WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly developing urban

  1. The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of Nyanya, Federal Capital ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... unaffordable health care facilities, poor environmental health and traffic congestion on the ...

  2. Evaluation of urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern in a rapidly developing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Dai, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Urban sprawl is a worldwide phenomenon happening particularly in rapidly developing regions. A study on the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and urban pattern is useful for the sustainable management of land management and urban land planning. The present research explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl in the context of a rapid urbanization process in a booming economic region of southern China from 1979 to 2005. Three urban sprawl types are distinguished by analyzing overlaid urban area maps of two adjacent study years which originated from the interpretation of remote sensed images and vector land use maps. Landscape metrics are used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl for each study period. Study results show that urban areas have expanded dramatically, and the spatiotemporal landscape pattern configured by the three sprawl types changed obviously. The different sprawl type patterns in five study periods have transformed significantly, with their proportions altered both in terms of quantity and of location. The present research proves that urban sprawl quantification and pattern analysis can provide a clear perspective of the urbanization process during a long time period. Particularly, the present study on urban sprawl and sprawl patterns can be used by land use and urban planners.

  3. The Rapid Urban Growth Triad: A New Conceptual Framework for Examining the Urban Transition in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Farrell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the urban transition is a universal event that unfolds in all countries, the determinants, patterns, and outcomes do not necessarily follow a uniform process. With the urban transition being basically completed in developed countries around the turn of the 21st century, the growth of cities today is almost entirely confined to developing countries. Still, much of our conceptual understanding of this process is derived from earlier accounts, with definitions rooted in a historical context. This has resulted in common misconceptions such as a tendency to view the growth of cities primarily as an outcome of rural to urban migration, neglecting the growing contributions of urban natural population increase and reclassification of rural areas. A tendency to treat the components of urban growth in isolation has created a rift within the urban studies discourse, preventing any real theorization of their combined impacts and the interplay among them. Applying a systems thinking approach, this paper introduces a multidisciplinary framework for conceptualizing rapid urban growth in developing countries. The framework offers explanatory power to previously neglected components of urban growth and serves as a diagnostic for examining the urban transition—ultimately revealing new policy levers for managing it in a sustainable way.

  4. Identification of pollutant sources in a rapidly developing urban river catchment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.

  5. Bus Rapid Transit system’s influence on urban development: An inquiry to Boston and Seoul BRT systems’ technical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogi, Lutfi

    2018-03-01

    This article explores the relation between bus rapid transit (BRT) system and urban development. This article was written through a multi-staged comprehensive literature review. It includes a general overview of widely acknowledged BRT technical characteristics. It explains the approach taken in understanding the relation between BRT system provision and urban development around the system. Findings regarding the influence of Boston Silver Line 4 and 5 and Seoul BRT systems on urban development around the systems are quoted and used as case studies. Investigation on the technical characteristics of Boston SL4/5 and Seoul BRT systems are provided. This article shows that the two BRT systems that influence urban development around the systems have technical characteristics that enable the BRT systems to have high performance. However, while the quoted BRT systems can influence urban development, they have significantly different performance.

  6. Payments for carbon sequestration to alleviate development pressure in a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Dorning, Monica; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Méley, Andréanne; Dupey, Lauren; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine individuals' willingness to enroll in voluntary payments for carbon sequestration programs through the use of a discrete choice experiment delivered to forest owners living in the rapidly urbanizing region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We examined forest owners' willingness to enroll in payments for carbon sequestration policies under different levels of financial incentives (annual revenue), different contract lengths, and different program administrators (e.g., private companies versus a state or federal agency). We also examined the influence forest owners' sense of place had on their willingness to enroll in hypothetical programs. Our results showed a high level of ambivalence toward participating in payments for carbon sequestration programs. However, both financial incentives and contract lengths significantly influenced forest owners' intent to enroll. Neither program administration nor forest owners' sense of place influenced intent to enroll. Although our analyses indicated that payments from carbon sequestration programs are not currently competitive with the monetary returns expected from timber harvest or property sales, certain forest owners might see payments for carbon sequestration programs as a viable option for offsetting increasing tax costs as development encroaches and property values rise.

  7. Urban flood risk warning under rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yangbo; Zhou, Haolan; Zhang, Hui; Du, Guoming; Zhou, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    In the past decades, China has observed rapid urbanization, the nation's urban population reached 50% in 2000, and is still in steady increase. Rapid urbanization in China has an adverse impact on urban hydrological processes, particularly in increasing the urban flood risks and causing serious urban flooding losses. Urban flooding also increases health risks such as causing epidemic disease break out, polluting drinking water and damaging the living environment. In the highly urbanized area, non-engineering measurement is the main way for managing urban flood risk, such as flood risk warning. There is no mature method and pilot study for urban flood risk warning, the purpose of this study is to propose the urban flood risk warning method for the rapidly urbanized Chinese cities. This paper first presented an urban flood forecasting model, which produces urban flood inundation index for urban flood risk warning. The model has 5 modules. The drainage system and grid dividing module divides the whole city terrain into drainage systems according to its first-order river system, and delineates the drainage system into grids based on the spatial structure with irregular gridding technique; the precipitation assimilation module assimilates precipitation for every grids which is used as the model input, which could either be the radar based precipitation estimation or interpolated one from rain gauges; runoff production module classifies the surface into pervious and impervious surface, and employs different methods to calculate the runoff respectively; surface runoff routing module routes the surface runoff and determines the inundation index. The routing on surface grid is calculated according to the two dimensional shallow water unsteady flow algorithm, the routing on land channel and special channel is calculated according to the one dimensional unsteady flow algorithm. This paper then proposed the urban flood risk warning method that is called DPSIR model based

  8. Why rapid urbanization process cannot improve employment absorption capacity of service industry in China – also on the interactive mode innovation between service industry development with urbanization under the background of transformation and upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Shi-hong; Xia, Jie-chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: China is experiencing rapid urbanization and service industrial developement. Methods: In this paper, the relationship between urbanization and service employment is studied by using mathematical model and econometric test method. Results: This paper documents that there is a significant positive correlation between rapid urbanization process and services absorbing employment ability by the regression result using time-series data since China's reform and opening up. China's urban...

  9. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. - Highlights: • PFASs were detected in the soil of rapidly developing coastal regions in China. • PFAS concentrations ranged from LOQ to 13.97 ng/g dw, with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. • Higher concentrations of PFASs correspond to higher levels of urbanization. • Existence of fluorine industry induced PFAS pollutions dominated by PFOA and PFOS. • Intensive urbanization caused increasing emission of industrial and domestic PFASs. - Among urban, suburban and rural areas in the coasts, soils from urban area showed high degrees of PFASs contamination with the existence of industrial emissions dominated by PFOA and PFOS

  10. Rapid urbanization, employment crisis and poverty in African LDCs:A new development strategy and aid policy

    OpenAIRE

    Herrmann, Michael; Khan, Haider

    2008-01-01

    Rapid urbanization is a fact of live even in the least developed countries (LDCs) where the lion’s share of the population presently lives in rural areas and will continue to do so for decades to come. At the turn of the millennium 75% of the LDCs’ population still lived in rural areas and 71% of the LDCs’ labor force was involved in agriculture. But even though the largest share of their population lives in rural areas and directly or indirectly derives their livelihoods from agriculture, a ...

  11. The Health Penalty of China's Rapid Urbanization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Van de Poel (Ellen); O.A. O'Donnell (Owen); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid urbanization could have positive and negative health effects, such that the net impact on population health is not obvious. It is, however, highly pertinent to the human welfare consequences of development. This paper uses community and individual level longitudinal data from the

  12. Reducing health risks from indoor exposures in rapidly developing urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Weschler, Charles J

    2013-07-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a large migration of China's population from rural to urban regions. At the same time, residences in cities have changed in character from single-story or low-rise buildings to high-rise structures constructed and furnished with many synthetic materials. As a consequence, indoor exposures (to pollutants with outdoor and indoor sources) have changed significantly. We briefly discuss the inferred impact that urbanization and modernization have had on indoor exposures and public health in China. We argue that growing adverse health costs associated with these changes are not inevitable, and we present steps that could be taken to reduce indoor exposures to harmful pollutants. As documented by China's Ministry of Health, there have been significant increases in morbidity and mortality among urban residents over the past 20 years. Evidence suggests that the population's exposure to air pollutants has contributed to increases in lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and birth defects. Whether a pollutant has an outdoor or an indoor source, most exposure to the pollutant occurs indoors. Going forward, indoor exposures can be reduced by limiting the ingress of outdoor pollutants (while providing adequate ventilation with clean air), minimizing indoor sources of pollutants, updating government policies related to indoor pollution, and addressing indoor air quality during a building's initial design. Taking the suggested steps could lead to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality, greatly reducing the societal costs associated with pollutant derived ill health.

  13. Reducing Health Risks from Indoor Exposures in Rapidly Developing Urban China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Weschler, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    associated with these changes are not inevitable, and we present steps that could be taken to reduce indoor exposures to harmful pollutants. Discussion: As documented by China's Ministry of Health, there have been significant increases in morbidity and mortality among urban residents over the past 20 years...... exposures can be reduced by limiting the ingress of outdoor pollutants (while providing adequate ventilation with clean air), minimizing indoor sources of pollutants, updating government policies related to indoor pollution, and addressing indoor air quality during a building's initial design. Conclusions......: Taking the suggested steps could lead to significant reductions in morbidity and mortality, greatly reducing the societal costs associated with pollutant derived ill health....

  14. Imagining Identities: Young People Constructing Discourses of Race, Ethnicity, and Community in a Contentious Context of Rapid Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario, Maria L.

    2017-01-01

    This article uses a critical sociohistorical lens to discuss and explain examples of the ways in which young people reflect, refract, and contribute to discourses of gentrification, displacement, and racial, ethnic, and geographic community identity building in a rapidly changing urban neighborhood. The article explores examples from open-ended…

  15. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  16. Distribution and source analysis of heavy metal pollutants in sediments of a rapid developing urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Qu, Liyin; Wang, Ting; Luo, Lili; Chen, Han; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua; Mei, Kun; Huang, Hong

    2018-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution of aquatic environments in rapidly developing industrial regions is of considerable global concern due to its potential to cause serious harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. This study assessed heavy metal contamination of sediments in a highly industrialized urban watershed of eastern China containing several historically unregulated manufacturing enterprises. Total concentrations and solid-phase fractionation of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were investigated for 39 river sediments using multivariate statistical analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR) methods to quantitatively examine the relationship between land use and heavy metal pollution at the watershed scale. Results showed distinct spatial patterns of heavy metal contamination within the watershed, such as higher concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the southwest and higher Cu concentration in the east, indicating links to specific pollution sources within the watershed. Correlation and PCA analyses revealed that Zn, Pb and Cd were dominantly contributed by anthropogenic activities; Cu originated from both industrial and agricultural sources; and Cr has been altered by recent pollution control strategies. The GWR model indicated that several heavy metal fractions were strongly correlated with industrial land proportion and this correlation varied with the level of industrialization as demonstrated by variations in local GWR R 2 values. This study provides important information for assessing heavy metal contaminated areas, identifying heavy metal pollutant sources, and developing regional-scale remediation strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  18. Informal Urban Development in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Petersen, Mads Dines

    2017-01-01

    The city of Cairo, Egypt, currently experiences rapid urban growth. Large parts of the city expand without formal urban planning. This results in large-scale informal and unplanned development. In addition, the resulting urban fabric and individual buildings feature severe deficiencies when...... it comes to the basic quality of urban space, ventilation and daylight. While retrofitting already built-up areas would be a huge challenge, some minor improvements might be possible in future development even within the current mode of production of these spaces. In recent years, parametric design tools...... have opened up new possibilities for modelling in urban design. By way of a parametric design approach, different urban design parameters can be modified and new urban space scenarios can be rendered three dimensionally in almost real time. In short, this is parametric urban design. It opens up...

  19. International knowledge mobility and urban development in rapidly globalizing areas: building global hubs for talent in Dubai and Abu Dhabi

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the processes through which the United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) cities of Abu Dhabi and Dubai attract and integrate knowledge workers into their labor markets. It focuses on how the UAE has acquired the human capital to create post-oil economies, deploying its oil windfalls into massive urban development strategies in order to create global hubs for talent. More significantly, it analyzes how the UAE’s strategies and frameworks for attracting global knowle...

  20. Factors Influencing Land Development and Redevelopment during China’s Rapid Urbanization: Evidence from Haikou City, 2003–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Land development and redevelopment (LDR is essential to economic growth and the advancement of urbanization in urban China. Moreover, various factors affect LDR. Based on an investigation, during 2003–2016, which involves 420 parcels within a 2-km section of the Nandu River, Haikou city, this paper employs a logistic model, so as to judge the impact of LDR on these parcels, and then with an improved hedonic model, it sets out to explore the LDR influencing factors. Specifically, the results show that the impact mechanism of LDR in China is different from countries where economy is the main influencing force. Moreover, China’s urban land development results from the cooperation and competition between local government and enterprises, with a particular focus on multiple political and economic factors. Hence, the paper innovatively incorporates quantifiable political and property factors that significantly influence the results. Finally, the paper tries to explain the variance from macro-level government and micro-level enterprises perspectives. In conclusion, China’s land development requires cooperation among the government and enterprises, in order to improve the economic, social, and environmental benefits of land use.

  1. Urban development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, J.H.; van Marrewijk, J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization is important for economic development. As the largest country in the world in terms of population, China has experienced a remarkable history of urbanization; one 1000 years ago it housed the largest cities in world, it went through a counter-urbanization revolution during the Mao

  2. Are levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in soil related to urbanization in rapidly developing coastal areas in North China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Wang, Tieyu; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of 13 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were quantified in 79 surface soil samples from 17 coastal cities in three provinces and one municipality along the Bohai and Yellow Seas. The ∑PFASs concentrations ranged from less than limitation of quantification (LOQ) to 13.97 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean of 0.98 ng/g dw. The highest concentration was observed along the Xiaoqing River from Shandong province, followed by that from the Haihe River in Tianjin (10.62 ng/g dw). Among four regions, ∑PFASs concentrations decreased in the order of Tianjin, Shandong, Liaoning and Hebei, which was consistent with levels of urbanization. Fluorine chemical industries allocated in Shandong and Liaoning played important roles in terms of point emission and contamination of PFASs, dominated by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Intensive anthropogenic activities involved in urbanization possibly resulted in increasing releases of PFASs from industrial and domestic sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "Flooding Risk Analysis and the Understanding of Hydrological Disturbance due to the Rapid Urbanization in a Low-Scale Subwatershed in Houston Area". ( The project develops a relavant Model of flooding risk assessment to define the connection between increased streamflow/flooding and the rapid urban land development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldiyev, P.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid urban development and changing climate influences the frequency and magnitude of flooding in Houston area. This proposed project aims to evaluate the flooding risks with the current and future land use changes by 2040 for one subbasin of the San Jacinto Brazos/Neches-Trinity Coastal basin. Surface environments and streamflow data of the Clear Creek are analyzed and stimulated to discuss the possible impact of urbanization on the occurrence of floods. The streamflow data is analyzed and simulated with the application of the Geographic Information Systems and its extensions. Both hydrologic and hydraulic models of the Clear Creek are created with the use of HEC-HMS and HEC-RAS software. Both models are duplicated for the year 2040, based on projected 2040 Landcover Maps developed by Houston and Galveston Area Council. This project examines a type of contemporary hydrologic disturbance and the interaction between land cover and changes in hydrological processes. Expected results will be very significant for urban development and flooding management.

  4. Urban forests for sustainable urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Denny M.; Hartono, Djoko M.; Suganda, Emirhadi; Haeruman, S. Herman J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the development of the urban forest in East Jakarta. By 2030 Jakarta area has a target of 30% green area covering 19,845 hectares, including urban forest covering an area of 4,631 hectares. In 2015, the city forest is only 646 hectares, while the city requires 3,985 hectares of new land Urban forest growth from year to year showed a marked decrease with increasing land area awoke to commercial functions, environmental conditions encourage the development of the city to become unsustainable. This research aims to support sustainable urban development and ecological balance through the revitalization of green areas and urban development. Analytical methods for urban forest area is calculated based on the amount of CO2 that comes from people, vehicles, and industrial. Urban spatial analysis based on satellite image data, using a GIS program is an analysis tool to determine the distribution and growth patterns of green areas. This paper uses a dynamic system model to simulate the conditions of the region against intervention to be performed on potential areas for development of urban forests. The result is a model urban forest area is integrated with a social and economic function to encourage the development of sustainable cities.

  5. Climate resilient urban development : why responsible land governance is important

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, D.; Enemark, S.; van der Molen, P.

    2015-01-01

    In less-developed countries, the major global pressures of rapid urbanization and climate change are resulting in increased vulnerability for urban dwellers. Much of the climate impact is concentrated in urban and coastal areas, as urban development spreads into areas that are hazard-prone. Often

  6. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  7. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchao Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China. Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  8. Urban Quality Development & Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of Urban Quality Development & Management, and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other......: Urban quality development and management is dependent on human resource development, institutionalised networks and confident exchange of knowledge, and must identify and incorporate multiple environmental, social, economic and cultural aspects. The authors find that at the core of innovative societies......, an interlinkage exists between practice (business, civil society, governance) and theory (research, education). The case illustrates how a new curriculum takes time to develop and implement and how it relies on confidence and trust between partners, in this case cities and universities, before being able to plant...

  9. Sustainable urban development and geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chan, L. S.

    2007-09-01

    The new millennium has seen a fresh wave of world economic development especially in the Asian-Pacific region. This has contributed to further rapid urban expansion, creating shortages of energy and resources, degradation of the environment, and changes to climatic patterns. Large-scale, new urbanization is mostly seen in developing countries but urban sprawl is also a major social problem for developed nations. Urbanization has been accelerating at a tremendous rate. According to data collected by the United Nations [1], 50 years ago less than 30% of the world population lived in cities. Now, more than 50% are living in urban settings which occupy only about 1% of the Earth's surface. During the period from 1950 to 1995, the number of cities with a population higher than one million increased from 83 to 325. By 2025 it is estimated that more than 60% of 8.3 billion people (the projected world population [1]) will be city dwellers. Urbanization and urban sprawl can affect our living quality both positively and negatively. In recent years geophysics has found significant and new applications in highly urbanized settings. Such applications are conducive to the understanding of the changes and impacts on the physical environment and play a role in developing sustainable urban infrastructure systems. We would like to refer to this field of study as 'urban geophysics'. Urban geophysics is not simply the application of geophysical exploration in the cities. Urbanization has brought about major changes to the geophysical fields of cities, including those associated with electricity, magnetism, electromagnetism and heat. An example is the increased use of electromagnetic waves in wireless communication, transportation, office automation, and computer equipment. How such an increased intensity of electromagnetic radiation affects the behaviour of charged particles in the atmosphere, the equilibrium of ecological systems, or human health, are new research frontiers to be

  10. Rapid modification of urban land surface temperature during rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvar, H.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Song, J.; Yang, J.; Arwatz, G.; Wang, Z.; Hultmark, M.; Kaloush, K.

    2017-12-01

    We study the runoff dynamics and heat transfer over urban pavements during rainfall. A kinematic wave approach is combined with heat storage and transfer schemes to develop a model for impervious (with runoff) and pervious (without runoff) pavements. The resulting framework is a numerical prognostic model that can simulate the temperature fields in the subsurface and runoff layers to capture the rapid cooling of the surface, as well as the thermal pollution advected in the runoff. Extensive field measurements were then conducted over experimental pavements in Arizona to probe the physics and better represent the relevant processes in the model, and then to validate the model. The experimental data and the model results were in very good agreements, and their joint analysis elucidated the physics of the rapid heat transfer from the subsurface to the runoff layer. Finally, we apply the developed model to investigate how the various hydrological and thermal properties of the pavements, as well as ambient environmental conditions, modulate the surface and runoff thermal dynamics, what is the relative importance of each of them, and how we can apply the model mitigate the adverse impacts of urbanization.

  11. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2008-01-01

    . This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land information......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making...... in the decision making process? Legislation in itself is not enough. A cultural change within society may need to be encouraged. Again, access to participation requires access to land information. Comprehensive planning at local level supported by citizen participation should also enable establishment proper...

  12. Rapid Urban Growth and Land Use Patterns in Doha, Qatar: Opportunities for Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amidst chaotic growth of Asian cities, the expansion of urban infrastructure in the Middle East's Gulf region is arguably outpacing any other region on the planet. Yet we have a limited understanding of the types of urban form or the extent to which this rapid urbanization is giving rise to sustainable patterns of growth. We ask, what is the pace and character of urban growth in one Middle East city, Doha, Qatar. By using remotely sensed imagery from 1987 to 2013, we examined the pace, quality, and characteristics of urban growth. We further use the results to create a typology of urban growth that integrates historical and spatial dimensions for describing the qualitative aspects of growth and its implications on regional landscapes. Our results suggest that Doha is creating development patterns similar to many Western cities, and that planners may need to consider whether the emerging urban form offers opportunities for more sustainable growth in the future.

  13. Corporation-led urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, B.; Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Since a couple of years a remarkable phenomenon is witnessed in the field of urban development which entails that large multinationals corporations, such as IKEA and Siemens, start to engage in urban development projects. As their motivation to do so is unclear, it is difficult to estimate whether

  14. Urban types in rapidly urbanising cities - a typological approach in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While this situation can be related to global urbanization processes, the general poor knowledge on how these cities develop, densify, or acquire certain physical characteristics and how to characterize built environments has limited affective urban management and governance. Cities have sprawled to the extent that the ...

  15. Urban development and employment in Abidjan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H; Lubell, H; Mouly, J

    1975-04-01

    The city of Abidjan in the Ivory Coast has grown physically, economically, and demographically at rates exceeding all reasonable expectation. Yet, as in many other development nations, the employment generated by Abidjan's rapid economic expansion has failed to keep pace with the increase in working population it has attracted. Consequently, economic success has been accompanied by a variety of social strains. Some of these have been discussed in earlier issues of the "International Labour Review" by Louis Roussel. This discussion expands on Roussel's earlier treatment by focusing more specifically on several facets of the urban employment problem created by the rapid growth of Abidjan. Attention is directed to labor supply and employment, factors affecting migration, foreign Africans in the Ivory Coast labor force; the urban informal sector; urban infrastructure and development; social problems of population pressure; employment policy options (current government policies and other policy options); and general issues and policy alternatives (motivations for rural urban migration, smaller urban centers as alternative growth poles, and distributing the gains from development). Several essential features of the employment problem stem from the rural urban distribution of the workforce. The rural labor force, including temporary seasonal workers from the savannah countries to the north, remains more or less in balance with increasing rural employment opportunities, since the migration of Ivory Coast nationals to the cities is balanced by the inflow of foreign workers. In contrast, the influx of migrants into urban areas has led to a more rapid increase in the urban labor force than in urban employment, with a consequent rise in unemployment. In 1970 the Abidjan rate of open unemployment was probably around 20%. At this time, most people's idea of a desirable job is one in the formal sector of the urban economy. If there is to be any hope of an eventual balance between

  16. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known

  17. ejarosp1@yahoo.com The challenges of rapid urbanization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    study reveals that there is inadequate good quality housing, poor waste .... process of urbanization in developing countries, false .... gastrointestinal disease in people in Arequipa, Peru ..... Salako, A. (2001) Nyanya Solid Waste Management.

  18. Sustainable urban development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews the literature of to what extent compact cities are the most sustainable and it use lifestyle interpretations of urbane forms...... to challenge the compact cities approach. As an alternative or supplementary approach the article introduce practice theory as a way to understand consumption and it gives examples on how this approach can be used to inspire local authorities to alternative and supplementary strategies of achieving sustainable...

  19. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akogbeto Martin

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA methodology aims to provide a cost-effective tool to conduct rapid assessments of the malaria situation in urban sub-Saharan Africa and to improve the understanding of urban malaria epidemiology. Methods This work was done in Yopougon municipality (Abidjan, Cotonou, Dar es Salaam and Ouagadougou. The study design consists of six components: 1 a literature review, 2 the collection of available health statistics, 3 a risk mapping, 4 school parasitaemia surveys, 5 health facility-based surveys and 6 a brief description of the health care system. These formed the basis of a multi-country evaluation of RUMA's feasibility, consistency and usefulness. Results A substantial amount of literature (including unpublished theses and statistics was found at each site, providing a good overview of the malaria situation. School and health facility-based surveys provided an overview of local endemicity and the overall malaria burden in different city areas. This helped to identify important problems for in-depth assessment, especially the extent to which malaria is over-diagnosed in health facilities. Mapping health facilities and breeding sites allowed the visualization of the complex interplay between population characteristics, health services and malaria risk. However, the latter task was very time-consuming and required special expertise. RUMA is inexpensive, costing around 8,500–13,000 USD for a six to ten-week period. Conclusion RUMA was successfully implemented in four urban areas with different endemicity and proved to be a cost-effective first approach to study the features of urban malaria and provide an evidence basis for planning control measures.

  20. Urban bioclimatology in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, E

    1993-11-15

    A brief review of the literature on urban human bioclimatology in the tropics is undertaken. Attempts to chart human bioclimatic conditions on the regional/local scale have been made in several developing countries. The effective temperature scheme (with all its limitations) is the one that has been most frequently applied. The possibilities of application of bioclimatic models based on human heat balance for the tropical urban environment are discussed.

  1. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  2. Historical and contemporary cultural ecosystem service values in the rapidly urbanizing city state of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagarajah, Jharyathri; Wong, Shermaine K M; Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Cultural ecosystem services are a function of people and place, so may change as a location transitions from rural to urban. Singapore has undergone rapid urbanization after its independence in 1965, with a concomitant decline in natural habitat extent and accessibility. Using coastal mangrove forests as a case study habitat, changing cultural values were explored with a novel array of techniques, including qualitative archival analysis (photographs, oral histories), current sources (publically uploaded social media photographs), and surveys of (a) the general public and (b) visitors to publically accessible mangroves. Cultural value changed through time, with a significant transition from intrinsic, intrapersonal values (spiritual, cultural heritage) to instrumental, interpersonal values (recreation, education). Additionally, cultural value varied between different mangroves depending on their public accessibility, and the evolving degree of human interaction with the ecosystem as urban development occured. Cultural values change as development transitions, though mangroves still play an important cultural role in a heavily urbanized environment.

  3. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields

  4. Driving mechanism and sources of groundwater nitrate contamination in the rapidly urbanized region of south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianqian; Sun, Jichao; Liu, Jingtao; Huang, Guanxing; Lu, Chuan; Zhang, Yuxi

    2015-11-01

    Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become an environmental problem of widespread concern in China. We collected 899 groundwater samples from a rapidly urbanized area, in order to identify the main sources and driving mechanisms of groundwater nitrate contamination. The results showed that the land use has a significant effect on groundwater nitrate concentration (P population growth. This study revealed that domestic wastewater and industrial wastewater were the main sources of groundwater nitrate pollution. Therefore, the priority method for relieving groundwater nitrate contamination is to control the random discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater in regions undergoing rapid urbanization. Capsule abstract. The main driving mechanism of groundwater nitrate contamination was determined to be urban construction and the secondary and tertiary industrial development, and population growth.

  5. Africa: rapid population increase retards development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Organization of African Unity (OAU), the African Development Bank (ADB) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) have criticized African governments for not taking the problem of unchecked population growth seriously enough. "Until recently most African governments did not view rapid population growth as a matter for concern," said the OAU assistant secretary-general for political affairs, Machivenyika Mapuranga, at a seminar on 'population and development'. The OAU estimates that an annual average population increase of 3.1% far outstrips Africa's economic growth, which in 1992 was less than 1%. Mapuranga acknowledged that cutting the population increase is an uphill struggle, especially among rural communities. African agriculture is largely labor intensive, sustained by smallholders, which encourages farmers to have more children. Like other wage earners, African farmers look to support from their family when they grow old and, for that reason, the number of children also counts. But with agricultural production growing at an average annual rate of 2.5%, self-sufficiency in food remains an elusive goal. Cities in sub-Saharan Africa are growing much faster than the overall rate of population increase of 3.1% per year. Between 1980 and 1988 the region's urban population increased at the rate of 6.9% a year. Urban areas now account for nearly 30% of the sub-Saharan Africa population, currently put at 680 million. By 2025, approximately 700 million people are expected to live in urban areas. Despite migration to towns, the rural population is expected to rise more than 68%, reaching over 590 million. full text

  6. Rapid urbanization and the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Not only is Jakarta the largest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia, it is the also one of the most dynamic, though beset with most of the urban problems experienced in twenty-first century Southeast Asia. Batavia, colonial capital of the Netherland Indies in the first half of the 20th century was a small urban area of approximately 150,000 residents. In the second half, Batavia became Jakarta, the 28 million megacity capital of independent Indonesia. Among many urban problems, one major problem plagued Jakarta in the last two decades is traffic congestions. This paper discusses the extent to which rapid urbanization in Jakarta has contributed to the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta. The development of MRT could be viable solutions to alleviate the acute traffic jams in Jakarta. Jakarta will need to implement other innovative sustainable transportation policies including promoting active live through more walking and bicycling, carpool matching services, shuttle services, telecommuting and downzoning in downtown areas.

  7. CONTEMPORARY URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN CALABAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that the existing urban development spread could be reduced by more than 150% if the current trend of ... density at the core, people tend to seek for building lands at the .... of Wuhan, China, Yun (2011), showed that the.

  8. Rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA I: Epidemiology of urban malaria in Ouagadougou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Convelbo Natalie

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid urbanization in sub-Saharan Africa has a major impact on malaria epidemiology. While much is known about malaria in rural areas in Burkina Faso, the urban situation is less well understood. Methods An assessment of urban malaria was carried out in Ouagadougou in November -December, 2002 during which a rapid urban malaria appraisal (RUMA was applied. Results The school parasitaemia prevalence was relatively high (48.3% at the cold and dry season 2002. Routine malaria statistics indicated that seasonality of malaria transmission was marked. In the health facilities, the number of clinical cases diminished quickly at the start of the cold and dry season and the prevalence of parasitaemia detected in febrile and non-febrile cases was 21.1% and 22.0%, respectively. The health facilities were likely to overestimate the malaria incidence and the age-specific fractions of malaria-attributable fevers were low (0–0.13. Peak prevalence tended to occur in older children (aged 6–15 years. Mapping of Anopheles sp. breeding sites indicated a gradient of endemicity between the urban centre and the periphery of Ouagadougou. A remarkable link was found between urban agriculture activities, seasonal availability of water supply and the occurrence of malaria infections in this semi-arid area. The study also demonstrated that the usage of insecticide-treated nets and the education level of family caretakers played a key role in reducing malaria infection rates. Conclusion These findings show that determining local endemicity and the rate of clinical malaria cases are urgently required in order to target control activities and avoid over-treatment with antimalarials. The case management needs to be tailored to the level of the prevailing endemicity.

  9. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization in a Developed Region of Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a practical methodology to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban expansion in response to rapid urbanization at the provincial scale by integrating remote sensing, urban built-up area boundaries, spatial metrics and spatial regression. Sixty-seven cities were investigated to examine the differences of urbanization intensity, urbanization patterns and urban land use efficiency in conjunction with the identification of socio-economic indicators and planning strategies. Planning proposals to allocate the urbanization intensity among different-sized cities by considering sustainable urban development were also explored. The results showed that the urban area of Zhejiang Province expanded from 31,380 ha in 1980 to 415,184 ha in 2010, indicating that the area of the urban region expanded to more than 13-times the initial urban area. The urban built-up area boundaries became more complex and irregular in shape as the urban area expanded throughout the entire study period. Rapid urban population growth and economic development were identified as significant in stimulating the urban expansion process. However, different-sized cities exhibited marked differences in urban development. Small cities experienced the rapidest urbanization before 2000. Large cities, which are estimated to have the highest urban land use efficiency, had the most dramatic sprawl in urban area at the beginning of the 21st century. Promoting the development of large cities to mega-cities is recommended in Zhejiang Province to ensure sustainable urban development with consideration of land resource preservation.

  10. Rapidly developing market regions : Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil and the State of Rio Grande do Sul are experiencing a period of rapid industrial development. Global investment has been forecast to reach $240 billion over the next five to seven years. This level of development is likely to result in a sharp increase in the consumption of plastic products made from olefins and from aromatic products. Accordingly, Copesul, the centre of raw materials for the State complex, is expected to increase its production of ethane from 685 tonnes to 1.13 million tonnes after 1999. The government has established a program of incentives to stimulate investment in third generation industries. Also, the State petrochemical industry has been rendered more competitive as a result of the purchase of the latest generation equipment. The principal challenges that exist for the petrochemical industry in Brazil and for that matter, around the world, are to reduce production costs and to preserve the natural environment. Another challenge, also world-wide, is to address the issue of plastic residues and to eliminate such residues through plastic recycling programs

  11. Urban sustainable development from public participation in urban management

    OpenAIRE

    L. Karimifard

    2016-01-01

    Urban management in any context has a different economic, social and political structure, which is in harmony with the existing models of organization. In spite of these differences, in order to reach a sustainable urban development, several different conferences should be referred to. In the “Brundtland Commission 1987” about urban sustainable development these definitions have been given: “preservation and promotion of the quality level of city life. This consists of ecology, culture, polit...

  12. Rapid Recovery of an Urban Remnant Reptile Community following Summer Wildfire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert A; Doherty, Tim S

    2015-01-01

    Reptiles in urban remnants are threatened with extinction by increased fire frequency, habitat fragmentation caused by urban development, and competition and predation from exotic species. Understanding how urban reptiles respond to and recover from such disturbances is key to their conservation. We monitored the recovery of an urban reptile community for five years following a summer wildfire at Kings Park in Perth, Western Australia, using pitfall trapping at five burnt and five unburnt sites. The reptile community recovered rapidly following the fire. Unburnt sites initially had higher species richness and total abundance, but burnt sites rapidly converged, recording a similar total abundance to unburnt areas within two years, and a similar richness within three years. The leaf-litter inhabiting skink Hemiergis quadrilineata was strongly associated with longer unburnt sites and may be responding to the loss of leaf litter following the fire. Six rarely-captured species were also strongly associated with unburnt areas and were rarely or never recorded at burnt sites, whereas two other rarely-captured species were associated with burnt sites. We also found that one lizard species, Ctenotus fallens, had a smaller average body length in burnt sites compared to unburnt sites for four out of the five years of monitoring. Our study indicates that fire management that homogenises large areas of habitat through frequent burning may threaten some species due to their preference for longer unburnt habitat. Careful management of fire may be needed to maximise habitat suitability within the urban landscape.

  13. Rapid Recovery of an Urban Remnant Reptile Community following Summer Wildfire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Davis

    Full Text Available Reptiles in urban remnants are threatened with extinction by increased fire frequency, habitat fragmentation caused by urban development, and competition and predation from exotic species. Understanding how urban reptiles respond to and recover from such disturbances is key to their conservation. We monitored the recovery of an urban reptile community for five years following a summer wildfire at Kings Park in Perth, Western Australia, using pitfall trapping at five burnt and five unburnt sites. The reptile community recovered rapidly following the fire. Unburnt sites initially had higher species richness and total abundance, but burnt sites rapidly converged, recording a similar total abundance to unburnt areas within two years, and a similar richness within three years. The leaf-litter inhabiting skink Hemiergis quadrilineata was strongly associated with longer unburnt sites and may be responding to the loss of leaf litter following the fire. Six rarely-captured species were also strongly associated with unburnt areas and were rarely or never recorded at burnt sites, whereas two other rarely-captured species were associated with burnt sites. We also found that one lizard species, Ctenotus fallens, had a smaller average body length in burnt sites compared to unburnt sites for four out of the five years of monitoring. Our study indicates that fire management that homogenises large areas of habitat through frequent burning may threaten some species due to their preference for longer unburnt habitat. Careful management of fire may be needed to maximise habitat suitability within the urban landscape.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Urban Systems in China during Rapid Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of urban hierarchy and the role of cities of different sizes have drawn considerable scholarly interests and societal concerns. This paper analyzes the evolution and underlying mechanisms of urban hierarchy in China during the recent period of rapid urbanization. By comparing scale changes of seven types of cities (megacity, large city, Type I big city, Type II big city, medium-sized city, type I small city and type II small city, we find that allometry is the main characteristic of urban hierarchical evolution in China. We also test the validity of Zipf’s law and Gibrat’s law, which broaden the scope of existing studies by including county-level cities. We find that urban hierarchical distribution is lognormal, rather than Pareto. The result also shows that city size growth rates are constant across cities of different types. For better understanding of the mechanisms of urban hierarchical formation, we measure the optimal city size and resource allocation by the Pareto optimality criterion and non-parametric frontier method. The main findings are as follows: (1 scale efficiency is still at a relatively low level among the seven types of cities; (2 the economic efficiency of megacities and large cities is overestimated when compared to economic-environmental efficiency. Hence, this paper has two policy implications: (1 to correct factor market (land, labor and infrastructure investment distortions among different types of cities for the improvement of efficiency; (2 to strengthen rural property rights to improve social equity, as well as land use intensity.

  15. Sprawl and sustainable urban development in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksin-Mićić Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 50 years urban development in Europe has been affected by extensive urban sprawl. Environmental, economic and social impacts of long lasting sprawl are threatening urban identity, urban culture and cultural identity of European territory. Last two decades the main concept in European planning and governance system has been the sustainable development, namely sustainable urban development and its implementation. We ought to be realistic about the possibilities to counter sprawl. Realistic seams to steer sprawling tendencies in more suitable and sustainable manner, so called smart urban sprawl. This paper analyses the planning concepts and gives the brief review of current policies for steering the urban sprawl in EU, which are considered to be of importance in achieving more sustainable urban development and efficient urban management in Serbia.

  16. Driving factors of urban land growth in Guangzhou and its implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhu; Li, Shaoying; Wang, Xuetong; Xue, Xiaolong

    2018-04-01

    Since 2000, China's urban land has expanded at a dramatic speed because of the country's rapid urbanization. The country has been experiencing unbalanced development between rural and urban areas, causing serious challenges such as agricultural security and land resources waste. Effectively evaluating the driving factors of urban land growth is essential for improving efficient land use management and sustainable urban development. This study established a principal component regression model based on eight indicators to identify their influences on urban land growth in Guangzhou. The results provided a grouping analysis of the driving factors, and found that economic growth, urban population, and transportation development are the driving forces of urban land growth of Guangzhou, while the tertiary industry has an opposite effect. The findings led to further suggestions and recommendations for urban sustainable development. Hence, local governments should design relevant policies for achieving the rational development of urban land use and strategic planning on urban sustainable development.

  17. Permafrost and urban Development in Norilsk Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Grebenets, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    The city of Norilsk was established in 1935 as a GULAG mining and metallurgy work camp to explore the rich deposits of non-ferrous metals. By the 1989, the population of Norilsk reached 179,757 people. Two additional cities were developed in proximity to Norilsk in the 1960s-1980s: Talnakh (1989 population 65,710); and Kaerkan (1989 population 29,824) making the Norilsk region a major Arctic metropolis. While such rapid growth is not unusual for developing industrial cities, the geographic location makes Norilsk rather unique among world urban centers. It was built in Central Siberia at 69°51' N latitude (above the Arctic Circle), in region characterized by harsh subarctic climate (mean annual temperature around -10 oC), over forest tundra/tundra transitional landscapes underlined by perennially frozen ground (permafrost). Throughout its existence, the Norilsk region was highly isolated: it is not connected to Russian road and railroad systems. The harsh environmental conditions provided significant and rather unique challenges to Norilsk development. Specifically, the presence of ice-rich permafrost imposed restrictions on application of standard urban planning and engineering practices. This presentation analyzes the history of permafrost construction in Norilsk. It shows how though initial trial and errors, a set of guiding principles and engineering methods of construction on permafrost were developed allowing a rapid urbanization of the area during the 1960-1980s. However, despite significant advances in permafrost engineering, the pronounced permafrost degradation has become evident in Norilsk by the mid 1980s and has accelerated rapidly since the mid 1990s resulting in widespread deformation of buildings. Climatic changes are frequently identified as a major cause of accelerated deterioration of infrastructure build on permafrost. However, we argue that other factors, including the complexity of interactions between deferent components of urban

  18. Agriculture, development, and urban bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to

  19. Urbanization and its Political Challenges in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal ÖZDEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries in the twenty-first century is experiencing rapid urbanization with a high concentration of people in the urban areas while the population of people in the rural areas is decreasing due to the rise in rural-urban push which has adverse consequences on the economic and political development of developing countries, in particular African cities. Therefore, this study seeks to analyze the trends and nature of urbanization in Africa from the pre-colonial era to the contemporary period of globalization in order to ascertain the implications of rapid urbanization on the processes of democratic transitions, on the vagaries of food sufficiency and crisis as well as its multiplier effects on the escalating rate of poverty and insurgency in the cities. These problems stem from the lack of good governance, high rate of corruption and the misappropriation of state resources through diverse economic liberalizing reforms and development strategies. Thus, this study affirms that urbanization is a process that requires objective management and institutional role differentiations and performance to create the organizational synergy, moderation and frugality necessary for the equitable distribution of the common wealth for the greatest good of all peoples not only in the urban areas but also in the rural areas which invariably will bring about political and economic development in African cities, and reduce the high incidences of poverty, insurgency and food crisis.

  20. Ljubljana – phases of urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Jakoš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the Second World War there were approximately 100.000 people living in the compact part of Ljubljana. A period of rapid population development ensued (urbanisation because of immigration from other parts of Slovenia and later from various regions of the former Yugoslav Republics. This period is marked by numerous new housing estates and early stagnation of the old city core. A period ob sub-urbanisation followed and city expansion along the main roads, interspersed with poor quality building and illegal development. Costly renewal of old buildings, diminished construction of housing estates and high prices of building land triggered the flight of city dwellers (de-urbanisation and caused non-urban development in neighbouring municipalities (secondary urbanisation. By rehabilitation of the old city centre and attempts at revitalisation Ljubljana is trying re-urbanise itself. The flight of the younger population, caused by limited offer of housing, still remains the main problem that furthermore causes increased volumes of daily commuting and congestion in the city centre caused by parked vehicles. The tally of increased population during the last decade to small neighbouring municipalities, caused by flight from Ljubljana, is 20.000, while the population of Ljubljana is decreasing. With its quarter of a million inhabitants, Ljubljana is the third smallest capital city of Europe (without the “pocket” states. The main issue in the neighbouring municipalities is expressively non-urban development, meaning that too much land is used and the utilities infrastructure threshold is not met. The present division of the Ljubljana metropolitan region truly calls for a Strategy of spatial development, at least on the level of the Ljubljana urban region.

  1. Urban branding as an effective sustainability tool in urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeman Mohammed Rehan

    2014-08-01

    Urban branding is a new approach toward urban development of sustainable cities. City branding, a novel aspect of urban communication, improves marketing of the city image in various ways by converting the visual image of the city into a brand image. Unique characteristics of the city are featured and a sustainable urban image is created. This paper will focus on city branding as a powerful image-building strategy. In this realm, the branding of Stuttgart, Germany, serves as a successful model of a branding strategy. Next, branding of the city of Port Said, Egypt, will be explored. The principal aim of this paper is to describe how cities become branded; how branding succeeds; and how a viable city image is created. This paper reviews the methods used to brand cities, and concludes by emphasizing the importance of urban branding in terms of sustainability.

  2. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Faming; Huang, Boqiang; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Shenghui

    2018-05-23

    Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A), while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002⁻2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B). Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban sustainability in

  3. Urban sustainable development from public participation in urban management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Karimifard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban management in any context has a different economic, social and political structure, which is in harmony with the existing models of organization. In spite of these differences, in order to reach a sustainable urban development, several different conferences should be referred to. In the “Brundtland Commission 1987” about urban sustainable development these definitions have been given: “preservation and promotion of the quality level of city life. This consists of ecology, culture, politics, economies, and social participation. However, this development should in no case weigh on and create any problems for the future generations”. In all the definitions of urban management and urban sustainable development and in any political context citizens’ participation in decision making and insistence on social justice are mentioned. The aim of this article is a descriptive, analytic, and comparative study of different models of popular participation in different developed countries. Each of these countries has different social and political structure. However they all have the same aim which is the citizens’ empowerment. To reach the ideal urban management model it is necessary to have a clear image of the place and participation of citizens in order to create a socially, economically and politically sustainable developed society.

  4. [Landscape pattern gradient dynamics and desakota features in rapid urbanization area: a case study in Panyu of Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Long-Sheng; Fu, Yi-Fu; Yu, Huai-Yi; Li, Zhi-Qin

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the landscape pattern gradient dynamics and desakota features in rapid urbanization area, this paper took the rapidly urbanizing Panyu District of Guangzhou City as a case, and analyzed its land use and land cover data, based on four Landsat TM images from 1990 to 2008. With the combination of gradient analysis and landscape pattern analysis, and by using the landscape indices in both class and landscape scales, the spatial dynamics and desakota feature of this rapidly urbanizing district were quantified. In the study district, there was a significant change in the landscape pattern, and a typical desakota feature presented along buffer gradient zones. Urban landscape increased and expanded annually, accompanied with serious fragmentation of agricultural landscape. The indices patch density, contagion, and landscape diversity, etc., changed regularly in the urbanization gradient, and the peak of landscape indices appeared in the gradient zone of 4-6 km away from the urban center. The landscape patterns at time series also reflected the differences among the dynamics in different gradient zones. The landscape pattern in desakota region was characterized by complex patch shape, high landscape diversity and fragmentation, and remarkable landscape dynamics. The peaks of landscape indices spread from the urban center to border areas, and desakota region was expanding gradually. The general trend of spatiotemporal dynamics in desakota region and its driving forces were discussed, which could be benefit to the regional land use policy-making and sustainable development planning.

  5. Analyzing suitability for urban expansion under rapid coastal urbanization with remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Lianyungang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Reenberg, Anette; Sun, Xiang

    2010-10-01

    Beginning in 2000, Lianyungang's urbanization entered a period of rapid growth, spatially as well as economically. Rapid and intensive expansion of "construction land" imposed increasing pressures on regional environment. With the support of remote sensing data and GIS tools, this paper reports a "present-capacity-potential" integrated suitability analysis framework, in order to characterize and evaluate the suitability of urban expansion in Lianyungang. We found that during the rapid coastal urbanization process from 2000 to 2008, the characteristics of physical expansion in the study area were characterized by a combination of high-density expansion and sprawling development. The land use conversion driven by urbanization and industrialization has not occurred only in city districts, but also the surrounding areas that were spatially absorbed by urban growth, while closely associated and greatly influenced by the explosive growth of industrial establishment. The over-consumption of land resources in the areas with low environmental carrying capacity, particularly in the eastern coastal area, should be strictly controlled. Compared to conventional land suitability analysis methods, the proposed integrated approach could better review the potential environmental impacts of urban expansion and provide guidance for decision makers.

  6. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    , identified how land use conflicts and the pressure towards peri- urban areas can be strategically managed in different development and regulatory contexts. To summarise, the following strategies were identified as important steps towards more sustainable urban-rural futures: (i) better coordination...... of transport, land use and open space planning; (ii) urban containment and densification – development a green compact city; (iii) preservation of blue and green infrastructure; and (iv) preservation of agricultural land and the promotion of local production. The need also remains to strengthen governance...... at the regional level while at the pan-European level there is clearly a need for more policy attention to be given to urban-rural linkages....

  7. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  8. Strategies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban-Rural Linkages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Kjell; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Aalbers, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    of transport, land use and open space planning; (ii) urban containment and densification – development a green compact city; (iii) preservation of blue and green infrastructure; and (iv) preservation of agricultural land and the promotion of local production. The need also remains to strengthen governance......An important driving force behind urban expansion is the growth of the urban population. But for Europe, this is not a sufficient explanation. The major trend is that European cities have become much less compact. Since the mid-1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78%, whereas...... the population has grown by only 33%. In the PLUREL project - an integrated project within the EU’s 6th Research Framework Programme - more than 100 researchers from 15 countries analysed the impacts of urban land consumption at a pan-European level and, through six European and one Chinese case studies...

  9. Energy demand in China: Comparison of characteristics between the US and China in rapid urbanization stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy demand characteristics of the US and China were compared. • Major factors affecting energy demand were examined based on the panel data and the cointegration models. • China’s energy demand would reach 5498.13 Mtce in 2020 and 6493.07 Mtce in 2030. • Urbanization can be an opportunity for low-carbon development in China. - Abstract: China’s energy demand has shown characteristics of rigid growth in the current urbanization stage. This paper applied the panel data model and the cointegration model to examine the determinants of energy demand in China, and then forecasts China’s energy demand based on the scenario analysis. Results demonstrate an inverted U-shaped relationship between energy demand and economic growth in the long term. In business as usual scenario, China’s energy consumption will reach 6493.07 million tons of coal equivalent in 2030. The conclusions can be drawn on the basis of the comparison of characteristics between the US and China. First, energy demand has rigid growth characteristics in the rapid urbanization stage. Second, coal-dominated energy structure of China will lead to the severe problems of CO 2 emissions. Third, rapid economic growth requires that energy prices should not rise substantially, so that energy conservation will be the major strategy for China’s low-carbon transition. Major policy implications are: first, urbanization can be used as an opportunity for low-carbon development; second, energy price reform is crucial for China’s energy sustainability

  10. Effects of rapid urban sprawl on urban forest carbon stocks: integrating remotely sensed, GIS and forest inventory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yin; Yan, Jing; Wei, Xiaohua; Wang, Yajun; Yang, Yusheng; Hua, Lizhong; Xiong, Yongzhu; Niu, Xiang; Song, Xiaodong

    2012-12-30

    Research on the effects of urban sprawl on carbon stocks within urban forests can help support policy for sustainable urban design. This is particularly important given climate change and environmental deterioration as a result of rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of urban sprawl on dynamics of forest carbon stock and density in Xiamen, a typical city experiencing rapid urbanization in China. Forest resource inventory data collected from 32,898 patches in 4 years (1972, 1988, 1996 and 2006), together with remotely sensed data (from 1988, 1996 and 2006), were used to investigate vegetation carbon densities and stocks in Xiamen, China. We classified the forests into four groups: (1) forest patches connected to construction land; (2) forest patches connected to farmland; (3) forest patches connected to both construction land and farmland and (4) close forest patches. Carbon stocks and densities of four different types of forest patches during different urbanization periods in three zones (urban core, suburb and exurb) were compared to assess the impact of human disturbance on forest carbon. In the urban core, the carbon stock and carbon density in all four forest patch types declined over the study period. In the suburbs, different urbanization processes influenced forest carbon density and carbon stock in all four forest patch types. Urban sprawl negatively affected the surrounding forests. In the exurbs, the carbon stock and carbon density in all four forest patch types tended to increase over the study period. The results revealed that human disturbance played the dominant role in influencing the carbon stock and density of forest patches close to the locations of human activities. In forest patches far away from the locations of human activities, natural forest regrowth was the dominant factor affecting carbon stock and density. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Making of Sustainable Urban Development: A Synthesis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ting Tang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a time of rapid climate change and environmental degradation, planning and building an ecologically sustainable environment have become imperative. In particular, urban settlements, as a densely populated built environment, are the center of attention. This study aims to build a clear and concise synthesis of sustainable urban development not only to serve as an essential reference for decision and policy makers, but also encourage more strategically organized sustainability efforts. The extensive similarities between environmental planning and a policy-making/decision-making/problem-solving process will be carefully examined to confirm the fundamental need to build a synthesis. Major global urban sustainability rankings/standards will be presented, discussed, and integrated to produce a holistic synthesis with ten themes and three dimensions. The study will assemble disparate information across time, space, and disciplines to guide and to facilitate sustainable urban development in which both environmental concerns and human wellbeing are addressed.

  12. The interaction between land subsidence and urban development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Yangtze River Delta and North China Plain are experiencing serious land subsidence development and are also the areas that have undergone the fastest urbanization. Rapid urban development inevitably requires more water resources. However, China is a country with small per capita water resources, nonuniform distribution of water resources, and over-exploitation of groundwater – all of which are critical factors contributing to the potential for a land subsidence disaster. In addition, land subsidence has brought about elevation loss, damaged buildings, decreased safety of rail transit projects, lowered land value, and other huge economic losses and potential safety hazards in China. In this paper, Beijing, a typical northern Chinese city deficient in water, is taken as an example to explore (a the problems of urban development, utilization of water resources, and land subsidence development; (b the harm and influence of land subsidence hazards on urban construction; and (c the relationship between urban development and land subsidence. Based on the results, the author has predicted the trend of urban development and land subsidence in Beijing and puts forward her viewpoints and suggestions.

  13. Diverse multi-decadal changes in streamflow within a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Jeremy E.; Hill, T. Chee; Milligan, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on streamflow depends on a variety of factors (e.g., climate, initial land cover, inter-basin transfers, water withdrawals, wastewater effluent, etc.). The purpose of this study is to examine trends in streamflow from 1986 to 2015 in a range of watersheds within the rapidly urbanizing Atlanta, GA metropolitan area. This study compares eight watersheds over three decades, while minimizing the influence of inter-annual precipitation variability. Population and land-cover data were used to analyze changes over approximately twenty years within the watersheds. Precipitation totals for the watersheds were estimated using precipitation totals at nearby weather stations. Multiple streamflow variables, such as annual streamflow, frequencies of high-flow days (HFDs), flashiness, and precipitation-adjusted streamflow, for the eight streams were calculated using daily streamflow data. Variables were tested for significant trends from 1986 to 2015 and significant differences between 1986-2000 and 2001-2015. Flashiness increased for all streams without municipal water withdrawals, and the four watersheds with the largest increase in developed land had significant increases in flashiness. Significant positive trends in precipitation-adjusted mean annual streamflow and HFDs occurred for the two watersheds (Big Creek and Suwanee Creek) that experienced the largest increases in development, and these were the only watersheds that went from majority forest land in 1986 to majority developed land in 2015. With a disproportionate increase in HFD occurrence during summer, Big Creek and Suwannee Creek also had a reduction in intra-annual variability of HFD occurrence. Watersheds that were already substantially developed at the beginning of the period and did not have wastewater discharge had declining streamflow. The most urbanized watershed (Peachtree Creek) had a significant decrease in streamflow, and a possible cause of the decrease was increasing

  14. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management. - Graphical abstract: Fig. Threshold models and resilience management for water quality. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Coupling urbanization and water environmental system. • Developing threshold models of the coupled land-water systems. • Nonlinear relations between water quality variables and landscape metrics. • Enhancing resilience management of coastal rapid urbanization. - We develop environmental threshold models and provide their implications on resilience management for a coupled land-water system with rapid urbanization.

  15. MANAGING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERI-URBAN AREAS OF KUMASI, GHANA: A CASE OF ABUAKWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Amoateng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable trait of the 21 st century has been the high rate of urbanization which has characterized the growth and development of cities especially in developing countries. This situation has fuelled rapid physical development and expansion of peri-urban areas as urban dwellers relocate to cities’ peripheries. Focusing on Abuakwa a peri-urban area in Kumasi, the second largest city in Ghana, this paper assesses the nature and extent of physical development in peri-urban areas, and identifies the factors contributing to the rapid development of peri-urban areas. The paper further examines the effects of the increasing physical growth on the development of peri-urban Abuakwa. Using a case study approach, both primary and secondary sources of data were collected from decentralized government institutions of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA and Atwima Nwabiagya District Assembly (ANDA, as well as indigenes and relocated urban dwellers in Abuakwa. The paper reveals that the outward drift has manifested itself in an increased scramble for land for residential and commercial purposes in the peri-urban area. The resultant effect has been the fast and spontaneous physical development in the urban periphery which has significantly altered the peri-urban morphology. The paper recommends the establishment of Customary Land Secretariat (CLS to co-ordinate allocation of land, and the application of settlement growth management approaches to ensure the creation of a functional city and liveable peri-urban areas.

  16. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  17. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  18. Declining agricultural production in rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions: policy tradeoffs and sustainability indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, André Q.; Arabi, Mazdak; Wostoupal, Benjamin C.; Goemans, Christopher G.; Zhang, Yao; Paustian, Keith

    2017-08-01

    In rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions, increasing amounts of historically irrigated cropland lies permanently fallowed due to water court policies as agricultural water rights are voluntarily being sold to growing cities. This study develops an integrative framework for assessing the effects of population growth and land use change on agricultural production and evaluating viability of alternative management strategies, including alternative agricultural transfer methods, regional water ownership restrictions, and urban conservation. A partial equilibrium model of a spatially-diverse regional water rights market is built in application of the framework to an exemplary basin. The model represents agricultural producers as profit-maximizing suppliers and municipalities as cost-minimizing consumers of water rights. Results indicate that selling an agricultural water right today is worth up to two times more than 40 years of continued production. All alternative policies that sustain agricultural cropland and crop production decrease total agricultural profitability by diminishing water rights sales revenue, but in doing so, they also decrease municipal water acquisition costs. Defining good indicators and incorporating adequate spatial and temporal detail are critical to properly analyzing policy impacts. To best improve agricultural profit from production and sale of crops, short-term solutions include alternative agricultural transfer methods while long-term solutions incorporate urban conservation.

  19. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A, while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002–2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B. Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban

  20. Opportunities and challenges within urban health and sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisher, Jack E.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Loft, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals mark aunique window of opportunity for both human and planetaryhealth. With rising life expectancy and rapidly expanding urbanpopulations exposed to pollution and sedentary lifestyles, thereis a greater focus on reducing the gap between life...... expectancyand number of healthy years lived, whilst limiting anthropogenicactivities contributing to pollution and climate change. Thus,urban development and policies, which can create win–winsituations for our planet and human health, falls into the realmand expertise of public health. However, some...

  1. Urban base flow with low impact development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Aditi; Hogan, Dianna M.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel form of urbanization, low impact development (LID), aims to engineer systems that replicate natural hydrologic functioning, in part by infiltrating stormwater close to the impervious surfaces that generate it. We sought to statistically evaluate changes in a base flow regime because of urbanization with LID, specifically changes in base flow magnitude, seasonality, and rate of change. We used a case study watershed in Clarksburg, Maryland, in which streamflow was monitored during whole-watershed urbanization from forest and agricultural to suburban residential development using LID. The 1.11-km2 watershed contains 73 infiltration-focused stormwater facilities, including bioretention facilities, dry wells, and dry swales. We examined annual and monthly flow during and after urbanization (2004–2014) and compared alterations to nearby forested and urban control watersheds. We show that total streamflow and base flow increased in the LID watershed during urbanization as compared with control watersheds. The LID watershed had more gradual storm recessions after urbanization and attenuated seasonality in base flow. These flow regime changes may be because of a reduction in evapotranspiration because of the overall decrease in vegetative cover with urbanization and the increase in point sources of recharge. Precipitation that may once have infiltrated soil, been stored in soil moisture to be eventually transpired in a forested landscape, may now be recharged and become base flow. The transfer of evapotranspiration to base flow is an unintended consequence to the water balance of LID.

  2. Rapid web development using AJAX and Python

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgert, A; Gibbons, L; Kuznetsov, V [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)], E-mail: vkuznet@gmail.com

    2008-07-15

    We discuss the rapid development of a large scale data discovery service for the CMS experiment using modern AJAX techniques and the Python language. To implement a flexible interface capable of accommodating several different versions of the DBS database, we used a 'stack' approach. Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) together with an SQL abstraction layer, template engine, code generation tool and dynamic queries provide powerful tools for constructing interactive interfaces to large amounts of data. We show how the use of these tools, with rapid development in a modern scripting language, improved the scalability and usability of the the search interface for different user communities.

  3. Rapid web development using AJAX and Python

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgert, A; Gibbons, L; Kuznetsov, V

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the rapid development of a large scale data discovery service for the CMS experiment using modern AJAX techniques and the Python language. To implement a flexible interface capable of accommodating several different versions of the DBS database, we used a 'stack' approach. Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) together with an SQL abstraction layer, template engine, code generation tool and dynamic queries provide powerful tools for constructing interactive interfaces to large amounts of data. We show how the use of these tools, with rapid development in a modern scripting language, improved the scalability and usability of the the search interface for different user communities

  4. Developing a Parametric Urban Design Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Obeling, Esben

    2014-01-01

    Parametric urban design is a potentially powerful tool for collaborative urban design processes. Rather than making one- off designs which need to be redesigned from the ground up in case of changes, parametric design tools make it possible keep the design open while at the same time allowing...... for a level of detailing which is high enough to facilitate an understan- ding of the generic qualities of proposed designs. Starting from a brief overview of parametric design, this paper presents initial findings from the development of a parametric urban design tool with regard to developing a structural...... logic which is flexible and expandable. It then moves on to outline and discuss further development work. Finally, it offers a brief reflection on the potentials and shortcomings of the software – CityEngine – which is used for developing the parametric urban design tool....

  5. Urban cyclist exposure to fine particle pollution in a rapidly growing city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B. W.; Barrett, T. E.; Ponette-González, A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban cyclists are exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (particles vehicle exhaust, which is emitted directly into cyclists' "breathing zone." In cities, human exposure to PM2.5 is a concern because its small size allows it to be inhaled deeper into the lungs than most particles. The aim of this research is to determine "hotspots" (locations with high PM2.5 concentrations) within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, Texas, where urban cyclists are most exposed to fine particle pollution. Recent research indicates that common exposure hotspots include traffic signals, junctions, bus stations, parking lots, and inclined streets. To identify these and other hotspots, a bicycle equipped with a low-cost, portable, battery-powered particle counter (Dylos 1700) coupled with a Trimble Geo 5T handheld Global Positioning System (GPS; ≤1 m ± resolution) will be used to map and measure particle mass concentrations along predetermined routes. Measurements will be conducted during a consecutive four-month period (Sep-Dec) during morning and evening rush hours when PM2.5 levels are generally highest, as well as during non-rush hour times to determine background concentrations. PM2.5 concentrations will be calculated from particle counts using an equation developed by Steinle et al. (2015). In addition, traffic counts will be conducted along the routes coinciding with the mobile monitoring times. We will present results on identified "hotspots" of high fine particle concentrations and PM2.5 exposure in the City of Denton, where particle pollution puts urban commuters most at risk, as well as average traffic counts from monitoring times. These data can be used to determine pollution mitigation strategies in rapidly growing urban areas.

  6. Urban development and global sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferlaino Fiorenzo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s, the economist Simon Kuznets theorized the existence of a bell-shaped curve describing the correlation between the level of GDP per capita and income inequality. This generated another hypothesis concerning the existence of an inverted-U relationship between income per capita (GDP and environmental impact. By means of a cross-country analysis, the article shows that, at least at the global scale, an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC does not exist, but rather an Environmental Urban Curve (EUC. The city exhibits an complex socioeconomic metabolism that we can define in terms of dissipative and resilience territorial structures.

  7. Identifying hotspots and management of critical ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenbo; Gibbs, David; Zhang, Lang; Ferrier, Graham; Cai, Yongli

    2017-04-15

    Rapid urbanization has altered many ecosystems, causing a decline in many ecosystem services, generating serious ecological crisis. To cope with these challenges, we presented a comprehensive framework comprising five core steps for identifying and managing hotspots of critical ecosystem services in a rapid urbanizing region. This framework was applied in the case study of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) Region. The study showed that there was large spatial heterogeneity in the hotspots of ecosystem services in the region, hotspots of supporting services and regulating services aggregately distributing in the southwest mountainous areas while hotspots of provisioning services mainly in the northeast plain, and hotspots of cultural services widespread in the waterbodies and southwest mountainous areas. The regionalization of the critical ecosystem services was made through the hotspot analysis. This study provided valuable information for environmental planning and management in a rapid urbanizing region and helped improve China's ecological redlines policy at regional scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Whose urban development? Changing credibilities, forms and functions of urbanization in Chengdu, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Jesper Willaing

    2017-01-01

    In Chengdu, as in most other Chinese mega-cities, urbanization has been very rapid over the last three decades. In the current phase of urbanization, approximately 900,000 villagers in Chengdu alone have been resettled to urban-style settlements in order to release space for new arable land and t...

  9. Urbanization and the Geography of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, J. Vernon

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on several interrelated key questions on the geography of development. Although we herald cities with their industrial bases as 'engines of growth,' does industrialization in fact drive urbanization?1 What economic activities do cities of different sizes undertake? Does this change as countries develop? If so, what are the policy implications? Do development policies hav...

  10. Regulations in establishing and developing urban entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubić Slavoljub C.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of this work is to represent relatively new method of analyzing, planning and developing various projects in different architectural fields. The concept 'pattern' symbolizes a new view on objects and items that are already exist around us or those that will be created in the future. By explaining this concept, this work focus on describing 'pattern' as a new system or 'pattern language' that identifies foundation and development of unplanned cities. Every town or urban entity symbolizes 'pattern', but it is made from various 'patterns' as well. There are certain rules i.e. patterns that particular urban entities follow in order to establish themselves and 'pattern language' has been developed on that basis. The main purpose of this work is to emphasize this phenomenon and reveal the significance that 'patterns' have in urbanism development. Their understanding is of great importance so they can be implemented not only in theoretical but also in practical examination and analysis.

  11. Urban Development from the Perspective of Geodivesity in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Y.; Lee, D. K.; Han Kyul, H.

    2015-12-01

    In regard to ensuring a sustainable Earth, geodiversity (which is the variety of non-living nature) has been recognized as being equivalent to biodiversity in terms of importance. Geodiversity, as a platform, provides diverse habitats; however when a city is developed, threatened and vulnerable species are seen as important components of conservation but geodiversity is not. This study analyzes the components of geodiversity in cities that developed rapidly, and identifies which characteristics of geodiversity were related to this development. We estimated the components of geodiversity through the use of land cover maps and digital elevation maps (DEMs) in South Korean cities that developed rapidly between the 1980s and early-2010s, such as Yong-in and Namyangju. The relationships between land use changes and geodiversity components were analyzed and a factor analysis for land use changes was conducted using geodiversity components. Results show that even though adjacent rivers and streams, low elevation, and flat surfaces have high geodiversity, these areas were mainly converted into built-up areas and agricultural areas. As such, it can be stated that urban development in these cities has lowered geodiversity. Other geodiversity components related to urban development, such as slope, upslope contributing areas, streams, and lithology, were also identified. To conclude, this study showed how geodiversity components related to urban development has been affected by this growth and how they are intimately connected to each other. Identifying geodiversity in future development sites could help to estimate the most sensitive areas regarding the planned development; therefore, we need to view urban development from a geodiversity perspective.

  12. Implementing ITI for urban development locally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garyfallia Katsavounidou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current Programming Period (2014-2020 the European Commission has introduced a new strategic instrument, the Integrated Territorial Investment (ITI, which shifts the decisions on allocation of funds to the local level and, most importantly, enables drawing of funds from several priority axes and from several European Structural and Investment Funds. Greece is one of EU member countries that has committed on using ITIs as a tool for urban development. In August 2016, in the Region of Central Macedonia, urban authorities with a population of over 10.000 inhabitants were invited by the Managing Authority of the Regional Operational Programme to submit a Strategy for Sustainable Urban Development (SUD, through the mandatory implementation of the ITI tool. The paper focuses on one of these municipalities, the city of Veria, where the ITI approach has been implemented for the design of an ITI of urban scale (ITI-SUD. The integrated approach prescribed by regional authorities forced Municipalities to adopt government approaches uncommon until now: to involve multiple stakeholders in the entire process, from strategy development to project selection and implementation. The paper describes the benefits and challenges of the new approach as applied in the local context, showing the vertical and horizontal connections of urban development strategies. Most importantly, in the context of ‘procedural learning’ happening in Europe in the field of territorial cohesion, it offers an insight on how European cohesion policy strategies and tools are tested at the local level.

  13. Controlling Urban Sprawl with Integrated Approach of Space-Transport Development Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambarwati, L.; Verhaeghe, R.; Pel, A.J.; Van Arem, B.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sprawl phenomenon has been a huge issue since 20th century characterized by a rapid and unbalanced settlement development with transportation network particularly in a suburban area. The improvement of public transport system is a major requirement to minimize urban sprawl. Academic

  14. Ada and the rapid development lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deforrest, Lloyd; Gref, Lynn

    1991-01-01

    JPL is under contract, through NASA, with the US Army to develop a state-of-the-art Command Center System for the US European Command (USEUCOM). The Command Center System will receive, process, and integrate force status information from various sources and provide this integrated information to staff officers and decision makers in a format designed to enhance user comprehension and utility. The system is based on distributed workstation class microcomputers, VAX- and SUN-based data servers, and interfaces to existing military mainframe systems and communication networks. JPL is developing the Command Center System utilizing an incremental delivery methodology called the Rapid Development Methodology with adherence to government and industry standards including the UNIX operating system, X Windows, OSF/Motif, and the Ada programming language. Through a combination of software engineering techniques specific to the Ada programming language and the Rapid Development Approach, JPL was able to deliver capability to the military user incrementally, with comparable quality and improved economies of projects developed under more traditional software intensive system implementation methodologies.

  15. Developing the desert:the pace and process of urban growth in Dubai

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Ahmed K.; Blackburn, George Alan; Whyatt, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that Dubai is a rapidly developing urban area which has grown to support a large human population within a hyperarid environment. However, no publicly accessible information exists concerning the rate or form of the urbanization process in Dubai. Therefore, this investigation used a time series of remotely sensed data to quantify land cover change in Dubai emirate between 1972 and 2011. A hybrid classification method accurately discriminated urban and other land c...

  16. Pubertal development timing in urban Chinese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H-M; Chen, S-K; Chen, R-M; Zhu, C; Xiong, F; Li, T; Wang, W; Liu, G-L; Luo, X-P; Liu, L; Du, M-L

    2011-10-01

    We describe current pubertal development in healthy urban Chinese boys. A cross-sectional study of the pubertal development of 18,807 urban Chinese boys aged from 3.50 to 18.49years was conducted between 2003 and 2005. Testicular volume was evaluated with a Prader orchidometer. Pubic hair development was assessed according to the Tanner method. Data on spermarche were collected using the status quo method. Probit analysis was used to calculate the median age and 95% CI at different stages of testicular development, pubic hair development and spermarche. By age 9, 12.99% of the boys had a testicular volume of 4mL or greater. The median age of onset of puberty defined as the age at attainment of testicular volume of 4mL or greater was 10.55 (95% CI 10.27-10.79) years. The median age for onset of pubic hair development (PH(2) ) and spermarche was 12.78 (95%CI 12.67-12.89) years and 14.05 (95%CI 13.80-14.32) years, respectively. Pubertal onset in urban Chinese boys is earlier than currently used clinical norms but their pubic hair development occurs relatively late in comparison with the reported data from numerous other countries. There is also evidence of a secular trend towards an earlier age of spermarche since 1979 in Chinese urban boys. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Water ecological carrying capacity of urban lakes in the context of rapid urbanization: A case study of East Lake in Wuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Chen, Kun-lun; Cheng, Sheng-gao; Wang, Xu

    With the excessive development of social economy, water scarcity and water environment deterioration become a common phenomenon in metropolis. As a crucial component of urban water environment system, urban lake is mainly influenced by social economic system and tourism system. In this paper, a framework for quantitatively evaluating development sustainability of urban lake was established by a multi-objective model that represented water ecological carrying capacity (WECC). And nine key indicators including population, irrigation area, tourist quantity, the average number of hotel daily reception, TP, TN, CODMn, BOD5 were chosen from urban social-economy system and natural resilience aspects, with their index weight was determined by using the Structure Entropy Weight method. Then, we took Wuhan East Lake, the largest urban lake in China as a case study, and selected five time sections including 2002, 2004, 2007, 2009 and 2012 to synthetically evaluate and comparatively analyze the dynamic change of WECC. The results showed that: firstly, the water ecological carrying capacity values of the East Lake in five time sections were 1.17, 1.07, 1.64, 1.53 and 2.01 respectively, which all exceeded 1 and increased fluctuation. The rapid growth of population and GDP lead to sharply increasing demand for water quantity. However, a large amount of the domestic sewage and industrial waste led by economic development increases pressure on ecological environment of urban lakes. Secondly, the carrying capacity of the East Lake for tourist activities was still low. The value in 2012 was only 0.22, keeping at a slowly increasing phase, which indicates that the East Lake has large opportunity and space for developing the water resource carrying capacity and could make further efforts to attract tourists. Moreover, the WECC of the East Lake was mainly affected by rapid social and economic development and water environment damage caused by organic pollutants. From the view of urban

  18. Managing rapid urbanization in the third world: some aspects of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, K R

    1989-01-01

    A priority task for developing countries is the formulation of national urbanization policies that: 1) foster the full development of national resources; 2) promote cohesion among regions, especially where there are striking inequities in per capita output; 3) prevent or correct the overconcentration of economic activity in a few urban centers; and 4) create a more efficient, equitable management of growth within cities. Although urban households tend to be served better by the health and educational sectors than their rural counterparts, the urban poor are denied these benefits in the absence of special programs to ensure universal access. The urban poor are further denied access to the benefits of urban centers through a transportation policy that is oriented more toward roads and cars than public transit systems. Of major concern are the overcrowded squatter settlements that have developed in response to massive rural-urban migration. Since the landlessness, joblessness, and demoralization in rural areas and the consequent urban influx are at the root of the urban crisis in the Third World, integrated rural development is essential to retain substantial new additions to the urban labor force in rural areas. Land reform is the single strategy with the greatest potential to improve the quality of life of the landless poor and small holders. Other needs include programs of labor-intensive rural public works to provide supplementary income-earning opportunities and improve the rural infrastructure and more widespread participation of the rural poor in the development process. Increasingly sophisticated administrative and financing systems will be required to carry out a national urbanization policy, and current politicized bureaucracies must be replaced by a reliance on technically skilled professional administrators.

  19. HomeSpace:Maputo Dwelling Processes in ten Rapidly Expanding Peri-Urban Areas of an African City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...

  20. Capacity Development for Sustainable Urban Transportation in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Senbil, Metin; Fujiwara, Akimasa; Zhang, Junyi

    2008-01-01

    To make urban transport sustainable, effective and efficient, first and foremost, there is a need for capacity development-capacity is defined as the ability to deal with problems in efficient and effective ways-in developing countries. Apart from many important capacity related problems such as lack of adequate infrastructure, older vehicle population, etc., policy makers in developing countries have to consider changing individual behavior to realize sustainable urban transportation policie...

  1. Development of European urban tourist systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerković Senta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between urban development and tourism is a significant process in Europe today. Development of tourism has caused many organizational changes in urban environment. In the middle of the 20th century cultural and historical heritage in the cities was impetus of development of tourism in European cities. Nowadays, in many European cities tourism is recognized as a mean of further economic development. Strategy of polycentricity, outlined in European spatial development perspective is supporting that process, too. Many tourist centres and metropolitan tourist areas have been developed. In the period from 1996. to 2007. number of visitors in European cultural capitals was growing continuously by rate of 25,6%. In the same period, the number of international tourist arrivals increased by rate of only 7%.

  2. AN EVALUATION TO IDENTIFY THE BARRIERS TO THE FEASIBILITY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT PLANS: FIVE DECADES OF EXPERIENCE IN URBAN PLANNING IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Maghsoodi Tilaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid urbanization in many developing countries has indicat ed several challenges in different aspects. This is due t o inefficient urban planning ap proaches towards managing the development process. Similar to many other developing count ries, Iran has experienced rapid urbanization in recent decades. Although over the last few decades, urban planning processes have been applied to develop Iranian c ities, urban planning has failed to tackle the challenges facing the cities. This paper s eeks to identify the barriers that have prevented Iranian c ities from achieving the goals of urban planning. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the curre nt literature on the concept of urban planning and to assess the urban development plan proc ess in Iranian cities. The required data were collected through a review of international theoretical studies, Iranian experimental research and governmental reports. The findings of this study reveal five major barriers to the feasibility of the urban planning process , including the urban plans context, structure of urban pla nning, related law and regulatio ns, public participation, and financial resources.

  3. Urban MEMS based seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Antonino; Luzio, Dario; D'Anna, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    Life losses following disastrous earthquake depends mainly by the building vulnerability, intensity of shaking and timeliness of rescue operations. In recent decades, the increase in population and industrial density has significantly increased the exposure to earthquakes of urban areas. The potential impact of a strong earthquake on a town center can be reduced by timely and correct actions of the emergency management centers. A real time urban seismic network can drastically reduce casualties immediately following a strong earthquake, by timely providing information about the distribution of the ground shaking level. Emergency management centers, with functions in the immediate post-earthquake period, could be use this information to allocate and prioritize resources to minimize loss of human life. However, due to the high charges of the seismological instrumentation, the realization of an urban seismic network, which may allow reducing the rate of fatalities, has not been achieved. Recent technological developments in MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology could allow today the realization of a high-density urban seismic network for post-earthquakes rapid disaster assessment, suitable for the earthquake effects mitigation. In the 1990s, MEMS accelerometers revolutionized the automotive-airbag system industry and are today widely used in laptops, games controllers and mobile phones. Due to their great commercial successes, the research into and development of MEMS accelerometers are actively pursued around the world. Nowadays, the sensitivity and dynamics of these sensors are such to allow accurate recording of earthquakes with moderate to strong magnitude. Due to their low cost and small size, the MEMS accelerometers may be employed for the realization of high-density seismic networks. The MEMS accelerometers could be installed inside sensitive places (high vulnerability and exposure), such as schools, hospitals, public buildings and places of

  4. Urbanism and energy in developing regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R.L.; Berman, S.; Dowell, D.

    1978-03-01

    The pace of urbanization must continue, because in most parts of the world the surplus population in the countryside has nowhere else to go. The world is about 40% urban now and apparently headed for the 80 to 90% share of the total population presently exhibited by the developed countries. Thus, the 1.6 billion urban dwellers in 1978 would become about 3 billion in 1995--if major catastrophes can be avoided. Feasibility assessments for Sao Paulo-Rio de Janeiro, Calcutta, Cairo-Alexandria, Mexico City, and Seoul are presented in the appendices. This analysis-from-a-distance is insufficient to judge how much extra installed electrical generating capacity is required before 1995, the added refining capability for liquid fuels, or the uses for new LNG and coal imports due to be arranged. It is evident that energy (and perhaps also water in most regions) planning is the major determinant of the manner in which these urban areas will adapt to the extraordinary pressures for new settlement. The current round of planning in such metropolitan areas has been addressed to solving traffic-congestion problems, and reorganizing land use in central districts, as the most-pressing issues. Since energy sources and distribution systems now affect the largest and most crucial investments in urban growth it is to be expected that future metropolitan planning may concentrate upon energy efficiency. Energy supplies must be planned to meet requirements set by locally dominant values regarding human services and the environment.

  5. Finances and governance of urban local bodies: an approach of urban development perspective from a developing country (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman PAUL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With rapid urbanisation and the pressure on urban areas for service delivery, the role of urban local governments is undoubtedly becoming important and, here, their financial capacity can hold the key. At the same time, there are several issues in urban governance that need to be addressed yet. Delegation of decision making powers to urban local bodies (ULBs, which are traditionally considered as a part of the system of State government and acting on behalf of it, is one of them. The constitutional mechanisms like inter-governmental fiscal transfers were an attempt to reduce the gap of ULBs, but they were not effective in implementation at ground. It has become imperative now to understand the financial position of ULBs in order to move forward with the new means of fund flow. This paper presents a cross sectional analysis of the finance of 27 ULBs in North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal, India in terms of their financial base and its adequacy vis-à-vis norms, and their revenue and expenditure performance. Using certain ratios, the relative performance of municipalities on dependency measures was also assessed. The implications of finances of ULBs, in terms of raising resources, improving inter-governmental transfers and charting new mechanisms are also discussed. Lastly, an approach has been made to develop an index, i.e. Urban Governance Index (UGI to a better understanding of the per-capita expenditure scenario of ULBs.

  6. Tour guides developing urban ecotourism destinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt; Lasa-Gonzalez, Anne Cecilie

    is “controlled by other stakeholder and largely beyond the influence of tour guides” (ibid). In fact Weiler and Black (2015) argue that pathways and extend have never been investigated on how interpretative guiding improves the economic viability and competitiveness of business, and social and cultural benefits...... to local communities and destinations. In this paper, we want to propose a research agenda where guides have a central role in cooperation with public and private key stakeholder in development of a scalable participatory model for sustainable urban ecotourism. Wang & Wang (2013) define urban ecotourism...... as an “activity system to satisfy needs of the locals and visitors for using local natural scenery, culture and folk customs, and also to maintain ecological balance of urban environment and establish environment-friendly concepts” (2013:1). Drawing on Iterative Participatory Design, where “the concept is defined...

  7. A rapid, strong, and convergent genetic response to urban habitat fragmentation in four divergent and widespread vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Semple Delaney

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is a major cause of habitat fragmentation worldwide. Ecological and conservation theory predicts many potential impacts of habitat fragmentation on natural populations, including genetic impacts. Habitat fragmentation by urbanization causes populations of animals and plants to be isolated in patches of suitable habitat that are surrounded by non-native vegetation or severely altered vegetation, asphalt, concrete, and human structures. This can lead to genetic divergence between patches and in turn to decreased genetic diversity within patches through genetic drift and inbreeding.We examined population genetic patterns using microsatellites in four common vertebrate species, three lizards and one bird, in highly fragmented urban southern California. Despite significant phylogenetic, ecological, and mobility differences between these species, all four showed similar and significant reductions in gene flow over relatively short geographic and temporal scales. For all four species, the greatest genetic divergence was found where development was oldest and most intensive. All four animals also showed significant reduction in gene flow associated with intervening roads and freeways, the degree of patch isolation, and the time since isolation.Despite wide acceptance of the idea in principle, evidence of significant population genetic changes associated with fragmentation at small spatial and temporal scales has been rare, even in smaller terrestrial vertebrates, and especially for birds. Given the striking pattern of similar and rapid effects across four common and widespread species, including a volant bird, intense urbanization may represent the most severe form of fragmentation, with minimal effective movement through the urban matrix.

  8. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  9. Curitiba: Towards sustainable urban development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinovitch, J.

    1995-12-31

    Curitiba is best known for its innovative public transport system based on buses but this is only one among many initiatives which have improved the environment and quality of life in the city, limited pollution and waste and reduced resource use. The public transport system has also been complemented by comprehensive initiatives in planning and land use management. This paper describes not only the development of the public transport system but also the planning and administrative framework that was needed to make it, and other initiatives taken in Curitiba, effective.

  10. Challenges of urbanization and peri-urban development in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Urbanisation has arguably been the most significant process of land use change in Europe since Second World War. Over 70% of Europe's population now lives in urban areas, which in turn, have grown in area by almost 80% over the last fifty years (EEA 2006). Urban areas cover approximately five...... percent of the territory of the European Union (EU25), and are growing more than twice as fast as the European population. A general consequence of the urbanisation trend and increasing wealth and mobility is urban sprawl, as well as the emergence of peri-urban areas....

  11. The realities of Lagos urban development vision on livelihoods of the urban poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi Ayodeji Olajide

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Similar to many other cities in sub-Saharan African countries, the struggle between urban development policies and the livelihoods of the urban poor is one of the urban development challenges facing Lagos. This paper examines the realities of the Lagos urban development policies and intiatives on the livelihoods of the urban poor. The state government embarked on series of what it calls sustainable urban transformation policies towards making Lagos ‘an African model megacity’ and a global economic and financial hub that is safe, secure, functional and productive, with a view to achieving poverty alleviation and sustainable development. This paper, through the lens of theoretical and analytical underpinnings of Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, however, argues that the actions of the state government contradict the whole essence of sustainable urban development and poverty alleviation, but reflect an agenda deliberately targeted to further impoverish the poor. While the Sustainable Livelihood was used as the theoretical and analytical framework, this paper essentially focuses on the Policies, Institutions and Processes component of the framework. This provides a unique entry point for understanding the implications of the Lagos urban development aspirations on the livelihoods of the urban poor. The research uses mixed methods research design with a broad range of data-collection methods, including household surveys, interviews, direct observation and photography, documentary review and policy document analysis. The study reveals that there is a disconnection between urban development policies and realities of the poor. The implementation of urban development projects and policies works against the urban poor and resulted in more hardship, through reduction in livelihood opportunities or complete loss of livelihoods. This study, therefore, suggests that one important element in reducing poverty in Lagos’ informal settlements is a policy

  12. Strategies for sustainable urban development and urban-rural linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, K.; Sick Nielsen, T.; Aalbers, C.B.E.M.; Bell, S.; Boitier, B.; Chery, J.P.; Fertner, C.; Groschowski, M.; Haase, D.; Loibl, W.; Pauleit, S.; Pintar, M.; Piorr, A.; Ravetz, J.; Ristimäki, M.; Rounsevell, M.; Tosics, I.; Westerink, J.; Zasada, I.

    2014-01-01

    An important driving force behind urban expansion is the growth of the urban population. But for Europe, this is not a sufficient explanation. The major trend is that European cities have become much less compact. Since the mid-1950s European cities have expanded on average by 78%, whereas the

  13. Rapid growth of the US wildland-urban interface raises wildfire risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volker C. Radeloff; David P. Helmers; H. Anu Kramer; Miranda H. Mockrin; Patricia M. Alexandre; Avi Bar-Massada; Van Butsic; Todd J. Hawbaker; Sebastián Martinuzzi; Alexandra D. Syphard; Susan I. Stewart

    2018-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle, and where wildfire problems are most pronounced. Here we report that the WUI in the United States grew rapidly from 1990 to 2010 in terms of both number of new houses (from 30.8 to 43.4 million; 41% growth) and land area (from 581,000 to 770,000 km2...

  14. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj; Mangesh Balu Nanaware; Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-01-01

    Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perce...

  15. A New Rapid Simplified Model for Urban Rainstorm Inundation with Low Data Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new rapid simplified inundation model (NRSIM for flood inundation caused by rainstorms in an urban setting that can simulate the urban rainstorm inundation extent and depth in a data-scarce area. Drainage basins delineated from a floodplain map according to the distribution of the inundation sources serve as the calculation cells of NRSIM. To reduce data requirements and computational costs of the model, the internal topography of each calculation cell is simplified to a circular cone, and a mass conservation equation based on a volume spreading algorithm is established to simulate the interior water filling process. Moreover, an improved D8 algorithm is outlined for the simulation of water spilling between different cells. The performance of NRSIM is evaluated by comparing the simulated results with those from a traditional rapid flood spreading model (TRFSM for various resolutions of digital elevation model (DEM data. The results are as follows: (1 given high-resolution DEM data input, the TRFSM model has better performance in terms of precision than NRSIM; (2 the results from TRFSM are seriously affected by the decrease in DEM data resolution, whereas those from NRSIM are not; and (3 NRSIM always requires less computational time than TRFSM. Apparently, compared with the complex hydrodynamic or traditional rapid flood spreading model, NRSIM has much better applicability and cost-efficiency in real-time urban inundation forecasting for data-sparse areas.

  16. Rapidly developing marketing regions : Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, J.

    1997-01-01

    The risks and opportunities in the rapidly developing markets in Southeast Asia, China in particular, were discussed. It was asserted that no other region in the world can match the long-term market opportunities that China and Southeast Asia promise. The forces driving the economic development in Southeast Asia were described, including the great potential the region holds for the petrochemical industry. Graphs showing total polyethylene production vs. demand for year 2005 were included as illustrative examples. By 2005, China is projected to be importing almost one-half of the products it consumes. Every country with excess capacity will supply China with polyethylene. The political uncertainties that makes doing business in the region a high risk undertaking were reviewed, along with other risks relevant to the petrochemical industry such as (1) high capital costs, (2) over-building to the point that there is more supply than demand for the product, (3) low-cost producers may drive down prices to maintain market share, and (4) the uncertain nature of projections regarding economic growth and (5) inflated estimates of demand for petrochemicals. 1 tab., 4 figs

  17. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  18. Gardening in the desert: a spatial optimization approach to locating gardens in rapidly expanding urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Elizabeth A; Tong, Daoqin; Credit, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    Food access is a global issue, and for this reason, a wealth of studies are dedicated to understanding the location of food deserts and the benefits of urban gardens. However, few studies have linked these two strands of research together to analyze whether urban gardening activity may be a step forward in addressing issues of access for food desert residents. The Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is used as a case to demonstrate the utility of spatial optimization models for siting urban gardens near food deserts and on vacant land. The locations of urban gardens are derived from a list obtained from the Maricopa County Cooperative Extension office at the University of Arizona which were geo located and aggregated to Census tracts. Census tracts were then assigned to one of three categories: tracts that contain a garden, tracts that are immediately adjacent to a tract with a garden, and all other non-garden/non-adjacent census tracts. Analysis of variance is first used to ascertain whether there are statistical differences in the demographic, socio-economic, and land use profiles of these three categories of tracts. A maximal covering spatial optimization model is then used to identify potential locations for future gardening activities. A constraint of these models is that gardens be located on vacant land, which is a growing problem in rapidly urbanizing environments worldwide. The spatial analysis of garden locations reveals that they are centrally located in tracts with good food access. Thus, the current distribution of gardens does not provide an alternative food source to occupants of food deserts. The maximal covering spatial optimization model reveals that gardens could be sited in alternative locations to better serve food desert residents. In fact, 53 gardens may be located to cover 96.4% of all food deserts. This is an improvement over the current distribution of gardens where 68 active garden sites provide coverage to a scant 8.4% of food desert

  19. Self-organized criticality and urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Batty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban society is undergoing as profound a spatial transformation as that associated with the emergence of the industrial city two centuries ago. To describe and measure this transition, we introduce a new theory based on the concept that large-scale, complex systems composed of many interacting elements, show a surprising degree of resilience to change, holding themselves at critical levels for long periods until conditions emerge which move the system, often abruptly, to a new threshold. This theory is called ‘self-organized criticality’; it is consistent with systems in which global patterns emerge from local action which is the hallmark of self-organization, and it is consistent with developments in system dynamics and their morphology which find expression in fractal geometry and weak chaos theory. We illustrate the theory using a unique space–time series of urban development for Buffalo, Western New York, which contains the locations of over one quarter of a million sites coded by their year of construction and dating back to 1773, some 60 years before the city began to develop. We measure the emergence and growth of the city using urban density functions from which measures of fractal dimension are used to construct growth paths of the way the city has grown to fill its region. These phase portraits suggest the existence of transitions between the frontier, the settled agricultural region, the centralized industrial city and the decentralized postindustrial city, and our analysis reveals that Buffalo has maintained itself at a critical threshold since the emergence of the automobile city some 70 years ago. Our implied speculation is: how long will this kind of urban form be maintained in the face of seemingly unstoppable technological change?

  20. Playing by the rules? Analysing incremental urban developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karnenbeek, van Lilian; Janssen-Jansen, Leonie

    2018-01-01

    Current urban developments are often considered outdated and static, and the argument follows that they should become more adaptive. In this paper, we argue that existing urban development are already adaptive and incremental. Given this flexibility in urban development, understanding changes in the

  1. URBAN TOURISM BETWEEN CONTENT AND ASPIRATION FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Valentina GÂRBEA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With excessive urbanization that the society knows today, the city became the place of origin and at the same time a destination for an increasingly number of tourists. Cities have a higher fitting territory, diversity and quality of tourism products coming to fill a reach touristic ground, especially anthropogenic. Urban tourism has seen a significant, but uneven increase, whit the big European cities detaching themselves through cultural richness and tourist valorization of urban space and may be role models for other cities. The article proposes the approach on the concept of urban tourism and how this form of tourism is in full process of affirmation, given that, in recent years many cities search to find a new identity for themselves, to gain international recognition through tourism.

  2. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junying; Da Liangjun; Song Kun; Li Bailian

    2008-01-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  3. Spatial Pattern of Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Rapidly Urbanizing Chinese City and Its Mismatch Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities undergoing rapid urbanization are characterized by quick successions of spatiotemporal patterns, meaning that traditional methods cannot adequately assess carbon emissions from urban residential areas, which prevents the study of spatial mismatch. Therefore, this study utilizes night-time lights to construct a spatial emissions model that enables the analysis of the evolution of emissions patterns in China. The results indicate that, compared to the traditional method, the spatial modeling based on night-time lights reflects the spatial emissions trajectories in a more timely and accurate manner in rapidly urbanizing cities. Additionally, we found a relatively low degree of spatial match between emissions and economic activities, with the former, which are greatly affected by urbanization, having a larger dynamism and instability than the latter. Such spatial mismatch effect illustrates that policy makers should focus on factors beyond economics in order to reduce residential carbon emissions during China’s rapid urbanization process.

  4. CURRENT TRENDS IN DEVELOPING URBAN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Yıldız

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of architecture and other disciplines in studies of developing tourism is  significant in terms of continuity of past and future. Now architects and urban designers are working in collaboration with social sciences disciplines in the field of urban tourism. Some examples of cultural, artistic and social activities can be listed as: re-transformation of port districts, opening of new museums, new additions to the fabric of the historic city, theme parks, coastal regulations, re-use of historic structures, innovative approaches to accommodation services, production of the metropolitan centers, architectural competitions organized by central and local governments, prestige landscapes, innovative, technological and ecological approaches in architecture, festivals, design and fashion weeks, guided tours, city walks, local meetings, lectures, courses in art education, concerts, sport events, fairs , the cultural capitals. The paper analyses these works companion to tourism in detail and in a holistic sese, questions these studies in urban,  economic, cultural and social movement axes. This inquiry aims to discuss current  projects being carried out in Istanbul which is an important city in the world, also to offer a wide range of tips for conducting a collaborative, multi-dimensional perspective studies carried out in the field of tourism.

  5. Analyzing suitability for urban expansion under rapid coastal urbanization with remote sensing and GIS techniques: a case study of Linanyungang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Wenjun; Zhu, Xiaodong; Reenberg, Anette

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in 2000, Lianyungang's urbanization entered a period of rapid growth, spatially as well as economically. Rapid and intensive expansion of "construction land" imposed increasing pressures on regional environment. With the support of remote sensing data and GIS tools, this paper reports a...

  6. Park system concept for environmental sustainabilityin urban spatial development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniaty, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Urban Park System is an integrated concept between nature system and urban life. The problems caused by urban population activity resulted in the need to increase the balance between two systems. Establishment of urban park system is a response to the need for resilience of urban space structures. As an ideal requirement it needs to be built integration between the ecological, social, economic, aesthetic aspects of urban landscape architecture. The methodology was developed based on an approach to issues affecting the conditions due to urban issues and its relation to the development efforts of urban park system; Observation of Jakarta problem was obtained based on published studies and data, literature, characteristic and potential analyzes, local physical, from limited field observations. Both are simple methods aimed to describe the nature of a condition as well as form characteristics of problems in controlling the development of region, to examine the causes and symptoms. This method try to assess an object study compared between the conditions before and after. The benefits of urban park system development will not only improve the urban environment, but the value of urban pride, identity and control urban growth in line with efforts to improve the balance between conservation and development. Integrated urban park system will enhance the multifunctional role, connectivity, habitability, durability, identity and investment.

  7. Population development in Ljubljana urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the main characteristic of population development and urbanisation processes in Ljubljana and Ljubljana urban region. Up to the end of the seventies fast population growth was a consequence of strong immigration from rural parts of Slovenia and the rest of Yugoslavia. In the eighties and nineties deconcentration of population within the region with intense suburbanisation and depopulation of inner city and older residential neighbourhoods were the main urbanisation processes. In the second half of the nineties the highest population growth was recorded in dispersed rural settlements in the periphery of the region. In some parts of the inner city reurbanisation and gentrification occurred.

  8. Characteristics of peri-urbanization of a secondary city: a challenge in recent urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, P.; Mardiansjah, F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Urbanization process creates a tremendous spatial phenomenon since the last century. Especially for the country of the South, the phenomenon is still relevant to the situation today and the processes will still going until the foreseeable future. The metropolitan-based of urbanization process involves the development of peri-urban areas, which could be defined as transitional zones between city and rural areas characterized by integrated mixed-structures of agricultural and non-agricultural activities. This article reveals the characteristics of periurbanization process of an emerging secondary city in Java, which uses Surakarta, the second largest city in Central Java Province based on the population size, as the case. During the last ten years, there have been significant changes in peri-urban areas regarding urban population, land use, and urban activities that strengthening the contribution of the urban component into peri-urban system.

  9. Modeling and assessment of hydrological changes in a developing urban catchment

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, M; Sillanpää, N; Koivusalo, H

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization strongly changes natural catchment by increasing impervious coverage and by creating a need for efficient drainage systems. Such land cover changes lead to more rapid hydrological response to storms and change distribution of peak and low flows. This study aims to explore and assess how gradual hydrological changes occur during urban development from rural area to a medium-density residential catchment. The Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) is utilized to simulate a series of sc...

  10. Urbanization, economic development and health: evidence from China's labor-force dynamic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Li, Zhigang; Xue, Desheng

    2017-11-29

    The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood. To bridge these gaps, the present study investigates the impact of both urbanization and economic development on individuals' self-rated health and its underlying mechanisms in China. We use data from the national scale of the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey to analyze the impact of China's urbanization and economic development on health. A total of 14,791 individuals were sampled from 401 neighborhoods within 124 prefecture-level cities. Multilevel ordered logistic models were applied. Model results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between individuals' self-rated health and urbanization rates (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 42.0%) and a positive linear relationship between their self-rated health and economic development. Model results also suggested that the urbanization-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and middle-income people (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 0.0% and 49.2%, respectively), and the development-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and low-income people (with turning points of GDP per capita at 93,462 yuan and 71,333 yuan, respectively) and linear for middle-income people. The impact of urbanization and economic development on health in China is complicated. Careful assessments are needed to understand the health impact of China's rapid urbanization. Social and environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and economic growth

  11. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sustainable Land Development In An Urban Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kauko Tom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It can be argued that sustainable urban land development depends on the long-term viability and management success of local economic development. It can be further argued that here, economic sustainability is the key. This would furthermore signify a paradigm change to long-term administrative behavior (via an institutional approach, long-term market behavior (heterodox economics approach, and human behavior in actors’ consumption and location choices (behavioral approach. This article examines two criteria within this discourse: innovativeness and social cohesion. In doing so, it proposes a framework for empirical analysis where it is suggested that western, post-socialist and low developed cases choose different strategies due to their different starting points.

  13. Networks as Tools for Sustainable Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Tollin, Nicola

    will be discussed through a case study of a Danish municipal network on Sustainable Development, Dogme 20001. This network has become quite successful in terms of learning and innovation, committing actors, and influencing local policies, to a larger extent than other SUD-networks the municipalities are involved in....... By applying the GREMI2-theories of “innovative milieux” (Aydalot, 1986; Camagni, 1991) to the case study, we will suggest some reasons for the benefits achieved by the Dogme-network, compared to other networks. This analysis will point to the existence of an “innovative milieu” on sustainability within......Due to the increasing number of networks related to sustainable development (SUD) the paper focuses on understanding in which way networks can be considered useful tools for sustainable urban development, taking particularly into consideration the networks potential of spreading innovative policies...

  14. Model of urban poverty alleviation through the development of entrepreneurial spirit and business competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryaningsih, NN; Irianto, Kt; Marsa Arsana, Md; Juli Suarbawa, Kt

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increased of urban population can not be controlled by the city government. This will have an impact on the emergence of new poverty in urban areas, due to inadequate of the job opportunities and skills. Government programs for poverty alleviation can reduce some rural poverty, but have not been able to overcome poverty in urban areas. The diversity of urban issues and needs is greater than in rural areas. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the research with the aim to build urban poverty reduction model through the development of entrepreneurship spirit and business competence. This research was conducted by investigation method, and questionnaire. Questionnaires are arranged with rating scale measurements. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested by factor analysis. Model construction is constructed from various informant analyzes and descriptive statistical analysis. The results show that poverty alleviation model is very effective done by developing spirit of entrepreneurship and business competence.

  15. Sustainable urban development and industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Julka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of cities is highly connected with the pollution generated from industrial facilities and power plants. Both affect quality of air, weather, health and quality of life. The main goal of this paper is to determine the impact of selected weather parameters on the pollution from mentioned plants. From the research results, it can be concluded that sustainable urban development and welfare of citizens are dependent on causal relationship between pollution and weather. The greatest level of impact was recorded for nitric dioxide. In the case of carbon monoxide, the level of impact is the middle. The lowest level was recorded for particulate matter. The biggest impact on the carbon monoxide emission and particulate matter is that of air pressure, whereas temperature has the biggest impact on nitrogen dioxide emission. The research shows that air humidity and wind speed do not have a significant impact on the emission of pollutants from the plants. Research shows need for further studies in the field of impact of pollution from industry on urban weather and human health.

  16. Leading for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Improving urban schools of color and the communities where they are located requires leadership that spans school and community boundaries. The purpose of this study is to understand how principal and community leader actions support urban school reform along with community development at two community schools in the urban Midwest and…

  17. Measuring the Development Patterns of Urban Villages in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.; Geertman, S.C.M.; Hooimeijer, P.; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Urban villages are widespread in many Chinese cities, providing affordable and accessible housing for rural migrants. These urban villages are developed by the indigenous village population base on a self-help approach and in an unauthorized style. Consequently, urban villages are characterized by

  18. Spatial diversity of urban village development in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341235814; Geertman, S.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072392924; Hooimeijer, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073398578; Sliuzas, R.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic urbanization in China during the reform period has led to the emergence and proliferation of so-called urban villages in many cities. The development of urban villages, based on a self-help approach of indigenous villagers, has been satisfying great demand for migrant housing and space for

  19. Developing Resilient Urban Waterfronts : Integrating Adaptation into Urban Development and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, P.C.; Deppisch, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing attention for integrating climate change adaptation into policies, strategies and decision-making processes (e.g. mainstreaming). This paper explores to what extent climate adaptation can be integrated into processes of urban development and change, based on case study research in

  20. The European Dimension of the Global Urban Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubenko Pavlo T.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the process of evolutionary formation of the EU Cities Development Program and analyzing the strategic instrumentarium for the urban development within the currently established EU urban policy at the present stage. The key features of the process of formation of the EU urban policy have been analyzed, the main stages of evolutionary formation of the integrated EU Cities Development Program have been defined and described. In the context of ensuring an integrated approach to the sustainable urban development and complementary positioning of urban development in the EU’s territorial development and cohesion strategies, the European Union’s normative and legal framework on urban development was researched. As a result of the conducted research, the strategic instrumentarium of implementation of the EU Cities Development Program has been systematized.

  1. Exploring synergies between transit investment and dense redevelopment: A scenario analysis in a rapidly urbanizing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Like many urban areas around the world, Durham and Orange counties in North Carolina, USA are experiencing population growth and sprawl that is putting stress on the transportation system. Light rail and denser transit-oriented development are being considered as possible solutio...

  2. The quest for synergy when developing the urban fringe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    How can planning policies related to urban fringe development and disadvantaged neighbourhoods create synergy? This question is approached and answered by various research fields and explored on various urban-planning levels, displaying case-studies related to urban regeneration, post......-industrial and suburban development and urban fringe literature. The present paper adds to these discussions by analysing two case-studies in Denmark in which local government pursue traditional urban-growth strategies in urban-fringe development - a post-industrial harbour and a large suburb, located just outside...... analyses this synergy by first describing the legislative, interventionist and financial context for urban-growth strategies deployed in the cases. On this background, the paper explores synergy potential related to policy as well as private-sector actors (local businesses, social housing organizations...

  3. Does rapid urbanization aggravate health disparities? Reflections on the epidemiological transition in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Kroll

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid urbanization in low- and middle-income countries reinforces risk and epidemiological transition in urban societies, which are characterized by high socioeconomic gradients. Limited availability of disaggregated morbidity data in these settings impedes research on epidemiological profiles of different population subgroups. Objective: The study aimed to analyze the epidemiological transition in the emerging megacity of Pune with respect to changing morbidity and mortality patterns, also taking into consideration health disparities among different socioeconomic groups. Design: A mixed-methods approach was used, comprising secondary analysis of mortality data, a survey among 900 households in six neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles, 46 in-depth interviews with laypeople, and expert interviews with 37 health care providers and 22 other health care workers. Results: The mortality data account for an epidemiological transition with an increasing number of deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs in Pune. The share of deaths due to infectious and parasitic diseases remained nearly constant, though the cause of deaths changed considerably within this group. The survey data and expert interviews indicated a slightly higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among higher socioeconomic groups, but a higher incidence and more frequent complications and comorbidities in lower socioeconomic groups. Although the self-reported morbidity for malaria, gastroenteritis, and tuberculosis did not show a socioeconomic pattern, experts estimated the prevalence in lower socioeconomic groups to be higher, though all groups in Pune would be affected. Conclusions: The rising burden of NCDs among all socioeconomic groups and the concurrent persistence of communicable diseases pose a major challenge for public health. Improvement of urban health requires a stronger focus on health promotion and disease prevention for all

  4. Blue-Green Solutions in Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Caroline; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    With the ongoing urbanisation and increasing pressure for new housing and infrastructure, the nexus of developing compact, energy-efficient and yet liveable and sustainable cities is urgent to address. In this context, blue-green spaces and related ecosystem services (ES) are critical resources that need to be integrated in policy and planning of urban. Among the ES provided by blue-green spaces, regulating ES such as water retention and purification are particularly important in urban areas, affecting water supply and quality, related cultural ES and biodiversity, as well as cities potential to adapt to climate change. Blue-green infrastructure management is considered a sustainable way to reducing negative effects of urbanisation, such as decreasing flood risks, as well as adapting to climate change for example by controlling increasing flood and drought risks. Blue-green infrastructure management can for example create multifunctional surfaces with valuable environmental and social functions and generally handle greenways and ecological networks as important ecosystem service components, for example for stormwater regulation in a sustainable urban drainage system. The Norrström drainage basin (22,000 km2) is a large demonstrator for Blue-green infrastructure management. Both urbanisation and agriculture are extensive within this basin, which includes the Swedish capital Stockholm and is part of the fertile Swedish belt. Together, the relatively high population density combined with agricultural and industrial activities in this region imply large eutrophication and pollution pressures, not least transferred through storm runoff to both inland surface waters and the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea. The ecosystems of this basin provide highly valued but also threatened services. For example, Lake Mälaren is the single main freshwater supply for the Swedish capital Stockholm, as well as a key nutrient retention system that strongly mitigates waterborne nutrient

  5. Urban Land Allocation Model of Territorial Expansion by Urban Planners and Housing Developers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Cantergiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Agent-based models have recently been proposed as potential tools to support urban planning due to their capacity to simulate complex behaviors. The complexity of the urban development process arises from strong interactions between various components driven by different agents. AMEBA (agent-based model for the evolution of urban areas is a prototype of an exploratory, spatial, agent-based model that considers the main agents involved in the urban development process (urban planners, developers, and the population. The prototype consists of three submodels (one for each agent that have been developed independently and present the same structure. However, the first two are based on a land use allocation technique, and the last one, as well as their integration, on an agent-based model approach. This paper describes the conceptualization and performance of the submodels that represent urban planners and developers, who are the agents responsible for officially launching expansion and defining the spatial allocation of urban land. The prototype was tested in the Corredor del Henares (an urban–industrial area in the Region of Madrid, Spain, but is sufficiently flexible to be adapted to other study areas and generate different future urban growth contexts. The results demonstrate that this combination of agents can be used to explore various policy-relevant research questions, including urban system interactions in adverse political and socioeconomic scenarios.

  6. Third-world development: urbanizing for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcilwaine, C

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews some issues reflected in the 1996 UN Habitat II agenda and recent research on urbanization. The themes of the 1996 Habitat conference were urban development, urban poverty, and governance, civil society, and social capital. It is expected that over 50% of total world population will live in cities in the year 2000. Cities are viewed both as engines of economic growth and centers of severe economic, environmental, and social problems. There is some disagreement about whether cities are rational economic structures or what the World Bank's urban agenda is and its relationship with macroeconomic policy. Discussions of global urban issues are criticized for their neglect of issues of equity and poverty, cultural diversity, and identity and representation. Habitat II also stressed urban sustainability. There is growing recognition that urban management involves more than the "Brown Agenda" of environmental and physical aspects of urban growth. Recent studies identify how politics and power affect people's access to basic urban services. Urban economic activity can also contribute to environmental problems. Urban growth affects the provision of health services. Although there is not a consensus on the role of cities in expanding economic and social development and the best management practices, there is sufficient evidence to indicate that urban processes are varied throughout the developing world. The links between urban and rural areas differentiate cities and expose the need to understand the role of intermediate urban areas surrounding and between larger cities. Poverty has become increasingly urbanized, but the extent of poverty is unknown. Habitat II was an unprecedented effort to engage nongovernment groups, local government staff, trade unions, and the private sector and to emphasize community participation. Networks of trust and reciprocity are key to solving poverty, inequality, and disempowerment problems.

  7. Urban development in Freiburg, Germany – sustainable and neoliberal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mössner, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sustainable urban development has emerged as a relevant but contested field in urban studies. A broad and diverse literature has discussed sustainable development from various perspectives. Some authors have researched urban sustainability from a technocratic perspective, looking for technical and managerial solutions. Others have shed light on the political dimension of urban sustainable development in our times of urban neoliberalization. This branch of literature focuses on the problematic relationship between market-oriented growth on the one hand and aspects of equality and justice on the other hand, which come along with the idea of sustainability. This article argues that the professionalization and new forms of urban management, as well as a shift towards urban governance and citizens’ participation have intensified consensual practices of urban regulation. Sustainable politics that have occurred in many cities around the world place emphasis on justice, tolerance and participation as the principal drivers for urban development. Empirical evidence shows, however, that these goals are subjugated to economic growth. Drawing on empirical work carried out in Freiburg, Germany – a city long hailed as a forerunner of urban sustainable development – this article promotes the opinion that the idea of ‘sustainable development’ in its current form is nothing more than an oxymoron, aimed and invented as a fuzzy concept in order to disguise the fundamentalist believe in growth that lies beyond such development.

  8. SUSTAINABLE URBAN COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT THROUGH AGENDA 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Md Zan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The much-talked about issues such as the rising of heavy crime cases, problems in solid waste management, air and water pollution as well as traffic congestion detering the quality of life among urban community members. Urgent and proactive measure is highly desireable in order to preserve and maintain the integral parts of urban’s higher quality of life. All parties should take part in ongoing efforts to achieve sustainable development through various means. Local Agenda 21 (LA21 serves as one of the efforts in achieveing the ultimate goal of sustainable development through better collaboration and cooperation among stakeholders including local government, non-governmental organisations and the community at large. The core principle of the LA21 program lies in the spirit of cooperation among community members, local authorities and the private sectors. This could be achieved through various activities including from the beginning such as through a comprehensive planning for the local area to achieve the sustainable development. Community members should be involved in brainstorming of the ideas and expressing their views so that authorities would be able to identify the real and arising issues in the community. Through this way a sustainable town and municipal planning could be developed and initiated. This paper discusses the importance of urbancommunity participation in achieving sustainable development as practicedthrough LA21 in Seberang Perai Municipal Council, Penang.

  9. Research on assessment methods for urban public transport development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Linghong; Dai, Hongna; Yao, Enjian; Jiang, Tian; Guo, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, with the rapid increase in urban population, the urban travel demands in Chinese cities have been increasing dramatically. As a result, developing comprehensive urban transport systems becomes an inevitable choice to meet the growing urban travel demands. In urban transport systems, public transport plays the leading role to promote sustainable urban development. This paper aims to establish an assessment index system for the development level of urban public transport consisting of a target layer, a criterion layer, and an index layer. Review on existing literature shows that methods used in evaluating urban public transport structure are dominantly qualitative. To overcome this shortcoming, fuzzy mathematics method is used for describing qualitative issues quantitatively, and AHP (analytic hierarchy process) is used to quantify expert's subjective judgment. The assessment model is established based on the fuzzy AHP. The weight of each index is determined through the AHP and the degree of membership of each index through the fuzzy assessment method to obtain the fuzzy synthetic assessment matrix. Finally, a case study is conducted to verify the rationality and practicability of the assessment system and the proposed assessment method.

  10. City Planning Evolution - Urban Development Directions in the Transition Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Grigorovschi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban evolution post 1989 has a series of specific characteristics mainly on a spatial-territorial plane. Determination of the main developing factors and urban evolution directions (dimensions, rhythm, expansion level, centrifugal and axial character, concentric, centripetal, functional evolution, tendencies and social implications, etc. represents a necessity and obligation for action from professionals in urban and landscaping fields. This necessity even arises from the perspective of the need for realizing strategies, planning, documentation and urban studies, which must intervene correctively in the evolution of areas with structural problems and to guide urban evolution towards the main goal namely the growth in residential quality of life in human settlements.

  11. Urbanization and economic development: a bias toward large cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, R L; Shatter, A M

    1996-01-01

    "We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per capita, population, and export orientation reduce primacy. Political factors, such as whether a country's largest city is also its capital, affect primacy. Our results do not seem to imply that developing-country urbanization today differs fundamentally from urbanization in the past." excerpt

  12. [Rapid development of cosmetic medicine in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kaihua; Pan, Baohua; Xia, Wei

    2006-04-01

    To review and summarize the development during the last 20 years and the current status of cosmetic medicine, i.e., cosmetic surgery, in China, for the healthier development of this specialty in the future. Literature concerned was reviewed, including conference abstracts, papers, and publications, and the present status and problems were analyzed. Cosmetic medicine was recognized as an independent specialty and gained its clear definition. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the changing medical modules and the developing science and civilization. This trend fulfilled the need of the people. The related problems consisted of a high complication rate, confusion of management, and insufficient specific knowledge in part of the providers. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the civilization development. For the healthy development of this specialty, scientific management and systemic education for the providers are crucial. Only those who have the plastic surgery background are able to participate in this practice.

  13. Implications of rainfall for agricultural and urban development of Eldoret, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ofori- Sarpong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of rainfall in the urban development of Kenya. The rainfall characteristics have been analysed and their influence on agricultural and urban development assessed. It is noted that since Eldoret is one of the rapidly expanding towns in Kenya located in highly potential agricultural region, variability of rainfall and drought can seriously affect urban development as farmers in the hinterland will abandon their farms and migrate to the town thus creating food shortage. Secondly, in times of drought, the water supply problems in the town will be exacerbated as it depends on surface water source. The tempo of rural-urban migration will be speeded up and this will create more socio-economic problems.

  14. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  15. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available as the acceleration of the system development phases through an iterative construction approach. These methodologies also claim to manage the changing nature of requirements. However, during the development of large and complex systems by a small and technically...

  16. COORDINATES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Maria IORDACHE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, urban tourism began to develop gradually from the '80s, nowadays being a distinct form of tourism whose importance is increasing. Thus, there were concerns about specific facilities for different categories of visitors and their harmonization with the demands of caring for the smooth functioning of urban settlements. By adding tourism to the local economy inventory activities of an urban area, it can be considered a catalyst and a reviving factor for strengthening urban cities especially because it represents an important source of income and it is responsible for creating thousands of jobs. Given the need to adapt to the demands of tourists, this paper attempts to clarify some issues related to content, characteristics and influencing factors of urban tourism, but also the adoption of policies for exploitation through tourism of the specific elements of urban space and urban tourism prospects.

  17. The Urban Crisis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Threat to Human Security and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediel Hove

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban centres have existed and have been evolving for many centuries across the world. However, the accelerated growth of urbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon. The enormous size of urban populations and more significantly, the rapidity with which urban areas have been and are growing in many developing countries have severe social, economic and physical repercussions. This paper argues that the accelerated growth of urbanisation has amplified the demand for key services. However, the provision of shelter and basic services such as water and sanitation, education, public health, employment and transport has not kept pace with this increasing demand. Furthermore, accelerated and poorly managed urbanisation has resulted in various types of atmospheric, land and water pollution thereby jeopardising human security. This paper offers the conclusion that the increased environmental, social and economic problems associated with rapid urbanisation pose a threat to sustainable development, human security and, crucially, peace.

  18. Analyzing the Impact of Highways Associated with Farmland Loss under Rapid Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Song

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Highway construction has accelerated urban growth and induced direct and indirect changes to land use. Although many studies have analyzed the relationship between highway construction and local development, relatively less attention has been paid to clarifying the various impacts of highways associated with farmland loss. This paper integrates GIS spatial analysis, remote sensing, buffer analysis and landscape metrics to analyze the landscape pattern change induced by direct and indirect highway impacts. This paper explores the interaction between the impact of highways and farmland loss, using the case of the highly urbanized traffic hubs in eastern China, Hang-Jia-Hu Plain. Our results demonstrate that the Hang-Jia-Hu Plain experienced extensive highway construction during 1990–2010, with a clear acceleration of expressway development since 2000. This unprecedented highway construction has directly fragmented the regional landscape and indirectly disturbed the regional landscape by attracting a large amount of built-up land transition from farmland during the last two decades. In the highway-effect zone, serious farmland loss initially occurred in the urban region and then spread to the rural region. Moreover, we found the discontinuous expansion of built-up land scattered the farmland in the rural region and expressway-effect zone. Furthermore, farmland protection policies in the 1990s had the effect of controlling the total area of farmland loss. However, the cohesive farmland structure was still fragmented by the direct and indirect impacts of highway construction. We suggest that an overall farmland protection system should be established to enhance spatial control and mitigate the adverse impacts caused by highway construction. This work improves the understanding of regional sustainable development, and provides a scientific basis for balanced urban development with farmland protection in decision-making processes.

  19. Using GIS for Developing Sustainable Urban Growth Case Kyrenia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, C.; Akçit, N.

    2018-03-01

    It is critical to develop urban layers for analysis sustainable urban development possibilities within planning process. Kyrenia Region has many physical, environmental or economic issues that may danger the growth possibilities in sustainable manner. From this point, this study uses different spatial layers such as slope, distance to roads, distance to central zone, vegetation, soil productivity, environmental protection zones, distance to open/green space, distance to education for supporting sustainable urban growth policies and define suitable areas for urban development within this perspective. The study tries to convert sustainable urban growth policies such as; compact growth, environmental protection, equal accessibility to basic services; into spatial layers and establish proper framework for multi criteria evaluation in Kyrenia Region within using geographical information systems. It shows suitability values for Kyrenia region and constraints zones at final section. It clearly presents the suitable areas for the sustainable urbanization and also unsuitable or risky areas for reducing the possible disasters and may happen in the future.

  20. Population in urban development and the practical problems of urban planning policy in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Uyanga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the pattern of recent growth in African towns, examines the population component in this growth process and discusses the attendant urban planning problems. The contention in the study is that there are problems of definition. policy enunciation, and organisational co-ordination in the conceptualization. planning. orchestration and implementation of urban development and service systems. The magnitude of African urban developmental problems, and its multi-faceted nature demands that the latest in scientific knowledge and technological innovations should be integrated and incorporated into the urban planning and implementation processes.

  1. Channel erosion in a rapidly urbanizing region of Tijuana, Mexico: Enlargement downstream of channel hardpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine; Biggs, Trent; Langendoen, Eddy; Castillo, Carlos; Gudiño, Napoleon; Yuan, Yongping; Liden, Douglas

    2016-04-01

    Urban-induced erosion in Tijuana, Mexico, has led to excessive sediment deposition in the Tijuana Estuary in the United States. Urban areas in developing countries, in contrast to developed countries, are characterized by much lower proportions of vegetation and impervious surfaces due to limited access to urban services such as road paving and landscaping, and larger proportions of exposed soils. In developing countries, traditional watershed scale variables such as impervious surfaces may not be good predictors of channel enlargement. In this research, we surveyed the stream channel network of an erodible tributary of the Tijuana River Watershed, Los Laureles Canyon, at 125 locations, including repeat surveys from 2008. Structure from Motion (SfM) and 3D photo-reconstruction techniques were used to create digital terrain models of stream reaches upstream and downstream of channel hardpoints. Channels are unstable downstream of hardpoints, with incision up to 2 meters and widening up to 12 meters. Coordinated channelization is essential to avoid piece-meal approaches that lead to channel degradation. Watershed impervious area is not a good predictor of channel erosion due to the overriding importance of hardpoints and likely to the high sediment supply from the unpaved roads which prevents channel erosion throughout the stream network.

  2. Rapid growth of the US wildland-urban interface raises wildfire risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Volker C; Helmers, David P; Kramer, H Anu; Mockrin, Miranda H; Alexandre, Patricia M; Bar-Massada, Avi; Butsic, Van; Hawbaker, Todd J; Martinuzzi, Sebastián; Syphard, Alexandra D; Stewart, Susan I

    2018-03-27

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area where houses and wildland vegetation meet or intermingle, and where wildfire problems are most pronounced. Here we report that the WUI in the United States grew rapidly from 1990 to 2010 in terms of both number of new houses (from 30.8 to 43.4 million; 41% growth) and land area (from 581,000 to 770,000 km 2 ; 33% growth), making it the fastest-growing land use type in the conterminous United States. The vast majority of new WUI areas were the result of new housing (97%), not related to an increase in wildland vegetation. Within the perimeter of recent wildfires (1990-2015), there were 286,000 houses in 2010, compared with 177,000 in 1990. Furthermore, WUI growth often results in more wildfire ignitions, putting more lives and houses at risk. Wildfire problems will not abate if recent housing growth trends continue.

  3. Variations in land surface temperature and cooling efficiency of green space in rapid urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Zhaowu; Guo, Xieying; Zeng, Yuxi

    2018-01-01

    understood. Additionally, a strategy to optimize the most significant decreased land cover type in order to maximize the cooling effect is still lacking. Therefore, in this study, we selected the rapidly urbanizing and ‘hottest’ city in China, Fuzhou, as a case study. Two algorithms were selected to compare....... This study extends the current understanding of LCC dynamics and LST variation. The concepts of the CE and TVoE are meaningful for landscape planning practice and can be used in other cases....... and obtain reliable LST data. A land use transfer matrix was used to detect critical contributions leading to the LST variations. The concept of cooling efficiency (CE) and the threshold value of efficiency (TVoE) are also proposed, defined, and calculated. The results show that LST values increased...

  4. Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Bing-Yu; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. Analyses indicate that levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area. Kaohsiung City had the highest levels of O, SO, and particulate matter 2.5 or 10 µm in diameter (PM and PM). Clear downward trends for CO, NO, PM, PM, and especially SO concentrations were found in the surveyed areas, whereas O showed no decrease. Both O and PM concentrations showed similar bimodal seasonal distributions. Taiwan's air quality has improved significantly since 1993, indicating the effectiveness of promoting air pollution strategies and policies by the TEPA. Air pollution had an obvious improvement in Taipei area after the MRT system began operations in 1996. Because global climate may potentially affect urban air pollution in Taiwan, further study to clarify the mechanisms by which air pollution may affect human health and other biological effects is warranted. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas. PMID:28869572

  6. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachalida Yukalang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  7. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-09-04

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  8. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  9. Urban Environment Development based on Universal Design Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun Ir

    2018-02-01

    Universal Design is a design which facilitated full range of human diversity. By applying Universal design principles, urban environment can be more functional and more user-friendly for everyone. This study examined five urban streets of South Korea as a country experienced on developing various urban street designs based on universal design. This study aimed to examine and compare the South Korea cases using seven principles of universal design. The research methods of this study are literature study, case study, and site observation. The results of this study are: South Korea cases are good practices, urgency of implementing the direction into local regulations; and change of urban development paradigm.

  10. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  11. Rural And Urban Youth Participation In Community Development In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focused on participation in community development activities, constraints to and benefits derived from participation. It compared rural and urban youth participation in community development activities in Ido local government area of Oyo State. Proportionate random sampling was used to select 2 rural, 1 urban ...

  12. Urban agriculture and poverty alleviation in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban agriculture has served for a long time as a vital asset in the livelihood strategies of urban households in developing countries. It has been considered since then as a relevant input in responding to the embryonic economic situation of developing countries resulting to the structural adjustment programs and increasing ...

  13. The Challenge of Urban and Regional Development in the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjo Suminto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of development is part of the overall national task carried out along governance. This task has been entrusted to the government as a gradual long-term task, planning, and sustainable. Implied in it, the intention to achieve a better state. Contained within the dimension of time setting goals, achieving goals, and overall utilization of benefits for citizens throughout the country. Enshrined also be aware that there will be found a variety of difficulties, limitations, and problems that must be solved. The problems of urban development in Indonesia can be viewed from two approaches, namely macro and micro approaches. A macro approach urban problems are reviewed in the context of the region (national scale. While the approach is seen as a micro city neighborhoods. This problem is closely related to the natural growth of the city population and population migration. Based on research on urban and regional development, it can be concluded: 1 the problem of urbanization of rural and small towns to large cities should be addressed; 2 urban spatial arrangements should be improved to do with increasingly limited land for development and urban development; 3 the provision of facilities and infrastructure of the city, city management, and financing of urban development, integration between government, society, and the private sector should be increased; 4 study of urban models that can accommodate all the problems of the city should be developed continuously.

  14. Development of an Urban Multilayer Radiation Scheme and Its Application to the Urban Surface Warming Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Toshinori; Takahashi, Shunji

    2012-02-01

    To investigate how a three-dimensional structure such as an urban canyon can affect urban surface warming, we developed an urban multilayer radiation scheme. The complete consideration of multiple scattering of shortwave and longwave radiation using the radiosity method is an important feature of the present scheme. A brief description of this scheme is presented, followed by evaluations that compare its results with observations of the effective albedo and radiative temperature for urban blocks. Next, we calculate the urban surface warming potential (USWP), defined as the difference between the daily mean radiative temperature of urban surfaces (which are assumed to be black bodies), including their canyon effects and the daily mean temperature of a flat surface with the same material properties, under a radiative equilibrium state. Assuming standard material properties (albedo and emissivity of 0.4 and 0.9, respectively), we studied the sensitivity of the USWP to various aspect ratios of building heights to road widths. The results show that the temporally-averaged surface temperature of an urban area can be higher than that of a flat surface. In addition, we determined the overestimation of the effective temperature of urban surfaces induced by the overestimation of the radiation distribution to the walls when one uses a single-layer scheme for urban block arrays that have a low sky-view factor less than around 0.5.

  15. Developing and validating rapid assessment instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Abell, Neil; Kamata, Akihito

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an overview of scale and test development. From conceptualization through design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, critical concerns are identified and grounded in the increasingly sophisticated psychometric literature. Measurement within the health, social, and behavioral sciences is addressed, and technical and practical guidance is provided. Acknowledging the increasingly sophisticated contributions in social work, psychology, education, nursing, and medicine, the book balances condensation of complex conceptual challenges with focused recommendations for conceiving, planning, and implementing psychometric study. Primary points are carefully referenced and consistently illustrated to illuminate complicated or abstract principles. Basics of construct conceptualization and establishing evidence of validity are complimented with introductions to concept mapping and cross-cultural translation. In-depth discussion of cutting edge topics like bias and invariance in item responses...

  16. Workshop Report On Sustainable Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephanie; Martin, Gary; Barone, Larry; Wagener, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The key workshop goal was to explore and document how NASA technologies, such as remote sensing, climate modeling, and high-end computing and visualization along with NASA assets such as Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can contribute to creating and managing a sustainable urban environment. The focus was on the greater Bay Area, but many aspects of the workshop were applicable to urban management at the local, regional and global scales. A secondary goal was to help NASA better understand the problems facing urban managers and to make city leaders in the Bay Area more aware of NASA's capabilities. By bringing members of these two groups together we hope to see the beginnings of new collaborations between NASA and those faced with instituting sustainable urban management in Bay Area cities.

  17. Urban agriculture in the developing world: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini , Francesco; Kahane , Remi; Nono-Womdim , Remi; Gianquinto , Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The year 2007 marked a critical event in the world history. For the first time, more than half of the world population now lives in cities. In many developing countries, the urbanization process goes along with increasing urban poverty and polluted environment, growing food insecurity and malnutrition, especially for children, pregnant and lactating women; and increasing unemployment. Urban agriculture represents an opportunity for improving food supply, health conditi...

  18. NETWORKING - THE URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA NOWICKA-SKOWRON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of innovations embraces everything that is connected with creation and application of new knowledge in order to win competitive advantage. A traditional approach applied by organizational and management sciences are not enough to explain and manage the development of enterprises as well as that of cities, regions and countries. According to a new approach to innovativeness, creation of innovations depends on a complex/system approach. A phenomenon of particular importance is the approach to network pro-innovation structures from the urban and regional point of view. What makes a network work is a mutual relation between actors who have same rights to access and participate in the network. The whole system must be perceived by every actor. Simultaneously, every actor is partially responsible for the whole. The nature of networking can be understood as a differentiated system of relations (particularly personal ones inside the network. Tolerance and trust are other foundations of information flow and information return.

  19. Impacts of urbanization and agricultural development on observed changes in surface air temperature over mainland China from 1961 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songjun; Tang, Qiuhong; Xu, Di; Yang, Zhiyong

    2018-03-01

    A large proportion of meteorological stations in mainland China are located in or near either urban or agricultural lands that were established throughout the period of rapid urbanization and agricultural development (1961-2006). The extent of the impacts of urbanization and agricultural development on observed air temperature changes across different climate regions remains elusive. This study evaluates the surface air temperature trends observed by 598 meteorological stations in relation to the urbanization and agricultural development over the arid northwest, semi-arid intermediate, and humid southeast regions of mainland China based on linear regressions of temperature trends on the fractions of urban and cultivated land within a 3-km radius of the stations. In all three regions, the stations surrounded by large urban land tend to experience rapid warming, especially at minimum temperature. This dependence is particularly significant in the southeast region, which experiences the most intense urbanization. In the northwest and intermediate regions, stations surrounded by large cultivated land encounter less warming during the main growing season, especially at the maximum temperature changes. These findings suggest that the observed surface warming has been affected by urbanization and agricultural development represented by urban and cultivated land fractions around stations in with land cover changes in their proximity and should thus be considered when analyzing regional temperature changes in mainland China.

  20. Is rapid development of nuclear power purposeful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The questions of the development of nuclear energy are discussed with regard to the efficacy of investments. The results are given of studies carried out at the nuclear research institute in Juelich in the FRG. At the estimated 25 years' service-life of the reactor and 0.2% uranium concentration in ore the following results were obtained: Total energy consumption for the construction and operation of a light water reactor power plant makes up 4.6% of the total power production, and in high-temperature reactors it amounts to 3.5%, both with uranium enrichment by the diffusion process. In uranium enrichment by centrifugal technology, consumption drops to 1.25% for LWRms and to 0.9% for high-temperature reactors, in fast breeder reactors it makes up only 0.8% of the total power production of the nuclear power plant. The period during which a nuclear power plant produces the amount of power consumed in construction and operation is 1.2 to 2.5 months which makes it less costly and more economical than any power plant burning coal minus the negative environmental impacts of such power plants.

  1. Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as determined by hydrogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagabu, Makoto; Shimada, Jun; Delinom, Robert; Tsujimura, Maki; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In the Jakarta area (Indonesia), excessive groundwater pumping due to the rapidly increasing population has caused groundwater-related problems such as brackish water contamination in coastal areas and land subsidence. In this study, we adopted multiple hydrogeochemical techniques to demonstrate the groundwater flow system in the Jakarta area. Although almost all groundwater existing in the Jakarta basin is recharged at similar elevations, the water quality and residence time demonstrates a clear difference between the shallow and deep aquifers. Due to the rapid decrease in the groundwater potential in urban areas, we found that the seawater intrusion and the shallow and deep groundwaters are mixing, a conclusion confirmed by major ions, Br -:Cl - ratios, and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-12 analysis. Spring water and groundwater samples collected from the southern mountainside area show younger age characteristics with high concentrations of 14C and Ca-HCO 3 type water chemistry. We estimated the residence times of these groundwaters within 45 years under piston flow conditions by tritium analysis. Also, these groundwater ages can be limited to 20-30 years with piston flow evaluated by CFCs. Moreover, due to the magnitude of the CFC-12 concentration, we can use a pseudo age indicator in this field study, because we found a positive correlation between the major type of water chemistry and the CFC-12 concentration.

  2. Urban Big Data and the Development of City Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhe Pan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a definition for urban big data while exploring its features and applications of China's city intelligence. The differences between city intelligence in China and the “smart city” concept in other countries are compared to highlight and contrast the unique definition and model for China's city intelligence in this paper. Furthermore, this paper examines the role of urban big data in city intelligence by showing that it not only serves as the cornerstone of this trend as it also plays a core role in the diffusion of city intelligence technology and serves as an inexhaustible resource for the sustained development of city intelligence. This study also points out the challenges of shaping and developing of China's urban big data. Considering the supporting and core role that urban big data plays in city intelligence, the study then expounds on the key points of urban big data, including infrastructure support, urban governance, public services, and economic and industrial development. Finally, this study points out that the utility of city intelligence as an ideal policy tool for advancing the goals of China's urban development. In conclusion, it is imperative that China make full use of its unique advantages—including using the nation's current state of development and resources, geographical advantages, and good human relations—in subjective and objective conditions to promote the development of city intelligence through the proper application of urban big data.

  3. Regional planning and urban infrastructure development in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional planning and urban infrastructure development in the Gongola region, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... In North-eastern Nigeria, the Gongola region has been one of the least developed since independence.

  4. Land quality, urban development and urban agriculture within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research indicates that low-density residential development is still the major consumer ..... planning theory as a separate rural feature. ... a strong motivation against the practice. (Lewcock ... can contribute to the local economy and whether ...

  5. Rapid Urbanization and Implications for Flood Risk Management in Hinterland of the Pearl River Delta, China: The Foshan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Ma, Wei-Chun; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2008-03-28

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the linkage between rapid urbanization and flood risk in the hinterlands of the Pearl River Delta, P.R. China. Foshan, a typical hinterland city in the Pearl River Delta region, was selected as a case study. Land use and cover change in Foshan during 1988-2003 was analyzed using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Furthermore, analysis on historical hydrological data during 1962-2005 was performed. Results show that rapid urbanization has resulted in losses of farmland, forest and shrub since 1988. In addition, in order to compensate or offset the loss of farmland due to rapid urban expansion, more than 30 % of the forest and 20 % of the shrub areas were transformed into farmlands. Inevitably, both the urban and agricultural lands increased the pressure on the drainage systems. Furthermore, over the past decades human activities such as dredging up the floodways, excavating sand and building water facilities in the rivers, significantly changed the hydrological conditions, and therefore impaired the rivers' capacity to buffer floods. Lessons from the Foshan case implied that, in addition to natural processes, human activities driven by socio-economic factors should be considered responsible for the recently increasing level of flood risks. Both economically and environmentally, it is irrational and impractical to encourage encroachment of lands vulnerable to floods. It is also realistic and urgent to effectively prevent and control the adverse ecological consequences of urbanization and economic activities for building their wealth and prominence.

  6. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization in a Developed Region of Eastern Coastal China

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiadan; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Li, Jun; Huang, Tao; Lin, Yi; Yu, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a practical methodology to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban expansion in response to rapid urbanization at the provincial scale by integrating remote sensing, urban built-up area boundaries, spatial metrics and spatial regression. Sixty-seven cities were investigated to examine the differences of urbanization intensity, urbanization patterns and urban land use efficiency in conjunction with the identification of socio-economic indicators and planning str...

  7. Development of Dimensionless Index Assessing Low Impact Development in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, S. H.; Lee, E. H.; Kim, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Because the rapid urbanization and industrialization have increased the impervious area of watersheds, inundation in urban area and water pollution of river by non-point pollutants have caused serious problems for a long time. Low Impact Development (LID) techniques have been implemented for the solution of these problems due to its cost effectiveness for mitigating the water quality and quantity impact on urban areas. There have been many studies about the effectiveness of LID, but there is a lack of research on developing an index for the assessment of LID performance. In this study, the dimensionless reliability index of LID is proposed. The index is developed using Distance Measure Method (DMM). DMM is used to consider the parameters that have different units. The parameters for reliability of LID are the amount of pollutant at the outfall and the flooding volume. Both parameters become dimensionless index by DMM. Weighted factors in dimensionless index are considered to realize the behavior of reliability for the variation of importance to the parameters. LID is applied to an actual area called Gasan city in Seoul, South Korea where inundation is frequently occurred. The reliability is estimated for 16 different rainfall events. For each rainfall event, the parameters with LID installation are compared with those of no LID installation. Depending on which parameter is considered more important, the results showed difference. In conclusion, the optimal locations of LID are suggested as the weighted factors change.

  8. Space Applications in Support of Future Urban Development in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaddad, Bahaaeddin; Reppucci, Antonio; Moreno, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The fast growing of some cities has produced important changes in the urban sectors not always following sustainability criteria. As results, most urban growth falls outside formal planning controls and many cities suffer poor urban services management, traffic, and congestion, loss of green areas, poor air quality, and noise. The main advantages of satellite-based EO products are to support the decision-making process, and the development and operation of smart services. Satellite-based urban morphology analysis can help to identify the transformation of the urban development and evolution. The pilot presented here is a demonstration in the framework of the collaboration between ESA and ADB, called EOTAP "Earth Observation for a Transforming Asia Pacific". Aim of the pilot is to exploit satellite Earth observation data for sustainable growth and help preparing a series of city development and investment plans.

  9. The challenge of sustainable mobility in urban planning and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin; Næss, Petter; Yao, Yinmei

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this article is how the challenge of sustainable mobility has been dealt with in urban planning and urban development in the metropolitan areas of Copenhagen (Denmark) and Hangzhou (China). The two metropolises have followed different trajectories in their land use and transport...

  10. Implications of Urban Development-Induced Resettlement on Poor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They are moved away from their areas of work, their social networks .... for Urban Development and Urban Good Governance (FDRE 2007) discusses the three pillars ... about their experiences of past practices of resettlement. ..... women and single-headed families, empowering such families to enable them to engage in ...

  11. Urban forest biomass estimates: is it important to use allometric relationships developed specifically for urban trees? 

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.R. McHale; I.C. Burke; M.A. Lefsky; P.J. Peper; E.G. McPherson

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have analyzed the benefits, costs, and carbon storage capacity associated with urban trees. These studies have been limited by a lack of research on urban tree biomass, such that estimates of carbon storage in urban systems have relied upon allometric relationships developed in traditional forests. As urbanization increases globally, it is becoming...

  12. Rapid psychological assessment of depression and its relationship with physical health among urban elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithra Cheluvaraj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Old age is associated with increased occurrence of a wide array of Psychological impairments or losses, which might contribute to physical disabilities. As Depression has been identified as the most common aberration its rapid assessment would be able to identify the quality of individual and family life of the elderly. Aims To assess psychological health status with respect to depression among geriatric urban community, and the relationship of depression with health perception and physical health status has been explored. Methods A cross-sectional total geriatric population survey consisting of 254 elderly has been carried out at urban field practice area. A standard geriatric depression scale (Short form has been utilized to assess psychological status. Detailed physical examination and investigations with special reference to Diabetes, Hypertension and Visual defects was carried out. Data was analyzed to find out the relationship of various socio-demographic factors, physical morbidities with depression. Results Out of 254 elderly examined, 32 per cent females and 23 per cent males were found to be suffering from depressive disorders. When assessed for individual health status perception, 25 per cent felt to have good health. Out of 190 geriatric subjects perceiving fair to bad health, 110 were found to be suffering from depression (p<0.001. Depression was also found to be associated with history of hospital admission in the previous year (p<0.05, low vision (p<0.05, diabetes (p<0.01 and hypertension (p<0.01. Conclusion Depression among geriatric age group is associated with physical illness and perception of health.

  13. Social constructions of environmental services in a rapidly densifying peri-urban area under dual governance in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sutherland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodiversity plays a critical role in improving the quality of life and resilience of poor urban communities in Durban. Objectives: However, the rapid densification that is taking place in the ‘rural periphery’ of the city is impacting significantly on the integrity of ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystem services. It is also changing the relations between people and the environment. Mzinyathi and eSkebheni, in the north-west of Durban, are peri-urban areas located on Ingonyama Trust land and hence they are governed by both the traditional authority and the eThekwini Municipality. The settlement pattern is changing rapidly here as middle and upper income residents move into the area, changing the way of life from being rural and ‘traditional’ to urban and ‘modern’. Method: This paper focused on the nexus of rapid urban growth, dual governance systems, biodiversity loss and cultural change in these two areas. It adopted a qualitative methodology and social constructivist approach. Data on the value of environmental services in the area was collected through interviewing the traditional authority, provincial and municipal planners and environmentalists, and household members. Results: The paper revealed that environmental services are constructed in multiple ways within a particular socio-historical and political context, that they have value to peri-urban communities, and that their function and use is changing as a result of the ‘modernisation’ of the area. The impact of the dual governance system and traditional land allocation process on environmental services is significant. This has implications for long term sustainability, for the quality of life of peri-urban residents and for planning and urban governance.

  14. Capitalism and Culture in Ibadan Urban Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Dan R.

    1978-01-01

    An extended case analysis of a 1973 single land sale in the Yoruba city of Ibadan illustrates the role of Yoruba cultural patterns in Nigerian capitalist growth. This analysis also provides insight into the nature of the social relationships being established in the urbanization of Ibadan. (EB)

  15. cloudland, stronzoland, brisbane: urban development and ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    'overgrown country town', is less publicised and less romanticised and thus less familiar to the ..... society) but he cannot prevent its slow disintegration through class mobility and ... fast-paced world of sleeping during the day and partying through the night, of an urban .... Nedlands: The University of Western. Australia: 71-84.

  16. Development of a strategy for decontamination of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 lead to high level contamination in urban areas in different parts of Europe and showed the importance of preparedness in the optimisation of any mitigatory interference. To meet this demand, a method for development of a decontamination strategy for urban areas has been developed based on measurements of radionuclide distribution in the urban environment after the Chernobyl accident, calculations of dose and experimentally obtained data on effectiveness and cost of practicable clean-up procedures. The approach highlights where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction and cost. (author)

  17. Integrated policy analysis of sustainable urban and transportation development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Feng, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Fujiwara, A.; Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban and transportation development needs to balance economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This study conducts integrated policy analyses by explicitly incorporating these sustainability goals and optimizing the performance of transportation networks.

  18. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  19. The General Atomics low speed urban Maglev technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, : and environmentally friendly option for urban mass transportation in the United States. Maglev is a revolutionary : approach in w...

  20. Design as a way to develop a relevant urban environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design as a way to develop a relevant urban environment. ... Futuristic ideas of young designers can become the first stage in solving these challenging tasks. ... the problems of a modern city: from space organization to leisure organization.

  1. Developing knowledge cities : Aligning urban, corporate and university strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heijer, A.C.; De Vries, J.C.; De Jonge, H.

    2011-01-01

    The successful development of knowledge cities increasingly depends on collaboration between urban and regional authorities, knowledge institutions and businesses. Policy makers and business strategists do acknowledge the interrelated objectives of these actors in the knowledge economy and their

  2. Trends of tropospheric NO2 over the Yangtze River Delta region and the possible linkage to rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingliang; Zhang, Deying; Liu, Qiyang; Song, Yue; Zhou, Jiayuan; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Over the past decade, China has experienced a rapid increase in urbanization. The urban built-up areas (population) of Shanghai increased by 16.1% (22.9%) from 2006 to 2015. This study aims to analyze the variations of tropospheric NO2 over Yangtze River Delta region and the impacts of rapid urbanization during 2006-2015. The results indicate that tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) of all cities in the study area showed an increasing trend during 2006-2011 whereas a decreasing trend during 2011-2015. Most cities showed a lower tropospheric NO2 VCD value in 2015 compared to that in 2006, except for Changzhou and Nantong. Shanghai and Ningbo are two hotspots where the tropospheric NO2 VCD decreased most significantly, at a rate of 22% and 19%, respectively. This effect could be ascribed to the implementation of harsh emission control policies therein. Similar seasonal variability was observed over all cities, with larger values observed in the summer and smaller values shown in the winter. Further investigations show that the observed increasing trend of tropospheric NO2 during 2006-2011 could be largely explained by rapid urbanization linked to car ownership, GDP, power consumption, population and total industrial output. Such effect was not prominent after 2011, mainly due to the implementation of emission control strategies.

  3. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Triolo, Jin Mi; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    . The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting...... BMP. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) of the UOW model were 0.88 and 44 mL CH4/g VS, while the combined model was 0.89 and 50 mL CH4/g VS. Improved model performance was obtained for the two individual models compared to the combined version...

  4. A theoretical framework on CSR and urban development

    OpenAIRE

    Tsavdaridou, Maria; Metaxas, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    The role of enterprises in society is without doubt controversial nowadays due to the economic crisis. Although enterprises offer infrastructures, jobs, innovative solutions to local communities their primary goal is profit in order to be competitive and sustainable. This article examines the implementation of urban development projects under the CSR strategy and provides case studies of European enterprises that offered successful urban development projects in their local communities. There...

  5. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment. Urban farming and resource recovery will help to feed the 9 billion by 2050 (predicted population growth, UN-Habitat forecast 2009. This paper reports on best practice of urban design principles in regard to materials flow, material recovery, adaptive re-use of entire building elements and components (‘design for disassembly’; prefabrication of modular building components, and other relevant strategies to implement zero waste by avoiding waste creation, reducing wasteful consumption and changing behaviour in the design and construction sectors. The paper touches on two important issues in regard to the rapid depletion of the world’s natural resources: the built environment and the education of architects and designers (both topics of further research. The construction and demolition (C&D sector: Prefabricated multi-story buildings for inner-city living can set new benchmarks for minimizing construction wastage and for modular on-site assembly. Today, the C&D sector is one of the main producers of waste; it does not engage enough with waste minimization, waste avoidance and recycling. Education and research: It’s still unclear how best to introduce a holistic understanding of these challenges and to better teach practical and affordable solutions to architects, urban

  6. Sustainable urban development and the multi-level transition perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter; Vogel, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses some challenges and possible adaptations of transition theory as a framework for analyzing the prospects for environmentally more sustainable development of urban land use and transport infrastructure. Rather than depending first and foremost on niche innovations......, a transition toward sustainable urban development is a matter of changing the composition of existing multisegmented land use and transportation regimes. Those well-experienced forms of built environment and transport infrastructure that are in line with sustainability objectives should be strengthened while...... those that are not should be actively constrained and reduced. Urban development in a Danish provincial city is used as a case to illustrate some of the points made in the theoretical part of the article. Due to the wide gap between present conditions and those required to realize a sustainable urban...

  7. Strategies for managing the effects of urban development on streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiella, Karen; Stack, William P.; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Lane, Cecilia; McMahon, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Urban development remains an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The U.S. population grew by 17 percent from 1982 to 1997, while urbanized land area grew by 47 percent, suggesting that urban land consumption far outpaced population growth (Fulton and others, 2001; Sierra Club, 2003; American Farmland Trust, 2009). Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Each American effectively occupies about 20 percent more developed land (for housing, schools, shopping, roads, and other related services) than 20 years ago (Markham and Steinzor, 2006). Passel and Cohn (2008) predict a dramatic 48 percent increase in the population of the United States from 2005 to 2050. The advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems (EUSE) during 1999–2004 provides the most spatially comprehensive analysis of stream impacts of urban development that has been completed in the United States. A nationally consistent study design was used in nine metropolitan areas of the United States—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A summary report published as part of the EUSE study describes several of these impacts on urban streams (Coles and others, 2012).

  8. A method to study the management of urban development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.

    2011-01-01

    The management of urban development projects in the Netherlands has changed significantly in recent years. These projects have become mainly ‘led’ by developers as they manage the entire life cycle of development projects, while public actors mainly facilitate development projects. This changes the

  9. Governance in urban development crisis situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Rober

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban shrinking processes are increasingly recognized as a phenomenon for research in urban politics, encompassing entire cities or parts of it as well as metropolitan areas that are experiencing a fundamental decline in both their economic and social bases.Cities are facing complex social problems like aging processes within the resident population and simultaneously running shrinking processes. Observable side effects of these transformation processes are higher vacancy rates and under-utilization of infrastructure facilities. Therefore cities are no longer able to cope alone with this growing complexity, hence a demand for cooperation evolves. The ongoing reforms of internal structure of local government connected with the devolution of resources and competences, as well as the changing external relationships between the business community, local public bodies, individual bureaucrats and local politicians, increase institutional fragmentation. Thus internal and external reform processes generate an extended network of policy actors involved in local decision making. Schools of thought in urban politics accentuate the changing role of local governments in decision making processes. Regime theory, corporatism, regulation theory or civic governance concepts differ in their emphasis on the importance of specific actors participating in local decision making. The paper reviews the competing theoretical assumptions for the importance of specific actors in local decision making. This addresses the question to what extent specific governance modes adopted in reaction to shrinking processes are an expression of a changing relationship between local governments and civil society or business actors in an international comparative context. Is there a trend to more convergence with respect to the adopted governance modes?

  10. Developing Efficient Urban Electrical Systems Using Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahagan, Michael

    2010-09-15

    Electric vehicles and battery storage will complicate utility operations and strain existing networks. One possible solution is the implementation of 'microgrids' autonomous electricity environments that operate within a larger electric utility grid and their 'controllers' Microgrids direct locally generated power to local demand, coordinate with centralized utility networks to meet additional demand, and pass excess supply to neighboring microgrids. This paper explains the evolution of microgrids. It details their design and operation. It also reviews their many benefits within urban settings, including minimizing customer costs while maximizing use of local generation from clean, renewable resources.

  11. Urban Land Use Planning Trend and Sustainable Challenges in Socio-Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yousif Mangi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use planning is a technical approach for developing and managing the land into various public interests to endorse sustainable socio-economic development. This paper focuses on socio-economic problems by improper allocations of urban land uses particularly in vertical development (High rise buildings. Taluka Qasimabad Town was selected as a case study to observe the existing urban land use trends. Spatial and Quantitative data were collected through detailed land use survey and formal interviews. The ArcGIS and SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science online software were used to analyze spatial and quantitative data. LRM (Linear Regression Model was used for predicting urban land use change particularly in vertical development by the year 2050. In this context, yearly code and land use change variables were applied in LRM to predict land use change since 2007. The results were found that rapid change in land uses occurred in the study area, by which inhabitants are facing problems like privacy, insecurity, property devaluation, and orientation nearby their accommodations. This research can lead to suggest several ways to improve and enhance urban land use planning approaches for betterment of urban communities.

  12. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  13. Ensuring sustainable development through urban planing in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Zaidi, S.S.U.

    2013-01-01

    Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and non- treatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  14. Urban development results in stressors that degrade stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Amanda H.; Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Woodside, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, eighty-three percent of Americans lived in metropolitan areas, and considerable population increases are predicted within the next 50 years. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic biota. Every stream is connected downstream to other water bodies, and inputs of contaminants and (or) sediments to streams can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism. Understanding how algal, invertebrate, and fish communities respond to physical and chemical stressors associated with urban development can provide important clues on how multiple stressors may be managed to protect stream health as a watershed becomes increasingly urbanized. This fact sheet highlights selected findings of a comprehensive assessment by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas.

  15. Perspective on an urban transportation strategy with BRT for developing cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Nakamura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system is one of the best strategies for urban transportation, especially in developing cities, mainly because of its cost-efficiency. Starting from Curitiba, Brazil in 1974, including Bogota, Colombia in 1999, many cities in Latin American Countries have implemented a BRT system. In almost all cases, BRT systems are working as a reliable high capacity service. In some cases, BRT systems are well coordinated with an urban transportation strategy framework and/or an urban planning strategy framework, integrating other transportation modes and land uses. Alternatively, there have been very few cases of BRT systems in Southeast Asian countries. Many cities considering implementation of BRT systems do not consider other urban transportation strategies such as Transit Oriented Development (TOD. The objective of the paper is to discuss the perspective of a BRT for developing cities. First, the paper reviews the history of BRT systems followed by a field survey of the results in Curitiba, mainly from an urban transportation and planning strategy point of view. Second, multimodal and inter-modal aspects are discussed, where the relationship with city buses, a balance between private car use and parking policies are emphasized. Third a framework of urban bus planning, management and operation is discussed considering the roles of public and private sectors based on the experiences of several developed cities. Finally, in terms of an urban planning strategy, reviewing the original and applied concepts of TOD, the authors discuss how a TOD strategy could work with BRT systems. The authors address the possibilities and limitations of BRT systems, especially in developing cities. More specific implications are presented in the case of medium sized cities of Southeast Asian countries.

  16. Rapid Epidemiological Assessment of Onchocerciasis in a Tropical Semi-Urban Community, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE Eyo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was carried out in Opi-Agu a tropical semi-urban autonomous community comprising of three villages in Enugu State, Nigeria, between the months of April and June 2010. It was designed to determine the prevalence of Onchocerca volvulus infection and assess the perception of the disease among the inhabitants of this community.Methods: A total number of 305 individuals comprising of 148 males and 157 females were ex­amined for various manifestations of onchocerciasis symptoms using rapid epidemiological assess­ment (REA method.Results: Out of this number, 119 (39.02% individuals were infected. Prevalence of infection among age groups and villages varied. Age group 41 yr and above had the highest (31.00% prevalence, while among the villages, Ogbozalla village ranked higher (45.71% than the other villages. Overall the prevalence of infection among the sexes revealed that males were more infected (43.24% than the females (35.03%. Lichenified onchodermatitis (LOD was the most prevalent (35.29% onchocercia­sis symptom among others identified in the area, while leopard skin (LS had the lowest (20.17% occurrence and blindness (0.00% which is the most devastating effect of O. volvulus infec­tion was not observed. Questionnaire responses from 410 individuals revealed that 34.8% respon­dent from Idi village and 28.1% from Ibeku village believed that O. volvulus infection occurs through poor personal hygiene. Bite of blackfly ranked least (10.6% among the respondent’s knowledge of the causes of onchocerciasis in Opi-Agu community.Conclusion: Opi-Agu community members had poor knowledge of onchocerciasis, the vector and of its etiologic organism. There is need for integration of community health education with mass chemo­therapy

  17. Rapid assessment of visual impairment in urban population of Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Noopur; Vashist, Praveen; Malhotra, Sumit; Senjam, Suraj Singh; Misra, Vasundhara; Bhardwaj, Amit

    2015-01-01

    To determine the prevalence, causes and associated demographic factors related to visual impairment amongst the urban population of New Delhi, India. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in East Delhi district using cluster random sampling methodology. This Rapid Assessment of Visual Impairment (RAVI) survey involved examination of all individuals aged 40 years and above in 24 randomly selected clusters of the district. Visual acuity (VA) assessment and comprehensive ocular examination were done during the door-to-door survey. A questionnaire was used to collect personal and demographic information of the study population. Blindness and Visual Impairment was defined as presenting VA visual impairment. Of 2421 subjects enumerated, 2331 (96.3%) were available for ophthalmic examination. Among those examined, 49.3% were males. The prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the study population, was 11.4% (95% C.I. 10.1, 12.7) and that of blindness was 1.2% (95% C.I. 0.8, 1.6). Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of VI accounting for 53.4% of all VI followed by cataract (33.8%). With multivariable logistic regression, the odds of having VI increased with age (OR = 24.6[95% C.I.: 14.9, 40.7]; p visual impairment is considerable in this region despite availability of adequate eye care facilities. Awareness generation and simple interventions like cataract surgery and provision of spectacles will help to eliminate the major causes of blindness and visual impairment in this region.

  18. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  19. Rapid Urbanization and Implications for Flood Risk Management in Hinterland of the Pearl River Delta, China: The Foshan Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-rong Wang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the linkage between rapid urbanization and flood risk in the hinterlands of the Pearl River Delta, P.R. China. Foshan, a typical hinterland city in the Pearl River Delta region, was selected as a case study. Land use and cover change in Foshan during 1988-2003 was analyzed using remote sensing and geographic information system (GIS techniques. Furthermore, analysis on historical hydrological data during 1962-2005 was performed. Results show that rapid urbanization has resulted in losses of farmland, forest and shrub since 1988. In addition, in order to compensate or offset the loss of farmland due to rapid urban expansion, more than 30 % of the forest and 20 % of the shrub areas were transformed into farmlands. Inevitably, both the urban and agricultural lands increased the pressure on the drainage systems. Furthermore, over the past decades human activities such as dredging up the floodways, excavating sand and building water facilities in the rivers, significantly changed the hydrological conditions, and therefore impaired the rivers’ capacity to buffer floods. Lessons from the Foshan case implied that, in addition to natural processes, human activities driven by socio-economic factors should be considered responsible for the recently increasing level of flood risks. Both economically and environmentally, it is irrational and impractical to encourage encroachment of lands vulnerable to floods. It is also realistic and urgent to effectively prevent and control the adverse ecological consequences of urbanization and economic activities for building their wealth and prominence.

  20. Evaluation of Plan Implementation: Peri-urban Development and the Shanghai Master Plan 1999-2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghuan He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s China has experienced unprecedented urbanisation as a result of a series of reforms promoting rapid economic development. Shanghai, like the other big cities along China’s coastline, has witnessed extraordinary growth in its economy and population with industrial development and rural-to-urban migration generating extensive urban expansion. Shanghai’s GDP growth rate has been over 10 per cent for more than 15 years. Its population in 2013 was estimated at 23.47 million, which is double its size in 1979. The urban area enlarged by four times from 644 to 2,860 km2 between 1977 and 2010. Such demanding growth and dramatic changes present big challenges for urban planning practice in Shanghai. Plans have not kept up with development and the mismatch between the proposals in plans and the actual spatial development has gradually increased, reaching a critical level since 2000. The mismatch in the periurban areas is more notable than that in the existing urban area, but there has not been a systematic review of the relationship between plan and implementation. Indeed, there are few studies on the evaluation of plan implementation in China generally. Although many plans at numerous spatial levels are successively prepared and revised, only few of them have been evaluated in terms of their effectiveness and implementation.  This particularly demanding context for planning where spatial development becomes increasingly unpredictable and more difficult to influence presents an opportunity to investigate the role of plans under conditions of rapid urbanisation. The research project asks to what extent have spatial plans influenced the actual spatial development in the peri-urban areas of Shanghai? The research pays particular attention to the role of the Shanghai Master Plan 1999-2020 (Plan 1999. By answering the main research question this study seeks to contribute to a better understanding of present planning practice in Shanghai

  1. Abu Dhabi’s New Urban Islands and Shorefront Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Amrousi Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abu Dhabi is in the process of urbanizing a group of Islands that surround its northern and eastern coastlines. Al-Lulu, Al-Saadiyat, Al- Maryah, Al-Reem and Yas Islands are all new urban enclaves that were desert islands and marshlands yet, have been developed over the past decade to urban islands that include epic and entertainment centres such as the Abu Dhabi Louvre, Guggenheim Museum, Ferrari World, NYU Abu Dhabi, the Paris Sorbonne Abu Dhabi in addition to iconic and exclusive waterfront residential units. These new islands re-brand the image of the main archipelago of Abu Dhabi that for decades retained a grid street pattern and pragmatic concrete blocks created in the late 1970s. The new urban islands transform Abu Dhabi’s image into a multinational modern Arab city seeking to become part of the global city network. Abu Dhabi’s new urban islands also act as breakwaters that protect the main archipelago’s coastline from erosion resulting from tidal change, because they are designed to include concrete and stone breakwater barriers. This paper represents a cross-disciplinary research between Civil Engineering and Architecture Departments in an attempt to explore the emerging infrastructure and urban expansion of Abu Dhabi from a multi-disciplinary perspective. We also highlight through simulating the effect of breakwaters on wave heights two scenarios for Al-Lulu Island the importance of these new barrier Islands on the urban expansion of Abu Dhabi.

  2. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Pojani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable urban development, not only because they are home to at least a quarter of the world’s population but because they also offer great potential for sustainable transformations. In principle, their size allows for flexibility in terms of urban expansion, adoption of “green” travel modes, and environmental protection. At the same time, smaller and medium-sized cities often have fewer resources to implement new transport measures and can be more vulnerable to fluctuations in the world economy. This article critically reviews the potential role and impact of nine commonly considered options for sustainable urban transport in cities in developing countries: (1 road infrastructure; (2 rail-based public transport; (3 road-based public transport; (4 support for non-motorized travel modes; (5 technological solutions; (6 awareness-raising campaigns; (7 pricing mechanisms; (8 vehicle access restrictions; and (9 control of land-uses. Drawing on international research and examples of policies to reduce the environmental impacts of transport in urban areas, this article identifies some key lessons for sustainable urban transport in smaller and medium-sized cities in developing countries. These lessons are certainly not always identical to those for megacities in the global south.

  3. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  4. All-Inclusiveness versus Exclusion: Urban Project Development in Latin America and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes current processes of urban fragmentation, segregation, and exclusion that result from the increasing flows of capital in gated communities, walled-off condominiums, and similar exclusivist investment hubs in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. Gated community-like developments are growing and spreading into new areas. Although not all of the walled projects offer all-inclusiveness, they are unanimously based on the pre-selection of specific categories of residents. Moreover, all-inclusive urban developments are taking on new and more encompassing forms, such as ‘gated cities’. Hence, socio-spatial inclusion and exclusion in the urban built environment are continuously transforming under the influence of investment capital (i.e., new urban investment flows and speculation, urbanistic concepts (e.g., different interpretations of safety and crime, and human mobilities. This paper builds on a comparison of empirical cases from Latin America and Africa to develop a qualitative framework of segregation indicators. In Latin America, gated communities have a long history, but exclusionary developments are changing in form, as well as in implications. In Africa, research on gated communities has particularly focused on South Africa (where they have a longer history, but exclusionary developments are spreading rapidly across the continent, and will influence future real estate development and land markets. Based on such complementary experiences, this paper grapples with the question of how these new all-inclusive developments influence the possibilities of achieving inclusive and sustainable urban transitions, as advocated in Sustainable Development Goal 11 (SDG11 and the New Urban Agenda.

  5. Research and Development of Rapid Design Systems for Aerospace Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Harry G.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of research activities associated with the development of rapid design systems for aerospace structures in support of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The specific subsystems investigated were the interface between model assembly and analysis; and, the high performance NASA GPS equation solver software system in the Windows NT environment on low cost high-performance PCs.

  6. Rapid development of paper-based fluidic diagnostic devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for rapid and low-cost development of microfluidic diagnostic devices using paper-based techniques. Specifically, the implementation of fluidic flow paths and electronics on paper are demonstrated, with the goal of producing...

  7. A successful local economic development-urban renewal initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the urgent need for local economic development in South Africa, Local Economic Development (LED) as area of professional endeavour/activity has largely failed to live up to this need. In this article, an alternative approach to local economic development, which involved a 'bottom-up' approach to urban renewal is ...

  8. Atmospheric Pollution and Urban Development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Guinot, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese cities face the challenge of battling air pollution during a time of rapid urbanisation and rising energy demand. Poor air quality is heightening anxiety over the environment. Given pollution’s economic cost, a real policy of monitoring and control has emerged at the national level. Chinese researchers and industry have come up with technological responses to the enormous challenges. While some showcase cities have boosted their pollution-control measures, the situation in smaller one...

  9. Urban Big Data and Sustainable Development Goals: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kharrazi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities are perhaps one of the most challenging and yet enabling arenas for sustainable development goals. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs emphasize the need to monitor each goal through objective targets and indicators based on common denominators in the ability of countries to collect and maintain relevant standardized data. While this approach is aimed at harmonizing the SDGs at the national level, it presents unique challenges and opportunities for the development of innovative urban-level metrics through big data innovations. In this article, we make the case for advancing more innovative targets and indicators relevant to the SDGs through the emergence of urban big data. We believe that urban policy-makers are faced with unique opportunities to develop, experiment, and advance big data practices relevant to sustainable development. This can be achieved by situating the application of big data innovations through developing mayoral institutions for the governance of urban big data, advancing the culture and common skill sets for applying urban big data, and investing in specialized research and education programs.

  10. URBAN SPRAWL AND SUSTAINABLE CITY DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Nnaemeka-Okeke

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban environmental problems are of different dimensions and are mostly due to geologic, climatic and cultural factors. However, the cultural factors seems to be more pronounced in the Nigerian context because most of the identified urban environmental issues are so much associated with the way of life of the people, either as reactions to urbanization or their spatial heritage. Their effects are far reaching on efforts to attain sustainable development in the country. Since no section of the country’s urban environment is immune to environmental effects, there is urgent need to seek workable solutions by the application of planning, economic, legal, institutional and educational tools as have been suggested here.

  11. Composition of Solid Waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a Mountain Region Undergoing Rapid Urbanization in Northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the generation and composition of waste in rural areas worldwide. The present study analyzed the composition of solid waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a rural mountain region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is presently experiencing a rapid rate of urbanization due to tourism development. The solid wastes here are generated by the municipality collecting waste from residential, commercial, institutional and recreational areas, the military from a training camp and a few non-governmental private companies from their camps and hotels. The whole load from each of the three sources was manually segregated each month from June 2013 – May 2014. The results indicated that plastic is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the municipality and accounts for 26.7%, followed by paper (17.9% and then food (14.4%. Food is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the military and private companies and accounts for 36.5% and 45.5% respectively. Management issues associated with solid waste are briefly considered. The study concluded that the municipality should implement an improved system for the collection of plastic waste and initiate a system for recycling it; the military and private companies should reduce the quantities of food waste by improved planning and management of the catering services.

  12. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The existing method in acquiring city geometries data via ground or space measurement inspection....... Therefore this paper aims is to perform groundwork assessment and discuss on the current scenario in Malaysia in the aspect of current policies towards SUD, air quality monitoring stations, scale model and detail discussion on air pollution dispersion model used called the Operational Street Pollution Model......Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing...

  13. Quantitative assessment of urban transport development – a spatial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czech Artur

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban transport is considered the basis of properly functioning cities and their development. The main aim of the paper is to attempt the assessment of urban transport development in selected voivodeships (provinces as a crucial factor of macro logistics. The research also aimed to identify the underdeveloped areas of urban transport in Poland as the basis for the implementation of support policy. The source of information in the investigation process was data drawn from the Central Statistical Office in Poland for 2013–2016. In the scope of dealing with the research problem, chosen classical and order multivariate statistical measures were implemented into the research process. Next, the taxonomic measures for the years of interest served as the basis for the construction of the total (general synthetic measure applicable to the entire period. The main results and findings of the research indicate that the level of urban transport development is correlated with the whole transportation system which affects the socio-economic development of some regions of Poland. The research can lead to a better understanding of Polish urban transportation development in selected regions. Hence, the results can be helpful in the investment process and for shaping the right transportation policy to improve the use of financial resources.

  14. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Dow, C F; Kulessa, B; Rutt, I C; Tsai, V C; Pimentel, S; Doyle, S H; van As, D; Lindb?ck, K; Pettersson, R; Jones, G A; Hubbard, A

    2015-01-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and exa...

  15. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  16. Productive Urban Landscape In Developing Home Garden In Yogyakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, S. N. R.; Sarwadi, A.

    2017-10-01

    Home garden is one type of agroecosystem that supports ecosystem services even in the urban settlement. The studies involved literature references and field survey along with a framework of the productive urban landscape that support ecosystem services in home garden. Productive urban landscape provided environmentally, socially and economically benefits that contained in ecosystem services. Problems on limited space in the urban settlement have to be managed by modified home garden system in order to work for ecosystem service in developing productive landscape. This study aimed to assess home garden (Pekarangan) system in a cluster of high density settlement in Yogyakarta City. Structured interview and vegetation identification of home garden have been conducted on 80 samples in Rejowinangun Kotagede District, Yogyakarta City. People showed enthusiasm in ecosystem services provided by home garden “Pekarangan Produktif” through developing productive urban landscape. Some benefits on ecosystem services of home garden were revealed on this study consisted of food production for sale (4.7%), home industry (7.69%), aesthetics (22.65%), food (14.10%), biodiversity (10.68%), ecosystem (12.82%), education (2.56), social interaction (11.54%), recreation (4.70%), and others (8.55%). Nevertheless, vegetation and other elements of home gardens have been managed irregularly and in particularly, the planned home gardens were only 17.07%. Actually, home gardens provided a large set of ecosystem services including being cultural services those are the category most valued. The urban people almost hided the understanding of the cultural benefit of ecosystem services of home garden, even though Yogyakarta has known the cultural city. Thus, urban home garden, as way as “Pekarangan Produktif” in the limited space that managed and planned sustainably, provide many benefits of ecosystem services in a productive urban landscape.

  17. Development of rapid mixing fuel nozzle for premixed combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsuki, Masashi; Chung, Jin Do; Kim, Jang Woo; Hwang, Seung Min; Kim, Seung Mo; Ahn, Chul Ju

    2009-01-01

    Combustion in high-preheat and low oxygen concentration atmosphere is one of the attractive measures to reduce nitric oxide emission as well as greenhouse gases from combustion devices, and it is expected to be a key technology for the industrial applications in heating devices and furnaces. Before proceeding to the practical applications, we need to elucidate combustion characteristics of non-premixed and premixed flames in high-preheat and low oxygen concentration conditions from scientific point of view. For the purpose, we have developed a special mixing nozzle to create a homogeneous mixture of fuel and air by rapid mixing, and applied this rapidmixing nozzle to a Bunsen-type burner to observe combustion characteristics of the rapid-mixture. As a result, the combustion of rapid-mixture exhibited the same flame structure and combustion characteristics as the perfectly prepared premixed flame, even though the mixing time of the rapid-mixing nozzle was extremely short as a few milliseconds. Therefore, the rapid-mixing nozzle in this paper can be used to create preheated premixed flames as far as the mixing time is shorter than the ignition delay time of the fuel

  18. Characterizing Coastal Ecosystem Service Trade-offs with Future Urban Development in a Tropical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R; Friess, Daniel A

    2017-11-01

    With rapid urbanization in the coastal zone and increasing habitat losses, it is imperative to understand how urban development affects coastal biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, it is important to understand how habitat fragments can best be incorporated into broader land use planning and coastal management, in order to maximize the environmental benefits they provide. In this study, we characterized the trade-offs between (a) urban development and individual mangrove environmental indicators (habitat quality and ecosystem services), and (b) between different environmental indicators in the tropical nation of Singapore. A range of biological, biophysical, and cultural indicators, including carbon, charcoal production, support for offshore fisheries, recreation, and habitat quality for a threatened species were quantified using field-based, remote sensing, and expert survey methods. The shape of the trade-off Pareto frontiers was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of environmental indicators for development. When traded off individually with urban development, four out of five environmental indicators were insensitive to development, meaning that relatively minor degradation of the indicator occurred while development was below a certain threshold, although indicator loss accelerated once this threshold was reached. Most of the pairwise relationships between the five environmental indicators were synergistic; only carbon storage and charcoal production, and charcoal production and recreational accessibility showed trade-offs. Trade-off analysis and land use optimization using Pareto frontiers could be a useful decision-support tool for understanding how changes in land use and coastal management will impact the ability of ecosystems to provide environmental benefits.

  19. Characterizing Coastal Ecosystem Service Trade-offs with Future Urban Development in a Tropical City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel R.; Friess, Daniel A.

    2017-11-01

    With rapid urbanization in the coastal zone and increasing habitat losses, it is imperative to understand how urban development affects coastal biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Furthermore, it is important to understand how habitat fragments can best be incorporated into broader land use planning and coastal management, in order to maximize the environmental benefits they provide. In this study, we characterized the trade-offs between (a) urban development and individual mangrove environmental indicators (habitat quality and ecosystem services), and (b) between different environmental indicators in the tropical nation of Singapore. A range of biological, biophysical, and cultural indicators, including carbon, charcoal production, support for offshore fisheries, recreation, and habitat quality for a threatened species were quantified using field-based, remote sensing, and expert survey methods. The shape of the trade-off Pareto frontiers was analyzed to assess the sensitivity of environmental indicators for development. When traded off individually with urban development, four out of five environmental indicators were insensitive to development, meaning that relatively minor degradation of the indicator occurred while development was below a certain threshold, although indicator loss accelerated once this threshold was reached. Most of the pairwise relationships between the five environmental indicators were synergistic; only carbon storage and charcoal production, and charcoal production and recreational accessibility showed trade-offs. Trade-off analysis and land use optimization using Pareto frontiers could be a useful decision-support tool for understanding how changes in land use and coastal management will impact the ability of ecosystems to provide environmental benefits.

  20. Spatial and functional changes in recent urban development of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sić

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the urban development of Zagreb in the transition period. It analyses four processes which have caused spatial and functional changes in the cityćs development within its administrative limits. These are: the process of a new CBD establishment, expansion of hypermarkets and commercial centres, housing construction under new conditions and transportation problems and solutions. Under the influence of these processes the spatiofunctional structure of the city becomes more and more complex. In this connection the city has started to have more influence on the urban regions development.

  1. Research on the Development and Enlightenment of Urban Environmental Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingjing; Li, Guanglou; Zhang, Lu; Shou, Youping; Li, Yajuan; Ye, Wei; Xu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, under the promotion of reform and opening up, China's economic development has greatly accelerated, urbanization is also gradually accelerated. In the process of urbanization, there are many problems. The development of environmental engineering is one of the most important points. While building our living environment; we should also pay attention to the implementation of sustainable development strategies. First of all, This paper describes basic situation of environmental engineering, and finally provided some measures to promote the strengthening of China's environmental engineering

  2. Decades of urban growth and development on the Asian megadeltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Christopher; Sousa, Daniel; Yetman, Gregory; Elvidge, Christopher; MacManus, Kytt

    2018-06-01

    The current and ongoing expansion of urban areas worldwide represents the largest mass migration in human history. It is well known that the world's coastal zones are associated with large and growing concentrations of population, urban development and economic activity. Among coastal environments, deltas have long been recognized for both benefits and hazards. This is particularly true on the Asian megadeltas, where the majority of the world's deltaic populations reside. Current trends in urban migration, combined with demographic momentum suggest that the already large populations on the Asian megadeltas will continue to grow. In this study, we combine recently released gridded population density (circa 2010) with a newly developed night light change product (1992 to 2012) and a digital elevation model to quantify the spatial distribution of population and development on the nine Asian megadeltas. Bivariate distributions of population as functions of elevation and coastal proximity quantify potential exposure of deltaic populations to flood and coastal hazards. Comparison of these distributions for the Asian megadeltas show very different patterns of habitation with peak population elevations ranging from 2 to 11 m above sea level over a wide range of coastal proximities. Over all nine megadeltas, over 174 million people reside below a peak population elevation of 7 m. Changes in the spatial extent of anthropogenic night light from 1992 to 2012 show widely varying extents and changes of lighted urban development. All of the deltas except the Indus show the greatest increases in night light brightness occurring at elevations <10 m. At global and continental scales, growth of settlements of all sizes takes the form of evolving spatial networks of development. Spatial networks of lighted urban development in Asia show power law scaling properties consistent with other continents, but much higher rates of growth. The three largest networks of development in China all

  3. Mass balance-based regression modeling of PAHs accumulation in urban soils, role of urban development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Chi; Wang, Meie; Chen, Weiping; Chang, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contents in 68 soils samples collected at housing developments that represent different length of development periods across Beijing. Based on the data, we derived a mass balanced mathematical model to simulate the dynamics of PAH accumulations in urban soils as affected by the urban developments. The key parameters were estimated by fitting the modified mass balance model to the data of PAH concentrations vs. building age of the sampling green area. The total PAH concentrations would increase from the baseline of 267 ng g −1 to 3631 ng g −1 during the period of 1978–2048. It showed that the dynamic changes in the rates of accumulations of light and heavy PAH species were related to the shifting of sources of fuels, combustion efficiencies, and amounts of energy consumed during the course of development. - Highlights: • Introduced a mass balance model for soil PAHs accumulation with urbanization. • Reconstructed the historical data of PAH accumulation in soil of Beijing, China. • The soil PAH concentrations would be doubled in the following 40 years. • The composition of PAH emissions were shifting to light PAH species. - Introduced a regression modeling approach to predict the changes of PAH concentrations in urban soil

  4. Urban landscape architecture design under the view of sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, WeiLin

    2017-08-01

    The concept of sustainable development in modern city landscape design advocates landscape architecture, which is the main development direction in the field of landscape design. They are also effective measures to promote the sustainable development of city garden. Based on this, combined with the connotation of sustainable development and sustainable design, this paper analyzes and discusses the design of urban landscape under the concept of sustainable development.

  5. Sustainable Urban Development and Land Use Change—A Case Study of the Yangtze River Delta in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a sustainability assessment method for the rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta in China addressing the role of land use pattern. We first calculated the sustainability component scores of 16 cities in the area in 2000 and 2005. The results showed that socioeconomic and environmental conditions improved while the performance of resource-use degraded from 2000 to 2005. We then made a spatial analysis of land use change (LUC using geographic information systems during 1990–2000. We found that diverse spatiotemporal transformation occurred among the cities and identified urban development cluster patterns and profiles based on development density. Finally, we examined the impact of LUC on sustainable urban development (SUD. Using regression techniques, we demonstrated that urbanization, infrastructure development, industrial structure and income significantly affected environmental performance and resource-use. These results suggest a moderate pace of LUC with steady economic growth being key to SUD.

  6. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [tr

  7. The integrated indicator of sustainable urban development based on standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity for the system of planned indicators for sustainable urban development design in accordance with the requirements of international standards and the Russian standard GOST R ISO 37120-2015, and the estimation of their actual achievement based on complex qualimetric models. An analysis of opinions on this issue and an overview of Russian normative documents for assessing the effectiveness of the municipalities, including urban development are presented. General methodological principles and sequence for the construction of qualimetric models, as well as formulas for the calculation of complex indicators, taking into account the specific weights obtained on the basis of expert assessment, are presented, the need for careful selection of experts and determination of the consistency of expert opinions is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are shown. Conclusions are drawn on the use of qualimetric models for sustainable urban development.

  8. A vision on methodology for integrated sustainable urban development: bequest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentivegna, V.; Curwell, S.; Deakin, M.; Lombardi, P.; Mitchell, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    The concepts and visions of sustainable development that have emerged in the post-Brundtland era are explored in terms laying the foundations for a common vision of sustainable urban development (SUD). The described vision and methodology for SUD resulted from the activities of an international

  9. Urban development control based on transportation carrying capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Sjafruddin, A. H.

    2017-06-01

    Severe transportation problems in Indonesian urban areas are stimulated by one fundamental factor, namely lack of awareness on transportation carrying capacity in these areas development control. Urban land use development towards more physical coverage is typically not related with the capability of transportation system to accommodate additional trips volume. Lack of clear connection between development permit with its implication on the transportation side has led to a phenomenon of exceeding transport demand over supply capacity. This paper discusses the concept of urban land use development control which will be related with transport carrying capacity. The discussion would cover both supply and demand sides of transportation. From supply side, the analysis regarding the capacity of transport system would take both existing as well as potential road network capacity could be developed. From demand side, the analysis would be through the control of a maximum floor area and public transport provision. Allowed maximum floor area for development would be at the level of generating traffic at reasonable volume. Ultimately, the objective of this paper is to introduce model to incorporate transport carrying capacity in Indonesian urban land use development control.

  10. Spatial and functional changes in recent urban development of Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Sić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the urban development of Zagreb in the transition period. It analysesfour processes which have caused spatial and functional changes in the city’s developmentwithin its administrative limits. These are: the process of a new CBD establishment, expansionof hypermarkets and commercial centres, housing construction under new conditions andtransportation problems and solutions. Under the influence of these processes the spatiofunctionalstructure of the city becomes more and more complex. In this connection the cityhas started to have more influence on the urban region’s development.

  11. Dilemmas of energy efficient urban development in three Nordic cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    Energy is high on the agenda of the European Union and in current urban development. In this study we focus on the role of urban planning in energy efficiency in 3 Northern European cities - Turku (FI), Eskilstuna (SE) and Tartu (EE). The case studies were developed in close collaboration between...... the authors and representatives of the cities. The research was carried out by field trips, interviews and analysis of local reports and planning documents. This work was done in the framework of the EU-FP7 project PLEEC (Planning for energy efficient cities), GA no. 314704, www.pleecproject.eu...

  12. Rapid Development, Build-Out Ratio and Subsequent Neighborhood Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George O. Rogers

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood development is primarily comprised of structural elements that include design elements, nearby amenities and ecological attributes. This paper assumes that the process of development itself also influences the character of the neighborhood—specifically, that the rate of development and build-out ratio influences neighborhood turnover. While the structural components clearly set a framework for development, the process of development expresses the character of the neighborhood in subtle messages conveyed through the market. Neighborhoods in the rapidly growing university town of College Station, Texas are analyzed in terms of neighborhood design, nearby amenities and landscape ecology components. Residential property records are used to characterize each neighborhood in terms of the rate of development and current build-out ratio. The multivariate analysis indicates that the development rate increases subsequent neighborhood turnover rates while the build-out ratio decreases it.

  13. The population in China’s earthquake-prone areas has increased by over 32 million along with rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Huang, Qingxu; Dou, Yinyin; Tu, Wei; Liu, Jifu

    2016-07-01

    Accurate assessments of the population exposed to seismic hazard are crucial in seismic risk mapping. Recent rapid urbanization in China has resulted in substantial changes in the size and structure of the population exposed to seismic hazard. Using the latest population census data and seismic maps, this work investigated spatiotemporal changes in the exposure of the population in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China from 1990 to 2010. In the context of rapid urbanization and massive rural-to-urban migration, nearly one-tenth of the Chinese population in 2010 lived in MSHAs. From 1990 to 2010, the MSHA population increased by 32.53 million at a significantly higher rate of change (33.6%) than the national average rate (17.7%). The elderly population in MSHAs increased by 81.4%, which is much higher than the group’s national growth rate of 58.9%. Greater attention should be paid to the demographic changes in earthquake-prone areas in China.

  14. Urban Slums and Children's Health in Less-Developed Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Jorgenson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We utilize first-difference panel regression analysis to assess the direct effect of urban slumprevalence on national level measures of under-5 mortality rates over the period 1990 to 2005.Utilizing data on 80 less developed countries, the results illustrate increasing urban slumprevalence over the period is a robust predictor of increasing child mortality rates. This effectobtains net the statistically significant influence of gross domestic product per capita, fertilityrate, and educational enrollment. Cross-sectional analyses for 2005 that include additionalcontrols provide further evidence of the mortality / urban slum relationship. The results confirmurban slum prevalence growth is an important contextual dynamic whereby the socialproduction of child mortality is enacted in the less developed countries.

  15. Estimation of soil erosion risk within an important agricultural sub-watershed in Bursa, Turkey, in relation to rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Aksoy, Ertugrul

    2015-07-01

    This paper integrates the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a GIS model to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss and identify areas of soil erosion risk in the Uluabat sub-watershed, an important agricultural site in Bursa Province, Turkey. The total soil loss from water erosion was 473,274 Mg year(-1). Accordingly, 60.3% of the surveyed area was classified into a very low erosion risk class while 25.7% was found to be in high and severe erosion risk classes. Soil loss had a close relationship with land use and topography. The most severe erosion risk typically occurs on ridges and steep slopes where agriculture, degraded forest, and shrubs are the main land uses and cover types. Another goal of this study was to use GIS to reveal the multi-year urbanization status caused by rapid urbanization that constitutes another soil erosion risk in this area. Urbanization has increased by 57.7% and the most areal change was determined in class I lands at a rate of 80% over 25 years. Urbanization was identified as one of the causes of excessive soil loss in the study area.

  16. Spatial Linkage and Urban Expansion: AN Urban Agglomeration View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, L. M.; Tang, X.; Liu, X. P.

    2017-09-01

    Urban expansion displays different characteristics in each period. From the perspective of the urban agglomeration, studying the spatial and temporal characteristics of urban expansion plays an important role in understanding the complex relationship between urban expansion and network structure of urban agglomeration. We analyze urban expansion in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRD) through accessibility to and spatial interaction intensity from core cities as well as accessibility of road network. Results show that: (1) Correlation between urban expansion intensity and spatial indicators such as location and space syntax variables is remarkable and positive, while it decreases after rapid expansion. (2) Urban expansion velocity displays a positive correlation with spatial indicators mentioned above in the first (1980-1990) and second (1990-2000) period. However, it exhibits a negative relationship in the third period (2000-2010), i.e., cities located in the periphery of urban agglomeration developing more quickly. Consequently, the hypothesis of convergence of urban expansion in rapid expansion stage is put forward. (3) Results of Zipf's law and Gibrat's law show urban expansion in YRD displays a convergent trend in rapid expansion stage, small and medium-sized cities growing faster. This study shows that spatial linkage plays an important but evolving role in urban expansion within the urban agglomeration. In addition, it serves as a reference to the planning of Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration and regulation of urban expansion of other urban agglomerations.

  17. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  18. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH_3-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  19. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: ly463526@gmail.com [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: yangf@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  20. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Comparition of ecological security stress effects of artificial landscapes on natural landscapes in different rapid urban sprawl areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei Xia; Lin, Tao; Qiu, Quan Yi; Sun, Cai Ge; Deng, Fu Liang; Zhang, Guo Qin

    2017-04-18

    The expansion of built-up area will cause stress effect on the regional natural ecological security pattern during urbanization process. Taking rapid expanding regions of four inland and coastal cities as study areas, including Tongzhou in Beijing, Zhengding in Hebei, Tanggu in Tianjin and Xiamen in Fujian, we constructed regional landscape stress indexes according to the principle of landscape ecology and comparatively analyzed the landscape pattern characteristics of rapid expanding regions and the differences of stress effect of artificial landscapes on four natural landscapes ecological security pattern in the process of rapid urbanization. Results showed that landscape erosion indexes of Tongzhou, Zhengding, Tanggu and Xiamen in 2015 were 1.039, 0.996, 1.239 and 0.945, respectively, which indicated that the natural landscapes were eroded significantly. Natural landscape types of those four regions presented different threatened levels. Among all natural landscape types, unused land and waters were worst threatened in Tongzhou, Zhengding and Tanggu, while in Xiamen cultivated land and waters showed the highest threat levels. The waters threat indexes of those four areas were all more than 0.743. Landscape isolation indexes of waters and unused land of the inland cities were greater than those of coastal cities, which meant water distribution of inland cities in the space was less gathered than that of coastal cities. Besides, compared with the other natural landscape, unused land and waters suffered the largest stress from artificial landscapes.

  2. Connecting cities and their environments: Harnessing the water-energy-food nexus for sustainable urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of years of development have made the production and consumption of water, energy, and food for urban environments more complex. While the rise of cities has fostered social and economic progress, the accompanying environmental pressures threaten to undermine these benefits. The compounding effects of climate change, habitat loss, pollution, overexploitation (in addition to financial constraints make the individual management of these three vital resources incompatible with rapidly growing populations and resource-intensive lifestyles. Nexus thinking is a critical tool to capture opportunities for urban sustainability in both industrialised and developing cities. A nexus approach to water, energy, and food security recognises that conventional decisionmaking, strictly confined within distinct sectors, limits the sustainability of urban development. Important nexus considerations include the need to collaborate with a wide spectrum of stakeholders, and to “re-integrate” urban systems. This means recognising the opportunities coming from the interconnected nature of cities and metropolitan regions, including links with rural environments and wider biophysical dynamics.

  3. Mesothelioma as a rapidly developing Giant Abdominal Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Dinesh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The benign cystic mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare lesion and is known for local recurrence. This is first case report of a rapidly developing massive abdominal tumor with histological finding of benign cystic mesothelioma (BCM. We describe a BCM arising in the retroperitoneal tis[sue on the right side, lifting ascending colon and cecum to the left side of abdomen. Patient was an active 58-year-old man who noticed a rapid abdominal swelling within a two month time period with a weight gain of 40 pounds. Patient had no risk factors including occupational (asbestos, cadmium, family history, social (alcohol, smoking or history of trauma. We will discuss the clinical, radiologic, intra-operative, immunohistochemical, pathologic findings, and imaging six months after surgery. Patient has no recurrence and no weight gain on follow up visits and imaging.

  4. Sustainable Urban Development – Compact Cities or Consumer Practices?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Sustainability in urban planning has a long history and it has been a widespread solution to build high and compact in order to minimise the need for transportation, land use and heating. Recent research, however, points towards the need for a supplementary approach, which includes the consumer...... behaviour of the household. This approach necessarily has to work from below and include the citizens, as it is their daily practices that have to be challenged. This article reviews selected literature and studies on whether compact cities leads to more sustainable cities, and it use lifestyle...... strategies of achieving sustainable urban development....

  5. The development and redevelopment of the urban villages in Shenzen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, P.; Sliuzas, R.; Geertman, S.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    China, like many other developing countries, has seen a huge influx of population into its cities coupled with urban expansion. The presence of massive numbers of rural migrants in cities does not result in slums or squatters due to institutional constraints. In the absence of government help,

  6. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  7. Beyond Draining the Swamp: Urban Development and Counterterrorism in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    specialist Mohammed Haddy. “When a breadwinner is sick, leaders come to the family with a doctor, take care of the family, and provide all that they need...Socioeconomic Development: Not Just Demolition but Rebuilding Community While this analysis looks at Morocco’s urban policies in light of today’s

  8. Impact of development and urbanization on variation of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial and temporal variations of the physico-chemical water quality parameters, microfauna and micro-flora composition of the Nima Creek in Accra vividly illustrate the environmental problems associated with water bodies in a community where development and urbanization are in progress. Monthly water and ...

  9. The Role of Leadership in Urban Development: Reflections from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central argument of this paper is that cities and towns in Tanzania are facing leadership challenge which has a crippling effect to sustainable growth of urban centers. The objective of this paper was to map out how different understanding of leadership has affected the trajectory of development of cities in Tanzania.

  10. A Scanning scheimpflug lidar system developed for urban pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Guan, Peng; Mei, Liang

    2018-04-01

    A scanning Scheimpflug lidar system based on the Scheimpflug principle has been developed by employing a high power multimode 808 nm laser diode and a highly integrated CMOS sensor in Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Northern China. Atmospheric scanning measurements in urban area were performed for the studies of particle emission sources.

  11. Professional Development Urban Schools: What Do Teachers Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tanya R.; Allen, Mishaleen

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative causal-comparative study compared perceptions of professional development opportunities between high-achieving and low-achieving elementary-middle school teachers in an urban school district using the Standards Assessment Inventory (SAI). A total of 271 teachers participated including 134 (n = 134) teachers from high-achieving…

  12. Balancing BEC and IAQ in civil buildings during rapid urbanization in China: Regulation, interplay and collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiefeng; Bai Zhipeng; Chang, Victor W.C.; Ding Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption by building sector becomes more and more important in a rapid growing economy like China. Tremendous efforts have been made on building energy conservation (BEC) to comply with the national energy-saving policies over the last three decades. At the same time, with the increasing awareness of the importance of indoor air quality (IAQ), Ministry of Health (MoH) also initiates the related standards to fulfill the needs. BEC and IAQ are two main concerns in the current building management practice. This paper makes an attempt, based on the regulations and standards in chronological order, to elaborate the followings: (1) the development history of BEC and IAQ management in civil buildings in China, (2) the interplay and sometimes seeming conflicts of BEC and IAQ management in the real practice, (3) the importance of proper communications between related authorities in setting up cross-linked regulations to ensure the success of better building managements. - Highlights: → The development of BEC and IAQ management follow similar timelines. → Misconducts of building management practice may lead to compromised IAQ. → Ventilation design and thermal insulation have impacts on both BEC and IAQ. → Proper cross-agency communications essentially promote the BEC and IAQ management.

  13. [Migration, urbanization, and development policy in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, D

    1992-01-01

    "The various studies focussing on human settlements in Senegal show that the share of population living in cities is ever increasing because of the massive and continuous flow from rural areas. The persistance of such migration trends from the country to cities deepens regional disparities, compounds the difficulties and cost of city management and development, specially in the case of Dakar, and runs counter to the goals of social and economic development plans.... The growing importance of such phenomena calls for the designing of corrective measures in favour of rural areas and small towns in order to settle rural populations and halt the inordinate and chaotic geographical growth of large cities. Failing this, development efforts may well be compromised." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  14. Integrated management of water resources in urban water system: Water Sensitive Urban Development as a strategic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Joaquín Suárez López

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The urban environment has to be concerned with the integrated water resources management, which necessarily includes the concept of basin unity and governance.  The traditional urban water cycle framework, which includes water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment services, is being replaced by a holistic and systemic concept, where water is associated with urbanism and sustainability policies. This global point of view cannot be ignored as new regulations demand systemic and environmental approaches to the administrations, for instance, in the management of urban drainage and sewerage systems. The practical expression of this whole cluster interactions is beginning to take shape in several countries, with the definition of Low Impact Development and Water Sensitivity Urban Design concepts. Intends to integrate this new strategic approach under the name: “Water Sensitive Urban Development” (WSUD. With WSUD approach, the current urban water systems (originally conceived under the traditional concept of urban water cycle can be transformed, conceptual and physically, for an integrated management of the urban water system in new models of sustainable urban development. A WSUD implementing new approach to the management of pollution associated with stormwater in the urban water system is also presented, including advances in environmental regulations and incorporation of several techniques in Spain.

  15. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D H [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  16. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  17. India in the urban revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, India’s development has featured rapid economic growth and unprecedented urbanization. Using preliminary results from the 2011 Census and recent macro-economic data, this paper analyses the relationship between urbanization and economic development in India. While urbanization is

  18. Developing an urban forest carbon market

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Armstrong; J. Siry; Michael Bowker

    2009-01-01

    Countries, states, localities, businesses, and individuals are taking action to mitigate greenhouse gas levels and production as a response to concerns over climate change. Europe currently has mandatory greenhouse gas emission legislation and a large developed emission trading market, as opposed to the U.S. where voluntary markets to reduce green house gas emissions...

  19. Cloudland, stronzoland, brisbane: Urban development and ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brisbane's recovery from its somewhat shady past involving corrupt government and law enforcement echoes the journey upon which Armanno's protagonists ... Brisbane and using critical definitions of Bildung and the notion of ethnic Bildungsromane, this paper aims to examine the parallel development of the Italian ...

  20. Assessment of sustainable urban transport development based on entropy and unascertained measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yancang; Yang, Jing; Shi, Huawang; Li, Yijie

    2017-01-01

    To find a more effective method for the assessment of sustainable urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment model of sustainable urban transport development was established based on the unascertained measure. On the basis of considering the factors influencing urban transport development, the comprehensive assessment indexes were selected, including urban economical development, transport demand, environment quality and energy consumption, and the assessment system of sustainable urban transport development was proposed. In view of different influencing factors of urban transport development, the index weight was calculated through the entropy weight coefficient method. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were conducted according to the actual condition. Then, the grade was obtained by using the credible degree recognition criterion from which the urban transport development level can be determined. Finally, a comprehensive assessment method for urban transport development was introduced. The application practice showed that the method can be used reasonably and effectively for the comprehensive assessment of urban transport development.

  1. Actors and processes behind urban fringe development: Mechanism to guide urban land management. Study on Dhaka, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Fahria

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has attempted to analyze and resolve urban fringe problems in Dhaka by incorporating different roles and interests of actors in land development processes. The research has revealed that these different actors have different interests, norms and ideologies which are playing an active role in guiding or regulating urban land development process. This situation is deploying existing rules and regulations in form of politics and affecting urban fringe management negatively. The resea...

  2. The impact of rapid population growth, expanding urbanisation, and other factors on development in sub-Saharan Africa: the contrasting responses of Tanzania and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, M J

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of the twin factors of rapid population growth and expanding urbanization on social and economic development in sub-Saharan Africa and compares policies that have been developed in Tanzania and Kenya in response to these factors. The principal consequences of overpopulation and overurbanization have been economic stagnation and physical and cultural malaise in urban population centers. Between 1960-80, per capita incomes in 19 countries of sub-Saharan Africa grew by less than 1%/year and 15 countries recorded a negative rate of growth in per capita income during the 1970s. Urban populations have increased at at overall rate of 6%/year as sub-Saharan Africans have migrated to cities in search of employment. Few national governments in the region have formulated longterm strategies to deal effectively with this double-faceted development constraint or have integrated new urban populations into the national economy. tanzania's development strategy is focused on the goals of socialism, rural development, and self-reliance. Urban development has remained a residual item in Tanzania's national development process, despite the fact that the urban population increased from 5.7% of the total population in 1967 to 12.7% in 1978 and is projected to comprise 24.7% by the year 2000. In contrast, Kenya, whose proportion of urban population increased from 9% to 15% between 1962 and 1979, has pursued an urban-focused development strategy. The strong urban-rural linkages of the economy have focused migration to the secondary towns. The national development plan includes urban spatial, employment, and investment policies. Although this plan constitutes a good basis for future planning, the magnitude of the urban problem is beyond the capabilities of the central government and requires the development of local capabilities.

  3. Networking - The Urban and Regional Development Strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Nowicka-Skowron; Piotr Pachura

    2008-01-01

    It has become more and more common to claim that the concept of innovations embraces everything that is connected with creation and application of new knowledge in order to win competitive advantage. In this respect innovations concern as well, apart from technology, economy, society and culture. A traditional approach applied by organizational and management sciences is not enough to explain and manage the development of enterprises as well as that of cities, regions and countries. Simultane...

  4. NETWORKING - THE URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY?

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA NOWICKA-SKOWRON; DEJAN ERIĆ; IVONNE GRABARA; IOAN COSMESCU

    2011-01-01

    The concept of innovations embraces everything that is connected with creation and application of new knowledge in order to win competitive advantage. A traditional approach applied by organizational and management sciences are not enough to explain and manage the development of enterprises as well as that of cities, regions and countries. According to a new approach to innovativeness, creation of innovations depends on a complex/system approach. A phenomenon of particular importance is the a...

  5. Overcoming the Crises: Integration and Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Morten; Bloze, Gintautas

    This paper explores the effect of housing costs on residential mobility. Decisions to move depend not only on job or family related reasons but also on the relative costs of housing. There are several channels through which developments in housing market can affect household mobility. During...... on mobility we use Danish register-based micro data. It allows us to control for a variety of socio-demographic characteristics of households, as well as characteristics of housing....

  6. Development Of A Data Assimilation Capability For RAPID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, C. M.; David, C. H.; Turmon, M.; Hobbs, J.; Allen, G. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The global decline of in situ observations associated with the increasing ability to monitor surface water from space motivates the creation of data assimilation algorithms that merge computer models and space-based observations to produce consistent estimates of terrestrial hydrology that fill the spatiotemporal gaps in observations. RAPID is a routing model based on the Muskingum method that is capable of estimating river streamflow over large scales with a relatively short computing time. This model only requires limited inputs: a reach-based river network, and lateral surface and subsurface flow into the rivers. The relatively simple model physics imply that RAPID simulations could be significantly improved by including a data assimilation capability. Here we present the early developments of such data assimilation approach into RAPID. Given the linear and matrix-based structure of the model, we chose to apply a direct Kalman filter, hence allowing for the preservation of high computational speed. We correct the simulated streamflows by assimilating streamflow observations and our early results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Additionally, the use of in situ gauges at continental scales motivates the application of our new data assimilation scheme to altimetry measurements from existing (e.g. EnviSat, Jason 2) and upcoming satellite missions (e.g. SWOT), and ultimately apply the scheme globally.

  7. Recent urban policy and development in China: a reversal of "anti-urbanism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R Y

    1987-10-01

    The nature of and reasons for China's urban distribution policy adopted in 1982 are examined. The influence of socialist planning ideology on urban policy is noted. Contradictions between economic reform and urban policies are identified.

  8. Multi-Temporal Multi-Sensor Analysis of Urbanization and Environmental/Climate Impact in China for Sustainable Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yifang; Gong, Peng; Gamba, Paolo; Taubenbock, Hannes; Du, Peijun

    2016-08-01

    The overall objective of this research is to investigate multi-temporal, multi-scale, multi-sensor satellite data for analysis of urbanization and environmental/climate impact in China to support sustainable planning. Multi- temporal multi-scale SAR and optical data have been evaluated for urban information extraction using innovative methods and algorithms, including KTH- Pavia Urban Extractor, Pavia UEXT, and an "exclusion- inclusion" framework for urban extent extraction, and KTH-SEG, a novel object-based classification method for detailed urban land cover mapping. Various pixel- based and object-based change detection algorithms were also developed to extract urban changes. Several Chinese cities including Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are selected as study areas. Spatio-temporal urbanization patterns and environmental impact at regional, metropolitan and city core were evaluated through ecosystem service, landscape metrics, spatial indices, and/or their combinations. The relationship between land surface temperature and land-cover classes was also analyzed.The urban extraction results showed that urban areas and small towns could be well extracted using multitemporal SAR data with the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor and UEXT. The fusion of SAR data at multiple scales from multiple sensors was proven to improve urban extraction. For urban land cover mapping, the results show that the fusion of multitemporal SAR and optical data could produce detailed land cover maps with improved accuracy than that of SAR or optical data alone. Pixel-based and object-based change detection algorithms developed with the project were effective to extract urban changes. Comparing the urban land cover results from mulitemporal multisensor data, the environmental impact analysis indicates major losses for food supply, noise reduction, runoff mitigation, waste treatment and global climate regulation services through landscape structural changes in terms of decreases in service area, edge

  9. Urban Vulnerability in Bantul District, Indonesia—Towards Safer and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rijanta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuring safer and sustainable development in seismic prone areas requires predictive measurements, i.e., hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. This research aims to assess urban vulnerability due to seismic hazard through a risk based spatial plan. The idea is to indicate current and future potential losses due to specified hazards with given spatial and temporal units. Herein, urban vulnerability refers to the classic separation between social and physical vulnerability assessments. The research area covers six sub-districts in Bantul, Indonesia. It experienced 6.2 Mw earthquakes on May, 27th, 2006 and suffered a death toll of 5700, economic losses of up to 3.1 billion US$ and damage to nearly 80% of a 508 km2 area. The research area experienced the following regional issues: (1 seismic hazard; (2 rapid land conversion and (3 domination of low-income group. This research employs spatial multi criteria evaluations (SMCE for social vulnerability (SMCE-SV and for physical vulnerability (SMCE-PV. The research reveals that (1 SMCE-SV and SMCE-PV are empirically possible to indicate the urban vulnerability indices; and (2 integrating the urban vulnerability assessment into a spatial plan requires strategic, technical, substantial and procedural integration. In summary, without adequate knowledge and political support, any manifestation towards safer and sustainable development will remain meager and haphazard.

  10. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-01-01

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations. PMID:29558379

  11. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking—e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network—often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800–1200 m walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (<400 m or urban residents. The observed disparity in walking behaviors challenges the common assumption that TOD and established urban neighborhoods have similar impact on walking behavior. The results suggest the necessity for more nuanced planning strategies, taking local-level factors into account to promote walking of TOD residents who live far from transit stations.

  12. NETWORKING - THE URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PIOTR PACHURA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become more and more common to claim that the concept of innovations embraces everything that is connected with creation and application of new knowledge in order to win competitive advantage. In this respect innovations concern as well, apart from technology, economy, society and culture. A traditional approach applied by organizational and management sciences is not enough to explain and manage the development of enterprises as well as that of cities, regions and countries. Simultaneously, according to a new approach to innovativeness, creation of innovations depends on a complex/system approach. The word complex is vital since this approach should embrace the complexity of innovative networks as well as complexity of relations of cooperation and the whole network environment together with social context.

  13. Verification and Validation in a Rapid Software Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Easterbrook, Steve M.

    1997-01-01

    The high cost of software production is driving development organizations to adopt more automated design and analysis methods such as rapid prototyping, computer-aided software engineering (CASE) tools, and high-level code generators. Even developers of safety-critical software system have adopted many of these new methods while striving to achieve high levels Of quality and reliability. While these new methods may enhance productivity and quality in many cases, we examine some of the risks involved in the use of new methods in safety-critical contexts. We examine a case study involving the use of a CASE tool that automatically generates code from high-level system designs. We show that while high-level testing on the system structure is highly desirable, significant risks exist in the automatically generated code and in re-validating releases of the generated code after subsequent design changes. We identify these risks and suggest process improvements that retain the advantages of rapid, automated development methods within the quality and reliability contexts of safety-critical projects.

  14. Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is

  15. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  16. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  17. Analyzing the spatial patterns and drivers of ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Taihu Lake Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Feng, Lan; Li, Yangfan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Quantifying and mapping the distribution patterns of ecosystem services can help to ascertain which services should be protected and where investments should be directed to improve synergies and reduce tradeoffs. Moreover, the indicators of urbanization that affect the provision of ecosystem services must be identified to determine which approach to adopt in formulating policies related to these services. This paper presents a case study that maps the distribution of multiple ecosystem services and analyzes the ways in which they interact. The relationship between the supply of ecosystem services and the socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin of eastern China is also revealed. Results show a significant negative relationship between crop production and tourism income ( p<0.005) and a positive relationship between crop production, nutrient retention, and carbon sequestration ( p<0.005). The negative effects of the urbanization process on providing and regulating services are also identified through a comparison of the ecosystem services in large and small cities. Regression analysis was used to compare and elucidate the relative significance of the selected urbanization factors to ecosystem services. The results indicate that urbanization level is the most substantial factor inversely correlated with crop production ( R 2 = 0.414) and nutrient retention services ( R 2 = 0.572). Population density is the most important factor that negatively affects carbon sequestration ( R 2 = 0.447). The findings of this study suggest the potential relevance of ecosystem service dynamics to urbanization management and decision making.

  18. Blood lead level is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the Yangtze River Delta region of China in the context of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Hualing; Chen, Chi; Wang, Ningjian; Chen, Yi; Nie, Xiaomin; Han, Bing; Li, Qin; Xia, Fangzhen; Lu, Yingli

    2017-08-31

    China has undergone rapid urbanization in the past three decades. We aimed to report blood lead level (B-Pb) in the most rapidly urbanized Yangtze River Delta Region of China, and explore the association B-Pb and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our data source was the SPECT-China study. We enrolled 2011 subjects from 6 villages in the Yangtze River Delta Region. Lead was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. According to abdominal ultrasound, residents were divided into normal and NAFLD groups. In total, 824 (41.0%) were diagnosed with NAFLD. Medians (interquartile range) of B-Pb were 5.29 μg/dL (3.60-7.28) [0.25 μmol/L (0.17-0.35)] for men and 4.49 μg/dL (2.97-6.59) [0.22 μmol/L (0.14-0.32)] for women. In both genders, the NAFLD group had significantly greater B-Pb than normal group (both P Yangtze River Delta Region were much higher than in developed countries. Elevated B-Pb was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD, especially in women.

  19. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skougaard Kaspersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984 and present-day (2014 urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984–2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood-hazard assessments. The individual and combined impacts of urban development and climate change are quantified by examining the variations in flooding between the different simulations along with the corresponding uncertainties. In addition, two different assumptions are examined with regards to the development of the capacity of the urban drainage system in response to urban development and climate change. In the stationary approach, the capacity

  20. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skougaard Kaspersen, Per; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Madsen, Henrik; Drews, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion of urban areas. In this paper, we examine and compare quantitatively the impact of climate change and recent urban development patterns on the exposure of four European cities to pluvial flooding. In particular, we investigate the degree to which pluvial floods of varying severity and in different geographical locations are influenced to the same extent by changes in urban land cover and climate change. We have selected the European cities of Odense, Vienna, Strasbourg and Nice for analyses to represent different climatic conditions, trends in urban development and topographical characteristics. We develop and apply a combined remote-sensing and flood-modelling approach to simulate the extent of pluvial flooding for a range of extreme precipitation events for historical (1984) and present-day (2014) urban land cover and for two climate-change scenarios (i.e. representative concentration pathways, RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). Changes in urban land cover are estimated using Landsat satellite imagery for the period 1984-2014. We combine the remote-sensing analyses with regionally downscaled estimates of precipitation extremes of current and expected future climate to enable 2-D overland flow simulations and flood-hazard assessments. The individual and combined impacts of urban development and climate change are quantified by examining the variations in flooding between the different simulations along with the corresponding uncertainties. In addition, two different assumptions are examined with regards to the development of the capacity of the urban drainage system in response to urban development and climate change. In the stationary approach, the capacity resembles present

  1. Development of Urban Driving Cycle with GPS Data Post Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lipar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents GIS-based methodology for urban area driving cycle construction. The approach reaches beyond the frames of usual driving cycle development methods and takes into account another perspective of data collection. Rather than planning data collection, the approach is based on available in-vehicle measurement data post processing using Geographic Information Systems to manipulate the excessive database and extract only the representative and geographically limited individual trip data. With such data post processing the data was carefully adjusted to include only the data that describe representative driving in Ljubljana urban area. The selected method for the driving cycle development is based on searching for the best microtrips combination while minimizing the difference between two vectors; one based on generated cycle and the other on the database. Accounting for a large random sample of actual trip data, our approach enables more representative area-specific driving cycle development than the previously used techniques.

  2. Towards Rapid Generation and Visualisation of Large 3D Urban Landscapes for Mobile Device Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Brujic-Okretic, V.; Gatzidis, C.; Liarokapis, F.; Baker, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a procedural 3D modelling solution for mobile devices is presented based on scripting algorithms allowing for both the automatic and also semi-automatic creation of photorealistic quality virtual urban content. The combination of aerial images, GIS data, 2D ground maps and terrestrial photographs as input data coupled with a user-friendly customized interface permits the automatic and interactive generation of large-scale, accurate, georeferenced and fully-textured 3D virtual ci...

  3. Phytoscreening for chlorinated solvents using rapid in vitro SPME sampling: Application to urban plume in Verl, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, M.A.; Balouet, J.-C.; Karg, F.; Vroblesky, D.A.; Burken, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid detection and delineation of contaminants in urban settings is critically important in protecting human health. Cores from trees growing above a plume of contaminated groundwater in Verl, Germany, were collected in 1 day, with subsequent analysis and plume mapping completed over several days. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) analysis was applied to detect tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to below nanogram/liter levels in the transpiration stream of the trees. The tree core concentrations showed a clear areal correlation to the distribution of PCE and TCE in the groundwater. Concentrations in tree cores were lower than the underlying groundwater, as anticipated; however, the tree core water retained the PCE:TCE signature of the underlying groundwater in the urban, populated area. The PCE:TCE ratio can indicate areas of differing degradation activity. Therefore, the phytoscreening analysis was capable not only of mapping the spatial distribution of groundwater contamination but also of delineating zones of potentially differing contaminant sources and degradation. The simplicity of tree coring and the ability to collect a large number of samples in a day with minimal disruption or property damage in the urban setting demonstrates that phytoscreening can be a powerful tool for gaining reconnaissance-level information on groundwater contaminated by chlorinated solvents. The use of SPME decreases the detection level considerably and increases the sensitivity of phytoscreening as an assessment, monitoring, and phytoforensic tool. With rapid, inexpensive, and noninvasive methods of detecting and delineating contaminants underlying homes, as in this case, human health can be better protected through screening of broader areas and with far faster response times. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  4. Water and Urban Development. Zapopan Jal. MÉXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R. M., Sr.; Rosas-Elguera, J.; Pena, L. E.; Lucia, G. I.

    2016-12-01

    Recently there is a need to make a land management project for the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (GDL), the objective is the momentum of an "orderly growth" however there are a number of problems associated with urban growth, one of which is the provision of Water. There is not an adequate exploration of our resources, nor an adequate record of the minimum parameters that can be measured in the case of groundwater, such as the level of infiltration and extraction volume. The extraction is carried out in the northwest of the GDL (currently the area is more urban development), is approximately greater than 658 l / s (SIAPA 2016), beyond the capacity of natural recharge since precipitation of an average of 850 mm. Besides which currently anthropically waterproof. There is a record of more than 40 existing in this sector of the GDL wells, wells and springs are not accounted for, the production areas varies from 14.45 to 180.55 m depth In the study area (approximately 80km2), there are urban uses, industries, airports, agricultural areas in transition to residential areas and a protected natural area. cracks have already appeared in different years and places, some authors propose that are associated with geological structures and others say it is by massive extraction of water. Mitigation measures or water injection wells to recharge aquifers is poor, not considered as a priority for the territorial urban planning element. Which leads to a significant lowering of the aquifers that is up to 67.2 m in a span of two years in some cases. Some urban developments with golf course, contribute significantly to the purification of waste water and recharge of aquifers for irrigation they do, what should force by the state or municipality to issue a series of fiscal stimulus.

  5. Development of urban water consumption models for the City of Los Angeles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mini, C.; Hogue, T. S.; Pincetl, S.

    2011-12-01

    Population growth and rapid urbanization coupled with uncertain climate change are causing new challenges for meeting urban water needs. In arid and semi-arid regions, increasing drought periods and decreasing precipitation have led to water supply shortages and cities are struggling with trade-offs between the water needs of growing urban populations and the well-being of urban ecosystems. The goal of the current research is to build models that can represent urban water use patterns in semi-arid cities by identifying the determinants that control both total and outdoor residential water use over the Los Angeles urban domain. The initial database contains monthly water use records aggregated to the zip code level collected from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) from 2000 to 2010. Residential water use was normalized per capita and was correlated with socio-demographic, economic, climatic and vegetation characteristics across the City for the 2000-2010 period. Results show that ethnicity, per capita income, and the average number of persons per household are linearly related to total water use per capita. Inter-annual differences in precipitation and implementation of conservation measures affect water use levels across the City. The high variability in water use patterns across the City also appears strongly influenced by income and education levels. The temporal analysis of vegetation indices in the studied neighborhoods shows little correlation between precipitation patterns and vegetation greenness. Urban vegetation appears well-watered, presenting the same greenness activity over the study period despite an overall decrease in water use across the City. We hypothesize that over-watering is occurring and that outdoor water use represents a significant part of the residential water budget in various regions of the City. A multiple regression model has been developed that integrates these fundamental controlling factors to simulate residential

  6. Developing green infrastructure design guidelines for urban climate adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemm, Wiebke; Lenzholzer, Sanda; Brink, van den Adri

    2017-01-01

    In the context of global warming and increasing urban climate problems, urban green spaces and elements have been recognized as a strategy for urban climate adaptation. Yet, despite increasing scientific evidence of the positive impacts that urban green infrastructure (UGI) is having on the urban

  7. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  8. Raising Awareness of Urban Environment Development in Primary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Maja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, excessive efforts have been made to increase the city’s attractiveness and its international positioning. Also studies on the so-called city destination branding are on the rise. Theorists, as Ramirez (2001, Marzano and Scott (2009, among many others, are discussing different aspects of this complex process. Many approaches and strategies are dealing with the positioning of urban environments and city destinations, trying to provide at least some partial answers about achieving this objective. With proper marketing and branding, cities can do a lot to attract tourists and visitors. For successful city marketing and branding and for the successful long-term positioning of the destination in general, it is necessary to involve the key stakeholders and collaborate with as many as possible despite the fact that the branding of a city destination (or any destination for that matter is a complex process. It is significant that all the stakeholders, who are always carriers of different interests, are invited to collaborate in the planning of the tourism development and tourism development strategies, from the government, the private sector, schools etc. It is also important to involve the citizens, who can provide a valuable opinion about the environment they live in – what they like about their environment, what suggestion would they give to tourists about gastronomy, attractions, shops, events, etc. It is significant that citizens are proud of their urban environment, that they know their own environment, and that they have the motivation for the involvement in the process of improvement of their home environment (through projects, discussions, etc.. It is impossible to create attractive urban environments or cities if residents do not have a positive opinion about the place they live in. That is why it is essential for the education institutions at all levels, but especially for the institutions at the primary levels to

  9. The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaili Mansor, Nur; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Mansor, Shattri; Paradhan, Biswajeet

    2014-06-01

    Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life.

  10. The influence of urban development and social mobility on socioeconomic level: The application of GIS on urban ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansor, Nur Suhaili; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Mansor, Shattri; Paradhan, Biswajeet

    2014-01-01

    Specifically, the integration between social sciences and natural science are fundamental in our understanding of the economic, social and technological transformations that have drastically changed the society. This study will be based on the municipality of Sungai Petani, Kedah as it has been most influenced by urbanization and urban development. Urban development in Sungai Petani is closely associated with a tremendous increase in demand for land, which is highly related to population growth, human movement and their social mobility. The qualitative case study taken will rely on the visual interpretation technique that would allow the researcher to develop a map of urban changes detection. The potential application of GIS information to estimate socioeconomic indicators and the modelling of socio-economic activities that are explored in this study is hoped to increase further our understanding of the impacts of development and urbanization on social life

  11. Conservation in metropolitan regions: assessing trends and threats of urban development and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, J. H.; Santos, M. J.; Bjorkman, J.

    2011-12-01

    Two global challenges to successful conservation are urban expansion and climate change. Rapid urban growth threatens biodiversity and associated ecosystem services, while climate change may make currently protected areas unsuitable for species that exist within them. We examined three measures of landscape change for 8800 km2 of the San Francisco Bay metropolitan region over 80 years past and future: urban growth, protected area establishment, and natural vegetation type extents. The Bay Area is a good test bed for conservation assessment of the impacts of temporal and spatial of urban growth and land cover change. The region is geographically rather small, with over 40% of its lands already dedicated to protected park and open space lands, they are well-documented, and, the area has had extensive population growth in the past and is projected to continue to grow. The ten-county region within which our study area is a subset has grown from 1.78 million people in 1930, to 6.97 million in 2000 and is estimated to grow to 10.94 million by 2050. With such an influx of people into a small geographic area, it is imperative to both examine the past urban expansion and estimate how the future population will be accommodated into the landscape. We quantify these trends to assess conservation 'success' through time. We used historical and current landcover maps to assess trend, and a GIS-based urban modeling (UPlan) to assess future urban growth impacts in the region, under three policy scenarios- business as usual, smart growth, and urban redevelopment. Impacts are measured by the amount of open space targeted by conservation planners in the region that will be urbanized under each urban growth policy. Impacts are also measured by estimates of the energy consumption projected for each of the scenarios on household and business unit level. The 'business as usual' and 'smart growth' scenarios differed little in their impacts to targeted conservation lands, because so little

  12. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 1 : executive summary of final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  13. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 2 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  14. [Changes in urban development: is the globalization era one of urban deconcentration?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S

    1997-01-01

    Urbanization patterns in Mexico during the past five decades clearly reflect trends in the country's capitalist development. Accelerated industrialization with protectionism; redistributive policies with unlimited expansion of public expenditures; industrial conversion attended by economic crisis and structural adjustment during the "lost decade" of the 1980s; and indiscriminate opening, currency instability, and anti-inflation measures in the stage of globalization represent four successive phases. This work argues that the commercial opening and application of a neoliberal model are likely to renew tendencies toward concentration of population and economic activity in a few metropolitan areas. There are indications that manufacturing is again tending to concentrate in the older industrial cities, especially Mexico City. The 1995 census suggests that, beginning in 1988, the metropolitan areas again began to attract population growth, after a cycle of outflow from the center city to the metropolitan periphery in the 1970s and 1980s. The trend toward deconcentration, thus, may not represent a linear and long-term tendency. Instead, fluctuations over time are intimately related to macroeconomic forces and regulatory mechanisms that influence the urban system. No consensus has been reached concerning the theoretical explanations of effects on regional or urban systems when international restrictions on commerce are eliminated. The neoclassical perspective predicts a homogenizing effect, assuming that key conditions are met, while a competing theory predicts that increasing competition will inevitably be met by increases in the scale of production. Incentives to focus production in a small number of places would lead to economic and demographic concentration in the urban centers or regions enjoying better infrastructure, more qualified labor forces, and more extensive markets for labor and consumption. A renewed cycle of locus in Mexico's largest metropolitan zones may

  15. Development of Nylon Based FDM Filament for Rapid Tooling Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    There has been critical need for development of cost effective nylon based wire to be used as feed stock filament for fused deposition modelling (FDM) machine. But hitherto, very less work has been reported for development of alternate solution of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) based wire which is presently used in most of FDM machines. The present research work is focused on development of nylon based wire as an alternative of ABS wire (which is to be used as feedstock filament on FDM) without changing any hardware or software of machine. For the present study aluminium oxide (Al2O3) as additive in different proportion has been used with nylon fibre. Single screw extruder was used for wire preparation and wire thus produced was tested on FDM. Mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength and percentage elongation of finally developed wire have been optimized by Taguchi L9 technique. The work represented major development in reducing cost and time in rapid tooling applications.

  16. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  17. Sustainable urban development in Brisbane City--the Holy Grail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, K; Weber, T

    2003-01-01

    Impacts from urban stormwater runoff on receiving environments have been well documented, particularly through specific regional scientific studies. Using various local government planning and management elements, urban developments in Brisbane City are now able to address stormwater management in an increasingly holistic context. One key initiative includes facilitating Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) components within an Integrated Water Management Strategy that looks at policy formation, planning strategies, design option, community marketing and acceptance, maintenance programs and finally evaluation of various WSUD approaches. These can include the use of Natural Channel Designs, grassed swales, bio-filtration systems, porous pavements and roofwater tanks in several economic combinations. By linking with the Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology, Brisbane City Council has influenced the design of WSUD planning tools and benefited the city with academic inputs into extensive evaluation programs. As well, it has also contributed to the Cooperative Research Centre's research outcomes. These evaluation programs are increasingly providing better understanding of various stormwater quality best management practices throughout Australia. As part of the overall implementation process, active involvement by a range of stakeholders has been crucial. These stakeholders have included internal planning, development assessment and design staff, external consultants, developers, and other local and state government agencies. The latter two groups are assisting in the important task of "regionalisation" of Brisbane City Council's policies and guidelines. Implementation of WSUD initiatives and stormwater re-use strategies under Council's new "Integrated Water Management" agenda are showing some excellent results, suggesting that sustainable urban development is no longer like the search for the Holy Grail.

  18. The Greenness of Cities: Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Urban Development

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Kahn, Matthew E.

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions may create significant social harm because of global warming, yet American urban development tends to be in low density areas with very hot summers. In this paper, we attempt to quantify the carbon dioxide emissions associated with new construction in different locations across the country. We look at emissions from driving, public transit, home heating, and household electricity usage. We find that the lowest emissions areas are generally in California and that the h...

  19. Early Detection of Rapidly Developing Cumulus Area using HIMAWARI-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Y.; Kadosaki, G.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, many disasters have been occured by influence of meteorological change in Japan. So, it becomes more important to inform rapid weather change caused by cumulus which brings concentrated heavy rain/hail, wind gust, lightning in a short period. These severe events should inclease in the future by global warming. Therefore we are developping the alert system for Rapidly Developing Cumulus Area (RDCA) detection using Japanese new satellite. At July 2015, Japan Meteorological Agency started operation of new geostationary meteorological satellite "Himawari-8". This satellite has optical imager named Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI). It can observe Japan area every 2.5 minutes. The frequently infrared image with high resolution (2km) is the key of our alert system. We took some special functions in the algorithm of this system. One of the points is cloud location which shifts to north from true location around Japan by viewing angle from the satellite above the equator. We moved clouds to the correct position using geometric correction method according to its height and latitude. This algorithm also follows a movement of cloud every 2.5 minutes during several observations. It derives the information about degree of the development of cumulus. The prototype system gives the alert before 30 to 60 minutes in advance to the first lightning in typical cumulus case. However, we understand that there are some difficult cases to alert. For example, winter low cloud over the Japan Sea which brings a winter lightning, and tornado (although it is not cumulus). Now, we are adjusting some parameters of the algorithm. In the near future, our algorithm will be used in weather information delivery service to the customer.

  20. Managing air quality in a rapidly developing nation: China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ming; Chan, Chak K.; Yao, Xiaohong

    As the world gets ready to begin the second decade of the twenty-first century, global climate change has been recognized as a real threat to civilization as we know it. The rapid and successful economic growth of developing nations, particularly China and India, is contributing to climate change. The route to initial economic success in China followed that of the developed nations through the development of industries. Unfortunately, China's environmental protection efforts have not been the same as in developed countries because China is vastly different culturally, socially, economically and, especially, politically from developed nations. When China started to deal with environmental concerns in the late 1970s, it took advantage of the experiences of other countries in establishing environmental standards and regulations, but it did not have a model to follow when it came to implementing these standards and regulations because of the abovementioned differences. Economically, China is transitioning from an agricultural base into an industrial base; however, even now, 60% of the population remains farmers. China has been and still is heavily dependent upon coal for energy, resulting in serious atmospheric particulate pollution. While growing efforts have been expended on the environment, at this juncture of its economic development, China would be well served to revisit the traditional "develop first and clean up later" approach and to find a balance between development and protecting the environment. Against this backdrop, a reflective look of the effort to manage air quality from 1949-2008 (with an emphasis on the past 30 years) in China is presented in this paper. The environmental component of the 2008 Olympic Games is examined as a special example to illustrate the current measures being used to improve air quality in China.

  1. Towards socially and economically sustainable urban developments : impacts of toll pricing on residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...

  2. 64 The Impact of Urbanization on Housing Development: The Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    The impact of rapid population growth on housing development in a developing economy is usually a .... times as fast as the national growth rate of 2.8 ..... the major food producers are being ignored to ... storage system and bad roads.

  3. The Impact of Urbanization on Housing Development: The Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of rapid population growth on housing development in a developing economy is usually a consequence of the push of the rural areas and the pull of the town. There is always an upsurge and conglomeration of people in city centres with the resultant effects on housing growth arising from acute unemployment.

  4. Rapid Development of Bespoke Unmanned Platforms for Atmospheric Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobester, A.; Johnston, S. J.; Scanlan, J. P.; Hart, E. E.; O'Brien, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The effective deployment of airborne atmospheric science instruments often hinges on the development cycle time of a suitable platform, one that is capable of delivering them to the desired altitude range for a specified amount of time, along a pre-determined trajectory. This could be driven by the need to respond rapidly to sudden, unexpected events (e.g., volcano eruptions, nuclear fallout, etc.) or simply to accommodate the iterative design and flight test cycle of the instrument developer. A shorter development cycle time would also afford us the ability to quickly adapt the hardware and control logic in response to unexpected results during an experimental campaign. We report on recent developments aimed at meeting this demand. As part of the Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft (ASTRA) initiative we have investigated the use of rapid prototyping technologies to this end, both on the 'airframe' of the platform itself and on the on-board systems. We show how fast multi-disciplinary design optimization techniques, coupled with computer-controlled additive manufacturing (3D printing) and laser cutting methods and electronic prototyping (using standard, modular, programmable building blocks) can lead to the delivery of a fully customized platform integrating a given instrument in a timescale of the order of ten days. Specific examples include the design and testing of a balloon-launched glider sensorcraft and a stratospheric balloon system. The 'vehicle' for the latter was built on a 3D printer using a copolymer thermoplastic material and fitted with a sacrificial protective 'cage' laser-cut from an open-cell foam. The data logging, tracking, sensor integration and communications services of the platform were constructed using the .net Gadgeteer open source hardware kit. The flight planning and eventual post-flight recovery of the system is enabled by a generic, stochastic trajectory simulation tool, also developed as part of the ASTRA initiative. This

  5. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  6. Rapid application development using the Tcl/Tk language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Zeijts, J.

    1995-01-01

    During the last year, high level applications at CEBAF were written using the Tcl/Tk scripting language. This language is rapidly gaining in popularity, in part due to ease of constructing programs with X11 graphical user interfaces, and in part to ease of adding compiled user code for specialized purposes. Extensions to the language provide object oriented programming, which was used to develop a hierarchy of classes relevant for high level accelerator control. We describe basic language features, some 3rd party add-on packages, and local additions to the toolbox. Next we describe features of the accelerator object hierarchy, and finally describe applications written using this toolbox such as the ModelServer prototype, Slow Orbit and Energy Lock, the Linac Energy Management System, and other applications

  7. Rapid Application Development with OpenStudio: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, E.; Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Schott, M.; Benne, K.; Hale, E.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents several case studies of rapidly implemented, audience-specific applications for whole building energy modeling and standards analysis. By tailoring each application to the audience and the task at hand, the required learning curve for new users was greatly reduced. Each case study used OpenStudio, the U.S. Department of Energy's middleware software development kit (SDK). OpenStudio provides an easy interface to the EnergyPlus whole building simulation engine, while extending its capability and providing higher-level functionality such as software interoperability, standards, analysis, and optimization. Each case study is unique in the technology employed to interface with OpenStudio as well as the methods used for user interaction and data presentation. Four case studies are presented.

  8. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  9. The Relationship of Financial Development, Urbanization and Urban-Rural Income Gap: An Empirical Research Based on Provincial Panel Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial development and the urbanization are important influence factors of the urban-rural income gap, and financial development can be measured by three main indexes which are financial scale, financial activities and financial efficiency. The financial development scale of China has obviously widened the urban-rural income gap. But rural financial activities have obvious effect on increasing farmers’ income, and the improvement of financial efficiency is helpful for narrowing the urban-rural income gap. The Kuznets effect between economic development and the urban-rural income gap has regional diversity. Besides that, the improvement of urbanization is also helpful for shorting the urban-rural income gap.

  10. Multi-scaling allometric analysis for urban and regional development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanguang

    2017-01-01

    The concept of allometric growth is based on scaling relations, and it has been applied to urban and regional analysis for a long time. However, most allometric analyses were devoted to the single proportional relation between two elements of a geographical system. Few researches focus on the allometric scaling of multielements. In this paper, a process of multiscaling allometric analysis is developed for the studies on spatio-temporal evolution of complex systems. By means of linear algebra, general system theory, and by analogy with the analytical hierarchy process, the concepts of allometric growth can be integrated with the ideas from fractal dimension. Thus a new methodology of geo-spatial analysis and the related theoretical models emerge. Based on the least squares regression and matrix operations, a simple algorithm is proposed to solve the multiscaling allometric equation. Applying the analytical method of multielement allometry to Chinese cities and regions yields satisfying results. A conclusion is reached that the multiscaling allometric analysis can be employed to make a comprehensive evaluation for the relative levels of urban and regional development, and explain spatial heterogeneity. The notion of multiscaling allometry may enrich the current theory and methodology of spatial analyses of urban and regional evolution.

  11. Developing Policy for Urban Autonomous Vehicles: Impact on Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for surface transport is road traffic congestion, which is ubiquitous and difficult to mitigate. Accordingly, a question for policymakers is the possible impact on congestion of autonomous vehicles. It seems likely that the main impact of vehicle automation will not be seen until driverless vehicles are sufficiently safe for use amid general traffic on urban streets. Shared use driverless vehicles could reduce the cost of taxis and a wider range of public transport vehicles could be economic. Individually owned autonomous vehicles would have the ability to travel unoccupied and may need to be regulated where this might add to congestion. It is possible that autonomous vehicles could provide mobility services at lower cost and wider scope, such that private car use in urban areas could decline and congestion reduce. City authorities should be alert to these possibilities in developing transport policy.

  12. Electricity (in)accessibility to the urban poor in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rozita; Wang, Xiao; Mendoza, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    More than half of the world’s population now lives in urban areas. The difficulties involved in providing new urban residents with a wide variety of services reveals a new face of poverty, one in which urban communities cannot access or afford basic modern energy services for their development...... and empowerment. As an enabler of development processes, access to electricity in urban and peri-urban contexts plays a key role in providing possibilities and solutions to the urban poor. Energy poverty is no longer a rural-only phenomenon, and a concerted effort is needed to find solutions. Taking...... this into account, the Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD) initiated the Urban Peri-Urban Energy Access (UPEA) project in 2006. The objective was to understand the barriers to energy access in the context of the urban poor in seven countries. Barriers from both the supply and demand sides...

  13. Developing rapid methods for analyzing upland riparian functions and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Regulators protecting riparian areas need to understand the integrity, health, beneficial uses, functions, and values of this resource. Up to now most methods providing information about riparian areas are based on analyzing condition or integrity. These methods, however, provide little information about functions and values. Different methods are needed that specifically address this aspect of riparian areas. In addition to information on functions and values, regulators have very specific needs that include: an analysis at the site scale, low cost, usability, and inclusion of policy interpretations. To meet these needs a rapid method has been developed that uses a multi-criteria decision matrix to categorize riparian areas in Washington State, USA. Indicators are used to identify the potential of the site to provide a function, the potential of the landscape to support the function, and the value the function provides to society. To meet legal needs fixed boundaries for assessment units are established based on geomorphology, the distance from "Ordinary High Water Mark" and different categories of land uses. Assessment units are first classified based on ecoregions, geomorphic characteristics, and land uses. This simplifies the data that need to be collected at a site, but it requires developing and calibrating a separate model for each "class." The approach to developing methods is adaptable to other locations as its basic structure is not dependent on local conditions.

  14. Achiving sustainability in urban transport in developing and transition countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuninger, Michael; Schulze, Sven; Leschus, Leon [Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI), Hamburg (Germany); Perschon, Juergen; Hertel, Christof; Field, Simon; Foletta, Nicole [European Institute for Sustainable Transport (EURIST), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Sustainable transport is an urging issue on a few accounts: The transport sector was responsible for 23% global CO{sub 2} emission in 2007. It also has a number of other effects like air and noise pollution, land use etc. These effects are especially relevant in cities, where already half of the world's population is living today. With a growing world population and ongoing urbanisation the number and share of city dwellers will rise considerably in the next decades. Thus, sustainability in urban transport becomes increasingly important. This report first provides a short overview of the most important data behind the sustainability problems in urban transport. Then the question is addressed, what sustainable mobility is and where the main obstacles are on the path to more sustainability. The central part of the study deals with the most important policies and instruments enhancing sustainable (urban) mobility. The main feature of each section within that part of the study is the combination of theoretical background information and arguments with case studies from developing and transition countries. Accordingly, the reader gets an idea of the vast range of available instruments in order to promote sustainable mobility. But it is also shown that it is not only necessary but also possible to introduce or enhance sustainable urban transport regardless of the income position of the specific region, country or city. Besides, success factors for different instruments are identified, thereby deriving promising routes for countries or a group of countries according to their state of economic development. (orig.)

  15. The urban development in Dubai : A descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal, Fatema

    2008-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to analyse the urban development in Dubai by means of the fourquadrant model, presented by DiPasquale and Wheaton, which represents the market for real estate use and assets. The focus is on factors such as economic growth, access to oil, population growth and the incentive of the government to promote developments in Dubai, to study how they affect the real estate market. It is observed how all these factors contribute to the expansion of the construction sector an...

  16. Remotely sensed thermal pollution and its relationship with energy consumption and industry in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Huina; Zhao, Juanjuan; Qiu, Quanyi; Tapper, Nigel; Hua, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    Taking the city of Xiamen, China, as an example, we used thermal infrared remote sensing to detect thermal pollution, and examined its relationship to energy consumption and the industrial economy. Monthly changes in 2002 and dynamics throughout the period of rapid urbanization (1987–2007) are analysed. It is found that seasonal variation led to distinct shapes and sizes of thermal pollution areas, and winter thermal pollution was highly indicative of industrial and energy transformation sources. Industrial enterprises were the dominant sources of winter thermal pollution in Xiamen. The number and ratio of industrial thermal pollution sources increased stably in the earlier years, and dramatically in the later period (2002–2007), attributable to the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization. Linear regression shows that the number of thermal pollution sources was strongly correlated with several factors of the industrial economy and energy consumption, including industrial outputs, industrial enterprise numbers, LPG and electricity. Related mitigation measures are also discussed. This research builds a link between remote sensing-detected thermal pollution information and statistical energy consumption data, as well as industrial economy statistics. It thereby enhances understanding of the relationship between urbanization, industrialization, energy consumption and related environmental effects. - Highlights: ► A method was provided for detecting thermal pollution through remote sensing. ► Seasonal dynamics and dynamics with the process of urbanization were examined. ► Winter thermal pollution is quite indicative of industrial energy consumption. ► Thermal pollution has high correlations with industrial economy and energy factors. ► It builds a link between remotely sensed thermal pollution and energy-economic data

  17. Effects of rapid urbanization on streamflow, erosion, and sedimentation in a desert stream in the American Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, John W.; Glancy, Patrick A.; Buckingham , Susan E.; Ehrenberg, Arthur C.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has resulted in a series of sequential effects on a desert stream in the American Southwest. Lower Las Vegas Wash was a dry wash characterized by infrequent flood deposition when Las Vegas, Nevada was established in 1905. Wastewater effluent was discharged into the wash in low volumes for over 3 decades. Wastewater volumes increased commensurably with accelerated population growth during the late 20th century and created a sequence of feedback effects on the floodplain. Initially slow saturation of the valley fill created a desert oasis of dense floodplain vegetation and wetlands. Annual streamflow began in 1958 and erosion began a decade later with shallow incision in discontinuous channel segments. Increasing baseflow gradually enlarged channels; headcutting was active during the 1970s to 1984. The incised channels concentrated storm runoff, which accelerated local channel erosion, and in 1984 the headcuts were integrated during a series of monsoon floods. Wetlands were drained and most floodplain vegetation destroyed. Channel erosion continued unabated until engineering interventions began in the 21st century. No natural channel recovery occurred after initial urbanization effects because streamflow never stabilized in the late 20th century. A 6.6 M m3 sediment slug, eroded from the wash in ∼25 years, was deposited in Las Vegas Bay in Lake Mead. Falling reservoir levels during the 21st century are responsible for sediment redistribution and infilling of the bay. Close monitoring of impacts is recommended when urban wastewater and storm runoff are discharged on a desert wash. Channel interventions, when necessary, are advised in order to prevent costly engineering schemes of channel stabilization, flood control, and floodplain restoration.

  18. Using Urban-Carrying Capacity as a Benchmark for Sustainable Urban Development: An Empirical Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yigang Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable urban development has been receiving growing concerns from both city managers and urban residents across the world. As a yardstick of sustainability, urban carrying capacity (UCC is an important conceptual underpinning that guides local governments in promoting sustainable urban development. However, existing studies still lack consensus not only on the theoretical aspects, but also on the methodological issues for UCC monitoring and evaluation. A knowledge gap exists, which this paper fills. This study aims to develop a practical UCC assessment framework to guide urban development towards achieving sustainability. The quantitative-based assessment framework provides a set of measurable indicators and benchmarks for city managers to conduct routine monitoring on progress toward urban sustainability, and helps identify deficient areas, which urgently need resource allocation to improve UCC. Focusing on a case study of Beijing, this study demonstrates that the framework is useful in promoting urban sustainability. This framework provides rich implications for other city prototypes in China as the nation marches into the next phase of development.

  19. Urban Agglomerations in Regional Development: Theoretical, Methodological and Applied Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Vladimirovich Shmidt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the major process of modern socio-economic development, such as the functioning of urban agglomerations. A short background of the economic literature on this phenomenon is given. There are the traditional (the concentration of urban types of activities, the grouping of urban settlements by the intensive production and labour communications and modern (cluster theories, theories of network society conceptions. Two methodological principles of studying the agglomeration are emphasized: the principle of the unity of the spatial concentration of economic activity and the principle of compact living of the population. The positive and negative effects of agglomeration in the economic and social spheres are studied. Therefore, it is concluded that the agglomeration is helpful in the case when it brings the agglomerative economy (the positive benefits from it exceed the additional costs. A methodology for examination the urban agglomeration and its role in the regional development is offered. The approbation of this methodology on the example of Chelyabinsk and Chelyabinsk region has allowed to carry out the comparative analysis of the regional centre and the whole region by the main socio-economic indexes under static and dynamic conditions, to draw the conclusions on a position of the city and the region based on such socio-economic indexes as an average monthly nominal accrued wage, the cost of fixed assets, the investments into fixed capital, new housing supply, a retail turnover, the volume of self-produced shipped goods, the works and services performed in the region. In the study, the analysis of a launching site of the Chelyabinsk agglomeration is carried out. It has revealed the following main characteristics of the core of the agglomeration in Chelyabinsk (structure feature, population, level of centralization of the core as well as the Chelyabinsk agglomeration in general (coefficient of agglomeration

  20. Spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and their correlation with land-use in a rapidly urbanizing catchment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua-Peng; Khu, Soon-Thiam; Yu, Xiang-Ying

    2010-09-15

    The composition of land use for a rapidly urbanizing catchment is usually heterogeneous, and this may result in significant spatial variations of storm runoff pollution and increase the difficulties of water quality management. The Shiyan Reservoir catchment, a typical rapidly urbanizing area in China, is chosen as a study area, and temporary monitoring sites were set at the downstream of its 6 sub-catchments to synchronously measure rainfall, runoff and water quality during 4 storm events in 2007 and 2009. Due to relatively low frequency monitoring, the IHACRES and exponential pollutant wash-off simulation models are used to interpolate the measured data to compensate for data insufficiency. Three indicators, event pollutant loads per unit area (EPL), event mean concentration (EMC) and pollutant loads transported by the first 50% of runoff volume (FF50), were used to describe the runoff pollution for different pollutants in each sub-catchment during the storm events, and the correlations between runoff pollution spatial variations and land-use patterns were tested by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. The results indicated that similar spatial variation trends were found for different pollutants (EPL or EMC) in light storm events, which strongly correlate with the proportion of residential land use; however, they have different trends in heavy storm events, which correlate with not only the residential land use, but also agricultural and bare land use. And some pairs of pollutants (such as COD/BOD, NH(3)-N/TN) might have the similar source because they have strong or moderate positive spatial correlation. Moreover, the first flush intensity (FF50) varies with impervious land areas and different interception ratio of initial storm runoff volume should be adopted in different sub-catchments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. RAPIDE 0.0 RHIC Accelerator Physics Intrepid Development Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Saltmarsh, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This document is a guide to the common environmental features of computing in (and around) the RHIC Accelerator Physics.sectio on the 'zoo' cluster of UNJX workstations, in RAPIDE, the RHIC Accelerator Physics Intrepid Development Environment It is hoped tliat later revisions of this document will approach a more professional 'style guide', beyond the convenient collection of pointers and hints presented here. RAP does two kinds of computing, "controls" and "general", addressed in sections 2 and 3 of this document For general computing, efficient system administration requires cooperation in using a common environment There is a much stronger need to define - and adhere to - a commonly agreed set of styles (or rules) in developing controls software. Right now, these rules have been set "de facto". Future improvements to the controls environment, particularly in response to the opinions of users, depends on broad knowledge of what the rules are. There are environmental issues that are basic to both controls and general computing, and that are so fundamental that they are (almost) unarguable. They are described immediately below, in the next section.

  2. Detecting Development Pattern of Urban Business Facilities Using Reviews Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIANG Botao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals and utilizes the growing power of online customer reviews in the space and time context. The location of commercial facilities and online customer reviews offered by Dianping.com provide an important data source for the study of spatial and temporal dynamics of urban commercial facilities. The constraints of road network are taken into account towards computing the density of urban commercial facilities and associated online customer reviews, as well as their spatial distribution, temporal trend, and the coupling relationship between facility number and stratification level. This paper maps the spatial distribution of commercial facilities onto the nearby road network, reflecting the influences of the locations, number and satisfaction levels of other commercial facilities across various street types. Because more and more customers tend to make a final shopping decision by sorting through search results by ratings and feedback, the research conducted in this paper can provide the proof for quantitative evaluation of urban planning on commercial facility development.

  3. Development of urban green space monitoring technique with remote sensing and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinaru, Cristian; Herban, Ioan Sorin; Gabor, Cristian

    2016-06-01

    City is the important area of earth's surface material, energy, and information exchanging; also it is the centre of national, regional political, economic, scientific and cultural aspects. A mere 10% of the global population were urban dwellers in 1900, but that percentage exceeds 50% now (Grimm et al. 2008). With the rapid economic development, city is suffering from a series of serious problems such as air pollution, solid waste pollution, vegetation reduction, deterioration of water quality and living environment. Threats to our environment represent a clear danger in the context of climate change, which is part of the "Global Change", and it is obvious that action is needed right now to protect our quality of life, particularly for those most vulnerable to health threats from environmental and technological disasters. Therefore, our top priority should be to avoid human and material losses. The security area is not only defined by disaster management, but by a wide variety of events that could affect the environment and the population's health. Following the rapid development of urban areas, a present tendency is represented by the study of those factors that place some areas in categories with high risk for natural and anthropic hazard.

  4. Planning Urban Development from an Outsider’s Perspective: Siem Reap, the Backdrop of Changing Urban Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Esposito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the internationalization of urban planning in Siem Reap, the town situated as the gateway to the Archaeological Park of Angkor. After Angkor was listed as a World Heritage Site in 1992, international donors and consultants have been involved in the management of Siem Reap Province, where the archaeological park is located. Not only have they been engaged in the conservation and the enhancement of the  archaeological heritage, but they have also planned the future development of nearby Siem Reap. Foreign consultants, coming from Europe and East Asia, have tried to determine what the best suitable models and tools for the urban development of Siem Reap should be, while tourism development and foreign investments were constantly growing. No planning proposal implemented has been completely successful but, several teams of international consultants have carried out new plans that acknowledged the evolution of the urban context. In this article, I question the representation of urban space formulated by these plans and the way they were constructed by consultants coming from different cultural backgrounds and having specific objectives. The article describes how Siem Reap’s built heritage and recent urban phenomena are perceived and analyzes how internationally shared notions and principles (e.g., the discourse of “sustainable development” influence the imagination of future urban development. Faced with the failure of this series of plans, Siem Reap appears to be the backdrop to where evolving urban imagination takes place.

  5. 2010 World Expo and Urban Life Quality in Shanghai in Terms of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Dajian; Peter P.Rogers

    2006-01-01

    Based on sustainable development theory and the UN's Human Development Index, this thesis puts forward what the quality of urban life implies,makes a study of the world Expo's potential influences on the urban life of Shanghai and advances the strategy and measures to strengthen the life-quality-facing urban management

  6. Contemplating ‘Quality Street’ : integration of environmental quality in planning sustainable urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stigt, M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of sustainable urban development entails integration of environmental interests in decision-making about urban plans. In practice, this is not always successful. This dissertation offers explanations and suggests some strategies for further improvement. Three different perspectives are

  7. analysis of urban poverty and its implications on development in uyo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    The study revealed significant relationship between factors of urban poverty and development in Uyo urban area. The study recommended the .... processes of change including economic, demographic, political, cultural, technological and ...

  8. URBAN TRANSPORT AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN ASIAN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira MORITA

    2004-01-01

    This paper comprises a GIS-based land use analysis on the relationship between urbanization and transport infrastructure development, b GPS-based travel behavior survey, and c interview survey on residents' satisfaction with transport infrastructures and services. It was shown that the current land use patterns largely differ depending on the existence of agricultural infrastructure development in the pre-urbanized stage. It was also confirmed by a GPS-based travel survey that travel behavior patterns in scattered development areas are significantly different from those in orderly development areas. The former areas lack not only road space but also a structured hierarchy of networks, resulting in inefficient travel behaviors with low speed and detours. The GPS survey gave clearer pictures to grasp the relationship between travel patterns of residents and their demand for the improvement of local transport services. It was indicated that local governments who are responsible for these demands often fail to meet them due to financial and institutional limitations of the current system.

  9. RAPID FREEFORM SHEET METAL FORMING: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AND SYSTEM VERIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiridena, Vijitha [Ford Scientific Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States); Verma, Ravi [Boeing Research and Technology (BR& T), Seattle, WA (United States); Gutowski, Timothy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, John [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2018-03-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a transformational RApid Freeform sheet metal Forming Technology (RAFFT) in an industrial environment, which has the potential to increase manufacturing energy efficiency up to ten times, at a fraction of the cost of conventional technologies. The RAFFT technology is a flexible and energy-efficient process that eliminates the need for having geometry-specific forming dies. The innovation lies in the idea of using the energy resource at the local deformation area which provides greater formability, process control, and process flexibility relative to traditional methods. Double-Sided Incremental Forming (DSIF), the core technology in RAFFT, is a new concept for sheet metal forming. A blank sheet is clamped around its periphery and gradually deformed into a complex 3D freeform part by two strategically aligned stylus-type tools that follow a pre-described toolpath. The two tools, one on each side of the blank, can form a part with sharp features for both concave and convex shapes. Since deformation happens locally, the forming force at any instant is significantly decreased when compared to traditional methods. The key advantages of DSIF are its high process flexibility, high energy-efficiency, low capital investment, and the elimination of the need for massive amounts of die casting and machining. Additionally, the enhanced formability and process flexibility of DSIF can open up design spaces and result in greater weight savings.

  10. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Penggunaan Metode Rapid Application Development Dalam Perancangan Sistem Informasi Perpustakaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Trimahardhika

    2017-09-01

    Abstract Yayasan Putra Asih Malida in library data processing both in data processing member, book loaning, returning book until making report still using manual method and still using paper media to recording existing data in library. This will certainly slow down the process. On the other hand, students also find it difficult to find a book to read because they do not know where the storage is. To solve the problem it is necessary to create a library information system design that can handle the data processing library so that the process runs efficiently and effectively. In addition to saving expenses to buy paper, this system can also make old archives stored neatly than to be stored in a closet or Warehouse. In the design of information systems libraries based on this wab, the authors use Rapid Application Development (RAD, Netbeans 8.1 application as a script-making software and Xampp 1.7.3 as a software-based database creation MYSQL. The results of this information system design can provide ease of the officers in processing data related to the processing of libraries and can simplify and accelerate and can save time in making reports, and data can be stored safely because it is using the database so that officers do not have to worry about the loss data.   Keywords: System, Information, Library, Web, RAD

  12. Housing and Urban Development trends in Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Schmeidler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes housing trends in Czech Republic, which are determined by social, economic, technical and cultural changes of last two decades In Central Europe. Those trends have positive and also negative sides: positive can be seen the quantitative and qualitative growth of housing space, variety of architectural solutions for individualised customer. Negative aspect is urban sprawl, which together with individual automobile occupancy destroys nature, space and land values. Future development is inevitable, proper design of housing needs sensitive multidisciplinal attitude and understanding of the needs of man and nature.

  13. Cultural Development Strategies and Urban Gay Tourism Revitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Prat Forga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipal governments increasingly turn to cultural and leisure activities to promote and revitalize their cities. This study analysed the development of gay tourism in Barcelona (Spain by means of music festivals. While a significant body of literature has examined revitalization strategies that focus primarily around entertainment and commerce, this paper focuses on strategies in the development of cultural and leisure activities around this specific tourism population. It presents findings from a local survey distributed to key stakeholders in the promotion and development of this tourism (local agents and gay tourists. The survey data indicate that although most agents are guided by a varied set of goals, marketing objectives (“image city” and “brand city” guide the development and support of urban gay tourism in Barcelona.

  14. Distribution of Costs and Profits in Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Kjær; Sørensen, Michael Tophøj

    2009-01-01

    Most countries have a system - procedures and tools - for foreseeable, clear and fair distribution of costs and profits in urban development. However, the distribution of profits and costs between the municipality and the developers /landowners is in Denmark rather fragmented and not very...... transparent as the distribution is regulated throughout the whole planning and environmental regulation system. Furthermore, development agreements – an “old” tool in many countries and an efficient tool to distribute profits and costs between the public and private sector – have only recently become possible...... in Denmark, and only under some special circumstances. This paper aims to clarify how costs and profits are distributed between the municipality and the developers /landowners in Denmark. The paper analyses how the Danish planning and environmental regulation system handles this issue. Based on the analysis...

  15. ICTs and development: assessing internet and mobile phone use among the urban poor in Kawempe division, Kampala district

    OpenAIRE

    Namatovu, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Master thesis in development management- University of Agder, 2012 This study set out to understand and assess internet and mobile phone uses among the urban poor in Kawempe division in Kampala district, Uganda. As the internet and mobile phones are rapidly diffusing through communities with more people having access to them, it is important to understand what people are actually doing with their access. There has been so much optimism and scepticism among scholars around the potential of ...

  16. Fecal sludge management in developing urban centers: a review on the collection, treatment, and composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odey, Emmanuel Alepu; Li, Zifu; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Kalakodio, Loissi

    2017-10-01

    The problems posed by fecal sludge (FS) are multidimensional because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in the increase in population, urban settlement, and waste generation. Issues concerning health and waste treatment have continued to create alarming situations. These issues had indeed interfered with the proper steps in managing FS, which contaminates the environment. FS can be used in agriculture as fertilizer because it is an excellent source of nutrients. The recent decline in crop production due to loss of soil organic component, erosion, and nutrient runoff has generated interest in the recycling of FS into soil nutrients through stabilization and composting. However, human feces are considerably liable to spread microorganisms to other persons. Thus, sanitation, stabilization, and composting should be the main objectives of FS treatment to minimize the risk to public and environmental health. This review presents an improved FS management (FSM) and technology option for soil amendment that is grouped into three headings, namely, (1) collection, (2) treatment, and (3) composting. On the basis of the literature review, the main problems associated with the collection and treatment of FS, such as inadequate tools and improper treatment processes, are summarized, and the trends and challenges that concern the applicability of each of the technologies in developing urban centers are critically reviewed. Stabilization during pretreatment before composting is suggested as the best method to reduce pathogens in FS. Results are precisely intended to be used as a support for decisions on policies and strategies for FSM and investments for improved treatment facilities.

  17. Transit-Oriented Development in China : How can it be planned in complex urban systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, R.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years most of the Chinese cities have shown a rapid decline in modal split of public transport as a consequence of rapid urbanization and motorization in the “socialist market economy”. It has been witnessed that cars flood into streets; road congestion, air pollution and traffic safety

  18. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  19. Do Transit-Oriented Developments (TODs) and Established Urban Neighborhoods Have Similar Walking Levels in Hong Kong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Gou, Zhonghua; Xiao, Yang; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Zacharias, John

    2018-03-20

    A sharp drop in physical activity and skyrocketing obesity rate has accompanied rapid urbanization in China. The urban planning concept of transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely advocated in China to promote physical activity, especially walking. Indeed, many design features thought to promote walking-e.g., mixed land use, densification, and well-connected street network-often characterize both TODs and established urban neighborhoods. Thus, it is often assumed that TODs have similar physical activity benefits as established urban neighborhoods. To verify this assumption, this study compared walking behaviors in established urban neighborhoods and transit-oriented new towns in Hong Kong. To address the limitation of self-selection bias, we conducted a study using Hong Kong citywide public housing scheme, which assigns residents to different housing estates by flat availability and family size rather than personal preference. The results show new town residents walked less for transportation purpose than urban residents. New town residents far from the transit station (800-1200 m) walked less for recreational purpose than TOD residents close to a rail transit station (transit stations.

  20. Montepulciano 3D virtual models for urban planning and development of the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bertocci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research work carried out by the Department of Architecture of Florence and the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture of Pavia for the administration of Montepulciano (SI was aimed to study new methods of analysis and promotion of the city. The representation of the street fronts of the historic center, realized in a decade of analysis in which it is carried out the study for the planning, has formed a corpus of documents useful for the realization of a three-dimensional model of the city itself. The model, which allows a dynamic interaction with the urban structure, has been designed to develop tools for valuation of the activities and the historical and cultural heritage. It is possible through the determination of a structure of a visual interface and interactive multimedia which would transform the model in a real emotional space.

  1. Influences of Different Land Use Spatial Control Schemes on Farmland Conversion and Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management. PMID:25915897

  2. Influences of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Tan, Shukui; Zhang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Land use planning is always officially implemented as an effective tool to control urban development and protect farmland. However, its impact on land use change remains untested in China. Using a case study of Hang-Jia-Hu region, the main objective of this paper was to investigate the influence of different land use spatial control schemes on farmland conversion and urban development. Comparisons of farmland conversion and urban development patterns between the urban planning area and the non-urban planning area were characterized by using remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics. Results indicated that farmland conversion in the non-urban planning area was more intensive than that in the urban planning area, and that farmland patterns was more fragmented in the non-urban planning area. Built-up land patterns in the non-urban planning area showed a trend of aggregation, while those in the urban planning area had a dual trend of fragmentation and aggregation. Existing built-up areas had less influence on built-up land sprawl in the non-urban planning area than that in the urban planning area. Built-up land sprawl in the form of continuous development in the urban planning area led to farmland conversion; and in the non-urban planning area, built-up land sprawl in the form of leapfrogging development resulted in farmland areal declines and fragmentation. We argued that it is a basic requirement to integrate land use plans in urban and non-urban planning areas for land use planning and management.

  3. Rapid microbiological testing: monitoring the development of bacterial stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zavizion

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to respond to adverse environments effectively along with the ability to reproduce are sine qua non conditions for all sustainable cellular forms of life. Given the availability of an appropriate sensing modality, the ubiquity and immediacy of the stress response could form the basis for a new approach for rapid biological testing. We have found that measuring the dielectric permittivity of a cellular suspension, an easily measurable electronic property, is an effective way to monitor the response of bacterial cells to adverse conditions continuously. The dielectric permittivity of susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, treated with gentamicin and vancomycin, were measured directly using differential impedance sensing methods and expressed as the Normalized Impedance Response (NIR. These same strains were also heat-shocked and chemically stressed with Triton X-100 or H(2O(2. The NIR profiles obtained for antibiotic-treated susceptible organisms showed a strong and continuous decrease in value. In addition, the intensity of the NIR value decrease for susceptible cells varied in proportion to the amount of antibiotic added. Qualitatively similar profiles were found for the chemically treated and heat-shocked bacteria. In contrast, antibiotic-resistant cells showed no change in the NIR values in the presence of the drug to which it is resistant. The data presented here show that changes in the dielectric permittivity of a cell suspension are directly correlated with the development of a stress response as well as bacterial recovery from stressful conditions. The availability of a practical sensing modality capable of monitoring changes in the dielectric properties of stressed cells could have wide applications in areas ranging from the detection of bacterial infections in clinical specimens to antibiotic susceptibility testing and drug discovery.

  4. Developing Research Base Learning in Urban Sociology Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumban Arofah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe an introduction research base learning in the urban sociology class. The idea came after evaluating answer sheet from previous year students. Although the student had an ability to demonstrate their understanding on the subject, but they could not be able to relate and describe the subject into the local urban case. The lecture developed the lesson plan that enable student to do a small research and will be presented in the class. The research report and participation of presentation will be counted in for final score. The project divided into 5 steps; preparation - research – presentation – discussion – summarizing. Reflecting the lesson process, there are several important points as a lesson learned; student have an ability to reflect the theories and perspective in urban sociology, understand the differences of formal migrant and informal migrant, describe the behavior of inhabitant in public sphere, analyzing survival mechanism of informal trader, and understand how urban sub culture maintain their culture and develop their group as a place of fellowships for other sub culture members.Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan digunakannya metode pembelajaran berbasis riset pada mata kuliah Sosiologi Perkotaan. Hal tersebut merupakan hasil dari evaluasi lembar jawaban Mahasiswa pada tes final semester pada tahun sebelumnya. Hasil tes final menunjukkan bahwa Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan materi yang diajarkan dalam pembelajaran namun kesulitan ketika harus mengkaitkannya terhadap permasalahan lokal perkotaan. Pengajar kemudian membuat rencana pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa melakukan penelitian sederhana yang nantinya dipresentasikan di depan kelas. Laporan penelitian dan partisipasi dalam pembelajaran diperhitungkan sebagai komponen penilaian dalam skor akhir. Proyek tersebut dibagi kedalam lima tahapan; persiapan – penelitian lapangan – presentasi – diskusi – simpulan.  Berpijak dari pembelajaran

  5. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Doherty Travis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by describing a novel method using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA for feasibility testing of policies aimed at increasing the sustainability of towns and villages in Ireland. Feasibility results are provided for 40 frequently cited policy interventions tested for 18 settlements in Ireland. Policies were selected in the arenas of transport, food, housing and urban form, energy, waste and water. Policies are feasibility tested through analysis of operational evidence from both quantitative and qualitative data sources. Following testing, policies are ranked in terms of feasibility. This research examines the effectiveness of local and national level policies and the importance of both local community involvement and central government regulation in policy success. The inter-settlement variation in feasibility testing scores prioritises policy selection and aims to reduce cherry-picking of policies to support the viewpoints of the decision maker. Although developed for an Irish urban context the methods described here may have applicability elsewhere.

  6. Urban wastewater development in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlyódy, László; Patziger, Miklós

    2012-01-01

    In the early nineties the region of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE, more than 1 million km² and 100 million inhabitants) went through fundamental political, economic and social changes which eventually led to the European integration process. This positively influenced urban water and wastewater management , which had an unbalanced structure and rather low level of development. The paper outlines first the 1990 situation (water supply, sewerage and wastewater treatment (WWT)) and the infrastructure development of the last two decades, on the basis of a comprehensive data collection for six countries (Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia). Austria serves as a reference basis. Alterations of some of the drivers such as GDP (Gross Domestic Product), water tariff, investment funding and legislation are studied in detail. Then, the paper focuses on WWT by analyzing data of 20 large plants. Influent and effluent quality is evaluated. Technology indicators are estimated and assessed. They include plant removal rates and violation ratios assuming the application of the Urban Wastewater Directive, primary clarifier removal rates, actual anoxic volume and sludge age in comparison with the recommendations of the ATV guideline, criteria of secondary settling tanks and energy consumption. Finally, nutrient removal rates and upgrading options are outlined.

  7. Self-organization in interface dynamics and urban development

    OpenAIRE

    Meron, Ehud

    1999-01-01

    The view of the urban environment as an extended nonlinear system introduces new concepts, motivates new questions, and suggests new methodologies in the study of urban dynamics. A review of recent results on interface dynamics in nonequilibrium physical systems is presented, and possible implications on the urban environment are discussed. It is suggested that the growth modes of specific urban zones (e.g. residential, commercial, or industrial) and the factors affecting them can be studied ...

  8. School as Community, Community as School: Examining Principal Leadership for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, reform has been a persistent issue in urban schools. Research suggests that urban school reforms that are connected to equitable community development efforts are more sustainable, and that principals play a pivot role in leading such efforts. Yet, limited research has explored how urban school principals connect school reform with…

  9. Are autonomous cities our urban future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Barbara

    2018-05-29

    Cities are rapidly expanding in size, wealth and power, with some now larger than nation states. Smart city solutions and strong global urban networks are developing to manage massive urban growth. However, cities exist within a wider system and it may take more than technological advances, innovation and city autonomy to develop a sustainable urban future.

  10. What policies should be there for employment in urban areas of developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Gugushvili, Alexi

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines employment policies in urban areas of developing world. We follow traditional economic analysis and present the urban unemployment problem as an inequality of labour supply and demand on labour markets. The effects of demand-side and supply-side policies on informal urban employment are investigated through econometrical models. One or several variables are employed as crude proxies for every policy option. The dependent variable is informal urban employment as a per cent ...

  11. Urbanization in Kenya: Urbanization Trends and Prospects; Rural Development and Urban Growth. An International Urbanization Survey Report to the Ford Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenti, Luigi; Gerhart, John

    Two articles on the urbanization of Kenya are presented in this survey. The first one, "Urbanization Trends and Prospects," by Luigi Laurenti, states that urbanization has only recently been recognized as a problem of some importance in Kenya, and this recognition is far from comprehensive. Consequently, public policy--and especially…

  12. Study on the Delimitation of the Urban Development Boundary in a Special Economic Zone: A Case Study of the Central Urban Area of Doumen in Zhuhai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since it implemented open-door policies, China has become the fastest growing economy in the world, and its urbanization level has steadily improved. Taking a special economic zone as the object of study, this paper delineates the urban development boundary of the Central Urban Area of Doumen. Using multiple models and methods, the urban development rigid and elastic boundaries are delineated separately, with the rigid boundary serving as the premise and foundation for delineating the elastic boundary. The results are as follows. First, the scale of the urban development rigid boundary is 79.60 km². Moreover, the scales of the urban development elastic boundaries in 2020 and 2026 are 24.51 km² and 28.53 km², respectively. Second, by delimiting the urban development elastic boundary, the compactness of urban land will be improved. Third, the urban development boundary of this paper is reasonable in theory. This paper suggests that the urban development boundary can curb urban sprawl and guide rational urban development, which is conducive to optimizing an urban spatial layout.

  13. Bus rapid transit and development : policies and practices that affect development around transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems is relatively recent in the United States, but several systems are in operation and more are advancing. There is a need for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between land use and...

  14. Developments for medium-capacity urban public transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calverley, H B

    1979-11-01

    Light guideway transit (LGT), that is, automatically operated urban electric vehicles carrying 12 to 70 passengers via elevated guideways or underground tunnels, with stations 250 to 800 meters apart, and self-contained during off hours as regards propulsion and control, could help relieve future energy demands. Over 30 LGT systems are currently under development, and their various mechanical, electrical, and power-source (three-phase distribution, thyristor phase-angle control and dc rotating motors) aspects are presented. Developments in present-day trolleys, battery buses (lead-acid, alkaline), combustion-engined buses, and hybrid vehicles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on energy, such as its mechanical storage by flywheels during regenerative braking. Specific requirements of future LGT systems, including vehicle support systems (by magnetic levitation using dc magnets, air support by either cushion or suction, pneumatic tires, steel wheels, or above-ground suspension), headway and line capacity, junction switching, and automatic vehicle control are discussed.

  15. Early Vocabulary Development in Rural and Urban Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Vogt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (short version into three languages spoken in Southern Mozambique. The tool was adapted to study vocabulary development among children of 12 to 25 months of age in two communities: a rural, monolingual Changana speaking community and an urban bilingual Ronga and Portuguese speaking community. We present a norming study carried out with the adaptation, as well as a validation study. The norming study revealed various predictors for reported expressive and receptive vocabulary size. These predictors include age, socioeconomic status, reported health problems, caregiving practices, and location. The validation of the CDI among a small sample in both communities shows positive correlations between the reported expressive vocabulary scores and children’s recorded word production. We conclude that the adapted CDI is useful for research purposes and could be used as a template for adaptations into other languages from similar cultures.

  16. Mortality from road traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city: A 20-year analysis in Shenzhen, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Fu, Ying-Bin; Li, Shan-Shan; Ma, Han-Wu; Zou, Fei; Cheng, Jin-Quan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trends of motorization and mortality rates from road traffic accidents and examine their associations in a rapidly urbanizing city in China, Shenzhen. Using data from the Shenzhen Deaths Registry between 1994 and 2013, we calculated the annual mortality rates of road traffic accidents, in addition to the age- and sex-specific mortality rates and their annual percentage changes (APCs) for the period of 2000-2013. We also examined the associations between mortality rate of road traffic accidents and traffic growth with Spearman's rank correlation analysis and a log-linear model derived from Smeed's law. A total of 20,196 deaths due to road traffic accidents, including 14,391 (71.3%) male deaths and 5,805 (28.7%) female deaths, were recorded in Shenzhen from 1994 to 2013. The annual mortality rates in terms of deaths per population and deaths per vehicle changed in similar patterns, demonstrating an increase since 1994 and peaking in 1997, followed by a steady decrease thereafter. The decrease in mortality was faster in individuals aged 20 year or older compared to those younger than 20 years. The mortality rates in term of deaths per population were positively correlated with the total number of vehicles per kilometer of road but negatively correlated with the motorization rate in term of vehicles per population. The estimated model for deaths due to road traffic accidents in relation to the total population and the number of registered vehicles was ln (deaths/10,000 vehicles) = -1.902 × ln (vehicles/population) - 1.961. The coefficient was statistically significant (P traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city based observations in the 20-year period from 1994 to 2013. The decreased mortality rate may be explained by the expansion of road network construction, improved road safety regulations and management, as well as more accessible ambulance services in recent years. Nevertheless, road traffic accidents remain a

  17. A lead isotope perspective on urban development in ancient Naples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delile, Hugo; Keenan-Jones, Duncan; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud-Godet, Florent; Romano, Paola; Albarède, Francis

    2016-05-31

    The influence of a sophisticated water distribution system on urban development in Roman times is tested against the impact of Vesuvius volcanic activity, in particular the great eruption of AD 79, on all of the ancient cities of the Bay of Naples (Neapolis). Written accounts on urbanization outside of Rome are scarce and the archaeological record sketchy, especially during the tumultuous fifth and sixth centuries AD when Neapolis became the dominant city in the region. Here we show that isotopic ratios of lead measured on a well-dated sedimentary sequence from Neapolis' harbor covering the first six centuries CE have recorded how the AD 79 eruption was followed by a complete overhaul of Neapolis' water supply network. The Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments further reveal that the previously steady growth of Neapolis' water distribution system ceased during the collapse of the fifth century AD, although vital repairs to this critical infrastructure were still carried out in the aftermath of invasions and volcanic eruptions.

  18. A tool for rapid post-hurricane urban tree debris estimates using high resolution aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltan Szantoi; Sparkle L Malone; Francisco Escobedo; Orlando Misas; Scot Smith; Bon Dewitt

    2012-01-01

    Coastal communities in the southeast United States have regularly experienced severe hurricane impacts. To better facilitate recovery efforts in these communities following natural disasters, state and federal agencies must respond quickly with information regarding the extent and severity of hurricane damage and the amount of tree debris volume. A tool was developed...

  19. Urbanization and Sub-urbanization Processes Over Time and Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obudho, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Until recently, it was thought that Kenya would be an overwhelmingly rural country and that urbanization would not be a problem, because it was associated with modernization and industrialization. Both Government of Kenya (GoK) and international donor agencies fostered rural developmental and agricultural-based strategies without paying attention to rapid rates of urbanization. Today, the high rate of urbanization in Kenya has been added to the long list of potentially devastating development problems that must be addressed. The fundamental problem is that, the urban population is growing very fast while the economic growth and development transformations necessary to support it enhance the quality of urban life are not occurring as rapidly. The new planning strategy for Kenya is to move beyond isolated projects, that emphasize shelter and residential infrastructure towards integrated urban-wide effort that promote urban productivity and reduce constraints on efficiency

  20. Development of rapid urine analysis method for uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, J.; Noguchi, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    ICP-MS has begun to spread in the field of individual monitoring for internal exposure as a very effective machine for uranium analysis. Although the ICP-MS has very high sensitivity, it requires longer time than conventional analysis, such as fluorescence analysis, because it is necessary to remove matrix from a urine sample sufficiently. To shorten time required for the urine bioassay by ICP-MS, a rapid uranium analysis method using the ICP-MS connected with a flow injection system was developed. Since this method does not involve chemical separation steps, the time required is equivalent to the conventional analysis. A measurement test was carried out using 10 urine solutions prepared from a urine sample. Required volume of urine solution is 5 ml. Main chemical treatment is only the digestion with 5 ml of nitric acid using a microwave oven to decompose organic matter and to dissolve suspended or precipitated matter. The microwave oven can digest 10 samples at once within an hour. Volume of digested sample solution was adjusted to 10 ml. The prepared sample solutions were directly introduced to the ICP-MS without any chemical separation procedure. The ICP-MS was connected with a flow injection system and an auto sampler. The flow injection system can minimize the matrix effects caused from salt dissolved in high matrix solution, such as non chemical separated urine sample, because it can introduce micro volume of sample solution into the ICP-MS. The ICP-MS detected uranium within 2 min/sample using the auto sampler. The 10 solutions prepared from a urine sample showed an average of 7.5 ng/l of uranium concentration in urine with 10 % standard deviation. A detection limit is about 1 ng/l. The total time required was less than 4 hours for 10 sample analysis. In the series of measurement, any memory effect was not observed. The present analysis method using the ICP-MS equipped with the flow injection system demonstrated that the shortening of time required on high

  1. Development of rapid urine analysis method for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, J.; Noguchi, H.

    2000-01-01

    ICP-MS has begun to spread in the field of individual monitoring for internal exposure as a very effective machine for uranium analysis. Although the ICP-MS has very high sensitivity, it requires longer time than conventional analysis, such as fluorescence analysis, because it is necessary to remove matrix from a urine sample sufficiently. To shorten time required for the urine bioassay by ICP-MS, a rapid uranium analysis method using the ICP-MS connected with a flow injection system was developed. Since this method does not involve chemical separation steps, the time required is equivalent to the conventional analysis. A measurement test was carried out using 10 urine solutions prepared from a urine sample. Required volume of urine solution is 5 ml. Main chemical treatment is only the digestion with 5 ml of nitric acid using a microwave oven to decompose organic matter and to dissolve suspended or precipitated matter. The microwave oven can digest 10 samples at once within an hour. Volume of digested sample solution was adjusted to 10 ml. The prepared sample solutions were directly introduced to the ICP-MS without any chemical separation procedure. The ICP-MS was connected with a flow injection system and an auto sampler. The flow injection system can minimize the matrix effects caused from salt dissolved in high matrix solution, such as non chemical separated urine sample, because it can introduce micro volume of sample solution into the ICP-MS. The ICP-MS detected uranium within 2 min/sample using the auto sampler. The 10 solutions prepared from a urine sample showed an average of 7.5 ng/l of uranium concentration in urine with 10 % standard deviation. A detection limit is about 1 ng/l. The total time required was less than 4 hours for 10 sample analysis. In the series of measurement, any memory effect was not observed. The present analysis method using the ICP-MS equipped with the flow injection system demonstrated that the shortening of time required on high

  2. Rapid gas development in the Fayetteville shale basin, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in drilling and extraction of natural gas have resulted in rapid expansion of wells in shale basins. The rate of gas well installation in the Fayetteville shale is 774 wells a year since 2005 with thousands more planned. The Fayetteville shale covers 23,000 km2 although ...

  3. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology ...

  4. Improving Land Administration and Management for Sustainable Urban Development : Philippines Urbanization Review Policy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This policy note assesses the performance of existing land administration and management (LAM) system in the Philippines in creating an environment for competitive cities. It looks at the influence of LAM (including property rights) in the proper functioning of land markets in urban areas; the effectiveness of land use planning and regulations in shaping urban growth, reducing informality,...

  5. Urban Transport and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irandu, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The population according to the 1989 census was 21,448,774 inhabitants. This figure shows that on average the total population has been increasing by more than 40% every decade since 1948. As a result the widening gap between fertility and mortality, the population is growing at an accelerated rate. The current official population growth rate figure of 3.4% per annum puts the country among the world's most rapidly growing nations. It is projected that by the year 2010, the population will be about 37.4 million. At present the urban centres with a population size of 2,000 people and above constitute about 18.1% of the total population (Kenya, 1994). Rapid economic growth has led to the development of a number of urban centres as centres of commerce, industry and tourism. Consequently, this has led to rural urban drift. This drift to urban areas causes a number of problems which if unresolved will limit the ability of the urban centres to support their population The rapid increase in urban population causes a shortage of facilities to meet the increasing demand in services such as public transport, water supply, sewage and housing (Ramatullah, 1997: 161-168). Urban Transport acts as catalyst to both urban and national development, by facilitating the movements associated with urban and national Development. They provide a means by which goods and services are made available to industry and consumers, creating opportunity for social and economic interaction and employment. Without urban transport, access to health, education and employment would not be possible. Indeed urban transport is what gives life to urban development

  6. Can additional urban development have major impacts on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment? A case study from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Nunes, João; Steenhuis, Tammo; de Lima, João; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that urban development brings about changes in hydrological response. Relatively little, however, is known about impacts on streamflow during urban development in the Mediterranean climate. This paper examines changes in streamflow resulting from the construction of an enterprise park, a major road and apartment blocks in a small partially urbanized peri-urban catchment (6.2 km2) in central Portugal. These developments led to an increase in urban area from 32% to 40% over a five-year period (hydrological years 2008/09-2012/13). In the initial two-year period minor land-use changes increased impervious surfaces from 12.8% to 13.2%. The subsequent three-year period led to a further 17.2% increase in impervious area. Streamflow was recorded by a V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Rainfall was recorded at a weather station 0.5km north of the catchment, and by five tipping-bucket raingauges installed in January 2011 within the study catchment. Annual runoff and storm runoff coefficients ranged from 14% to 21% and 9% to 14%, respectively, recorded in 2011/12 and 2012/13. Although these differences in runoff were caused in part by variation in rainfall, the comparison between 2009/10 (pre-) and 2012/13 (post-additional urban development), with broadly similar rainfall (887mm vs 947mm, respectively) and evapotranspiration (740mm vs 746mm), showed a 43% increase in storm runoff (from 90mm to 129mm), resulting from additional overland flow generated largely by the 4.4% increase in impervious surfaces. The additional urban development also led to changes in hydrograph parameters. The increase in storm runoff was not progressive over the study period, but regression lines of storm runoff against rainstorm parameters exhibited higher vertical positions in 2012/13 than 2008/09. Increasing peak flows, however, were more progressive over the study period, with annual regression lines displaying higher vertical positions, but with a clear distance between pre

  7. Coupling Modelling of Urban Development and Flood Risk – An Attempt for a Combined Software Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Sto Domingo, Nina; Urich, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to use the results of the hydraulic simulation to condition DANCE4WATER and to account for flood risk in the simulated urban development. In an Australian case study, we demonstrate that future flood risk can be significantly reduced while maintaining the overall speed of urban development.......We have developed a setup that couples the urban development model DANCE4WATER with the 1D-2D hydraulic model MIKE FLOOD. The setup makes it possible to assess the impact of urban development and infrastructural change scenarios on flood risk in an automated manner. In addition, it permits us...

  8. Legal considerations for urban underground space development in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, the Malaysia land code, named the National Land Code 1965 (NLC 1965, was amended to add Part Five (A to deal with the disposal of underground space. In addition, the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008 was issued to assist the application of Part Five (A of the NLC 1965. However, the legislation is still questionable and has instigated many arguments among numerous actors. Therefore, this research was undertaken to examine legal considerations for the development of underground space. The focus is on four legal considerations, namely underground space ownership, the bundle of rights, depth, and underground space utilization. Rooted in qualitative methods, interviews were conducted with respondents involved in the development of underground space in Malaysia. The obtained data were then analyzed descriptively. The findings differentiated the rights of landowners for surface land and underground space, and their liability for damages and the depth. It was indicated that the current legislation in Malaysia, namely Part Five (A of the NLC 1965 and the Circular of the Director General of Lands and Mines No. 1/2008, is adequate to facilitate the development of underground space in terms of legal considerations. However, to further facilitate the development of underground land in the future, based on the research, four enhancements are recommended for legal considerations pertaining to the development of underground space in Malaysia. Keywords: Underground space, Legal consideration, Land right, Urban development

  9. NGOs fostering transitions towards sustainable urban sanitation in low-income countries : Insights from transition management and development studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Welie, M.J.; Romijn, H.A.

    Globally, 756 million people in urban areas have no access to improved sanitation, while the urban population is increasing rapidly. Providing toilets has often not been a sustainable solution because of failure to link them to the necessary service infrastructure. Resolving urban sanitation

  10. Sustainable Urbanization and Development Goals Strategy through Public–Private Partnerships in a South-Asian Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Anwar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary urbanization appears as a conundrum especially in developing nations. This study will act as an accelerator to spill out snags caused by urbanization with a new approach in the development of sustainable infrastructure through Public–Private Partnerships (3Ps. This study first explains the complications generated by rapid urbanization in different infrastructural sectors in South Asian mega cities like Dhaka and Lahore. Second, the findings of the study elaborate on a new mechanism to adapt to Sustainable Development Goal 11 declared by the United Nations with the engagement of different stake holders working in different silos through 3Ps (like BOT, BOOT, BLT, DBF, PFI etc.. This study uses case studies as part of the research mixed methodology. Studies on Dhaka and Lahore including multi projects through 3Ps, and a detailed questionnaire survey based on critical risk factors from the Meta review of 3P literature are presented to establish the current status of sustainable development goals. This paper primarily contributes in two ways. First, by providing a new direction to policy makers to devise policies using a twofold approach i.e., grasp urbanization with sustainable infrastructure delivery by sustainable enactment of 3P projects. Second, bridge the knowledge gap by identifying the risk factors in the sustainable establishment of 3P projects in developing nations.

  11. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho

    2017-06-01

    Low impact development (LID)/green infrastructure (GI) practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.). Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  12. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  13. Infrastructure development, income inequality, and urban sustainability in the People's Republic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Octasiano M. Valerio

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between infrastructure development and income inequality in urban People's Republic of China. Recent policies target reductions in income inequality while increasing sustainable urban development. Infrastructure investment plays a key role in achieving both goals, yet the effects of different infrastructures on income disparities at the city level remain undetermined. Using 10 city-level infrastructure indicators relating to sustainable urban development a...

  14. Development of a simplified urban water balance model (WABILA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, M; Langner, J; Uhl, M

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, water sensitive urban design (WSUD) has become more and more accepted. However, there is not any simple tool or option available to evaluate the influence of these measures on the local water balance. To counteract the impact of new settlements, planners focus on mitigating increases in runoff through installation of infiltration systems. This leads to an increasing non-natural groundwater recharge and decreased evapotranspiration. Simple software tools which evaluate or simulate the effect of WSUD on the local water balance are still needed. The authors developed a tool named WABILA (Wasserbilanz) that could support planners for optimal WSUD. WABILA is an easy-to-use planning tool that is based on simplified regression functions for established measures and land covers. Results show that WSUD has to be site-specific, based on climate conditions and the natural water balance.

  15. [Advances in low impact development technology for urban stormwater management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Chen, Wei-ping; Peng, Chi

    2015-06-01

    Low impact development ( LID), as an innovative technology for stormwater management, is effective to mitigate urban flooding and to detain pollutants. This paper systemically introduced the LID technology system, and summarized the reduction effects of three typical LID facilities (i.e. , bio-retention, green roof and permeable pavement) on stormwater runoff and main pollutants in recent literature, as well as research outcomes and experiences of LID technology on model simulation, cost-benefit analysis and management system. On this basis, we analyzed the problems and limitations of current LID technology studies. Finally, some suggestions about future research directions, appropriate design and scientific management were put forth. This work intended to provide scientific basis and suggestions for widespread use and standard setting of LID technology in China by referencing overseas studies.

  16. Identifying urban infrastructure multi-hazard risk in developing country contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Faith; Malamud, Bruce; Millington, James

    2017-04-01

    This work presents a method to coarsely zone urban areas into different infrastructure typologies, from which physical vulnerability to a range of natural hazards and multi-hazard interactions can be estimated, particularly for developing country contexts where access to data can be a challenge. This work builds upon techniques developed for urban micrometeorology for classifying 12 urban typologies (Stewart and Oke, 2011) using Landsat 8 30 m × 30 m remote sensing imagery (Betchel et al., 2015). For each of these 12 urban typologies, we develop general rules about the presence, type and level of service of 10 broad categories of infrastructure (including buildings, roads, electricity and water), which we refer to as 'urban textures'. We have developed and applied this technique to five urban areas varying in size and structure across Africa: Nairobi (Kenya); Karonga (Malawi); Mzuzu (Malawi); Ibadan (Nigeria) and Cape Town (South Africa). For each urban area, a training dataset of 10 samples of each of the 12 urban texture classes is digitised using Google Earth imagery. A random forest classification is performed using SAGA GIS, resulting in a map of different urban typologies for each city. Based on >1200 georeferenced field photographs and expert interviews for Karonga (Malawi) and Nairobi (Kenya), generally applicable rules about the presence, type and level of service of 12 infrastructure types (the 'urban texture') are developed for each urban typology. For each urban texture, we are broadly reviewing how each infrastructure might be physically impacted by 21 different natural hazards and hazard interactions. This can aid local stakeholders such as emergency responders and urban planners to systematically identify how the infrastructure in different parts of an urban area might be affected differently during a natural disaster event.

  17. Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity

  18. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  19. Urban Development for Whom? Changing Forms of Urbanization in Chengdu, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Jesper Willaing

    is on the institutions regulating changed use of land when communities shift from rural to urban. In the current phase of urbanization far from the city centre, politically decided plans bargained far from rural communities play a much larger role than they did in earlier phases of urbanization closer to the city. China...... process means more formal regulations than in the past, it also means less credible institutions, because regulations may change almost over night as a result of political decisions on which local communities have no influence. In the current situation, the paper argues, the high degree of state control...

  20. India’s urban challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, India's development has featured rapid economic growth and unprecedented urbanization. Using preliminary results from the 2011 Census and recent macro-economic data, the paper by a noted EU-based specialist analyzes the relationship between urbanization and economic development

  1. Self-organization in interface dynamics and urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Meron

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The view of the urban environment as an extended nonlinear system introduces new concepts, motivates new questions, and suggests new methodologies in the study of urban dynamics. A review of recent results on interface dynamics in nonequilibrium physical systems is presented, and possible implications on the urban environment are discussed. It is suggested that the growth modes of specific urban zones (e.g. residential, commercial, or industrial and the factors affecting them can be studied using mathematical models that capture two generic interface instabilities.

  2. A Study on Planning Strategies for Urban Housing Block Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Wei; Wang Hua; You Juanjuan; Wang Linlin; Li Caige

    2016-01-01

    As a city is the carrier of human society and housing is an important part of a citizen's life and survival,the citizens' choice of their housing mode will influence the material and spiritual life of the individuals,families,and society.In view of the diversification of values and investments,people are eager for a harmonious relationship between the community and the city.As a kind of compact and efficient housing mode,the housing block highlights the organic link of the community within the city in an open and shared living environment.This paper reviews the development of housing blocks in various countries and summarizes the characteristics of housing blocks through a comparison with traditional gated residential quarters and urban blocks.It then analyzes the current difficulties of housing block development in China from aspects such as the planning concept,planning system,management mode,and development mode and accordingly proposes planning principles and strategies in hope of providing theoretical supports for the development and construction of housing blocks in China.

  3. Underperformance of Planning for Peri-Urban Rural Sustainable Development: The Case of Mentougou District in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the basic cell of social structures and spatial units, rural settlement is now experiencing profound changes through the rapid urbanization process underway in China, particularly in peri-urban areas which serve as the main platform and battlefield for urban–rural integration in China’s latest round of new urbanization. Therefore, how to achieve better planning for rural settlement in peri-urban areas is becoming a pressing and paramount research agenda. This paper attempts to explore the possible reasons for the underperformance of planning practice for rural settlement in peri-urban areas of China by taking the Mentougou district of Beijing as a case study. Following a quick and comprehensive review of planning in Mentougou district, a systematic and critical evaluation is then conducted accordingly. It shows that the plans generally play a positive role in development orientation and implementation. Yet, there is still a lot of room for improvement, particularly in the following aspects: (1 lack of initiative and innovation at the local level; (2 lack of long-term vision and consistent implementation; (3 lack of rationale-oriented approach; (4 lack of scientific and in-depth research; (5 lack of multi-stakeholder participation. As a way forward, this paper thus proposes a revised planning scheme for local practice, including classification of typologies and the customized planning design for each typology. At last, this paper calls for more in-depth scientific research on some key topics in the planning field, domestically and internationally.

  4. The Advantage by Using Low-Altitude UAV for Sustainable Urban Development Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djimantoro, Michael I.; Suhardjanto, Gatot

    2017-12-01

    The City will always grow and develop along with the increasing number of population which affect more demands of building space in the city. Thoserequirements of development can be done by the government, the private sector or by the individual sectors, but it needs to follow the ordinance which is set in the city plan to avoid the adverse negative impact in the future. The problems are if the monitored development in the city is like Jakarta - Indonesia, which have an area of 661 square kilometres compared with the limitation of government employee source. Therefore, it is important to advancing the new tools to monitor the development of the city, due to the large development area and the limitation of source. This research explores the using of Low-altitude UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) combined with photogrammetry techniques - a new rapidly developing technology - to collect as-built building development information in real time, cost-effective and efficient manner. The result of this research explores the possibility of using the UAV in sustainable urban development control and it can detect the anomalies of the development.

  5. Private Sector-led Urban Development Projects : Management, Partnerships & Effects in the Netherlands and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of study is Private Sector-led Urban Development Projects. Such projects involve property developers taking a leading role and local authorities adopting a facilitating role in the management of the development of an urban area, based on a framework of public requirements and a formal

  6. Institutional conditions for sustainable private sector-led urban development projects : A conceptual model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, E.W.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Across the globe sustainable private sector-led urban development projects (SPUDPs) in the built environment rarely commence as real estate developers face several institutional barriers which limit their capacity to develop economic-viable, social-responsible, environmental-friendly urban places.

  7. [Research progress and development trend of quantitative assessment techniques for urban thermal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tie Gang; Xiao, Rong Bo; Cai, Yun Nan; Wang, Yao Wu; Wu, Chang Guang

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative assessment of urban thermal environment has become a focus for urban climate and environmental science since the concept of urban heat island has been proposed. With the continual development of space information and computer simulation technology, substantial progresses have been made on quantitative assessment techniques and methods of urban thermal environment. The quantitative assessment techniques have been developed to dynamics simulation and forecast of thermal environment at various scales based on statistical analysis of thermal environment on urban-scale using the historical data of weather stations. This study reviewed the development progress of ground meteorological observation, thermal infrared remote sensing and numerical simulation. Moreover, the potential advantages and disadvantages, applicability and the development trends of these techniques were also summarized, aiming to add fundamental knowledge of understanding the urban thermal environment assessment and optimization.

  8. An Integrated Modelling Framework to Assess Flood Risk under Urban Development and Changing Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that combines a model for the socio-economic development of cities (DANCE4WATER) with an urban flood model. The urban flood model is a 1D-2D spatially distributed hydrologic and hydraulic model that, for a given urban layout, simulates flow in the sewer system and the surface flow in the catchment (MIKE FLOOD......). The socio-economic model computes urban layouts that are transferred to the hydraulic model in the form of changes of impervious area and potential flow paths on the surface. Estimates of flood prone areas, as well as the expected annual damage due to flooding, are returned to the socio-economic model...... as an input for further refinement of the scenarios for the urban development. Our results in an Australian case study suggest that urban development is a major driver for flood risk and vice versa that flood risk can be significantly reduced if it is accounted for in the development of the cities...

  9. Application of Environmental Change Efficiency to the Sustainability of Urban Development at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Fu Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a new assessment model framework, termed the driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP model, for environmental change efficiency in urban land development, based on urban sustainable development and the theory of economic efficiency evaluation. A spatial and measurable efficiency value is defined for environmental changes in urban land development, which provides a comprehensive evaluation index for the efficiency of urban development and its environmental impact. This type of urban interior sustainability is considered new within the context of global environmental changes. We identify nine important indicators to evaluate the relative efficiency of 233 neighborhoods in Tainan, Taiwan. The results indicate that the average environmental change efficiency is 89.44%, which shows clear spatial differentiation. The key indicators affecting the efficiency score are area, population density, location, mixed land uses, the floor area ratio, and the impervious ratio. In the future, urban design can reduce environmental impacts and enhance efficiency values.

  10. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  11. Synergetic Development Assessment of Urban River System Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingya Qiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents Synergetic Development Assessment (SDA as a methodology to evaluate the environmental, economic, and social performance of an urban river system landscape from the perspective of sustainability. SDA is based on synergetics and its “order parameters” theory, proposed as a science to study the self-organization of complex systems. A case study of river system landscapes in China was carried out by, first, simplifying the composite system into three subsystems: environmental, economic, and social; then, going on to construct a hierarchical structure to explore the order parameters as the evaluation index. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to get the weight of the evaluation index to complete the assessment index system. At the same time, a Sequential Synergy Degree Model was built to accomplish the SDA. We find that from 2005 to 2015, the order degree of the environmental subsystem developed slowly, with fluctuations, and that river pattern is the key factor. Meanwhile, the order degree of the economic subsystem fluctuated widely, which significantly depended on the changing value of water resources, and the order degree of social subsystem improved continuously, with social culture lagging far behind. As a whole, the synergy degree of the composite system developed orderly at a corresponding low level, which was in low synergy from 2005 to 2009 and then in general synergy up to 2015.

  12. An inclusive development perspective on the geographies of urban governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Ros-Tonen, M.; Verrest, H.; Gupta, J.; Pfeffer, K.; Verrest, H.; Ros-Tonen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Urban governance in cities is shaped by, and shapes, global discourses. These discourses shape the discussion of how governance should be organized, what forms it takes, what kinds of governance instruments, methods and data are used and what urban governance practices may look like. Much of this is

  13. Growing better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It reflects on IDRC's 20-year experience in a wide variety of urban settings in the ..... For the urban poor in particular, the availability of fresh vegetables and other ...... improvising many different kinds of containers, including old kitchen pots, ...

  14. An Initial Formulation. Research, Diagnosis and Development in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gappert, Gary

    Described in this report are factors which affect and/or limit urban educational research and dimensions of cities which should be considered in making social and organizational research in urban education more relevant. Some of these considerations are learning, institutional and management deficits, the lack of a total systems perspective on the…

  15. Integrating mobility and urban development agendas: a manifesto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertolini, L.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary urban lifestyles and business practices are increasingly dependent on mobility. At the same time, the negative impacts of mobility on natural and social environments are growing dramatically, as is the public outcry for their reversal. Urban planners are faced with a difficult dilemma:

  16. Land use planning for sustainable development of peri-urban zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović-Miljković Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration that growth of urban population has impacts on land use and that managing urban population change is one of the most important contemporary challenges, this paper deals with the sustainable development of peri-urban zones which represent important an environment where employment opportunities are developed and resources exploited (particularly agricultural resources and environment where important recreational and leisure activities could be pursued. Within the review of current concepts and planning practices, the concepts of multifunctional agriculture and multifunctional landscapes in peri-urban zones are pointed out, as well as EU Developing Periurban Projects. The paper particularly focuses on the current situation in Serbia, where there is no specific legal basis for the planning of peri-urban areas, although there are positive examples of strategies, regulations and planning documents which treat agriculture and greenery in peri-urban zones in a sustainable manner.

  17. Urbanization and Slum Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Kai Hong

    2007-01-01

    The formation of slums need not be inevitable with rapid urbanization. Such an argument appears to be contradicted by evidence of large slum populations in a large number of developing countries and particularly in rapidly urbanizing regions like Asia. The evidence discussed suggests that city authorities faced with rapid urban development lack the capacity to cope with the diverse demands for infrastructural provision to meet economic and social needs. Not only are strategic planning and intervention major issues in agenda to manage rapid urbanization, but city governments are not effectively linking the economic development trajectory to implications for urban growth and, hence, housing needs. In the following discussion, a case study is presented in support of the argument that city governments have to first recognize and then act to establish the link that is crucial between economic development, urban growth, and housing. This is the agendum that has been largely neglected by city and national governments that have been narrowly focused on economic growth with the consequent proliferation of slum formation as a housing solution. PMID:17387618

  18. Development of a rapid, simple assay of plasma total carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasma total carotenoids can be used as an indicator of risk of chronic disease. Laboratory analysis of individual carotenoids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is time consuming, expensive, and not amenable to use beyond a research laboratory. The aim of this research is to establish a rapid, simple, and inexpensive spectrophotometric assay of plasma total carotenoids that has a very strong correlation with HPLC carotenoid profile analysis. Results Plasma total carotenoids from 29 volunteers ranged in concentration from 1.2 to 7.4 μM, as analyzed by HPLC. A linear correlation was found between the absorbance at 448 nm of an alcohol / heptane extract of the plasma and plasma total carotenoids analyzed by HPLC, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.989. The average coefficient of variation for the spectrophotometric assay was 6.5% for the plasma samples. The limit of detection was about 0.3 μM and was linear up to about 34 μM without dilution. Correlations between the integrals of the absorption spectra in the range of carotenoid absorption and total plasma carotenoid concentration gave similar results to the absorbance correlation. Spectrophotometric assay results also agreed with the calculated expected absorbance based on published extinction coefficients for the individual carotenoids, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.988. Conclusion The spectrophotometric assay of total carotenoids strongly correlated with HPLC analysis of carotenoids of the same plasma samples and expected absorbance values based on extinction coefficients. This rapid, simple, inexpensive assay, when coupled with the carotenoid health index, may be useful for nutrition intervention studies, population cohort studies, and public health interventions. PMID:23006902

  19. [Assessment and early warning of land ecological security in rapidly urbanizing coastal area: A case study of Caofeidian new district, Hebei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chen, Ying; Wang, Shu-tao; Men, Ming-xin; Xu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    Assessment and early warning of land ecological security (LES) in rapidly urbanizing coastal area is an important issue to ensure sustainable land use and effective maintenance of land ecological security. In this study, an index system for the land ecological security of Caofeidian new district was established based on the Pressure-State-Response (P-S-R) model. Initial assessment units of 1 km x 1 km created with the remote sensing data and GIS methods were spatially interpolated to a fine pixel size of 30 m x 30 m, which were combined with the early warning method (using classification tree method) to evaluate the land ecological security of Caofeidian in 2005 and 2013. The early warning level was classed into four categories: security with degradation potential, sub-security with slow degradation, sub-security with rapid degradation, and insecurity. Result indicated that, from 2005 to 2013, the average LES of Caofeidian dropped from 0.55 to 0.52, indicating a degradation of land ecological security from medium security level to medium-low security level. The areas at the levels of insecurity with rapid degradation were mainly located in the rapid urbanization areas, illustrating that rapid expansion of urban construction land was the key factor to the deterioration of the regional land ecological security. Industrial District, Shilihai town and Nanpu saltern, in which the lands at the levels of insecurity and sub-security with rapid degradation or slow degradation accounted for 58.3%, 98.9% and 81.2% of their respective districts, were at the stage of high early warning. Thus, land ecological security regulation for these districts should be strengthened in near future. The study could provide a reference for land use planning and ecological protection of Caofeidian new district.

  20. Developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitola, J.P. [Unicom Thermal Technologies, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In two year`s time, Unicorn Thermal Technologies has grown into one of the largest district cooling systems of 25,000 tons with a 1996 plan to grow to 40,000 tons. This growth is attributed to the development and implementation of a marketing and sales plan based on thorough market research and innovative marketing and sales strategies, and the consistent implementation of those strategies. The beginning of the sales effort was focused around the company`s first district cooling facility, However, it quickly grew into a much broader vision as market acceptance increased. Although the district energy industry has often based its message on being a low cost energy provider, market research and early sales experience indicated that customers choose district cooling as a value added service. As customers began to reserve capacity in the first plant, the idea that district cooling is a value added service and not a commodity energy product was continually reinforced through marketing communications. Although this analysis is a review of developing a district energy system in a competitive urban market, it purposely avoids a long winded discussion of head to head competition.

  1. Using Modified Fagan Inspections to Control Rapid System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesel, M. A.; Welz, L. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has been developing new approaches to software and system development to shorten life cycle time and reduce total life-cycle cost, while maintaining product quality. One such approach has been taken by the Just-In-Time (JIT) Materiel Acquisition System Development Project.

  2. Empirical research on coordination evaluation and sustainable development mechanism of regional logistics and new-type urbanization: a panel data analysis from 2000 to 2015 for Liaoning Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiang

    2017-06-01

    As the largest developing country in the world, China has witnessed fast-paced urbanization over the past three decades with rapid economic growth. In fact, urbanization has been not only shown to promote economic growth and improve the livelihood of people but also can increase demands of regional logistics. Therefore, a better understanding of the relationship between urbanization and regional logistics is important for China's future sustainable development. The development of urban residential area and heterogeneous, modern society as well regional logistics are running two abreast. The regional logistics can promote the development of new-type urbanization jointly by promoting industrial concentration and logistics demand, enhancing the residents' quality of life and improving the infrastructure and logistics technology. In this paper, the index system and evaluation model for evaluating the development of regional logistics and the new-type urbanization are constructed. Further, the econometric analysis is utilized such as correlation analysis, co-integration test, and error correction model to explore relationships of the new-type urbanization development and regional logistics development in Liaoning Province. The results showed that there was a long-term stable equilibrium relationship between the new-type urbanization and regional logistics. The findings have important implications for Chinese policymakers that on the path towards a sustainable urbanization and regional reverse, this must be taken into consideration. The paper concludes providing some strategies that might be helpful to the policymakers in formulating development policies for sustainable urbanization.

  3. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid and Sensitive EBOV-RPA Test for Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingjuan; Ke, Yuehua; Wang, Xuesong; Ren, Hang; Liu, Wei; Lu, Huijun; Zhang, Wenyi; Liu, Shiwei; Chang, Guohui; Tian, Shuguang; Wang, Lihua; Huang, Liuyu; Liu, Chao; Yang, Ruifu; Chen, Zeliang

    2016-06-01

    Confirming Ebola virus disease (EVD), a deadly infectious disease, requires real-time RT-PCR, which takes up to a few hours to yield results. Therefore, a rapid diagnostic assay is imperative for EVD diagnosis. A rapid nucleic acid test based on recombinase polymerase amplification (EBOV-RPA) was developed to specifically detect the 2014 outbreak strains. The EBOV-RPA assay was evaluated by testing samples from suspected EVD patients in parallel with RT-PCR. An EBOV-RPA, which could be completed in 20 min, was successfully developed. Of 271 patients who tested positive for Ebola virus by RT-PCR, 264 (sensitivity: 97%, 95% CI: 95.5-99.3%) were positive by EBOV-RPA; 101 of 104 patients (specificity: 97%, 95% CI: 93.9-100%) who tested negative by RT-PCR were also negative by EBOV-RPA. The sensitivity values for samples with a Ct value of RPA had significantly high Ct values. Results of external quality assessment samples with EBOV-RPA were 100%, consistent with those of RT-PCR. The EBOV-RPA assay showed 97% sensitivity and 97% specificity for all EVD samples tested, making it a rapid and sensitive test for EVD diagnosis.

  4. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.; Sapriel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 w...

  5. Adaptive urban development : a symbiosis between cities on land and water in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. ing. Rutger de Graaf

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive urban development is the design, construction and continuing evolution of urban areas to anticipate and react to changes in the environment and society. These changes include both processes within the city itself and external developments. It is expected that until 2100 a total of 5 billion

  6. Civic initiatives in urban development : self-governance versus self-organisation in planning practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, Ward

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two distinct interpretations of self-organisation with regard to civic initiatives in urban development. One concerns urban developments in which citizens deliberately organise themselves in order to realise a collective ambition. This interpretation of self-organisation

  7. Dynamic plan modelling and visualization : converting an urban development plan into a transition scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Jessurun, A.J.; Sadowski - Rasters, G.; Tidafy, T; Dorta, T

    2009-01-01

    Application of 3D models in urban planning practice is still limited to visualization of existing or newly designed situations. Municipalities are looking for possibilities to communicate the transition process of the urban development area with the citizens. A prototype system was developed to

  8. Institutional entrepreneurship in sustainable urban development: Dutch successes as inspiration for transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolthuis, R.K.; Hooimeijer, F.; Bossink, B.; Mulder, G.; Brouwer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development is a wicked problem. On the basis of three case studies, we conclude that institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in sustainable urban development. The question we address is how institutional entrepreneurs do this. We theorize and find six tactics that

  9. Institutional entrepreneurship in sustainable urban development Dutch successes as inspiration for transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Woolthuis, R.J.A.; Hooimeijer, F.; Bossink, B.A.G.; Mulder, G.; Brouwer, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban development is a wicked problem. On the basis of three case studies, we conclude that institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in sustainable urban development. The question we address is how institutional entrepreneurs do this. We theorize and find six tactics that

  10. Reframing the role of knowledge parks and science cities in knowledge-based urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Ratinho, Tiago

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-based urban developments (KBUDs) are an increasingly common element of urban planning and strategy making: policy makers and developers set out to stimulate economic prosperity by promoting the integration and concentration of research, technology, and human capital. But KBUD is, by its

  11. Rural-urban migration in a developing country: Botswana, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J D; Miller, H M

    1987-01-01

    Trends in internal migration in Botswana are analyzed, with a focus on rural-urban migration. Data are from the 1981 census and from a survey carried out in 1979. The authors note that even though the predominance of subsistence agriculture acts as a deterrent to rural-urban migration, it is probable that the total and percentage of people living in urban areas will increase. However, the magnitude and pattern of future migration will fluctuate over time as social and economic conditions change.

  12. Setup for Scenario-free Modelling of Urban Flood Risk in Non-stationary Climate and Urban Development Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwe, Roland; Urich, Christian; Kulahci, Murat

    An early flood warning system has been developed for urban catchments and is currently running in online operation in Copenhagen. The system is highly dependent on the quality of rainfall forecast inputs. An investigation of precipitation inputs from Radar Nowcast (RN), Numerical Weather Predicti...

  13. Developing a Framework for Qualitative Evaluation of Urban Interventions in Iranian Historical Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Arjomand Kermani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Iranian historic city cores are important parts of modern cities because of their valuable monuments and morphology but are also significant because of their population density, location and the major governmental functions they house. Since 1920, modernisation policies and urban development trends in Iran have justified spatial transformation and redevelopment and the demolition and destruction of traditional urban fabrics as a way to provide contemporary requirements and hygiene improvements for the residents. As the UNESCO recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape argues, historic urban cores can only sustain their role in the daily life of the city by getting prepared for and participating in this transformation process. Disagreement over the value of historic urban cores on the one hand and inevitable modification of urban areas in a developing country like Iran on the other, creates a problematic condition for the preservation of the historic environment. The Valletta Principles for the Safeguarding and Management of Historic Cities, Towns and Urban Areas states that historic towns and urban areas require an integrated approach including their “protection, conservation, enhancement and management as well as their coherent development and their harmonious adaptation to contemporary life”. In order to support the process of reaching a balance between these spatial targets in Iran, this research discusses the relation between urban transformation projects and their heritage context. In doing so it connects international literature on urban quality and traditional Iranian urban forms to contemporary Iranian urban design practice. To achieve this integration between urban heritage and spatial development, a framework of quality attributes has been developed to evaluate urban interventions in a heritage context. The three main pillars of this framework have been extracted from and inspired by international literature and guidelines

  14. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems in nine metropolitan study areas across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, James F.; McMahon, Gerard; Bell, Amanda H.; Brown, Larry R.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Woodside, Michael D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Bryant, Wade L.; Cappiella, Karen; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Stack, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development is an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The urban footprint on the American landscape has expanded during a century and a half of almost continuous development. Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas, and the advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. Contaminants, habitat destruction, and increasing streamflow flashiness resulting from urban development have been associated with the disruption of biological communities, particularly the loss of sensitive aquatic species. Every stream is connected downstream to larger water bodies, including rivers, reservoirs, and ultimately coastal waters. Inputs of chemical contaminants or sediments at any point along the stream can cause degradation downstream with adverse effects on biological communities and on economically valuable resources, such as fisheries and tourism.

  15. Between Land and People: A Review of Socioeconomic Issues within the context of Rapid Development in Iskandar Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sultan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to globalization and economic competitiveness, Malaysia launched six economic development corridors, covering all the potential areas in Malaysia, and Johor Bahru is one of them. Iskandar Malaysia was launched in 2006 for future economic development in the country as well as to cater the needs of Johor Bahru to modernize its urban and economic infrastructure. Situated in a strategic location and space, Iskandar Malaysia is targeted to be the player of catalytic investment role that will bring direct and indirect investment to Johor. The whole landscape of Johor Bahru is now transforming dramatically, thus worrying the locals and the environmentalists. Environmental issues as well as the concern for social inequality issues have been raised by the locals. Hence, the aim of this study is to address the issues created by the rapid development of Iskandar Malaysia, particularly in Johor Bahru and Nusajaya. The objectives of this paper are to assess the consequences of the coastal land reclamation for Danga Bay waterfront city development and to identify the impact of new-build gentrification towards the local people. The research identifies key social and economic issues and the impacts of these issues have also been identified. To achieve the objective of the study a detailed review on secondary data has been done. The study found that more cooperation and attention from the local authorities, stakeholders and public is needed to ensure urban regeneration and to achieve the objective of social inclusiveness as promised by the vision of Iskandar Malaysia.

  16. Design challenges facing urban development in Dar es Salaam City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper shows that in order for the resources to be deployed sustainable ... of environmentally friendly building materials, designs must take into account local ... housing construction in low-income informal settlements which in most urban ...

  17. Developing Scientific Index System of Urban Master Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Master plan is the fundamental basis for urban construction and administration, an important public policy of the govern-ments, as well as an overall, comprehen-sive, and strategic task related to politics, economy,

  18. Development of a lightweight electric urban delivery truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, G.; Martin, R.; Vader, S. [Unicell Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    A study was conducted to develop a lightweight urban parcel delivery vehicle that features a composite material, monocoque low-floor body and a zero-emission electric drive system. The long-term goal of project was to produce a vehicle with an energy efficiency that was nearly 90 per cent better than a conventional delivery vehicle. The objectives of the development phase were to complete the structural design of the composite, monocoque low-floor body. Electric drive options were explored to confirm the feasibility in terms of vehicle range, zero emissions and energy efficiency. This involved characterization of the vehicle duty cycle, development of a computer model of the electric powertrain, and simulations to confirm the vehicle's power and energy requirements. The design of the prototype was validated through testing in accordance with recognized vehicle performance tests and an in-service trial by Purolator Courier Ltd., a major Canadian courier service. Testing of the QuickSider delivery truck included vehicle dynamics, energy consumption, safety compliance, and in-service evaluation. No unacceptable stresses, deflections or resonances were identified in the structure. The vehicle's performance was found to be consistent with design expectations. Dynamometer tests have indicated that the ZEV range of the prototype is greater than the targeted 120 km. The overall energy efficiency of the vehicle was 50 per cent, as compared 11 per cent for a conventional diesel delivery truck. It was concluded that an overall energy efficiency of 75 per cent is achievable in production vehicles if improvements are made to the battery system, drive train, regenerative braking and auxiliary systems. 29 figs., 2 appendices.

  19. Urban Big Data and the Development of City Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Yunhe; Tian, Yun; Liu, Xiaolong; Gu, Dedao; Hua, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a definition for urban big data while exploring its features and applications of China's city intelligence. The differences between city intelligence in China and the “smart city” concept in other countries are compared to highlight and contrast the unique definition and model for China's city intelligence in this paper. Furthermore, this paper examines the role of urban big data in city intelligence by showing that it not only serves as the cornerstone of this trend as it...

  20. Agromere: Integrating urban agriculture in the development of the city of Almere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Visser, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of Agromere, a planning concept for an area situated in the rapidly growing Dutch city of Almere (185,000 inhabitants), was to explore opportunities to re-integrate agriculture into modern Dutch city life, while at the same time inspiring stakeholders to incorporate urban agriculture

  1. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  2. Energy and sustainable urban transport development in China: Challenges and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xilang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of urban road transport development and challenges in energy consumption in China. It relates sustainable urban road transport development with energy consumption and environmental management. It analyzes the main challenges related to urban road transport development: energy security, low efficiency in energy utilization, and unsustainable environmental management. It also discusses necessary technological and policy initiatives to deal with these challenges: e.g., promoting the development and dissemination of cleaner vehicle technologies, substitution of LPG, CNG, LNG and bio fuels for gasoline and diesel, strengthening regulations on vehicle emissions, expediting public transport development, and the effective management of the soaring private cars. (author)

  3. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Xie, Yuanbo, E-mail: former_007@163.com; Hao, Fanghua, E-mail: fanghua@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  4. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Xie, Yuanbo; Hao, Fanghua

    2014-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  5. Observations of the Morning Development of the Urban Boundary Layer Over London, UK, Taken During the ACTUAL Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halios, Christos H.; Barlow, Janet F.

    2018-03-01

    The study of the boundary layer can be most difficult when it is in transition and forced by a complex surface, such as an urban area. Here, a novel combination of ground-based remote sensing and in situ instrumentation in central London, UK, is deployed, aiming to capture the full evolution of the urban boundary layer (UBL) from night-time until the fully-developed convective phase. In contrast with the night-time stable boundary layer observed over rural areas, the night-time UBL is weakly convective. Therefore, a new approach for the detection of the morning-transition and rapid-growth phases is introduced, based on the sharp, quasi-linear increase of the mixing height. The urban morning-transition phase varied in duration between 0.5 and 4 h and the growth rate of the mixing layer during the rapid-growth phase had a strong positive relationship with the convective velocity scale, and a weaker, negative relationship with wind speed. Wind shear was found to be higher during the night-time and morning-transition phases than the rapid-growth phase and the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy near the mixing-layer top was around six times larger than surface shear production in summer, and around 1.5 times larger in winter. In summer under low winds, low-level jets dominated the UBL, and shear production was greater than buoyant production during the night-time and the morning-transition phase near the mixing-layer top. Within the rapid-growth phase, buoyant production dominated at the surface, but shear production dominated in the upper half of the UBL. These results imply that regional flows such as low-level jets play an important role alongside surface forcing in determining UBL structure and growth.

  6. Development of a Rapid Chemical Identification System (RCIS) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Three members of this group of drugs (tablet form) available in the Nigerian market and labelled MA and MB for metronidazole, T A and TB for ... of acetone, ethyl acetate and ammonia (100:5:1) and method B with mobile phase consisting of acetone, chloroform and ammonia (100:15:1) were developed for the ...

  7. Rapid dental development in a Middle Paleolithic Belgian Neanderthal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tanya M; Toussaint, Michel; Reid, Donald J; Olejniczak, Anthony J; Hublin, Jean-Jacques

    2007-12-18

    The evolution of life history (pace of growth and reproduction) was crucial to ancient hominin adaptations. The study of dental development facilitates assessment of growth and development in fossil hominins with greater precision than other skeletal analyses. During tooth formation, biological rhythms manifest in enamel and dentine, creating a permanent record of growth rate and duration. Quantification of these internal and external incremental features yields developmental benchmarks, including ages at crown completion, tooth eruption, and root completion. Molar eruption is correlated with other aspects of life history. Recent evidence for developmental differences between modern humans and Neanderthals remains ambiguous. By measuring tooth formation in the entire dentition of a juvenile Neanderthal from Scladina, Belgium, we show that most teeth formed over a shorter time than in modern humans and that dental initiation and eruption were relatively advanced. By registering manifestations of stress across the dentition, we are able to present a precise chronology of Neanderthal dental development that differs from modern humans. At 8 years of age at death, this juvenile displays a degree of development comparable with modern human children who are several years older. We suggest that age at death in juvenile Neanderthals should not be assessed by comparison with modern human standards, particularly those derived from populations of European origin. Moreover, evidence from the Scladina juvenile and other similarly aged hominins suggests that a prolonged childhood and slow life history are unique to Homo sapiens.

  8. Xeroderma Pigmentosum With Early And Rapid Development Of Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Arghyaprasum

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of xeroderma pigmentosum in a 9 year old developing multiple tumours over a short period of 6 months is reported. The tumours showed two different types of malignancies-squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma. Two other siblings exhibited cutaneous lesions of xeroderma pigmentosum without any malignant change.

  9. Enhancing water security in a rapidly developing shale gas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Holding

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Initiatives and tools enhancing water security in the region include strategic partnerships and stakeholder collaborations, policy and regulation development, and data collection and distribution efforts. The contributions and limitations of each of these are discussed. A vulnerability mapping framework is presented which addresses data gaps and provides a tool for decision-making surrounding risk to water quality from various hazards. An example vulnerability assessment was conducted for wastewater transport along pipeline and trucking corridors.

  10. Development of rapid high throughput biodosimetry tools for radiological triage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajee, Adayabalam S.; Escalona, Maria; Smith, Tammy; Ryan, Terri; Dainiak, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Accidental or intentional radiological or nuclear (R/N) disasters constitute a major threat around the globe that can affect several tens, hundreds and thousands of humans. Currently available cytogenetic biodosimeters are time consuming and laborious to perform making them impractical for triage scenarios. Therefore, it is imperative to develop high throughput techniques which will enable timely assessment of personalized dose for making an appropriate 'life-saving' clinical decision

  11. ADVANCED AND RAPID DEVELOPMENT OF DYNAMIC ANALYSIS TOOLS FOR JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Villazón

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-level bytecode instrumentation techniques are widely used in many software-engineering tools for the Java Virtual Machine (JVM, that perform some form of dynamic program analysis, such as profilers or debuggers. While program manipulation at the bytecode level is very flexible, because the possible bytecode transformations are not restricted, tool development based on this technique is tedious and error-prone. As a promising alternative, the specification of bytecode instrumentation at a higher level using aspect-oriented programming (AOP can reduce tool development time and cost. Unfortunately, prevailing AOP frameworks lack some features that are essential for certain dynamic analyses. In this article, we focus on three common shortcomings in AOP frameworks with respect to the development of aspect-based tools - (1 the lack of mechanisms for passing data between woven advices in local variables, (2 the support for user-defined static analyses at weaving time, and (3 the absence of pointcuts at the level of individual basic blocks of code. We propose @J, an annotation-based AOP language and weaver that integrates support for these three features. The benefits of the proposed features are illustrated with concrete examples.

  12. Rapid Software Development for Experiment Control at OPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathaway, P.V.; Lam, Tony; Franceschini, Ferdi; Hauser, Nick; Rayner, Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Full text: ANSTO is undertaking the parallel development of instrument control and graphical experiment interface software for seven neutron beam instruments at OPAL. Each instrument poses several challenges for a common system solution, including custom detector interfaces, a range of motion and beamline optics schema, and a spectrum of online data reduction requirements. To provide a superior system with the least development effort, the computing team have adopted proven, configurable, server-based control software (SICS)1., a highly Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment (GumTree)2. and industry-standard database management systems. The resulting graphical interfaces allow operation in a familiar experiment domain, with monitoring of data and parameters independent of control system specifics. GumTree presents the experimenter with a consistent interface for experiment management, instrument control and data reduction tasks. The facility instrument scientists can easily reconfigure instruments and add ancillaries. The user community can expect a reduced learning curve for performing each experiment. GumTree can be installed anywhere for pre-experiment familiarisation, postprocessing of acquired data sets, and integration with third party analysis tools. Instrument scientists are seeing faster software development iterations and have a solid basis to prepare for the next suite of instruments. 1. SICS from PSI (lns00.psi.ch). 2. GumTree (gumtree.sourceforge.net), new site: http://gumtree.sourceforge.net/wiki/index.php/Main_Page

  13. Insights and Opportunities Offered by a Rapid Ecosystem Service Assessment in Promoting a Conservation Agenda in an Urban Biodiversity Hotspot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O'Farrell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional and global scale ecosystem service assessments have demonstrated the socioeconomic value of protecting biodiversity and have been integrated into associated policy. Local government decision makers are still unsure of the applicability, return on investment, and usefulness of these assessments in aiding their decision making. Cape Town, a developing city in a globally recognized biodiversity hotspot, has numerous competing land uses. City managers, with a tightly constrained budget, requested an exploratory study on the links between ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation within this municipal area. We set out to develop and test a simple and rapid ecosystem service assessment method aimed at determining the contribution natural vegetation remnants make to ecosystem service provision. We took selected services, identified in conjunction with city managers, and assessed these in two ways. First we used an area weighted approach to attribute services to vegetation types and assessed how these had changed through time and into the future given development needs. Second, we did a regulatory and cultural service remnant distance analysis to better understand proximity effects and linkages. Provisioning services were found to have been most severely affected through vegetation transformation. Regulatory services have been similarly affected, and these losses are more significant because regulatory services can only function in situ and cannot be outsourced in the way provisioning services can. The most significant losses were in coastal zone protection and flood mitigation services, both of which will be placed under even greater pressure given the predicted changes in climatic regimes. The role of remnant vegetation in regulating and cultural services was shown to be a significant additional consideration in making the case for conservation in the city. Our rapid assessment approach does not allow for nuanced and individual

  14. Low-cost housing developments in South Africa miss the opportunities for household level urban greening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chackleton, C.; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Kaoma, M.; Chishaleshale, M.; Shackleton, S.; Gambiza, J.; Gumbo, D.

    2014-01-01

    Most developing countries of the world are experiencing large-scale migration from rural to urban areas. Many new migrants end up in low-cost or informal areas and slums with attendant environmental concerns. One dimension of improved urban sustainability is the provision of green spaces and trees.

  15. Development of an Interdisciplinary Workshop in Urban Transportation. Final Substantive Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Joseph V.

    This project has developed an interdisciplinary graduate workshop in transportation engineering to acquaint students with problems of urban transportation and the role of various disciplines in dealing with these problems. It provides an opportunity for students from the fields of engineering, urban and regional planning, and economics to interact…

  16. Management of urban development : Example of the transformation of two Dutch former port areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoek, M.; Wigmans, G.

    2011-01-01

    The more traditional approach of developing cities through government lead town planning has been gradually shifting to a more entrepreneurial approach of strategic management of both public and private initiatives in the urban environment. This approach combines aspects of governance, urban

  17. Urbanism, Ecology and Sustainable development: The social production of the spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira D, O.A.

    1998-01-01

    A review over social concepts as urbanism, ecology and production and their interrelationship are exposed. The importance over theoretical themes as sustainable development, and politics and spaces also are presented. Different problems that involve the urbanism as extension, services to provide, social fragmentation, planning, infrastructures, administration, rest areas, violence, commercial areas, neighborhood, architecture and impacts of immigrants are described

  18. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  19. Rapid Development of Drilling Technology and Market of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guanqing; Ni Rongfu

    1994-01-01

    @@ China's developing drilling market Now, CNPC is the owner of more than 1 000 rigs of large and medium size, including imported electric-drive rigs with 6 000 to 9 000 m drilling capacity, imported mechanical drive rigs with 5 000 to 6 000 m drilling capacity, imported mobile rigs with 1 500 to 3 000 m drilling capacity and a lot of home-made mechanical rigs with 2 000,3 200, 4 500 and 6 000m drilling capacity, which can meet the requirement of the domestic and foreign drilling market.

  20. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Veronica A; Codi King, Susan; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of <0.10 to 6.29±0.16 ng/L while levels of androgenic activity ranged from dihydrotestosterone equivalency quotients (DHTEQs) of <3.50 to 138.23±3.71 ng/L. Environmental concentrations of organic microcontaminants were comparable to ranges reported from aquatic environments worldwide with sewage effluent discharges representing the dominant source of entry into Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Om SIDAs rapport: "Towards an urban world - urbanization and development assistance"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    Byerne i ulandene har et dårligt ry. De er centre for prostitution, kriminalitet og arbejdsløshed. Befolkningerne lever i armod i elendige endeløse slumområder uden udsigt til forbedrede levevilkår. Byernes infrastruktur er mangelfuld, nedslidt og fungere stort set kun i de nedarvede koloniale de...... udkommet rapport: Towards an Urban World af den svenske bistandsorganisation Sida.   Udgivelsesdato: 1996...

  2. Infrastructure for Rapid Development of Java GUI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy; Hostetter, Carl F.; Wheeler, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The Java Application Shell (JAS) is a software framework that accelerates the development of Java graphical-user-interface (GUI) application programs by enabling the reuse of common, proven GUI elements, as distinguished from writing custom code for GUI elements. JAS is a software infrastructure upon which Java interactive application programs and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for those programs can be built as sets of plug-ins. JAS provides an application- programming interface that is extensible by application-specific plugins that describe and encapsulate both specifications of a GUI and application-specific functionality tied to the specified GUI elements. The desired GUI elements are specified in Extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions instead of in compiled code. JAS reads and interprets these descriptions, then creates and configures a corresponding GUI from a standard set of generic, reusable GUI elements. These elements are then attached (again, according to the XML descriptions) to application-specific compiled code and scripts. An application program constructed by use of JAS as its core can be extended by writing new plug-ins and replacing existing plug-ins. Thus, JAS solves many problems that Java programmers generally solve anew for each project, thereby reducing development and testing time.

  3. Conservation planning under uncertainty in urban development and vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel, Yohay

    2018-01-01

    Systematic conservation planning is a framework for optimally locating and prioritizing areas for conservation. An often-noted shortcoming of most conservation planning studies is that they do not address future uncertainty. The selection of protected areas that are intended to ensure the long-term persistence of biodiversity is often based on a snapshot of the current situation, ignoring processes such as climate change. Scenarios, in the sense of being accounts of plausible futures, can be utilized to identify conservation area portfolios that are robust to future uncertainty. We compared three approaches for utilizing scenarios in conservation area selection: considering a full set of scenarios (all-scenarios portfolio), assuming the realization of specific scenarios, and a reference strategy based on the current situation (current distributions portfolio). Our objective was to compare the robustness of these approaches in terms of their relative performance across future scenarios. We focused on breeding bird species in Israel’s Mediterranean region. We simulated urban development and vegetation dynamics scenarios 60 years into the future using DINAMICA-EGO, a cellular-automata simulation model. For each scenario, we mapped the target species’ available habitat distribution, identified conservation priority areas using the site-selection software MARXAN, and constructed conservation area portfolios using the three aforementioned strategies. We then assessed portfolio performance based on the number of species for which representation targets were met in each scenario. The all-scenarios portfolio consistently outperformed the other portfolios, and was more robust to ‘errors’ (e.g., when an assumed specific scenario did not occur). On average, the all-scenarios portfolio achieved representation targets for five additional species compared with the current distributions portfolio (approximately 33 versus 28 species). Our findings highlight the importance

  4. Impact of urbanization and industrial development on holiday effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.-H.; Chen, P.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    Our study is to examine the "holiday effect", defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, and associated factors controlling the strength of holiday effect in Taiwan. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from fifty-four air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2008 are used. The air pollutant concentrations are significantly different between the CNY and NCNY periods, in almost all the Taiwan area, except CO in the eastern part which is a relatively less-developed area. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO, NMHC and O3 are larger in the north than in the south, and those of SO2 and PM10 are larger in the south than in the north. Factors controlling the strength of holiday effect such as the degree of urbanization and anthropogenic sources are examined. The population number and motor vehicle number rather than the population number density and motor vehicle number density have a significantly positive relationship with the strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO and NMHC. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx and CO are mainly contributed from mobile sources and those of SO2 and PM10 are from stationary sources and that of NMHC is from both mobile and stationary sources. As the dominant anthropogenic sources in the air quality division have larger emissions, holiday effect strengths of associated air pollutants are found to be stronger.

  5. Creativity and Culture as Elements of Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Frois B Weiler

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: cities are the picture of the outbreak of expressions of the processes of accumulation, consumption, circulation and production of goods plus the interaction of individuals, socially represented in classes. In general, from the adjectives and their derivations a city is constructed that articulates through its actors in constructing itself locally viable. From this perspective, this essay aims to analyze, briefly, the relations between urban development and creative economy. For this, methodologically, it is worth of a bibliographical revision about the fundamental concepts of the urban development and creative economy and repercussions of this relation. In this line, it is thought that the city when it uses creativity as an adjective must be conceived in a logic of space built to meet the particularities of the territory. And, not for the logic of competition and standardization of territory designed for global competition. The purpose of culture and creativity must break with dependence in the context of development, especially as regards the way and process as the city and its urbanization are constituted and consolidated. A Criatividade e a Cultura como Elementos do Desenvolvimento Urbano Resumo: as cidades são o retrato da eclosão das expressões dos processos de acumulação, consumo, circulação e produção de bens somados a interação de indivíduos, socialmente representados em classes. Em geral, a partir dos adjetivos e suas derivações se constrói uma cidade que se articula por meio de seus atores em construir-se viável localmente. Nessa perspectiva, este ensaio visa analisar, sucintamente, as relações entre desenvolvimento urbano e economia criativa. Para tal, metodologicamente, vale-se de uma revisão bibliográfica acerca dos conceitos fundamentais do desenvolvimento urbano e economia criativa e repercussões dessa relação. Nessa linha, pensa-se que a cidade quando emprega a criatividade como adjetivo deve ser

  6. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamara, David A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90ml/min/1.73m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data...

  7. The Effects of Domestic Energy Consumption on Urban Development Using System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saryazdi, M. D.; Homaei, N.; Arjmand, A.

    2018-05-01

    In developed countries, people have learned to follow efficient consumption patterns, while in developing countries, such as Iran, these patterns are not well executed. A large amount of energy is almost consumed in buildings and houses and though the consumption patterns varies in different societies, various energy policies are required to meet the consumption challenges. So far, several papers and more than ten case studies have worked on the relationship between domestic energy consumption and urban development, however these researches did not analyzed the impact of energy consumption on urban development. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine the interactions between the energy consumption and urban development by using system dynamics as the most widely used methods for complex problems. The proposed approach demonstrates the interactions using causal loop and flow diagrams and finally, suitable strategies will be proposed for urban development through simulations of different scenarios.

  8. Investment Constraints in Urban Regeneration: Property Developers and Local Authorities Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Nurulanis Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban decay is a phenomenon created due to the expansion of urban population, the restructuring of industrial, social composition as well as the deterioration of urban areas. Consequently this will increase issues of crime, mass unemployment, low quality in urban services, social problems etc. Thus urban regeneration is a tool used to overcome all these issues in order to create quality of urban living, diversify and vibrant cities. However, the involvement of investment in urban regeneration is still infancy in Malaysia as compared to other countries such as Australia, UK, Hong Kong, and etc. This is due to the perception of investors towards the profit generation and the risk involve. The objective of this paper is to determine the constraints involved in urban regeneration investment from the perspectives of the property developer companies and the local authorities. The method used is an exploratory with primary data collection through a questionnaire survey. The findings revealed that the main constraints is in regards of the land issues as well as high cost of investment, however, the benefits gain should also be considered as this create a livable urban living.

  9. Quito's Urban Watersheds: Applications of Low Impact Development and Sustainable Watershed Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzion, R.; Serra-Llobet, A.; Ward Simons, C.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Quito, Ecuador sits high in an Interandean valley (elevation ~2,830 meters) at the foot of Pichincha volcano. Above the city, mountain streams descend from high-altitude Andean páramo grasslands down steep slopes through quebradas (ravines) to the Machángara River. Quito's rapid urban growth, while indicative of the city's economic vitality, has led to the city's expansion along the valley floor, settlements along precarious hillslopes and ravines, disappearance of wetlands, and loss of páramo. The upper reaches of the watersheds are being rapidly settled by migrants whose land-use practices result in contamination of waters. In the densely-settled downstream reaches, urban encroachment has resulted in filling and narrowing of quebradas with garbage and other poor-quality fill. These practices have dramatically altered natural drainage patterns, reduced the flood conveyance capacity of the channels (increasing the flood risk to surrounding communities), and further deteriorated water quality. The city's stormwater, wastewater, and surface waters suffer from untreated pollutant loads, aging pipes, and sewer overflows. In response to environmental degradation of the quebradas, awareness is increasing, at both local community and municipal levels, of the importance of stream corridors for water quality, wildlife, and recreation for nearby residents. Citizen groups have organized volunteer river cleanups, and municipal agencies have committed to implementing ';green infrastructure' solutions to make Quito a healthier habitat for humans and other species. City leaders are evaluating innovative low impact development (LID) methods to help decontaminate surface waters, mitigate urban flooding, and promote sustainable water systems. Quito's municipal water agency, EPMAPS, invited faculty and students from Quito and Berkeley to collaborate with agency staff and citizen groups to analyze opportunities and to develop plans and designs for sustainable infrastructure. To

  10. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkáč Štefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual “energy circles”. This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  11. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkáč, Štefan

    2015-11-01

    To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual "energy circles". This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  12. Children Researching Their Urban Environment: Developing a Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Elisabeth Barratt; Barratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    "Listening to children: environmental perspectives and the school curriculum" (L2C) was a UK research council project based in schools in a socially and economically deprived urban area in England. It focused on 10/12 year old children's experience of their local community and environment, and how they made sense of this in relation both…

  13. Translating measures of sustainable development to urban districts of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2010-01-01

    overviews on the current baselines as well as stages in a transition process. The Dutch tool DPL (Dutch acronym for Duurzaamheid Prestatie voor een Locatie, ‘Sustainability-Profile for locations’) is a tool for mapping sustainability profiles of urban districts through a set of environmental, social...

  14. Growing Better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As the cities grow, so does the number of urban poor. ... Case studies: ... It describes the growth of city networks in Africa and Latin America that focus on ... partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and resilience in hot spot regions.

  15. Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World : Beyond Megacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pojani, D.; Stead, D.

    2015-01-01

    Megacities have frequently received a disproportionate amount of attention over other sizes of cities in recent discourse on urban sustainability. In this article, the authors argue that a focus on smaller and medium-sized cities is crucial to achieving substantial progress towards more sustainable

  16. The impact of urbanization and agricultural development on vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methodology uses point count surveys of vulture species density along an urban to forest gradient (dense downtown areas, suburbs, rural villages and farms, mixed uninhabited savanna, open and closed forests). The very common Black Vulture and the slightly less common Turkey Vulture were most often recorded in ...

  17. CONTEMPORARY FORMAT OF TARGET-ORIENTED URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaskova Natalya Yurevna

    2012-10-01

    In the context accepted by the authors, attainment of the above objective will involve fulfillment of each of the aforementioned requirements. They are to assure the concentration of resources and comprehensive satisfaction of the needs of the urban population in terms of the most popular items of real estate within a particular time span.

  18. The impact of urbanization and agricultural development on vultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    along an urban to forest gradient (dense downtown areas, suburbs, rural villages and farms ... negatively on many species, including .... landuse, this having more animals ..... behavior of black and turkey vultures: implications for reducing bird– .... Brazil: species richness and abundance and the influence of the survey.

  19. Urban ecology in a developing world: why advanced socioecological theory needs Africa

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Melissa R; Bunn, David N; Pickett, Steward TA; Twine, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Socioecological theory, developed through the study of urban environments, has recently led to a proliferation of research focusing on comparative analyses of cities. This research emphasis has been concentrated in the more developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere (often referred to as the “Global North”), yet urbanization is now occurring mostly in the developing world, with the fastest rates of growth in sub-Saharan Africa. Countries like South Africa are experiencing a variety of lan...

  20. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A; Lebedeva, Tatiana V; Zhukova, Marina A; Prikhoda, Natalia A; Korotaeva, Irina V; Koposov, Roman A; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2016-02-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development.

  1. Language development in rural and urban Russian-speaking children with and without developmental language disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Sergey A.; Lebedeva, Tatiana V.; Zhukova, Marina A.; Prikhoda, Natalia A.; Korotaeva, Irina V.; Koposov, Roman A.; Hart, Lesley; Reich, Jodi; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2015-01-01

    Using a newly developed Assessment of the Development of Russian Language (ORRIA), we investigated differences in language development between rural vs. urban Russian-speaking children (n = 100 with a mean age of 6.75) subdivided into groups with and without developmental language disorders. Using classical test theory and item response theory approaches, we found that while ORRIA displayed overall satisfactory psychometric properties, several of its items showed differential item functioning favoring rural children, and several others favoring urban children. After the removal of these items, rural children significantly underperformed on ORRIA compared to urban children. The urbanization factor did not significantly interact with language group. We discuss the latter finding in the context of the multiple additive risk factors for language development and emphasize the need for future studies of the mechanisms that underlie these influences and the implications of these findings for our understanding of the etiological architecture of children's language development. PMID:27346924

  2. Monitoring of β-d-Galactosidase Activity as a Surrogate Parameter for Rapid Detection of Sewage Contamination in Urban Recreational Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Simple, automated methods are required for rapid detection of wastewater contamination in urban recreational water. The activity of the enzyme β-d-galactosidase (GAL can rapidly (<2 h be measured by field instruments, or a fully automated instrument, and was evaluated as a potential surrogate parameter for estimating the level of fecal contamination in urban waters. The GAL-activity in rivers, affected by combined sewer overflows, increased significantly during heavy rainfall, and the increase in GAL-activity correlated well with the increase in fecal indicator bacteria. The GAL activity in human feces (n = 14 was high (mean activity 7 × 107 ppb MU/hour and stable (1 LOG10 variation, while the numbers of Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci varied by >5 LOG10. Furthermore, the GAL-activity per gram feces from birds, sheep and cattle was 2–3 LOG10 lower than the activity from human feces, indicating that high GAL-activity in water may reflect human fecal pollution more than the total fecal pollution. The rapid method can only be used to quantify high levels of human fecal pollution, corresponding to about 0.1 mg human feces/liter (or 103 E. coli/100 mL, since below this limit GAL-activity from non-fecal environmental sources may interfere.

  3. Comparison of the impacts of urban development and climate change on exposing European cities to pluvial flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Høegh Ravn, Nanna; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The economic and human consequences of extreme precipitation and the related flooding of urban areas have increased rapidly over the past decades. Some of the key factors that affect the risks to urban areas include climate change, the densification of assets within cities and the general expansion...

  4. Accelerated Urban Expansion in Lhasa City and the Implications for Sustainable Development in a Plateau City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization challenges regional sustainable development, but a slight expansion mechanism was revealed in a plateau city. We have integrated the urban expansion process and analyzed its determinants in Lhasa (Tibet, and we provide insightful suggestions for urban management and planning for Lhasa. The full continuum of the urban expansion process has been captured using time-series of high-resolution remote sensing data (1990–2015. Four categories of potential determinants involved in economic, demographic, social, and government policy factors were selected, and redundancy analysis was employed to define the contribution rates of these determinants. The results illustrate that considerable urban expansion occurred from 1990 to 2015 in Lhasa, with the area of construction land and transportation land increasing at rates of 117.2% and 564.7%, respectively. The urban expansion in the center of Lhasa can be characterized as temperate sprawl from 1990 through 2008, primarily explained by governmental policies and investment, economic development, tourist growth, and increased governmental investment resulting in faster urban expansion from 2008 to 2015, mainly occurring in the east, south, and west of Lhasa. In contrast with other cities of China, central government investment and “pairing-up support” projects have played an important role in infrastructure construction in Lhasa. The miraculous development of the tourism industry had prominent effects on this economic development and urbanization after 2006, due to the running of the Tibetan Railway. An integrative and proactive policy framework, the “Lhasa development model”, having important theoretical, methodological, and management implications for urban planning and development, has been proposed.

  5. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  6. Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

    Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

  7. Rural-urban migration and socioeconomic development in Ghana: some discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twumasi-ankrah, K

    1995-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of rural-urban migration as a source of social and behavioral change in Ghana. It explores the extent to which the urban social environment in Ghana generates conflicts for migrants with a different value orientation and the degree of influence of the urban social environment on migrants' behavior. The first part of the discussion focuses on the nature of Ghana's urbanization process, the motivation and characteristics of rural-urban migrants, and the nature of the social interaction between migrants and the social urban environment. Migrants contribute directly and indirectly to rural development in many ways. Some urban migrants achieve economic and material wealth and, through their attachment to voluntary tribal associations, assist local community development. Government can augment this process of migrant investment in rural life by identifying these actions as patriotic efforts and awarding citizenship medals or challenge grants. Governments need to review their citizenship laws carefully in light of the "brain drain" issues in the new world order and maximize the flow of resources, technical skills, and ideas from international migrants. A high-quality rural labor force can be enticed to live in rural areas by offering higher salaries and benefits, low income tax rates, better housing, and rural electrification and sanitation. Private firms should be offered incentives to locate in rural areas and increase employment opportunities for rural labor. Career advancement of development planners should be tied to program success or some form of public accountability for careful allocation of resources in rural areas. Fertility policies should be sensitive to urban subgroups. Urban and rural social differences are minor and do not impede urban assimilation, but unemployment and underemployment are problems for many.

  8. Priorities and needs for research on urban interventions targeting vector-borne diseases: rapid review of scoping and systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Mukamana, Olive; Carabali, Mabel; Osorio, Lyda; Fournet, Florence; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Turchi Marteli, Celina; Contreras, Adolfo; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-12-01

    This paper highlights the critical importance of evidence on vector-borne diseases (VBD) prevention and control interventions in urban settings when assessing current and future needs, with a view to setting policy priorities that promote inclusive and equitable urban health services. Research should produce knowledge about policies and interventions that are intended to control and prevent VBDs at the population level and to reduce inequities. Such interventions include policy, program, and resource distribution approaches that address the social determinants of health and exert influence at organizational and system levels.

  9. Urban transformation for the development and enhancement of the consolidated city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Claudi de Saint Mihiel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The demand to adapt the urban amenities to increasingly complex settlement needs, articulated and oriented to the energy efficiency of buildings, led to the need to undertake operational strategies to meet the existing challenges, developing projects for the transformation of the urban, historical or marginal environment. Some recent experiences of urban regeneration, increasingly declined towards an idea of compact and dense city, are meeting new energy settings, mobility, social inclusion, sustainable development. The role of technology choices appears crucial to the quality of interventions in areas of compromised material and immaterial integrity, that can become a research object for new eco-oriented design approaches.

  10. Preliminary investigation for the development of surrogate debris from nuclear detonations in marine-urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seybert, A.G.; Auxier II, J.D.; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Hall, H.L.; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN

    2017-01-01

    Since no nuclear weapon surface detonations have occurred in urban harbor environments, the nuclear forensic community has no actual debris from which to develop and validate analytical methods for radiochemistry analysis, making the development of surrogate debris representative of this a marine-urban detonation a vital undertaking. This work seeks to build a robust model that accounts for natural and manmade environmental variations in harbor environments and vessel compositions to statistically define the elemental composition of vaporized debris from a marine-urban nuclear detonation. This initial work is necessary for follow-on neutron-activation and debris formation analysis. (author)

  11. Contracting communities: Conceptualizing Community Benefits Agreements to improve citizen involvement in urban development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen-Jansen, Leonie; Veen, van der Menno

    2017-01-01

    Contractual agreements are becoming increasingly important for city governments seeking to manage urban development. Contractual governance involves direct relations between the local state and different public and private actors and citizens. Although abundant literature exists on public–private

  12. Developing and applying mobility performance measures for freight transportation in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed in a one-year study with the objective to develop an : understanding of the interrelationships of urban goods movement and congestion and identify performance : measures that will help evaluate the impa...

  13. Evolving partnerships in the collection of urban solid waste in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.; Post, J.

    2004-01-01

    -Post, Johan. (2004) Evolving Partnerships in the Collection of Urban Solid Waste in the Developing World, in: Baud, Isa., Johan. Post and Christine Furedy (2004) Solid Waste Management and Recycling; Actors, Partnerships and Policies in Hyderabad, India

  14. The development and validation of an urbanicity scale in a multi-country study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Nicole L; Allender, Steven; Scarborough, Peter; West, Douglas

    2012-07-20

    Although urban residence is consistently identified as one of the primary correlates of non-communicable disease in low- and middle-income countries, it is not clear why or how urban settings predispose individuals and populations to non-communicable disease (NCD), or how this relationship could be modified to slow the spread of NCD. The urban-rural dichotomy used in most population health research lacks the nuance and specificity necessary to understand the complex relationship between urbanicity and NCD risk. Previous studies have developed and validated quantitative tools to measure urbanicity continuously along several dimensions but all have been isolated to a single country. The purposes of this study were 1) To assess the feasibility and validity of a multi-country urbanicity scale; 2) To report some of the considerations that arise in applying such a scale in different countries; and, 3) To assess how this scale compares with previously validated scales of urbanicity. Household and community-level data from the Young Lives longitudinal study of childhood poverty in 59 communities in Ethiopia, India and Peru collected in 2006/2007 were used. Household-level data include parents' occupations and education level, household possessions and access to resources. Community-level data include population size, availability of health facilities and types of roads. Variables were selected for inclusion in the urbanicity scale based on inspection of the data and a review of literature on urbanicity and health. Seven domains were constructed within the scale: Population Size, Economic Activity, Built Environment, Communication, Education, Diversity and Health Services. The scale ranged from 11 to 61 (mean 35) with significant between country differences in mean urbanicity; Ethiopia (30.7), India (33.2), Peru (39.4). Construct validity was supported by factor analysis and high corrected item-scale correlations suggest good internal consistency. High agreement was

  15. An Economic Approach to Transportation and Urban Development in Metro Manila

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Lars Christian

    2001-01-01

    High population growth rate in Metro Manila has a direct effect on the intensity of urbanisation and development in the region and population is expected to reach 13 million by the year 2015. Urban congestion is one of the region's most pressing problems as air pollution has a major impact on public health and particularly affects children and the elderly. This study will give a broad description of transportation and urban development in Metro manila and thus contribute to improve the unders...

  16. Approaching integrated urban-rural development in China: The changing institutional roles

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuheng; Hu, Zhichao; Liu, Yansui

    2014-01-01

    Ever since the twenty-first century, the Chinese government has been undertaking a series of rural-favored policies and measures to promote comprehensive development in rural China. The fundamental purpose is to accomplish integrated urban-rural development (IURD) given the ever enlarging urban-rural inequalities during the post-reform era. Considering the long time biased policies against the countryside, the paper aims to examine the institutional roles in approaching the IURD. IURD at prov...

  17. Soil erosion evaluation in a rapidly urbanizing city (Shenzhen, China) and implementation of spatial land-use optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Huang, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Soil erosion has become a pressing environmental concern worldwide. In addition to such natural factors as slope, rainfall, vegetation cover, and soil characteristics, land-use changes-a direct reflection of human activities-also exert a huge influence on soil erosion. In recent years, such dramatic changes, in conjunction with the increasing trend toward urbanization worldwide, have led to severe soil erosion. Against this backdrop, geographic information system-assisted research on the effects of land-use changes on soil erosion has become increasingly common, producing a number of meaningful results. In most of these studies, however, even when the spatial and temporal effects of land-use changes are evaluated, knowledge of how the resulting data can be used to formulate sound land-use plans is generally lacking. At the same time, land-use decisions are driven by social, environmental, and economic factors and thus cannot be made solely with the goal of controlling soil erosion. To address these issues, a genetic algorithm (GA)-based multi-objective optimization (MOO) approach has been proposed to find a balance among various land-use objectives, including soil erosion control, to achieve sound land-use plans. GA-based MOO offers decision-makers and land-use planners a set of Pareto-optimal solutions from which to choose. Shenzhen, a fast-developing Chinese city that has long suffered from severe soil erosion, is selected as a case study area to validate the efficacy of the GA-based MOO approach for controlling soil erosion. Based on the MOO results, three multiple land-use objectives are proposed for Shenzhen: (1) to minimize soil erosion, (2) to minimize the incompatibility of neighboring land-use types, and (3) to minimize the cost of changes to the status quo. In addition to these land-use objectives, several constraints are also defined: (1) the provision of sufficient built-up land to accommodate a growing population, (2) restrictions on the development of

  18. Characterization of Urban Heat and Exacerbation: Development of a Heat Island Index for California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Taha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To further evaluate the factors influencing public heat and air-quality health, a characterization of how urban areas affect the thermal environment, particularly in terms of the air temperature, is necessary. To assist public health agencies in ranking urban areas in terms of heat stress and developing mitigation plans or allocating various resources, this study characterized urban heat in California and quantified an urban heat island index (UHII at the census-tract level (~1 km2. Multi-scale atmospheric modeling was carried out and a practical UHII definition was developed. The UHII was diagnosed with different metrics and its spatial patterns were characterized for small, large, urban-climate archipelago, inland, and coastal areas. It was found that within each region, wide ranges of urban heat and UHII exist. At the lower end of the scale (in smaller urban areas, the UHII reaches up to 20 degree-hours per day (DH/day; °C.hr/day, whereas at the higher end (in larger areas, it reaches up to 125 DH/day or greater. The average largest temperature difference (urban heat island within each region ranges from 0.5–1.0 °C in smaller areas to up to 5 °C or more at the higher end, such as in urban-climate archipelagos. Furthermore, urban heat is exacerbated during warmer weather and that, in turn, can worsen the health impacts of heat events presently and in the future, for which it is expected that both the frequency and duration of heat waves will increase.

  19. A Web Based Geographic Information Platform to Support Urban Adaptation to Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, Philip J [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Parish, Esther S [ORNL; Mei, Rui [ORNL; Ernst, Kathleen M [ORNL; Absar, Mariya [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The urban climate is changing rapidly. Therefore, climate change and its projected impacts on environmental conditions must be considered in assessing and comparing urban planning alternatives. In this paper, we present an integrated framework for urban climate adaptation tool (Urban-CAT) that will help cities to plan for, rather than react to, possible risks. Urban-CAT will be developed as a scenario planning tool that is locally relevant to existing urban decision-making processes.

  20. How does imperviousness develop and affect runoff generation in an urbanizing watershed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Krebs

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness associated with urbanization remains one of the biggest challenges in sustainable urban design. The replacement of forests, marshlands, buffers, and wetlands with impervious surfaces, strongly influences hydrological processes in urbanizing areas. This study analyzed the contribution of four constructed surfaces types – roofs, yards, roads, and an international airport – to surface runoff within a 21 km2 watershed, and presents the development over five decades (1977−2030. The land-cover model, used to assess watershed imperviousness in 2030, utilized coefficients between impervious areas generating surface runoff and the floor area, developed during the study. The conducted imperviousness analysis allowed the evaluation of land-use development impacts on the stream network, and the identification of hydrologically active areas for urban planning and stormwater management. Research revealed the importance of yard imperviousness related to suburban residential housing for stormwater runoff generation, and the impacts of transport-related imperviousness on stormwater runoff.