minimise dead zones and by-pass flow. Efficient mixing and organic matter stabilisation are the main factors controlling the rate of inactivation under mesophilic conditions and not a direct effect of temperature per se on pathogenic organisms

  13. Simple expressions of the nuclear relaxation rate enhancement due to quadrupole nuclei in slowly tumbling molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Pascal H., E-mail: pascal-h.fries@cea.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SCIB, RICC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SCIB, RICC, F-38000 Grenoble (France); Belorizky, Elie [Université Grenoble Alpes, LIPHY, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, Leti-Clinatec, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-07-28

    For slowly tumbling entities or quasi-rigid lattices, we derive very simple analytical expressions of the quadrupole relaxation enhancement (QRE) of the longitudinal relaxation rate R{sub 1} of nuclear spins I due to their intramolecular magnetic dipolar coupling with quadrupole nuclei of arbitrary spins S ≥ 1. These expressions are obtained by using the adiabatic approximation for evaluating the time evolution operator of the quantum states of the quadrupole nuclei S. They are valid when the gyromagnetic ratio of the spin S is much smaller than that of the spin I. The theory predicts quadrupole resonant peaks in the dispersion curve of R{sub 1} vs magnetic field. The number, positions, relative intensities, Lorentzian shapes, and widths of these peaks are explained in terms of the following properties: the magnitude of the quadrupole Hamiltonian and the asymmetry parameter of the electric field gradient (EFG) acting on the spin S, the S-I inter-spin orientation with respect to the EFG principal axes, the rotational correlation time of the entity carrying the S–I pair, and/or the proper relaxation time of the spin S. The theory is first applied to protein amide protons undergoing dipolar coupling with fast-relaxing quadrupole {sup 14}N nuclei and mediating the QRE to the observed bulk water protons. The theoretical QRE agrees well with its experimental counterpart for various systems such as bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor and cartilages. The anomalous behaviour of the relaxation rate of protons in synthetic aluminium silicate imogolite nano-tubes due to the QRE of {sup 27}Al (S = 5/2) nuclei is also explained.

  14. Characteristics of slowly cooled Zr-Al-Cu-Ni bulk samples with different oxygen content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebert, A.; Eckert, J.; Bauer, H.-D.; Schultz, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bulk samples of the glass-forming Zr 65 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 and Zr 55 Al 10 Cu 30 Ni 5 alloys with 3 mm diameter were prepared by die casting into a copper mould. The oxygen content of the samples was varied between 0.26 at.% and 0.73 at.% by adjusting the oxygen partial pressure in the argon atmosphere upon casting. Characterization of the microstructure of as-cast samples and of specimens continuously heated to 873 K was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermal stability was investigated by constant-rate differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The phase formation and the thermal stability of the slowly cooled zirconium-based bulk samples are essentially influenced by the oxygen content of the material. Furthermore, the sensitivity to oxygen depends on the composition of the alloy. In bulk Zr 65 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 samples only small oxygen traces induce nucleation and crystal growth during slow cooling whereas Zr 55 Al 10 Cu 30 Ni 5 samples are completely amorphous for all oxygen contents investigated. The processes of the oxygen-induced phase formation are discussed in detail also with respect to the results obtained for the heat treated samples. With increasing oxygen content the thermal stability deteriorates, as it is obvious from a diminution of the supercooled liquid region (ΔT x = T x - T g ) which is mainly due to a reduction of the crystallization temperature T x . Furthermore, the thermal behaviour of Zr 65 Al 7.5 Cu 17.5 Ni 10 and Zr 55 Al 10 Cu 30 Ni 5 reveals significant differences. (orig.)

  15. Aldosterone down-regulates the slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium current in adult guinea pig cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yankun; Bai, Song; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Hongxue; Meng, Jing; Li, Li; Xu, Yanfang

    2015-12-01

    There is emerging evidence that the mineralocorticoid hormone aldosterone is associated with arrhythmias in cardiovascular disease. However, the effect of aldosterone on the slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium current (IK s ) remains poorly understood. The present study was designed to investigate the modulation of IK s by aldosterone. Adult guinea pigs were treated with aldosterone for 28 days via osmotic pumps. Standard glass microelectrode recordings and whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to record action potentials in papillary muscles and IK s in ventricular cardiomyocytes. The aldosterone-treated animals exhibited a prolongation of the QT interval and action potential duration with a higher incidence of early afterdepolarizations. Patch-clamp recordings showed a significant down-regulation of IK s density in the ventricular myocytes of these treated animals. These aldosterone-induced electrophysiological changes were fully prevented by a combined treatment with spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist. In addition, in in vitro cultured ventricular cardiomyocytes, treatment with aldosterone (sustained exposure for 24 h) decreased the IK s density in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, a significant corresponding reduction in the mRNA/protein expression of IKs channel pore and auxiliary subunits, KCNQ1 and KCNE1 was detected in ventricular tissue from the aldosterone-treated animals. Aldosterone down-regulates IK s by inhibiting the expression of KCNQ1 and KCNE1, thus delaying the ventricular repolarization. These results provide new insights into the mechanism underlying K(+) channel remodelling in heart disease and may explain the highly beneficial effects of MR antagonists in HF. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Experience of slowly infused high-iodine-dose contrast computed tomography (SHD) of intracranial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Kiyoaki; Numata, Hideharu; Hokama, Yasuo

    1983-01-01

    A study was done on 20 patients with intracranial tumors by means of the slowly infused high-iodine-dose (SHD) contrast-enhancement technique. An intravenous drip infusion of 300 ml of Angiografin was given for three hours. Computerized tomograms were taken 1 hour, (2 hours), and 3 hours after the beginning of the drip infusion. The authors divided the lesions into four groups by analyzing the sequential changes in CT numbers using a histograms or profile of the region of interest. In group I, additional lesions were visible on the SHD scan (one case of metastatic brain tumors from lung cancer). In group 2, lesions were better displayed on the SHD scan due to increased enhancement (17 cases). In group 3, SHD scans showed no change (2 cases of fibrous astrocytoma). In group 4, the enhancement was diminished, but the lesion per se was still clealy identifiable (no case). Finally, in 18 cases out of 20 (90%), an additional or better display of the lesion was detected on SHD enhanced CT. The rational for doing the SHD enhancement is to detect a lesion with a minimally impaired blood-brain barrier by exposing a prolonged high blood-iodine level, and so the scanning is delayed until detectable levels of the contrast medium have accumulated within the vascular-channel pool or extravascular space of the lesion. SHD enhancement is useful: I) for revealing any additional lesion in a metastatic brain tumor; 2) for better displaying an obscure lesion on a usual scan; 3) for differentiating the quality of the lesion (for example, malignancy or cyst formation), and 4) for predicting the prognosis of the lesion. (J.P.N.)

  17. Physical-chemical basis of the protection of slowly frozen human erythrocytes by glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rall, W.F.; Mazur, P.; Souzu, H.

    1978-07-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M.L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13: 9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23: 89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT/sub 50/) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT/sub 50/ for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT/sub 50/ corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing.

  18. Quantitative proteomics reveals the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yanbo; Cheng, Kai; Mao, Jiawei; Liu, Fangjie; Liu, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-10-01

    Trypsin is the popular protease to digest proteins into peptides in shotgun proteomics, but few studies have attempted to systematically investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed protein digestion in proteome samples. In this study, we applied quantitative proteomics via triplex stable isotope dimethyl labeling to investigate the kinetics of trypsin-catalyzed cleavage. It was found that trypsin cleaves the C-terminal to lysine (K) and arginine (R) residues with higher rates for R. And the cleavage sites surrounded by neutral residues could be quickly cut, while those with neighboring charged residues (D/E/K/R) or proline residue (P) could be slowly cut. In a proteome sample, a huge number of proteins with different physical chemical properties coexists. If any type of protein could be preferably digested, then limited digestion could be applied to reduce the sample complexity. However, we found that protein abundance and other physicochemical properties, such as molecular weight (Mw), grand average of hydropathicity (GRAVY), aliphatic index, and isoelectric point (pI) have no notable correlation with digestion priority of proteins.

  19. Effects of disintegration on anaerobic degradation of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhart, M; Krüger, M; Kopp, J; Dichtl, N

    2000-01-01

    The effects of mechanical disintegration on anaerobic digestibility of sewage excess sludge in downflow stationary fixed film (DSFF) digesters were investigated on laboratory scale. Mechanical pretreatment using a high pressure homogenizer led to significantly enhanced concentrations of soluble proteins and carbohydrates in the feed sludge. Using DSFF digesters with two different tubular plastic media as support material it was shown that a stable digestion process could be achieved at hydraulic retention times (HRT) down to 5 days. Compared to conventional digesters at 10 d and 15 d HRT respectively, the degradation of volatile solids was enhanced up to 25%, also resulting in a higher specific biogas production. Further investigations on degradation of soluble proteins and carbohydrates showed that a slowly degradable fraction of carbohydrates was released via disintegration. Using the distribution of chain length and the concentrations of volatile fatty acids as process parameters, the dependability on the HRT and the degree of disintegration (the release of soluble COD) predominated the effects of specific surface area of the support media.

  20. Transforming anaerobic digestion with the Model T of digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.F.; Ciotola, R.; Castano, J.; Eger, C.; Schlea, D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Ecological Engineering Program

    2010-07-01

    Most livestock farmers in the United States do not take advantage of anaerobic digester technology because of the high cost and large scale. These limitations therefore reduce the production of renewable energy from farmlands. In order to expand anaerobic digestion methods and improve environmental quality, affordable and smaller-scale digesters should be developed to enable most livestock farmers to convert manure to methane. Doing so would improve their economic efficiency and environmental sustainability. This paper provided an analogy to the development of the Model T to better explain the need and potential for this technology. A modified fixed-dome digester was installed on the Ohio State University dairy in Columbus, Ohio. The digester was unheated, buried, had a volume of 1 m{sup 3} and received diluted dairy manure as feedstock. Biogas was produced at digester temperatures as low 10 degrees C during colder ambient temperatures. Water quality also improved. Results from the first year of operation will be analyzed to improve performance and enable future development of this technology.

  1. Redundancy in Anaerobic Digestion Microbiomes during Disturbances by the Antibiotic Monensin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirito, Catherine M.; Daly, Sarah E.; Werner, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antibiotic monensin is fed to dairy cows to increase milk production efficiency. A fraction of this monensin is excreted into the cow manure. Previous studies have found that cow manure containing monensin can negatively impact the performance of anaerobic digesters, especially upon first introduction. Few studies have examined whether the anaerobic digester microbiome can adapt to monensin during the operating time. Here, we conducted a long-term time series study of four lab-scale anaerobic digesters fed with cow manure. We examined changes in both the microbiome composition and function of the anaerobic digesters when subjected to the dairy antibiotic monensin. In our digesters, monensin was not rapidly degraded under anaerobic conditions. The two anaerobic digesters that were subjected to manure from monensin feed-dosed cows exhibited relatively small changes in microbiome composition and function due to relatively low monensin concentrations. At higher concentrations of monensin, which we dosed directly to control manure (from dairy cows without monensin), we observed major changes in the microbiome composition and function of two anaerobic digesters. A rapid introduction of monensin to one of these anaerobic digesters led to the impairment of methane production. Conversely, more gradual additions of the same concentrations of monensin to the other anaerobic digester led to the adaptation of the anaerobic digester microbiomes to the relatively high monensin concentrations. A member of the candidate OP11 (Microgenomates) phylum arose in this anaerobic digester and appeared to be redundant with certain Bacteroidetes phylum members, which previously were dominating. IMPORTANCE Monensin is a common antibiotic given to dairy cows in the United States and is partly excreted with dairy manure. An improved understanding of how monensin affects the anaerobic digester microbiome composition and function is important to prevent process failure for farm

  2. The foodomics approach for the evaluation of protein bioaccessibility in processed meat upon in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Laghi, Luca; Babini, Elena; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Picone, Gianfranco; Ciampa, Alessandra; Valli, Veronica; Danesi, Francesca; Capozzi, Francesco

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes a foodomics protocol coupling an in vitro static simulation of digestion to a combination of omics techniques, to grant an overview of the protein digestibility of a meat-based food, namely Bresaola. The proteolytic activity mediated by the digestive enzymes is evaluated through Bradford and SDS-PAGE assays, combined to NMR relaxometry and spectroscopy, to obtain information ranging from the microscopic to the molecular level, respectively. The simple proteomics tool adopted here points out that a clear increase of bioaccessible proteins occurs in the gastric phase, rapidly disappearing during the following duodenal digestion. However, SDS-PAGE and the Bradford assay cannot follow the fate of the digested proteins when the products are sized meat matrix. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Your Digestive System (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dig That Digestive System Print en español Tu sistema digestivo So there you are, sitting at lunch, ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  4. Implementing Livestock Anaerobic Digestion Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page provides information to help make an informed decision about installing an anaerobic digester. Is it a good match for a farm’s organic waste, project financing, development guidelines and permit requirements?

  5. The digestion of dietary triacylglycerols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2004-01-01

    Dietary triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the major lipid components in the human diet and they are carriers of energy as well as important fatty acids. Many factors affect the digestion and absorption of TAGs. Evidence is accumulating that, in addition to the overall fatty acid profile, the TAG......, or one may speculate additionally on the possibilities of modifying the structure of fats to affect their absorption and the distribution of the fatty acids in the body after digestion and uptake. In this review we will summarize diverse aspects of TAG digestion and absorption, as well as the influences...... of the fatty acid composition and the intramolecular structure of dietary TAGs on their digestion and absorption....

  6. A Developmental Study of Static Postural Control and Superimposed Arm Movements in Normal and Slowly Developing Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Janet M.

    Selected electromyographic parameters underlying static postural control in 4, 6, and 8 year old normally and slowly developing children during performance of selected arm movements were studied. Developmental delays in balance control were assessed by the Cashin Test of Motor Development (1974) and/or the Williams Gross Motor Coordination Test…

  7. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds impact the biostability of non-chlorinated drinking water produced from surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Schurer, R.; Bahlman, J.A.; Ketelaars, H.A.M.; Italiaander, R.; Wal, van der A.; Wielen, van der P.W.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    It is possible to distribute drinking water without a disinfectant residual when the treated water is biologically stable. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of easily and slowly biodegradable compounds on the biostability of the drinking water at three full-scale production

  8. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  9. Covering Materials for Anaerobic Digesters Producing Biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itodo, I. N.; Philips, T. K.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of foam, concrete and clay soil as covering material on anaerobic digesters producing biogas was investigated using four batch-type digesters of 20 litres volume. The methane yield from the digesters was of the order: foam >control> concrete > clay soil. The digester covered with foam had the highest methane yield, best temperature control and most favourable pH conditions. It is most suitable as cover material on anaerobic digesters

  10. Models of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, H.; Mihalache, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the past years there was a huge interest in experimental and theoretical studies in the area of few-optical-cycle pulses and in the broader fast growing field of the so-called extreme nonlinear optics. This review concentrates on theoretical studies performed in the past decade concerning the description of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). Here we systematically use the powerful reductive expansion method (alias multiscale analysis) in order to derive simple integrable and nonintegrable evolution models describing both nonlinear wave propagation and interaction of ultrashort (femtosecond) pulses. To this aim we perform the multiple scale analysis on the Maxwell–Bloch equations and the corresponding Schrödinger–von Neumann equation for the density matrix of two-level atoms. We analyze in detail both long-wave and short-wave propagation models. The propagation of ultrashort few-optical-cycle solitons in quadratic and cubic nonlinear media are adequately described by generic integrable and nonintegrable nonlinear evolution equations such as the Korteweg–de Vries equation, the modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the complex modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the sine–Gordon equation, the cubic generalized Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation, and the two-dimensional sine–Gordon equation. Moreover, we consider the propagation of few-cycle optical solitons in both (1+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional physical settings. A generalized modified Korteweg–de Vries equation is introduced in order to describe robust few-optical-cycle dissipative solitons. We investigate in detail the existence and robustness of both linearly polarized and circularly polarized few-cycle solitons, that is, we also take into account the effect of the vectorial nature of the electric field. Some of these results concerning the systematic use of the reductive expansion method beyond the SVEA can be relatively easily extended to few

  11. Long-acting lipidated analogue of human pancreatic polypeptide is slowly released into circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Elling, Christian E; Madsen, Andreas N

    2011-01-01

    The main disadvantages of peptide pharmaceuticals are their rapid degradation and excretion, their low hydrophilicity, and low shelf lifes. These bottlenecks can be circumvented by acylation with fatty acids (lipidation) or polyethylene glycol (PEGylation). Here, we describe the modification....... Lipidation resulted in prolonged action of the hPP analogue in respect of reducing food intake in mice after subcutaneous administration. Therefore, the lipidated hPP analogue could constitute a potential new therapeutic agent against obesity....

  12. Spectroscopic characterization of digestates obtained from sludge mixed to increasing amounts of fruit and vegetable wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Cavallo, Ornella; Malerba, Anna Daniela; Di Maria, Francesco; Ricci, Anna; Gigliotti, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) represents an efficient waste-treatment technology during which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in absence of oxygen yielding a biogas containing methane. The aim of this work was to investigate the transformations occurring in the organic matter during the co-digestion of waste mixed sludge (WMS) with an increasing amount of fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) in a pilot scale apparatus reproducing a full-scale digester in an existing wastewater treatment plant. Samples comprised: sludge, FVW, sludge mixed with 10-20-30-40% FVW. Ingestates and digestates were analyzed by means of emission fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR associated to Fourier self deconvolution (FSD) of spectra. With increasing the amount of FVW from 10% to 20% at which percentage biogas production reached the maximum value, FTIR spectra and FSD traces of digestates exhibited a decrease of intensity of peaks assigned to polysaccharides and aliphatics and an increase of peak assigned to aromatics as a result of the biodegradation of rapidly degradable materials and concentration of aromatic recalcitrant compounds. Digestates with 30 and 40% FVW exhibited a relative increase of intensity of peaks assigned to aliphatics likely as a result of the increasing amount of rapidly degradable materials and the consequent reduction of the hydraulic retention time. This may cause inhibition of methanogenesis and accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The highest emission fluorescence intensity was observed for the digestate with 20% FVW confirming the concentration of aromatic recalcitrant compounds in the substrate obtained at the highest biogas production.

  13. Rapid cold hardening: a gut feeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, M R; Convey, P; Luke ov , A

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the rate of cold hardening of a field population of Antarctic springtails and the effect of eating food with particular levels of ice nucleating activity on the animal's whole body freezing point. The SCPs of samples of c. 20, freshly collected, Cryptopygus antarcticus were measured hourly over a 32 hour collection period using differential scanning calorimetry and related to habitat temperature. The mean SCP of the springtails increased from -24 to -10 degree C during which time the habitat temperature warmed slowly from -2.5 to +2.5 degree C. In laboratory experiments, previously starved, cold tolerant springtails were fed on selected species of algae with measured SCP's but there was no clear correlation between the SCP of food and that of the animals after feeding. Microscopic examination of faecal pellets and guts from springtails showed that algal cells were completely destroyed during digestion.

  14. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Santanu, E-mail: s.mukherjee@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom [BASF SE, Crop Protection, 67117, Limburgerhof (Germany); Vereecken, Harry [Institute of Bio- and Geosciences (IBG-3), Agrosphere Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Burauel, Peter [Sustainable Campus, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    studied pesticides. • DT{sub 50} values decreased in the order pyrimethanil > boscalid > bentazone. • Addition of biochar increased non-extractable residues formation for all pesticides. • 5% biochar and 5% digestate mixture caused the rapid pesticide dissipation.

  15. Dissipation of bentazone, pyrimethanil and boscalid in biochar and digestate based soil mixtures for biopurification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Santanu; Tappe, Wolfgang; Weihermueller, Lutz; Hofmann, Diana; Köppchen, Stephan; Laabs, Volker; Schroeder, Tom; Vereecken, Harry; Burauel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    studied pesticides. • DT_5_0 values decreased in the order pyrimethanil > boscalid > bentazone. • Addition of biochar increased non-extractable residues formation for all pesticides. • 5% biochar and 5% digestate mixture caused the rapid pesticide dissipation.

  16. Anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castellucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of renewable energy is becoming increasingly necessary in order to address the global warming problem and, as a consequence, has become an high priority for many countries. Biomass is a clean and renewable energy source with growing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels. Among biomass, residual and waste ones represent a great resource for energy generation since they permit both to eliminate a possible waste and to produce energy. In the present work, the case of slaughterhouse wastes (SHWs has been investigated. Anaerobic digestion is nowadays considered as one of the most important and sustainable conversion technology exploiting organic matter and biodegradable wastes. Biogas results from this bio-chemical process and mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide, leading to produce thermal energy and/or electricity. In this paper, the European Regulations on animal by-products (ABPs are described, and some previous study on anaerobic digestion and co-digestion of ABPs - more precisely SHWs - are considered and compared in order to fix a starting point for future tests on their co-digestion in a micro-scale pilot digester. This is to define optimal feed ratio values which ensure an increasing content of methane in the outgoing biogas.

  17. Effect of heat and homogenization on in vitro digestion of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunick, Michael H; Ren, Daxi X; Van Hekken, Diane L; Bonnaillie, Laetitia; Paul, Moushumi; Kwoczak, Raymond; Tomasula, Peggy M

    2016-06-01

    Central to commercial fluid milk processing is the use of high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization to ensure the safety and quality of milk, and homogenization to prevent creaming of fat-containing milk. Ultra-high-temperature sterilization is also applied to milk and is typically used to extend the shelf life of refrigerated, specialty milk products or to provide shelf-stable milk. The structures of the milk proteins and lipids are affected by processing but little information is available on the effects of the individual processes or sequences of processes on digestibility. In this study, raw whole milk was subjected to homogenization, HTST pasteurization, and homogenization followed by HTST or UHT processing. Raw skim milk was subjected to the same heating regimens. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion using a fasting model was then used to detect the processing-induced changes in the proteins and lipids. Using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE, gastric pepsin digestion of the milk samples showed rapid elimination of the casein and α-lactalbumin bands, persistence of the β-lactoglobulin bands, and appearance of casein and whey peptide bands. The bands for β-lactoglobulin were eliminated within the first 15min of intestinal pancreatin digestion. The remaining proteins and peptides of raw, HTST, and UHT skim samples were digested rapidly within the first 15min of intestinal digestion, but intestinal digestion of raw and HTST pasteurized whole milk showed some persistence of the peptides throughout digestion. The availability of more lipid droplets upon homogenization, with greater surface area available for interaction with the peptides, led to persistence of the smaller peptide bands and thus slower intestinal digestion when followed by HTST pasteurization but not by UHT processing, in which the denatured proteins may be more accessible to the digestive enzymes. Homogenization and heat processing also affected the ζ-potential and free fatty acid release

  18. Methane production by anaerobic digestion of biomass. Final report of innovative research program subtask, December 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, V G

    1978-10-01

    It has long been known that methane is produced during the anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes, but this potential source of fuel has not been greatly exploited in the United States. The chief reason is that anaerobic decomposition of lignocellulosic materials occurs very slowly, resulting in a need for long detention times and large digestion vessels, both of which markedly increase process costs. However, recent work at CSU has shown that pretreatment of manure fibers (an abundant agricultural waste) with saturated steam at 130 to 210/sup 0/C renders this material more susceptible to attack by microbial enzymes. The main objectives of this project were to identify the chemical events occurring during the steam treatment and to correlate these with the rate of methane generating during subsequent anaerobic digestion. The study was expected to lead to an optimal pretreatment strategy.

  19. Digestion of bacteria by Nais variabilis (Oligochaeta) as established by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.M.; Fry, J.C.; Learner, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Serratia marcescens grown on different tritiated substrates was fed to Nais variabilis for 40 min, 4 h, and 17 h periods. The substrates were glucose, thymidine and glycerol which labelled mainly low molecular compounds, DNA, and lipids respectively. The worms incorporated radioactive label into their tissues within 40 min of feeding on the labelled bacteria. Incorporation of label where low molecular weight compounds were labelled could be due to absorption of dissolved bacterial secretions through the gut or body wall. However, DNA is a macromolecule not secreted by bacteria, consequently the label within this molecule could only accumulate in worm tissue after digestion, absorption and assimilation. No definite pattern of uptake or translocation along the worm was conclusively established but there was some indication that uptake was greatest in the anterior region of the intestine. Bacterial lipids were digested more slowly than the other materials labelled. (author)

  20. GHG emissions from slurry and digestates during storage and after field application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Nguyen, Quan Van; Petersen, Søren O

    The BioChain project focuses on value chains for biogas production in Denmark. Biogas production is based on liquid manure (slurry) from agriculture and other biomasses to increase the energy yield. To a great extent the digestates are recycled to agricultural lands as a valuable fertilizer...... of volatile solids (VS) is critical for predicting GHG emissions and the effect of biogas treatment. Volatile solids may be considered to have an easily degradable VS (VSd) and a slowly degradable VS (VSnd) fraction. A new approach to estimate VSd was investigated using the short-term evolution of CO2-C from...... are determined in a pilot-scale study with digested materials from Maabjerg Bioenergy and Fredericia Wastewater Treatment Facility, using untreated cattle and pig slurry as reference. These and other results will be used to model the effect of temperature and pre-treatment on CH4 emissions. The composition...

  1. Smoothing of the Time Structure of Slowly Extracted Beam From Synchrotron by RF-Knock-out Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshnyuk, A.V.; Bezshyjko, O.A.; Dolinskiy, A.V.; Dolinskij, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Results of the study are presented in work on smoothing of the time structure of the bunch, slowly extracted from synchrotron. The numerical algorithm has been designed for study of the influence of the radio-frequency field of the resonator on time structure of the bunch. The numerical algorithm is based on method Monte-Carlo, where particles in the beam have been extracted by means of slow moving to the third-order resonance conditions. Characteristics of the time structure are vastly smoothed when synchrotron oscillations have been used as first experiments showed. Theoretical motivation of the reasons, influencing upon time structure of the slowly extracted beam is explained in given work

  2. The Influence of Slowly Varying Mass on Severity of Dynamics Nonlinearity of Bearing-Rotor Systems with Pedestal Looseness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinearity measure is proposed to investigate the influence of slowly varying mass on severity of dynamics nonlinearity of bearing-rotor systems with pedestal looseness. A nonlinear mathematical model including the effect of slowly varying disk mass is developed for a bearing-rotor system with pedestal looseness. The varying of equivalent disk mass is described by a cosine function, and the amplitude coefficient is used as a control parameter. Then, nonlinearity measure is employed to quantify the severity of dynamics nonlinearity of bearing-rotor systems. With the increasing of looseness clearances, the curves that denote the trend of nonlinearity degree are plotted for each amplitude coefficient of mass varying. It can be concluded that larger amplitude coefficients of the disk mass varying will have more influence on the severity of dynamics nonlinearity and generation of chaotic behaviors in rotor systems with pedestal looseness.

  3. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds impact the biostability of non-chlorinated drinking water produced from surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijnen, W A M; Schurer, R; Bahlman, J A; Ketelaars, H A M; Italiaander, R; van der Wal, A; van der Wielen, P W J J

    2018-02-01

    It is possible to distribute drinking water without a disinfectant residual when the treated water is biologically stable. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of easily and slowly biodegradable compounds on the biostability of the drinking water at three full-scale production plants which use the same surface water, and on the regrowth conditions in the related distribution systems. Easily biodegradable compounds in the drinking water were determined with AOC-P17/Nox during 2012-2015. Slowly biodegradable organic compounds measured as particulate and/or high-molecular organic carbon (PHMOC), were monitored at the inlet and after the different treatment stages of the three treatments during the same period. The results show that PHMOC (300-470 μg C L -1 ) was approximately 10% of the TOC in the surface water and was removed to 50-100 μg C L -1 . The PHMOC in the water consisted of 40-60% of carbohydrates and 10% of proteins. A significant and strong positive correlation was observed for PHMOC concentrations and two recently introduced bioassay methods for slowly biodegradable compounds (AOC-A3 and biomass production potential, BPC 14 ). Moreover, these three parameters in the biological active carbon effluent (BACF) of the three plants showed a positive correlation with regrowth in the drinking water distribution system, which was assessed with Aeromonas, heterotrophic plate counts, coliforms and large invertebrates. In contrast, the AOC-P17/Nox concentrations did not correlate with these regrowth parameters. We therefore conclude that slowly biodegradable compounds in the treated water from these treatment plants seem to have a greater impact on regrowth in the distribution system than easily biodegradable compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of DNA repair in repair of cytogenetic damages. Slowly repaired DNA injuries involved in cytogenetic damages repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaichkina, S.I.; Rozanova, O.M.; Aptikaev, G.F.; Ganassi, E.Eh.

    1989-01-01

    Caffeine was used to study the kinetics of cytogenetic damages repair in Chinese hamster fibroblasts. Its half-time (90 min) was shown to correlate with that of repair of slowly repaired DNA damages. The caffeine-induced increase in the number of irreparable DNA damages, attributed to inhibition of double-strand break repair, is in a quantitative correlation with the effect of the cytogenetic damage modification

  5. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taiganides, E P; Baumann, E R; Johnson, H P; Hazen, T E

    1963-01-01

    A short history, a list of advantages and limitations, and a short introduction to the principles of the process of anaerobic digestion are given. Six five gallon bottle digesters were daily fed hog manure, maintained at 35/sup 0/C, and constantly agitated. Satisfactory operation was assured at 3.2 g VS/l/day with a detention time of 10 days, yielding 490-643 ml gas/g VS/day with a CH/sub 4/ content of 59% (2.1 x 10/sup 7/ joules/m/sup 3/). A figure and discussion portray the interrelationships of loading rate, solids concentration and detention time. They estimate that a marginal profit might be obtained by the operation of a heated digester handling the wastes of 10,000 hogs.

  6. Digestive system development and study of acid and alkaline protease digestive capacities using biochemical and molecular approaches in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, Mario A; López, Lus M; García Gasca, Alejandra; Álvarez González, Carlos Alfonso; True, Conal D; Gisbert, Enric

    2015-10-01

    The present study aimed to describe and understand the development of the digestive system in totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) larvae from hatching to 40 days post-hatch (dph) from morphological and functional perspectives. At hatch, the digestive system of totoaba was undifferentiated. The anus and the mouth opened at 4 and 5 dph, respectively. During exogenous feeding, development of the esophagus, pancreas, liver and intestine was observed with a complete differentiation of all digestive organs. Expression and activity of trypsin and chymotrypsin were observed as early as at 1 dph, and increments in their expression and activity coincided with changes in food items (live and compound diets) and morpho-physiological development of the accessory digestive glands. In contrast, pepsin was detected later during development, which includes the appearance of the gastric glands between 24 and 28 dph. One peak in gene expression was detected at 16 dph, few days before the initial development of the stomach at 20 dph. A second peak of pepsin expression was detected at day 35, followed by a peak of activity at day 40, coinciding with the change from live to artificial food. Totoaba larvae showed a fully morphologically developed digestive system between 24 and 28 dph, as demonstrated by histological observations. However, gene expression and activity of alkaline and acid proteases were detected earlier, indicating the functionality of the exocrine pancreas and stomach before the complete morphological development of the digestive organs. These results showed that integrative studies are needed to fully understand the development of the digestive system from a morphological and functional point of views, since the histological organization of digestive structures does not reflect their real functionality. These results indicate that the digestive system of totoaba develops rapidly during the first days post-hatch, especially for alkaline proteases, and the stomach

  7. Fuel gas production by anaerobic digestion of kelp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troiano, R.A. (Dynatech R/D Co., Cambridge, MA); Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D.C.; Kispert, R.G.; Cooney, C.L.

    1976-12-01

    The purpose of the experimental program was to explore the feasibility of the anaerobic digestion of kelp to produce methane. Experiments were carried out with freshly harvested U.S. East Coast kelp, Laminaria saccharina. The use for fuel conversion of the rapidly growing U.S. West Coast kelp, the so-called ''giant kelp,'' Macrocystis pyrifera, has been elsewhere. L. saccharina is similar to M. pyrifera in physical structure as well as chemical composition. Both are brown algae (phaeophyta) of the order Laminariales (kelp). Their principal products of photosynthesis are the sugar alcohol, mannitol, and the polysaccharide, laminarin. The cell walls are composed mostly of algin with some cellulose and fucoidin (a phycocolloid-like algin) and the brown color is due to fucoxanthin pigment. It was anticipated that all these constituents of kelp would be subject to anaerobic digestion. The digester operation, alkali pretreatment of kelp, and a comparison of kelp digestion with other substrates are discussed.

  8. The repeatability of individual nutrient digestibility in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Verschuren, L.M.G.; Pijlman, J.; Bergsma, R.; Schokker, D.; Knol, E.F.; Aar, van der P.J.; Molist, F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2018-01-01

    Digestibility of nutrients in pig diets is an important component of overall feed efficiency. Targeted improvement of digestibility is currently mainly achieved by optimization of pig diets, based on information generated from digestibility trials that aim to establish fecal digestibility

  9. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview of Lactose Intolerance Additional Content Medical News Effects of Aging on the Digestive System By Atenodoro ... and Biliary Tract Large Intestine Rectum and Anus Effects of Aging on the Digestive System (See also ...

  10. Lewy Body Digest eNewsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources Join the fight against LBD! Donate Lewy Digest Click here to subscribe today to receive regular ... research in Lewy body dementia. April 2018 Lewy Digest Month of Compassion Caregiver Spotlight Research Centers of ...

  11. Determination of gold and silver in geological samples by focused infrared digestion: A re-investigation of aqua regia digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Baker, Laura A; Brindle, Ian D

    2016-02-01

    Focused infrared radiation-based digestions, for the determination of gold and silver, can be achieved in a timeframe as short as 10-15 min, making it an attractive candidate technology for the mining industry, where very large numbers of samples are analyzed on a daily basis. An investigation was carried out into gold and silver dissolution chemistry from geological samples using this novel digestion technique. This study investigated in-depth the issue of low recoveries of gold from aqua regia (AR) digestions, reported by a number of researchers. Conventional AR digestions consistently delivered gold recoveries in a range of 69-80% of the certified values for the four certified reference materials (CRM) employed (CCU-1d, SN26, OREAS 62c, and AMiS 0274), while silver recoveries were satisfactory. By gradually shifting the HCl:HNO3 ratio (v/v) from 3:1 to a reversed 1:3 ratio, recoveries of gold and silver exhibited inverse trends. At a HCl:HNO3 ratio of 1:3, complete recovery of gold was achieved with excellent reproducibility in all CRMs. Meanwhile, silver recoveries plunged significantly at this ratio in samples with higher silver concentrations. Silver values were recovered, however, when the silver was re-solubilized by adding a small volume of concentrated HCl to the cooled reverse aqua regia digests. Recoveries of base metals, such as Fe and Cu, were satisfactory throughout and were much less sensitive to changes in the digestion medium. Using four CRMs and five real-world gold/silver containing samples, the utility of the proposed reverse aqua regia was systematically studied. The uncomplicated nature of the digestion methods reported here, that are fast, effective and inexpensive, may be useful to analysts developing/optimizing their methods for the rapid determination of Au and Ag in a variety of mineral phases, particularly where rapid results are desirable, such as in prospecting and mine development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on improving anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure and corn straw by fruit and vegetable waste: Methane production and microbial community in CSTR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Li, Zifu; Bai, Xue; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Cheng, Sikun; Gao, Ruiling; Sun, Jiachen

    2018-02-01

    Based on continuous anaerobic co-digestion of cow manure with available carbon slowly released corn straw, the effect of adding available carbon quickly released fruit and vegetable waste (FVW) was explored, meanwhile microbial community variation was studied in this study. When the FVW added was 5% and 1%, the methane production of the cow manure and corn straw was improved, and the start-up process was shortened. With higher proportion of FVW to 5%, the performance was superior with a mean methane yield increase of 22.4%, and a greater variation of bacterial communities was observed. FVW enhanced the variation of the bacterial communities. The microbial community structure changed during fermentation and showed a trend toward a diverse and balance system. Therefore, the available carbon quickly released FVW was helpful to improve the anaerobic co-digestion of the cow manure and available carbon slowly released corn straw. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing low cost anaerobic digestion (AD) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the potential for low technology and low cost digesters for small dairies, BARC and researchers from the University of Maryland installed six modified Taiwanese-model field-scale (FS) digesters near the original dairy manure digester. The FS units receive the same post-separated liquid ...

  14. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  15. Anaerobic Co-digestion for Enhanced Renewable Energy and Green House Gas Emission Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navaratnam, Navaneethan; Zitomer, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    system. These increases were great than anticipated based on theoretical methane production from the additional chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the co-digestates. Co-digestion of the most promising wastes with primary sludge was estimated to generate enough electricity to power more than 2500 houses. Synergistic outcomes of co-digestion may be caused by chances in microbial community resulting in more rapid methane production rate and higher specific methanogenic activities of the biomass against acetate, propionate and H2 as substrates. The presence of Methanospirillum hungatei correlated to higher SMAs in the Co-Digester 1 system. In subsequent full-scale testing, acid whey in addition to primary sludge increased methane production by 16 %, biogas methane content by 5%, methane yield per VS destroyed by 9% ( from 650 to 710 L CH4 / kg VSdestroyed ) and volatile solids removal by 20%. Co-digestion is a promising technology to increase renewable energy production and convert municipal digesters into regional renewable energy facilities.

  16. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, van J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, B.K.; Macarie, H.; Moletta, R.; Dohanyos, M.; Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern

  17. Tropical Rainforest Education. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillero, Peter

    This digest provides four guideposts for tropical rainforest education: (1) structure; (2) location and climate; (3) importance; and (4) conservation of resources. Research is cited and background information provided about the layers of life and the adaptations of life within the tropical rain forest. Aspects of life within and near rain forests…

  18. Anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes

  19. Sludge Digestion Manual; Handboek Slibgisting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-09-15

    This manual offers a guideline for developing, designing, optimizing and operating sludge digestion installations based on sewage sludge. It also offers tools for solving operation problems [Dutch] Het Handboek is een leidraad voor het ontwikkelen, ontwerpen, optimaliseren en bedrijven van slibgistingsinstallaties voor zuiveringsslib. Ook geeft het handvatten voor het oplossen van operationele problemen.

  20. Management of the slowly emerging zoonosis, Hendra virus, by private veterinarians in Queensland, Australia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Diana H; Kelly, Jenny; Buttner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine; Speare, Rick

    2014-09-17

    Veterinary infection control for the management of Hendra virus (HeV), an emerging zoonosis in Australia, remained suboptimal until 2010 despite 71.4% (5/7) of humans infected with HeV being veterinary personnel or assisting a veterinarian, three of whom died before 2009. The aim of this study was to identify the perceived barriers to veterinary infection control and HeV management in private veterinary practice in Queensland, where the majority of HeV outbreaks have occurred in Australia. Most participants agreed that a number of key factors had contributed to the slow uptake of adequate infection control measures for the management of HeV amongst private veterinarians: a work culture characterised by suboptimal infection control standards and misconceptions about zoonotic risks; a lack of leadership and support from government authorities; the difficulties of managing biosecurity and public health issues from a private workforce perspective; and the slow pattern of emergence of HeV. By 2010, some infection control and HeV management changes had been implemented. Participants interviewed agreed that further improvements remained necessary; but also cautioned that this was a complex process which would require time. Private veterinarians and government authorities prior to 2009 were unprepared to handle new slowly emerging zoonoses, which may explain their mismanagement of HeV. Slowly emerging zoonoses may be of low public health significance but of high significance for specialised groups such as veterinarians. Private veterinarians, who are expected to fulfil an active biosecurity and public health role in the frontline management of such emerging zoonoses, need government agencies to better recognise their contribution, to consult with the veterinary profession when devising guidelines for the management of zoonoses and to provide them with greater leadership and support. We propose that specific infection control guidelines for the management of slowly emerging

  1. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, P.W.S.; Zhou, H. [Univ. of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: hzhou@uoguelph.ca; Hacker, R. [Univ. of Guelph, Dept. of Animal and Poultry Science, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  2. Inhibitory effects on anaerobic digestion of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, P.W.S.; Zhou, H.; Hacker, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a laboratory study using anaerobic digestion for swine manure under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, with emphasis on the effects of inhibitory chemicals on biogas production. A series of batch tests were conducted to examine the effects of various process parameters by varying temperature, pH, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. As well, continuous anaerobic digestion tests were conducted using a completely stirred reactor system with a sludge retention time of 15 days. The results showed that at the initial stage, biogas was generated rapidly in the thermophilic reactor, but was more and more inhibited during the later stage with the presence of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. In contrast, the biogas production was initially delayed in the mesophilic reactor but afterwards had an even higher total gas production. In order to take advantages of both temperature effects in each reactor, the dual-stage system that consists of a thermophilic reactor followed by a mesophilic reactor was suggested. (author)

  3. Interfacial dynamics driven by Marangoni stresses on a slowly moving liquid film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewakandamby, Buddhika Naleen

    2002-01-01

    rapid film thinning forming extremely thin films within a short period of time. Though detailed transport mechanisms differ, both methods are in close agreement in predicting the spreading rates. (author)

  4. Silver Sulfidation in Thermophilic Anaerobic Digesters and Effects on Antibiotic Resistance Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bojeong; Miller, Jennifer H.; Monsegue, Niven; Levard, Clément; Hong, Yanjuan; Hull, Matthew S.; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Brown, Gordon E.; Vikesland, Peter J.; Knocke, William R.; Pruden, Amy; Hochella, Michael F.

    2015-12-15

    Physical and chemical transformations and biological responses of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in wastewater treatment systems are of particular interest because of the extensive existing and continually growing uses of AgNPs in consumer products. In this study, we investigated the transformation of AgNPs and AgNO3 during thermophilic anaerobic digestion and effects on selection or transfer of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Ag2S-NPs, sulfidation products of both AgNPs and AgNO3, were recovered from raw and digested sludges and were analyzed by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). TEM and XAS revealed rapid (≤20 min) Ag sulfidation for both Ag treatments. Once transformed, Ag2S-NPs (as individual NPs or an NP aggregate) persisted for the duration of the batch digestion. The digestion process produced Ag2S-NPs that were strongly associated with sludge organics and/or other inorganic precipitates. Ag treatments (up to 1,000 mg Ag/kg) did not have an impact on the performance of thermophilic anaerobic digesters or ARG response, as indicated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements of sul1, tet(W), and tet(O) and also intI1, an indicator of horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Thus, rapid Ag sulfidation and stabilization with organics effectively sequester Ag and prevent biological interactions with the digester microbial community that could induce horizontal gene transfer or adversely impact digester performance through antimicrobial activity. This finding suggests that sulfide-rich anaerobic environments, such as digesters, likely have a high buffer capacity to mitigate the biological effects of AgNPs.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tampio, Elina, E-mail: elina.tampio@mtt.fi [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles [University of Southampton, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Rintala, Jukka [Bioenergy and Environment, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, FI-31600 Jokioinen (Finland)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H{sub 2}S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m{sup 3}day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH{sub 4} yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m{sup 3}day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH{sub 4} yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m{sup 3}day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 3 kg VS/m{sup 3} d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS at 4 kg VS/m{sup 3} d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved and untreated food waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tampio, Elina; Ervasti, Satu; Paavola, Teija; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles; Rintala, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Autoclaving decreased the formation of NH4-N and H 2 S during food waste digestion. • Stable digestion was achieved with untreated and autoclaved FW at OLR 6 kg VS/m 3 day. • Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. • Highest CH 4 yields were observed at OLR 3 kg VS/m 3 day with untreated FW. • Autoclaved FW produced highest CH 4 yields during OLR 4 kgVS/m 3 day. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of autoclaved (160 °C, 6.2 bar) and untreated source segregated food waste (FW) was compared over 473 days in semi-continuously fed mesophilic reactors with trace elements supplementation, at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2, 3, 4 and 6 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d. Methane yields at all OLR were 5–10% higher for untreated FW (maximum 0.483 ± 0.013 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 3 kg VS/m 3 d) than autoclaved FW (maximum 0.439 ± 0.020 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS at 4 kg VS/m 3 d). The residual methane potential of both digestates at all OLRs was less than 0.110 m 3 CH 4 /kg VS, indicating efficient methanation in all cases. Use of acclimated inoculum allowed very rapid increases in OLR. Reactors fed on autoclaved FW showed lower ammonium and hydrogen sulphide concentrations, probably due to reduced protein hydrolysis as a result of formation of Maillard compounds. In the current study this reduced biodegradability appears to outweigh any benefit due to thermal hydrolysis of ligno-cellulosic components

  7. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  9. Interpretation and digestion of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Radiography digestion is final test for the radiography to make sure that radiograph produced will inspect their quality of the image before its interpreted. This level is critical level where if there is a mistake, all of the radiography work done before will be unaccepted. So as mention earlier, it can waste time, cost and more worst it can make the production must shut down. So, this step, level two radiographers or interpreter must evaluate the radiograph carefully. For this purpose, digestion room and densitometer must used. Of course all the procedure must follow the specification that mentioned in document. There are several needs must fill before we can say the radiograph is corrected or not like the location of penetrameter, number of penetrameter that showed, the degree of density of film, and usually there is no problem in this step and the radiograph can go to interpretation and evaluation step as will mentioned in next chapter.

  10. Acid digestion of organic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.A.; Bosuego, G.P.

    1980-10-01

    Laboratory studies on the destruction of liquid organic wastes by acid digestion are discussed. A variety of liquid waste types was tested, including those encountered in the nuclear industry as well as some organic liquids representative of non-nuclear industrial wastes. The liquids tested were vacuum pump oil, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), normal paraffin hydrocarbon solvent (NPH), a mixture of 30 vol% TBP in NPH, carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethane, toluene, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), a mixture of hexone and NPH, polychlorobiphenyl (PCB), isopropanol, normal-decane, and two waste organic solutions from Hanford radioactive waste tanks. The tests demonstrated that several types of organic liquids can be destroyed by the acid digestion process. 8 figures, 19 tables

  11. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S; Honry, M P; Christopher, R W

    1985-01-01

    This research was undertaken to study the digestibility of the hemicellulose fractions of an aquatic biomass, a land-based biomass and a biomass-waste blend under various fermentation conditions. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher than those of cellulose and protein under the mesophilic condition. Hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion. In contrast, cellulose conversion was about the same under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic fermentation of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the pressure of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose required the least investment of enzymes and energy. 4 references.

  12. Foaming in manure based digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occurred in the Danish full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically formatted in the main biogas reactor or in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam...... cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices, and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs...... was increased by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. During the 2nd and 4th period the organic loading rate was maintained constant, but instead of glucose, higher concentration of Na-oleate or gelatine was added in the feeding substrate. The results obtained from the above experiment showed...

  13. Effect of the two-stage thermal disintegration and anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge on the COD fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaciuch Anna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research presents the changes in chemical oxygen demand (COD fractions during the two-stage thermal disintegration and anaerobic digestion (AD of sewage sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. Four COD fractions have been separated taking into account the solubility of substrates and their susceptibility to biodegradation: inert soluble organic matter SI, readily biodegradable substrate SS, slowly biodegradable substrates XS and inert particulate organic material XI. The results showed that readily biodegradable substrates SS (46.8% of total COD and slowly biodegradable substrates XS (36.1% of total COD were dominant in the raw sludge effluents. In sewage effluents after two-stage thermal disintegration, the percentage of SS fraction increased to 90% of total COD and percentage of XS fraction decreased to 8% of total COD. After AD, percentage of SS fraction in total COD decreased to 64%, whereas the percentage of other fractions in effluents increased.

  14. Effects of nonstructural carbohydrates and protein sources on intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and ruminal metabolism in vivo and in vitro with high-concentrate beef cattle diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotger, A; Ferret, A; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X

    2006-05-01

    To investigate the effects of synchronizing nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) and protein degradation on intake and rumen microbial fermentation, four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 132.3 +/- 1.61 kg) fed high-concentrate diets were assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments studied in vivo and in vitro with a dual-flow continuous culture system. Two NSC sources (barley and corn) and 2 protein sources [soybean meal (SBM) and sunflower meal (SFM)] differing in their rate and extent of ruminal degradation were combined resulting in a synchronized rapid fermentation diet (barley-SFM), a synchronized slow fermentation diet (corn-SBM), and 2 unsynchronized diets with a rapidly and a slowly fermenting component (barley-SBM, and corn-SFM). In vitro, the fermentation profile was studied at a constant pH of 6.2, and at a variable pH with 12 h at pH 6.4 and 12 h at pH 5.8. Synchronization tended to result in greater true OM digestion (P = 0.072), VFA concentration (P = 0.067), and microbial N flow (P = 0.092) in vitro, but had no effects on in vivo fermentation pattern or on apparent total tract digestibility. The NSC source affected the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in vitro, tending to be greater (P = 0.07) for barley-based diets, and in vivo, the NSC source tended to affect intake. Dry matter and OM intake tended to be greater (P > or = 0.06) for corn- than barley-based diets. Ammonia N concentration was lower in vitro (P = 0.006) and tended to be lower in vivo (P = 0.07) for corn- than barley-based diets. In vitro, pH could be reduced from 6.4 to 5.8 for 12 h/d without any effect on ruminal fermentation or microbial protein synthesis. In summary, ruminal synchronization seemed to have positive effects on in vitro fermentation, but in vivo recycling of endogenous N or intake differences could compensate for these effects.

  15. INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA IN DIGESTIVE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Friche PASSOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND In recent years, especially after the development of sophisticated metagenomic studies, research on the intestinal microbiota has increased, radically transforming our knowledge about the microbiome and its association with health maintenance and disease development in humans. Increasing evidence has shown that a permanent alteration in microbiota composition or function (dysbiosis can alter immune responses, metabolism, intestinal permeability, and digestive motility, thereby promoting a proinflammatory state. Such alterations can mainly impair the host’s immune and metabolic functions, thus favoring the onset of diseases such as diabetes, obesity, digestive, neurological, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. This comprehensive review is a compilation of the available literature on the formation of the complex intestinal ecosystem and its impact on the incidence of diseases such as obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and digestive neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Alterations in the composition and function of the gastrointestinal microbiota (dysbiosis have a direct impact on human health and seem to have an important role in the pathogenesis of several gastrointestinal diseases, whether inflammatory, metabolic, or neoplastic ones.

  16. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  17. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  18. Anaerobic digestion apparatus and process. Procede et installation de digestion anaerobie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Baere, L.

    1989-05-09

    This invention concerns a process for the anaerobic digestion of apparently solid organic matter. The matter is mixed and kneaded with an inoculant to form an apparently solid mass having a water content which varies from around 55 wt % to around 75 wt %. This mass is then introduced into a digestor, where it is digested for a period of around less than 50 days. The biogas produced during the anaerobic digestion stage is recovered, said biogas being a byproduct of the digestion process. The digested mass is extracted, and at least a third, by weight, of that mass is recycled to act as the inoculant. The non-recycled digested mass is removed.

  19. Use of the Spanish Language in the United States: Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiestevan, Stina

    This ERIC digest examines the Spanish-speaking group in the United States, its growth through net immigration and natural increase, and its eventual decline as speakers shift to English. The Hispanic population is growing rapidly, but data suggest that U.S. Hispanics do learn and speak English. Research predicts that by the year 2001 the…

  20. Evaluation of the pepsin digestibility assay for predicting amino acid digestibility of meat and bone meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T M; Parsons, C M; Utterback, P L; Kirstein, D

    2015-05-01

    Sixteen meat and bone meal (MBM) samples were obtained and selected from various company plants to provide a wide range in pepsin nitrogen digestibility values. Pepsin digestibility was determined using either 0.02 or 0.002% pepsin. Amino acid (AA) digestibility of the 16 MBM samples was then determined using a precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay. The 0.02% pepsin digestibility values were numerically higher than the 0.002% pepsin values. The values varied from 77 to 93% for 0.02% pepsin and from 67 to 91% for 0.002% pepsin. The rooster AA digestibility results showed a wide range of values among MBM samples mostly due to the 4 samples having lowest and highest AA digestibility. A precision-fed broiler chick ileal AA digestibility assay confirmed that there were large differences in AA digestibility among the MBM samples having the lowest and highest rooster digestibility values. Correlation analyses between pepsin and AA digestibility values showed that the correlation values (r) were highly significant (P digestibility values were not included in the correlation analyses, the correlation coefficient values (r) were generally very low and not significant (P > 0.05). The results indicated that the pepsin nitrogen digestibility assay is only useful for detecting large differences in AA digestibility among MBM. There also was no advantage for using 0.02 versus 0.002% pepsin. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Microbial and nutritional regulation of high-solids anaerobic mono-digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hui; Li, Yan; Zhao, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xiaodong; Hua, Dongliang; Xu, Haipeng; Jin, Fuqiang

    2018-02-01

    The anaerobic digestion of single fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) can be easily interrupted by rapid acidogenesis and inhibition of methanogen, and the digestion system tends to be particularly unstable at high solid content. In this study, the anaerobic digestion of FVW in batch experiments under mesophilic condition at a high solid concentration of 10% was successfully conducted to overcome the acidogenesis problem through several modifications. Firstly, compared with the conventional anaerobic sludge (CAS), the acclimated anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was found to be a better inoculum due to its higher Archaea abundance. Secondly, waste activated sludge (WAS) was chosen to co-digest with FVW, because WAS had abundant proteins that could generate intermediate ammonium. The ammonium could neutralize the accumulated volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and prevent the pH value of the digestion system from rapidly decreasing. Co-digestion of FVW and WAS with TS ratio of 60:40 gave the highest biogas yield of 562 mL/g-VS and the highest methane yield of 362 mL/g-VS. Key parameters in the digestion process, including VFAs concentration, pH, enzyme activity, and microbial activity, were also examined.

  2. Anaerobic Digestion Alters Copper and Zinc Speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legros, Samuel; Levard, Clément; Marcato-Romain, Claire-Emmanuelle; Guiresse, Maritxu; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-09-19

    Anaerobic digestion is a widely used organic waste treatment process. However, little is known on how it could alter the speciation of contaminants in organic waste. This study was focused on determining the influence of anaerobic digestion on the speciation of copper and zinc, two metals that generally occur at high concentration in organic waste. Copper and zinc speciation was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy in four different raw organic wastes (predigestion) and their digested counterparts (postdigestion, i.e., digestates). The results highlighted an increase in the digestates of the proportion of amorphous or nanostructured copper sulfides as well as amorphous or nanostructured zinc sulfides and zinc phosphate as compared to raw waste. We therefore suggest that the environmental fate of these elements would be different when spreading either digestates or raw waste on cropland.

  3. Application of Methanobrevibacter acididurans in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, D V; Ranade, D R

    2004-01-01

    To operate anaerobic digesters successfully under acidic conditions, hydrogen utilizing methanogens which can grow efficiently at low pH and tolerate high volatile fatty acids (VFA) are desirable. An acid tolerant hydrogenotrophic methanogen viz. Methanobrevibacter acididurans isolated from slurry of an anaerobic digester running on alcohol distillery wastewater has been described earlier by this lab. This organism could grow optimally at pH 6.0. In the experiments reported herein, M. acididurans showed better methanogenesis under acidic conditions with high VFA, particularly acetate, than Methanobacterium bryantii, a common hydrogenotrophic inhabitant of anaerobic digesters. Addition of M. acididurans culture to digesting slurry of acidogenic as well as methanogenic digesters running on distillery wastewater showed increase in methane production and decrease in accumulation of volatile fatty acids. The results proved the feasibility of application of M. acididurans in anaerobic digesters.

  4. Apparent seed digestibility and germination of seeds after passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limited information is available regarding the digestibility or germination of seed after the passage through the digestive system of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), especially of plants associated with the sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-mixed prairie community. Thus, our objectives...

  5. Electron Acceleration in the Field-reversed Configuration (FRC) by Slowly Rotation Odd-parity Magnetic Fields (RMFo)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, A.H.; Cohen, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The trajectories of individual electrons are studied numerically in a 3D, prolate, FRC [field-reversed configuration] equilibrium magnetic geometry with added small-amplitude, slowly rotating, odd-parity magnetic fields (RMFos). RMFos cause electron heating by toroidal acceleration near the O-point line and by field-parallel acceleration away from it, both followed by scattering from magnetic-field inhomogeneities. Electrons accelerated along the O-point line move antiparallel to the FRC's current and attain average toroidal angular speeds near that of the RMFo, independent of the sense of RMFo rotation. A conserved transformed Hamiltonian, dependent on electron energy and RMFo sense, controls electron flux-surface coordinate

  6. A slowly growing mass around a cirrhotic liver: Usefulness of the hepatobility phase in the diagnosis of ectopic liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jung; Kim, Kyung Ah; Im, So Young [St. Vincent' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    An ectopic liver is a rare congenital abnormality that is difficult to detect before surgery due to its small size. A 53-year-old man had liver cirrhosis and received regular surveillance. An ovoid mass on the surface of the gallbladder separated from the liver proper was found on computed tomography (CT). The mass had grown slowly over five years of surveillance. Upon further evaluation, the mass exhibited iso-signal intensity compared to liver on T2-weighted images, precontrast T1-weighted images, and the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical resection was performed, and the mass was diagnosed as an ectopic liver with normal liver parenchyma without cirrhotic changes. This case demonstrates that ectopic liver with normal liver tissue can develop in a patient with liver cirrhosis and can grow in the absence of a tumor. MRI with gadoxetic acid is useful to identify this condition correctly.

  7. Preparation of slowly released male sex hormone drug by radiation polymerization technique and its evaluation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rueizhi; Lei Shaoqiong; Li Ximing

    1992-01-01

    The radiation polymerization technique was used for immobilization testosterone propionate into crosslinked network of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate to prepare slowly released male sex hormone drug which is used for testicular prosthesis. The testicular prosthesis was transplanted into the scrotum of male rabbit whose testes was excised 2 months before the transplantation. Then the level of male sex hormone in serum was measured by radioimmunoassay once a week after transplantation. The results of measurement in a period of 6 months were shown that the testicular prosthesis has a stable release of male sex hormone. The testosterone level in serum of the castrated male rabbits rises markedly and finally stabilizes at the level of 429 ± 36 ng/100 ml after transplantation. Macroscopic examination of biopsies taken from the tissues around the testicular prosthesis showed that tissue compatibility was revealed well

  8. Aerobic co-treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater - are slowly biodegradable organics removed or simply diluted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, R; Ferraz, F M; Vieira, E M; Povinelli, J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the co-treatment of landfill leachate/domestic wastewater in bench-scale activated sludge (AS) reactors to determine whether the slowly biodegradable organic matter (SBOM) was removed rather than diluted. The AS reactors were loaded with mixtures of raw leachate and leachate that was pretreated by air stripping. The tested volumetric ratios were 0%, 0.2%, 2% and 5%. For all of the tested conditions, the reactors performed better when pretreated leachate was used rather than raw leachate, and the best volumetric ratio was 2%. The following removals were obtained: 97% for the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5,20), 79% for total suspended solids, 77% for dissolved organic carbon and 84% for soluble chemical oxygen demand. Most of the pretreated leachate SBOM (65%) was removed rather than diluted or adsorbed into the sludge, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses.

  9. Nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations may be from a very slowly expanding phase of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong; Zhou, E.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we construct an expanding phase with phantom matter, in which the scale factor expands very slowly but the Hubble parameter increases gradually, and assume that this expanding phase could be matched to our late observational cosmology by the proper mechanism. We obtain the nearly scale-invariant spectrum of adiabatic fluctuations in this scenario; different from the simplest inflation and usual ekpyrotic or cyclic scenario, the tilt of the nearly scale-invariant spectrum in this scenario is blue. Although there exists an uncertainty surrounding the way in which the perturbations propagate through the transition in our scenario, which is dependent on the details of possible 'bounce' physics, compared with inflation and the ekpyrotic or cyclic scenario, our work may provide another feasible cosmological scenario generating the nearly scale-invariant perturbation spectrum

  10. Anaerobic Digestion Assessment for Contingency Base Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    heating. The use of anaerobic digestion for high solids organic waste (15 to 50 percent solids; i.e., mixed organic solids, such as food waste, manure ...but the team was not able to identify any for anaerobic digestion . One potentially widespread source is manure from ruminant organisms, such as...plug-flow digesters treating swine manure and used cooking grease. Bioresource Technology 101:4362-4370. ERDC TR-14-3 63 Lansing, S., and A.R

  11. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome†

    OpenAIRE

    Estes, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1) niche availability and habitat space and 2) a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determi...

  12. Physiochemical Characteristics and Molecular Structures for Digestible Carbohydrates of Silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Basim; Prates, Luciana L; Khan, Nazir A; Lei, Yaogeng; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-10-18

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD, Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD, and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) with regard to their carbohydrate (CHO) molecular makeup, CHO chemical fractions, and rumen degradability in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R) and (2) to quantify the strength and pattern of association between the molecular structures and digestibility of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate-related molecular structure spectral data was measured using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (FT/IR). In comparison to BS, corn silage showed a significantly (P carbohydrates were significantly (P carbohydrate content of the silages. In conclusion, the univariate approach with only one-factor consideration (ivNDFD) might not be a satisfactory method for evaluating and ranking BS quality. FT/IR molecular spectroscopy can be used to evaluate silage quality rapidly, particularly the digestible fiber content.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  14. Antioxidant activity and bioactive compound contents before and after in vitro digestion of new tomato hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; Speranza, Giovanna; De Prisco, Rocco; Iodice, Carmine; Crudele, Egle; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2017-12-01

    The antioxidant properties and bioactive compound contents of fresh new tomato hybrids before and after in vitro digestion were investigated. To this aim, the antioxidant activities of lipophilic, hydrophilic and polyphenolic extracts of tomato hybrids were determined by ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DMPD (N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) methods respectively, while the bioactive compound contents were estimated via Folin-Ciocalteu (polyphenols), pH differential (anthocyanins) and high-performance liquid chromatography (lycopene and β-carotene) methods. After the digestion process, a marked loss (ranging from 37 to 77%) of antioxidant capacity linked to the hydrophilic fraction was observed. In contrast, the lipophilic and methanolic fractions showed an increase in antioxidant activity (ranging from 9 to 40%) after gastric digestion, and a rapid decrease was observed after total digestion. Moreover, the presence of anthocyanins and carotenoids after simulated digestion was a notable result. The bioavailability of bioactive metabolites from nutraceutical food and their healthful properties in humans are strictly dependent on the digestion process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Implications of hydration depletion in the in vitro starch digestibility of white bread crumb and crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Mario M; Román, Laura; Gómez, Manuel

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to provide understanding about the efficacy of decreasing dough hydration to slow down starch digestibility in white bread. Breads were made with 45 (low hydration bread, LHB), 60 (intermediate hydration bread, IHB) and 75% (high hydration bread, HHB) water (flour basis). A hydration depletion down to 45%, which is close to the minimum hydration found in commercially available white bread, did not prevent the starch in the crumb from complete gelatinization. However, LHB and IHB crumbs were more resistant to physical breakdown during in vitro digestion than HHB crumbs, resulting in a 96.81% increase of slowly digestible starch (SDS) from 75 to 45% dough hydration. The degree of gelatinization in crust samples was significantly reduced with a depletion in the dough hydration, ranging from 29.90 to 44.36%, which led to an increase of SDS from 7.41 in HHB to 13.78% in LHB (bread basis). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural properties and digestion of green banana flour as a functional ingredient in pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeqi; Stanley, Roger; Gidley, Michael J; Dhital, Sushil

    2016-02-01

    Gluten free pasta was made from raw banana flour in combination with vegetable gums and protein for comparison to pasta similarly made from wheat flour. After cooking, it was found that the banana flour pasta was less susceptible to alpha-amylase digestion compared to conventional wheat flour pasta. Release of glucose by alpha-amylase digestion followed first order kinetics with an initial rapid rate of digestion and a subsequent second slower phase. The structure of green banana pasta starch at the inner and outer pasta surfaces was observed under confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and the viscosities of the flour mixtures were measured by a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA). The digestibility of banana flour pasta was found to be related, not only to the properties of the starch granules, but also to the protein network of the surrounding food matrix. The effects of gums and proteins on pasta formation and digestibility are discussed in the context of its potential use as a gluten free lower glycaemic alternative to conventional wheat based pastas.

  17. Anaerobic Digestion: Mass Balances and Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Jansen, Jes la Cour

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories. Underst......While the basic processes involved in anaerobic digestion of waste are described in Chapter 9.4 and the main digestion technologies are presented in Chapter 9.5, this chapter focuses on mass balances, gas production and energy aspects, environmental emissions and unit process inventories...

  18. Digestive oncologist in the gastroenterology training curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Chris Jacob Johan; Peeters, Marc; Cats, Annemieke; Dahele, Anna; Droste, Jochim Terhaar sive

    2011-01-01

    Until the late 1980s, gastroenterology (GE) was considered a subspecialty of Internal Medicine. Today, GE also incorporates Hepatology. However, Digestive Oncology training is poorly defined in the Hepatogastroenterology (HGE)-curriculum. Therefore, a Digestive Oncology curriculum should be developed and this document might be a starting point for such a curriculum. HGE-specialists are increasingly resisting the paradigm in which they play only a diagnostic and technical role in the management of digestive tumors. We suggest minimum end-points in the standard HGE-curriculum for oncology, and recommend a focus year in the Netherlands for Digestive Oncology in the HGE-curriculum. To produce well-trained digestive oncologists, an advanced Digestive Oncology training program with specific qualifications in Digestive Oncology (2 years) has been developed. The schedule in Belgium includes a period of at least 6 mo to be spent in a medical oncology department. The goal of these programs remains the production of well-trained digestive oncologists. HGE specialists are part of the multidisciplinary oncological teams, and some have been administering chemotherapy in their countries for years. In this article, we provide a road map for the organization of a proper training in Digestive Oncology. We hope that the World Gastroenterology Organisation and other (inter)national societies will support the necessary certifications for this specific training in the HGE-curriculum. PMID:21556128

  19. In vitro starch digestion correlates well with rate and extent of starch digestion in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weurding, R.E.; Veldman, R.; Veen, W.A.G.; Aar, van der P.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    Current feed evaluation systems for poultry are based on digested components (fat, protein and nitrogen-free extracts). Digestible starch is the most important energy source in broiler chicken feeds and is part of the nitrogen-free extract fraction. Digestible starch may be predicted using an in

  20. Slowly balding black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N B =eΦ ∞ /(πc(ℎ/2π)), where Φ ∞ ≅2π 2 B NS R NS 3 /(P NS c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  1. Permafrost slowly exhales methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Elizabeth M.

    2018-04-01

    Permafrost soils store vast quantities of organic matter that are vulnerable to decomposition under a warming climate. Recent research finds that methane release from thawing permafrost may outpace carbon dioxide as a major contributor to global warming over the next century.

  2. Effect of Acylglycerol Composition and Fatty Acyl Chain Length on Lipid Digestion in pH-Stat Digestion Model and Simulated In Vitro Digestion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jin F; Jia, Cai H; Shin, Jung A; Woo, Jeong M; Wang, Xiang Y; Park, Jong T; Hong, Soon T; Lee, K-T

    2016-02-01

    In this study, a pH-stat digestion model and a simulated in vitro digestion model were employed to evaluate the digestion degree of lipids depending on different acylglycerols and acyl chain length (that is, diacylglycerol [DAG] compared with soybean oil representing long-chain triacylglycerol compared with medium-chain triacylglycerol [MCT]). In the pH-stat digestion model, differences were observed among the digestion degrees of 3 oils using digestion rate (k), digestion half-time (t1/2 ), and digestion extent (Φmax). The results showed the digestion rate order was MCT > soybean oil > DAG. Accordingly, the order of digestion half-times was MCT digestion model, digestion rates (k') and digestion half-times (t'1/2 ) were also obtained and the results showed a digestion rate order of MCT (k' = 0.068 min(-1) ) > soybean oil (k' = 0.037 min(-1) ) > DAG (k' = 0.024 min(-1) ). Consequently, the order of digestion half-times was MCT (t'1/2 = 10.20 min) digested faster than soybean oil, and that soybean oil was digested faster than DAG. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...... requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader...

  4. Immobilization of acid digestion residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.; Allen, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Acid digestion treatment of nuclear waste is similar to incineration processes and results in the bulk of the waste being reduced in volume and weight to some residual solids termed residue. The residue is composed of various dispersible solid materials and typically contains the resultant radioactivity from the waste. This report describes the immobilization of the residue in portland cement, borosilicate glass, and some other waste forms. Diagrams showing the cement and glass virtification parameters are included in the report as well as process steps and candidate waste product forms. Cement immobilization is simplest and probably least expensive; glass vitrification exhibits the best overall volume reduction ratio

  5. The in vitro digestibility of beef varies with its inherent ultimate pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Wu, Guojie; Frost, Deborah A; Clerens, Stefan; Knowles, Scott O

    2014-11-01

    Animal carcasses and cuts of meat are usually differentiated and valued according to size and compositional attributes. An underappreciated variable of red meat is its inherent ultimate pH (pHu) value, which affects organoleptic and processing characteristics. This study tests the hypothesis that high pHu aged meat would be more digestible than low pHu unaged (fresh) meat. Longissimus dorsi muscles collected from 59 bull carcasses had pHu values of 5.6-6.9. These were aged for 21 days at -1.5 °C, then raw and cooked (72 °C) samples were enzymatically digested at 37 °C with pepsin (pH 1.9 for 90 min) followed by pancreatin (pH 8.0 for an additional 120 min) to simulate conditions in the stomach and small intestine, respectively. Meat proteins and peptides in the digests were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. Regardless of pHu, ageing or cooking, most sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin, with concomitant release of products identified by LC-MS/MS as mainly myosin-1, -2 and -7, α-actinin-2 or -3 and tropomyosin beta and alpha chains. These products were resistant to further digestion for the entire 210 min duration of the incubation. In terms of rate and extent of digestibility of these resistant products, high pHu > low pHu (P unaged (P meat samples increased with increasing pHu (P meat was highly digestible but could be further differentiated on the basis of its pHu and the ease of digestibility of proteins. Specific carcasses or cuts could be targeted to consumer groups in order to provide benefits and add value.

  6. Digestive enzyme activities and gastrointestinal fermentation in wood-eating catfishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Donovan P; Bittong, Rosalie A

    2009-11-01

    To determine what capabilities wood-eating and detritivorous catfishes have for the digestion of refractory polysaccharides with the aid of an endosymbiotic microbial community, the pH, redox potentials, concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the activity levels of 14 digestive enzymes were measured along the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of three wood-eating taxa (Panaque cf. nigrolineatus "Marañon", Panaque nocturnus, and Hypostomus pyrineusi) and one detritivorous species (Pterygoplichthys disjunctivus) from the family Loricariidae. Negative redox potentials (-600 mV) were observed in the intestinal fluids of the fish, suggesting that fermentative digestion was possible. However, SCFA concentrations were low (<3 mM in any intestinal region), indicating that little GI fermentation occurs in the fishes' GI tracts. Cellulase and xylanase activities were low (<0.03 U g(-1)), and generally decreased distally in the intestine, whereas amylolytic and laminarinase activities were five and two orders of magnitude greater, respectively, than cellulase and xylanase activities, suggesting that the fish more readily digest soluble polysaccharides. Furthermore, the Michaelis-Menten constants (K(m)) of the fishes' beta-glucosidase and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase enzymes were significantly lower than the K(m) values of microbial enzymes ingested with their food, further suggesting that the fish efficiently digest soluble components of their detrital diet rather than refractory polysaccharides. Coupled with rapid gut transit and poor cellulose digestibility, the wood-eating catfishes appear to be detritivores reliant on endogenous digestive mechanisms, as are other loricariid catfishes. This stands in contrast to truly "xylivorous" taxa (e.g., beavers, termites), which are reliant on an endosymbiotic community of microorganisms to digest refractory polysaccharides.

  7. Chemically modified, immobilized trypsin reactor with improved digestion efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, J.R.; Mulder, P.P.; Werkman, W.; Rieux, L.; Niederlander, H.A G; Verpoorte, Sabeth; Bischoff, Rainer

    2005-01-01

    Tryptic digestion followed by identification using mass spectrometry is an important step in many proteomic studies. Here, we describe the preparation of immobilized, acetylated trypsin for enhanced digestion efficacy in integrated protein analysis platforms. Complete digestion of cytochrome c was

  8. Digesters in traditional Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudpour, Zeinab; Shirafkan, Hoda; Mojahedi, Morteza; Gorji, Narjes; Mozaffarpur, Seyyed Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background: Functional gastrointestinal diseases are common in general populations and comprise more than 40% visits to gastroenterologists. Treatment options of gastrointestinal diseases have been limited. There are a few medications for functional gastrointestinal diseases and some of medications are not available in the market or in the place where the patient lives. Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a branch of alternative and traditional medicine based on individual viewpoint and humoral theory, focuses on lifestyle modification and uses natural products to manage the patients. Methods: In this study, a set of compound drugs known as digesters (jawarishes) and other applications are described based on main TPM text books. Results: Jawarishes have different formulations containing various medicinal herbs used for better food digestion and improved gastric functions and also used for other disorders including reinforcing the brain, heart, liver and some therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: By reviewing medieval Persian pharmaceutical manuscripts, we can conclude that many herbs are effective in different systems of the body and improve gastric functions. Zingiber officinalis and Piper nigrum are mixed together to get various formulations. The variety of jawarishes formulations and their different clinical applications can indicate continuity of their use. PMID:29387312

  9. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus...

  10. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    factors investigated. Generally, results in respect of crops treated with digested manure, were quite ... conclusion, digested poultry manure enhanced the growth characteristics of the treated plants for the ... values of animal waste production range from 144 million ..... Ph.D thesis, Department of Crop, Soil and Pest Manage.,.

  11. Digestive strategies in two sympatrically occurring lagomorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijper, DPJ; van Wieren, S.E.; Bakker, JP

    2004-01-01

    Separation of low digestible fibres and fermentation of the digestible part of the food in the caecum is an adaptation of some small herbivores to cope with low-quality forage. The caecum content is later re-ingested as soft faeces so that the herbivore can benefit from this protein-rich material.

  12. Video Games: Research, Ratings, Recommendations. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This Digest reviews research on the demographics and effects of video game playing, discusses game rating systems, and offers recommendations for parents. The Digest begins by discussing research on the time children spend playing electronic games, which shows that younger children's game playing at home (90% of fourth-graders played at least one…

  13. Motivating Low Performing Adolescent Readers. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Norma Decker

    This Digest focuses on motivating the low performing adolescent in a remedial reading or subject area classroom--the idea is that students who are disengaged from their own learning processes are not likely to perform well in school. The Digest points out that such adolescents are often caught in a cycle of failure and that secondary teachers must…

  14. Discourses of Disability in the "Digest."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Presents an account of the discourse of disability in the "Reader's Digest" during its first 30 years (1922-1952). Concludes that the construction of disability in the "Digest" raises important questions that should enter the field of disability studies. (PM)

  15. La Disciplina Positiva (Positive Discipline). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. The digest explains 12 methods of disciplining children that promote children's self-worth. These methods are: (1) showing children that the reasons for their actions are understood; (2) stating reasons; (3)…

  16. Online Resources for Teaching Shakespeare. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicheva, Mila

    To assist educators in effectively teaching the works of such a critical author as William Shakespeare, this Digest identifies and describes some of the most significant and useful online resources. The digest notes that the sites were chosen on the basis of their technical excellence, purpose, content, authorship, and general usefulness for…

  17. Mesophilic and psychrophilic digestion of liquid manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.

    1991-01-01

    IN GENERAL

    In this thesis the possibilities for digestion of cow and pig manure are described for a completely stirred tank reactor system (CSTR) and an accumulation system (AC-system).
    For this purpose were researched:
    1. Anaerobic digestion

  18. Simulating Dinosaur Digestion in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peczkis, Jan

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for use with a chapter on dinosaurs, prehistoric life, or digestion in which children make simulated dinosaur stomachs to gain hands-on experience about the theory of gastroliths, or stomach stones. Presents teacher information about the digestive processes in birds and dinosaurs. Discusses materials needed, objectives,…

  19. Actinidin enhances protein digestion in the small intestine as assessed using an in vitro digestion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Moughan, Paul J; Drummond, Lynley; Boland, Mike J

    2010-04-28

    This paper describes an in vitro study that tests the proposition that actinidin from green kiwifruit influences the digestion of proteins in the small intestine. Different food proteins, from sources including soy, meat, milk, and cereals, were incubated in the presence or absence of green kiwifruit extract (containing actinidin) using a two-stage in vitro digestion system consisting of an incubation with pepsin at stomach pH (simulating gastric digestion) and then with added pancreatin at small intestinal pH, simulating upper tract digestion in humans. The digests from the small intestinal stage (following the gastric digestion phase) were subjected to gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to assess loss of intact protein and development of large peptides during the in vitro simulated digestion. Kiwifruit extract influenced the digestion patterns of all of the proteins to various extents. For some proteins, actinidin had little impact on digestion. However, for other proteins, the presence of kiwifruit extract resulted in a substantially greater loss of intact protein and different peptide patterns from those seen after digestion with pepsin and pancreatin alone. In particular, enhanced digestion of whey protein isolate, zein, gluten, and gliadin was observed. In addition, reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) analysis showed that a 2.5 h incubation of sodium caseinate with kiwifruit extract alone resulted in approximately 45% loss of intact protein.

  20. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  1. The role of social toxicity in responses to a slowly-evolving environmental disaster: the case of amphibole asbestos exposure in Libby, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Chung, Jae Eun; Hernandez, Tanis

    2014-09-01

    Experiencing a disaster has significant negative effects on psychological adjustment. Case study accounts point to two consistent trends in slowly-evolving environmental disasters: (a) patterns of negative social dynamics, and (b) relatively worse psychological outcomes than in natural disasters. Researchers have begun to explicitly postulate that the social consequences of slowly-evolving environmental disasters (e.g., community conflict) have their own effects on victims' psychological outcomes. This study tested a model of the relationship between those social consequences and psychological adjustment of victims of a slowly-evolving environmental disaster, specifically those whose health has been compromised by the amphibole asbestos disaster in Libby, MT. Results indicate that experiencing greater community conflict about the disaster was associated with greater family conflict about the disaster which, in turn, was associated with greater social constraints on talking with others about their disease, both directly and indirectly through experiencing stigmatization. Experiencing greater social constraints was associated with worse psychological adjustment, both directly and indirectly through failed social support. Findings have implications for understanding pathways by which social responses create negative effects on mental health in slowly-evolving environmental disasters. These pathways suggest points for prevention and response (e.g., social support, stigmatization of victims) for communities experiencing slowly-evolving environmental disasters.

  2. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  3. A new in vitro lipid digestion - in vivo absorption model to evaluate the mechanisms of drug absorption from lipid-based formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Matthew F; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Williams, Hywel D; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2016-04-01

    In vitro lipid digestion models are commonly used to screen lipid-based formulations (LBF), but in vitro-in vivo correlations are in some cases unsuccessful. Here we enhance the scope of the lipid digestion test by incorporating an absorption 'sink' into the experimental model. An in vitro model of lipid digestion was coupled directly to a single pass in situ intestinal perfusion experiment in an anaesthetised rat. The model allowed simultaneous real-time analysis of the digestion and absorption of LBFs of fenofibrate and was employed to evaluate the influence of formulation digestion, supersaturation and precipitation on drug absorption. Formulations containing higher quantities of co-solvent and surfactant resulted in higher supersaturation and more rapid drug precipitation in vitro when compared to those containing higher quantities of lipid. In contrast, when the same formulations were examined using the coupled in vitro lipid digestion - in vivo absorption model, drug flux into the mesenteric vein was similar regardless of in vitro formulation performance. For some drugs, simple in vitro lipid digestion models may underestimate the potential for absorption from LBFs. Consistent with recent in vivo studies, drug absorption for rapidly absorbed drugs such as fenofibrate may occur even when drug precipitation is apparent during in vitro digestion.

  4. Evaluating the Solar Slowly Varying Component at C-Band Using Dual- and Single-Polarization Weather Radars in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Six C-band weather radars located in Europe (Finland, Netherlands, and Switzerland have been used to monitor the slowly varying solar emission, which is an oscillation with an amplitude of several decibels and a period of approximately 27 days. It is caused by the fact that the number of active regions that enhance the solar radio emission with respect to the quiet component, as seen from Earth, varies because of the Sun’s rotation about its axis. The analysis is based on solar signals contained in the polar volume data produced during the operational weather scan strategy. This paper presents hundreds of daily comparisons between radar estimates and the Sun’s reference signal, during the current active Sun period (year 2014. The Sun’s reference values are accurately measured by the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO at S-band and converted to C-band using a standard DRAO formula. Vertical and horizontal polarization receivers are able to capture the monthly oscillation of the solar microwave signal: the standard deviation of the log-transformed ratio between radars and the DRAO reference ranges from 0.26 to 0.4 dB. A larger coefficient (and a different value for the quiet Sun component in the standard formula improves the agreement.

  5. Hydrodynamic dispersion in a combined magnetohydrodynamic- electroosmotic-driven flow through a microchannel with slowly varying wall zeta potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; Arcos, J.; Bautista, O.; Méndez, F.

    2017-09-01

    The effective dispersion coefficient of a neutral solute in the combined electroosmotic (EO) and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-driven flow of a Newtonian fluid through a parallel flat plate microchannel is studied. The walls of the microchannel are assumed to have modulated and low zeta potentials that vary slowly in the axial direction in a sinusoidal manner. The flow field required to obtain the dispersion coefficient is solved using the lubrication approximation theory. The solution of the electrical potential is based on the Debye-Hückel approximation for a symmetric (Z :Z ) electrolyte solution. The EO and MHD effects, together with the variations in the zeta potentials of the walls, are observed to notably modify the axial distribution of the effective dispersion coefficient. The problem is formulated for two cases of the zeta potential function. Note that the dispersion coefficient primarily depends on the Hartmann number, on the ratio of the half height of the microchannel to the Debye length, and on the assumed variation in the zeta potentials of the walls.

  6. Case of Rapid Progression of Hemiatrophy on the Face: A New Clinical Entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Nomura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of diseases, including lupus profundus, morphea, lipodystrophy, and Parry-Romberg syndrome, may manifest progressive hemifacial atrophy. These diseases usually progress slowly and rapid progression of atrophy is extremely rare. We report a case of elderly-onset rapid progression of hemifacial atrophy only in three weeks. Our case did not meet variable differential diagnoses. We discuss the clinical character of the patient against the past of literature and suppose it may be a new clinical entity.

  7. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  8. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  9. Biogas production as affected by heavy metals in the anaerobic digestion of sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein I. Abdel-Shafy

    2014-12-01

    The sewage sludge samples were separated from the sewage water of the pilot plant at the National Research Centre, TDC site. The effect of heavy metals on the biogas production of the anaerobic digester was studied. The inhibitory effect on the biogas production and toxic level of metals was determined in this study. The general ranking of heavy metal toxicity appears to be Hg > Cd > Cr (III. The present investigation reveals that heavy metals in addition to the anaerobic digester decreased the biogas production as an indication of efficiency of the process. A significant decrease in gas production and volatile organic matter removal was obtained. It was also noted that an accumulation of organic acid intermediates was obtained as a result of methanogenic bacterial inhibition. This accumulation was limited during the pulse feed of metals. This is due to the rapid poisoning of the active bacterial forms in the digester.

  10. Green tea catechins reduced the glycaemic potential of bread: an in vitro digestibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Royston; Gao, Jing; Ananingsih, Victoria K; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-08-01

    Green tea catechins are potent inhibitors of enzymes for carbohydrate digestion. However, the potential of developing low glycaemic index bakery food using green tea extract has not been investigated. Results of this study showed that addition of green tea extract (GTE) at 0.45%, 1%, and 2% concentration levels significantly reduced the glycaemic potential of baked and steamed bread. The average retention levels of catechins in the baked and steamed bread were 75.3-89.5% and 81.4-99.3%, respectively. Bread fortified with 2% GTE showed a significantly lower level of glucose release during the first 90 min of pancreatic digestion as well as a lower content of rapidly digested starch (RDS) content. A significantly negative correlation was found between the catechin retention level and the RDS content of bread. The potential of transforming bread into a low GI food using GTE fortification was proven to be promising. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. HER2 aberrations and heterogeneity in cancers of the digestive system: Implications for pathologists and gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicola; Bosari, Silvano

    2016-09-21

    Management of cancers of the digestive system has progressed rapidly into the molecular era. Despite the significant recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, the number of deaths for these tumors has currently plateaued. Many investigations have assessed the role of HER2 in tumors of the digestive system in both prognostic and therapeutic settings, with heterogeneous results. Novel testing and treatment guidelines are emerging, in particular in gastric and colorectal cancers. However, further advances are needed. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-knowledge of HER2 alterations in the most common tumors of the digestive system and discuss the operational implications of HER2 testing.

  12. Prediction of in vivo neutral detergent fiber digestibility and digestion rate of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber: comparison of models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Seppälä, A; Ahvenjärvi, S; Rinne, M

    2008-10-01

    Eleven 1-pool, seven 2-pool, and three 3-pool models were compared in fitting gas production data and predicting in vivo NDF digestibility and effective first-order digestion rate of potentially digestible NDF (pdNDF). Isolated NDF from 15 grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity was incubated in triplicate in rumen fluid-buffer solution for 72 h to estimate the digestion kinetics from cumulative gas production profiles. In vivo digestibility was estimated by the total fecal collection method in sheep fed at a maintenance level of feeding. The concentration of pdNDF was estimated by a 12-d in situ incubation. The parameter values from gas production profiles and pdNDF were used in a 2-compartment rumen model to predict pdNDF digestibility using 50 h of rumen residence time distributed in a ratio of 0.4:0.6 between the non-escapable and escapable pools. The effective first-order digestion rate was computed both from observed in vivo and model-predicted pdNDF digestibility assuming the passage kinetic model described above. There were marked differences between the models in fitting the gas production data. The fit improved with increasing number of pools, suggesting that silage pdNDF is not a homogenous substrate. Generally, the models predicted in vivo NDF digestibility and digestion rate accurately. However, a good fit of gas production data was not necessarily translated into improved predictions of the in vivo data. The models overestimating the asymptotic gas volumes tended to underestimate the in vivo digestibility. Investigating the time-related residuals during the later phases of fermentation is important when the data are used to estimate the first-order digestion rate of pdNDF. Relatively simple models such as the France model or even a single exponential model with discrete lag period satisfied the minimum criteria for a good model. Further, the comparison of feedstuffs on the basis of parameter values is more unequivocal than in the case

  13. A capillary monolithic trypsin reactor for efficient protein digestion in online and offline coupling to ESI and MALDI mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spross, Jens; Sinz, Andrea

    2010-02-15

    We describe the preparation of a capillary trypsin immobilized monolithic enzyme reactor (IMER) for a rapid and efficient digestion of proteins down to the femtomole level. Trypsin was immobilized on a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide-co-ethylene glycol dimethycrylate) monolith using the glutaraldehyde technique. Digestion efficiencies of the IMER were evaluated using model proteins and protein mixtures as well as chemically cross-linked lysozyme regarding the addition of denaturants and increasing digestion temperature. The trypsin IMER described herein is applicable for the digestion of protein mixtures. Even at a 1000-fold molar excess of one protein, low-abundance proteins are readily identified, in combination with MS/MS analysis. An online setup of the IMER with reversed phase nano-HPLC separation and nano-ESI-MS/MS analysis was established. The great potential of the trypsin IMER for proteomics applications comprise short digestion times in the range of seconds to minutes, in addition to improved digestion efficiencies, compared to in-solution digestion.

  14. Digestive Physiology of Octopus maya and O. mimus: Temporality of Digestion and Assimilation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Pedro; Olivares, Alberto; Martínez-Yáñez, Rosario; Caamal-Monsreal, Claudia; Domingues, Pedro M.; Mascaró, Maite; Sánchez, Ariadna; Pascual, Cristina; Rosas, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Digestive physiology is one of the bottlenecks of octopus aquaculture. Although, there are successful experimentally formulated feeds, knowledge of the digestive physiology of cephalopods is fragmented, and focused mainly on Octopus vulgaris. Considering that the digestive physiology could vary in tropical and sub-tropical species through temperature modulations of the digestive dynamics and nutritional requirements of different organisms, the present review was focused on the digestive physiology timing of Octopus maya and Octopus mimus, two promising aquaculture species living in tropical (22–30°C) and sub-tropical (15–24°C) ecosystems, respectively. We provide a detailed description of how soluble and complex nutrients are digested, absorbed, and assimilated in these species, describing the digestive process and providing insight into how the environment can modulate the digestion and final use of nutrients for these and presumably other octopus species. To date, research on these octopus species has demonstrated that soluble protein and other nutrients flow through the digestive tract to the digestive gland in a similar manner in both species. However, differences in the use of nutrients were noted: in O. mimus, lipids were mobilized faster than protein, while in O. maya, the inverse process was observed, suggesting that lipid mobilization in species that live in relatively colder environments occurs differently to those in tropical ecosystems. Those differences are related to the particular adaptations of animals to their habitat, and indicate that this knowledge is important when formulating feed for octopus species. PMID:28620313

  15. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesna Prassanti

    2012-01-01

    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO 4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO 4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  16. [Digestive utilization of purified cellulose in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergot, F

    1981-01-01

    A semi-purified diet containing 22 p. 100 of a wood cellulose extract without lignin but still containing 22 p. 100 of hemicelluloses was distributed for one month to rainbow trout and common carp reared at 17 and 20 degrees C, respectively. The digestibility of the main dietary constituents was determined by an indirect method using chrome oxide as an inert tracer. The feces were recovered by a continuous automatic collector which rapidly removed them from the water, minimizing alteration by leaching. The cellulose content was estimated by the Weende (crude fiber) and the Van Soest (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber) methods. The digestibility coefficients obtained for trout as well as for carp indicate that cellulose and hemicelluloses were not digested. In both species, volatile fatty acid concentration in the different segments of the digestive tract was low (less than 10 mM/l). These results lead us to suggest that trout and carp cannot degrade purified cellulose.

  17. Partial digestion with restriction enzymes of ultraviolet-irradiated human genomic DNA: a method for identifying restriction site polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, C.; Romeo, G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for partial digestion of total human DNA with restriction enzymes has been developed on the basis of a principle already utilized by P.A. Whittaker and E. Southern for the analysis of phage lambda recombinants. Total human DNA irradiated with uv light of 254 nm is partially digested by restriction enzymes that recognize sequences containing adjacent thymidines because of TT dimer formation. The products resulting from partial digestion of specific genomic regions are detected in Southern blots by genomic-unique DNA probes with high reproducibility. This procedure is rapid and simple to perform because the same conditions of uv irradiation are used for different enzymes and probes. It is shown that restriction site polymorphisms occurring in the genomic regions analyzed are recognized by the allelic partial digest patterns they determine

  18. Rapid micro-scale proteolysis of proteins for MALDI-MS peptide mapping using immobilized trypsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobom, Johan; Nordhoff, Eckhard; Ekman, Rolf; Roepstorff, Peter

    1997-12-01

    In this study we present a rapid method for tryptic digestion of proteins using micro-columns with enzyme immobilized on perfusion chromatography media. The performance of the method is exemplified with acyl-CoA-binding protein and reduced carbamidomethylated bovine serum albumin. The method proved to be significantly faster and yielded a better sequence coverage and an improved signal-to-noise ratio for the MALDI-MS peptide maps, compared to in-solution- and on-target digestion. Only a single sample transfer step is required, and therefore sample loss due to adsorption to surfaces is reduced, which is a critical issue when handling low picomole to femtomole amounts of proteins. An example is shown with on-column proteolytic digestion and subsequent elution of the digest into a reversed-phase micro-column. This is useful if the sample contains large amounts of salt or is too diluted for MALDI-MS analysis. Furthermore, by step-wise elution from the reversedphase column, a complex digest can be fractionated, which reduces signal suppression and facilitates data interpretation in the subsequent MS-analysis. The method also proved useful for consecutive digestions with enzymes of different cleavage specificity. This is exemplified with on-column tryptic digestion, followed by reversed-phase step-wise elution, and subsequent on-target V8 protease digestion.

  19. In vivo digestion of bovine milk fat globules: effect of processing and interfacial structural changes. II. Upper digestive tract digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallier, Sophie; Zhu, Xiang Q; Rutherfurd, Shane M; Ye, Aiqian; Moughan, Paul J; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of milk processing on the in vivo upper digestive tract digestion of milk fat globules. Fasted rats were serially gavaged over a 5h period with cream from raw, pasteurised, or pasteurised and homogenised milk. Only a few intact dietary proteins and peptides were present in the small intestinal digesta. Significantly (Praw (448 mg g(-1) digesta dry matter (DDM)) and homogenised creams (528 mg g(-1) DDM), as compared to pasteurised and homogenised cream (249 mg g(-1) DDM). Microscopy techniques were used to investigate the structural changes during digestion. Liquid-crystalline lamellar phases surrounding the fat globules, fatty acid soap crystals and lipid-mucin interactions were evident in all small intestinal digesta. Overall, the pasteurised and homogenised cream appeared to be digested to a greater extent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of continuous addition of nitrate to a thermophilic anaerobic digestion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The biodegradation of complex organic matter is regulated partially by the ability to dump electrons which build up in the form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The effects of the continuous addition of the oxidant, nitrate, were investigated on a single-stage, thermophilic, anaerobic digester. The digester acclimated rapidly to nitrate addition. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in a constant inhibition of total gas (30%) and methane production (36%). Reduction in total gas and methane production was accompanied by increases in sludge pH and acetate, propionate, and ammonium ion pools. Effluent particle size distribution revealed a shift to smaller particle sizes in the nitrate-pumped sludge. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in lower numbers of methanogens and sulfate reducers in the sludge, with increases in nitrate-reducing and cellulose-degrading microorganisms. These findings indicate that added nitrate underwent dissimilatory reduction to ammonium ion, as determined from gas analysis, ammonium pools, and 15 N-nitrate-label experiments. Continuous nitrate addition to a single-phase digestion system was determined to inhibit methane production from biomass and wastes. Thus for the single-stage digestion system in which maximum methane production is desired, the addition of nitrate is not recommended. However, in a multistage digestion system, the continuous addition of nitrate in the primary stage to increase the rate and extent of degradation of organic matter to volatile fatty acids, which then would serve as feed to a second stage, may be advantageous

  1. Nepenthesin protease activity indicates digestive fluid dynamics in carnivorous nepenthes plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Buch

    Full Text Available Carnivorous plants use different morphological features to attract, trap and digest prey, mainly insects. Plants from the genus Nepenthes possess specialized leaves called pitchers that function as pitfall-traps. These pitchers are filled with a digestive fluid that is generated by the plants themselves. In order to digest caught prey in their pitchers, Nepenthes plants produce various hydrolytic enzymes including aspartic proteases, nepenthesins (Nep. Knowledge about the generation and induction of these proteases is limited. Here, by employing a FRET (fluorescent resonance energy transfer-based technique that uses a synthetic fluorescent substrate an easy and rapid detection of protease activities in the digestive fluids of various Nepenthes species was feasible. Biochemical studies and the heterologously expressed Nep II from Nepenthes mirabilis proved that the proteolytic activity relied on aspartic proteases, however an acid-mediated auto-activation mechanism was necessary. Employing the FRET-based approach, the induction and dynamics of nepenthesin in the digestive pitcher fluid of various Nepenthes plants could be studied directly with insect (Drosophila melanogaster prey or plant material. Moreover, we observed that proteolytic activity was induced by the phytohormone jasmonic acid but not by salicylic acid suggesting that jasmonate-dependent signaling pathways are involved in plant carnivory.

  2. Laboratory scale studies on the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cheese whey in different digester configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, K.V.; Liao, P.H.

    1988-02-01

    A two-phase system consisting of two reactors in series was used to study the mesophilic anaerobic digestion of cheese whey. A completely-mixed reactor and an anaerobic rotating biological contact reactor were used in series. The results indicated that ethanol and volatile fatty acids were the major products in the first reactor. Acidogenic pretreatment prior to the methanogenic phase resulted in an increase in methane production in the second reactor over that in one-stage digestion. High treatment efficiency in terms of reduction of chemical oxygen demand was also obtained for the two-phase digestion than that of the one-stage digestion. When comparing the system's performance in terms of methane production rate, the two-phase digestion had no advantage over the one-stage digestion.

  3. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Supplement 2 to Digest No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    This is the second in a series of Supplements to the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest. This Supplement updates the Digest by including pertinent Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board rulings for the period April 1, 1977 to September 30, 1977. The Supplement also adds a number of new topics. The Supplement is structured in the same manner as the Digest. For the convenience of users, the text of the Supplement is preceded by an index which lists the Digest topic headings which are supplemented. In using the main Digest, this index to Supplement 2 as well as the index to Supplement 1 should be consulted to assure that the Digest discussion has not been superseded or updated by information in the Supplements

  4. Composition and Digestibility of Deer Browse in Southern Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry L. Short; Robert M. Blair; E.A. Epps

    1975-01-01

    Twigs were most nutritious and digestible during early growth in spring; they were high in fiber content and low in digestibility during summer, autumn, and winter. Evergreen leaves did not vary substantially in nutrient content and digestibility throughout the year. By contrast, leaves of deciduous species were reduced in quality and digestibility after leaf-fall....

  5. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge digested ...

  6. Processed Meat Protein and Heat-Stable Peptide Marker Identification Using Microwave-Assisted Tryptic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Montowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New approaches to rapid examination of proteins and peptides in complex food matrices are of great interest to the community of food scientists. The aim of the study is to examine the influence of microwave irradiation on the acceleration of enzymatic cleavage and enzymatic digestion of denatured proteins in cooked meat of five species (cattle, horse, pig, chicken and turkey and processed meat products (coarsely minced, smoked, cooked and semi-dried sausages. Severe protein aggregation occurred not only in heated meat under harsh treatment at 190 °C but also in processed meat products. All the protein aggregates were thoroughly hydrolyzed aft er 1 h of trypsin treatment with short exposure times of 40 and 20 s to microwave irradiation at 138 and 303 W. There were much more missed cleavage sites observed in all microwave-assisted digestions. Despite the incompleteness of microwave-assisted digestion, six unique peptide markers were detected, which allowed unambiguous identification of processed meat derived from the examined species. Although the microwave-assisted tryptic digestion can serve as a tool for rapid and high-throughput protein identification, great caution and pre-evaluation of individual samples is recommended in protein quantitation.

  7. Simulation of the anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, C A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The dynamic model of anaerobic fermentation includes an inhibition function to relate volatile acid concentration to a specific growth rate for the methane bacteria and also includes the interactions between the liquid, gaseous, and biology phases of the digester.

  8. Learning Disabilities. ERIC Digest #407. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This digest defines learning disabilities, cites their prevalence, describes typical characteristics of learning-disabled students, outlines educational implications of learning disabilities, and lists several printed and organizational resources for further information. (JDD)

  9. Steam Digest 2001: Office of Industrial Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-01-01

    Steam Digest 2001 chronicles Best Practices Program's contributions to the industrial trade press for 2001, and presents articles that cover technical, financial and managerial aspects of steam optimization.

  10. Solar pond for heating anaerobic digesters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Li Shensheng

    1991-10-01

    A theoretical analysis and numerical results calculated for solar pond heating anaerobic digesters in Beijing area in China are presented. The effect of temperature rise is evident and rather steady. 3 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Non-Coop Station History Forms Digest

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Single 71-page document entitled 'Station history non-COOP Keying Rules & Forms Digest,' dated December 12, 2003. Contractors with NCDC Climate Database...

  12. Small-scale household biogas digesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Sander; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Khanh Vu, Van Thi

    2014-01-01

    There are a number of advantages to small-scale biogas production on farms, including savings on firewood or fossil fuels and reductions in odour and greenhouse gas emissions. For these reasons, governments and development aid agencies have supported the installation of biogas digesters. However......, biogas digesters are often poorly managed and there is a lack of proper distribution systems for biogas. This results in methane being released inadvertently through leaks in digesters and tubing, and intentionally when production exceeds demand. As methane has a global warming potential 25 times greater......% of the produced biogas is released, depending on the type of fuel that has been replaced. The limited information available as regards methane leaking from small-scale biogas digesters in developing countries indicates that emissions may be as high as 40%. With the best estimates of global numbers of small...

  13. Characterization of Digestion Resistance Sweet Potato Starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of sweet potato starchphosphodiester prepared using sodium trimetaphosphate. Methods: The physicochemical properties of sweet potato starch phosphodiester were analyzed by using infrared spectrometry (IR), differential scanning calorimetry ...

  14. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  15. Palliative care - fluid, food, and digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eat food that is soft and smooth, like soup, yogurt, applesauce, or pudding. Drink shakes or smoothies. If you have nausea, try dry, salty foods and clear liquids. Digestion: Write down the times when you ...

  16. On the co-existence of chemically peculiar Bp stars, slowly pulsating B stars and constant B stars in the same part of the HR diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briquet, M.; Hubrig, S.; Cat, P. de; Aerts, C.C.; North, P.; Schöller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. In order to better model massive B-type stars, we need to understand the physical processes taking place in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars, chemically peculiar Bp stars, and non-pulsating normal B stars co-existing in the same part of the H-R diagram. Methods: We carry out a comparative study

  17. Digestive morphophysiology of Gryllodes sigillatus (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagio, Fernanda P; Tamaki, Fabio K; Terra, Walter R; Ribeiro, Alberto F

    2009-12-01

    The evolution of the digestive system in the Order Orthoptera is disclosed from the study of the morphophysiology of the digestive process in its major taxa. This paper deals with a cricket representing the less known suborder Ensifera. Most amylase and trypsin activities occur in crop and caeca, respectively. Maltase and aminopeptidase are found in soluble and membrane-bound forms in caeca, with aminopeptidase also occurring in ventriculus. Amaranth was orally fed to Gryllodes sigillatus adults or injected into their haemolymph. The experiments were performed with starving and feeding insects with identical results. Following feeding of the dye the luminal side of the most anterior ventriculus (and in lesser amounts the midgut caeca) became heavily stained. In injected insects, the haemal side of the most posterior ventriculus was stained. This suggested that the anterior ventriculus is the main site of water absorption (the caeca is a secondary one), whereas the posterior ventriculus secretes water into the gut. Thus, a putative counter-current flux of fluid from posterior to anterior ventriculus may propel digestive enzyme recycling. This was confirmed by the finding that digestive enzymes are excreted at a low rate. The fine structure of midgut caeca and ventriculus cells revealed that they have morphological features that may be related to their involvement in secretion (movement from cell to lumen) and absorption (movement from lumen to cell) of fluids. Furthermore, morphological data showed that both merocrine and apocrine secretory mechanisms occur in midgut cells. The results showed that cricket digestion differs from that in grasshopper in having: (1) more membrane-bound digestive enzymes; (2) protein digestion slightly displaced toward the ventriculus; (3) midgut fluxes, and hence digestive enzyme recycling, in both starved and fed insects.

  18. Economics of biogas digesters in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, B.K.; Hossain, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    We present the economics of biogas digesters in Bangladesh in terms of fuel wood and fertilizer values. The incremental net present benefit was computed from the digester cost, kinetics of biogas production and nutrient contents in the treated slurry. The model was analysed to test the sensitivity to changes in retention time, annual operation period, subsidy, price of fuel wood, construction cost, interest, and inflation rate. (Author)

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide

  20. Open vessel microwave digestion of food matrices (T6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, L.; LeBlanc, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Advancements in the field of open vessel microwave digestion continue to provide solutions for industries requiring acid digestion of large sample sizes. Those interesting in digesting food matrices are particularly interested in working with large amounts of sample and then diluting small final volumes. This paper will show the advantages of instantaneous regent addition and post-digestion evaporation when performing an open vessel digestion and evaporation methods for various food matrices will be presented along with analyte recovery data. (author)

  1. Dietary acrylamide: What happens during digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansano, M; Heredia, A; Peinado, I; Andrés, A

    2017-12-15

    Acrylamide is a well-known potentially carcinogen compound formed during thermal processing as an intermediate of Maillard reactions. Three objectives were addressed: the impact of gastric digestion on acrylamide content of French Fries, chips, chicken nuggets, onions rings, breakfast cereals, biscuits, crackers, instant coffee and coffee substitute; the acrylamide content evolution during gastrointestinal digestion of French fries and chips; and the effectiveness of blanching and air-frying on acrylamide mitigation after gastrointestinal digestion. A significant increase (p-value digestion (maximum registered for sweet biscuits, from 30±8 to 150±48µg/kg). However, at the end of the intestinal stage, acrylamide values were statistically similar (p-value=0.132) for French fries and lower than the initial values (before digestion) in potato chips (p-value=0.027). Finally, the low acrylamide content found in blanched and air-fried samples, remained still lower than for deep fried samples even after gastrointestinal digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  3. Photosonic digestion of aqueous organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toy, M.S.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of the program discussed in this report has been to develop an on-line aqueous organic digestion process that decomposes the organic compounds in water to ionic species, which can then be removed by the plant's demineralizers. At the Susquehanna Steam Electric Plant (SSES) of Pennsylvania Power and Light Company (PP ampersand L), the sonolysis process was tested by application to standard water streams to which ethylene glycol and urea were added. There were a substantial number of ionic species generated from both compounds as determined by ion chromatography. The sonolysis process and another organic destruction method, the General Electric ozone/UV process, were compared for their ability to remove the total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) from streams from the collection tanks of the plant's radwaste system. The sonolysis process efficiency, evaluated after the effluent from sonolysis was passed through a demineralizer, was estimated to be 55 + 17% for TOC removal as compared to a 93% removal by ozone/UV. Sonolysis led to the removal of 93% of the TIC as compared to 100% by the UV/ozone process

  4. Toward constructing a time-series of geomagnetic field variations from thermal remanence in slowly cooled igneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Z.; Gee, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of paleomagnetic data can not only help us to understand the behavior of the ancient magnetic field but may also further our understanding of the current field, as well as of the mechanisms and constraints of the geodynamo and geomagnetic reversals. A question of particular interest is the possible relationship between reversal frequency and geomagnetic field intensity. Some research appears to indicate a correlation between low intensity and high reversal frequency, seeming to support the theory that low field intensity is what makes reversals possible. In order to study this correlation, we obtained several hundred samples from the 182 Ma Dufek Massif, in Antarctica. This intrusion was cooled slowly, at depth, during the high reversal frequency era of the early Jurassic, and most of our samples record multiple polarity intervals. This, combined with their particularly homogeneous magnetic characteristics, makes them ideally suited for recovering a record of geomagnetic field variations. On approximately 300 samples from the lower portion of the intrusion, we performed step-wise thermal demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM), followed by thermal demagnetization of a laboratory thermoremance (TRM), imparted as partial TRMs in three orthogonal directions to assess the reliability of the remanence. These two sets of measurements can tell us about the amount and direction of magnetization acquired at each temperature step and the sample's capacity to acquire a remanence. Corrected for anisotropy, the ratio of the NRM/TRM values at each step multiplied by the value of the lab field can give us an estimate of the paleofield intensity. When convolved with a thermal cooling model for the intrusion, this yields a model of the time-varying ancient field during the intrusion's cooling period. Initial analysis of our data shows average field values of around 20 µT and a minimum of four reversals. The average at this high-latitude site is lower

  5. Enzymatic Digestion of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions Bound to Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAUNDERS, SAMUEL E.; BARTZ, JASON C.; VERCAUTEREN, KURT C.; BARTELT-HUNT, SHANNON L.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) and sheep scrapie can be transmitted via indirect environmental routes, and it is known that soil can serve as a reservoir of prion infectivity. Given the strong interaction between the prion protein (PrP) and soil, we hypothesized that binding to soil enhances prion resistance to enzymatic digestion, thereby facilitating prion longevity in the environment and providing protection from host degradation. We characterized the performance of a commercially available subtilisin enzyme, the Prionzyme, to degrade soil-bound and unbound CWD and HY TME PrP as a function of pH, temperature, and treatment time. The subtilisin enzyme effectively degraded PrP adsorbed to a wide range of soils and soil minerals below the limits of detection. Signal loss occurred rapidly at high pH (12.5) and within 7 d under conditions representative of the natural environment (pH 7.4, 22°C). We observed no apparent difference in enzyme effectiveness between bound and unbound CWD PrP. Our results show that although adsorbed prions do retain relative resistance to enzymatic digestion compared with other brain homogenate proteins, they can be effectively degraded when bound to soil. Our results also suggest a topical application of a subtilisin enzyme solution may be an effective decontamination method to limit disease transmission via environmental ‘hot spots’ of prion infectivity. PMID:20450190

  6. Repeated pulse feeding induces functional stability in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vrieze, Jo; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an environmental key technology in the future bio-based economy. To achieve functional stability, a minimal microbial community diversity is required. This microbial community should also have a certain 'elasticity', i.e. the ability to rapidly adapt to suboptimal conditions or stress. In this study it was evaluated whether a higher degree of functional stability could be achieved by changing the feeding pattern, which can change the evenness, dynamics and richness of the bacterial community. The first reactor (CSTR stable ) was fed on daily basis, whereas the second reactor (CSTR dynamic ) was fed every 2 days. Average biogas production was 0.30 l CH4 l(-1) day(-1) in both reactors, although daily variation was up to four times higher in the CSTR dynamic compared with the CSTR stable during the first 50 days. Bacterial analysis revealed that this CSTR dynamic had a two times higher degree of bacterial community dynamics. The CSTR dynamic also appeared to be more tolerant to an organic shock load of 8 g COD l(-1) and ammonium levels up to 8000 mg TAN l(-1). These results suggest that the regular application of a limited pulse of organic material and/or a variation in the substrate composition might promote higher functional stability in anaerobic digestion. © 2013 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Effect of incorporating finger millet in wheat flour on mixolab behavior, chapatti quality and starch digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bharati; Gujral, Hardeep Singh; Solah, Vicky

    2017-09-15

    Wheat and finger millet flour (two cultivars) were blended in the ratio (3:1) to form a composite flour and its dough properties were studied on the mixolab. The chapatti making and digestibility behavior of the composite flour was also investigated. The wheat finger millet (WFM) flour blend displayed up to 30.7% higher total phenolic content (TPC), 38.2% higher total flavonoid content (TFC) and 75.4% higher antioxidant activity (AOA) than the wheat flour. Chapattis prepared from the composite blends exhibited lower retrogradation as evident by the mixolab retrogradation index, higher values of soluble starch and soluble amylose in stored chapatti. The slowly digestible starch (SDS) correlated positively (R=0.816, p<0.05) with TPC and water absorption correlated positively (R=0.995, p<0.05) with damage starch content. The chapattis made from the composite flour had higher SDS and resistant starch (RS) values demonstrating potential as a food with functional characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Designing dairy desserts for weight management: Structure, physical properties and in vitro gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, Jennifer; Llorca, Empar; Quiles, Amparo; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    The first aim of this study was to observe the effect of adding dairy proteins and reducing the cream content in order to obtain healthier dairy desserts for use in weight management. The extra-whey protein low-cream sample had the densest, firmest matrix, which is related to increased satiety. The second aim was to investigate the in vitro gastric digestion behavior of whey and casein proteins in a heat-treated semisolid real food. The extra-casein protein sample matrix broke down more slowly than the others because the caseins clotted at the gastric pH. Despite being heated, the whey proteins in the panna cottas were more resistant to pepsin digestion than caseins; this is related with a higher satiety capacity. These findings suggest that the combination of reducing fat content (to obtain a reduced energy density product) and adding whey protein (to increase satiety capacity) allows obtaining dairy desserts for weight management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Process performance and modelling of anaerobic digestion using source-sorted organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin

    2018-01-01

    Three distinctive start-up strategies of biogas reactors fed with source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste were investigated to reveal the most reliable procedure for rapid process stabilization. Moreover, the experimental results were compared with mathematical modeling outputs....... The combination of both experimental and modelling/simulation succeeded in optimizing the start-up process for anaerobic digestion of biopulp under mesophilic conditions....

  10. The challenges of anaerobic digestion and the role of biochar in optimizing anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagbohungbe, Michael O; Herbert, Ben M J; Hurst, Lois; Ibeto, Cynthia N; Li, Hong; Usmani, Shams Q; Semple, Kirk T

    2017-03-01

    Biochar, like most other adsorbents, is a carbonaceous material, which is formed from the combustion of plant materials, in low-zero oxygen conditions and results in a material, which has the capacity to sorb chemicals onto its surfaces. Currently, research is being carried out to investigate the relevance of biochar in improving the soil ecosystem, digestate quality and most recently the anaerobic digestion process. Anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic substrates provides both a sustainable source of energy and a digestate with the potential to enhance plant growth and soil health. In order to ensure that these benefits are realised, the anaerobic digestion system must be optimized for process stability and high nutrient retention capacity in the digestate produced. Substrate-induced inhibition is a major issue, which can disrupt the stable functioning of the AD system reducing microbial breakdown of the organic waste and formation of methane, which in turn reduces energy output. Likewise, the spreading of digestate on land can often result in nutrient loss, surface runoff and leaching. This review will examine substrate inhibition and their impact on anaerobic digestion, nutrient leaching and their environmental implications, the properties and functionality of biochar material in counteracting these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Student Teachers' Ways of Thinking and Ways of Understanding Digestion and the Digestive System in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimer, Sabiha Odabasi; Ursavas, Nazihan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the ways in which student teachers understand digestion and the digestive system and, subsequently, their ways of thinking, as reflected in their problem solving approaches and the justification schemes that they used to validate their claims. For this purpose, clinical interviews were conducted with 10…

  12. Digestion proteomics: tracking lactoferrin truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Anita J; Haigh, Brendan J; Dyer, Jolon M

    2014-11-01

    The extent to which nutritional and functional benefit is derived from proteins in food is related to its breakdown and digestion in the body after consumption. Further, detailed information about food protein truncation during digestion is critical to understanding and optimising the availability of bioactives, in controlling and limiting allergen release, and in minimising or monitoring the effects of processing and food preparation. However, tracking the complex array of products formed during the digestion of proteins is not easily accomplished using classical proteomics. We here present and develop a novel proteomic approach using isobaric labelling to mapping and tracking protein truncation and peptide release during simulated gastric digestion, using bovine lactoferrin as a model food protein. The relative abundance of related peptides was tracked throughout a digestion time course, and the effect of pasteurisation on peptide release assessed. The new approach to food digestion proteomics developed here therefore appears to be highly suitable not only for tracking the truncation and relative abundance of released peptides during gastric digestion, but also for determining the effects of protein modification on digestibility and potential bioavailability.

  13. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost tubular digesters at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfí, Marianna; Ferrer-Martí, Laia; Villegas, Vidal; Ferrer, Ivet

    2011-05-01

    Guinea pig is one of the most common livestock in rural communities of the Andes. The aim of this research was to study the anaerobic digestion of guinea pig manure in low-cost unheated tubular digesters at high altitude. To this end, the performance of two pilot digesters was monitored during 7 months; and two greenhouse designs were compared. In the dome roof digester the temperature and biogas production were significantly higher than in the shed roof digester. However, the biogas production rate was low (0.04 m(biogas)(3)m(digester)(-3) d(-1)), which is attributed to the low organic loading rate (0.6 kg(VS)m(digester)(-3)d(-1)) and temperature (23°C) of the system, among other factors. In a preliminary fertilization study, the potato yield per hectare was increased by 100% using the effluent as biofertilizer. Improving manure management techniques, increasing the organic loading rate and co digesting other substrates may be considered to enhance the process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Supplement 3 to Digest No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-04-01

    This is the third of a series of Supplements to the NRC Practice and Procedure Digest. This Supplement updates the Digest by including pertinent Commission, Appeal Board, and Licensing Board rulings for the period October 1, 1977 to December 31, 1977. The Supplement also adds several new topics. The Supplement is structured in the same manner as the Digest. For the convenience of users, the text of the Supplement is preceded by an index which lists the Digest topic headings which are supplemented. In using the main Digest, this index to Supplement 3 as well as those to Supplements 1 and 2 should be consulted to assure that the Digest discussion has not been superseded or updated by information in the Supplements. Supplement 3 is intended for use as a ''pocket part''. It should be inserted after Supplements 1 and 2, following the main Digest. Notice is hereby given that all disclaimers with respect to content, accuracy and completeness of information, express or implied warranties, and use of or reliance upon information presented, set forth in regard to the Digest itself, are equally applicable to this Supplement

  15. Effect of different levels of rapidly degradable carbohydrates calculated by a simple rumen model on performance of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, J; Martín-Tereso, J; Dijkstra, J; van Laar, H

    2017-07-01

    Aggregating rumen degradation characteristics of different carbohydrate components into the term modeled rapidly degradable carbohydrates (mRDC) can simplify diet formulation by accounting for differences in rate and extent of carbohydrate degradation within and between feedstuffs. This study sought to evaluate responses of lactating dairy cows to diets formulated with increasing levels of mRDC, keeping the supply of other nutrients as constant as possible. The mRDC content of feedstuffs was calculated based on a simple rumen model including soluble, washable, and nonwashable but potentially degradable fractions, as well as the fractional degradation and passage rates, of sugar, starch, neutral detergent fiber, and other carbohydrates. The mRDC term effectively represents the total amount of carbohydrates degraded in the rumen within 2 h after ingestion. Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows (of which 4 were rumen fistulated) were assigned to 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were fed as a total mixed ration consisting of 25.4% corn silage, 23.1% grass silage, 11.6% grass hay, and 39.9% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Differences in mRDC were created by exchanging nonforage neutral detergent fiber-rich ingredients (mainly sugar beet pulp) with starch-rich ingredients (mainly wheat) and by exchanging corn (slowly degradable starch) with wheat (rapidly degradable starch) in the concentrate, resulting in 4 treatments that varied in dietary mRDC level of 167, 181, 194, or 208 g/kg of dry matter. Level of mRDC did not affect dry matter intake. Fat- and protein-corrected milk production and milk fat and lactose yield were greatest at 181 mRDC and decreased with further increases in mRDC. Milk protein yield and concentration increased with increasing mRDC level. Mean rumen pH and diurnal variation in ruminal pH did not differ between treatments. Total daily meal time and number of visits per meal were smaller at 181 and 194 mRDC. Despite milk

  16. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Acid digestion of combustible radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.; Crippen, M.D.; Cowan, R.G.

    1982-03-01

    The following conclusions resulted from operation of Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) for processing transuranic waste: (1) the acid digestion process can be safely and efficiently operated for radioactive waste treatment.; (2) in transuranic waste treatment, there was no detectable radionuclide carryover into the exhaust off-gas. The plutonium decontamination factor (DF) between the digester and the second off-gas tower was >1.5 x 10 6 and the overall DF from the digester to the off-gas stack was >1 x 10 8 ; (3) plutonium can be easily leached from undried digestion residue with dilute nitric acid (>99% recovery). Leachability is significantly reduced if the residue is dried (>450 0 stack temp.) prior to leaching; (4) sulfuric acid recovery and recycle in the process is 100%; (5) nitric acid recovery is typically 35% to 40%. Losses are due to the formation of free nitrogen (N 2 ) during digestion, reaction with chlorides in waste (NO 2 stack was > 1.5 x 10 6 andl), and other process losses; (6) noncombustible components comprised approximately 6% by volume of glovebox waste and contained 18% of the plutonium; (7) the acid digestion process can effectively handle a wide variety of waste forms. Some design changes are desirable in the head end to reduce manual labor, particularly if large quantities of specific waste forms will be processed; (8) with the exception of residue removal and drying equipment, all systems performed satisfactorily and only minor design and equipment changes would be recommended to improve performance; and(9) the RADTU program met all of its planned primary objectives and all but one of additional secondary objectives

  18. Radiological imaging of the digestive tract in infants and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devos, A.S.; Blickman, J.G.

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive, up-to-date and extensively illustrated volume offers a multimodality approach to gastrointestinal imaging in children and infants. The role of each of the currently available imaging techniques is considered carefully, and diagnostic dilemmas are discussed and illustrated. After an initial chapter that addresses pediatric gastrointestinal imaging in the emergency setting, detailed individual chapters are devoted to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, accessory organs of digestion, small bowel and colon. A closing chapter focuses on pediatric interventional procedures performed with imaging guidance. Against the background of rapid recent advances in imaging technology and the distinctive aspects of gastrointestinal imaging in children and infants, this volume will serve as an essential reference work for all who are engaged in the field. (orig.)

  19. Phosphate removal from digested sludge supernatant using modified fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Deng, Tong; Liu, Juntan; Peng, Weigong

    2012-05-01

    The removal of phosphate in digested sludge supernatant by modified coal fly ash was investigated in this study. Modification of the fly ash by the addition of sulfuric acid could significantly enhance its immobilization ability. The experimental results also showed that adsorption of phosphate by the modified fly ash was rapid with the removal percentage of phosphate reaching an equilibrium of 98.62% in less than 5 minutes. The optimum pH for phosphate removal was 9 and the removal percentage increased with increasing adsorbent dosage. The effect of temperature on phosphate removal efficiency was not significant from 20 to 40 degrees C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope analyses showed that phosphate formed an amorphous precipitate with water-soluble calcium, aluminum, and iron ions in the modified fly ash.

  20. Influence of Extrusion Cooking on In Vitro Digestibility, Physical and Sensory Properties of Brazilian Pine Seeds Flour (Araucaria Angustifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff Zortéa-Guidolin, Manoela Estefânea; Piler de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei; Bueno de Godoy, Rossana Catie; Mottin Demiate, Ivo; Paula Scheer, Agnes

    2017-04-01

    Brazilian pine seeds (pinhão) are gluten-free products derived from Araucaria angustifolia. The commercialization of these seeds is essentially associated with a low level of industrialization. In this context, extrusion cooking is a potential alternative for preparing extrudates of pinhão as a food product, which can be easily digested and is ready for human consumption. Brazilian pine seeds flour was processed in a single-screw extruder following a central composite rotatable design. Three factors (independent parameters) were considered: moisture content (14 to 22 g/100 g), screw speed (100 to 250 rpm), and temperature in the 3rd heating zone (120 to 200 °C). The structural characteristics, in vitro digestibility and sensory acceptance were also evaluated. The resistant starch contents is almost reduced to zero after extrusion cooking while the slowly digestible starch content is increased. An increase in moisture positively affected the hardness and the luminosity (L * ), although it negatively affected the volumetric expansion index, crispness, and color parameters (a * , b * , and ΔE). The experimental conditions of this study allowed the production of expanded extrudates from Brazilian pine seeds with good expansion, texture properties, and acceptance qualities. Thus, extrusion cooking was found to be a potential method for the industrialization of Brazilian pine seeds as a food product. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  1. Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple reaction monitoring from 100 pg of RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liangliang; Li, Yihan; Champion, Matthew M; Zhu, Guijie; Wojcik, Roza; Dovichi, Norman J

    2013-06-07

    Capillary zone electrophoresis-multiple/single reaction monitoring (CZE-MRM/SRM), which employed an electrokinetically driven sheath-flow electrospray interface, was used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of protein analytes in complex tryptic digests. MRM channels were developed against a commercial exponential mixture of bovine proteins. Five proteins spanning four orders of magnitude concentration range were confidently detected from only 2.5 ng of the digest mixture; the mass detection limits (S/N = 3) of two detected proteins, alpha-casein and glutamate dehydrogenase were about 600 zmol and 30 amol, respectively. This technique was then applied to a RAW 264.7 cell lysate digest. Three proteins were confidently and reproducibly detected from 100 pg of this digest. The sample amount corresponds to the approximate protein content from a single cell, which suggests that CZE-MRM may be a useful analytical tool in chemical cytometry. In addition to providing highly sensitive detection of proteins in complex mixtures, this system is highly rapid; migration time of the protein digests was less than 10 min.

  2. [In vivo digestibility of rice genetically modified with CpTI in WZS mini-pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiong; Liu, Haibo; Zhi, Yuan; Gao, Peng; Yy, Zhou; Liu, Shan; Xu, Haibin

    2011-11-01

    To establish a stable in vivo gastrointestinal model of WZS mini-pig to evaluate the digestibility of rice genetically modified with CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor). METHODS; Three WZS mini-pigs were surgically fitted with O-stomach cannula and T-ileum cannula, and fed with soybean (positive control), CpTI rice and its parental rice meals. The pH value of gastric and intestinal fluid was monitored at different time points. The digested protein products were measured with protein gel electrophoresis at different time points. The pH value of gastric contents was rapidly neutralized by the meal to approximately 6.0, then the pH was reduced by HCl secretion,and it subsequently was increased after 4-6 hours. Compared with rice,the increase or decrease of pH after soybean being fed was later. Soybean protein segments 13kD,17kD, 34kD and 50kD could be highly detected in gastric and intestinal fluid at 5-6h after soybean being introduced. The segment 13kD was digested in intestine. However, no any protein segment was found in the gastric fluid 0.25h after rice being fed. There was no any difference in digestibility between the rice genetically modified with CpTI and its parental rice. It is practicable to establish a in vivo model of WZS mini-pig for digestibility. The digestibility of CpTI rice and its parental rice in gastric and intestinal tract in vivo is equivalent.

  3. Correlation of Process Data and Electrochemical Noise to Assess Kraft Digester Corrosion: Kamloops Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, SJ

    2002-05-09

    Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at five locations roughly equi-spaced from top to bottom of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 60 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of one year. Historical vessel inspection data, including inspections accomplished immediately prior to and immediately following probe deployment, and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare corrosion indications from the probes with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. The results indicate that furnish composition is a significant variable influencing digester corrosion, with increasing amounts of Douglas fir in the nominal furnish correlating directly with increased corrosion activity on the ECN probes. All five probes detected changes in furnish composition approximately simultaneously, indicating rapid chemical communication through the liquor, but the effect was strongest and persisted longest relatively high in the digester. The ECN probes also indicate significant corrosion activity occurred at each probe position during shutdown/restart transients. Little or no correlation between ECN probe corrosion activity and other operational variables was observed. Post-test evaluation of the probes confirmed general corrosion of a magnitude that closely agreed with corrosion current sums calculated for each probe over the exposure period and with historical average corrosion rates for the respective locations. Further, no pitting was observed on any of the electrodes, which is consistent with the ECN data, relevant polarization curves developed for steel in liquor removed from the digester, and the post-test inspection of the digester.

  4. Real-time measurements to characterize dynamics of emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuanjie; Nitin, N

    2016-05-01

    Efficient delivery of bioactives remains a critical challenge due to their limited bioavailability and solubility. While many encapsulation systems are designed to modulate the digestion and release of bioactives within the human gastrointestinal tract, there is limited understanding of how engineered structures influence the delivery of bioactives. The objective of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative method to measure structural changes in emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion and to correlate these changes with the release of free fatty acids (FFAs). Fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) was used for rapid in-situ measurement of the structural changes in emulsion interface during simulated intestinal digestion. By using FRET, changes in the intermolecular spacing between the two different fluorescent probes labeled emulsifier were characterized. Changes in FRET measurements were compared with the release of FFAs. The results showed that bile salts and pancreatic lipase interacted immediately with the emulsion droplets and disrupted the emulsion interface as evidenced by reduction in FRET efficacy compared to the control. Similarly, a significant amount of FFAs was released during digestion. Moreover, addition of a second layer of polymers at emulsion interface decreased the extent of interface disruption by bile salts and pancreatic lipase and impacted the amount or rate of FFA release during digestion. These results were consistent with the lower donor/acceptor ratio of the labeled probes from the FRET result. Overall, this study provides a novel approach to analyze the dynamics of emulsion interface during digestion and their relationship with the release of FFAs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Digestive and locomotor capacity show opposing responses to changing food availability in an ambush predatory fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shi-Jian; Peng, Jing; Killen, Shaun S

    2018-06-14

    Metabolic rates vary widely within species, but little is known about how variation in the 'floor' [i.e. standard metabolic rate (SMR) in ectotherms] and 'ceiling' [maximum metabolic rate (MMR)] for an individual's aerobic scope (AS) are linked with digestive and locomotor function. Any links among metabolic traits and aspects of physiological performance may also be modulated by fluctuations in food availability. This study followed changes in SMR, MMR, and digestive and locomotor capacity in southern catfish ( Silurus meridionalis ) throughout 15 days of food deprivation and 15 days of refeeding. Individuals downregulated SMR during food deprivation and showed only a 10% body mass decrease during this time. Whereas critical swim speed ( U crit ) was robust to food deprivation, digestive function decreased after fasting with a reduced peak oxygen uptake during specific dynamic action (SDA) and prolonged SDA duration. During refeeding, individuals displayed rapid growth and digestive function recovered to pre-fasting levels. However, refed fish showed a lower U crit than would be expected for their increased body length and in comparison to measures at the start of the study. Reduced swimming ability may be a consequence of compensatory growth: growth rate was negatively correlated with changes in U crit during refeeding. Southern catfish downregulate digestive function to reduce energy expenditure during food deprivation, but regain digestive capacity during refeeding, potentially at the cost of decreased swimming performance. The plasticity of maintenance requirements suggests that SMR is a key fitness trait for in this ambush predator. Shifts in trait correlations with food availability suggest that the potential for correlated selection may depend on context. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Modelling methane emission mitigation by anaerobic digestion: effect of storage conditions and co-digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moset, Veronica; Wahid, R; Ward, A; Møller, H B

    2018-03-13

    In this work the methane conversion factor (MCF) of untreated and anaerobically digested cattle manure (CM) as a function of storage temperature, time and co-digestion was measured in an in vitro experiment and modelled based on IPCC (2006) methodology (Tier 2). For this, one sample of untreated CM, one sample of mono-digested CM and three samples of CM co-digested with grass were incubated at seven different temperatures (from 5°C to 50°C) over 346 days. The main results showed that ultimate methane yield (B 0 ) of CM is higher than the B 0 reported by the IPCC (2006). Two temperature ranges should be considered for MCF evolution, below 15°C very low MCF was measured in this work for untreated CM, mono and co-digested samples. At higher temperatures, MCF obtained in this work and that provided by the IPCC could be comparable depending on storage time. Anaerobic mono-digestion decreased MCF compared to untreated CM at all temperatures and times, except in the temperature range between 20°C and 25°C if storage time is low, due to a lag phase observed in CM. This lag phase would probably not happen in real storage conditions depending on the proportion of old manure remaining in the storage tank. Co-digestion with grass-decreased MCF compared to mono-digestion, but increased CH 4 production in terms of fresh matter due to the higher B 0 of the mixture. Storage time, temperature and co-digestion should be considered in the quantification of CH 4 emission from digested material.

  7. FEATURES DIGESTION OF STURGEON SPECIES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources are about the anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics of the digestive system and proper digestion process in the sturgeon species (Acipenseridae. Outline the common anatomical and morphological characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract. Consider the activity of digestive enzymes and the influence of various factors. Findings. Review of scientific papers reveals that although the digestion of sturgeon are broadly similar to those of the cartilaginous and bony fish, there are a number of species specificity. In particular, sturgeon enzymes have a wider temperature and hydrogen ranges. It is confirmed that temperature adaptations of digestive system poikilothermic organ-isms are realised mainly thanks to reorganisations of fermental systems. It is shown that enzymes in sturgeons are adjustable, as their activity level significantly changes under the influence of divalent metal ions (Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+. The assumption that evolutionary adaptation of hydrolytic function of intestines of fishes to temperature conditions of an inhabitancy takes place, apparently, is made. The paper describes the effect of sex and age factors on the level of activity of enzymes of sturgeons. Set out the regularities of circadian rhythms of the fish of this family. Showed specific features of the liver and its involvement in lipid metabolism and antioxidant defense system. Practical value. The knowledge of hydrolysis characteristics of a diet of sturgeon species is important for the efficiency estimation of feeding and understanding of evolutionary and ecological aspects of digestion physiology. Systematized data on the digestive system of fish sturgeon species are of interest a wide range of research in two main areas. Firstly, although the sturgeon are relict species, but the adaptation of their digestive system is still going on, allowing you to analyze the evolutionary development of the

  8. Headway on co-digestion of wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhale, Yogeshwar

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Australia produce biogas either directly from the wastewater or from anaerobic digestion of the primary and/or secondary sludge, which in turn is used to create energy. Some WWTPs produce electricity from the biogas to either support the treatment plant or to export the electricity to the grid or both. High-strength organic wastes such as fats, oil and grease, food waste, commercial (restaurant) waste and brewery waste are attractive biogas sources that can be realised through co-digestion with the sludge from wastewater treatment. Co-digestion of high-strength waste can be a tricky business due to the varying nature of the waste, special handling requirements, and potential digester process issues like foaming. However, experiences over the past decade have helped identify mitigation measures and advanced designs to reduce these risks. Several WWTPs in the US accept fats, oil and grease (FOG) as a feedstock for co-digestion, and CH2M Hill has been involved in various capacities on some of those projects. The Douglas L. Smith Middle Basin Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Johnson County, Kansas, includes an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of FOG wastes from local restaurants and industrial sources. FOG waste receipts are handled using a separate onsite liquid receiving facility, and the FOG tanks and pipes are heated to minimise clogging. Co-digestion of FOG enhanced the gas production to fuel a 2.1 megawatt biogas co-generation system. Other CH2M Hill FOG co-digestion projects are FOG addition to the incinerator at the Hampton Roads Sanitation District in Virginia; FOG co-digestion at the Pinellas County in Florida; and FOG co-digestion and co-generation at the Essex Junction in Vermont. This experience was recently expanded to the co-digestion of other high-strength organic waste for Yarra Valley Water (YVW) and City West Water (CWW) in Victoria. The potential high-strength waste

  9. Comparative economic analysis: Anaerobic digester case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An economic guide is developed to assess the value of anaerobic digesters used on dairy farms. Two varieties of anaerobic digesters, a conventional mixed-tank mesophilic and an innovative earthen psychrophilic, are comparatively evaluated using a cost-effectiveness index. The two case study examples are also evaluated using three other investment merit statistics: simple payback period, net present value, and internal rate of return. Life-cycle savings are estimated for both varieties, with sensitivities considered for investment risk. The conclusion is that an earthen psychrophilic digester can have a significant economic advantage over a mixed-tank mesophilic digester because of lower capital cost and reduced operation and maintenance expenses. Because of this economic advantage, additional projects are being conducted in North Carolina to increase the rate of biogas utilization. The initial step includes using biogas for milk cooling at the dairy farm where the existing psychrophilic digester is located. Further, a new project is being initiated for electricity production with thermal reclaim at a swine operation

  10. Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU), 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Radioactive Acid Digestion Test Unit (RADTU) was constructed at the Hanford Site, Richland, WA to demonstrate application of the acid digestion process for treating combustible transuranic wastes and scrap materials. Using its original tray digester vessel, RADTU recently completed a six-month campaign of processing potentially contaminated non-glovebox wastes from a Hanford plutonium facility. During the campaign, 2100 kg of largely cellulosic wastes were processed at an average sustained processing rate of 3 kg/h (limited by the acid-waste contact and the water boiloff rate from the acid feeds). On-line operating efficiency was nearly 50%, averaged over 12 hours/day, for five days/week. After shutdown, a new annular high-rate digester was installed for testing that demonstrated a sustained capacity of 8 kg/h to 10 kg/h with greatly improved contact between the digestion acid and the waste. The new unit began processing low-level waste from Hanford's z-Plant during June 1980. Plutonium levels in the waste processed will be increased gradually as operating experience has been gained. Processing recoverable scrap is expected to begin in the last quarter of CY 1980

  11. Gastrointestinal physiology and digestive disorders in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaly, Travis; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Vaughn, Bradley V

    2009-11-01

    The dynamic interplay of the digestive system and sleep is an excellent example of brain-body interaction. New advances in measuring techniques provide an opportunity to evaluate physiology that is dependent upon the sleep/wake state or circadian rhythm and potentially differentiate between normal and pathological conditions. Sleep-related changes in gastrointestinal physiology create vulnerabilities to digestive issues such as reflux, whereas disorders such as duodenal ulcers raise the importance of circadian variations in digestive system function. Advances in the area of normal sleep physiology have furthered our understanding of the underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome, and the mechanisms by which sleep disruption may aggravate inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, important early work has shown that the treatment of digestive disorders such as reflux can improve sleep quality just as the improvement in sleep may aid in the treatment of digestive disorders. For the clinician, these forward steps in our knowledge mark the start of an era in which understanding the effects of the sleep/wake state and circadian rhythms on gastrointestinal physiology promise to yield novel diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities.

  12. Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Dennis A

    2014-05-01

    Yogurt is traditionally consumed throughout the world among populations who are seemingly unable to digest lactose. This review provides a historical overview of the studies that show lactose digestion and tolerance from yogurt by lactose-intolerant people. The lactose in yogurt is digested more efficiently than other dairy sources of lactose because the bacteria inherent in yogurt assist with its digestion. The bacterial lactase survives the acidic conditions of the stomach, apparently being physically protected within the bacterial cells and facilitated by the buffering capacity of yogurt. The increasing pH as the yogurt enters the small intestine and a slower gastrointestinal transit time allow the bacterial lactase to be active, digesting lactose from yogurt sufficiently to prevent symptoms in lactose-intolerant people. There is little difference in the lactase capability of different commercial yogurts, because they apparently contain Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in sufficient quantities (10(8) bacteria/mL). However, Lactobacillus acidophilus appears to require cell membrane disruption to physically release the lactase. Compared with unflavored yogurts, flavored yogurts appear to exhibit somewhat reduced lactase activity but are still well tolerated.

  13. Waste volume reduction by acid digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Divine, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Acid digestion is a process being developed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in Richland, Washington, to reduce the volume of alpha-contaminated combustible waste by converting it into a non-combustible residue. Typical waste materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, paper and other cellulosic materials, ion exchange resin, all types of rubber, etc., are digested in hot (230 0 C--270 0 C) concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid oxidant to form inert residues generally having less than four percent of their original volume and less than twenty-five percent of their original mass. The process is currently being tested using non-radioactive waste in an Acid Digestion Test Unit (ADTU) with all glass equipment. Engineering tests to date have shown acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible waste materials. Based on results of the engineering tests, an acid digestion pilot unit capable of treating radioactive wastes is being designed and constructed. Design capacity of the pilot unit for radioactive waste will be 100 kg of waste per day. (U.S.)

  14. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 o C and for some experiments also at 37 o C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm 3 kg -1 respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm -3 and 7 g N dm -3 respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 o C, sterilization: 133 o C, and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 o C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone.

  15. Anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejnfelt, Anette; Angelidaki, Irini [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, DTU, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-08-15

    Anaerobic digestion of animal by-products was investigated in batch and semi-continuously fed, reactor experiments at 55 C and for some experiments also at 37 C. Separate or mixed by-products from pigs were tested. The methane potential measured by batch assays for meat- and bone flour, fat, blood, hair, meat, ribs, raw waste were: 225, 497, 487, 561, 582, 575, 359, 619 dm{sup 3} kg{sup -1} respectively, corresponding to 50-100% of the calculated theoretical methane potential. Dilution of the by-products had a positive effect on the specific methane yield with the highest dilutions giving the best results. High concentrations of long-chain fatty acids and ammonia in the by-products were found to inhibit the biogas process at concentrations higher than 5 g lipids dm{sup -3} and 7 g N dm{sup -3} respectively. Pretreatment (pasteurization: 70 C, sterilization: 133 C), and alkali hydrolysis (NaOH) had no effect on achieved methane yields. Mesophilic digestion was more stable than thermophilic digestion, and higher methane yield was noticed at high waste concentrations. The lower yield at thermophilic temperature and high waste concentration was due to ammonia inhibition. Co-digestion of 5% pork by-products mixed with pig manure at 37 C showed 40% higher methane production compared to digestion of manure alone. (author)

  16. Design and Fabrication of an Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digester is a physical structure that provides a conducive environment for the multiplication of micro-organisms that degrades organic matter to generate biogas energy. Energy is required in agriculture for crop production, processing and storage, poultry production and electricity for farmstead and farm settlements. It is energy that propels agricultural mechanization, which minimizes the use of human and animal muscles and its inherent drudgery in agriculture. The energy demand required to meet up with the agricultural growth in Nigeria is high and growing every year. In this study the design and fabrication of an anaerobic digester was reported which is an attempt to boost energy requirement for small and medium dryland farmers in Nigeria. The design of the digester includes the following concept; the basic principles of anaerobic digestion processes, socio-economic status of the dryland farmers, amount of biogas to be produced. Finally, the digester was fabricated using locally available raw materials within the dryland area of Nigeria. At the end, preliminary flammability test was conducted and the biogas produced was found to be flammable.

  17. [Functional and motor digestive disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Rey, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses the most interesting studies on functional and motility gastrointestinal disorders presented in Digestive Diseases Week (DDW) in 2013. New data were reported on the clinical importance of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) and on how they can produce numerous disturbances such as inflammatory bowel disease. These disturbances are associated with somatic functional disease and particularly with fatigue. In addition, new data have emerged on the physiopathology of these disorders, with some studies reporting that environmental factors and events in early infancy can favor their development. Data were also presented on how bile acids can increase susceptibility to diarrhea in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and on how the type of food intake can favor the development of symptoms. More data are available on the presence of underlying celiac disease in patients with IBS, which should prompt us to investigate this disease in our patients. Likewise, indiscriminate application of a gluten-free diet in patients with IBS has been shown not to produce a clear improvement. Regarding the physiopathology of functional dyspepsia (FD), results have been presented on how psychological factors can modify gastric accommodation and how this is in turn related to visceral hypersensitivity and gastric emptying. Regarding therapy, mirtazapine can improve symptoms and lead to weight gain in patients with severe FD and substantial weight loss. Results were presented on new drugs for IBS such as ibodutant and on old drugs with new applications such as mesalazine and ebastine. The antinociceptive effect of linaclotide is now better understood and a meta-analysis has shown its effectiveness in IBS with constipation as the main symptom. In patients with constipation, pelvic floor dysynergy can be diagnosed by a simple clinical interview and rectal touch. More data are available on the efficacy of prucalopride (which has been shown to accelerate

  18. Instrumentation and Control in Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, and is most applied to solids destruction and wastewater treatment for energy production. Despite wide application, and long-term industrial proof of application, some industries are still reluctant to apply this technology. One of the classical reasons...... benchmark. There has therefore been, overall, a quantum advance in application and sophistication of instrumentation and control in anaerobic digestion, and it is an effective option for improved process loading rate and conversion efficiency....... are still a limitation, but this is being partly addressed by the increased complexity of digestion processes. Methods for control benchmarking have also been improved, as there is now an industry standard model (the IWA ADM1), and this is being applied in an improved whole wastewater treatment plant...

  19. Cancer stem cells of the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Hugh S; Nishida, Naohiro; Koseki, Jun; Konno, Masamitsu; Kawamoto, Koichi; Tsunekuni, Kenta; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2014-12-01

    Stem cells of the digestive system are ideal in many ways for research, given they are abundant, highly proliferative and have a uniform structural arrangement. This in turn has enormously aided the research of cancer stem cells of the digestive system, which is now shaping our understanding of cancer stem cells. In this review, the recent advances in the understanding of cancer stem cells of the digestive system have been summarized, including aspects such as their identification, origin, cell-cycle dormancy, relationship with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cellular metabolism and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Newly acquired knowledge concerning cancer stem cells have led to the development of novel cancer therapeutics with provisional yet encouraging results. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Some effects of aeration on anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhywapathanapun, S

    1972-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of meat works waste water is made possible by separating the sludge solids, after which necessary amounts of the concentrated sludge are returned to the digester. Sludge recirculation prolongs solid retention time in the digester. However, sludge separation by gravitational sedimentation is almost impossible because the sludge tends to rise with the continuous gassing. Therefore treatment of the sludge suspension prior to sedimentation is necessary for effective solid separation. The present study examined aeration degasification as a method for sludge suspension pretreatment and found that the rates of aeration of 0.75 to 1.0 VVM (0.12 to 0.16 cubic foot of air per gallon of mixed liquor per minute) were optimal for aeration degasification. The toxic effects on the anaerobic bacteria were small, daily gas production being reduced by only 5%.

  1. Mathematical tool to size rural digesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentino Helenice de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digesters have been highlighted due to the current energy crisis and its consequent search for alternative energy sources, allied to the intense process of livestock farming and agriculture modernization, which besides demanding a lot of energy, produces a great amount of crop and animal residues, most of the times generating sanitary problems. The aim of this work is to provide a mathematical tool to establish parameters for projects of construction of rural digesters, considering the response to energy demand, the suitability of the dimensions of the systems, yield factors and the guarantee of functionality. Non-linear optimization models, of easy resolution, for the three main types of rural digesters were formulated in this way. With the resolution of these models one can determine the height and the diameter that lead to a minimum volume for each type, so reducing the necessary amount of masonry and, consequently, diminishing the cost.

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest, 1991 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.L.

    1991-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, and the areas NRC licenses. This digest is a compilation of NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1990, with exceptions noted. For operating US commercial nuclear power reactors, information on generating capacity and average capacity factor is obtained from Monthly Operating Reports submitted to the NRC directly by the licensee. This information is reviewed for consistency only. No independent validation and/or verification is performed by the NRC. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications. This digest is published annually for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. 30 figs., 12 tabs

  3. The Problems of Digestive Diseases in Researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out an analysis of the 46 theses defended in the subject 14.01.36 «gastroenterology». Of these, 40 % of doctorate theses deals with problems of bowel disease, 40 % — peptic ulcer disease, and 20 % — chronic pancreatitis. In the structure of the thesis for the degree of candidate of sciences 29.5 % defended on the subject of peptic ulcer disease, 22.7 % — intestinal diseases, 18.2 % — gastroesophageal reflux disease, 13.6 % — biliary pathology, 6.8 % — gastritis diseases, and 9.1 % — liver diseases. Most of the theses deals with questions of conservative management of patients with digestive pathology, their rehabilitation, achievement of compliance to therapy. Along with the theses highlighted the issues on pathophysiology of the digestive organs, and the impact of diseases of other organs on the digestive system.

  4. Food waste co-digestion with slaughterhouse waste and sewage sludge: Digestate conditioning and supernatant quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Sebastian; Boniecki, Paweł; Kubacki, Przemysław; Czyżowska, Agata

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the anaerobic mesophilic co-digestion of food waste (FW) with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and slaughterhouse waste (SHW) was undertaken in 3-dm 3 laboratory reactors as well as in 50-dm 3 reactors operated in semi-continuous conditions. The highest methane yield of around 0.63 m 3 CH 4 /kgVS fed was achieved for the mixture of FW and SHW treated in the laboratory digester operated at solids retention time (SRT) of 30 days, whereas the co-digestion of FW with MSS under similar operating conditions produced 0.46 m 3 of methane from 1 kgVS fed . No significant differences between methane yields from laboratory digesters and large-scale reactors were reported. The conditioning tests with the digestates from reactor experiments revealed the highest efficiency of inorganic coagulants among all investigated chemicals, which applied in a dose of 10 g/kg allowed to reduce capiliary suction time (CST) of the digestate below 20 s. The combined conditioning with coagulants and bentonite did not further reduce the CST value but improved the quality of the digestate supernatant. In particular, the concentrations of suspended solids, COD as well as metals in the supernatant were considerably lowered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Anaerobic digestion in mesophilic and room temperature conditions: Digestion performance and soil-borne pathogen survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Le; Jian, Shanshan; Bi, Jinhua; Li, Yunlong; Chang, Zhizhou; He, Jian; Ye, Xiaomei

    2016-05-01

    Tomato plant waste (TPW) was used as the feedstock of a batch anaerobic reactor to evaluate the effect of anaerobic digestion on Ralstonia solanacearum and Phytophthora capsici survival. Batch experiments were carried out for TS (total solid) concentrations of 2%, 4% and 6% respectively, at mesophilic (37±1°C) and room (20-25°C) temperatures. Results showed that higher digestion performance was achieved under mesophilic digestion temperature and lower TS concentration conditions. The biogas production ranged from 71 to 416L/kg VS (volatile solids). The inactivation of anaerobic digestion tended to increase as digestion performance improved. The maximum log copies reduction of R. solanacearum and P. capsici detected by quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) were 3.80 and 4.08 respectively in reactors with 4% TS concentration at mesophilic temperatures. However, both in mesophilic and room temperature conditions, the lowest reduction of R. solanacearum was found in the reactors with 6% TS concentration, which possessed the highest VFA (volatile fatty acid) concentration. These findings indicated that simple accumulation of VFAs failed to restrain R. solanacearum effectively, although the VFAs were considered poisonous. P. capsici was nearly completely dead under all conditions. Based on the digestion performance and the pathogen survival rate, a model was established to evaluate the digestate biosafety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michele, Pognani; Giuliana, D’Imporzano; Carlo, Minetti; Sergio, Scotti; Fabrizio, Adani

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH 4 was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH 4 , getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium

  7. Optimization of solid state anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW by digestate recirculation: A new approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michele, Pognani, E-mail: michele.pognani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Giuliana, D’Imporzano, E-mail: giuliana.dimporzano@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. C.na Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Carlo, Minetti, E-mail: carlo.minetti@a2a.eu [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Sergio, Scotti, E-mail: sergio.scotti@a2a.eu [Ecodeco, a2a Group, Cascina Darsena 1, 27010 Giussago, Pavia (Italy); Fabrizio, Adani, E-mail: farbrizio.adani@unimi.it [Gruppo Ricicla – DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Soil and Env. Lab, Via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gruppo Ricicla - DiSAA, Università degli Studi di Milano, Biomass and Bioenergy Lab., Parco Tecnologico Padano, Via Einstein, Loc. C.na Codazza, 26900 Lodi (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Solid State Anaerobic Digestion (SSAD) of OFMSW can be optimized by irrigation with digestate. • Digestate spreading allows keeping optimal process parameters and high hydrolysis rate. • The 18.4% of CH{sub 4} was produced in the reactor, leaving the 49.7% in the percolate. • Successive CSTR feed with percolate shows a biogas enriched in methane (more than 80%). • The proposed process allow producing the 68% of OFMSW potential CH{sub 4}, getting high quality organic amendment. - Abstract: Dry anaerobic digestion (AD) of OFMSW was optimized in order to produce biogas avoiding the use of solid inoculum. Doing so the dry AD was performed irrigating the solid waste with liquid digestate (flow rate of 1:1.18–1:0.9 w/w waste/digestate; 21 d of hydraulic retention time – HRT) in order to remove fermentation products inhibiting AD process. Results indicated that a high hydrolysis rate of organic matter (OM) and partial biogas production were obtained directly during the dry AD. Hydrolysate OM was removed from digester by the percolate flow and it was subsequently used to feed a liquid anaerobic digester. During dry AD a total loss of 36.9% of total solids was recorded. Methane balance indicated that 18.4% of potential methane can be produced during dry AD and 49.7% by the percolate. Nevertheless results obtained for liquid AD digestion indicated that only 20.4% and 25.7% of potential producible methane was generated by adopting 15 and 20 days of HRT, probably due to the AD inhibition due to high presence of toxic ammonia forms in the liquid medium.

  8. Bayer Digester Optimization Studies using Computer Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Jan J.; Schleider, Victor H.

    Theoretically required heat transfer performance by the multistaged flash heat reclaim system of a high pressure Bayer digester unit is determined for various conditions of discharge temperature, excess flash vapor and indirect steam addition. Solution of simultaneous heat balances around the digester vessels and the heat reclaim system yields the magnitude of available heat for representation of each case on a temperature-enthalpy diagram, where graphical fit of the number of flash stages fixes the heater requirements. Both the heat balances and the trial-and-error graphical solution are adapted to solution by digital computer techniques.

  9. Adenylyl cyclases in the digestive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Maria Eugenia; Gorelick, Fred; Glaser, Shannon

    2014-06-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a group of widely distributed enzymes whose functions are very diverse. There are nine known transmembrane AC isoforms activated by Gαs. Each has its own pattern of expression in the digestive system and differential regulation of function by Ca(2+) and other intracellular signals. In addition to the transmembrane isoforms, one AC is soluble and exhibits distinct regulation. In this review, the basic structure, regulation and physiological roles of ACs in the digestive system are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acid digestion studies at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.; Nichols, A.L.; Snelling, K.W.; Stride, R.

    1983-02-01

    Acid digestion is a chemical combustion process which could be applied to the treatment of low- and medium-level radioactive waste. The present paper describes experiments on the topic carried out at AEE Winfrith in the period 1979-1982. This work has included laboratory-scale studies of the basic chemistry of the process, the design and operation of a 5:1 scale rig and investigations into methods of residue treatment and acid recovery. A review of acid digestion work carried out at other locations throughout the world and a summary of the results of a design study carried out by external consultants are also presented. (author)

  11. Renewable methane from anaerobic digestion of biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Owens, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Production of methane via anaerobic digestion of energy crops and organic wastes would benefit society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feedstocks. This would replace fossil fuel-derived energy and reduce environmental impacts including global warming and acid rain. Although biomass energy is more costly than fossil fuel-derived energy, trends to limit carbon dioxide and other emissions through emission regulations, carbon taxes, and subsidies of biomass energy would make it cost competitive. Methane derived from anaerobic digestion is competitive in efficiencies and costs to other biomass energy forms including heat, synthesis gases, and ethanol. (author)

  12. Anaerobic digestion of industrial activated aerobic sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodloe, J.G.; Roberts, R.S.

    1990-04-01

    The Tennessee Eastman Company manufactures a variety of organic chemicals, plastics and fibers at their Kingsport Tennessee Facility. The wastewater generated during the manufacture of these compounds is currently treated using an activated sludge process. The objective of the project is to evaluate the economic potential of an anaerobic digestion process to convert industrial sludge at the Tennessee Eastman Company into biogas. The evaluation will require collection and analysis of experimental data on the anaerobic digestion of industrial sludge obtained from Kingsport. Although the experiments will be conducted using Tennessee Eastman sludge, these results should be also generally applicable to similar industrial sludge

  13. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  14. Advanced Applications of Robotics in Digestive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriti, Alberto; Addeo, Pietro; Buchs, Nicolas; Casciola, Luciano; Morel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopy is widely recognized as feasible and safe approach to many oncologic and benign digestive conditions and is associated with an improved early outcome. Robotic surgery promises to overcome intrinsic limitations of laparoscopic surgery by a three-dimensional view and wristed instruments widening indications for a minimally invasive approach. To date, the more interesting applications of robotic surgery are those operations restricted to one abdominal quadrant and requiring a fine dissection and digestive reconstruction. While robot-assisted rectal and gastric surgery are becoming well-accepted options among the surgical community, applications of robotics in hepato-biliary and pancreatic surgery are still debated. PMID:23905029

  15. Mechanism for rapid sawtooth crashes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydemir, A.Y.; Hazeltine, R.D.

    1986-09-01

    The sawtooth oscillations in the soft x-ray signals observed in tokamaks are associated with periodic changes in the central electron temperature, T/sub e/. Typically, a slow phase during which the central temperature slowly rises is followed by a fast drop in T/sub e/, associated with flattening of the central temperature. The time scale of the slow phase is determined by various transport processes such as ohmic heating. The resistive internal kink mode was invoked by Kadomtsev to explain the crash phase of the oscillations. Fast crash times observed in the large tokamaks are studied here, especially the fast crashes observed in JET. These sawtooth oscillations are characterized by the absence of any discrenible precursor oscillations, and a rapid collapse of the central temperature in about 100 microseconds. During the crash phase, the hot core region rapidly moves outward and is replaced by colder plasma. Then, this highly asymmetric state relaxes (in ∼100μsec) to a poloidally symmetric state in which a ring of hot plasma surrounds the colder core plasma, producing a hollow pressure profile

  16. Impact of food processing on rye product properties and their in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Daniel P; Gutiérrez, José L Vázquez; Landberg, Rikard; Alminger, Marie; Langton, Maud

    2018-06-01

    Rye products have been reported to elicit postprandial insulin and glucose responses which may be beneficial for prevention of type-2 diabetes. However, mechanisms underlying variations in responses related to processing techniques are not fully understood. Five differently processed rye products (sourdough-fermented bread, fermented and unfermented crispbread, extrusion-cooked rye, and porridge) and refined wheat bread were characterised. Two in vitro methods, a dynamic method simulating digestion in the stomach and small intestine and a static method, simulating conditions in the stomach were used to determine viscosity development, structural changes and release of glucose during digestion. Structural and compositional differences induced by processing influenced product digestion. Gastric disintegration and digesta particle size were related to characteristics of the starch/protein matrix, while digesta viscosity was reduced due to fibre degradation during fermentation. More cohesive boluses were associated with slower glucose release. Sourdough fermentation increased amylose leakage and appeared to inhibit starch hydrolysis despite low digesta viscosity and rapid disintegration. The net release of glucose during digestion of foods is determined by several factors which may vary in their importance depending on product specific properties.

  17. Start-up of anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroun, Rania

    2004-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal is a major environmental concern worldwide. Among the environmentally sound technologies for the treatment of MSW, composting in the form of anaerobic digestion (AD) appears as a suitable alternative that offers the advantage of rapid stabilization of organic matter, reduction in waste volume, production of methane, and minimal environmental impacts in comparison to land filling and incineration. Yet, although outstanding advances in anaerobic digestion of solid substrate have been made in the last 10 years, some development areas are lagging, including the fast and reliable process start-up in terms of type of inocula and overall start-up strategies. The present study investigates the start-up and operation of bench-scale anaerobic digesters treating the source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste. The experimental program consisted of starting up two digesters in parallel. Three consecutive interventions in the start-up program were implemented to achieve steady state. Start-up was relatively slow indicating the seed obtained from an operating anaerobic wastewater treatment plant was not suitable. The use of cattle manure together with effluent dilution reduced the acclimation period (Author.)

  18. Anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee grounds with different waste feedstocks for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Kim, Hakchan; Baek, Gahyun; Lee, Changsoo

    2017-02-01

    Proper management of spent coffee grounds has become a challenging problem as the production of this waste residue has increased rapidly worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of the anaerobic co-digestion of spent coffee ground with various organic wastes, i.e., food waste, Ulva, waste activated sludge, and whey, for biomethanation. The effect of co-digestion was evaluated for each tested co-substrate in batch biochemical methane potential tests by varying the substrate mixing ratio. Co-digestion with waste activated sludge had an apparent negative effect on both the yield and production rate of methane. Meanwhile, the other co-substrates enhanced the reaction rate while maintaining methane production at a comparable or higher level to that of the mono-digestion of spent coffee ground. The reaction rate increased with the proportion of co-substrates without a significant loss in methanation potential. These results suggest the potential to reduce the reaction time and thus the reactor capacity without compromising methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bioaccessibility of pistachio polyphenols, xanthophylls, and tocopherols during simulated human digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalari, Giuseppina; Bisignano, Carlo; Filocamo, Angela; Chessa, Simona; Sarò, Mariagiovanna; Torre, Germana; Faulks, Richard M; Dugo, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The bioaccessibility of bioactives from pistachios has not been previously evaluated. In the present study we quantified the release of polyphenols, xanthophylls (lutein), and tocopherols from pistachios (raw pistachios, roasted salted pistachios, and muffins made with raw pistachios) during simulated human digestion. A dynamic gastric model of digestion that provides a realistic and predictive simulation of the physical and chemical processing and accurately mimics the residence time and the luminal environment within the human stomach was used for the digestion studies. More than 90% of the polyphenols were released in the gastric compartment, with virtually total release in the duodenal phase. No significant differences were observed between raw shelled and roasted salted pistachio. The presence of a food matrix (muffin) decreased the bioaccessibility of protocatechuic acid (78%) and luteolin (36%). Almost 100% bioaccessibility of lutein and tocopherols was found after duodenal digestion, with no difference among the three samples. The rapid release of the assayed bioactives in the stomach maximizes the potential for absorption in the duodenum and contributes to the beneficial relation between pistachio consumption and health-related outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fertilization with liquid digestate in organic farming - effects on humus balance, soil potassium contents and soil physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Eva; Siegl, Thomas; Bonell, Marion; Unterfrauner, Hans; Peticzka, Robert; Ableidinger, Christoph; Haas, Dieter; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    Biogas production and use of liquid digestate are subject of controversial discussion in organic farming. Using biomass from intercrops as feedstock for biogas production makes it possible to produce renewable energy without compromising food production. With liquid digestate, crops can be fertilized in a more targeted way than by incorporating intercrop biomass into the soil. For long-term sustainability in organic farming, however, this practice must not have adverse effects on soil fertility. In order to assess the effects of fertilization with liquid digestate on soil fertility, two randomised field experiments were conducted for two years on different soil types near Bruck/Leitha (Lower Austria). One experiment was set up on a calcareous chernozem with 4 % humus content, the other on a parachernozem with pH 5.9 and 2.1 % humus. Soil potassium content, both in the water-soluble fraction and in the exchangeable fraction, increased significantly at both sites. As fertilization with liquid digestate exceeded the potassium requirements of the crops by far, the proportion of potassium of the exchangeable cations increased rapidly. Soil physical properties were not influenced by digestate fertilization on the chernozem site. On the parachernozem, aggregate stability was increased by the organic matter applied via digestate. On this acidic site low in humus content, the supply of 4 t/ha organic matter, which featured a lignin content of 37 % and was relatively resistant to decomposition, had a clearly positive impact on soil physical properties. Humus balances were computed both with the 'Humuseinheiten'-method and with the site-adapted method STAND. They were calculated on the basis of equal amounts of intercrop biomass either left on the field as green manure or used for biogas production and the resulting amount of liquid digestate brought back to the field. The humus balances indicated that the humus-efficacy of the liquid digestate was equal to slightly higher

  1. Nitrogen losses to the environment following food-based digestate and compost applications to agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Fiona; Bhogal, Anne; Cardenas, Laura; Chadwick, Dave; Misselbrook, Tom; Rollett, Alison; Taylor, Matt; Thorman, Rachel; Williams, John

    2017-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion of food waste for energy recovery produces a nutrient-rich digestate which is a valuable source of crop available nitrogen (N). As with any 'new' material being recycled to agricultural land it is important to develop best management practices that maximise crop available N supply, whilst minimising emissions to the environment. In this study, ammonia (NH 3 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions to air and nitrate (NO 3 - ) leaching losses to water following digestate, compost and livestock manure applications to agricultural land were measured at 3 sites in England and Wales. Ammonia emissions were greater from applications of food-based digestate (c.40% of total N applied) than from livestock slurry (c.30% of total N applied) due to its higher ammonium-N content (mean 5.6 kg/t compared with 1-2 kg/t for slurry) and elevated pH (mean 8.3 compared with 7.7 for slurry). Whilst bandspreading was effective at reducing NH 3 emissions from slurry compared with surface broadcasting it was not found to be an effective mitigation option for food-based digestate in this study. The majority of the NH 3 losses occurred within 6 h of spreading highlighting the importance of rapid soil incorporation as a method for reducing NH 3 emissions. Nitrous oxide losses from food-based digestates were low, with emission factors all less than the IPCC default value of 1% (mean 0.45 ± 0.15%). Overwinter NO 3 - leaching losses from food-based digestate were similar to those from pig slurry, but much greater than from pig farmyard manure or compost. Both gaseous N losses and NO 3 - leaching from green and green/food composts were low, indicating that, in these terms, compost can be considered as an 'environmentally benign' material. These findings have been used in the development of best practice guidelines which provide a framework for the responsible use of digestates and composts in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Follow Us National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases NIDDK conducts and supports research ... to improve health. Learn more Health Topics Diabetes Digestive Diseases Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic ...

  3. Social position of adolescents with chronic digestive disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H.; Rijken, M.; Bekkers, M.J.T.M.; Kerssens, J.J.; Dekker, J.; Berge Henegouwen, G.P. van

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the consequences of having a chronic digestive disorder on the social position of adolescents. METHODS : Five diagnostic groups, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), chronic liver diseases, congenital digestive disorders, coeliac disease and food allergy (total n =

  4. Social position of adolescents with chronic digestive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calsbeek, H; Rijken, M; Bekkers, MJTM; Kerssens, JJ; Dekker, J; Henegouwen, GPV

    Objective To investigate the consequences of having a chronic digestive disorder on the social position of adolescents. Methods Five diagnostic groups, including inflammatory bowel disease (I BID), chronic liver diseases, congenital digestive disorders, coeliac disease and food allergy (total n =

  5. Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of sesame meal on intake, digestibility, rumen characteristics, chewing ... 75, and 100% DM of SSM partially or entirely replacing SBM and part of barley grain. ... Digestibility of DM and EE, passage rate, and total mean retention time ...

  6. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  7. The effects of gastric digestion on codfish allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Untersmayr, Eva; Poulsen, Lars K.; Platzer, Michael H

    2005-01-01

    In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties.......In a recent murine study, we showed that impaired gastric digestion supports the induction of fish allergy by protecting the digestion-sensitive major allergen parvalbumin and thus enhancing its sensitizing properties....

  8. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  9. Microbial production of raw starch digesting enzymes | Sun | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Raw starch digesting enzymes refer to enzymes that can act directly on raw starch granules below the gelatinization temperature of starch. With the view of energy-saving, a worldwide interest has been focused on raw starch digesting enzymes in recent years, especially since the oil crisis of 1973. Raw starch digesting ...

  10. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  11. The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstone, D.J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, I.; Kalyuzhnyi, S.V.; Pavalostathis, S.G.; Rozzi, A.; Sanders, W.T.M.; Siegrist, H.; Vavilin, V.A.

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well as

  12. The IWA Anaerobic digestion model no 1. (ADM1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batstone, Damien J.; Keller, J.; Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    The IWA Anaerobic Digestion Modelling Task Group was established in 1997 at the 8th World Congress on Anaerobic Digestion (Sendai, Japan) with the goal of developing a generalised anaerobic digestion model. The structured model includes multiple steps describing biochemical as well...

  13. Variation in In Vitro Digestibility of Barley Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, N. B.

    1979-01-01

    impaired digestibilities; these findings were partially verified in a repeated field trial, but were not confirmed in vivo. In vitro digestibilities of barleys grown in pots at various N-levels were positively correlated with protein or hordein content. In vitro digestibility was negatively correlated...

  14. EFFECT OF MALTING ON PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY OF SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein digestibility of sorghum is generally low. Malting is one of the processing methods which can be applied to improve this digestibility. It is a method whose technology is well known by local communities in Kenya. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of malting on the digestibility of some varieties of ...

  15. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  16. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (July-August-September, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna D; DeForte, Shelly; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2014-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins grows fast. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a "Digested Disorder" project and represent a new issue of reader's digest of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the third quarter of 2013; i.e., during the period of June, July, and September of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  17. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (January/February/March, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is blooming. A simple PubMed search for "intrinsically disordered protein OR natively unfolded protein" returns about 1,800 hits (as of June 17, 2013), with many papers published quite recently. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we are starting a "Digested Disorder" project, which will encompass a series of reader's digest type of publications aiming at the objective representation of the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only two criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest covers papers published during the period of January, February and March of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  18. Digested disorder: Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (April-May-June, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    The current literature on intrinsically disordered proteins is overwhelming. To keep interested readers up to speed with this literature, we continue a "Digested Disorder" project and represent a series of reader's digest type articles objectively representing the research papers and reviews on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the period of April, May, and June of 2013. The papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  19. Digested disorder, Quarterly intrinsic disorder digest (October-November-December, 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForte, Shelly; Reddy, Krishna D; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This is the 4th issue of the Digested Disorder series that represents reader's digest of the scientific literature on intrinsically disordered proteins. The only 2 criteria for inclusion in this digest are the publication date (a paper should be published within the covered time frame) and topic (a paper should be dedicated to any aspect of protein intrinsic disorder). The current digest issue covers papers published during the fourth quarter of 2013; i.e. during the period of October, November, and December of 2013. Similar to previous issues, the papers are grouped hierarchically by topics they cover, and for each of the included paper a short description is given on its major findings.

  20. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  1. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the conversion of

  2. Liderazgo etico (Ethical Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    Until very recently, ethical issues were given little attention in administrator-preparation programs. This digest in Spanish outlines the ethical responsibilities of school leaders and the dilemmas that they face. It offers the following suggestions for resolving ethical dilemmas: (1) Leaders should have and be willing to act on a definite sense…

  3. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for…

  4. Fibre digestion in the hyra;r

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dried samples by calorimeter combustion. The fibre con- tent was determined by the method of Van Soest (1964) us- ing a Fibretec 1020 hot extraction apparatus. Two-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences between the two most important fibre digesting gut regions, the sac- culation and caeca. Results.

  5. Issues in Media Ethics. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that over the past decade incidents have occurred and new technologies have appeared which together have raised questions about the ethical values of American journalists, this Digest seeks to identify some of those ethical issues and to point to the work of those who have studied these issues. It addresses issues of plagiarism and…

  6. Anaerobic hydrolysis during digestion of complex substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, W.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    Complex waste(water) such as, raw sewage, dairy wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, fish processing wastewater, primary sludge and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste have been proven to be degradable under anaerobic conditions. However, during the digestion process the

  7. Teaching about Presidential Elections. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontz, Thomas S.; Nixon, William A.

    Although elections are an annual theme in many social studies classrooms, presidential election years prompt increased interest among students in the electoral process and offer an opportunity to teach about a national election as it happens. This ERIC Digest describes the legal requirements and traditions of U.S. presidential elections, processes…

  8. Archaeal community of cattle digestive system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němcová, Anna; Elhottová, Dana; Gattinger, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 48, - (2007), s. 233 ISSN 0009-0646. [Kongres Československé společnosti mikrobiologické /24./. 02.10.2007-05.10.2007, Liberec] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : archaeal community * cattle digestive system Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  9. Apparent nutrient digestibility and performance of Heterobranchus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of nutrients is a useful tool for fish diet formulation, which gives the right estimation of growth, thereby reducing waste products. The ADCs of crude protein, energy and dry matter of processed earthworm, Libyodrilus violaceus meal by Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings ...

  10. Media Ethics: Some Specific Problems. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    This digest identifies some of the ethical issues which appeared in the mass media in the 1980s and discusses the implications which these issues have for the law and for those who already work in or study the mass media, as well as for those college students contemplating a career in journalism or broadcasting. (NKA)

  11. Digestate and Fugate - Fertilizers with Ecotoxicological Risks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jančula, Daniel; Zezulka, Štěpán; Došek, M.; Beklová, M.; Havelková, B.; Maršálek, Blahoslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2017), s. 1183-1188 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1320234 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : digestate * fugate * ecotoxicity Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  12. Helping the Underachiever in Reading. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatroche, Diana J.

    Noting that the development of effective intervention programs and instructional strategies for the struggling or underachieving reader continues to be a topic of concern, this Digest first reviews the current status of reading performance, based on the 1998 National Assessment of Educational Progress. It then reports on the importance of early…

  13. Anaerobic digestion of dairy farm slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, C

    1973-04-01

    Bell described the intermittent operation of a pilot-scale anaerobic digester receiving dilute dairy farm slurry. A 65 to 75 percent reduction of the ''permanganate (COD) value'' could be obtained at 35/sup 0/ and a 60 day detention time. Methane content of the gases ranged between 40 and 70 percent.

  14. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...

  15. Electrochemical monitoring of ammonia during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Nannan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    Ammonia is known as key inhibitor to methanogens in anaerobic digestion (AD) process. It’s of importance to develop efficient tool for ammonia monitoring. In this study, an electrolysis cell (EC) coupled with a complete nitrification reactor was developed as sensor for real time and online monito...

  16. Children's Nutrition and Learning. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This digest reviews research on the link between children's nutrition and their ability to learn from the prenatal through school years. It also discusses the importance of nutrition education for children. The need for adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the preschool years is highlighted by research that indicates that low birthweight…

  17. Teaching Multilevel Adult ESL Classes. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Cathy C.; Terrill, Lynda R.

    Teachers in multilevel adult English-as-a-Second-Language classes are challenged to use a variety of materials, activities, and techniques to engage the interest of the learners and assist them in their educational goals. This digest recommends ways to choose and organize content for multilevel classes, explains grouping strategies, discusses a…

  18. Outdoor Education and Environmental Responsibility. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerkes, Rita; Haras, Kathy

    Outdoor education programs provide opportunities for students to become environmentally conscious citizens. However, awareness of environmental issues is not enough to preserve our world of limited natural resources. Students must also recognize their environmental responsibilities and change their behaviors accordingly. This digest reviews the…

  19. Comparative effects of undigested and anaerobically digested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The pot experiment consisted of sixty (60) nursery bags, set out in the greenhouse. ... (NPK 20:10:10) applied at the 120 kgN/ha; air-dried undigested and anaerobically digested ...

  20. Ruminal and Intestinal Digestibility of Leucaena Foliage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pramote

    2013-12-30

    Dec 30, 2013 ... Keywords: Intestinal digestibility, protein fodder, mobile nylon bag, a three-step technique ... A potential strategy for increasing the quality and availability of feed for small ruminants in the dry ... to measure intestinal disappearance of DM and CP using the mobile bag method described by De Boer et al.

  1. Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Estes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Modeling the Dynamic Digestive System Microbiome” is a hands-on activity designed to demonstrate the dynamics of microbiome ecology using dried pasta and beans to model disturbance events in the human digestive system microbiome. This exercise demonstrates how microbiome diversity is influenced by: 1 niche availability and habitat space and 2 a major disturbance event, such as antibiotic use. Students use a pictorial key to examine prepared models of digestive system microbiomes to determine what the person with the microbiome “ate.” Students then model the effect of taking antibiotics by removing certain “antibiotic sensitive” pasta. Finally, they add in “environmental microbes” or “native microbes” to recolonize the digestive system, determine how resilient their model microbome community is to disturbance, and discuss the implications. Throughout the exercise, students discuss differences in the habitat space available and microbiome community diversity. This exercise can be modified to discuss changes in the microbiome due to diet shifts and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in more depth.

  2. Applications of the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Ellegaard, L.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    and resource/energy recovery have been developed. Treatment of biowastes by anaerobic digestion processes is in many cases the optimal way to convert organic waste into useful products such as energy (in the form of biogas) and a fertilizer product. Other waste management options, such as land filling...

  3. Bifidobacteria in the digestive tract of bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Killer, Jiří; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Rada, V.; Dubá, S.; Marounek, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2010), s. 165-170 ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Bumblebee * Digestive tract Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 2.448, year: 2010

  4. Swine manure digestate treatment using electrocoagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Mores

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anaerobic biodigestion is an appropriate alternative for the treatment of swine wastewater due to its biogas generation properties and the possibility of its application as a source of energy for heating or electricity. However, digestate can still contain high levels of turbidity, organic carbon and nutrients and must be correctly managed as a biofertilizer, or treated to avoid any impact on the environment. Considering this, electrocoagulation (EC shows promise as a technology because of its ease of handling and high efficiency in effluent remediation. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of EC in a batch system in the treatment of swine wastewater digestate. The wastewater used in the treatment was sampled from a 10 m3 biodigestor effluent (digestate located at Concórdia, Santa Catarina, Brazil. A batch-scale experiment was carried out to evaluate the following two variables: electrode distance (ED and voltage applied (V. The removal efficiency levels (% for the best operational condition (2 cm, 5 V after 30 min were: 97 %, 98 %, 77 % and 10 % for color, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC and total nitrogen (TN, respectively. The EC batch system produced efficient results, underlining its promise as an alternative to be applied in the treatment of digestate.

  5. Political Communication via the Media. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiex, Nola Kortner; Gottlieb, Stephen S.

    Noting that critics charge that news reporting focuses on the superficial, personal characteristics of candidates and ignores the issues underlying elections, this Digest examines the relationship between the political process and political communication through the media. It addresses the power of advertising, cyberspace political communication,…

  6. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  7. On the effect of aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment on batch and continuous anaerobic digestion of digested swine manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    , their economical profitable operation relies on increasing the methane yield from manure, and especially of its solid fraction which is not so easily degradable. Aqueous Ammonia Soaking (AAS) has been successfully applied on digested fibers separated from the effluent of a manure-fed, full-scale anaerobic digester......-pretreated digested manure fibers on the kinetics of anaerobic digestion process. It was found that AAS treatment had a profound effect mainly on the hydrolysis rate of particulate carbohydrates....

  8. Characterisation of protein families in spider digestive fluids and their role in extra-oral digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, André; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Scavenius, Carsten; Dyrlund, Thomas S; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Enghild, Jan J; Bilde, Trine

    2017-08-10

    Spiders are predaceous arthropods that are capable of subduing and consuming relatively large prey items compared to their own body size. For this purpose, spiders have evolved potent venoms to immobilise prey and digestive fluids that break down nutrients inside the prey's body by means of extra-oral digestion (EOD). Both secretions contain an array of active proteins, and an overlap of some components has been anecdotally reported, but not quantified. We systematically investigated the extent of such protein overlap. As venom injection and EOD succeed each other, we further infer functional explanations, and, by comparing two spider species belonging to different clades, assess its adaptive significance for spider EOD in general. We describe the protein composition of the digestive fluids of the mygalomorph Acanthoscurria geniculata and the araneomorph Stegodyphus mimosarum, in comparison with previously published data on a third spider species. We found a number of similar hydrolases being highly abundant in all three species. Among them, members of the family of astacin-like metalloproteases were particularly abundant. While the importance of these proteases in spider venom and digestive fluid was previously noted, we now highlight their widespread use across different spider taxa. Finally, we found species specific differences in the protein overlap between venom and digestive fluid, with the difference being significantly greater in S. mimosarum compared to A. geniculata. The injection of venom precedes the injection with digestive fluid, and the overlap of proteins between venom and digestive fluid suggests an early involvement in EOD. Species specific differences in the overlap may reflect differences in ecology between our two study species. The protein composition of the digestive fluid of all the three species we compared is highly similar, suggesting that the cocktail of enzymes is highly conserved and adapted to spider EOD.

  9. [Restriction endonuclease digest - melting curve analysis: a new SNP genotyping and its application in traditional Chinese medicine authentication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Hou, Jing-Yi; Wu, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Shu-Fang

    2014-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) is an important molecular marker in traditional Chinese medicine research, and it is widely used in TCM authentication. The present study created a new genotyping method by combining restriction endonuclease digesting with melting curve analysis, which is a stable, rapid and easy doing SNP genotyping method. The new method analyzed SNP genotyping of two chloroplast SNP which was located in or out of the endonuclease recognition site, the results showed that when attaching a 14 bp GC-clamp (cggcgggagggcgg) to 5' end of the primer and selecting suited endonuclease to digest the amplification products, the melting curve of Lonicera japonica and Atractylodes macrocephala were all of double peaks and the adulterants Shan-yin-hua and A. lancea were of single peaks. The results indicated that the method had good stability and reproducibility for identifying authentic medicines from its adulterants. It is a potential SNP genotyping method and named restriction endonuclease digest - melting curve analysis.

  10. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  11. Acid digestion of geological and environmental samples using open-vessel focused microwave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Vivien F; Toms, Andrew; Longerich, Henry P

    2002-01-01

    The application of open vessel focused microwave acid digestion is described for the preparation of geological and environmental samples for analysis using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method is compared to conventional closed-vessel high pressure methods which are limited in the use of HF to break down silicates. Open-vessel acid digestion more conveniently enables the use of HF to remove Si from geological and plant samples as volatile SiF4, as well as evaporation-to-dryness and sequential acid addition during the procedure. Rock reference materials (G-2 granite, MRG-1 gabbros, SY-2 syenite, JA-1 andesite, and JB-2 and SRM-688 basalts) and plant reference materials (BCR and IAEA lichens, peach leaves, apple leaves, Durham wheat flour, and pine needles) were digested with results comparable to conventional hotplate digestion. The microwave digestion method gave poor results for granitic samples containing refractory minerals, however fusion was the preferred method of preparation for these samples. Sample preparation time was reduced from several days, using conventional hotplate digestion method, to one hour per sample using our microwave method.

  12. Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB–digester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lei Zhang,; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Kampman, C.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB–digester system. A pilot scale UASB–digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model

  13. Model assisted startup of anaerobic digesters fed with thermally hydrolysed activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Balthes, C; Barr, K

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the use of the IWA ADM1 to predict and interpret results from two full-scale anaerobic digesters fed with thermal hyrolysate (waste activated sludge with a long upstream sludge age) from a Cambi hydrolysis process operating at 165°C and 6 bar-g. The first digester was fed conventionally-though intermittently, while the second was heavily diluted through a substantial component of the evaluation period (110 days). There were a number of important outcomes-related to both model application, and model predictions. Input and inert COD: mass ratio was very important, and was considerably higher than the 1.42 g g⁻¹ used for biomass throughout the IWA activated sludge and anaerobic digestion models. Input COD: VS ratio was 1.6 g g⁻¹, and inert COD: VS ratio was 1.7 g g⁻¹. The model succeeded on a number of levels, including effective prediction of important outputs (degradability, gas flow and composition, and final solids), clarification of the substantial data scatter, prediction of recovery times during operationally poor periods, and cross-validation of the results between digester 1 and digester 2. Key failures in model performance were related to an early incorrect assumption of the COD: VS ratio of 1.42 g g⁻¹, and intermittent high acetate levels, most likely caused by inhibition, and rapid acclimatisation to ammonia. The acute free ammonia limit was found to be 0.008 M NH(3)-N, while the chronic inhibition constant (K(I,NH₃,ac)) was 0.007 ± 0.001 M NH₃-N. Overall, this is a complex system, and application of the model added significant confidence to the initial operational decisions during an aggressive startup on an atypical feed.

  14. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Digestion of phospholipids after secretion of bile into the duodenum changes the phase behavior of bile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birru, Woldeamanuel A; Warren, Dallas B; Ibrahim, Ahmed; Williams, Hywel D; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Chalmers, David K; Pouton, Colin W

    2014-08-04

    Bile components play a significant role in the absorption of dietary fat, by solubilizing the products of fat digestion. The absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs from the gastrointestinal tract is often enhanced by interaction with the pathways of fat digestion and absorption. These processes can enhance drug absorption. Thus, the phase behavior of bile components and digested lipids is of great interest to pharmaceutical scientists who seek to optimize drug solubilization in the gut lumen. This can be achieved by dosing drugs after food or preferably by formulating the drug in a lipid-based delivery system. Phase diagrams of bile salts, lecithin, and water have been available for many years, but here we investigate the association structures that occur in dilute aqueous solution, in concentrations that are present in the gut lumen. More importantly, we have compared these structures with those that would be expected to be present in the intestine soon after secretion of bile. Phosphatidylcholines are rapidly hydrolyzed by pancreatic enzymes to yield equimolar mixtures of their monoacyl equivalents and fatty acids. We constructed phase diagrams that model the association structures formed by the products of digestion of biliary phospholipids. The micelle-vesicle phase boundary was clearly identifiable by dynamic light scattering and nephelometry. These data indicate that a significantly higher molar ratio of lipid to bile salt is required to cause a transition to lamellar phase (i.e., liposomes in dilute solution). Mixed micelles of digested bile have a higher capacity for solubilization of lipids and fat digestion products and can be expected to have a different capacity to solubilize lipophilic drugs. We suggest that mixtures of lysolecithin, fatty acid, and bile salts are a better model of molecular associations in the gut lumen, and such mixtures could be used to better understand the interaction of drugs with the fat digestion and absorption pathway.

  16. Adaptation of Methanogenic Inocula to Anaerobic Digestion of Maize Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Wojcieszak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion (AD consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage. As initial inocula for AD of maize silage the samples from: (i an agricultural biogas plant (ABP which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii cattle slurry (CS, which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii raw sewage sludge (RSS with low content of plant origin materials were used. The adaptation of methanogenic consortia was monitored during a series of passages, and the functionality of the adapted consortia was verified through start-up operation of AD in two-stage reactors. During the first stages of the adaptation phase, methanogenic consortia occurred very slowly, and only after several passages did the microbial community adapts to allow production of biogas with high methane content. The ABP consortium revealed highest biogas production in the adaptation and in the start-up process. The biodiversity dynamics monitored during adaptation and start-up process showed that community profile changed in a similar direction in three studied consortia. Native communities were very distinct to each other, while at the end of the Phase II of the start-up process microbial diversity profile was similar in all consortia. All adopted bacterial communities were dominated by representatives of Porphyromonadaceae, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Synergistaceae. A shift from low acetate-preferring acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae (ABP and RSS and/or hydrogenotrophic Archaea, e.g., Methanomicrobiaceae (CS prevailing in the inoculum samples to larger populations of high acetate-preferring acetoclastic

  17. Constitutive activation of a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3 in mycosis fungoides: tyrphostin AG490 inhibits Stat3 activation and growth of mycosis fungoides tumor cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K; Nordahl, M

    1997-01-01

    . Jaks link cytokine receptors to Stats, and abnormal Jak/Stat signaling has been observed in some hemopoietic cancers. In MF tumor cells, a slowly migrating isoform of Stat3, Stat3(sm), was found to be constitutively activated, i.e., (i) Stat3(sm) was constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues...... specific. Thus, neither the fast migrating isoform of Stat3 (Stat3(fm)) nor other Stats (Stat1, Stat2, and Stat4 through Stat6) were constitutively activated. The Jak kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin AG490, blocked the constitutive activation of Stat3(sm) and inhibited spontaneous as well as interleukin 2...

  18. Re-recognition of Age-dependent Reference Range for the Serum Creatinine Level in Teenagers - A Case of Slowly Progressive Tubulointerstitial Nephritis which Occurred in an Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Kojiro; Shibata, Eriko; Matsuura, Motokazu; Kishi, Seiji; Inagaki, Taizo; Minato, Masanori; Yoshimoto, Sakiya; Ueda, Sayo; Obata, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Kenji; Tamaki, Masanori; Kishi, Fumi; Murakami, Taichi; Abe, Hideharu; Kinoshita, Yukiko; Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji; Doi, Toshio

    2017-08-15

    For the first time, a 15-year-old boy was found to have a slight degree of proteinuria and microscopic hematuria during annual school urinalysis screening. His kidney function had already severely deteriorated. A kidney biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) with diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration. His medical records showed his serum creatinine level to be 0.98 mg/dL two years ago, which was abnormally high considering his age. Although the etiology of slowly progressive TIN was unclear, glucocorticoid and immunosuppressant therapy improved his kidney function. This case report suggests that all doctors should recognize the reference range for the serum creatinine level in teenagers.

  19. [A case of mixed connective tissue disease positive for proteinase 3 antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody in a patient with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus and chronic thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michitsuji, Tohru; Horai, Yoshiro; Sako, Ayaka; Asano, Taro; Iwanaga, Nozomi; Izumi, Yasumori; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

      A female in her sixties with slowly progressive type 1 diabetes mellitus (SPT1DM) and chronic thyroiditis was referred to our rheumatology department with swelling in her fingers. A prominent atherosclerotic lesion was revealed upon brain magnetic resonance imaging, and she was found to have mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) positive for proteinase 3 (PR3)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA). This rare case of MCTD accompanying SPT1DM and PR3-ANCA suggested that a synergy between MCTD and PR3-ANCA triggers atherosclerosis.

  20. Effect of sorghum flour addition on in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability of durum wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Yousif, Adel M; Johnson, Stuart K; Gamlath, Shirani

    2014-08-01

    Whole grain sorghum is a valuable source of resistant starch and polyphenolic antioxidants and its addition into staple food like pasta may reduce the starch digestibility. However, incorporating nondurum wheat materials into pasta provides a challenge in terms of maintaining cooking quality and consumer acceptability. Pasta was prepared from 100% durum wheat semolina (DWS) as control or by replacing DWS with either wholegrain red sorghum flour (RSF) or white sorghum flour (WSF) each at 20%, 30%, and 40% incorporation levels, following a laboratory-scale procedure. Pasta samples were evaluated for proximate composition, in vitro starch digestibility, cooking quality, and consumer acceptability. The addition of both RSF and WSF lowered the extent of in vitro starch digestion at all substitution levels compared to the control pasta. The rapidly digestible starch was lowered in all the sorghum-containing pastas compared to the control pasta. Neither RSF or WSF addition affected the pasta quality attributes (water absorption, swelling index, dry matter, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and springiness), except color and hardness which were negatively affected. Consumer sensory results indicated that pasta samples containing 20% and 30% RSF or WSF had acceptable palatability based on meeting one or both of the preset acceptability criteria. It is concluded that the addition of wholegrain sorghum flour to pasta at 30% incorporation level is possible to reduce starch digestibility, while maintaining adequate cooking quality and consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Determining the effect of malondialdehyde on the IgE-binding capacity of shrimp tropomyosin upon in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Liangtao; Lin, Hong; Li, Zhenxing; Ahmed, Ishfaq; Chen, Guanzhi

    2017-10-01

    Stability in simulated gastric fluids is considered an important parameter for the estimation of food allergenicity. Moreover, proteins in food are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation during processing and preservation. In this study, the change in the IgE-binding capacity of malondialdehyde (MDA)-treated shrimp tropomyosin (TM) following in vitro digestion was investigated by SDS-PAGE and western blot. Shrimp TM treated with different concentrations of MDA was slightly degraded and became increasingly resistant to pepsin digestion over time. While untreated TM was rapidly degraded, MDA-treated TM showed some resistance and was degraded by trypsin only after increasing the digestion time. Results of immunoblotting studies on IgE using sera from patients allergic to shrimp indicated that the IgE-binding capacity of TM and MDA (50 mmol L -1 )-treated TM decreased slightly after pepsin digestion and significantly decreased after trypsin digestion. The study indicated that the resistance of TM to degradation increased after oxidation. The treatment with proteases, especially trypsin, is quite effective in decreasing the IgG/IgE-binding capacity of shrimp TM. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of volatile and acid accumulation in dung digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajagopal, G; Pathak, B N

    1966-01-01

    In continuation of laboratory experiments on the anaerobic digestion of cow dung experiments were carried out to determine the limiting concentrations of volatile acids and to investigate methods of regenerating digestion after failure. Volatile acids were increased by adding acetic acid to digesting dung slurry; digestion failed completely when volatile-acid concentration was 6194 mg per litre, at pH 4.4. Attempts were made to regenerate digestion by adding lime, after dilution with water, but although over a period the volatile-acid content was reduced from 5650 to 3730 mg per litre, and the pH value rose on average from 4.5 to 6.3, gas production remained at a low value until additional digested slurry was introduced, leading to resumption of normal digestion.

  3. Solid anaerobic digestion batch with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste: Comparison of system performances and identification of microbial guilds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Barratta, Martino; Bianconi, Francesco; Placidi, Pisana; Passeri, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Solid anaerobic digestion batch (SADB) with liquid digestate recirculation and wet anaerobic digestion of organic waste were experimentally investigated. SADB was operated at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.55kgVS/m 3 day, generating about 252NL CH 4 /kgVS, whereas the wet digester was operated at an OLR of 0.9kgVS/m 3 day, generating about 320NL CH 4 /kgVS. The initial total volatile fatty acids concentrations for SADB and wet digestion were about 12,500mg/L and 4500mg/L, respectively. There were higher concentrations of ammonium and COD for the SADB compared to the wet one. The genomic analysis performed by high throughput sequencing returned a number of sequences for each sample ranging from 110,619 to 373,307. More than 93% were assigned to the Bacteria domain. Seven and nine major phyla were sequenced for the SADB and wet digestion, respectively, with Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria being the dominant phyla in both digesters. Taxonomic profiles suggested a methanogenic pathway characterized by a relevant syntrophic acetate-oxidizing metabolism mainly in the liquid digestate of the SADB. This result also confirms the benefits of liquid digestate recirculation for improving the efficiency of AD performed with high solids (>30%w/w) content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Digestão dos carboidratos de alimentos volumosos em eqüinos Digestion of carbohydrates of forages in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane da Silva Morgado

    2009-01-01

    , peanut forage (Arachis pintoi, desmodio (Desmodium ovalifolium, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lime-yellow pea (Macrotyloma axillare, stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis e coastcross (Cynodon dactylon, evaluated with the mobile nylon bag technique. In assay 2, four horses were allotted to a 4 × 4 Latin Square design and fed with coastcross hay with four different processed forms with the objective of evaluating whether a reduction of the particle size affected the carbohydrate digestibility. Results showed that horses had high digestion of non-fibrous carbohydrate and hydrolysable carbohydrate and rapidly fermentable carbohydrate fractions of forages. Among the forages analyzed, peanut forage, stylo and lime-yellow pea, presented high nutrient digestibility, and the peanut forage nutrients presented digestibility above 70%, demonstrating potential to be used in diets for horses. The coastcross hay processing in different grinding degrees does not affect the fibrous and non-fibrous carbohydrate fractions digestibility. Analysis of fibrous and non-fibrous carbohydrate fractions is a good indicative of nutritional value of feeds, and could be included in the evaluation of the quality of diets for horses.

  5. Anaerobic digestion coupled with digestate injection reduced odour emissions from soil during manure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzi, V; Riva, C; Scaglia, B; D'Imporzano, G; Tambone, F; Adani, F

    2018-04-15

    This work aimed to measure the odour impact of untreated cow and pig slurries and treated (digestate and liquid fraction of digestate) manures when they were used on soil at a field scale, while also testing different spreading methods, i.e. surface vs. injection. Five experiments were performed in 2012-2016 on different farms. Odours were quantitatively (specific odour emission rate - SOER) (OU E m -2 h -1 ) measured by using dynamic olfactometry and qualitatively, i.e. to obtain an "odour fingerprint", by using an electronic nose (EN). Anaerobic digestion was effective in allowing the reduction of potential odour emission from digestates, so that when they were dosed on soil, odours emitted were much lower than those from soils on which untreated slurries were used. Slurries/digestate injection reduced much more odour emitted by soils so that SOER tended to become more similar to that of the control (untreated soil) although the odours were slightly greater. Odour fingerprint data indicated that there was a direct correlation between SOER and odour fingerprints. This was due to the ability of EN to detect ammonia, S-compounds and methane that were (the first two mainly), also, responsible for odours. Very good regression was found for Log SOER and EN by using a Partial Least Square (PLS) approach (R 2 =0.73; R 2 cv =0.66; Pfingerprints for control (Blank) and injected organic matrices were virtually identical, due to the creation of cavities in the soil during the injection that decreased the treated surface. Anaerobic digestion and subsequent digestate injection allowed us to reduce odour impact, avoiding annoyance to local inhabitants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Aqueous Ammonia soaking of digested manure fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirtsou-Xanthopoulou, Chrysoula; Jurado, Esperanza; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The continuously increasing demand for renewable energy sources renders anaerobic digestion to one of the most promising technologies for renewable energy production. Due to the animal production intensification, manure is being used as the primary feedstock for most of the biogas plants. Thus...... in methane yield as the highest concentrations tested; it is anticipated that this will result to an even lower cost for recovery and recycling of ammonia in full-scale. Moreover, the effect of 1, 3, and 5 days AAS treatment on methane production from digested fibers was investigated with 5 and 25% w....../w reagent concentrations in ammonia. It was shown that the optimal duration among the ones tested was the three days for both reagent concentrations....

  7. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest 1992 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.

    1992-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest provides a summary of information about the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. This digest is a compilation of nuclear- and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1991, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating US commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the licensee. This information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed

  8. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  9. Carcinoids tumors of the digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, S.M.R. de; Prais, M.; Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen cases of carcinoid tumors in the digestive tract have been analyzed. They have been selected at Hospital dos Servidores do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, taking into account patients, age and sex, lesions' location and size, clinical manifestations, presence of metastases as well as a classical carcinoid syndrome establisment. Carcinoid tumors come from the digestive tract 'argenta fim'' cells, the ones which produce endocrines. Such endocrines are responsible for a great number of clinical manifestations. The classical syndrome is directly related to the presence of hepatic metastases. The authors propose to correlate what has been found with descriptions in medical literature emphasizing the radiographic aspects which have been observed. A frequent ''apendicular'' location and the difficulty of giving a precise diagnosis before surgery is also emphasized. (author) [pt

  10. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  11. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayr, S.; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH 3 inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m 3 d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 -N and/or free NH 3 ) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m 3 d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm 3 /kg VS fed . On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm 3 /kg VS fed ). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials

  12. Long-term thermophilic mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion with potato pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayr, S., E-mail: suvi.bayr@jyu.fi; Ojanperä, M.; Kaparaju, P.; Rintala, J.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Rendering wastes’ mono-digestion and co-digestion with potato pulp were studied. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was unstable in mono-digestion. • Free NH{sub 3} inhibited mono-digestion of rendering wastes. • CSTR process with OLR of 1.5 kg VS/m{sup 3} d, HRT of 50 d was stable in co-digestion. • Co-digestion increased methane yield somewhat compared to mono-digestion. - Abstract: In this study, mono-digestion of rendering wastes and co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp were studied for the first time in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments at 55 °C. Rendering wastes have high protein and lipid contents and are considered good substrates for methane production. However, accumulation of digestion intermediate products viz., volatile fatty acids (VFAs), long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 4}-N and/or free NH{sub 3}) can cause process imbalance during the digestion. Mono-digestion of rendering wastes at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 kg volatile solids (VS)/m{sup 3} d and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 50 d was unstable and resulted in methane yields of 450 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}. On the other hand, co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp (60% wet weight, WW) at the same OLR and HRT improved the process stability and increased methane yields (500–680 dm{sup 3}/kg VS{sub fed}). Thus, it can be concluded that co-digestion of rendering wastes with potato pulp could improve the process stability and methane yields from these difficult to treat industrial waste materials.

  13. Video Games and Children. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarone, Bernard

    This digest examines data on video game use by children, explains ratings of video game violence, and reviews research on the effects of video games on children and adolescents. A recent study of seventh and eighth graders found that 65% of males and 57% of females played 1 to 6 hours of video games at home per week, and 38% of males and 16% of…

  14. American Laundry Digest Buyer's Guide. Manufacturers directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-15

    The following is the annual American Laundry Digest Buyer's Guide which is being circulated to all segments of the laundry industry. The Guide contains a list of manufacturers who responded to our questionnaire. This is followed by a list of product categories and the various manufacturers who make these products. You may contact these companies directly or by using the reader service card in this issue.

  15. Digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rani

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrates in Arctic charr, Eurasian perch and tilapia. Two sources of carbohydrates, native starch (wheat) and chitin (zygomycete biomass), were evaluated. Gut tissue of Arctic charr displayed significant chitinase activity, of both endo- and exo-chitinase forms. Moreover, the distribution pattern along the gastrointestinal tract of Arctic charr differed between endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase. The endo-chitinase activity in sto...

  16. Development of the Digestive System-Experimental Challenges and Approaches of Infant Lipid Digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Evan; Minekus, Mans; van Aken, George A; van de Heijning, Bert; Knol, Jan; Bartke, Nana; Oozeer, Raish; van der Beek, Eline M; Ludwig, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    At least during the first 6 months after birth, the nutrition of infants should ideally consist of human milk which provides 40-60 % of energy from lipids. Beyond energy, human milk also delivers lipids with a specific functionality, such as essential fatty acids (FA), phospholipids, and cholesterol. Healthy development, especially of the nervous and digestive systems, depends fundamentally on these. Epidemiological data suggest that human milk provides unique health benefits during early infancy that extend to long-lasting benefits. Preclinical findings show that qualitative changes in dietary lipids, i.e., lipid structure and FA composition, during early life may contribute to the reported long-term effects. Little is known in this respect about the development of digestive function and the digestion and absorption of lipids by the newborn. This review gives a detailed overview of the distinct functionalities that dietary lipids from human milk and infant formula provide and the profound differences in the physiology and biochemistry of lipid digestion between infants and adults. Fundamental mechanisms of infant lipid digestion can, however, almost exclusively be elucidated in vitro. Experimental approaches and their challenges are reviewed in depth.

  17. Disintegration impact on sludge digestion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauknys, Regimantas; Rimeika, Mindaugas; Jankeliūnaitė, Eglė; Mažeikienė, Aušra

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic sludge digestion is a widely used method for sludge stabilization in wastewater treatment plant. This process can be improved by applying the sludge disintegration methods. As the sludge disintegration is not investigated enough, an analysis of how the application of thermal hydrolysis affects the sludge digestion process based on full-scale data was conducted. The results showed that the maximum volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction reached the value of 65% independently on the application of thermal hydrolysis. The average VSS destruction increased by 14% when thermal hydrolysis was applied. In order to have the maximum VSS reduction and biogas production, it is recommended to keep the maximum defined VSS loading of 5.7 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the thermal hydrolysis is applied and to keep the VSS loading between 2.1-2.4 kg VSS/m(3)/d when the disintegration of sludge is not applied. The application of thermal hydrolysis leads to an approximately 2.5 times higher VSS loading maintenance comparing VSS loading without the disintegration; therefore, digesters with 1.8 times smaller volume is required.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes: laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Donaldson, T.L.

    1984-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 10 references, 17 figures, 4 tables

  19. Characterization of biochar prepared from biogas digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Yi; Tsai, Wen-Tien; Chen, Jie-Wei; Lin, Yu-Quan; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2017-08-01

    In the study, the biogas digestate was evaluated as a potential feedstock for preparing biochars at a broad temperature range of 300-900°C. The physico-chemical and pore properties of the resulting biochars (denoted as SDBC, solid digestate biochar), including calorific value (higher heating value), surface area/pore volume/pore size distribution, true density, scanning electron microscopy - energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), were studied. It was found that the higher heating values of the SDBC products were on a decreasing trend as pyrolysis temperature increased, but they indicated an increase in true density. The results are probably associated with the active pyrolysis of the lignocellulosic fragments and the calcination (or shrinkage) processes, thus resulting in the increased contents of aromatic carbon clusters and main mineral constituents remained. Based on the pore properties, pyrolysis temperature at around 800°C seemed to be the optimal condition for producing SDBC, where its Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) surface area (>100m 2 /g) largely increased as compared to that of the digestate feedstock (700°C) due to the high aromaticity via the thermal decomposition of lignocelluloses and the volatilization of inorganic minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest: 1993 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission Information Digest (digest) provides a summary of information about the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), NRC's regulatory responsibilities, the activities NRC licenses, and general information on domestic and worldwide nuclear energy. The digest, published annually, is a compilation of nuclear- and NRC-related data and is designed to provide a quick reference to major facts about the agency and the industry it regulates. In general, the data cover 1975 through 1992, with exceptions noted. Information on generating capacity and average capacity factor for operating U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors is obtained from monthly operating reports that are submitted directly to the NRC by the licensee. This information is reviewed by the NRC for consistency only and no independent validation and/or verification is performed. Comments and/or suggestions on the data presented are welcomed and should be directed to Karen Olive, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of the Controller, Division of Budget and Analysis, Washington, D.C. 20555. For detailed and complete information about tables and figures, refer to the source publications

  1. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a frequent complication after intestinal resection in infants suffering from intestinal disease. We tested whether treatment with the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) increases intestinal volume and function in the period immediately following in...

  2. Glucagon-like peptide-2 induces rapid digestive adaptation following intestinal resection in preterm neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegge, Andreas; Thymann, Thomas; Lund, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    increased the relative absorption of wet weight (46 vs. 22%), energy (79 vs. 64%), and all macronutrients (all parameters P ... and protein contents and increased total protein synthesis rate in SBS+GLP-2 vs. SBS pigs (+100%, P macronutrients. GLP-2 treatment may...

  3. Quality assessment of digested sludges produced by advanced stabilization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braguglia, C M; Coors, A; Gallipoli, A; Gianico, A; Guillon, E; Kunkel, U; Mascolo, G; Richter, E; Ternes, T A; Tomei, M C; Mininni, G

    2015-05-01

    The European Union (EU) Project Routes aimed to discover new routes in sludge stabilization treatments leading to high-quality digested sludge, suitable for land application. In order to investigate the impact of different enhanced sludge stabilization processes such as (a) thermophilic digestion integrated with thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (TT), (b) sonication before mesophilic/thermophilic digestion (UMT), and (c) sequential anaerobic/aerobic digestion (AA) on digested sludge quality, a broad class of conventional and emerging organic micropollutants as well as ecotoxicity was analyzed, extending the assessment beyond the parameters typically considered (i.e., stability index and heavy metals). The stability index was improved by adding aerobic posttreatment or by operating dual-stage process but not by pretreatment integration. Filterability was worsened by thermophilic digestion, either alone (TT) or coupled with mesophilic digestion (UMT). The concentrations of heavy metals, present in ranking order Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr ~ Ni > Cd > Hg, were always below the current legal requirements for use on land and were not removed during the processes. Removals of conventional and emerging organic pollutants were greatly enhanced by performing double-stage digestion (UMT and AA treatment) compared to a single-stage process as TT; the same trend was found as regards toxicity reduction. Overall, all the digested sludges exhibited toxicity to the soil bacterium Arthrobacter globiformis at concentrations about factor 100 higher than the usual application rate of sludge to soil in Europe. For earthworms, a safety margin of factor 30 was generally achieved for all the digested samples.

  4. Environmental assessment of digestate treatment technologies using LCA methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Golkowska, Katarzyna; Lebuf, Viooltje; Vaneeckhaute, Céline; Michels, Evi; Meers, Erik; Benetto, Enrico; Koster, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The production of biogas from energy crops, organic waste and manure has augmented considerably the amounts of digestate available in Flanders. This has pushed authorities to steadily introduce legislative changes to promote its use as a fertilising agent. There is limited arable land in Flanders, which entails that digestate has to compete with animal manure to be spread. This forces many anaerobic digestion plants to further treat digestate in such a way that it can either be exported or the nitrogen be removed. Nevertheless, the environmental impact of these treatment options is still widely unknown, as well as the influence of these impacts on the sustainability of Flemish anaerobic digestion plants in comparison to other regions where spreading of raw digestate is allowed. Despite important economic aspects that must be considered, the use of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is suggested in this study to identify the environmental impacts of spreading digestate directly as compared to four different treatment technologies. Results suggest relevant environmental gains when the digestate mix is treated using the examined conversion technologies prior to spreading, although important trade-offs between impact categories were observed and discussed. The promising results of digestate conversion technologies suggest that further LCA analyses should be performed to delve into, for instance, the appropriateness to shift to nutrient recovery technologies rather than digestate conversion treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of biowastes; Biojaetteen anaerobinen hajottaminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M. [Haeme Polytechnic, Haemeenlinna (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    Caused by the demand for potential treatment options for biowastes, an interest on anaerobic digestion (AD) technology, i.e. biogasification, has clearly being increasing in Finland. There has been a need to increase knowledge and offer research facilities for the companies and other parties concerned. In this project, first, research and analytical facilities for AD studies were set up and tested. A mixture of a nitrogen rich waste (poultry slaughterhouse waste, PSHW) and a carbon rich waste (modified potato starch waste, PSW) was selected for the codigestion studies with sewage sludge (SS). The codigestion was studied in thermophilic lab-scale digesters (2x10 and 30 liters), and the startup of thermophilic digestion was clarified, in general. Typically, the PSHW must be treated at low load and long retention time due to the high concentration of lipids and proteins and their potential toxic degradation products such as long-chained fatty acids (LCFAs) and ammonia. The codigestion can help in lowering the effects of these toxic compounds. In this work, based on the experiments in 10 liters reactors fed with a fixed mixture of 2% PSHW, 8% PSW and 90% of SS, high loads of 2-4 kgVS/m3d and SRTs of 30 to 15 days could be applied. Good VS destruction could be achieved with 30 d SRT (76%) and 20 d SRT (55%). Based on the tests in 30 liters reactor fed with a varied mixture of the above mentioned wastes, high load of 4,8 kgVS/m{sup 3}d and SRT of 22 days with a mixture of 10% PSHW, 14% PSW and 76% of SS was also successfully applied. This resulted in the biogas production of about 0,7 Nm3/kgVSfed and VS reduction of around 70%. The critical process parameters were monitored in order to avoid the overloading of these digestion processes. The startup of thermophilic reactors with mesophilic digested sludge as inocula was successfully demonstrated. The findings increased the understanding and learned to control the startup and loading of AD processes thus encouraging the

  6. Determination of denaturated proteins and biotoxins by on-line size-exclusion chromatography-digestion-liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carol, J.; Gorseling, M.C.J.K.; Jong, C.F. de; Lingeman, H.; Kientz, C.E.; Baar, B.L.M. van; Irth, H.

    2005-01-01

    A multidimensional analytical method for the rapid determination and identification of proteins has been developed. The method is based on the size-exclusion fractionation of protein-containing samples, subsequent on-line trypsin digestion and desalination, and reversed-phase high-performance liquid

  7. Influence of phase separation on the anaerobic digestion of glucose-II stability, and kinetic responses to shock loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A; Breure, A M; Van Andel, J G; Van Deursen, A

    1982-01-01

    A mineral medium, containing 1% (w/v) glucose as the main carbon source, was subjected to one-phase and to two-phase anaerobic digestion processes under comparable conditions. The one-phase system consisted of an anaerobic up-flow reactor containing both acidogenic as well as methanogenic populations. The two-phase system consisted of an acid reactor and a methane reactor connected in series allowing sequential acidogenesis and methanogenesis of the glucose. After maximum turnover rates of glucose had been attained in both systems, by gradually increasing feed supply rate, both systems were switched to the batch mode and subjected to shock loadings with glucose or fatty acids. Maximum specific turnover rates of fatty acids in the one-phase process averaged 0.39 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)-g biomass/sup -1/ d/sup -1/ and 2.23 g g/sup -1/ d/sup -1/ for the methane reactor of the two-phase system. Charging the one-phase system with doses of glucose resulted mainly in an accumulation of propionate which was degraded relatively slowly. It was concluded that interspecies hydrogen transfer may become rate limiting at high loading rates, stimulating formation of propionate. Therefore a two-phase system, as compared with a one-phase digestion process for easily hydrolyzable carbohyrates, was characterized as being essentially the more stable.

  8. Digesters and demographics: identifying support for anaerobic digesters on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, D J; Roberts, M C; Ernst, S C; Thraen, C S

    2010-11-01

    The dairy industry in the United States is amidst a long-running trend toward fewer, larger dairy farms. This development has created a backlash in some communities over concerns such as odor, waste management, and environmental degradation. Separately, anaerobic digestion has advanced as a waste management technology that potentially offers solutions to some of these issues, providing odor control and a combustible biogas among other things. These digesters require significant capital investments. Voluntary consumer premiums for the renewable energy produced have been used in some instances as a means to move adoption of such systems toward financial feasibility. This project employed a survey to measure Ohio consumers' willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy produced by anaerobic digesters on dairy farms. Cluster analysis was used to segment consumers by willingness to pay, age, education, income, self-identified political inclination, and a composite variable that served as a proxy for respondents' environmental stewardship. Four distinctive groups emerged from the data. Older, less educated respondents were found to have the least amount of support for digesters on dairy farms, whereas politically liberal, environmentally proactive respondents demonstrated the strongest support. Well-educated, affluent respondents and young respondents fell between these 2 groups. Most large dairy farms are generally met with fairly negative responses from their local communities; in contrast, this research finds some popular support for anaerobic digestion technology. Going forward, establishing a positive link between support for anaerobic digesters and for their use on large dairies could open up a new route for less-contested large dairy farm developments. Evaluation of community demographics could become an important part of finding an optimal location for a large dairy farm. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  9. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  11. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  13. Domestic solid waste and sewage improvement by anaerobic digestion: A stirred digester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrato, J.; Perez-Rodriguez, J.L. [CSIC-UNSE, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, Sevilla (Spain); Maqueda, C. [CSIC Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-05-01

    The processing of the mixture of domestic solid waste and domestic sewage in an stirring digester was studied. The experimental set up consisted of six thermostatically controlled digesters of 1 l, each one in a bath at 35{+-}1oC and magnetically stirred. The best feeding for the culture was 1.7 g COD l{sup -1} day{sup -1}. The minimum hydraulic retention time was 6 days. The efficiency in COD removal of treatment varied between 90.1% and 72.4%. The biogas productivity was 0.19 l g{sup -1} COD day{sup -1}

  14. United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff Practice and Procedure Digest. Digest No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This second edition of the NRC Staff Practice and Procedure Digest contains a digest of a number of Commission, Atomic Safety and Licensing Appeal Board and Atomic Safety and Licensing Board decisions issued during the period from July 1, 1972 to March 31, 1978 interpreting the NRC's Rules of Practice in 10 CFR Part 2. This second edition replaces the first edition and its supplements and includes appropriate changes reflecting the recent amendments to the Rules of Practice which became effective on May 26, 1978

  15. [Digestive and extra-digestive complications of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Preventive and curative strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternon, J; Adler, M

    1997-04-01

    The authors review the digestive ulceration risk factors and the criteria for selecting a non steroidal antiinflammatory (NSAI), included the most recent drugs, such as selective anti-cyclo-oxygenases 2. They actualize the preventive strategies and insist on the values of misoprostol and of slow acting anti-rheumatic drugs. In the case of digestive ulcerations, they plead for the immediate stop of the NSAI and its replacement if necessary by corticosteroids, for the prescription of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) or mesalazine according to the localisation of the lesion, finally for the eradication within 8 days of Helicobacter pylori.

  16. Optimizing survival outcomes for adult patients with nontraumatic cardiac arrest [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Julianna; Zaurova, Milana

    2016-10-22

    Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm. Management of cardiac arrest in circumstances such as pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, opioid overdose and other toxicologic causes, hypothermia, and coronary ischemia are also reviewed. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  17. Toxic alcohol ingestion: prompt recognition and management in the emergency department [digest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gillian A; Valento, Matthew; Kim, Jeremy

    2016-09-22

    Identifying patients with potential toxic alcohol exposure and initiating appropriate management is critical to avoid significant patient morbidity. Sources of toxic alcohol exposure include ethylene glycol, methanol, diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, and isopropanol. Treatment considerations include the antidotes fomepizole and ethanol, and hemodialysis for removal of the parent compound and its toxic metabolites. Additional interventions include adjunctive therapies that may improve acidosis and enhance clearance of the toxic alcohol or metabolites. This issue reviews common sources of alcohol exposure, basic mechanisms of toxicity, physical examination and laboratory findings that may guide rapid assessment and management, and indications for treatment. [Points & Pearls is a digest of Emergency Medicine Practice].

  18. Soil sample preparation using microwave digestion for uranium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Preston, Rose; Akbarzadeh, Mansoor; Bakthiar, Steven

    2000-01-01

    A new sample preparation procedure has been developed for digestion of soil samples for uranium analysis. The technique employs a microwave oven digestion system to digest the sample and to prepare it for separation chemistry and analysis. The method significantly reduces the volume of acids used, eliminates a large fraction of acid vapor emissions, and speeds up the analysis time. The samples are analyzed by four separate techniques: Gamma Spectrometry, Alpha Spectroscopy using the open digestion method, Kinetic Phosphorescence Analysis (KPA) using open digestion, and KPA by Microwave digestion technique. The results for various analytical methods are compared and used to confirm the validity of the new procedure. The details of the preparation technique along with its benefits are discussed

  19. Rirang Uranium Ore Processing System Design: Agitated Digester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erni, R.A.; Susilaningtyas

    1996-01-01

    A closed tank digester equipped with a pitched blades turbine agitator has been designed to facilities Rirang uranium ore dissolution using concentrated sulphuric acid at high temperature. The digester was designed to accommodate the digestion of 6 kg of-65 mesh ore at 200 o C, acid resistant material (SS-3 16). It has the dimension of 33 cm high, 22 cm diameter, and elliptical bottom and height of 4 cm. Moreover, the dimension of the 4 blades agitator is as follows: 8 cm long, 1,6 cm blades width. The distance between the blades and digester required 0, 007 Hp for a 500 rpm agitation speed and + 24. 103 kcal energy equipment for heating. Digestion experiment using the agitated digester yielded data that are in good agreement with laboratory scale experiment

  20. Acid digestion of combustible wastes: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1975-05-01

    Work at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory on development of the acid digestion process for treating combustible wastes is discussed. Materials such as paper, rubber, and plastics are readily decomposed into a low volume, noncombustible residue. Engineering results using the Acid Digestion Test Unit are discussed. Tests to date generally duplicated earlier laboratory results with respect to waste processing rates, volume reduction, off-gas generation rates and volumes, acid consumption, and completeness of reaction. Demonstrated processing rates were as high as 5 kg/hr for short duration run periods. The tests indicated engineering feasibility of the acid digestion process and showed acid digestion to be a potentially attractive method for treating combustible nuclear wastes. Other areas discussed in the report are behavior of plutonium and americium during acid digestion, behavior of various construction materials, and safety. An integrated flowsheet for operation of an acid digestion unit is also presented. (U.S.)