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Sample records for rapidly developing thermoregulatory

  1. Development of a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the thermoregulatory effects of serotonergic drugs in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi-Ling; Shen, Hong-Wu; Mager, Donald E; Schmidt, Stephan; Yu, Ai-Ming

    2016-09-01

    We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI), potentiates serotonin (5-HT) receptor agonist 5-methoxy- N,N -dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT)-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control. Harmaline-induced hypothermia and 5-MeO-DMT-elicited hyperthermia were attributable to the loss of heat through the activation of 5-HT 1A receptor and thermogenesis via the stimulation of 5-HT 2A receptor, respectively. Thus serotonergic 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia was readily distinguished from handling/injection stress-provoked hyperthermic effects. This PK/PD model was able to simultaneously describe all experimental data including the impact of drug-metabolizing enzyme status on 5-MeO-DMT and harmaline PK properties, and drug- and stress-induced simple hypo/hyperthermic and complex biphasic effects. Furthermore, the modeling results revealed a 4-fold decrease of apparent SC 50 value (1.88-0.496 µmol/L) for 5-MeO-DMT when harmaline was co-administered, providing a quantitative assessment for the impact of concurrent MAOI harmaline on 5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia. In addition, the hyperpyrexia caused by toxic dose combinations of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT were linked to the increased systemic exposure to harmaline rather than 5-MeO-DMT, although the body temperature profiles were mispredicted by the model. The results indicate that current PK/PD model may be used as a new conceptual framework to define the impact of serotonergic agents and stress factors on thermoregulation.

  2. Development of a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the thermoregulatory effects of serotonergic drugs in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Ling Jiang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown recently that concurrent harmaline, a monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor (MAOI, potentiates serotonin (5-HT receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT-induced hyperthermia. The objective of this study was to develop an integrated pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD model to characterize and predict the thermoregulatory effects of such serotonergic drugs in mice. Physiological thermoregulation was described by a mechanism-based indirect-response model with adaptive feedback control. Harmaline-induced hypothermia and 5-MeO-DMT–elicited hyperthermia were attributable to the loss of heat through the activation of 5-HT1A receptor and thermogenesis via the stimulation of 5-HT2A receptor, respectively. Thus serotonergic 5-MeO-DMT–induced hyperthermia was readily distinguished from handling/injection stress-provoked hyperthermic effects. This PK/PD model was able to simultaneously describe all experimental data including the impact of drug-metabolizing enzyme status on 5-MeO-DMT and harmaline PK properties, and drug- and stress-induced simple hypo/hyperthermic and complex biphasic effects. Furthermore, the modeling results revealed a 4-fold decrease of apparent SC50 value (1.88–0.496 µmol/L for 5-MeO-DMT when harmaline was co-administered, providing a quantitative assessment for the impact of concurrent MAOI harmaline on 5-MeO-DMT–induced hyperthermia. In addition, the hyperpyrexia caused by toxic dose combinations of harmaline and 5-MeO-DMT were linked to the increased systemic exposure to harmaline rather than 5-MeO-DMT, although the body temperature profiles were mispredicted by the model. The results indicate that current PK/PD model may be used as a new conceptual framework to define the impact of serotonergic agents and stress factors on thermoregulation.

  3. Thermoregulatory Control Following Dynamic Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Journeay, W. S; Carter, R; Kenny, G. P

    2006-01-01

    .... Recent work has shown that non-thermoregulatory factors associated with hemodynamic changes and hydration status post-exercise may influence the regulation of core temperature during exercise recovery...

  4. Thermoregulatory and Immune Responses During Cold Exposure: Effects of Repeated Cold Exposure and Acute Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellani, John

    2000-01-01

    .... This information will be used in developing thermoregulatory models during cold exposure. During these studies several unanswered questions regarding thermoregulation in the cold were also addressed: (1...

  5. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  6. WIST: toolkit for rapid, customized LIMS development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Y Wayne; Arkin, Adam P; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Workflow Information Storage Toolkit (WIST) is a set of application programming interfaces and web applications that allow for the rapid development of customized laboratory information management systems (LIMS...

  7. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  8. Effects of Cooling During Exercise on Thermoregulatory Responses of Men With Paraplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Nes, I.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: People with spinal cord injury (SCI) have an altered afferent input to the thermoregulatory center, resulting in a reduced efferent response (vasomotor control and sweating capacity) below the level of the lesion. Consequently, core body temperature rises more rapidly during exercise in

  9. Development of a Rapid Thermoplastic Impregnation Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weustink, A.P.D.

    2007-01-01

    A melt impregnation device for rapid thermoplastic impregnation of fiber bundles has been developed through modeling and experiments. The basic principles behind the thermoplastic impregnation process are investigated and the properties needed for a successful thermoplastic impregnation device are

  10. Thermoregulatory capabilities of the woodland dormouse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The woodland dormouse, Graphiurus murinus, in common with many other small rodents, enters torpor under conditions of food deprivation and low temperatures. Its thermoregulatory capabilities under more favourable conditions, however, have not been investigated. We measured metabolism and thermoregulation in ...

  11. Physical Performance and Thermoregulatory Response of Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein and selenium supplementation of male rabbits on changes in physical performance and thermoregulatory response under tropical conditions. Fourty eight New Zealand rabbit bucks of 23 ± 1.4 weeks of age, weighing 2.8 ± 1.131kg, were allotted to six ...

  12. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  13. Development and tendency of rapid prototyping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongnian; Hong, Guodong

    1998-08-01

    The definition of the rapid prototyping is given in this paper. Various RP processes, which build the prototypes with 2.5 or 3 dimensional layers, are introduced. The relative techniques of RP and the differences between RP technique and CNC manufacturing are analyzed. The paper discusses the RP's applied fields and methods and presents the RP development in the world. According to the idea that requirements determine the developing, the RP's tendency is discussed.

  14. Simplified human thermoregulatory model for designing wearable thermoelectric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunge, Dimuthu; Kim, Donggyu; Kim, Woochul

    2018-02-01

    Research on wearable and implantable devices have become popular with the strong need in market. A precise understanding of the thermal properties of human skin, which are not constant values but vary depending on ambient condition, is required for the development of such devices. In this paper, we present simplified human thermoregulatory model for accurately estimating the thermal properties of the skin without applying rigorous calculations. The proposed model considers a variable blood flow rate through the skin, evaporation functions, and a variable convection heat transfer from the skin surface. In addition, wearable thermoelectric generation (TEG) and refrigeration devices were simulated. We found that deviations of 10–60% can be resulted in estimating TEG performance without considering human thermoregulatory model owing to the fact that thermal resistance of human skin is adapted to ambient condition. Simplicity of the modeling procedure presented in this work could be beneficial for optimizing and predicting the performance of any applications that are directly coupled with skin thermal properties.

  15. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  16. Autonomic thermoregulatory dysfunction in neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana G Madeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 causes neural and cutaneous disorders and reduced exercise capacity. Exercise/heat exposure increasing internal temperature must be compensated by eccrine sweat function and warmed skin vasodilation. We suspected NF1 could adversely affect eccrine sweat function and/or vascular thermoregulatory responses (VTR. Methods The eccrine sweat function and VTR of 25 NF1 volunteers (14 males, 11 females; 16–57 years old were compared with 23 non-NF1 controls matched by sex, age, height and weight (CG. Sweating was induced by 1 pilocarpine 1% iontophoresis (PILO; and 2 by passive heating (HEAT via the lower third of the legs being immersed in 42°C water for one hour. Previously established eccrine sweat function and VTR protocols were used. Results The NF1 group showed: a lower sweat rate than the CG group during PILO; b a smaller diastolic pressure decrease; and c higher tympanic temperatures than controls during HEAT (p < 0.05. Conclusion Reduced sweating and vascular thermoregulatory responses suggest autonomic dysfunction in NF1 individuals.

  17. Rapid Glass Refiner Development Program, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-20

    A rapid glass refiner (RGR) technology which could be applied to both conventional and advanced class melting systems would significantly enhance the productivity and the competitiveness of the glass industry in the United States. Therefore, Vortec Corporation, with the support of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-90ID12911, conducted a research and development program for a unique and innovative approach to rapid glass refining. To provide focus for this research effort, container glass was the primary target from among the principal glass types based on its market size and potential for significant energy savings. Container glass products represent the largest segment of the total glass industry accounting for 60% of the tonnage produced and over 40% of the annual energy consumption of 232 trillion Btu/yr. Projections of energy consumption and the market penetration of advanced melting and fining into the container glass industry yield a potential energy savings of 7.9 trillion Btu/yr by the year 2020.

  18. The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the challenges of rapid urbanization on the sustainable development of Nyanya, Abuja. An interesting finding of the study is that the primary factor for the rapid urbanization of Nyanya within a short period of time is migration. The consequence of this rapid urbanization and population rise within a short ...

  19. Thermoregulatory disorders and illness related to heat and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, William P

    2016-04-01

    Thermoregulation is a vital function of the autonomic nervous system in response to cold and heat stress. Thermoregulatory physiology sustains health by keeping body core temperature within a degree or two of 37°C, which enables normal cellular function. Heat production and dissipation are dependent on a coordinated set of autonomic responses. The clinical detection of thermoregulatory impairment provides important diagnostic and localizing information in the evaluation of disorders that impair thermoregulatory pathways, including autonomic neuropathies and ganglionopathies. Failure of neural thermoregulatory mechanisms or exposure to extreme or sustained temperatures that overwhelm the body's thermoregulatory capacity can also result in potentially life-threatening departures from normothermia. Hypothermia, defined as a core temperature of 40.5°C, may present with sweating, flushing, tachycardia, fatigue, lightheadedness, headache, and paresthesia, progressing to weakness, muscle cramps, oliguria, nausea, agitation, hypotension, syncope, confusion, delirium, seizures, and coma. Mental status changes and core temperature distinguish potentially fatal heat stroke from heat exhaustion. Management requires the immediate reduction of core temperature. Ice water immersion has been shown to be superior to alternative cooling measures. Avoidance of thermal risk and early recognition of cold or heat stress are the cornerstones of preventive therapy. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Rapid development of cosmetic medicine in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kaihua; Pan, Baohua; Xia, Wei

    2006-04-01

    To review and summarize the development during the last 20 years and the current status of cosmetic medicine, i.e., cosmetic surgery, in China, for the healthier development of this specialty in the future. Literature concerned was reviewed, including conference abstracts, papers, and publications, and the present status and problems were analyzed. Cosmetic medicine was recognized as an independent specialty and gained its clear definition. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the changing medical modules and the developing science and civilization. This trend fulfilled the need of the people. The related problems consisted of a high complication rate, confusion of management, and insufficient specific knowledge in part of the providers. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the civilization development. For the healthy development of this specialty, scientific management and systemic education for the providers are crucial. Only those who have the plastic surgery background are able to participate in this practice.

  1. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  2. Rapid Development of Intestinal Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Oh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma is felt to develop over a protracted time period through a series of defined steps. Several potential risk factors for the development of gastric cancer have been identified, including a family history of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. We present the case of a patient with neither risk factor who progressed in a 14 month time frame from histologically normal gastric mucosa to early stage intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma in the setting of diffuse gastric intestinal metaplasia and atrophic gastritis. This patient’s presentation conflicts with our current understanding of the development of intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  3. A Self-Organising Model of Thermoregulatory Huddling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glancy, Jonathan; Groß, Roderich; Stone, James V; Wilson, Stuart P

    2015-09-01

    Endotherms such as rats and mice huddle together to keep warm. The huddle is considered to be an example of a self-organising system, because complex properties of the collective group behaviour are thought to emerge spontaneously through simple interactions between individuals. Groups of rodent pups display two such emergent properties. First, huddling undergoes a 'phase transition', such that pups start to aggregate rapidly as the temperature of the environment falls below a critical temperature. Second, the huddle maintains a constant 'pup flow', where cooler pups at the periphery continually displace warmer pups at the centre. We set out to test whether these complex group behaviours can emerge spontaneously from local interactions between individuals. We designed a model using a minimal set of assumptions about how individual pups interact, by simply turning towards heat sources, and show in computer simulations that the model reproduces the first emergent property--the phase transition. However, this minimal model tends to produce an unnatural behaviour where several smaller aggregates emerge rather than one large huddle. We found that an extension of the minimal model to include heat exchange between pups allows the group to maintain one large huddle but eradicates the phase transition, whereas inclusion of an additional homeostatic term recovers the phase transition for large huddles. As an unanticipated consequence, the extended model also naturally gave rise to the second observed emergent property--a continuous pup flow. The model therefore serves as a minimal description of huddling as a self-organising system, and as an existence proof that group-level huddling dynamics emerge spontaneously through simple interactions between individuals. We derive a specific testable prediction: Increasing the capacity of the individual to generate or conserve heat will increase the range of ambient temperatures over which adaptive thermoregulatory huddling will

  4. [The rapid development of child neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Jambaqué, I

    2008-05-01

    The past few years have seen important progress and new developments in the field of child neuropsychology. Children can exhibit acquired or learning disorders, but in all cases such deficits take place in a developmental trajectory that requires taking into account cerebral maturation and plasticity processes. Child neuropsychology finds its specificity in the perspective of developmental neuropsychology and has close connections with health and education. This article focuses on two pathologies - childhood epilepsies and developmental dyslexia - that highlight the recent progress in this specialty and its perspectives.

  5. Developing and validating rapid assessment instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Abell, Neil; Kamata, Akihito

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an overview of scale and test development. From conceptualization through design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, critical concerns are identified and grounded in the increasingly sophisticated psychometric literature. Measurement within the health, social, and behavioral sciences is addressed, and technical and practical guidance is provided. Acknowledging the increasingly sophisticated contributions in social work, psychology, education, nursing, and medicine, the book balances condensation of complex conceptual challenges with focused recommendations for conceiving, planning, and implementing psychometric study. Primary points are carefully referenced and consistently illustrated to illuminate complicated or abstract principles. Basics of construct conceptualization and establishing evidence of validity are complimented with introductions to concept mapping and cross-cultural translation. In-depth discussion of cutting edge topics like bias and invariance in item responses...

  6. The reasons for the rapid development of human technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    While playing with a two-year-old girl in Australia, Alan Macfarlane explains one reason for the rapid development of humans, namely their curiosity and desire to experiment and to imagine and make new things.

  7. Integration of Sensory Information via Central Thermoregulatory Leptin Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai-Zadeh, Kavon; Münzberg, Heike

    2013-01-01

    The adipocyte derived hormone leptin acts in the brain to regulate body weight, food intake and energy expenditure. Even though it is well accepted that leptin regulates energy expenditure at least in part by modulating thermogenesis, the exact mechanisms are not clear. Particularly, it is unclear which central circuits regulate thermogenic leptin actions and if and how these may interact with feeding circuits. Within the last decade our understanding of central thermoregulatory circuits has increased substantially and allowed the identification of leptin target neurons (those expressing the long form leptin receptor –LepRb) that are involved in the sympathetic control of the heat generating brown adipose tissue (BAT). Indeed, LepRb neurons in the preoptic area and dorsomedial hypothalamus are part of known thermoregulatory circuits controlling sympathetic premotor neurons that are located in the raphe pallidus. Thermoregulatory control and food intake are both regulated by leptin signaling pathways, even though distinct neuronal pathways have been described, respectively. Nevertheless, feeding status and control of body temperature and energy expenditure are tightly interconnected, but it is unknown how these aspects are connected within leptin signaling pathways to result in appropriate output signals (e.g. BAT thermogenesis). Indeed, cold-induced thermogenesis is potently blocked during fasting, which instead triggers an active decrease in energy expenditure and body temperature, a state known as torpor. In this article we will review recent data characterizing central thermoregulatory LepRb pathways and speculate on potential integration mechanisms that may relay anorexic and thermoregulatory leptin action to control energy homeostasis. PMID:23458626

  8. Development and implementation of a rapid real-time polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assays which use real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology can be developed for the rapid identification of genetic sequences carried by waterborne pathogens. Rand Water has established facilities within which a selection of PCR assays will be developed. This paper reports on the optimisation and ...

  9. Configuration of the thermal landscape determines thermoregulatory performance of ectotherms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Michael W.; Angilletta, Michael J.; Schuler, Matthew S.; Borchert, Jason; Dilliplane, Katherine F.; Stegman, Monica; Rusch, Travis W.; Mitchell, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Although most organisms thermoregulate behaviorally, biologists still cannot easily predict whether mobile animals will thermoregulate in natural environments. Current models fail because they ignore how the spatial distribution of thermal resources constrains thermoregulatory performance over space and time. To overcome this limitation, we modeled the spatially explicit movements of animals constrained by access to thermal resources. Our models predict that ectotherms thermoregulate more accurately when thermal resources are dispersed throughout space than when these resources are clumped. This prediction was supported by thermoregulatory behaviors of lizards in outdoor arenas with known distributions of environmental temperatures. Further, simulations showed how the spatial structure of the landscape qualitatively affects responses of animals to climate. Biologists will need spatially explicit models to predict impacts of climate change on local scales. PMID:27601639

  10. Effects of acceleration on thermoregulatory responses of unanesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.; Horowitz, J. M.; Horwitz, B. A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to examine the thermoregulatory responses of rats to step changes in ambient temperature during centrifugation. Attention is focused on the analysis of problems as to whether the ability of rats to regulate body temperature during one hour of cold exposure is altered by increasing the acceleration field to 2G, whether prior environmental conditioning can affect the temperature response to the combined stressors of acceleration and cold, and whether the orientation of the animal in the acceleration field modifies the temperature response. The finding that the decline in colonic temperature is accompanied by parallel changes in hypothalamic and spinal cord temperatures indicates that the decreasing heat production with increasing heat loss is an atypical thermoregulatory response of these animals to cooling. Mechanical forces acting on the brain may underline the temperature decrease when inverting the animal during acceleration.

  11. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  12. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory mechanism modulates auto-regulated sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hruda N Mallick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulation of body temperature and sleep are two physiological mechanisms that are vital for our survival. Interestingly neural structures implicated in both these functions are common. These areas include the medial preoptic area, the lateral preoptic area, the ventrolateral preoptic area, the median preoptic nucleus and the medial septum, which form part of the basal forebrain.When given a choice, rats prefer to stay at an ambient temperature of 270C, though the maximum sleep was observed when they were placed at 300C. Ambient temperature around 270C should be considered as the thermoneutral temperature for rats in all sleep studies. At this temperature the diurnal oscillations of sleep and body temperature are properly expressed. The warm sensitive neurons of the preoptic area mediate the increase in sleep at 300C. Promotion of sleep during the rise in ambient temperature from 270C to 300C, serve a thermoregulatory function. Autonomous thermoregulatory changes in core body temperature and skin temperature could act as an input signal to modulate neuronal activity in sleep-promoting brain areas. The studies presented here show that the neurons of the basal forebrain play a key role in regulating sleep. Basal forebrain thermoregulatory system is a part of the global homeostatic sleep regulatory mechanism, which is auto-regulated.

  13. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  14. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four "virtual family" members for thermoregulatory modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N; Potter, Adam W

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  15. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four ``virtual family'' members for thermoregulatory modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P.; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N.; Potter, Adam W.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  16. Development and implementation of a rapid real-time polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6–10 May 2012. * To whom all correspondence should be addressed. ☎ +27 16 430-8403; fax: +27 16 455-2055; e-mail: nleat@randwater.co.za. Development and implementation of a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in water. Neil Leat* and Monique Grundlingh.

  17. Integrating a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Weng, Wenguo; Wang, Faming; Song, Guowen

    2017-05-01

    This paper aims to integrate a human thermoregulatory model with a clothing model to predict core and skin temperatures. The human thermoregulatory model, consisting of an active system and a passive system, was used to determine the thermoregulation and heat exchanges within the body. The clothing model simulated heat and moisture transfer from the human skin to the environment through the microenvironment and fabric. In this clothing model, the air gap between skin and clothing, as well as clothing properties such as thickness, thermal conductivity, density, porosity, and tortuosity were taken into consideration. The simulated core and mean skin temperatures were compared to the published experimental results of subject tests at three levels of ambient temperatures of 20 °C, 30 °C, and 40 °C. Although lower signal-to-noise-ratio was observed, the developed model demonstrated positive performance at predicting core temperatures with a maximum difference between the simulations and measurements of no more than 0.43 °C. Generally, the current model predicted the mean skin temperatures with reasonable accuracy. It could be applied to predict human physiological responses and assess thermal comfort and heat stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An improved thermoregulatory model for cooling garment applications with transient metabolic rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Johan K.

    Current state-of-the-art thermoregulatory models do not predict body temperatures with the accuracies that are required for the development of automatic cooling control in liquid cooling garment (LCG) systems. Automatic cooling control would be beneficial in a variety of space, aviation, military, and industrial environments for optimizing cooling efficiency, for making LCGs as portable and practical as possible, for alleviating the individual from manual cooling control, and for improving thermal comfort and cognitive performance. In this study, we adopt the Fiala thermoregulatory model, which has previously demonstrated state-of-the-art predictive abilities in air environments, for use in LCG environments. We validate the numerical formulation with analytical solutions to the bioheat equation, and find our model to be accurate and stable with a variety of different grid configurations. We then compare the thermoregulatory model's tissue temperature predictions with experimental data where individuals, equipped with an LCG, exercise according to a 700 W rectangular type activity schedule. The root mean square (RMS) deviation between the model response and the mean experimental group response is 0.16°C for the rectal temperature and 0.70°C for the mean skin temperature, which is within state-of-the-art variations. However, with a mean absolute body heat storage error 3¯ BHS of 9.7 W˙h, the model fails to satisfy the +/-6.5 W˙h accuracy that is required for the automatic LCG cooling control development. In order to improve model predictions, we modify the blood flow dynamics of the thermoregulatory model. Instead of using step responses to changing requirements, we introduce exponential responses to the muscle blood flow and the vasoconstriction command. We find that such modifications have an insignificant effect on temperature predictions. However, a new vasoconstriction dependency, i.e. the rate of change of hypothalamus temperature weighted by the

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIEST RAPIDS TURBINE UPGRADE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBolt, Donald; Richmond, Marshall C.; Donelson, Richard K.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly

    2015-07-14

    The Priest Rapids Dam is located on the Columbia River and is operated by Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, WA (GCPUD). In operation since 1959, GCPUD decided that a major upgrade was necessary. As with other hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River, improving fish passage at Priest Rapids Dam is of great importance for salmon and steelhead populations in the Pacific Northwest. Consequently, GCPUD established the Priest Rapids Turbine Upgrade Project to extend the life of the units, increase efficiency and power production, and improve fish-passage. The Priest Rapids powerhouse is equipped with 10 vertical Kaplan turbines with runner diameters of 7.21 m operating under net heads varying from 18 m to 27 m. The scope of the project included a design competition involving three turbine manufacturers providing up to two designs for evaluation. Selection of the replacement design was determined by the lowest evaluated price based on model test results conducted at an independent laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Lausanne Switzerland) and a biological performance score determined by a newly developed Biological Performance Assessment (BioPA) performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA. In the paper, the hydraulic design challenges are reviewed, in addition to comparisons of designs evaluated during the competitive model test program and biological assessment. The paper also provides a description of the process followed by GCPUD, and how the evaluation criteria influenced the development and the finally selected solution.

  20. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  1. Thermoregulatory responses to preoptic cooling in unrestrained rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcewen, G. N., Jr.; Heath, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Rabbits at ambient temperatures within the thermal neutral zone show two different metabolic responses to preoptic cooling. One response type is defined by a preoptic thermal sensitivity that shifts with ambient temperature and a 'set point' that remains constant. The other response type is defined by a set point that shifts with ambient temperature and a preoptic thermal sensitivity that remains constant. Both response types can be modeled by a single equation. Nonmetabolic thermoregulatory responses are not significantly different between the two response types.

  2. Rapid development of fungicide resistance by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Chang, Seog Won; Boehm, Michael; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-12-01

    Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is the most prevalent and economically important turfgrass disease in North America. Increasing levels of fungicide resistance, coupled with tightening environmental scrutiny of existing fungicides, has left fewer options for managing dollar spot. More knowledge about S. homoeocarpa populations is needed to improve dollar spot management strategies, especially with respect to minimizing the development of fungicide resistance. Population diversity of S. homoeocarpa was examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers and vegetative compatibility assays. Two subgroups were found in S. homoeocarpa field populations on both fairway and putting green turfgrass at a research field in Wisconsin. These subgroups were genetically different, vegetatively incompatible, and had different fungicide sensitivities. The frequency of the two genetic subgroups differed significantly between the fairway and putting green, but was uniform within the fairway or within the green. Population dynamics of S. homoeocarpa in response to two systemic fungicides (thiophanate-methyl and propiconazole) were assessed based on in vitro fungicide sensitivity. Dynamics of S. homoeocarpa populations depended on the presence of fungicide-resistant isolates in the initial populations before fungicide applications and changed rapidly after fungicide applications. Shifting of the population toward propiconazole resistance was gradual, whereas thiophanate-methyl resistance developed rapidly in the population. In conclusion, field populations of S. homoeocarpa containing genetically distinct, vegetatively incompatible groups were different on turfgrass that was managed differently, and they were changed rapidly after exposure to fungicides.

  3. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. F.; Kulessa, B.; Rutt, I. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Pimentel, S.; Doyle, S. H.; van As, D.; Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Jones, G. A.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-06-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections.

  4. Rapidly developing iatrogenic hyponatremia in a child following tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Umit; Binay, Omer; Binay, Cigdem; Yigit, Ozgur

    2012-11-01

    Hyponatremia develops as a result of the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. In rare cases, it develops as an iatrogenic complication. For example, acute iatrogenic post-tonsillectomy hyponatremia has been described in children following the infusion of hypo- or isotonic fluid. We report a case of rapidly developing post-tonsillectomy iatrogenic hyponatremia in a 5-year-old girl following an excessive infusion of hypotonic fluid. Her signs and symptoms began with nausea and vomiting and progressed to seizures and coma. We corrected the electrolyte disturbance by infusing a 3% sodium chloride solution until her neurologic manifestations disappeared, at which time her serum sodium concentration had risen back to 135 mEq/L. Otolaryngologists are not generally exposed to much information about hyponatremia, so we must be aware of its associated neurologic signs and symptoms.

  5. Rapid IV Versus Oral Rehydration: Responses to Subsequent Exercise Heat Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenefick, Robert W; O'Moore, Kathleen M; Mahood, Nicholas V; Castellani, John W

    2006-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effect of rapid intravenous (IV) versus oral (ORAL) rehydration immediately after dehydration, on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  6. Development of Nylon Based FDM Filament for Rapid Tooling Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    There has been critical need for development of cost effective nylon based wire to be used as feed stock filament for fused deposition modelling (FDM) machine. But hitherto, very less work has been reported for development of alternate solution of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) based wire which is presently used in most of FDM machines. The present research work is focused on development of nylon based wire as an alternative of ABS wire (which is to be used as feedstock filament on FDM) without changing any hardware or software of machine. For the present study aluminium oxide (Al2O3) as additive in different proportion has been used with nylon fibre. Single screw extruder was used for wire preparation and wire thus produced was tested on FDM. Mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength and percentage elongation of finally developed wire have been optimized by Taguchi L9 technique. The work represented major development in reducing cost and time in rapid tooling applications.

  7. Microstructural development of rapid solidification in Al-Si powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Feng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-09-26

    The microstructure and the gradient of microstructure that forms in rapidly solidificated powder were investigated for different sized particles. High pressure gas atomization solidification process has been used to produce a series of Al-Si alloys powders between 0.2 μm to 150 μm diameter at the eutectic composition (12.6 wt pct Si). This processing technique provides powders of different sizes which solidify under different conditions (i.e. interface velocity and interface undercooling), and thus give different microstructures inside the powders. The large size powder shows dendritic and eutectic microstructures. As the powder size becomes smaller, the predominant morphology changes from eutectic to dendritic to cellular. Microstructures were quantitatively characterized by using optical microscope and SEM techniques. The variation in eutectic spacing within the powders were measured and compared with the theoretical model to obtain interface undercooling, and growth rate during the solidification of a given droplet. Also, nucleation temperature, which controls microstructures in rapidly solidified fine powders, was estimated. A microstructural map which correlates the microstructure with particle size and processing parameters is developed.

  8. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  9. Rapid Development of Bespoke Unmanned Platforms for Atmospheric Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobester, A.; Johnston, S. J.; Scanlan, J. P.; Hart, E. E.; O'Brien, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The effective deployment of airborne atmospheric science instruments often hinges on the development cycle time of a suitable platform, one that is capable of delivering them to the desired altitude range for a specified amount of time, along a pre-determined trajectory. This could be driven by the need to respond rapidly to sudden, unexpected events (e.g., volcano eruptions, nuclear fallout, etc.) or simply to accommodate the iterative design and flight test cycle of the instrument developer. A shorter development cycle time would also afford us the ability to quickly adapt the hardware and control logic in response to unexpected results during an experimental campaign. We report on recent developments aimed at meeting this demand. As part of the Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft (ASTRA) initiative we have investigated the use of rapid prototyping technologies to this end, both on the 'airframe' of the platform itself and on the on-board systems. We show how fast multi-disciplinary design optimization techniques, coupled with computer-controlled additive manufacturing (3D printing) and laser cutting methods and electronic prototyping (using standard, modular, programmable building blocks) can lead to the delivery of a fully customized platform integrating a given instrument in a timescale of the order of ten days. Specific examples include the design and testing of a balloon-launched glider sensorcraft and a stratospheric balloon system. The 'vehicle' for the latter was built on a 3D printer using a copolymer thermoplastic material and fitted with a sacrificial protective 'cage' laser-cut from an open-cell foam. The data logging, tracking, sensor integration and communications services of the platform were constructed using the .net Gadgeteer open source hardware kit. The flight planning and eventual post-flight recovery of the system is enabled by a generic, stochastic trajectory simulation tool, also developed as part of the ASTRA initiative. This

  10. Improved rapid prototyping methodology for MPEG-4 IC development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Clive K. K.; Moseler, Kathy; Levi, Sami

    1998-12-01

    One important factor in deciding the success of a new consumer product or integrated circuit is minimized time-to- market. A rapid prototyping methodology that encompasses algorithm development in the hardware design phase will have great impact on reducing time-to-market. In this paper, a proven hardware design methodology and a novel top-down design methodology based on Frontier Design's DSP Station tool are described. The proven methodology was used during development of the MC149570 H.261/H.263 video codec manufactured by Motorola. This paper discusses an improvement to this method to create an integrated environment for both system and hardware development, thereby further reducing the time-to-market. The software tool chosen is DSP Station tool by Frontier Design. The rich features of DSP Station tool will be described and then it will be shown how these features may be useful in designing from algorithm to silicon. How this methodology may be used in the development of a new MPEG4 Video Communication ASIC will be outlined. A brief comparison with a popular tool, Signal Processing WorkSystem tool by Cadence, will also be given.

  11. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  12. Rapid Application Development with OpenStudio: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, E.; Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Schott, M.; Benne, K.; Hale, E.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents several case studies of rapidly implemented, audience-specific applications for whole building energy modeling and standards analysis. By tailoring each application to the audience and the task at hand, the required learning curve for new users was greatly reduced. Each case study used OpenStudio, the U.S. Department of Energy's middleware software development kit (SDK). OpenStudio provides an easy interface to the EnergyPlus whole building simulation engine, while extending its capability and providing higher-level functionality such as software interoperability, standards, analysis, and optimization. Each case study is unique in the technology employed to interface with OpenStudio as well as the methods used for user interaction and data presentation. Four case studies are presented.

  13. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  14. City-scale expansion of human thermoregulatory costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard W; Muhich, Timothy E; Humphries, Murray M

    2013-01-01

    The physiological maintenance of a stable internal temperature by mammals and birds - the phenomenon termed homeothermy - is well known to be energetically expensive. The annual energy requirements of free-living mammals and birds are estimated to be 15-30 times higher than those of similar-size ectothermic vertebrates like lizards. Contemporary humans also use energy to accomplish thermoregulation. They are unique, however, in having shifted thermoregulatory control from the body to the occupied environment, with most people living in cities in dwellings that are temperature-regulated by furnaces and air conditioners powered by exogenous energy sources. The energetic implications of this strategy remain poorly defined. Here we comparatively quantify energy costs in cities, dwellings, and individual human bodies. Thermoregulation persists as a major driver of energy expenditure across these three scales, resulting in energy-versus-ambient-temperature relationships remarkably similar in shape. Incredibly, despite the many and diversified uses of network-delivered energy in modern societies, the energy requirements of six North American cities are as temperature-dependent as the energy requirements of isolated, individual homeotherms. However, the annual per-person energy cost of exogenously powered thermoregulation in cities and dwellings is 9-28 times higher than the cost of endogenous, metabolic thermoregulation of the human body. Shifting the locus of thermoregulatory control from the body to the dwelling achieves climate-independent thermal comfort. However, in an era of amplifying climate change driven by the carbon footprint of humanity, we must acknowledge the energetic extravagance of contemporary, city-scale thermoregulation, which prioritizes heat production over heat conservation.

  15. Cerebellum of the Premature Infant: Rapidly Developing, Vulnerable, Clinically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Brain abnormality in surviving premature infants is associated with an enormous amount of neurodevelopmental disability, manifested principally by cognitive, behavioral, attentional, and socialization deficits, most commonly with only relatively modest motor deficits. The most recognized contributing neuropathology is cerebral white matter injury. The thesis of this review is that acquired cerebellar abnormality is a relatively less recognized but likely important cause of neurodevelopmental disability in small premature infants. The cerebellar disease may be primarily destructive (eg, hemorrhage, infarction) or primarily underdevelopment. The latter appears to be especially common and relates to a particular vulnerability of the cerebellum of the small premature infant. Central to this vulnerability are the extraordinarily rapid and complex developmental events occurring in the cerebellum. The disturbance of development can be caused either by direct adverse effects on the cerebellum, especially the distinctive transient external granular layer, or by indirect remote trans-synaptic effects. This review describes the fascinating details of cerebellar development, with an emphasis on events in the premature period, the major types of cerebellar abnormality acquired during the premature period, their likely mechanisms of occurrence, and new insights into the relation of cerebellar disease in early life to subsequent cognitive/behavioral/attentional/socialization deficits. PMID:19745085

  16. RAPIDE 0.0 RHIC Accelerator Physics Intrepid Development Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Saltmarsh, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This document is a guide to the common environmental features of computing in (and around) the RHIC Accelerator Physics.sectio on the 'zoo' cluster of UNJX workstations, in RAPIDE, the RHIC Accelerator Physics Intrepid Development Environment It is hoped tliat later revisions of this document will approach a more professional 'style guide', beyond the convenient collection of pointers and hints presented here. RAP does two kinds of computing, "controls" and "general", addressed in sections 2 and 3 of this document For general computing, efficient system administration requires cooperation in using a common environment There is a much stronger need to define - and adhere to - a commonly agreed set of styles (or rules) in developing controls software. Right now, these rules have been set "de facto". Future improvements to the controls environment, particularly in response to the opinions of users, depends on broad knowledge of what the rules are. There are environmental issues that are basic to both controls and general computing, and that are so fundamental that they are (almost) unarguable. They are described immediately below, in the next section.

  17. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Development of Multiple Big Data Analytics Platforms with Rapid Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crucial problem of the integration of multiple platforms is how to adapt for their own computing features so as to execute the assignments most efficiently and gain the best outcome. This paper introduced the new approaches to big data platform, RHhadoop and SparkR, and integrated them to form a high-performance big data analytics with multiple platforms as part of business intelligence (BI to carry out rapid data retrieval and analytics with R programming. This paper aims to develop the optimization for job scheduling using MSHEFT algorithm and implement the optimized platform selection based on computing features for improving the system throughput significantly. In addition, users would simply give R commands rather than run Java or Scala program to perform the data retrieval and analytics in the proposed platforms. As a result, according to performance index calculated for various methods, although the optimized platform selection can reduce the execution time for the data retrieval and analytics significantly, furthermore scheduling optimization definitely increases the system efficiency a lot.

  19. Drosophila provides rapid modeling of renal development, function, and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of specialized excretory cells is a cornerstone of the metazoan radiation, and the basic tasks performed by Drosophila and human renal systems are similar. The development of the Drosophila renal (Malpighian) tubule is a classic example of branched tubular morphogenesis, allowing study of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions, stem cell-mediated regeneration, and the evolution of a glomerular kidney. Tubule function employs conserved transport proteins, such as the Na+, K+-ATPase and V-ATPase, aquaporins, inward rectifier K+ channels, and organic solute transporters, regulated by cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide, and calcium. In addition to generation and selective reabsorption of primary urine, the tubule plays roles in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics, and in innate immunity. The gene expression resource FlyAtlas.org shows that the tubule is an ideal tissue for the modeling of renal diseases, such as nephrolithiasis and Bartter syndrome, or for inborn errors of metabolism. Studies are assisted by uniquely powerful genetic and transgenic resources, the widespread availability of mutant stocks, and low-cost, rapid deployment of new transgenics to allow manipulation of renal function in an organotypic context. PMID:20926630

  20. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  1. [Rapidly developing vertebral eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laburthe-Tolra, Y; Boutillier, J B; Chome, J

    1983-04-01

    Radiographs taken at an interval of one week showed collapse of the twelfth dorsal vertebra, very suggestive of an eosinophilic granuloma. A biopsy performed during surgery, because of the rapid progression of the lesion, was able to confirm the diagnosis.

  2. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Kaiyala

    Full Text Available Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1 increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2 exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1% and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3% at normal ambient temperature (21 °C. Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%, thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C, while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2 = 0.51, p<0.01. We conclude that acutely decreased energy expenditure decreases food intake suggesting that energy intake is regulated by metabolic signals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  3. Acutely decreased thermoregulatory energy expenditure or decreased activity energy expenditure both acutely reduce food intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiyala, Karl J; Morton, Gregory J; Thaler, Joshua P; Meek, Thomas H; Tylee, Tracy; Ogimoto, Kayoko; Wisse, Brent E

    2012-01-01

    Despite the suggestion that reduced energy expenditure may be a key contributor to the obesity pandemic, few studies have tested whether acutely reduced energy expenditure is associated with a compensatory reduction in food intake. The homeostatic mechanisms that control food intake and energy expenditure remain controversial and are thought to act over days to weeks. We evaluated food intake in mice using two models of acutely decreased energy expenditure: 1) increasing ambient temperature to thermoneutrality in mice acclimated to standard laboratory temperature or 2) exercise cessation in mice accustomed to wheel running. Increasing ambient temperature (from 21 °C to 28 °C) rapidly decreased energy expenditure, demonstrating that thermoregulatory energy expenditure contributes to both light cycle (40 ± 1%) and dark cycle energy expenditure (15 ± 3%) at normal ambient temperature (21 °C). Reducing thermoregulatory energy expenditure acutely decreased food intake primarily during the light cycle (65 ± 7%), thus conflicting with the delayed compensation model, but did not alter spontaneous activity. Acute exercise cessation decreased energy expenditure only during the dark cycle (14 ± 2% at 21 °C; 21 ± 4% at 28 °C), while food intake was reduced during the dark cycle (0.9 ± 0.1 g) in mice housed at 28 °C, but during the light cycle (0.3 ± 0.1 g) in mice housed at 21 °C. Cumulatively, there was a strong correlation between the change in daily energy expenditure and the change in daily food intake (R(2) = 0.51, psignals that respond rapidly and accurately to reduced energy expenditure.

  4. A thermal manikin with human thermoregulatory control: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Ehab; Sirén, Kai

    2012-09-01

    Tens of different sorts of thermal manikins are employed worldwide, mainly in the evaluation of clothing thermal insulation and thermal environments. They are regulated thermally using simplified control modes. This paper reports on the implementation and validation of a new thermoregulatory control mode for thermal manikins. The new control mode is based on a multi-segmental Pierce (MSP) model. In this study, the MSP control mode was implemented, using the LabVIEW platform, onto the control system of the thermal manikin 'Therminator'. The MSP mode was then used to estimate the segmental equivalent temperature (t(eq)) along with constant surface temperature (CST) mode under two asymmetric thermal conditions. Furthermore, subjective tests under the same two conditions were carried out using 17 human subjects. The estimated segmental t(eq) from the experiments with the two modes and from the subjective assessment were compared in order to validate the use of the MSP mode for the estimation of t(eq). The results showed that the t(eq) values estimated by the MSP mode were closer to the subjective mean votes under the two test conditions for most body segments and compared favourably with values estimated by the CST mode.

  5. Thermoregulatory Responses to Graded Exercise Differ among Sasang Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Duc Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared sweat rate and variables such as workload (We, metabolic heat production (Hprod, and temperature increment load (Tinc across Sasang types. 304 apparently healthy participants aged 20–49 years with their Sasang type determined were enrolled. Local sweat rates on the chest (LSRchest and back (LSRback were measured using a perspiration meter during a maximum treadmill exercise test. Oxygen uptake was measured continuously using a breath-by-breath mode indirect calorimeter. The TaeEum (TE type had a larger body size, a higher percent body fat, and a lower body area surface area (BSA to body mass compared with the other Sasang types, particularly the SoEum (SE type. The TE type tended to have a shorter exercise time to exhaustion and lower maximal oxygen uptake (mL·kg−1·min−1 than the other types. LSRchest in TE types was greater than that of the SE and SoYang (SY types in men, whereas LSRback was higher in the TE type than that of the other types in women. After normalizing LSR for We, Hprod, Tinc, and BSA, this tendency still remained. Our findings suggest that the thermoregulatory response to graded exercise may differ across Sasang types such that the TE type was the most susceptible to heat stress.

  6. Thermoregulatory responses to acute heat loads in the FOK rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, N.; Shido, O.; Furuyama, F.; Sakurada, S.; Nishino, H.

    FOK is an inbred rat strain with a genotypic adaptation to hot environments. The present study investigated the mechanism of the high heat tolerance of the FOK rat. Male FOK and WKAH rats were used. They were loosely restrained and placed individually in a direct calorimeter with an ambient temperature of 24°C. Their hypothalamic temperature, evaporative and nonevaporative heat loss and heat production were measured. After thermal equilibrium had been attained, the rats were warmed for 30 min with a chronically implanted intraperitoneal electric heater(internal heating). At least 90 min after the heating, the jacket water temperature surrounding the calorimeter chamber was gradually raised from 24°C to 36°C in 80 min (external warming). During the internal heating, changes in the thermoregulatory parameters did not differ between the groups. During the external warming, the evaporative heat loss of the FOK rat was significantly greater than that of the WKAH rat, while changes in nonevaporative heat loss and heat production did not differ between the groups. The results suggest that in the FOK rat, the improved heat tolerance is attributable to an enhanced evaporative heat loss response, but not to a facilitation of nonevaporative heat loss or of metabolic depression.

  7. Thermoregulatory strategies in an aquatic ectotherm from thermally-constrained habitats: An evaluation of current approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasečná, Karin; Pončová, Alena; Tejedo, Miguel; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-08-01

    Many ectotherms employ diverse behavioral adjustments to effectively buffer the spatio-temporal variation in environmental temperatures, whereas others remain passive to thermal heterogeneity. Thermoregulatory studies are frequently performed on species living in thermally benign habitats, which complicate understanding of the thermoregulation-thermoconformity continuum. The need for new empirical data from ectotherms exposed to thermally challenging conditions requires the evaluation of available methods for quantifying thermoregulatory strategies. We evaluated the applicability of various thermoregulatory indices using fire salamander larvae, Salamandra salamandra, in two aquatic habitats, a forest pool and well, as examples of disparate thermally-constrained environments. Water temperatures in the well were lower and less variable than in the pool. Thermal conditions prevented larvae from reaching their preferred body temperature range in both water bodies. In contrast to their thermoregulatory abilities examined in a laboratory thermal gradient, field body temperatures only matched the mean and range of operative temperatures, showing thermal passivity of larvae in both habitats. Despite apparent thermoconformity, thermoregulatory indices indicated various strategies from active thermoregulation, to thermoconformity, and even thermal evasion, which revealed their limited applicability under thermally-constrained conditions. Salamander larvae abandoned behavioral thermoregulation despite varying opportunities to increase their body temperature above average water temperatures. Thermoconformity represents a favored strategy in these ectotherms living in more thermally-constrained environments than those examined in previous thermoregulatory studies. To understand thermal ecology and its impact on population dynamics, the quantification of thermoregulatory strategies of ectotherms in thermally-constrained habitats requires the careful choice of an appropriate

  8. Impaired Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypoxic Stress in Newborn Phox2b Heterozygous Knock-Out Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanantsoa, Nelina; Matrot, Boris; Vardon, Guy; Lajard, Anne-Marie; Voituron, Nicolas; Dauger, Stéphane; Denjean, André; Hilaire, Gérard; Gallego, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The Phox2b genesis necessary for the development of the autonomic nervous system, and especially, of respiratory neuronal circuits. In the present study, we examined the role of Phox2b in ventilatory and thermoregulatory responses to hypoxic stress, which are closely related in the postnatal period. Hypoxic stress was generated by strong thermal stimulus, combined or not with reduced inspired O2. To this end, we exposed 6-day-old Phox2b+/− pups and their wild-type littermates (Phox2b+/+) to hypoxia (10% O2) or hypercapnia (8% CO2) under thermoneutral (33°C) or cold (26°C) conditions. We found that Phox2b+/− pups showed less normoxic ventilation (VE) in the cold than Phox2b+/+ pups. Phox2b+/− pups also showed lower oxygen consumption (VO2) in the cold, reflecting reduced thermogenesis and a lower body temperature. Furthermore, while the cold depressed ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia in both genotype groups, this effect was less pronounced in Phox2b+/− pups. Finally, because serotonin (5-HT) neurons are pivotal to respiratory and thermoregulatory circuits and depend on Phox2b for their differentiation, we studied 5-HT metabolism using high pressure liquid chromatography, and found that it was altered in Phox2b+/− pups. We conclude that Phox2b haploinsufficiency alters the ability of newborns to cope with metabolic challenges, possibly due to 5-HT signaling impairments. PMID:21977017

  9. Rapid gas development in the Fayetteville shale basin, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in drilling and extraction of natural gas have resulted in rapid expansion of wells in shale basins. The rate of gas well installation in the Fayetteville shale is 774 wells a year since 2005 with thousands more planned. The Fayetteville shale covers 23,000 km2 although ...

  10. Development of a potential lignocellulolytic resource for rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Crops and Floriculture, Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia to characterize the potential lignocellulolytic bacteria for rapid bio-bioconversion of rice straw. Fifty isolates of bacteria were isolated from several in-situ and in-vitro sources. Isolates B3, B13 ...

  11. Developing Collective Learning Extension for Rapidly Evolving Information System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…

  12. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology ...

  13. The prototype of a thermoregulatory system for measurement and control of temperature inside prosthetic socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoseiri, Kamiar; Zheng, Yong Ping; Hing, Louis Lee Tat; Safari, Mohammad Reza; Leung, Aaron Kl

    2016-12-01

    Thermal related problems with prostheses are common complaints of amputee people. This article aims to introduce a thermoregulatory technique as a potential solution for those problems in prostheses wearers. A smart thermoregulatory system was designed, manufactured, and installed on a phantom model of a prosthetic socket. It captured temperature data from 16 sensors positioned at the interface between the phantom model and a silicone liner and used their average for comparison with a defined set temperature to select required heating or cooling functions for thermal equilibrium. A thin layer of Aluminum was used to transfer temperature between thermal pump and different sites around the phantom model. The feasibility of this thermoregulatory technique was confirmed by its ability to provide thermal equilibrium. Further investigations to improve the design of thermoregulatory system are necessary including temperature transfer element and power consumption based on thermal capacity and thermal inertia of the residual limb. The smart thermoregulatory system by providing thermal equilibrium between two sides of a prosthetic silicone liner can control residual limb skin temperature and sweating. Consequently, it can improve quality of life in amputee people. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  14. Effects of lake warming on behavioural thermoregulatory tactics in a cold-water stenothermic fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerine Goyer

    Full Text Available Despite some evidence of within-population phenotypic variation in fish thermal behaviour, the occurrence of alternative tactics of this behaviour is rarely explicitly considered when studying natural populations. Brook charr provide an example of within-population variability in behavioural thermoregulation as revealed by a recent study on a lacustrine population of this species. The objectives of the present study were (i to determine the influence of natural variability in the lake's thermal profiles on the expression of thermoregulatory tactics, and (ii to determine the vertical and horizontal movements of individuals at different periods of the day to better understand the spatio-temporal behaviour associated with each thermoregulatory tactic. During summer 2010, 30 adult brook charr were equipped with thermo-sensitive radio transmitters to monitor their selected temperatures and daily movements. These individuals exhibited the same four behavioural thermoregulatory tactics observed in 2003 and 2005, but the expression of two of these was weaker in 2010. This result was associated with lake warming, which constrained the expression of two thermoregulatory tactics: brook charr significantly decreased their selected temperatures and daily movements when the mean daily epilimnion temperature was above 22.4°C. This study shows for the first time that the expression of behavioural thermoregulatory tactics is related to the lake's thermal regime and that the tactics are plastic through time.

  15. Developing a Rapid Algorithm to Enable Rapid Characterization of Alginate Microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ka Hei; Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.

    2017-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β-cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a life-long condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a su...

  16. Thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in the embryos of reptiles and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Teng; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Yong-Kang; Hu, Rui; Du, Wei-Guo

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that thermoregulatory behavior occurs not only in posthatching turtles but also in turtles prior to hatching. Does thermoregulatory behavior also occur in the embryos of other reptile and bird species? Our experiments show that such behavior is widespread but not universal in reptile and bird embryos. We recorded repositioning within the egg, in response to thermal gradients, in the embryos of three species of snakes (Xenochrophis piscator, Elaphe bimaculata, and Zaocys dhumnades), two turtles (Chelydra serpentina and Ocadia sinensis), one crocodile (Alligator sinensis), and four birds (Coturnix coturnix, Gallus gallus domesticus, Columba livia domestica, and Anas platyrhynchos domestica). However, we detected no significant thermoregulation by the embryos of two lizard species (Takydromus septentrionalis and Phrynocephalus frontalis). Overall, embryonic thermoregulatory behavior is widespread in reptile as well as bird species but may be unimportant in the small eggs laid by most lizards.

  17. Old age potentiates cold-induced tau phosphorylation: linking thermoregulatory deficit with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournissac, Marine; Vandal, Milène; François, Arnaud; Planel, Emmanuel; Calon, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Thermoregulatory deficits coincide with a rise in the incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in old age. Lower body temperature increases tau phosphorylation, a neuropathological hallmark of AD. To determine whether old age potentiates cold-induced tau phosphorylation, we compared the effects of cold exposure (4 °C, 24 hours) in 6- and 18-month-old mice. Cold-induced changes in body temperature, brown adipose tissue activity, and phosphorylation of tau at Ser202 were not different between 6- and 18-month-old mice. However, following cold exposure, only old mice displayed a significant rise in soluble tau pThr181 and pThr231, which was correlated with body temperature. Inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β was more prominent in young mice, suggesting a protective mechanism against cold-induced tau phosphorylation. These results suggest that old age confers higher susceptibility to tau hyperphosphorylation following a change in body temperature, thereby contributing to an enhanced risk of developing AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Developing a Rapid Algorithm to Enable Rapid Characterization of Alginate Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Hei; Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Lakey, Jonathan R T

    2017-05-09

    The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β-cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a life-long condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a surgical procedure that has demonstrated the ability to normalize blood sugar levels for up to a few years, but the need for chronic immunosuppression relegates it to a last resort that is often only used sparingly and in seriously ill patients. Islet microencapsulation is a biomedical innovation designed to protect islets from the immune system by coating them with a biocompatible polymer, and this new technology has demonstrated various degrees of success in small- and large-animal studies. This success is significantly impacted by microcapsule morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Since hundreds of thousands of microcapsules are generated during the process, characterization of encapsulated islets without the help of some degree of automation would be difficult, time-consuming, and error prone due to inherent observer bias. We have developed an image analysis algorithm that can analyze hundreds of microencapsulated islets and characterize their size, shape, circularity, and distortion with minimal observer bias. This algorithm can be easily adapted to similar nano- or microencapsulation technologies to implement stricter quality control and improve biomaterial device design and success.

  19. Developing a Rapid Algorithm to Enable Rapid Characterization of Alginate Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Hei; Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.

    2017-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β-cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a life-long condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a surgical procedure that has demonstrated the ability to normalize blood sugar levels for up to a few years, but the need for chronic immunosuppression relegates it to a last resort that is often only used sparingly and in seriously ill patients. Islet microencapsulation is a biomedical innovation designed to protect islets from the immune system by coating them with a biocompatible polymer, and this new technology has demonstrated various degrees of success in small- and large-animal studies. This success is significantly impacted by microcapsule morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Since hundreds of thousands of microcapsules are generated during the process, characterization of encapsulated islets without the help of some degree of automation would be difficult, time-consuming, and error prone due to inherent observer bias. We have developed an image analysis algorithm that can analyze hundreds of microencapsulated islets and characterize their size, shape, circularity, and distortion with minimal observer bias. This algorithm can be easily adapted to similar nano- or microencapsulation technologies to implement stricter quality control and improve biomaterial device design and success. PMID:27729095

  20. Talisman--rapid application development for the grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinn, Thomas M

    2003-01-01

    In order to make use of the emerging grid and network services offered by various institutes and mandated by many current research projects, some kind of user accessible client is required. In contrast with attempts to build generic workbenches, Talisman is designed to allow a bioinformatics expert to rapidly build custom applications, immediately visible using standard web technology, for users who wish to concentrate on the biology of their problem rather than the informatics aspects. As a component of the MyGrid project, it is intended to allow access to arbitrary resources, including but not limited to relational, object and flat file data sources, analysis programs and grid based storage, tracking and distributed annotation systems.

  1. The Development of Rapidly Solidified Magnesium – Copper Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszak M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to plan and carry out an experiment consisting of amorphization of industrial magnesium alloy WE 43 (Mg - 4 Y - 3 RE - 0.5 Zr modified by the copper addition. Investigated alloy modified with 20% of copper was rapidly quenched with the use of melt spinning technique. The effects of cooling rate on the structure and properties of the obtained material were extensively analyzed. The structure and phase analysis of samples were examined using X-ray diffraction method (XRD while the thermal stability of the samples was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Microstructure observations were also conducted. The microhardness tests (HV0.02 and corrosion resistance tests were carried out to investigate the properties of the material. Corrosion resistance measurements were held using a typical three-electrode system. As the result of the research, the effect of cooling rate on microstructure and properties of investigated alloy was determined.

  2. Effects of Cooling During Exercise on Thermoregulatory Responses of Men With Paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Coen C W G; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van Nes, Ilse J W; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2016-05-01

    People with spinal cord injury (SCI) have an altered afferent input to the thermoregulatory center, resulting in a reduced efferent response (vasomotor control and sweating capacity) below the level of the lesion. Consequently, core body temperature rises more rapidly during exercise in individuals with SCI compared with people who are able-bodied. Cooling strategies may reduce the thermophysiological strain in SCI. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a cooling vest on the core body temperature response of people with a thoracic SCI during submaximal exercise. Ten men (mean age=44 years, SD=11) with a thoracic lesion (T4-T5 or below) participated in this randomized crossover study. Participants performed two 45-minute exercise bouts at 50% maximal workload (ambient temperature 25°C), with participants randomized to a group wearing a cooling vest or a group wearing no vest (separate days). Core body temperature and skin temperature were continuously measured, and thermal sensation was assessed every 3 minutes. Exercise resulted in an increased core body temperature, skin temperature, and thermal sensation, whereas cooling did not affect core body temperature. The cooling vest effectively decreased skin temperature, increased the core-to-trunk skin temperature gradient, and tended to lower thermal sensation compared with the control condition. The lack of differences in core body temperature among conditions may be a result of the relative moderate ambient temperature in which the exercise was performed. Despite effectively lowering skin temperature and increasing the core-to-trunk skin temperature gradient, there was no impact of the cooling vest on the exercise-induced increase in core body temperature in men with low thoracic SCI. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  3. Building Blocks for the Rapid Development of Parallel Simulations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scientists need to be able to quickly develop and run parallel simulations without paying the high price of writing low-level message passing codes using compiled...

  4. Kivy framework for rapid development of mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Brajar, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    There are more and more tools and libraries, offering multi-platform application development, on the market. This is due increased number of mobile operating systems in the last couple of years. The goal of this thesis is to get familiar with Kivy architecture, which provides support for desktop and mobile application development. We compared the mentioned tool with competing tools called PhoneGap and Titanium. Kivy is a library for Python programming language. All of the functions of the ...

  5. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-20

    Apr 20, 2013 ... Infectious diseases are major cause of mortality in developing countries. The statistical data ... Gram-negative oxidase-positive non- fermenting bacilli are known for their ability to cause infection ..... Badreddine S 2009 Misdiagnosis of an imported case of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. J. Infect.

  6. Rapid development of paper-based fluidic diagnostic devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available DEVELOPMENT OF PAPER-BASED FLUIDIC DIAGNOSTIC DEVICES S. Smith1*, H. Chen2, K. Moodley3, T. Joubert4 & K. Land5 1-5Department of Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa 1ssmith@csir.co.za,2jchen...

  7. Developing and evaluating rapid field methods to estimate peat carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Chimner; Cassandra A. Ott; Charles H. Perry; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    Many international protocols (e.g., REDD+) are developing inventories of ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes at country and regional scales, which can include peatlands. As the only nationally implemented field inventory and remeasurement of forest soils in the US, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) samples the top 20 cm of organic soils...

  8. Economic thermoregulatory response explains mismatch between thermal physiology and behaviour in newts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gvoždík, Lumír; Kristín, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 220 (2017), s. 1106-1111 ISSN 0022-0949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07140S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Aerobic scope * Amphibians * Preferred temperature * Specific dynamic action * Thermal niche * Thermoregulatory behaviour Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.320, year: 2016

  9. Thermoregulatory responses in exercising rats: methodological aspects and relevance to human physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Pires, Washington; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Hudson, Alexandre Sérvulo Ribeiro; Kunstetter, Ana Cançado; Fonseca, Cletiana Gonçalves; Drummond, Lucas Rios; Damasceno, William Coutinho; Teixeira-Coelho, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Rats are used worldwide in experiments that aim to investigate the physiological responses induced by a physical exercise session. Changes in body temperature regulation, which may affect both the performance and the health of exercising rats, are evident among these physiological responses. Despite the universal use of rats in biomedical research involving exercise, investigators often overlook important methodological issues that hamper the accurate measurement of clear thermoregulatory responses. Moreover, much debate exists regarding whether the outcome of rat experiments can be extrapolated to human physiology, including thermal physiology. Herein, we described the impact of different exercise intensities, durations and protocols and environmental conditions on running-induced thermoregulatory changes. We focused on treadmill running because this type of exercise allows for precise control of the exercise intensity and the measurement of autonomic thermoeffectors associated with heat production and loss. Some methodological issues regarding rat experiments, such as the sites for body temperature measurements and the time of day at which experiments are performed, were also discussed. In addition, we analyzed the influence of a high body surface area-to-mass ratio and limited evaporative cooling on the exercise-induced thermoregulatory responses of running rats and then compared these responses in rats to those observed in humans. Collectively, the data presented in this review represent a reference source for investigators interested in studying exercise thermoregulation in rats. In addition, the present data indicate that the thermoregulatory responses of exercising rats can be extrapolated, with some important limitations, to human thermal physiology.

  10. Enhancing water security in a rapidly developing shale gas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Holding

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Initiatives and tools enhancing water security in the region include strategic partnerships and stakeholder collaborations, policy and regulation development, and data collection and distribution efforts. The contributions and limitations of each of these are discussed. A vulnerability mapping framework is presented which addresses data gaps and provides a tool for decision-making surrounding risk to water quality from various hazards. An example vulnerability assessment was conducted for wastewater transport along pipeline and trucking corridors.

  11. Multilingual Phoneme Models for Rapid Speech Processing System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Frequency Cepstral Coefficients . . . . . . . 11 2.4.3 Pronunciation Lexicon or Dictionary . . . . . . 12 2.4.4 Language Model...also a requirement for a pronunciation dictionary, and time is required for algorithm development and for building the speech recognition system. To...down into nasals, plosives, fricatives, approx- imants, trills, and flaps. Vowels are broken down by where the tongue is positioned within the mouth

  12. Rapid and Reusable Text Visualization and Exploration Development with DELVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel R; Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Jaromczyk, Jerzy W; Johnson, Todd R

    2017-01-01

    We present DELVE (Document ExpLoration and Visualization Engine), a framework for developing interactive visualizations as modular Web-applications to assist researchers with exploratory literature search. The goal for web-applications driven by DELVE is to better satisfy the information needs of researchers and to help explore and understand the state of research in scientific liter ature by providing immersive visualizations that both contain facets and are driven by facets derived from the literature. We base our framework on principles from user-centered design and human-computer interaction (HCI). Preliminary evaluations demon strate the usefulness of DELVE's techniques: (1) a clinical researcher immediately saw that her original query was inappropriate simply due to the frequencies displayed via generalized clouds and (2) a muscle biologist quickly learned of vocabulary differences found between two disciplines that were referencing the same idea, which we feel is critical for interdisciplinary work. We dis cuss the underlying category-theoretic model of our framework and show that it naturally encourages the development of reusable visualizations by emphasizing interoperability.

  13. Infrastructure for Rapid Development of Java GUI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy; Hostetter, Carl F.; Wheeler, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The Java Application Shell (JAS) is a software framework that accelerates the development of Java graphical-user-interface (GUI) application programs by enabling the reuse of common, proven GUI elements, as distinguished from writing custom code for GUI elements. JAS is a software infrastructure upon which Java interactive application programs and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for those programs can be built as sets of plug-ins. JAS provides an application- programming interface that is extensible by application-specific plugins that describe and encapsulate both specifications of a GUI and application-specific functionality tied to the specified GUI elements. The desired GUI elements are specified in Extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions instead of in compiled code. JAS reads and interprets these descriptions, then creates and configures a corresponding GUI from a standard set of generic, reusable GUI elements. These elements are then attached (again, according to the XML descriptions) to application-specific compiled code and scripts. An application program constructed by use of JAS as its core can be extended by writing new plug-ins and replacing existing plug-ins. Thus, JAS solves many problems that Java programmers generally solve anew for each project, thereby reducing development and testing time.

  14. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamara, David A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90ml/min/1.73m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data Collec...

  15. Evidence of different thermoregulatory mechanisms between two sympatric Scarabaeus species using infrared thermography and micro-computer tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available In endotherms insects, the thermoregulatory mechanisms modulate heat transfer from the thorax to the abdomen to avoid overheating or cooling in order to obtain a prolonged flight performance. Scarabaeus sacer and S. cicatricosus, two sympatric species with the same habitat and food preferences, showed daily temporal segregation with S. cicatricosus being more active during warmer hours of the day in opposition to S. sacer who avoid it. In the case of S. sacer, their endothermy pattern suggested an adaptive capacity for thorax heat retention. In S. cicatricosus, an active 'heat exchanger' mechanism was suggested. However, no empirical evidence had been documented until now. Thermographic sequences recorded during flight performance showed evidence of the existence of both thermoregulatory mechanisms. In S. sacer, infrared sequences showed a possible heat insulator (passive thermal window, which prevents heat transfer from meso- and metathorax to the abdomen during flight. In S. cicatricosus, infrared sequences revealed clear and effective heat flow between the thorax and abdomen (abdominal heat transfer that should be considered the main mechanism of thermoregulation. This was related to a subsequent increase in abdominal pumping (as a cooling mechanism during flight. Computer microtomography scanning, anatomical dissections and internal air volume measurements showed two possible heat retention mechanisms for S. sacer; the abdominal air sacs and the development of the internal abdominal sternites that could explain the thermoregulation between thorax and abdomen. Our results suggest that interspecific interactions between sympatric species are regulated by very different mechanisms. These mechanisms create unique thermal niches for the different species, thereby preventing competition and modulating spatio-temporal distribution and the composition of dung beetle assemblages.

  16. Parallel grid library for rapid and flexible simulation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, I.; von Alfthan, S.; Sandroos, A.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.

    2013-04-01

    We present an easy to use and flexible grid library for developing highly scalable parallel simulations. The distributed cartesian cell-refinable grid (dccrg) supports adaptive mesh refinement and allows an arbitrary C++ class to be used as cell data. The amount of data in grid cells can vary both in space and time allowing dccrg to be used in very different types of simulations, for example in fluid and particle codes. Dccrg transfers the data between neighboring cells on different processes transparently and asynchronously allowing one to overlap computation and communication. This enables excellent scalability at least up to 32 k cores in magnetohydrodynamic tests depending on the problem and hardware. In the version of dccrg presented here part of the mesh metadata is replicated between MPI processes reducing the scalability of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to between 200 and 600 processes. Dccrg is free software that anyone can use, study and modify and is available at https://gitorious.org/dccrg. Users are also kindly requested to cite this work when publishing results obtained with dccrg. Catalogue identifier: AEOM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 54975 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 974015 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: PC, cluster, supercomputer. Operating system: POSIX. The code has been parallelized using MPI and tested with 1-32768 processes RAM: 10 MB-10 GB per process Classification: 4.12, 4.14, 6.5, 19.3, 19.10, 20. External routines: MPI-2 [1], boost [2], Zoltan [3], sfc++ [4] Nature of problem: Grid library supporting arbitrary data in grid cells, parallel adaptive mesh refinement, transparent remote neighbor data updates and

  17. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  18. Rapidly developing renal milk of calcium in a patient with myelomonocytic leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Morjaria, Anika; Balasubramaniam, Gowrie; Perera, Saman; Almond, Mike K

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly developing renal milk of calcium, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT), X-ray and ultrasound, should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in patients with apparent ureteric obstruction to prevent unnecessary interventions.

  19. Self-organised criticality in the evolution of a thermodynamic model of rodent thermoregulatory huddling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stuart P

    2017-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups) with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat). The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction between self

  20. Self-organised criticality in the evolution of a thermodynamic model of rodent thermoregulatory huddling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart P Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat. The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction

  1. Self-organised criticality in the evolution of a thermodynamic model of rodent thermoregulatory huddling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of thermoregulatory huddling interactions between endotherms is developed. The model is presented as a Monte Carlo algorithm in which animals are iteratively exchanged between groups, with a probability of exchanging groups defined in terms of the temperature of the environment and the body temperatures of the animals. The temperature-dependent exchange of animals between groups is shown to reproduce a second-order critical phase transition, i.e., a smooth switch to huddling when the environment gets colder, as measured in recent experiments. A peak in the rate at which group sizes change, referred to as pup flow, is predicted at the critical temperature of the phase transition, consistent with a thermodynamic description of huddling, and with a description of the huddle as a self-organising system. The model was subjected to a simple evolutionary procedure, by iteratively substituting the physiologies of individuals that fail to balance the costs of thermoregulation (by huddling in groups) with the costs of thermogenesis (by contributing heat). The resulting tension between cooperative and competitive interactions was found to generate a phenomenon called self-organised criticality, as evidenced by the emergence of avalanches in fitness that propagate across many generations. The emergence of avalanches reveals how huddling can introduce correlations in fitness between individuals and thereby constrain evolutionary dynamics. Finally, a full agent-based model of huddling interactions is also shown to generate criticality when subjected to the same evolutionary pressures. The agent-based model is related to the Monte Carlo model in the way that a Vicsek model is related to an Ising model in statistical physics. Huddling therefore presents an opportunity to use thermodynamic theory to study an emergent adaptive animal behaviour. In more general terms, huddling is proposed as an ideal system for investigating the interaction between self

  2. More than Fever: Thermoregulatory Responses to Immunological Stimulation and Consequences of Thermoregulatory Strategy on Innate Immunity in Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessling, Jeffrey M; Guyer, Craig; Mendonça, Mary T

    Organisms possess a range of thermoregulatory strategies that may vary in response to sickness, thereby driving important life-history consequences. Because the immune system is vital to maintaining organism function, understanding the suite of immune responses to infection indicates basic costs and benefits of physiological strategies. Here, we assessed consequences of thermoregulation and seasonality on immune function in both immunologically stimulated and nonstimulated gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). An ectothermic vertebrate was used as an experimental model because the effects of thermoregulation on immunity remain understudied and are of increasing importance in light of anthropogenic alterations to thermal environments. We found that G. polyphemus increased body temperature (Tb) at 1 h after injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) when compared with saline controls (P = 0.04), consistent with behavioral fever. LPS increased plasma bactericidal ability (BA; P = 0.006), reduced plasma iron concentration (P = 0.041), and increased heterophil∶lymphocyte ratios (P animals, thermoregulatory strategy had a strong effect on innate immunity, which demonstrated that individuals have the ability to facultatively adjust immune function when infection burden is low; this relationship was not present in LPS-injected animals, which suggested that animals stimulated with LPS maximize bactericidal ability independently of temperature. Seasonal acclimation state did not influence responses to LPS, although baseline plasma iron was significantly lower in animals acclimated to winter. These results support that a trade-off exists between immunity and other conflicting physiological interests. Moreover, these results clearly demonstrate the ability of individuals to modulate immune function as a direct result of thermoregulatory decisions.

  3. Development and functional significance of dorsal air bags in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It appears that airbags may provide an effective intermediate insulatory mechanism for the nestlings while they are developing their thermoregulatory ability. Therefore, it is suggested that the dorsal air bags evolved primarily for thermoregulatory benefits to nestlings, although further research is required. Ostrich 2009, 80(1): ...

  4. Visual information without thermal energy may induce thermoregulatory-like cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2013-12-28

    Human core body temperature is kept quasi-constant regardless of varying thermal environments. It is well known that physiological thermoregulatory systems are under the control of central and peripheral sensory organs that are sensitive to thermal energy. If these systems wrongly respond to non-thermal stimuli, it may disturb human homeostasis. Fifteen participants viewed video images evoking hot or cold impressions in a thermally constant environment. Cardiovascular indices were recorded during the experiments. Correlations between the 'hot-cold' impression scores and cardiovascular indices were calculated. The changes of heart rate, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were significantly correlated with the 'hot-cold' impression scores, and the tendencies were similar to those in actual thermal environments corresponding to the impressions. The present results suggest that visual information without any thermal energy can affect physiological thermoregulatory systems at least superficially. To avoid such 'virtual' environments disturbing human homeostasis, further study and more attention are needed.

  5. Rapid Hip Osteoarthritis Development in a Patient with Anterior Acetabular Cyst with Sagittal Alignment Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Homma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is rare and develops unusual clinical course. Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms of the development of RDC. However the exact mechanism of RDC is still not clear. The difficulty of the study on RDC is attributed to its rareness and the fact that the data before the onset of RDC is normally unavailable. In this report, we presented the patient having the radiographic data before the onset who had rapid osteoarthritis (OA development after contralateral THA, which meets the current criteria of RDC. We thought that the increased posterior tilt of the pelvis after THA reinforced the stress concentration at pre-existed anterior acetabular cyst, thereby the destruction of the cyst was occurred. As a result the rapid OA was developed. We think that there is the case of rapid osteoarthritis developing due to alternating load concentration by posterior pelvic tilt on preexisting anterior acetabular cyst such as our patient among the cases diagnosed as RDC without any identifiable etiology. The recognition of sagittal alignment changes and anterior acetabular cyst may play important role in prediction and prevention of the rapid hip osteoarthritis development similar to RDC.

  6. Modifications of operant thermoregulatory behavior of the young pig by environmental temperature and food availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiergiel, A H

    1997-12-31

    Piglets (Sus scrofa domesticus) were weaned at 14 days and acclimated to 10 ("cold animals") or 35 degrees C ("warm animals"). Cold animals were either fed ad lib. (10HH) or maintained on a high (10H) or low (10L) nutrition plane. Warm animals were maintained on a high (35H), low (35L), or a very low (35LL) nutrition plane. After 3 weeks of acclimation, operant thermoregulatory behavior (animals pressed a lever to turn on a heater) at 15 degrees C was assessed immediately following or 22 h after a meal. It was found that cold piglets or those on low nutrition planes produced more heat reinforcements than warm piglets and those on high nutrition planes. All animals tested 22 h after a meal produced more reinforcements than when tested immediately after a meal. Rectal temperature before the sessions of operant heating was lower in cold animals and those on low nutrition planes than in warm animals and those on high nutrition planes, but the difference dissipated after 90 min of access to heat. Piglets were then "deacclimated" for 24 h at 25 degrees C and their behavior observed once again. Deacclimation eliminated the effect of acclimation temperature on body temperature and behavior but it did not eliminate the effect due to nutrition. There was no interaction between temperature of acclimation and nutrition. The experiments demonstrate that the body temperature of the pig is independently affected by environmental temperature, the quantity of food eaten by the animal, and a possibility to use behavior. The behavioral drive is to reach body temperature which can be defined as a thermal set-point (temperature at which there is no need for a thermoregulatory response to occur) for behavioral thermoregulatory responses. Adaptation to different environmental conditions does not affect this behavioral set-point, but it can involve a temporary shift in the set points for specific autonomic thermoregulatory responses.

  7. Is whole-body thermoregulatory function impaired in type 1 diabetes mellitus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E; Stapleton, Jill M; Carter, Michael R; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-03-01

    During periods of extreme heat individuals with diabetes have greater rates of heat-related morbidity and mortality compared to their non-diabetic counterparts. The reason for this discrepancy is currently unknown. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about whether or not individuals with type 1 diabetes are at a thermoregulatory disadvantage during strenuous physical activity especially when performed in the heat. This review discusses the current literature pertaining to thermoregulatory responses in individuals with type 1 diabetes. We included 14 reviews and 95 original research articles identified by searches of PubMed and Google Scholar and deemed relevant to our subject by three independent readers. Individuals with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes may have impaired heat sensation, and a reduced capacity to dissipate heat due to lower skin blood flow and sweating responses and a greater tendency towards dehydration compared to individuals without diabetes. Impairments may be attenuated or absent in those with good blood glucose control. We found no published studies examining thermoregulatory responses to physical activity in the heat in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes may cause impairments in heat loss resulting in a greater level of thermal strain. Advancement in our understanding about the effects of type 1 diabetes on the heat stress response, especially during different challenges to human heat balance associated with changes in both environmental heat load and metabolic heat production (physical activity), will help us to determine where the risk of heat-illness/injury actually exists.

  8. Can newts cope with the heat? Disparate thermoregulatory strategies of two sympatric species in water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Balogová

    Full Text Available Many ectotherms effectively reduce their exposure to low or high environmental temperatures using behavioral thermoregulation. In terrestrial ectotherms, thermoregulatory strategies range from accurate thermoregulation to thermoconformity according to the costs and limits of thermoregulation, while in aquatic taxa the quantification of behavioral thermoregulation have received limited attention. We examined thermoregulation in two sympatric newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris, exposed to elevated water temperatures under semi-natural conditions. According to a recent theory, we predicted that species for which elevated water temperatures pose a lower thermal quality habitat, would thermoregulate more effectively than species in thermally benign conditions. In the laboratory thermal gradient, L. vulgaris maintained higher body temperatures than I. alpestris. Semi-natural thermal conditions provided better thermal quality of habitat for L. vulgaris than for I. alpestris. Thermoregulatory indices indicated that I. alpestris actively thermoregulated its body temperature, whereas L. vulgaris remained passive to the thermal heterogeneity of aquatic environment. In the face of elevated water temperatures, sympatric newt species employed disparate thermoregulatory strategies according to the species-specific quality of the thermal habitat. Both strategies reduced newt exposure to suboptimal water temperatures with the same accuracy but with or without the costs of thermoregulation. The quantification of behavioral thermoregulation proves to be an important conceptual and methodological tool for thermal ecology studies not only in terrestrial but also in aquatic ectotherms.

  9. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  10. Considerations for Task Analysis Methods and Rapid E-Learning Development Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ismail Ipek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide basic dimensions for rapid training development in e-learning courses in education and business. Principally, it starts with defining task analysis and how to select tasks for analysis and task analysis methods for instructional design. To do this, first, learning and instructional technologies as visions of the future were discussed. Second, the importance of task analysis methods in rapid e-learning was considered, with learning technologies as asynchronous and synchronous e-learning development. Finally, rapid instructional design concepts and e-learning design strategies were defined and clarified with examples, that is, all steps for effective task analysis and rapid training development techniques based on learning and instructional design approaches were discussed, such as m-learning and other delivery systems. As a result, the concept of task analysis, rapid e-learning development strategies and the essentials of online course design were discussed, alongside learner interface design features for learners and designers.

  11. [Development of a rapid test kit for antibody to HIV by nano immunomagnetic lateral flow method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-qing; Lee, Tony; Wang, Chao-nan; Sun, Shu-ye; Li, Shan-shan; Tian, Hui

    2010-06-01

    To develop a rapid test kit for antibody to HIV by nano immunomagnetic lateral flow method. A rapid test kit was developed by conjugation of the HIV antigen gp41 and gp36 to 200nm super paramagnetic particles by carbodiimide (EDC) and coating of the HIV antigen gp41 and gp36 to nitrocellulose membrane. Then the kit was evaluated with serials of experiments. The kit was qualified with examination of national reference panel of anti-HIV antibody for colloidal gold diagnostic kit. The sensitivity was 100% by tested with 20 HIV antibody positive sera, the specificity was 98.5% by tested with 600 HIV antibody negative sera, respectively. The stability of the kit was over 12 month by storage at room temperature. A diagnostic kit for antibody to HIV was developed with the advantages of convenience, rapid test, good stability and point of care.

  12. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer Faruk Sözcü; İsmail İpek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training and developing e-learning projects as well as multimedia design tools. For this reason, this paper will clarify the basic e-learning development tech...

  13. A case of radiation myelopathy with characteristic findings of thermoregulatory sweat distribution and magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Katsumasa; Sannomiya, Kunihiro; Nagao, Shinichiro; Nakazato, Okifumi; Tsuda, Tomiyasu (Oita Medical University, Hazama (Japan))

    1993-09-01

    A 73-year-old man had undergone resection of a lung carcinoma of the right upper lobe in 1987. Post-operative irradiation (40 Gy) was given to the right hilus. In November 1988, recurrence was detected in the trachea. Laser therapy was done in December 1988. From January 9 to February 13 in 1989, irradiation (50 Gy) was given to the mediastinum. From the beginning of 1991, the patient developed muscle weakness in the right lower extremity and pain temperature sensations were impaired below the Th12 level on the left side. On October 3, 1991, he was admitted to our hospital. Neurological examination revealed mild muscle weakness in the right lower extremity. Superficial sensations were impaired below the Th6 level bilaterally. Deep tendon reflexes were hyperactive in the lower extremities. A bilateral Babinski sign was positive. The T1 weighted MRI showed a low signal intensity in the spinal cord at the level of thoracic vertebra (TV)2-TV6. T2 weighted images revealed a high signal intensity area of the spinal cord from TV4-TV6. A gadolinium-DTPA injection revealed an enhancement on the left side of the spinal cord at the TV2-3 level, and right side of the spinal cord at the TV4-5 level on the sagittal and axial images. A thermal sweating test revealed hypohidrosis below the Th8 level on the right side, and the Th11 level on the left side. Sweating was delayed at the Th7-8 levels on the right side and Th10-11 levels on the left side. An irradiated field on the chest revealed hypohidrosis. There were differences between spinal lesions in MRI and thermoregulatory sweat distribution. Sweat distribution of this case could not be explained by damage of intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord. We speculated that the sympathetic sudomotor pathways were partially disturbed at the upper thoracic cord. But the exact mechanism could not been elucidated. (author).

  14. Rapid Development of Hybrid Courses for Distance Education: A Midwestern University's Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive case study was used to explore how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality distance education courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member…

  15. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training…

  16. Experiments in rapid development of accurate phonetic alignments for TTS in Afrikaans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of corpus-based text-to-speech (TTS) systems depends on the accuracy of phonetic annotation (alignments) which directly influences the process of acoustic modelling. In this paper the author discusses the rapid development of accurate...

  17. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  18. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women.......05) for both training groups. Maximal muscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant...

  19. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2016-08-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  20. Female anthropometric variability and their effects on predicted thermoregulatory responses to work in the heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Miyo; Berglund, Larry G.; Bathalon, Gaston P.

    2012-03-01

    The use of thermoregulatory models for assessing physiological responses of workers in thermally stressful situations has been increasing because of the risks and costs related to human studies. In a previous study (Yokota et al. Eur J Appl Physiol 104:297-302, 2008), the effects of anthropometric variability on predicted physiological responses to heat stress in U.S. Army male soldiers were evaluated. Five somatotypes were identified in U.S. Army male multivariate anthropometric distribution. The simulated heat responses, using a thermoregulatory model, were different between somatotypes. The present study further extends this line of research to female soldiers. Anthropometric somatotypes were identified using multivariate analysis [height, weight, percent body fat (%BF)] and the predicted physiological responses to simulated exercise and heat stress using a thermoregulatory model were evaluated. The simulated conditions included walking at ~3 mph (4.8 km/h) for 300 min and wearing battle dress uniform and body armor in a 30°C, 25% relative humidity (RH) environment without solar radiation. Five major somatotypes (tall-fat, tall-lean, average, short-lean, and short-fat), identified through multivariate analysis of anthropometric distributions, showed different tolerance levels to simulated heat stress: lean women were predicted to maintain their core temperatures (Tc) lower than short-fat or tall-fat women. The measured Tc of female subjects obtained from two heat studies (data1: 30°C, 32% RH, protective garments, ~225 w·m-2 walk for 90 min; data2: 32°C, 75% RH, hot weather battle dress uniform, ~378 ± 32 w·m-2 for 30 min walk/30 min rest cycles for 120 min) were utilized for validation. Validation results agreed with the findings in this study: fat subjects tended to have higher core temperatures than medium individuals (data2) and lean subjects maintained lower core temperatures than medium subjects (data1).

  1. READERS: Rapid English Assimilation Developing English Reading and Speaking; Social and Academic Implications of English Proficiency amongst Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Russell

    2017-01-01

    The READERS (Rapid English Assimilation Developing English Reading and Speaking) program is designed to facilitate teachers and students in rapid English assimilation, focusing on grammar and verbal recall as pertaining to the English language. The purpose of this qualitative method case study was to investigate the effects of rapid English…

  2. IL-6 trans-Signaling-Dependent Rapid Development of Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Böttcher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune control of infections with viruses or intracellular bacteria relies on cytotoxic CD8+ T cells that use granzyme B (GzmB for elimination of infected cells. During inflammation, mature antigen-presenting dendritic cells instruct naive T cells within lymphoid organs to develop into effector T cells. Here, we report a mechanistically distinct and more rapid process of effector T cell development occurring within 18 hr. Such rapid acquisition of effector T cell function occurred through cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs in the absence of innate immune stimulation and known costimulatory signaling. Rather, interleukin-6 (IL-6 trans-signaling was required and sufficient for rapid induction of GzmB expression in CD8+ T cells. Such LSEC-stimulated GzmB-expressing CD8+ T cells further responded to inflammatory cytokines, eliciting increased and protracted effector functions. Our findings identify a role for IL-6 trans-signaling in rapid generation of effector function in CD8+ T cells that may be beneficial for vaccination strategies.

  3. Rapid tolerance development to the NREM sleep promoting effect of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep; Thakkar, Mahesh M

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol tolerance is a major contributor towards the development of alcohol dependence. Does alcohol intake result in rapid tolerance development to alcohol induced NREM sleep promotion? This has never been examined. Our objective was to examine whether two bouts of alcohol consumption on consecutive days results in rapid tolerance development to alcohol-induced NREM sleep promotion. N/A. N/A. C57BL/6J mice. Mice (N = 5) were implanted with sleep electrodes using standard surgical conditions. Following postoperative recovery and habituation, the experiment was begun. On baseline day, water bottle changes were performed at 10:00 (3 h after dark onset) and 14:00 to mimic conditions during alcohol consumption days. On next 2 days, (Days 1 and 2) mice were allowed to self-administer alcohol (20% v/v) for 4 h beginning at 10:00 and ending at 14:00. Sleep-wakefulness was continuously recorded from 10:00 to 18:00 (8 h; 4 h during alcohol + 4 h post-alcohol) on all 3 days. Although mice consumed comparable amounts of alcohol on Days 1 and 2, NREM sleep and wakefulness were significantly and differentially affected during 4 h post-alcohol period. A robust alcohol-induced NREM sleep promotion was observed on Day 1. However, no such sleep promotion was observed on Day 2, suggesting rapid tolerance development. Our study is the first to demonstrate that alcohol consumption for two consecutive days results in development of rapid tolerance to alcohol-induced sleep promotion.

  4. Utility and Usability of the Rapid Assessment of Hospital Procurement Barriers in Donation (RAPiD) as a Tool for OPO Hospital Development Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolod, Gerard P; Traino, Heather M; Siminoff, Laura A

    2016-09-01

    Few systematic assessment tools are available to organ procurement organizations (OPOs) for evaluating donation climates of hospitals in their donation service areas (DSAs). The Rapid Assessment of hospital Procurement barriers in Donation (RAPiD) was developed for OPO hospital development staff to assess the organ donation climate of hospitals. To implement a national test of the RAPiD to examine its efficacy and usability by OPO hospital development staff. Two-arm randomized design, comparing implementation of RAPiD protocol between qualitatively trained researchers (n = 7) and OPO hospital development staff (n = 24); all evaluators received the same training assessments of high-yield hospitals. A total of 77 hospitals in DSAs of 8 OPOs. A total of 2552 health-care providers (HCPs) in high organ donor potential units. Twenty-four donation-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. More HCPs interviewed in the autonomous condition were positive toward the concept of organ donation. However, HCPs in the assisted condition were more candid about and critical of the OPO. As for knowledge, fewer HCPs in the autonomous condition reported familiarity with the donation process, need for donors, and generally accepted timely referral criteria. With respect to behaviors, more respondents in the autonomous condition reported frequent or occasional contact with the OPO and routine or occasional referral criteria use. Due to issues of bias, inadequate research experience, conflicts of interest, and ongoing OPO hospital development initiatives, the RAPiD's usability by OPO-based hospital development staff is questionable and not recommended in its current form. A next generation of the RAPiD is described for future consideration. © 2016, NATCO.

  5. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improveme...

  6. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of pigeon circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shinn Shyong; Chang, Yeng Ling; Huang, Yen Li; Liu, Hung Jen; Ke, Guan Ming; Chiou, Chwei Jang; Hsieh, Yao Ching; Chang, Tsung Chou; Cheng, Li Ting; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2014-05-01

    There are no effective antiviral treatments for pigeon circovirus (PiCV); thus, rapid diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease caused by this virus. The recent development of a novel LAMP technique that amplifies nucleic acids rapidly with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions has overcome some of the deficiencies of nucleic-acid-based diagnostic tests. We established a LAMP method for rapid detection of PiCV using two pairs of primers that were designed from PiCV and compared its sensitivity and specificity with that of PCR. Amplification by LAMP was optimal at 63 °C for 60 min. The detection limit was nearly 0.5 pg of PiCV DNA, making it ten times more sensitive than PCR. There was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), pigeon Trichomonas gallinae, or pigeon herpesvirus (PHV) under the same conditions. The assay also successfully detected the pathogen DNA in the tissues of infected pigeons. This is the first report indicating that LAMP is a valuable, rapid method of detecting PiCV with high sensitivity and specificity.

  7. Development of a double-antibody sandwich ELISA for rapid detection of Bacillus Cereus in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Longjiao; He, Jing; Cao, Xiaohan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is increasingly recognized as one of the major causes of food poisoning in the industrialized world. In this paper, we describe a sensitive double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that was developed for rapid detection of B. cereus in food to minimize the risk of contamination. The polyclonal antibody (pAb) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to B. cereus were generated from rabbit antiserum and mouse ascites, respectively, using the octanoic acid/saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation method and protein A-sepharose columns. IgG-isotype mAbs were specially developed to undergo a novel peripheral multiple sites immunization for rapid gain of hybridomas and a subtractive screen was used to eliminate cross reactivity with closely related species such as Bacillus thuringiensis, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. perfringens. The linear detection range of the method was approximately 1 × 104–2.8 × 106 cells/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.9 × 103 cells/mL. The assay was able to detect B. cereus when the samples were prepared in meat with various pathogens. The newly developed analytical method provides a rapid method to sensitively detect B. cereus in food specimens. PMID:26976753

  8. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbwana Judica

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Methods Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical, SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc., First Response HIV Card 1–2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd, HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics. Results Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2–99.9 and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7–98.9, respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6–100 while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9, 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8–99.7, 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9 and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3–99.9 for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was

  9. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR Strain.

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    Érica Maria Granjeiro

    Full Text Available We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs. The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy.Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE measurements, and body temperature (Tb measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals.No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05. However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01 and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01. In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals.Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy.

  10. Thermoregulatory behavior and fungal infection of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J J; Hajek, A E

    2014-04-01

    Asian longhorned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), are invasive wood borers that are native to China and Korea but have been introduced to North America and Europe. These beetles have great potential to negatively impact economic and environmental interests in hardwood and urban forests if they become established. The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum Petch (previously Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin) is under development for control of A. glabripennis. Some insect species eliminate pathogens or delay disease progression through thermoregulation. Because Asian longhorned beetles had been observed occupying sunlit areas of the tree canopy, we hypothesized that behavioral fevering could be used to delay mortality of fungal-infected beetles. M. brunneum cultures incubated at 34°C for 5 h/d grew significantly slower compared with cultures incubated at lower temperatures. Holding M. brunneum-infected A. glabripennis at 34°C for 5 h/d significantly delayed mortality by 2 d compared with infected beetles held at ≤31°C. Adult A. glabripennis did not exhibit behavioral fever when infected. Uninfected males, when provided with food, and both uninfected males and females when deprived of food, slightly increased their preferred temperature over time. When held at 15°C before being placed into temperature gradients, uninfected beetles did not increase their temperatures above ambient. Results demonstrate that M. brunneum-infected A. glabripennis do not exhibit behaviors necessary to elevate their body temperatures enough to combat M. brunneum infections through thermoregulation.

  11. Development of a highly sensitive lateral immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Guan, Yuyao; Cheng, Shiliang; Huang, Yidan; Yan, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Guanjun; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Tianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is widely present in brackish water all over the world, causing infections in certain aquatic animals. It is also a foodborne pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. The aim of this study is to develop an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay (LFA) for rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus in both aquatic products and human feces of diarrheal patients. Two monoclonal antibody (MAb) pairs, GA1a-IC9 and IC9-KB4c, were developed and proven to be highly specific and sensitive to V. parahaemolyticus. Based on the two MAb pairs, two types of LFA strips were prepared. Their testing limits for V. parahaemolyticus culture were both 1.2×103CFU/ml. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were both 100% for the 32 tested microbial species, including 6 Vibrio species. Subsequently, the LFA strips were used to test Whiteleg shrimps and human feces. The type II strip showed a higher diagnostic sensitivity. Its sensitivity and specificity for hepatopancreas and fecal samples from 13 Whiteleg shrimps and fecal samples from 146 human diarrheal patients were all 100%. In conclusion, our homemade type II LFA is a very promising testing device for rapid and convenient detection of V. parahaemolyticus infection not only in aquatic animals, but also in human diarrheal patients. This sensitive immunochromtographic LFA allows rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus without requirement of culture enrichment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Rapidly developing multimorbidity and disability in older adults: does social background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Santoni, Giola; Wang, Hui Xin; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Rizzuto, Debora; Vetrano, Davide L; Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2018-02-07

    Multimorbidity is among the most disabling geriatric conditions. In this study we explored whether a rapid development of multimorbidity potentiates its impact on the functional independence of older adults, and whether different sociodemographic factors play a role beyond the rate of chronic disease accumulation. A random sample of persons aged ≥60 years (n = 2387) from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was followed over 6 years. The speed of multimorbidity development was estimated as the rate of chronic disease accumulation (linear mixed models) and further dichotomized into the upper versus the three lower rate quartiles. Binomial negative mixed models were used to analyse the association between speed of multimorbidity development and disability (impaired basic and instrumental activities of daily living), expressed as the incidence rate ratio (IRR). The effect of sociodemographic factors, including sex, education, occupation and social network, was investigated. The risk of new activity impairment was higher among participants who developed multimorbidity faster (IRR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.1) compared with those who accumulated diseases more slowly over time, even after considering the baseline number of chronic conditions. Only female sex (IRR for women vs. men 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) and social network (IRR for poor vs. rich social network 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) showed an effect on disability beyond the rate of chronic disease accumulation. Rapidly developing multimorbidity is a negative prognostic factor for disability. However, sociodemographic factors such as sex and social network may determine older adults' reserves of functional ability, helping them to live independently despite rapid accumulation of chronic conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid culture-based diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in developed and developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eDRANCOURT

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths mainly in developing countries. Reviewing data reported over 20 years yields a state-of-the-art procedure for the routine culture of M. tuberculosis in both developed and developing countries. Useful specimens include sputum, induced sputum and stools collected in quaternary ammonium preservative-containing sterile cans. The usefulness of other non-invasive specimens remains to be evaluated. Specimens can be collected in a diagnosis kit also containing sampling materials, instructions, laboratory requests and informed consent. Automated direct LED fluorescence microscopy after auramine staining precedes inoculation of an egg-lecithin-containing culture solid medium under microaerophilic atmosphere, inverted microscope reading or scanning video-imaging detection of colonies and colonies identification by recent molecular methods. This procedure should result in a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis as fast as 5 days. It may be implemented in both developed and developing countries with automated steps replaceable by manual steps depending on local resources.

  14. SOAR telescope control system: a rapid prototype and development in LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Michael C.; Schumacher, German

    2000-06-01

    A Rapid Prototype and full development plan of the SOAR TCS is reviewed to show advances in: (1) Prototyping speed, which makes implementation and test of features faster than specification under older methods. This allows the development environment and prototype modules to become partners with and part of the specification documents. (2) Real-Time performance and reliability through use of RT Linux. (3) Visually Rich GUI development that allows an emphasis on `seeing' versus `reading'. (4) Long-Term DataLogging and Internet subscription service of all desired variables with instant recall of historical trend data. (5) A `plug-in' software architecture which enables rapid reconfiguration and reuse of the system and/or plug-ins utilizing LabVIEW graphical modules, a scripting language engine (in LabVIEW) and encapsulation of interfaces in `instrument-driver' style `plug-in' modules. (6) A platform- independent development environment and distributed architecture allowing secure internet observation and control via every major OS and hardware platform.

  15. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, J Stanek3, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, PA Evansky1, ER Lappi1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1...

  16. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Pinillos Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05 in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity.

  17. Susceptibility of the aging Brown Norway rat to carbaryl, an anti-cholinesterase-based insecticide: Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proportion of aged in the United States is projected to expand markedly for the next several decades. Hence, the U.S.EPA is assessing if the aged are more susceptible to environmental toxicants. The thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses of young adult, mature adult, a...

  18. Development of Rapid Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Phytophthora spp. in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing

  19. Identification of pollutant sources in a rapidly developing urban river catchment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL MINERALIZATION OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  1. Bordetella trematum sepsis with shock in a diabetic patient with rapidly developing soft tissue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Lorrance L; Nogi, Masayuki; Bankowski, Matthew J; Chung, Heath H

    2016-09-01

    Bordetella is a gram-negative, glucose non-fermenting bacillus, consisting of many host-associated species. B. trematum has previously been identified in wound infections, but rarely known to be a source of bacteremia. Currently, 16S rRNA sequencing represents the reference standard method by which identification is made. Herein, we present a case of fatal B. trematum bacteremia with septic shock. The presumed primary site of the infection was a rapidly developing left leg deep soft tissue infection without necrotizing fasciitis. B. trematum should now be considered as a significant pathogen in sepsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  3. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time while...... the tool does its job, change descriptions must be memorised until your next check-in, etc. This kind of overhead and disruption does not fit well with fast-paced development processes like rapid prototyping, explorative programming, and eXtreme Programming that favour creativity, speed, and communication...... more that managerial rigour. In the cost/benefit equation the balance may tip in favour of not using any SCM tool or only using a fraction of its potential. We think SCM has something to offer such projects, and present some proposals that may allow SCM tools to better suit the characteristics of fast...

  4. Simultaneous telemetric monitoring of tail-skin and core body temperature in a rat model of thermoregulatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmi, Scott; Pawlyk, Aaron C; Alfinito, Peter D; Roman, Janet; Zhou, Tianhui; Deecher, Darlene C

    2009-04-15

    Temperature dysfunction, clinically described as hot flashes/flushes and night sweats, commonly occur in women transitioning through menopause. Research in this field has yet to fully elucidate the biological underpinnings explaining this dysfunction. The need to develop animal models that can be used to study hormone-dependent temperature regulation is essential to advancing this scientific area. Development of telemetric transmitters for monitoring tail-skin (TST) and core body (CBT) temperatures for animal research has increased the accuracy of data by reducing extraneous factors associated with previous methods. However, until recently, TST and CBT could not be simultaneously measured telemetrically within the same animal. In this report, new dual temperature monitoring transmitters were validated by simultaneously evaluating them with the single measurement transmitters using the ovariectomized (OVX) rat thermoregulatory dysfunction model. A major advantage of measuring TST and CBT in the same animal is the ability to relate temporal changes on these two temperature parameters. Comparative experimentation was performed by single administration of clonidine (alpha(2) adrenergic agonist), MDL-100907 (5-HT(2a) antagonist), or a 7-day treatment of 17alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE). Clonidine caused decreases in TST and CBT, MDL-100907 caused increases in TST while decreasing CBT, and EE caused decreases in TST with minor CBT decreases only at the higher dose. Data from either probe type showed similar results on temperature parameters regardless of transmitter used. These findings support the use of the new dual temperature transmitters and should enhance the quality and interpretation of data being generated in thermoregulation studies.

  5. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  6. Non-Obese Diabetic Mice Rapidly Develop Dramatic Sympathetic Neuritic Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E.; Dorsey, Denise A.; Beaudet, Lucie N.; Frederick, Kathy E.; Parvin, Curtis A.; Plurad, Santiago B.; Levisetti, Matteo G.

    2003-01-01

    To address the pathogenesis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, we have examined the sympathetic nervous system in non-obese diabetic (NOD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, two models of type 1 diabetes, and the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes. After only 3 to 5 weeks of diabetes, NOD mice developed markedly swollen axons and dendrites (“neuritic dystrophy”) in the prevertebral superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMG-CG), similar to the pathology described in diabetic STZ- and BBW-rat and man. Comparable changes failed to develop in the superior cervical ganglia of the NOD mouse or in the SMG-CG of non-diabetic NOD siblings. STZ-induced diabetic mice develop identical changes, although at a much slower pace and to a lesser degree than NOD mice. NOD-SCID mice, which are genetically identical to NOD mice except for the absence of T and B cells, do not develop diabetes or neuropathology comparable to diabetic NOD mice. However, STZ-treated NOD-SCID mice develop severe neuritic dystrophy, evidence against an exclusively autoimmune pathogenesis for autonomic neuropathy in this model. Chronically diabetic type 2 db/db mice fail to develop neuritic dystrophy, suggesting that hyperglycemia alone may not be the critical and sufficient element. The NOD mouse appears to be a valuable model of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy with unambiguous, rapidly developing neuropathology which corresponds closely to the characteristic pathology of other rodent models and man. PMID:14578206

  7. Old knowledge and new technologies allow rapid development of model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charles E; Chenevert, Janet; Larsson, Tomas A; Arendt, Detlev; Houliston, Evelyn; Lénárt, Péter

    2016-03-15

    Until recently the set of "model" species used commonly for cell biology was limited to a small number of well-understood organisms, and developing a new model was prohibitively expensive or time-consuming. With the current rapid advances in technology, in particular low-cost high-throughput sequencing, it is now possible to develop molecular resources fairly rapidly. Wider sampling of biological diversity can only accelerate progress in addressing cellular mechanisms and shed light on how they are adapted to varied physiological contexts. Here we illustrate how historical knowledge and new technologies can reveal the potential of nonconventional organisms, and we suggest guidelines for selecting new experimental models. We also present examples of nonstandard marine metazoan model species that have made important contributions to our understanding of biological processes. © 2016 Cook et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

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    Sören Hansen

    Full Text Available The detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infections in ruminants is crucial to control spread among animals and to humans. Cultivation of MAP is seen as the gold standard for detection, although it is very time consuming and labour intensive. In addition, several PCR assays have been developed to detect MAP in around 90 minutes, but these assays required highly sophisticated equipment as well as lengthy and complicated procedure.In this study, we have developed a rapid assay for the detection of MAP based on the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay targeting a MAP specific region, the IS900 gene. The detection limit was 16 DNA molecules in 15 minutes as determined by the probit analysis on eight runs of the plasmid standard. Cross reactivity with other mycobacterial and environmentally associated bacterial strains was not observed. The clinical performance of the MAP RPA assay was tested using 48 MAP-positive and 20 MAP-negative blood, sperm, faecal and tissue samples. All results were compared with reads of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay. The specificity of the MAP RPA assay was 100%, while the sensitivity was 89.5%.The RPA assay is quicker and much easier to handle than real-time PCR. All RPA reagents were cold-chain independent. Moreover, combining RPA assay with a simple extraction protocol will maximize its use at point of need for rapid detection of MAP.

  9. Development of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the rapid diagnosis of Orf virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kui; He, Wenqi; Bi, Jingying; Zhang, Ximu; Zhang, Di; Huang, Houshuang; Zhang, Yuexiang; Song, Deguang; Gao, Feng

    2016-10-01

    A rapid and simple lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) was developed for the specific detection of Orf virus (ORFV) using two distinct monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: 5A5 and 6F2) against the ORFV ORF011 protein. The MAb 5A5 was conjugated with colloidal gold, and the MAb 6F2 and goat anti-mouse IgG were sprayed onto a nitrocellulose membrane in strips at positions designated test (T) and control (C), respectively. The results showed that samples of ORFV complexed with colloidal gold-conjugated MAb 5A5, were captured by MAb 6F2 at the T line resulting in the appearance of a purple band. When samples did not contain ORFV or when they contained a quantity of ORFV below the detection limit of the test, only the C line was visible. The analysis of sensitivity of the test demonstrated that the lowest detected quantity of ORFV was 2.03×10(3.0) TCID50/ml. Storage at room temperature for 6 months did not result in the loss of performance of the LFIA test. Using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as a reference test, the relative specificity and sensitivity of the LFIA test were determined to be 100% and 92.1%, respectively. Based on these results, the LFIA test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for ORFV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a Rapid Beam Emittance Measurement System using a Real-Time Beam Profile Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, Keita; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Takane; Morinobu, Shunpei; Nagayama, Keiichi; Tamura, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Yuusuke

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a rapid beam emittance measurement system for the injection beam of the K140 azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP). So far, a conventional emittance monitor has been used in a section of a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) system to evaluate the quality of the injected beam to the K400 ring cyclotron. Two kinds of emittance monitors were supplemented in the low energy beam line for evaluation of ion beams from ion sources. One of them is a conventional type consisting of two sets of position-variable slits and a three-wire profile monitor (TPM), similar to the one installed in the MEBT system of the AVF cyclotron. It takes about 30 min to get emittances in both the horizontal and vertical planes. For quick emittance measurements, we have developed a new system equipped with a set of fast moving slits with a fixed gap and a real-time beam profile monitor (BPM83) with a rotating helical wire. With this system the measurement time was considerably reduced to 70 s for both the horizontal and vertical emittances. Moreover the data analysis and graphical processing were completely automated. The overall measurement and analysis time was successfully minimized within 75 s. This rapid emittance measurement system has contributed to improve the beam quality by optimizing parameters of ion sources and the beam transport system.

  11. Quantification of sweat gland volume and innervation in neuropathy: Correlation with thermoregulatory sweat testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loavenbruck, Adam; Wendelschaefer-Crabbe, Gwen; Sandroni, Paola; Kennedy, William R

    2014-10-01

    No study has correlated thermoregulatory sweat testing (TST) with histopathologic study of sweat glands (SGs) and SG nerve fibers (SGNFs). We studied 10 neuropathy patients in whom anhidrosis was found by TST and 10 matched controls. Skin biopsies were taken from both anhidrotic and sweating skin and immunohistochemical staining was done for nerves and basement membrane. For each biopsy, total tissue volume, total SG volume, and total SGNF length were measured. SGNF length per biopsy volume, SG volume per biopsy volume (SG%), and SGNF length per SG volume were calculated. SGNF length per biopsy volume was reduced in anhidrotic site biopsies of patients compared with controls. SG% was decreased and SGNF length per SG volume increased in patients compared with controls. The results suggest a concomitant loss of SG volume and SGNF length in neuropathy, with greater loss of SGNFs in anhidrotic skin, possibly exceeding collateral reinnervation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Temporary interference over the posterior parietal cortices disrupts thermoregulatory control in humans.

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    Alberto Gallace

    Full Text Available The suggestion has recently been made that certain higher-order cortical areas involved in supporting multisensory representations of the body, and of the space around it, might also play a role in controlling thermoregulatory functions. Here we demonstrate that temporary interference with the function of one of these areas, the posterior parietal cortex, by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, results in a decrease in limb temperature. By contrast, interference with the activity of a sensory-specific area (the primary somatosensory cortex had no effect on temperature. The results of this experiment suggest that associative multisensory brain areas might exert a top-down modulation over basic physiological control. Such a function might be part of a larger neural circuit responsible for maintaining the integrity of the body at both a homeostatic and a psychological level.

  13. The influence of serial feeding of drinks at different temperatures on thermoregulatory responses during cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason K W; Maughan, Ron J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we examined thermoregulatory responses to ingestion of separate aliquots of drinks at different temperatures during low-intensity exercise in conditions of moderate heat stress. Eight men cycled at 50% (s = 3) of their peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 90 min (dry bulb temperature: 25.3 degrees C, s = 0.5; relative humidity: 60%, s = 5). Four 400-ml aliquots of flavoured water at 10 degrees C (cold), 37 degrees C (warm) or 50 degrees C (hot) were ingested after 30, 45, 60, and 75 min of exercise. Immediately after the 90 min of exercise, participants cycled at 95% VO2peak to exhaustion to assess exercise capacity. There were no differences between trials in rectal temperature at the end of the 90 min of exercise (cold: 38.11 degrees C, s = 0.30; warm: 38.10 degrees C, s = 0.33; hot: 38.21 degrees C, s = 0.30; P = 0.765). Mean skin temperature between 30 and 90 min tended to be influenced by drink temperature (cold: 34.49 degrees C, s = 0.64; warm: 34.53 degrees C, s = 0.69; hot: 34.71 degrees C, s = 0.48; P = 0.091). Mean heart rate from 30 to 90 min was higher in the hot trial (129 beats . min(-1), s = 7; P warm trials (126 beats . min(-1), s = 8). Ratings of thermal sensation were higher on the hot trial than on the cold trial at 35 and 50 min (P drinking resulted in similar body temperatures during low-intensity exercise in conditions of moderate heat stress due to appropriate thermoregulatory reflexes.

  14. Professional Development Needs of Novice Nursing Clinical Teachers: A Rapid Evidence Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Farah; Boschma, Geertje; Clauson, Marion

    2016-02-26

    The current nursing profession is challenged with a decreasing supply of competent clinical teachers due to several factors consequently impacting the quality of nursing education. To meet this demand, academic nursing programs are resorting to hiring expert nurses who may have little or no teaching experience. They need support during their transition from practice to teaching. Using the systematic approach of a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), scholarly literature was reviewed to identify existing professional development needs for novice clinical teachers as well as supportive strategies to aid the transition of experienced nurses into teaching practice. The REA included 29 relevant studies. Findings revealed three main professional development needs for novice clinical teachers and key supportive strategies. Based on these findings recommendations for best practices to support and prepare novice clinical teachers are presented.

  15. Rapid crown root development confers tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice

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    Amrit Kaur eNanda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa. Many studies have identified Zn efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. Zn deficiency delayed crown root development and plant biomass accumulation in both Zn efficient and inefficient genotypes, with the effects being much stronger in the latter. Zn efficient genotypes had developed new crown roots as early as three days after transplanting (DAT to a Zn deficient field and that was followed by a significant increase in total biomass by 7 DAT. Zn-inefficient genotypes developed few new crown roots and did not increase biomass during the first seven days following transplanting. This correlated with Zn efficient genotypes retranslocating a higher proportion of shoot Zn to their roots, compared to Zn inefficient genotypes. These latter genotypes were furthermore not efficient in utilizing the limited Zn for root development. Histological analyses indicated no anomalies in crown tissue of Zn-efficient or inefficient genotypes that would have suggested crown root emergence was impeded. We therefore conclude that the rate of crown root initiation was differentially affected by Zn deficiency between genotypes. Rapid crown root development, following transplanting, was identified as a main causative trait for tolerance to Zn deficiency and better Zn retranslocation from shoot to root was a key attribute of Zn-efficient genotypes.

  16. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis of potato blackleg caused by Dickeya species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safenkova, Irina V; Zaitsev, Ilya A; Varitsev, Yuri A; Byzova, Nadezhda A; Drenova, Natalia V; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2017-03-01

    Early detection of potato infections is essential for effective disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for rapid detection of a serious potato disease, potato blackleg, caused by Dickeya dianthicola and Dickeya solani. Polyclonal antibodies specific to different strains of Dickeya were obtained from rabbits after immunization with bacterial cells of D. dianthicola and D. solani. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing with use of a wide range of bacterial species showed that the polyclonal antibodies detect closely related strains of D. dianthicola and D. solani. Cross-reactivity with widespread pathogenic bacteria (nine species) and saprophytes of healthy potato plants was not detected. The LFIA based on the obtained antibodies and gold nanoparticles with average diameter of 20 nm was developed. Under optimized conditions, the LFIA method enabled the analysis of potato extracts within 10 min, with a visual limit of detection of 1 × 10 5  CFU/ml for leaves and 4 × 10 5  CFU/ml for tubers. The assay was tested on potato stem and tuber extracts, and the results of the LFIA were confirmed in 92.1% of samples using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. The findings confirmed that the developed LFIA could be used for monitoring blackleg infection without the need for special equipment or skills. Graphical Abstract The developed lateral flow immunoassay is an efficient tool for rapid detection of a serious potato disease, potato blackleg, caused by Dickeya dianthicola and Dickeya solani.

  17. Neonatal experiences with ethanol intoxication modify respiratory and thermoregulatory plasticity and affect subsequent ethanol intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, María Belén; Macchione, Ana Fabiola; Anunziata, Florencia; Haymal, Olga Beatriz; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Different studies have focused on the deleterious consequences of binge-like or chronic exposure to ethanol during the brain growth spurt period (third human gestational trimester) that in the rat corresponds to postnatal days (PDs) 3-10. The present study analyzed behavioral and physiological disruptions caused by relatively brief binge-like exposures (PDs 3, 5, and 7) with an ethanol dose lower (3.0 g/kg) than those frequently employed to examine teratological effects during this stage in development. At PD 9, pups were exposed to ethanol doses ranging between .0-3.0 g/kg and tested in terms of breathing patterns and thermoregulation. At PDs 11 and 12, ethanol intake was examined. The main findings were as follows: i) pre-exposure to the drug resulted in brief depressions in breathing frequencies and an exacerbated predisposition toward apneic episodes; ii) these effects were not dependent upon thermoregulatory alterations; iii) early ethanol treatment increased initial consumption of the drug which also caused a marked hypothermia that appeared to regulate a subsequent decrement in ethanol consumption; and iv) ethanol exposure retarded overall body growth and even one exposure to the drug (PD 9) was sufficient to reduce brain weights although there were no indications of microcephaly. In conjunction with studies performed during the late gestational period in the rat, the results indicate that relatively brief binge-like episodes during a critical window of brain vulnerability disrupts the respiratory network and exacerbates initial acceptance of the drug. In addition, ethanol treatments were not found to induce tolerance relative to respiratory and thermal disruptions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Rapid Detection of NDM-Producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutal, Hervé; Naas, Thierry; Devilliers, Karine; Oueslati, Saoussen; Dortet, Laurent; Bernabeu, Sandrine; Simon, Stéphanie; Volland, Hervé

    2017-07-01

    The global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) that are often resistant to most, if not all, classes of antibiotics is a major public health concern. The NDM-1 carbapenemase is among the most worrisome carbapenemases given its rapid worldwide spread. We have developed and evaluated a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) (called the NDM LFIA) for the rapid and reliable detection of NDM-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from culture colonies. We evaluated the NDM LFIA using 175 reference enterobacterial isolates with characterized β-lactamase gene content and 74 nonduplicate consecutive carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates referred for expertise to the French National Reference Center (NRC) for Antibiotic Resistance during a 1-week period (in June 2016). The reference collection included 55 non-carbapenemase producers and 120 carbapenemase producers, including 27 NDM producers. All 27 NDM-like carbapenemase producers of the reference collection were correctly detected in less than 15 min by the NDM LFIA, including 22 strains producing NDM-1, 2 producing NDM-4, 1 producing NDM-5, 1 producing NDM-7, and 1 producing NDM-9. All non-NDM-1 producers gave a negative result with the NDM LFIA. No cross-reaction was observed with carbapenemases (VIM, IMP, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48-like), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) (TEM, SHV, and CTX-M), AmpCs (CMY-2, DHA-2, and ACC-1), and oxacillinases (OXA-1, -2, -9, and -10). Similarly, among the 74 referred nonduplicate consecutive clinical isolates, all 7 NDM-like producers were identified. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 100% for NDM-like carbapenemase detection with strains cultured on agar. The NDM LFIA was efficient, rapid, and easy to implement in the routine workflow of a clinical microbiology laboratory for the confirmation of NDM-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae . Copyright © 2017 Boutal et al.

  19. Development of a rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica

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    Lu Shao-Hong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis japonica (schistosomiasis is a zoonosis that can seriously affect human health. At present, the immunodiagnostic assays for schistosomiasis detection are time-consuming and require well-trained personnel and special instruments, which can limit their use in the field. Thus, there is a pressing need for a simple and rapid immunoassay to screen patients on a large scale. In this study, we developed a novel rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA to detect anti-Schisaosoma japonicum antibodies in human serum. Results Using latex microspheres as a color probe, DLIA was established to test standard positive and negative sera, in comparison with the classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of DLIA were 95.10% (97/102 and 94.91% (261/275, respectively. The cross-reaction rates with clonorchiosis, intestinal nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and paragonimiasis were 0, 0, 0 and 42.11% respectively. All the results showed no significant difference to the ELISA. In field tests, 333 human serum samples from an endemic area were tested with DLIA, and compared with ELISA and Kato-Katz method. There was no significant difference between DLIA and ELISA on positive and negative rates of detection; however, significant differences existed between DLIA and Kato-Katz method, and between ELISA and Kato-Katz method. The kappa value between DLIA and ELISA was 0.90. Conclusions This is the first study in which DLIA was used to detect anti-Schistosoma japonicum antibody. The results show that DLIA is a simple, rapid, convenient, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and is therefore very suitable for large-scale field applications and clinical detection.

  20. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

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    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  1. Penerapan Aplikasi Program Penjualan Dan Pembelian Menggunakan Model Rapid Application Development

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    Annisa Febriani

    2017-09-01

    Abstract The development of information technology at the moment quickly and rapidly, supported by one means namely computer. Of course the computer has been equipped with a particular application is used to help facilitate the work of the man to manage the data of an organization or company so that getting accurate results and according to needs. The results of the observations that have been made, showed a sales and purchase activities are still using manual systems, one of them at a clothing store. Starting from the data processing of the goods, the difficulty of checking stock, purchase transaction, sales transactions, as well as other data storage associated with all types of such activities, so that it could make a loss for the store owner, errors in the logging and less akuratnya the report is made. Judging from the large number of transactions done on clothing stores, required system information more quickly and accurately. Thus, the author makes the program architecture-based computer, use the Microsoft Visual Basic.net programming language and the MySQL database, so that the information and activities that occur can be done quickly and accurately. The methods used in making architecture the program using the model of Rapid Application Development (RAD. This RAD model is an adaptation of the waterfall model for high speed version of the development of each component of its software. Results achieved from the discussion of this theme is the form of the application program selling and buying the ready-made. In this case, the use of the application program is the best solution to solve the existing problems, as well as with the use of application programs can be reached by an activity which is effective and efficient in supporting that activity, especially for addressing the problem of the sale and purchase of.   Keywords: Sales Program, Purchasing Program.

  2. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

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    Chiolero Arnaud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

  3. Development of field-based separations for the rapid identification of uranium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, Carol J.; Kaminski, Michael D.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Kalensky, Michael; Sullivan, Vivian S.; Tsai, Yifen

    2015-05-08

    The development of rapid, radioanalytical techniques to separate uranium and plutonium from complex, field samples are needed for the timely and accurate determination of nuclear material origin, and processing activities. Widespread use of nuclear power and technology in the world has increased demands on analytical laboratories from the monitoring of numerous low-level, environmental samples with variable compositions. Environmental sampling has proven to be one of the strongest technical measures for detecting nuclear material and activities. With the increase in sampling demands, new technologies must offer improvements such as automation, high throughput, reproducible chemical separations, short analysis times, and reduced costs to be effective. We have been developing a portable, separations system for uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) separations based upon selective extraction of target elements using an extraction chromatographic resin which would allow for simple and fast identifcation when coupled with the appropriate sample digestor and detection systems. The microfluidic design minimizes elution volumes and concentrates the elements of interest in a purified stream. Flowsheet development and testing was demonstrated on a single, micro-column system with an acidified, iron, uranium, and plutonium nitrate stream. The recovery of Pu was optimized by examining various reducing agents at different concentrations for rapid, quantitative recovery from the flow-through design. Quantitative recovery and high selectivity of U and Pu was achieved in the appropriate stripping stages and provided purified and concentrated U and Pu streams. The microfluidic system suggests automation in a small, footprint unit while exploiting the in-line processing of extraction chromatographic resins as the primary means of concentrating the radionuclides from the raw acidic feed and separating the elements into purified streams.

  4. Development of a Rapid Salivary Proteomic Platform for Oral Feeding Readiness in the Preterm Newborn

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    Prarthana Khanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral feeding competency is a major determinant of length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. An infant must be able to consistently demonstrate the ability to take all required enteral nutrition by mouth before discharge home. Most infants born prematurely (<37 weeks will require days, if not weeks, to master this oral feeding competency skill. Inappropriately timed feeding attempts can lead to acute and long-term morbidities, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health-care costs. Previously, a panel of five genes involved in essential developmental pathways including sensory integration (nephronophthisis 4, Plexin A1, hunger signaling [neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R, adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK], and facial development (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3 required for oral feeding success were identified in neonatal saliva. This study aimed to translate these five transcriptomic biomarkers into a rapid proteomic platform to provide objective, real-time assessment of oral feeding skills, to better inform care, and to improve neonatal outcomes. Total protein was extracted from saliva of 10 feeding-successful and 10 feeding-unsuccessful infants matched for age, sex, and post-conceptional age. Development of immunoassays was attempted for five oral feeding biomarkers and two reference biomarkers (GAPDH and YWHAZ to normalize for starting protein concentrations. Normalized protein concentrations were correlated to both feeding status at time of sample collection and previously described gene expression profiles. Only the reference proteins and those involved in hunger signaling were detected in neonatal saliva at measurable levels. Expression patterns for NPY2R and AMPK correlated with the gene expression patterns previously seen between successful and unsuccessful feeders and predicted feeding outcome. Salivary proteins associated with hunger signaling are readily quantifiable in

  5. Controlled precipitation for enhanced dissolution rate of flurbiprofen: development of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ebtessam A; Elmarakby, Amira O; Donia, Ahmed M A; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of controlled precipitation of flurbiprofen on solid surface, in the presence or absence of hydrophilic polymers, as a tool for enhanced dissolution rate of the drug. The work was extended to develop rapidly disintegrated tablets. This strategy provides simple technique for dissolution enhancement of slowly dissolving drugs with high scaling up potential. Aerosil was dispersed in ethanolic solution of flurbiprofen in the presence and absence of hydrophilic polymers. Acidified water was added as antisolvent to produce controlled precipitation. The resultant particles were centrifuged and dried at ambient temperature before monitoring the dissolution pattern. The particles were also subjected to FTIR spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses. The FTIR spectroscopy excluded any interaction between flurbiprofen and excipients. The thermal analysis reflected possible change in the crystalline structure and or crystal size of the drug after controlled precipitation in the presence of hydrophilic polymers. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The modulation in the crystalline structure and size was associated with a significant enhancement in the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen. Optimum formulations were successfully formulated as rapidly disintegrating tablet with subsequent fast dissolution. Precipitation on a large solid surface area is a promising strategy for enhanced dissolution rate with the presence of hydrophilic polymers during precipitation process improving the efficiency.

  6. Evaluation of urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern in a rapidly developing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Dai, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Urban sprawl is a worldwide phenomenon happening particularly in rapidly developing regions. A study on the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and urban pattern is useful for the sustainable management of land management and urban land planning. The present research explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl in the context of a rapid urbanization process in a booming economic region of southern China from 1979 to 2005. Three urban sprawl types are distinguished by analyzing overlaid urban area maps of two adjacent study years which originated from the interpretation of remote sensed images and vector land use maps. Landscape metrics are used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl for each study period. Study results show that urban areas have expanded dramatically, and the spatiotemporal landscape pattern configured by the three sprawl types changed obviously. The different sprawl type patterns in five study periods have transformed significantly, with their proportions altered both in terms of quantity and of location. The present research proves that urban sprawl quantification and pattern analysis can provide a clear perspective of the urbanization process during a long time period. Particularly, the present study on urban sprawl and sprawl patterns can be used by land use and urban planners.

  7. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-04

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  8. Development of novel hybrid poly(l-lactide)/chitosan scaffolds using the rapid freeze prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, N; Chen, X B [Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Li, M G [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Cooper, D, E-mail: xbc719@mail.usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Engineered scaffolds have been shown to be critical to various tissue engineering applications. This paper presents the development of a novel three-dimensional scaffold made from a mixture of chitosan microspheres (CMs) and poly(l-lactide) by means of the rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique. The CMs were used to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the scaffold mechanical properties. Experiments to examine the BSA release were carried out; the BSA release could be controlled by adjusting the crosslink degree of the CMs and prolonged after the CMs were embedded into the PLLA scaffolds, while the examination of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds illustrates that they depend on the ratio of CMs to PLLA in the scaffolds as well as the cryogenic temperature used in the RFP fabrication process. The chemical characteristics of the PLLA/chitosan scaffolds were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological and pore structure of the scaffolds were also examined by scanning electron microscopy and micro-tomography. The results obtained show that the scaffolds have higher porosity and enhanced pore size distribution compared to those fabricated by the dispensing-based rapid prototyping technique. This study demonstrates that the novel scaffolds have not only enhanced porous structure and mechanical properties but also showed the potential to preserve the bioactivities of the biomolecules and to control the biomolecule distribution and release rate.

  9. Development of a novel multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of virulence associated genes of Pasteurella multocida from pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajkhowa, S

    2015-01-01

    Significance and Impact of the Study: The study reports the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of 11 important VAGs of Pasteurella multocida isolates from pigs...

  10. Anesthetics rapidly promote synaptogenesis during a critical period of brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias De Roo

    Full Text Available Experience-driven activity plays an essential role in the development of brain circuitry during critical periods of early postnatal life, a process that depends upon a dynamic balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Since general anesthetics are powerful pharmacological modulators of neuronal activity, an important question is whether and how these drugs can affect the development of synaptic networks. To address this issue, we examined here the impact of anesthetics on synapse growth and dynamics. We show that exposure of young rodents to anesthetics that either enhance GABAergic inhibition or block NMDA receptors rapidly induce a significant increase in dendritic spine density in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus. This effect is developmentally regulated; it is transient but lasts for several days and is also reproduced by selective antagonists of excitatory receptors. Analyses of spine dynamics in hippocampal slice cultures reveals that this effect is mediated through an increased rate of protrusions formation, a better stabilization of newly formed spines, and leads to the formation of functional synapses. Altogether, these findings point to anesthesia as an important modulator of spine dynamics in the developing brain and suggest the existence of a homeostatic process regulating spine formation as a function of neural activity. Importantly, they also raise concern about the potential impact of these drugs on human practice, when applied during critical periods of development in infants.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of familial cherubism characterized by early onset and rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortellaro, Carmen; Bello, Lucilla; Lucchina, Alberta Greco; Pucci, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign maxillary bone dysplasia of childhood, usually showing an autosomically dominant inheritance with variable penetrance and spontaneously resolving after puberty. Only maxillary bones are affected and develop pseudocystic osteolytic lesions. This article presents an early and rapidly evolving familial case of cherubism. The 3-year-old child underwent conservative curettage of lesions, with a conservative approach that allowed a normal permanent dentition in adolescence. Family history revealed that the father had been treated for similar lesions between 14 and 21 years of age, but the late treatment caused edentulism. In conclusion, although cherubism represents a benign and localized maxillary dysplasia, it requires prompt surgical but conservative treatment and careful follow-up to avoid permanent lesions, that is, malocclusion and/or edentulism.

  12. Rapid Development and Use of a Nationwide Training Program for Cholera Management, Haiti, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Lambert, Yves; Sobel, Jeremy; Domerçant, Jean W.; Khan, Azharul

    2011-01-01

    When epidemic cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010, the medical community there had virtually no experience with the disease and needed rapid training as the epidemic spread throughout the country. We developed a set of training materials specific to Haiti and launched a cascading training effort. Through a training-of-trainers course in November 14–15, 2010, and department-level training conducted in French and Creole over the following 3 weeks, 521 persons were trained and equipped to further train staff at the institutions where they worked. After the training, the hospitalized cholera patients’ case-fatality rate dropped from 4% to <2% by mid-December and was <1% by January 2011. Continuing in-service training, monitoring and evaluation, and integration of cholera management into regular clinical training will help sustain this success. PMID:22099112

  13. Development of Middle Stone Age innovation linked to rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Simon, Margit H; Hall, Ian R; Barker, Stephen; Stringer, Chris; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The development of modernity in early human populations has been linked to pulsed phases of technological and behavioural innovation within the Middle Stone Age of South Africa. However, the trigger for these intermittent pulses of technological innovation is an enigma. Here we show that, contrary to some previous studies, the occurrence of innovation was tightly linked to abrupt climate change. Major innovational pulses occurred at times when South African climate changed rapidly towards more humid conditions, while northern sub-Saharan Africa experienced widespread droughts, as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling. These millennial-scale teleconnections resulted from the bipolar seesaw behaviour of the Atlantic Ocean related to changes in the ocean circulation. These conditions led to humid pulses in South Africa and potentially to the creation of favourable environmental conditions. This strongly implies that innovational pulses of early modern human behaviour were climatically influenced and linked to the adoption of refugia.

  14. [Development and scientific rationale for a universal index for rapid assessment of readability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksheva, L M

    2007-01-01

    The hygienic regulations of academic books, including teachware, for children and adolescents necessitate the performance of special studies to assess their readability by the unified procedure that would suggest a visual response while reading. This study has developed and warranted a universal readability index by the velocity of reading. There are significant regression correlations between the velocity of reading as the readability index and the degree of tiredness, detected by various visual functions. The parameters of accommodation and adaptive properties of the eye are most sensitive to visual load on reading. Reading velocity as an indicator of readability of illogical texts may be used as a rapid method under laboratory and natural conditions to determine the action of various textual loads on the visual system.

  15. Development of cross-priming amplification assays for rapid and sensitive detection of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, S; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, D; Ye, C

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila has been increasingly implicated as the aetiologic agent of various human diseases. Therefore, reliable laboratory detection and identification of this bacterium has become clinically and epidemiologically desirable. We developed a nearly instrument-free, simple molecular method for rapid detection of Aer. hydrophila using a cross-priming amplification (CPA) assay with the desA gene as the target. The desA gene is crucial for the survival and growth of Aer. hydrophila under iron starvation. The results can be visualized as colour changes without opening the reaction tubes. No false-positive results were observed for the 33 non-Aer. hydrophila strains tested to evaluate assay specificity. The limit of detection for Aer. hydrophila was approximately 200 copies of desA per reaction (on reference plasmids) and 5 × 10(3)  CFU g(-1) Aer. hydrophila in simulated human stool, which is the same sensitivity as a qPCR assay. The performance of the CPA assay was also evaluated with 100 stool specimens from diarrhoea patients and 40 environmental water samples. In conclusion, the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and nearly instrument-free platform of the CPA assay make it practical for use in primary care facilities and smaller clinical laboratories. Aeromonas hydrophila is a human pathogen that infects via exposed wounds or ingestion of contaminated water and food. In this study, a CPA-based PCR method was developed for specific, rapid, cost-effective detection of Aer. hydrophila, and the test results could be visualized without opening the reaction tubes. This is the first report on the application of the CPA method for the detection of Aer. hydrophila. This novel method could be practical for use in primary care facilities and smaller clinical laboratories. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Development and testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanteau, Suzanne; Rahalison, Lila; Ralafiarisoa, Lalao; Foulon, Jeanine; Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Ratsifasoamanana, Lala; Carniel, Elisabeth; Nato, Farida

    2003-01-18

    Plague is often fatal without prompt and appropriate treatment. It affects mainly poor and remote populations. Late diagnosis is one of the major causes of human death and spread of the disease, since it limits the effectiveness of control measures. We aimed to develop and assess a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for plague. We developed a test that used monoclonal antibodies to the F1 antigen of Yersinia pestis. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed with a range of bacterial cultures and clinical samples, and compared with findings from available ELISA and bacteriological tests for plague. Samples from patients thought to have plague were tested with the RDT in the laboratory and by health workers in 26 pilot sites in Madagascar. The RDT detected concentrations of F1 antigen as low as 0.5 ng/mL in up to 15 min, and had a shelf life of 21 days at 60 degrees C. Its sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. RDT detected 41.6% and 31% more positive clinical specimens than did bacteriological methods and ELISA, respectively. The agreement rate between tests done at remote centres and in the laboratory was 89.8%. With the combination of bacteriological methods and F1 ELISA as reference standard, the positive and negative predictive values of the RDT were 90.6% and 86.7%, respectively. Our RDT is a specific, sensitive, and reliable test that can easily be done by health workers at the patient's bedside, for the rapid diagnosis of pneumonic and bubonic plague. This test will be of key importance for the control of plague in endemic countries.

  17. Using aerial photography to estimate riparian zone impacts in a rapidly developing river corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owers, Katharine A; Albanese, Brett; Litts, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Riparian zones are critical for protecting water quality and wildlife, but are often impacted by human activities. Ongoing threats and uncertainty about the effectiveness of buffer regulations emphasize the importance of monitoring riparian buffers through time. We developed a method to rapidly categorize buffer width and landuse attributes using 2007 leaf-on aerial photography and applied it to a 65 km section of the Toccoa River in north Georgia. We repeated our protocol using 1999 leaf-off aerial photographs to assess the utility of our approach for monitoring. Almost half (45%) of the length of the Toccoa River was bordered by buffers less than 50 ft wide in 2007, with agricultural and built-up lands having the smallest buffers. The percentage of river length in each buffer width category changed little between 1999 and 2007, but we did detect a 5% decrease in agricultural land use, a corresponding increase in built-up land use, and an additional 149 buildings within 100 ft of the river. Field verification indicated that our method overestimated buffer widths and forested land use and underestimated built-up land use and the number of buildings within 100 ft of the river. Our methodology can be used to rapidly assess the status of riparian buffers. Including supplemental data (e.g., leaf-off imagery, road layers) will allow detection of the fine-scale impacts underestimated in our study. Our results on the Toccoa River reflect historic impacts, exemptions and variances to regulations, and the ongoing threat of vacation home development. We recommend additional monitoring, improvements in policy, and efforts to increase voluntary protection and restoration of stream buffers.

  18. Rapid-X - An FPGA Development Toolset Using a Custom Simulink Library for MTCA.4 Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prędki, Paweł; Heuer, Michael; Butkowski, Łukasz; Przygoda, Konrad; Schlarb, Holger; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    The recent introduction of advanced hardware architectures such as the Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture (MTCA) caused a change in the approach to implementation of control schemes in many fields. The development has been moving away from traditional programming languages ( C/C++), to hardware description languages (VHDL, Verilog), which are used in FPGA development. With MATLAB/Simulink it is possible to describe complex systems with block diagrams and simulate their behavior. Those diagrams are then used by the HDL experts to implement exactly the required functionality in hardware. Both the porting of existing applications and adaptation of new ones require a lot of development time from them. To solve this, Xilinx System Generator, a toolbox for MATLAB/Simulink, allows rapid prototyping of those block diagrams using hardware modelling. It is still up to the firmware developer to merge this structure with the hardware-dependent HDL project. This prevents the application engineer from quickly verifying the proposed schemes in real hardware. The framework described in this article overcomes these challenges, offering a hardware-independent library of components that can be used in Simulink/System Generator models. The components are subsequently translated into VHDL entities and integrated with a pre-prepared VHDL project template. Furthermore, the entire implementation process is run in the background, giving the user an almost one-click path from control scheme modelling and simulation to bit-file generation. This approach allows the application engineers to quickly develop new schemes and test them in real hardware environment. The applications may range from simple data logging or signal generation ones to very advanced controllers. Taking advantage of the Simulink simulation capabilities and user-friendly hardware implementation routines, the framework significantly decreases the development time of FPGA-based applications.

  19. AIBench: a rapid application development framework for translational research in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glez-Peña, D; Reboiro-Jato, M; Maia, P; Rocha, M; Díaz, F; Fdez-Riverola, F

    2010-05-01

    Applied research in both biomedical discovery and translational medicine today often requires the rapid development of fully featured applications containing both advanced and specific functionalities, for real use in practice. In this context, new tools are demanded that allow for efficient generation, deployment and reutilization of such biomedical applications as well as their associated functionalities. In this context this paper presents AIBench, an open-source Java desktop application framework for scientific software development with the goal of providing support to both fundamental and applied research in the domain of translational biomedicine. AIBench incorporates a powerful plug-in engine, a flexible scripting platform and takes advantage of Java annotations, reflection and various design principles in order to make it easy to use, lightweight and non-intrusive. By following a basic input-processing-output life cycle, it is possible to fully develop multiplatform applications using only three types of concepts: operations, data-types and views. The framework automatically provides functionalities that are present in a typical scientific application including user parameter definition, logging facilities, multi-threading execution, experiment repeatability and user interface workflow management, among others. The proposed framework architecture defines a reusable component model which also allows assembling new applications by the reuse of libraries from past projects or third-party software. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation, amplification and characterization of foodborne pathogen disease bacteria gene for rapid kit test development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjayadi, M.; Santoso, I.; Kartika, I. R.; Kurniadewi, F.; Saamia, V.; Sofihan, W.; Nurkhasanah, D.

    2017-07-01

    There is a lot of public concern over food safety. Food-safety cases recently, including many food poisoning cases in both the developed and developing countries, considered to be the national security threats which involved police investigation. Quick and accurate detection methods are needed to handle the food poisoning cases with a big number of sufferers at the same time. Therefore, the research is aimed to develop a specific, sensitive, and rapid result molecular detection tool for foodborne pathogen bacteria. We, thus, propose genomic level approach with Polymerase Chain Reaction. The research has successfully produced a specific primer to perform amplification to fim-C S. typhi, E. coli, and pef Salmonella typhimurium genes. The electrophoresis result shows that amplification products are 95 base pairs, 121 base pairs, and 139 base pairs; and all three genes are in accordance with the size of the in silico to third genes bacteria. In conclusion, the research has been successfully designed a specific detection tool to three foodborne pathogen bacteria genes. Further stages test and the uses of Real-time PCR in the detection are still in the trial process for better detection method.

  1. Evaluation of Proteus as a Tool for the Rapid Development of Models of Hydrologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, T. M.; Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of modern hydrologic systems can be complex and involve a variety of operators with varying character. The goal is to implement approximations of such models that are both efficient for the developer and computationally efficient, which is a set of naturally competing objectives. Proteus is a Python-based toolbox that supports prototyping of model formulations as well as a wide variety of modern numerical methods and parallel computing. We used Proteus to develop numerical approximations for three models: Richards' equation, a brine flow model derived using the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT), and a multiphase TCAT-based tumor growth model. For Richards' equation, we investigated discontinuous Galerkin solutions with higher order time integration based on the backward difference formulas. The TCAT brine flow model was implemented using Proteus and a variety of numerical methods were compared to hand coded solutions. Finally, an existing tumor growth model was implemented in Proteus to introduce more advanced numerics and allow the code to be run in parallel. From these three example models, Proteus was found to be an attractive open-source option for rapidly developing high quality code for solving existing and evolving computational science models.

  2. Late winter feeding stimulates rapid spring development of carniolan honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera carnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavourable weather conditions after the queen starts with intensive oviposition during early spring may cause an imbalance in the division of tasks among worker bees in the bee colony. This can lead to slow spring development and poor exploitation of the main spring nectar flows. In order to accelerate the spring development, it is necessary, as a technological measure, to feed supplemental candy to bee colonies. In this research, the necessity of supplemental feeding, as well as the composition of candy (pollen and protein substitute were analysed. Three groups of ten bee colonies each were formed - the control, unfed group, pollen candy fed and protein substitute candy fed. In the period from 22/02/2016 and 04/04/2016 three control measurements were performed during which the number of bees, the number of brood cells and weight of the bee colonies were determined. The research has shown that supplemental feeding of the bee colony in late winter in order to encourage the rapid spring development is justified. Namely, at the final measurements in April, the results showed differences between groups. The treated colonies had higher net hive weight, a greater number of bees and statistically significantly more brood cells. The results of this study confirm that the technological measure of supplemental feeding in late winter should be performed on all commercial apiaries for the production of honey, pollen, royal jelly, queen bees and bee venom.

  3. Overcoming challenges to initiating cell therapy clinical trials in rapidly developing countries: India as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Rao, Mahendra; Keating, Armand; Srivastava, Alok

    2013-08-01

    Increasingly, a number of rapidly developing countries, including India, China, Brazil, and others, are becoming global hot spots for the development of regenerative medicine applications, including stem cell-based therapies. Identifying and overcoming regulatory and translational research challenges and promoting scientific and ethical clinical trials with cells will help curb the growth of stem cell tourism for unproven therapies. It will also enable academic investigators, local regulators, and national and international biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies to accelerate stem cell-based clinical research that could lead to effective innovative treatments in these regions. Using India as a model system and obtaining input from regulators, clinicians, academics, and industry representatives across the stem cell field in India, we reviewed the role of key agencies and processes involved in this field. We have identified areas that need attention and here provide solutions from other established and functioning models in the world to streamline and unify the regulatory and ethics approval processes for cell-based therapies. We also make recommendations to check the growth and functioning of clinics offering unproven treatments. Addressing these issues will remove considerable hurdles to both local and international investigators, accelerate the pace of research and development, and create a quality environment for reliable products to emerge. By doing so, these countries would have taken one important step to move to the forefront of stem cell-based therapeutics.

  4. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  5. Anemia management: development of a rapid-access anemia and intravenous iron service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Radia,1 Ibrahim Momoh,2 Richard Dillon,1 Yvonne Francis,1 Laura Cameron,1 Toni-Lee Fagg,1 Hannah Overland,1 Susan Robinson,1 Claire N Harrison11Haematology Department, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Bupa Home Healthcare, Harlow, UKAbstract: This article describes the initiation and evolution of the Rapid-Access Anemia Clinic (RAAC at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, London, UK. This clinic was set up to provide diagnosis and treatment, and to coordinate investigative procedures, where necessary, into the underlying causes of anemia. Initially piloted with anemic preoperative orthopedic patients, the clinic now treats a wide range of conditions, deriving from both internal and external referrals. Treatment includes dietary advice, supplementation with iron, vitamin B12 and folate, and blood transfusion. Most patients at the RAAC need iron replacement, the majority of which require intravenous (IV iron. Therefore the first-line IV iron-administration protocol is carefully considered to ensure viability of the service and patient satisfaction. Four IV irons available in the UK are discussed, with explanation of the benefits and drawbacks of each product and the reasoning behind the IV iron choice at different stages of the RAAC's development. Costs to the service, affected by IV iron price and administration regimen, are considered, as well as the product's contraindications. Finally, the authors reflect on the success of the RAAC and how it has improved patients' quality-of-treatment experience, in addition to benefiting the hospital and National Health Service in achieving specific health-care mandates and directives. Drawing from the authors' experiences, recommendations are given to assist others in setting up and providing a successful rapid-access anemia service or similar facility.Keywords: hemoglobin, iron deficiency, ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, iron dextran, iron isomaltoside

  6. Evaluation of nine HIV rapid test kits to develop a national HIV testing algorithm in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Bassey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-cold chain-dependent HIV rapid testing has been adopted in many resource-constrained nations as a strategy for reaching out to populations. HIV rapid test kits (RTKs have the advantage of ease of use, low operational cost and short turnaround times. Before 2005, different RTKs had been used in Nigeria without formal evaluation. Between 2005 and 2007, a study was conducted to formally evaluate a number of RTKs and construct HIV testing algorithms. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess and select HIV RTKs and develop national testing algorithms. Method: Nine RTKs were evaluated using 528 well-characterised plasma samples. These comprised 198 HIV-positive specimens (37.5% and 330 HIV-negative specimens (62.5%, collected nationally. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for all nine RTKs singly and for serial and parallel combinations of six RTKs; and relative costs were estimated. Results: Six of the nine RTKs met the selection criteria, including minimum sensitivity and specificity (both ≥ 99.0% requirements. There were no significant differences in sensitivities or specificities of RTKs in the serial and parallel algorithms, but the cost of RTKs in parallel algorithms was twice that in serial algorithms. Consequently, three serial algorithms, comprising four test kits (BundiTM, DetermineTM, Stat-Pak® and Uni-GoldTM with 100.0% sensitivity and 99.1% – 100.0% specificity, were recommended and adopted as national interim testing algorithms in 2007. Conclusion: This evaluation provides the first evidence for reliable combinations of RTKs for HIV testing in Nigeria. However, these RTKs need further evaluation in the field (Phase II to re-validate their performance.

  7. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  8. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Robin; Hanning, Irene; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered. PMID:22346699

  9. Development and validation of a rapid, aldehyde dehydrogenase bright-based cord blood potency assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulars, Kevin; Noldner, Pamela; Troy, Jesse D; Cheatham, Lynn; Parrish, Amanda; Page, Kristin; Gentry, Tracy; Balber, Andrew E; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2016-05-12

    Banked, unrelated umbilical cord blood provides access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients lacking matched bone marrow donors, yet 10% to 15% of patients experience graft failure or delayed engraftment. This may be due, at least in part, to inadequate potency of the selected cord blood unit (CBU). CBU potency is typically assessed before cryopreservation, neglecting changes in potency occurring during freezing and thawing. Colony-forming units (CFUs) have been previously shown to predict CBU potency, defined as the ability to engraft in patients by day 42 posttransplant. However, the CFU assay is difficult to standardize and requires 2 weeks to perform. Consequently, we developed a rapid multiparameter flow cytometric CBU potency assay that enumerates cells expressing high levels of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH bright [ALDH(br)]), along with viable CD45(+) or CD34(+) cell content. These measurements are made on a segment that was attached to a cryopreserved CBU. We validated the assay with prespecified criteria testing accuracy, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, and linearity. We then prospectively examined the correlations among ALDH(br), CD34(+), and CFU content of 3908 segments over a 5-year period. ALDH(br) (r = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.79), but not CD34(+) (r = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22-0.28), was strongly correlated with CFU content as well as ALDH(br) content of the CBU. These results suggest that the ALDH(br) segment assay (based on unit characteristics measured before release) is a reliable assessment of potency that allows rapid selection and release of CBUs from the cord blood bank to the transplant center for transplantation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. Development and validation of a rapid, aldehyde dehydrogenase bright–based cord blood potency assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noldner, Pamela; Troy, Jesse D.; Cheatham, Lynn; Parrish, Amanda; Page, Kristin; Gentry, Tracy; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Banked, unrelated umbilical cord blood provides access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients lacking matched bone marrow donors, yet 10% to 15% of patients experience graft failure or delayed engraftment. This may be due, at least in part, to inadequate potency of the selected cord blood unit (CBU). CBU potency is typically assessed before cryopreservation, neglecting changes in potency occurring during freezing and thawing. Colony-forming units (CFUs) have been previously shown to predict CBU potency, defined as the ability to engraft in patients by day 42 posttransplant. However, the CFU assay is difficult to standardize and requires 2 weeks to perform. Consequently, we developed a rapid multiparameter flow cytometric CBU potency assay that enumerates cells expressing high levels of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH bright [ALDHbr]), along with viable CD45+ or CD34+ cell content. These measurements are made on a segment that was attached to a cryopreserved CBU. We validated the assay with prespecified criteria testing accuracy, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, and linearity. We then prospectively examined the correlations among ALDHbr, CD34+, and CFU content of 3908 segments over a 5-year period. ALDHbr (r = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.79), but not CD34+ (r = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22-0.28), was strongly correlated with CFU content as well as ALDHbr content of the CBU. These results suggest that the ALDHbr segment assay (based on unit characteristics measured before release) is a reliable assessment of potency that allows rapid selection and release of CBUs from the cord blood bank to the transplant center for transplantation. PMID:26968535

  11. Enhanced slow-wave EEG activity and thermoregulatory impairment following the inhibition of the lateral hypothalamus in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Matteo; Del Vecchio, Flavia; Mastrotto, Marco; Luppi, Marco; Martelli, Davide; Perez, Emanuele; Tupone, Domenico; Zamboni, Giovanni; Amici, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Neurons within the lateral hypothalamus (LH) are thought to be able to evoke behavioural responses that are coordinated with an adequate level of autonomic activity. Recently, the acute pharmacological inhibition of LH has been shown to depress wakefulness and promote NREM sleep, while suppressing REM sleep. These effects have been suggested to be the consequence of the inhibition of specific neuronal populations within the LH, i.e. the orexin and the MCH neurons, respectively. However, the interpretation of these results is limited by the lack of quantitative analysis of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity that is critical for the assessment of NREM sleep quality and the presence of aborted NREM-to-REM sleep transitions. Furthermore, the lack of evaluation of the autonomic and thermoregulatory effects of the treatment does not exclude the possibility that the wake-sleep changes are merely the consequence of the autonomic, in particular thermoregulatory, changes that may follow the inhibition of LH neurons. In the present study, the EEG and autonomic/thermoregulatory effects of a prolonged LH inhibition provoked by the repeated local delivery of the GABAA agonist muscimol were studied in rats kept at thermoneutral (24°C) and at a low (10°C) ambient temperature (Ta), a condition which is known to depress sleep occurrence. Here we show that: 1) at both Tas, LH inhibition promoted a peculiar and sustained bout of NREM sleep characterized by an enhancement of slow-wave activity with no NREM-to-REM sleep transitions; 2) LH inhibition caused a marked transitory decrease in brain temperature at Ta 10°C, but not at Ta 24°C, suggesting that sleep changes induced by LH inhibition at thermoneutrality are not caused by a thermoregulatory impairment. These changes are far different from those observed after the short-term selective inhibition of either orexin or MCH neurons, suggesting that other LH neurons are involved in sleep-wake modulation.

  12. Enhanced slow-wave EEG activity and thermoregulatory impairment following the inhibition of the lateral hypothalamus in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Cerri

    Full Text Available Neurons within the lateral hypothalamus (LH are thought to be able to evoke behavioural responses that are coordinated with an adequate level of autonomic activity. Recently, the acute pharmacological inhibition of LH has been shown to depress wakefulness and promote NREM sleep, while suppressing REM sleep. These effects have been suggested to be the consequence of the inhibition of specific neuronal populations within the LH, i.e. the orexin and the MCH neurons, respectively. However, the interpretation of these results is limited by the lack of quantitative analysis of the electroencephalographic (EEG activity that is critical for the assessment of NREM sleep quality and the presence of aborted NREM-to-REM sleep transitions. Furthermore, the lack of evaluation of the autonomic and thermoregulatory effects of the treatment does not exclude the possibility that the wake-sleep changes are merely the consequence of the autonomic, in particular thermoregulatory, changes that may follow the inhibition of LH neurons. In the present study, the EEG and autonomic/thermoregulatory effects of a prolonged LH inhibition provoked by the repeated local delivery of the GABAA agonist muscimol were studied in rats kept at thermoneutral (24°C and at a low (10°C ambient temperature (Ta, a condition which is known to depress sleep occurrence. Here we show that: 1 at both Tas, LH inhibition promoted a peculiar and sustained bout of NREM sleep characterized by an enhancement of slow-wave activity with no NREM-to-REM sleep transitions; 2 LH inhibition caused a marked transitory decrease in brain temperature at Ta 10°C, but not at Ta 24°C, suggesting that sleep changes induced by LH inhibition at thermoneutrality are not caused by a thermoregulatory impairment. These changes are far different from those observed after the short-term selective inhibition of either orexin or MCH neurons, suggesting that other LH neurons are involved in sleep-wake modulation.

  13. Effects of Burn Injuries on Thermoregulatory and Cardiovascular Responses in Soldiers: Implications for the Standards of Medical Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    the Standards of Medical Fitness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Craig G. Crandall, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Texas Southwestern...Thermoregulatory and Cardiovascular Responses in Soldiers: Implications for the Standards of Medical Fitness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0647 5c...greater elevation in core temperature during exercise. In exercise-based rehabilitation or physically demanding occupational settings, activities

  14. Thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses to creatine, glycerol and alpha lipoic acid in trained cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyviou Thelma P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that supplementation with creatine (Cr and glycerol (Gly, when combined with glucose (Glu necessary for the enhancement of Cr uptake by skeletal muscle, induces significant improvements in thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses during exercise in the heat. Purpose To determine whether Cr/Gly-induced thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses are maintained when the majority (~75% of the Glu in the Cr/Gly supplement is replaced with the insulintropic agent alpha lipoic acid (Ala. Methods 22 healthy endurance trained cyclists were randomly assigned to receive either 20 g/day (4 × 5 g/day of Cr, 2 g .kg-1 BM per day (4 × 0.5 g .kg-1 BM per day of Gly and 150 g/day (4 × 37.5 g/day of Glu or 20 g/day (4 × 5 g/day of Cr monohydrate, 2 g .kg-1 BM per day (4 × 0.5 g .kg-1 BM per day of Gly (100 g/day (4 × 25 g/day of Glu and 1000 mg/day (4 × 250 mg/day of Ala for 7 days for 7 days. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation and involved 40 min of constant-load cycling exercise at 70% O2 max by a self-paced 16.1 km time trial at 30°C and 70% relative humidity. Results Median and range values of TBW increased significantly by 2.1 (1.3-3.3 L and 1.8 (0.2-4.6 L in Cr/Gly/Glu and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala groups respectively (P = 0.03 and of BM not significantly by 1.8 (0.2-3.0 kg and 1.2 (0.5-2.1 kg in Cr/Gly/Glu and in Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala, respectively (P = 0.75. During constant load exercise, heart rate (HR and core temperature (Tcore were significantly lower post-supplementation: HR was reduced on average by 3.3 ± 2.1 beats/min and by 4.8 ± 3.3 beats/min (mean ± SD and Tcore by 0.2 ± 0.1 (mean ± SD in the Cr/Gly/Glu and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala, respectively The reduction in HR and Tcore was not significantly different between the supplementation groups. Conclusions In comparison to the established hyper hydrating Cr

  15. Development of materials for the rapid manufacture of die cast tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardro, Peter Jason

    The focus of this research is to develop a material composition that can be processed by rapid prototyping (RP) in order to produce tooling for the die casting process. Where these rapidly produced tools will be superior to traditional tooling production methods by offering one or more of the following advantages: reduced tooling cost, shortened tooling creation time, reduced man-hours for tool creation, increased tool life, and shortened die casting cycle time. By utilizing RP's additive build process and vast material selection, there was a prospect that die cast tooling may be produced quicker and with superior material properties. To this end, the material properties that influence die life and cycle time were determined, and a list of materials that fulfill these "optimal" properties were highlighted. Physical testing was conducted in order to grade the processability of each of the material systems and to optimize the manufacturing process for the downselected material system. Sample specimens were produced and microscopy techniques were utilized to determine a number of physical properties of the material system. Additionally, a benchmark geometry was selected and die casting dies were produced from traditional tool materials (H13 steel) and techniques (machining) and from the newly developed materials and RP techniques (selective laser sintering (SLS) and laser engineered net shaping (LENS)). Once the tools were created, a die cast alloy was selected and a preset number of parts were shot into each tool. During tool creation, the manufacturing time and cost was closely monitored and an economic model was developed to compare traditional tooling to RP tooling. This model allows one to determine, in the early design stages, when it is advantageous to implement RP tooling and when traditional tooling would be best. The results of the physical testing and economic analysis has shown that RP tooling is able to achieve a number of the research objectives, namely

  16. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Windell L; Ong, Vanissa A

    2013-06-01

    To develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica E. histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis. The LAMP primer set was designed from E. histolytica hemolysin gene HLY6. Genomic DNA of E. histolytica trophozoites strain HK9 was used to optimize the LAMP mixture and conditions. Amplification of DNA in the LAMP mixture was monitored through visual inspection for turbidity of the LAMP mix as well as addition of fluorescent dye. Positive LAMP reactions turned turbid while negative ones remained clear. Upon addition of a fluorescent dye, all positive reactions turned green while the negative control remained orange under ambient light. After electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose gels, a ladder of multiple bands of different sizes can be observed in positive samples while no bands were detected in the negative control. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be 5 parasites per reaction which corresponds to approximately 15.8 ng/μ L DNA. The specificity of the assay was verified by the absence of amplified products when DNA from other gastrointestinal parasites such as the morphologically similar but non-pathogenic species, Entamoeba dispar 39, and other diarrhea-causing organisms such as Blastocystis hominis and Escherichia coli were used. The LAMP assay we have developed enables the detection of E. histolytica with rapidity and ease, therefore rendering it is suitable for laboratory and field diagnosis of amebiasis. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SCOUT: developing a modular multimission spacecraft architecture for high-capability rapid access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Aaron; Shoemaker, James; Jordan, Luis; McDermott, Scott

    2004-08-01

    The long lead and cycle times currently associated with development and launch of satellite systems have established a prohibitive environment for responsive deployment of tactical capability to orbit. With the advent of the RASCAL program - poised to offer launch capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) within 24 hours - there is a clear motivation for a comparable, multi-mission, rapidly configurable microsatellite. The SCOUT program is developing the key enabling technologies that will enable this capability while also addressing the production and logistic challenges essential to its implementation. Intrinsic to the design will be a "Plug-and-Sense" capability, which will enable a vehicle to detect the presence and orientation of integrated subsystem modules, as well as ascertain their function, and communicate key performance parameters. The system will utilize a heuristic, self-interrogation approach to provide a robust means of performing configuration and diagnostics activities that transcend nominal housekeeping routines to include an enhanced degree of system autonomy. A minimally structured design, emphasizing a lightweight, interchangeable framework will enable quick integration and deployment, while preserving high on-orbit payload mass fraction. Similarly, the system will also feature a novel approach to assembly, integration, and test activities that spans ground through on-orbit operations.

  18. Ideas for the rapid development of the structural models in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Raicu, A.; Panait, C.

    2017-08-01

    Conceiving computer based instruments is a long run concern of the authors. Some of the original solutions are: optimal processing of the large matrices, interfaces between the programming languages, approximation theory using spline functions, numerical programming increased accuracy based on the extended arbitrary precision libraries. For the rapid development of the models we identified the following directions: atomization, ‘librarization’, parameterization, automatization and integration. Each of these directions has some particular aspects if we approach mechanical design problems or software development. Atomization means a thorough top-down decomposition analysis which offers an insight regarding the basic features of the phenomenon. Creation of libraries of reusable mechanical parts and libraries of programs (data types, functions) save time, cost and effort when a new model must be conceived. Parameterization leads to flexible definition of the mechanical parts, the values of the parameters being changed either using a dimensioning program or in accord to other parts belonging to the same assembly. The resulting templates may be also included in libraries. Original software applications are useful for the model’s input data generation, to input the data into CAD/FEA commercial applications and for the data integration of the various types of studies included in the same project.

  19. Minimising invasiveness in diagnostics: developing a rapid urine-based monoclonal antibody dipstick test for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakpo, Uri S; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Essuman, Edward E; Anyan, William K; Suzuki, Mitsuko; Stephens, Judith K; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Asmah, Richard H; Ofori, Michael F; Madjitey, Parnor; Danquah, Jonas B; Frempong, Naa Adjeley; Kwofie, Kofi D; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Sullivan, David; Fobil, Julius N; Quakyi, Isabella A

    2016-10-01

    To generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for developing a rapid malaria diagnostic urine-based assay (RUBDA), using Plasmodium-infected human urinary antigens. Plasmodium-infected human urinary (PAgHU) and cultured parasite (CPfAg) antigens were used to generate mouse MAbs. The reactivity and accuracy of the MAbs produced were then evaluated using microplate ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting assay, microscopy and immunochromatographic tests. Ninety-six MAb clones were generated, of which 68.8% reacted to both PAgHU and CPfAg, 31.3% reacted to PAgHU only, and none reacted to CPfAg only. One promising MAb (UCP4W7) reacted in WBA, to both PAgHU and CPfAg, but not to Plasmodium-negative human urine and blood, Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni antigens nor measles and poliomyelitis vaccines. MAb UCP4W7 seems promising for diagnosing Plasmodium infection. Urine is a reliable biomarker source for developing non-invasive malaria diagnostic tests. SDS-PAGE and MAb-based WBA appear explorable in assays for detecting different levels of Plasmodium parasitaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. SURVEY DESIGN TO GRASP AND COMPARE USER'S ATTITUDES ON BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillaiampalam SIVAKUMAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mitigating urban transportation problems and providing a sustainable transit system, rail-based systems have become popular. While rail-based systems are welcome in many developed countries, it is impractical for cities in developing countries due to the high cost of system building and operation. Thus, a staged or incremental adjustment towards fixed guide way transit implementation of greater interest to many agencies today, and these days it has started developing in terms of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT. As it is very new to developing cities, it is a challenge to get the users to understand the system and to grasp their attitude. Besides, there are many other general issues like literacy, lack of a sample frame etc. Survey design needs to be tuned carefully for these cities to obtain a resonant output. Concerning all these problems, a hypothetical questionnaire survey such as Stated Preference (SP has become popular. This study conducted a survey on BRT implementation with SP as a hypothetical tool at a selected corridor in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. The main objectives were to identify questionnaire design(media effects, literacy of users, segmental variation, and the important variable(s. In this survey design, system explanation has been set in two slightly different ways (media: TEXT ∼ IMAGE for comparison and it was found that even a slight difference on design affected the users' response considerably. Income level could not be predicted directly, but car ownership was found to be a good predictor, it was found to be an important variable and it showed a correlation with literacy.

  1. Clinical implications of Mycobacterium chimaera detection in thermoregulatory devices used for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), Germany, 2015 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudzinski, Franziska C; Schlotthauer, Uwe; Kamp, Annegret; Hennemann, Kai; Muellenbach, Ralf M; Reischl, Udo; Gärtner, Barbara; Wilkens, Heinrike; Bals, Robert; Herrmann, Mathias; Lepper, Philipp M; Becker, Sören L

    2016-11-17

    Mycobacterium chimaera, a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, was recently identified as causative agent of deep-seated infections in patients who had previously undergone open-chest cardiac surgery. Outbreak investigations suggested an aerosol-borne pathogen transmission originating from water contained in heater-cooler units (HCUs) used during cardiac surgery. Similar thermoregulatory devices are used for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and M. chimaera might also be detectable in ECMO treatment settings. We performed a prospective microbiological study investigating the occurrence of M. chimaera in water from ECMO systems and in environmental samples, and a retrospective clinical review of possible ECMO-related mycobacterial infections among patients in a pneumological intensive care unit. We detected M. chimaera in 9 of 18 water samples from 10 different thermoregulatory ECMO devices; no mycobacteria were found in the nine room air samples and other environmental samples. Among 118 ECMO patients, 76 had bronchial specimens analysed for mycobacteria and M. chimaera was found in three individuals without signs of mycobacterial infection at the time of sampling. We conclude that M. chimaera can be detected in water samples from ECMO-associated thermoregulatory devices and might potentially pose patients at risk of infection. Further research is warranted to elucidate the clinical significance of M. chimaera in ECMO treatment settings. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  2. Daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of locally adapted Brazilian sheep in a semiarid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Wilma Emanuela; Leite, Jacinara Hody Gurgel Morais; de Sousa, José Ernandes Rufino; Costa, Wirton Peixoto; da Silva, Wallace Sostene Tavares; Guilhermino, Magda Maria; Asensio, Luis Alberto Bermejo; Façanha, Débora Andréa Evangelista

    2017-07-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the daily rhythmicity of the thermoregulatory responses of Morada Nova ewes that were raised in a semiarid environment. The experiment was conducted during the dry season. Data were collected from 5:00 a.m. to 4:00 a.m.. Samples were taken over the course of 8 days, with a 1-week interval between sampling periods. During each day that the data were collected, animals were measured once an hour for 24 h in an area directly exposed to solar radiation. The environment was characterized by measuring the following variables: air temperature (TA), relative humidity (RH), Black Globe Humidity Index (BGHI), radiant heat load (RHL), and wind speed (WS). Physiological variables that were measured included rectal temperature (RT, °C), respiratory rate (RR, breaths/min), surface temperature (ST, °C), and sweating rate (SR, g m2 h-1). We observed that RT, RR, and ST increased as environmental conditions became more stressful. Specifically, environmental conditions became more stressful as RHL, air temperature, and BGHI increased, while RH decreased. All physiological variables of the animals were strongly affected by the time of the day: environmental variables changed drastically between nighttime and noon. Physiological parameters increased sharply from the morning (7:00 a.m.-10:00 a.m.) until noon (11:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.), except for sweating rate. After noon, these variables began to drop until nighttime (11:00 p.m.-6:00 am), and values of the main physiological indexes were stable during this period. The Morada Nova breed exhibited daily cyclic variations in thermoregulatory responses. Evaporative heat loss mechanisms were triggered during the most stressful times of the day. The first mechanism that animals used was panting, which was an immediate response to environmental heat stress. Cutaneous evaporation had a slower response mechanism to environmental heat stress. Homeothermy conditions were restored to the animals at

  3. The development of a prototype of a “rapid test” for detection of equine antibodies against tetanus

    OpenAIRE

    Stelzmann, Mareike

    2011-01-01

    the following dissertation, the prototype of a “rapid test” for detection of equine antibodies against tetanus is developed. This test makes it possible to detect antibodies against tetanus in equine serum within one hour. Moreover the prototype allows making a statement about the antibody titer. The standard values of the OIE (WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH, 2009) to validate in vitro-diagnostical tests for veterinary medicine were followed. The rapid test achieves results comparabl...

  4. Development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for rapid detection of Ulva prolifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Chun; Liu, Qing; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Large-scale green tides have occurred consecutively since 2007 in the Yellow Sea (YS), China. The dominant causative species of the green tides has been identified as Ulva prolifera. The origin of green tides in the YS has been traced back to the Subei Shoal based on the results of remote-sensing, numerical simulations and field investigations. However, it is difficult to study the early development of green tides in the Subei Shoal because of the mixture of multiple green algae and the morphological diversity of U. prolifera when under variable environmental conditions. In this study, a rapid and accurate fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was developed to detect U. prolifera from the community of green algae targeting the 5S rDNA spacer region of U. prolifera. Two specific probes, 5S-1 and 5S-2, were designed based on the sequences of the 5S rDNA spacer regions of U. prolifera, Ulva linza and Ulva flexuosa. Specificity of the FISH method was tested using the six species of green algae commonly occurring in the Subei Shoal, including U. prolifera, U. linza, U. flexuosa, Ulva compressa, Ulva pertusa and Blidingia sp. The results showed that only U. prolifera could be labeled with both probes. Probe 5S-1, which showed a much higher labeling efficiency on U. prolifera, was ultimately selected as the probe for the FISH detection. The sample preparation method was optimized, particularly for the mature green algae, by the addition of cellulase and proteinase K in the pre-hybridization solution. Labeling efficiency with the probe 5S-1 reached 96% on average under the optimized conditions. The successful development of the FISH method has been applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of field samples collected from the YS, and the results indicate a potential use in future green algae studies.

  5. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Houghton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  6. VaxCelerate II: rapid development of a self-assembling vaccine for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Pierre; Moise, Leonard; Luza, Cybelle; Chantaralawan, Kanawat; Lezeau, Lynchy; Yuan, Jianping; Field, Mary; Richer, Daniel; Boyle, Christine; Martin, William D; Fishman, Jordan B; Berg, Eric A; Baker, David; Zeigler, Brandon; Mais, Dale E; Taylor, William; Coleman, Russell; Warren, H Shaw; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; De Groot, Anne S; Brauns, Timothy; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Development of effective vaccines against emerging infectious diseases (EID) can take as much or more than a decade to progress from pathogen isolation/identification to clinical approval. As a result, conventional approaches fail to produce field-ready vaccines before the EID has spread extensively. Lassa is a prototypical emerging infectious disease endemic to West Africa for which no successful vaccine is available. We established the VaxCelerate Consortium to address the need for more rapid vaccine development by creating a platform capable of generating and pre-clinically testing a new vaccine against specific pathogen targets in less than 120 d A self-assembling vaccine is at the core of the approach. It consists of a fusion protein composed of the immunostimulatory Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (MtbHSP70) and the biotin binding protein, avidin. Mixing the resulting protein (MAV) with biotinylated pathogen-specific immunogenic peptides yields a self-assembled vaccine (SAV). To meet the time constraint imposed on this project, we used a distributed R&D model involving experts in the fields of protein engineering and production, bioinformatics, peptide synthesis/design and GMP/GLP manufacturing and testing standards. SAV immunogenicity was first tested using H1N1 influenza specific peptides and the entire VaxCelerate process was then tested in a mock live-fire exercise targeting Lassa fever virus. We demonstrated that the Lassa fever vaccine induced significantly increased class II peptide specific interferon-γ CD4(+) T cell responses in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice compared to peptide or MAV alone controls. We thereby demonstrated that our SAV in combination with a distributed development model may facilitate accelerated regulatory review by using an identical design for each vaccine and by applying safety and efficacy assessment tools that are more relevant to human vaccine responses than current animal models.

  7. A tool for rapid assessment of product usability and universal design: development and preliminary psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenker, James A; Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Paquet, Victor; Feathers, David

    2011-01-01

    While there are many available tools and methods to evaluate product usability, few have been tested on user groups with disabilities and even fewer systematically consider universal design principles. This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric testing of the Rapid Assessment of Product Usability & Universal Design (RAPUUD), a 12-item user-report tool based on the seven principles of universal design. A preliminary set of items was created to elicit ratings of diverse product characteristics (e.g., physical effort, cognitive effort, assistance required, safety). Data were gathered from 61 participants who rated the usability of products they use in their own environments. Each item elicited a full range of responses, with no apparent floor or ceiling effects. Collectively, the 12 items achieved a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.80). The data indicate that the tool was sensitive to differences in functional abilities, as well as differences in product characteristics. The instrument was usable for a range of consumer products, though not all items were appropriate for each and every product. The results suggest that the instrument could become a pragmatic tool for designers to identify usability problems experienced by a diversity of user populations. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  8. Payments for carbon sequestration to alleviate development pressure in a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Dorning, Monica; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Méley, Andréanne; Dupey, Lauren; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine individuals' willingness to enroll in voluntary payments for carbon sequestration programs through the use of a discrete choice experiment delivered to forest owners living in the rapidly urbanizing region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We examined forest owners' willingness to enroll in payments for carbon sequestration policies under different levels of financial incentives (annual revenue), different contract lengths, and different program administrators (e.g., private companies versus a state or federal agency). We also examined the influence forest owners' sense of place had on their willingness to enroll in hypothetical programs. Our results showed a high level of ambivalence toward participating in payments for carbon sequestration programs. However, both financial incentives and contract lengths significantly influenced forest owners' intent to enroll. Neither program administration nor forest owners' sense of place influenced intent to enroll. Although our analyses indicated that payments from carbon sequestration programs are not currently competitive with the monetary returns expected from timber harvest or property sales, certain forest owners might see payments for carbon sequestration programs as a viable option for offsetting increasing tax costs as development encroaches and property values rise.

  9. The multimod application framework: a rapid application development tool for computer aided medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Zannoni, Cinzia; Testi, Debora; Petrone, Marco; Perticoni, Stefano; Quadrani, Paolo; Taddei, Fulvia; Imboden, Silvano; Clapworthy, Gordon

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a new application framework (OpenMAF) for rapid development of multimodal applications in computer-aided medicine. MAF applications are multimodal in data, in representation, and in interaction. The framework supports almost any type of biomedical data, including DICOM datasets, motion-capture recordings, or data from computer simulations (e.g. finite element modeling). The interactive visualization approach (multimodal display) helps the user interpret complex datasets, providing multiple representations of the same data. In addition, the framework allows multimodal interaction by supporting the simultaneous use of different input-output devices like 3D trackers, stereoscopic displays, haptics hardware and speech recognition/synthesis systems. The Framework has been designed to run smoothly even on limited power computers, but it can take advantage of all hardware capabilities. The Framework is based on a collection of portable libraries and it can be compiled on any platform that supports OpenGL, including Windows, MacOS X and any flavor of Unix/linux.

  10. Rapid development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Psammomys obesus (Israeli sand rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana Spolding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A major impediment to establishing new treatments for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is the lack of suitable animal models that accurately mimic the biochemical and metabolic characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study was to explore a unique polygenic animal model of metabolic disease as a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by determining the effects of 2% dietary cholesterol supplementation on metabolic and liver endpoints in Psammomys obesus (Israeli sand rat. METHODS: P. obesus were provided ad libitum access to either a standard rodent diet (20% kcal/fat or a standard rodent diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol (w/w for 4 weeks. Histological sections of liver from animals on both diets were examined for key features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The expression levels of key genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS: P. obesus fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet exhibited profound hepatomegaly and steatosis, and higher plasma transaminase levels. Histological analysis identified extensive steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. Hepatic gene expression profiling revealed decreased expression of genes involved in delivery and uptake of lipids, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, and increased expression of genes involved in very low density lipoprotein cholesterol synthesis, triglyceride and cholesterol export. CONCLUSIONS: P. obesus rapidly develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet that appears to be histologically and mechanistically similar to patients.

  11. Development of Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus virus type II (PCV2 is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (PDNS, and necrotizing pneumonia. Rapid diagnosis tool for detection of PCV2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (PCV2 real-time RPA assay and RPA combined with lateral flow dipstick (PCV2 RPA LFD assay were developed targeting the PCV2 ORF2 gene. The results showed that the sensitivity of the PCV2 real-time RPA assay was 102 copies per reaction within 20 min at 37°C and the PCV2 RPA LFD assay had a detection limit of 102 copies per reaction in less than 20 min at 37°C. Both assays were highly specific for PCV2, with no cross-reactions with porcine circovirus virus type 1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and classical swine fever virus. Therefore, the RPA assays provide a novel alternative for simple, sensitive, and specific identification of PCV2.

  12. Rapid development of pulmonary cavitation as manifestation of a candida species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, E.; Bickel, R.H.; Baldauf, G.

    1987-01-01

    The roentgenologic pattern of the pulmonary manifestation of candida species, resulting in a rapid development of pulmonary cavitations with mycetoma-like structures, was described in three patients. All patients, undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy because of acute leukemia, presented with fever and expectoration, which were resistant to various antibiotic regimes. Cultures of blood and urine were sterile; but Torulopsis glabrata, a candida species, was found in multiple cultures of the sputum of all patients and also in a bronchoscopic lavage obtained from one patient after reconstitution of the granulopoesis. The roetgenologic appearance of the infiltrates was accompanied by a rise of the Ig-M immunoglobulins against candida. Following intravenous treatment with amphotericin B a reduction of the cavitation and of the infiltrates to small residues was observed. Simultaneously the body temperature and the sputum became normal and a fall in the immunoglobulin titers was found. The diagnostic problems of pulmonary cavitation and especially of pulmonary mycosis in immuosuppressed and therapy-induced granulocytopenic and thrombocytopenic patients with acute leukemia were discussed.

  13. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Veronica A; King, Susan Codi; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid recognition at 10 months as a predictor of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Caroline; Kooijman, Valesca; Hagoort, Peter; Cutler, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Infants' ability to recognize words in continuous speech is vital for building a vocabulary. We here examined the amount and type of exposure needed for 10-month-olds to recognize words. Infants first heard a word, either embedded within an utterance or in isolation, then recognition was assessed by comparing event-related potentials to this word versus a word that they had not heard directly before. Although all 10-month-olds showed recognition responses to words first heard in isolation, not all infants showed such responses to words they had first heard within an utterance. Those that did succeed in the latter, harder, task, however, understood more words and utterances when re-tested at 12 months, and understood more words and produced more words at 24 months, compared with those who had shown no such recognition response at 10 months. The ability to rapidly recognize the words in continuous utterances is clearly linked to future language development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Giant Mediastinal Cystic Teratoma Involving Pancreatic Tissue and Showing Rapid Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samil Gunay

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 23 year old female patient having increasing chest pain by breathing. In her lung graphy and computed tomography there observed 152 mm x 97mm thick encapsulated cystic lesion in the middle lobe medial part of lung that makes pressure on heart and mediastinal structures . It was also obtained that the lung graphy that had been taken a year ago was normal and a suspected view in right mediastinal region of lung graphy that had been taken 6 months ago . With the surgical operation 170 mm x 100 mm thick encapsulated cystic lesion was totally excised. There were also 5 dark brownish random tissue parts which was 10x6x2 cm as the biggest and 5x3x1 cm as the smallest in size macroscopically. During examination on tissue smples that were taken out from the bulk, there observed a pancreatic tissue with acinars, ductusus and crawlings which creats lobular structures in hyalinizing fibrotic stroma We want to present this pancreatic cystic teratoma rarely seen in mediasten which shows rapid development.

  16. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennum P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Poul Jennum, Julie AE Christensen, Marielle Zoetmulder Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. Keywords: motor control, brain stem, hypothalamus, hypocretin

  17. Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, J; Benoit, L; Barrios-Lopez, B; Thienes, C; Meshgi, M; Agapov, A; Dobritsa, A; Nadala, C; Samadpour, M

    2016-11-01

    Mislabeling, contamination, and economic adulteration of meat products with undeclared pork tissues are illegal under regulations promulgated by numerous regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, analysis of the European meat industry has revealed pervasive meat adulteration, necessitating more extensive application of meat authentication testing. As existing methods for meat speciation require specialized equipment and/or training, we developed a detection system based on a lateral flow device (LFD) assay format capable of rapidly (~35min) identifying porcine residues derived from raw meat, cooked meat, and gelatin down to 0.01%, 1.0%, and 2.5% contamination, respectively. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with meat derived from chicken, turkey, horse, beef, lamb, or goat. Comparison with a commercial ELISA kit and PCR method revealed similar if not improved sensitivity, with the added feature that the LFD-based system required considerably less time to perform. Accordingly, this test system should aid the food industry and food control authorities in monitoring for adulteration with pork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of multiplex-PCR assay for rapid detection of Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made A. Tarini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim Candida spp. infection commonly occur in immunocompromised patients. Biochemical assay for identification of Candida spp. is time-consuming and shows many undetermined results. Specific detection for antibody, antigen and metabolites of Candida spp. had low sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we developed a rapid diagnostic method, Multiplex-PCR, to identify Candida spp.Methods Five Candida spp. isolates were cultured, identifi ed with germ tube and API® 20 C AUX (BioMerieux® SA kit. Furthermore, DNA was purified by QIAamp DNA mini (Qiagen® kit for Multiplex-PCR assay.Results DNA detection limit by Multiplex-PCR assays for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. glabrata were 4 pg, 0.98 pg, 0.98 pg, 0.5 pg and 16 pg respectively. This assay was also more sensitive than culture in that Multiplex-PCR could detect 2.6-2.9 x 100 CFU/ml, whereas culture 2.6-2.9 x 102 CFU/ml.Conclusion Multiplex-PCR is much more sensitive than culture and thus, can be recommended as a sensitive and specific assay for identification of Candida spp. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:83-7Keywords: Candida spp., multiplex-PCR

  19. Development of a micropulverized extraction method for rapid toxicological analysis of methamphetamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kakuta, Masaya; Iwata, Yuko T; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tazawa, Hidekatsu; Kimura, Hiroko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-07

    We developed a rapid sample preparation method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine (the major metabolite of methamphetamine) in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), to facilitate fast screening and quantitation. Two milligrams of hair were mechanically micropulverized for 5 min in a 2-ml plastic tube together with 100 microl of an aqueous solvent containing 10% acetonitrile, 100 mM trifluoroacetic acid and the corresponding deuterium analogues as internal standards. The pulverizing highly disintegrated the hair components, simultaneously allowing the extraction of any drugs present in the hair. After filtering the suspension with a membrane-filter unit, the clear filtrate was directly analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. No evaporation processes were required for sample preparation. Method optimization and validation study were carried out using real-case specimens and fortified samples in which the drugs had been artificially absorbed, respectively. Concentration ranges for quantitation were 0.040-125 and 0.040-25 ng/mg for methamphetamine and amphetamine, respectively. Real-case specimens were analyzed by the method presented here and by conventional ones to verify the applicability of our method to real-world analysis. Our method took less than 30 min for a set of chromatograms to be obtained from a washed hair sample.

  20. Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Noblet, Jean; Jaguelin-Peyraud, Yolande; Gilbert, Hélène; Mormède, Pierre; de Oliveira Donzele, Rita Flavia Miranda; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Renaudeau, David

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and thermoregulatory responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature (Ta) of pigs from two lines selected for high (RFI+) or low (RFI-) residual feed intake with the hypothesis that RFI- pigs producing less heat would better tolerate high Ta. Pigs (50 kg initial body weight; 17 per line among which 10 of them were catheterized) were individually housed in a climatic-controlled room where Ta was maintained at 24.2 ± 0.4 °C during 7 days and thereafter at 30.4 ± 0.7 °C during 14 days. Irrespective of Ta, RFI- pigs had lower feed intake (ADFI) and similar average daily gain (ADG) than RFI+ pigs. Whatever the line, ADFI, ADG, and feed efficiency decreased with increased Ta. Overall, the Ta increase resulted in an increase in rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) within the first 24-48 h and, subsequently, in a decrease followed by stabilization. The RT decrease during acclimation occurred 24 h earlier in RFI- pigs than in RFI+. Thyroid hormones and cortisol decreased at high Ta and it was similar in both lines. Based on performance and RT, ST, and RR responses, it seems that selection for low RFI tends to ameliorate pigs' tolerance to high Ta. Nevertheless, this selection does not induce significant differences between lines in endocrine and metabolite responses during thermal stress.

  1. The influence of drink temperature on thermoregulatory responses during prolonged exercise in a moderate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jason K W; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2007-07-01

    Nine males cycled at 53% (s = 2) of their peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) for 90 min (dry bulb temperature: 25.4 degrees C, s = 0.2; relative humidity: 61%, s = 3). One litre of flavoured water at 10 (cold), 37 (warm) or 50 degrees C (hot) was ingested 30 - 40 min into exercise. Immediately after the 90 min of exercise, participants cycled at 95%VO(2peak) to exhaustion to assess exercise capacity. Rectal and mean skin temperatures and heart rate were recorded. The gradient of rise in rectal temperature was influenced (P drink temperature. Mean skin temperature was highest in the hot trial (cold trial: 34.2 degrees C, s = 0.5; warm trial: 34.4 degrees C, s = 0.5; hot trial: 34.7 degrees C, s = 0.6; P warm trial: 134 beats . min(-1), s = 12; hot trial: 139 beats . min(-1), s = 13; P warm trial: 214 s, s = 52; hot trial: 203 s, s = 53; P = 0.562). The heat load and debt induced via drinking resulted in appropriate thermoregulatory reflexes during exercise leading to an observed heat content difference of only 33 kJ instead of the predicted 167 kJ between the cold and hot trials. These results suggest that there may be a role for drink temperature in influencing thermoregulation during exercise.

  2. The effect of exercise intensity on calf volume and thermoregulatory responses during upper body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoms Lindzi M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During upper body exercise the vascular adaptations of the leg have been reported to play an important thermoregulatory role. This study examined the effect of exercise intensity on thermoregulation during upper body exercise. Nine healthy male participants undertook an incremental exercise test on an arm crank ergo meter to determine peak power (Wpeak. The participants performed four experimental trials involving 5 minutes of arm exercise at either 45, 60, 75, or 90% Wpeak (70 rev.min-1 followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. Aural and skin temperatures, upper arm and calf heat flow were recorded. Calf volume was measured during exercise using plethysmography. During exercise at 45, 60, 75 and 90% Wpeak calf volume decreased (P<0.05 by -0.7±0.8, -1.4±0.9, -1.2±0.6 and -1.6±0.7% respectively. Differences were observed between 45 and 60% Wpeak, and 45 and 90% Wpeak (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest a redistribution of blood from the relatively inactive lower body during arm exercise of intensities up to 60%Wpeak after which point calf volume does not significantly decrease further. Therefore, the redistribution of blood from the inactive lower body does not produce a similar intensity dependent response to visceral blood flow during lower body exercise.

  3. THE RELIABILITY OF ADOLESCENT THERMOREGULATORY RESPONSES DURING A HEAT ACCLIMATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Williams

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the between trial variation of thermoregulatory measures during a heat acclimation protocol. Eight 14-16 y old boys completed three bouts of 20-min cycling at 45 % peak VO2 in a hot environment (35.1 ± 1.2 °C and 46. 4 ± 1.0 % relative humidity on two occasions separated by a minimum of 24 h. Reliability was assessed through analysis of within-subject variation, the change in the mean, and retest correlation for measurements of aural temperature (Tau, mean skin temperature (Tsk, heart rate (HR and oxygen uptake (VO2. Between trial differences were low for Tau, Tskbout1, Tskbout2and3 and HR with coefficients of variation 0.6 %, 1.5 %, 0.5 % and 4.0 %, respectively. The results demonstrate good reliability that will allow future investigators to precisely determine the extent of heat acclimation protocols in relation to the measurement error

  4. Behavioral, thermoregulatory, and operational aspects of shallow pool pens used in gilts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Michael Biazzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted to assess behaviors, thermoregulatory, and operational aspects of gilt breeding (Body weight, 25–110 kg whilst the animals were housed in 2-cm deep shallow pool pens (SPP, without the addition of water, compared to the use of fully compact floor pens (TSF during the winter and summer seasons. Commercial female strains for high lean tissue accretion were used, housed in grower/finisher pens for 108 days (11 animals/pen, 1.2 m2/animal. Instantaneous observations of behavior were carried out every 12 min between 7:00 and 19:00 hours throughout the six days of the raising period. At the end of the raising period, the operational aspects of cleaning the facilities were analyzed. A 2 × 2 factorial scheme design was used, with two types of floors and two seasons, with three replicates. The average temperatures in winter and summer were 19.9 ± 2.2°C and 24.5 ± 2.3°C, respectively. The use of SPP reduced aggressive behavior and increased exploratory behavior, increased the time for the daily cleaning, and reduced the time for the final cleaning of the pens.

  5. Ethnic differences in thermoregulatory responses during resting, passive and active heating: application of Werner's adaptation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Young; Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    For the coherent understanding of heat acclimatization in tropical natives, we compared ethnic differences between tropical and temperate natives during resting, passive and active heating conditions. Experimental protocols included: (1) a resting condition (an air temperature of 28°C with 50% RH), (2) a passive heating condition (28°C with 50% RH; leg immersion in a hot tub at a water temperature of 42°C), and (3) an active heating condition (32°C with 70% RH; a bicycle exercise). Morphologically and physically matched tropical natives (ten Malaysian males, MY) and temperate natives (ten Japanese males, JP) participated in all three trials. The results saw that: tropical natives had a higher resting rectal temperature and lower hand and foot temperatures at rest, smaller rise of rectal temperature and greater temperature rise in bodily extremities, and a lower sensation of thirst during passive and active heating than the matched temperate natives. It is suggested that tropical natives' homeostasis during heating is effectively controlled with the improved stability in internal body temperature and the increased capability of vascular circulation in extremities, with a lower thirst sensation. The enhanced stability of internal body temperature and the extended thermoregulatory capability of vascular circulation in the extremities of tropical natives can be interpreted as an interactive change to accomplish a thermal dynamic equilibrium in hot environments. These heat adaptive traits were explained by Wilder's law of initial value and Werner's process and controller adaptation model.

  6. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for th...

  7. Undergraduate medical education: tendencies and requirements in a rapidly developing Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breipohl, W; Johansson, C; Hansis, M; Steiger, J; Naguro, T; Müller, K; Mestres, P

    2000-01-01

    This study pinpoints the necessity to constantly monitor local approaches in undergraduate medical education on an inter-European scale. Traditional undergraduate medical curricula need restructuring to account for the increasing amount of medical knowledge and rapid changes and developments in societies, nosology, therapy and IT. European undergraduate medical curricula should be harmonized not egalized, with a focus on inter-European sharing of resources, mobility, credit (allocation, accumulation and transfer), definition of European and trans-European mission statements, identification of quality metrics, advice on dealing with conflicting aims such as specialization and generalization, on communicating core knowledge instead of providing overabundance of information, and on introducing multifaceted teaching and learning methods, as well as providing strategies for life long learning. Sound medical education can no longer and nowhere be considered under the autonomous auspices of individual Medical Schools or national philosophies. It has to be perceived and structured as a competitive and flexible approach which promotes life long learning of teachers, students, physicians and other related staff with international awareness. It is stressed that student and staff mobility, as well as virtual mobility in the form of worldwide available teaching modules and expertise have to be incorporated into national medical curricula. This is to guarantee up-to-date education in support of patient demands, future professionality and competitiveness of students, physicians and Public Health System institutions. The formal approaches of traditional subject related curricula as well as problem based learning must be linked with quality approved state of the art ODL, evaluated international CME strategies and training in the utilization of IT in preparation of lifelong learning. Strategies for the use of IT need updating on a regular basis to diminish the gap between

  8. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  9. Development of an isothermal amplification-based assay for the rapid visual detection of Salmonella bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Bin; Zang, Yu-Xuan; Du, Xin-Jun; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2017-09-01

    The efficient and timely detection of pathogens is a major concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to establish a rapid detection method for Salmonella bacteria in food samples to facilitate timely treatment. Widely used detection methods currently include culture-based methods and PCR-based methods. The former are time consuming, requiring 2 to 3 d, whereas the latter have higher accuracy but are typically complicated, requiring expertise and expensive instruments. In this study, a sensitive and rapid approach for the visual and point-of-use detection of Salmonella bacteria based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a lateral-flow (LF) nucleic acid strip was established. We designed a pair of primers according to the invA gene of Salmonella bacteria: one was modified with digoxin, and the other was modified with biotin. In the presence of the biotin- and digoxin-modified primers and target DNA, the RPA produced a substantial amount of duplex DNA attached to biotin and digoxin. The products were detected using LF strips through immunoreaction: anti-digoxin antibodies on the gold nanoparticles, digoxin on the duplex, streptavidin on the LF test line, and biotin on the duplex. The developed RPA-LF assay allowed detection of Salmonella genomic DNA in less than 20 min with simple water bath equipment or portable thermal equipment. In addition, the RPA-LF assay was highly sensitive, with a detection limit as low as 20 fg of target DNA or 1.05 × 101 cfu of bacteria in pure culture, and highly specific, exhibiting no cross-reaction with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella, Enterobacter aerogenes, or Campylobacter jejuni. Importantly, Salmonella could be detected in milk and chicken breast at concentrations as low as 1.05 × 100 cfu/mL or 1.05 × 100 cfu/g after enrichment for 2 h and in eggs at 1.05 × 100 cfu/g after enrichment for 4 h. Furthermore, RPA was more sensitive than PCR, which requires a thermal cycling

  10. Software Toolbox Development for Rapid Earthquake Source Optimisation Combining InSAR Data and Seismic Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, Marius P.; Sudhaus, Henriette; Heimann, Sebastian; Steinberg, Andreas; Bathke, Hannes M.

    2017-04-01

    We present a modular open-source software framework (pyrocko, kite, grond; http://pyrocko.org) for rapid InSAR data post-processing and modelling of tectonic and volcanic displacement fields derived from satellite data. Our aim is to ease and streamline the joint optimisation of earthquake observations from InSAR and GPS data together with seismological waveforms for an improved estimation of the ruptures' parameters. Through this approach we can provide finite models of earthquake ruptures and therefore contribute to a timely and better understanding of earthquake kinematics. The new kite module enables a fast processing of unwrapped InSAR scenes for source modelling: the spatial sub-sampling and data error/noise estimation for the interferogram is evaluated automatically and interactively. The rupture's near-field surface displacement data are then combined with seismic far-field waveforms and jointly modelled using the pyrocko.gf framwork, which allows for fast forward modelling based on pre-calculated elastodynamic and elastostatic Green's functions. Lastly the grond module supplies a bootstrap-based probabilistic (Monte Carlo) joint optimisation to estimate the parameters and uncertainties of a finite-source earthquake rupture model. We describe the developed and applied methods as an effort to establish a semi-automatic processing and modelling chain. The framework is applied to Sentinel-1 data from the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence, where we present the earthquake mechanism and rupture model from which we derive regions of increased coulomb stress. The open source software framework is developed at GFZ Potsdam and at the University of Kiel, Germany, it is written in Python and C programming languages. The toolbox architecture is modular and independent, and can be utilized flexibly for a variety of geophysical problems. This work is conducted within the BridGeS project (http://www.bridges.uni-kiel.de) funded by the German Research Foundation DFG

  11. Colon cancer in rapidly developing countries: review of the lifestyle, dietary, consanguinity and hereditary risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer rates are rising dramatically in once low incidence nations. These nations are undergoing rapid economic development and are known as “nations in transition” (NIT. This review identifies some of the most common etiological risk factors of colon cancer in these nations and evaluates the existing epidemiological evidence. The main risk factors which were found to be prevalent in NIT include: lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity, obesity and abdominal adiposity, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking; dietary factors such as fatty food and red meat consumption. Protective factors included white meat and fiber consumption. Several studies found to have significantly higher rates of colon cancer among the young population (<40 years old. There appears to be a quantitative and qualitative increase in risk to relatives of patients diagnosed at a young age compared with those diagnosed later in life, at least part of which is likely to be the result of a hereditary susceptibility. Close relatives of patients with colon cancer are at an increased risk of developing a colon cancer. Close relatives of early onset cases warrant more intensive endoscopic screening and at an earlier age than relatives of patients diagnosed at older ages. Furthermore, these suggest the existence of genetic predispositions in these nations which need to be investigated further and have implications for screening programs. In conclusion, public health awareness campaigns promoting prevention of modifiable risk factors and screening initiatives with guidelines suited to the age-specific incidence rates of NIT are needed very urgently.

  12. Holographic Spectroscopy for Rapid Electron Bunch Analysis: Development of an Instrument with THZ Resolved Optical Gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Albert

    2011-10-28

    radiation and provided the first step in the development of a self contained THz HFTS for rapid electron bunch shape analysis. Our first experiments confirmed the idea and as a side result made possible a completely new bunch length monitor eliminating any need for an external laser since only radiation produced by the bunch itself is involved. A more advanced instrument was designed to use the incoherent visible radiation pulse from the synchrotron source for sampling the THz interference pattern. It has been built and the first tests are to be conducted in April 2011 at the Jefferson FEL facility.

  13. Rapid HIV testing for developing countries: the challenge of false-negative tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Ram

    2012-06-01

    It is a common practice in resource-constrained countries to accept two positive rapid HIV antibody test results as diagnostic for HIV infection. Because these tests are inexpensive and results are obtained quickly, they are recommended by the WHO to "scale-up" HIV testing to increase the number of people tested. The negative predictive value of rapid HIV tests is so high that negative results are considered conclusive despite the fact that false-negative results can occur in several situations. While the specificity and sensitivity of rapid HIV tests in resource-rich countries is acceptable, there are only limited data about their performance in resource-constrained countries. The challenges of rapid HIV testing in these situations will be discussed.

  14. Development of a rapid method for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol using Quenchbody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ryoji; Kaigome, Rena [Biomedical Division, Ushio Inc., 1-12 Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855 (Japan); Ohkawa, Hideo [Research Center for Environmental Genomics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko, E-mail: y-konishi@azabu-u.ac.jp [Department of Food and Life Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan)

    2015-08-12

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the antigen-dependent removal of a quenching effect on a fluorophore attached to antibody domains. In order to develop a method using Q-body for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, anti-DON Q-body was synthesized from the sequence information of a monoclonal antibody specific to DON. When the purified anti-DON Q-body was mixed with DON, a dose-dependent increase in the fluorescence intensity was observed and the detection range was between 0.0003 and 3 mg L{sup −1}. The coefficients of variation were 7.9% at 0.003 mg L{sup −1}, 5.0% at 0.03 mg L{sup −1} and 13.7% at 0.3 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.006 mg L{sup −1} for DON in wheat. The Q-body showed an antigen-dependent fluorescence enhancement even in the presence of wheat extracts. To validate the analytical method using Q-body, a spike-and-recovery experiment was performed using four spiked wheat samples. The recoveries were in the range of 94.9–100.2%. The concentrations of DON in twenty-one naturally contaminated wheat samples were quantitated by the Q-body method, LC-MS/MS and an immunochromatographic assay kit. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the levels of DON contamination in the samples were between 0.001 and 2.68 mg kg{sup −1}. The concentrations of DON quantitated by LC-MS/MS were more strongly correlated with those using the Q-body method (R{sup 2} = 0.9760) than the immunochromatographic assay kit (R{sup 2} = 0.8824). These data indicate that the Q-body system for the determination of DON in wheat samples was successfully developed and Q-body is expected to have a range of applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • A rapid method for quantitation of DON using Q-body has been developed. • A recovery test using the anti-DON Q-body was performed. • The concentrations of DON in wheat

  15. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  16. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-Yu.; Lai, Wei-Hsiang [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701 (China); Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, P.O. Box No. 90008-8-3 Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 325 (China)

    2008-04-15

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm x 6 cm x 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm x 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm{sup -2} and 0.4 mg cm{sup -2}, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm{sup -2} at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm{sup -2} at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of

  17. Development of macroporous calcium phosphate scaffold processed via microwave rapid drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamuna-Thevi, K., E-mail: jamuna@sirim.my [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Zakaria, F.A. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Othman, R. [Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Muhamad, S. [Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre (HMRC), Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-06-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold has great potential in bone tissue engineering applications. A new method to fabricate macroporous calcium phosphate (CP) scaffold via microwave irradiation, followed by conventional sintering to form HA scaffold was developed. Incorporation of trisodium citrate dihydrate and citric acid in the CP mixture gave macroporous scaffolds upon microwave rapid drying. In this work, a mixture of {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), trisodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid and double distilled de-ionised water (DDI) was exposed to microwave radiation to form a macroporous structure. Based on gross eye examinations, addition of trisodium citrate at 30 and 40 wt.% in the CP mixture ({beta}-TCP and CaCO{sub 3}) without citric acid indicates increasing order of pore volume where the highest porosity yield was observed at 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate addition and the pore size was detected at several millimeters. Therefore, optimization of pore size was performed by adding 3-7 wt.% of citric acid in the CP mixture which was separately mixed with 30 and 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate for comparison purposes. Fabricated scaffolds were calcined at 600 deg. C and washed with DDI water to remove the sodium hydroxycarbonate and sintered at 1250 deg. C to form HA phase as confirmed in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Based on Archimedes method, HA scaffolds prepared from 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate with 3-7 wt.% of citric acid added CP mixture have an open and interconnected porous structure ranging from 51 to 53 vol.% and observation using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the pore size distribution between 100 and 500 {mu}m. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the porous HA scaffolds have no cytotoxic potential on MG63 osteoblast-like cells which might allow for their use as biomaterials.

  18. Using Simulation to Develop Care Models for Rapid Response and Code Teams at a Satellite Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Amy R L; Snider, Julie; Marshall, Cheryl; Kramer, Kathleen; Geis, Gary L; Tegtmeyer, Ken; Gosdin, Craig H

    2017-12-01

    Our institution recently completed an expansion of an acute care inpatient unit within a satellite hospital that does not include an on-site ICU or PICU. Because of expected increases in volume and acuity, new care models for Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) and Code Blue Teams were necessary. Using simulation-based training, our objectives were to define the optimal roles and responsibilities for team members (including ICU physicians via telemedicine), refine the staffing of RRTs and code Teams, and identify latent safety threats (LSTs) before opening the expanded inpatient unit. The laboratory-based intervention consisted of 8 scenarios anticipated to occur at the new campus, with each simulation followed by an iterative debriefing process and a 30-minute safety talk delivered within 4-hour interprofessional sessions. In situ sessions were delivered after construction and before patients were admitted. A total of 175 clinicians completed a 4-hour course in 17 sessions. Over 60 clinicians participated during 2 in situ sessions before the opening of the unit. Eleven team-level knowledge deficits, 19 LSTs, and 25 system-level issues were identified, which directly informed changes and refinements in care models at the bedside and via telemedicine consultation. Simulation-based training can assist in developing staffing models, refining the RRT and code processes, and identify LSTs in a new pediatric acute care unit. This training model could be used as a template for other facilities looking to expand pediatric acute care at outlying smaller, more resource-limited facilities to evaluate new teams and environments before patient exposure. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of capripoxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amaresh; Babiuk, Shawn; McIntosh, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    Sheep pox (SP), goat pox (GP), and lumpy skin disease (LSD), caused by capripoxviruses (CaPVs), are economically important diseases of sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Here, we report the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of CaPVs. LAMP primers were designed to target a conserved gene encoding the poly(A) polymerase small subunit (VP39) of CaPVs. Hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was incorporated to monitor assay progress by color change from violet when negative to sky blue when positive, and results were verified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP assay was shown to be highly specific for CaPVs, with no apparent cross-reactivity to other related viruses (near neighbors) or viruses that cause similar clinical signs (look-a-like viruses). The performance of LAMP was compared to that of a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. LAMP and qPCR exhibited similar analytical sensitivities, with limits of detection of 3 and 8 viral genome copies, respectively. Diagnostic specificity was assessed on 36 negative specimens, including swabs and EDTA blood from control sheep, goats, and cattle. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed on 275 specimens, including EDTA blood, swabs, and tissues from experimentally infected sheep, goats, and cattle. Overall agreement on diagnostic test results between the two assays was 90 to 95% for specificity and 89 to 100% for sensitivity. The LAMP assay described in this report is simple to use, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and particularly well suited for the diagnosis of capripox in less well equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited.

  20. Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Rapid Molecular Serotyping of Haemophilus parasuis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sarah E.; Wang, Jinhong; Hernandez-Garcia, Juan; Weinert, Lucy A.; Luan, Shi-Lu; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Angen, Øystein; Aragon, Virginia; Williamson, Susanna M.; Langford, Paul R.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Wren, Brendan W.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer's disease and pneumonia in pigs. Indirect hemagglutination (IHA) is typically used to serotype this bacterium, distinguishing 15 serovars with some nontypeable isolates. The capsule loci of the 15 reference strains have been annotated, and significant genetic variation was identified between serovars, with the exception of serovars 5 and 12. A capsule locus and in silico serovar were identified for all but two nontypeable isolates in our collection of >200 isolates. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex PCR, based on variation within the capsule loci of the 15 serovars of H. parasuis, for rapid molecular serotyping. The multiplex PCR (mPCR) distinguished between all previously described serovars except 5 and 12, which were detected by the same pair of primers. The detection limit of the mPCR was 4.29 × 105 ng/μl bacterial genomic DNA, and high specificity was indicated by the absence of reactivity against closely related commensal Pasteurellaceae and other bacterial pathogens of pigs. A subset of 150 isolates from a previously sequenced H. parasuis collection was used to validate the mPCR with 100% accuracy compared to the in silico results. In addition, the two in silico-nontypeable isolates were typeable using the mPCR. A further 84 isolates were analyzed by mPCR and compared to the IHA serotyping results with 90% concordance (excluding those that were nontypeable by IHA). The mPCR was faster, more sensitive, and more specific than IHA, enabling the differentiation of 14 of the 15 serovars of H. parasuis. PMID:26424843

  1. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  2. Continuing Professional Development Evaluation: Two Rapid Review Courses inNephrology and Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shehab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Continuing professional development (CPD is anovel approach to increase professional knowledge and skills. The aim of this study is to explore participants’ characteristics and to understand participants’ views on two rapid review courses (RRCs as part of CPD program, and to assess healthcare providers’ views about the use of internet for accessing medical information.Methods: Data were collected from 150 participants who attended an RRC in Nephrology and Rheumatology as part of an ongoing CME program.Results: Participants’ response rate was 92% and 84.4% in Nephrology and Rheumatology RRCs, respectively. Participants’ Mean Age±SD were 39±2.1 and 41±2.1 years in the Nephrology and Rheumatology courses, respectively. Demographic variables, i.e., age, gender, and specialization showed a significant (p<0.01 impact on the learning objectives of the program. Further, participants reported that the course material had a significant (p<0.02 impacton their knowledge. Finding new medical information was the primary motive to search the internet among all participants. About half of the subjects reported knowledge of their preferred medical education sites and had access at their clinical setup. Barriers to internet use included lack of specific information, difficulty to download contents, and excessive material. Professional association websites, online journals, and CME programs were the most frequently searched sources of information. Most of the subjects reported significant (p<0.02 barriers to find medical resources on the internet and to adequately utilize the currently available medical search engines available in the healthcare system.Conclusion: A discipline specific and integrated CPD programmay have provided dual benefit such as accredited CME hours and a significant change in the participants’ knowledge. There is a need to increase Internet accessibility and capacity in the current healthcare facilities. Future CPD

  3. Activation of Notch3 in Glomeruli Promotes the Development of Rapidly Progressive Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Machhour, Fala; Keuylian, Zela; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Notch3 expression is found in the glomerular podocytes of patients with lupus nephritis or focal segmental GN but not in normal kidneys. Here, we show that activation of the Notch3 receptor in the glomeruli is a turning point inducing phenotypic changes in podocytes promoting renal inflammation and fibrosis and leading to disease progression. In a model of rapidly progressive GN, Notch3 expression was induced by several-fold in podocytes concurrently with disease progression. By contrast, mice lacking Notch3 expression were protected because they exhibited less proteinuria, uremia, and inflammatory infiltration. Podocyte outgrowth from glomeruli isolated from wild-type mice during the early phase of the disease was higher than outgrowth from glomeruli of mice lacking Notch3. In vitro studies confirmed that podocytes expressing active Notch3 reorganize their cytoskeleton toward a proliferative/migratory and inflammatory phenotype. We then administered antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting Notch3 or scramble control oligodeoxynucleotides in wild-type mice concomitant to disease induction. Both groups developed chronic renal disease, but mice injected with Notch3 antisense had lower values of plasma urea and proteinuria and inflammatory infiltration. The improvement of renal function was accompanied by fewer deposits of fibrin within the glomeruli and by decreased peritubular inflammation. Finally, abnormal Notch3 staining was observed in biopsy samples of patients with crescentic GN. These results demonstrate that abnormal activation of Notch3 may be involved in the progression of renal disease by promoting migratory and proinflammatory pathways. Inhibiting Notch3 activation could be a novel, promising approach to treat GN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  4. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  5. Development of Novel Method for Rapid Extract of Radionuclides from Solution Using Polymer Ligand Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jung H.

    Accurate and fast determination of the activity of radionuclides in a sample is critical for nuclear forensics and emergency response. Radioanalytical techniques are well established for radionuclides measurement, however, they are slow and labor intensive, requiring extensive radiochemical separations and purification prior to analysis. With these limitations of current methods, there is great interest for a new technique to rapidly process samples. This dissertation describes a new analyte extraction medium called Polymer Ligand Film (PLF) developed to rapidly extract radionuclides. Polymer Ligand Film is a polymer medium with ligands incorporated in its matrix that selectively and rapidly extract analytes from a solution. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure necessary to chemically isolate radionuclides for determination by alpha spectrometry or beta counting. Five different ligands were tested for plutonium extraction: bis(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP]), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), trialkyl methylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), 4,4'(5')-di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), and 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (HEH[EHP]). The ligands that were effective for plutonium extraction further studied for uranium extraction. The plutonium recovery by PLFs has shown dependency on nitric acid concentration and ligand to total mass ratio. H2DEH[MDP] PLFs performed best with 1:10 and 1:20 ratio PLFs. 50.44% and 47.61% of plutonium were extracted on the surface of PLFs with 1M nitric acid for 1:10 and 1:20 PLF, respectively. HDEHP PLF provided the best combination of alpha spectroscopy resolution and plutonium recovery with 1:5 PLF when used with 0.1M nitric acid. The overall analyte recovery was lower than electrodeposited samples, which typically has recovery above 80%. However, PLF is designed to be a rapid field deployable screening technique and consistency is more important

  6. Essential Function of Dicer in Resolving DNA Damage in the Rapidly Dividing Cells of the Developing and Malignant Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Swahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of genomic integrity is critical during neurodevelopment, particularly in rapidly dividing cerebellar granule neuronal precursors that experience constitutive replication-associated DNA damage. As Dicer was recently recognized to have an unexpected function in the DNA damage response, we examined whether Dicer was important for preserving genomic integrity in the developing brain. We report that deletion of Dicer in the developing mouse cerebellum resulted in the accumulation of DNA damage leading to cerebellar progenitor degeneration, which was rescued with p53 deficiency; deletion of DGCR8 also resulted in similar DNA damage and cerebellar degeneration. Dicer deficiency also resulted in DNA damage and death in other rapidly dividing cells including embryonic stem cells and the malignant cerebellar progenitors in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. Together, these results identify an essential function of Dicer in resolving the spontaneous DNA damage that occurs during the rapid proliferation of developmental progenitors and malignant cells.

  7. Integrating Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing into Agile System Development of Healthcare IT: A Methodological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The development of more usable and effective healthcare information systems has become a critical issue. In the software industry methodologies such as agile and iterative development processes have emerged to lead to more effective and usable systems. These approaches highlight focusing on user needs and promoting iterative and flexible development practices. Evaluation and testing of iterative agile development cycles is considered an important part of the agile methodology and iterative processes for system design and re-design. However, the issue of how to effectively integrate usability testing methods into rapid and flexible agile design cycles has remained to be fully explored. In this paper we describe our application of an approach known as low-cost rapid usability testing as it has been applied within agile system development in healthcare. The advantages of the integrative approach are described, along with current methodological considerations.

  8. Development of a high-speed real-time PCR system for rapid and precise nucleotide recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common method used to create copies of a specific target region of a DNA sequence and to produce large quantities of DNA. A few DNA molecules, which act as templates, are rapidly amplified by PCR into many billions of copies. PCR is a key technology in genome-based biological analysis, revolutionizing many life science fields such as medical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and countermeasures against bioterrorism. Thus, many applications have been developed with the thermal cycling. For these PCR applications, one of the most important key factors is reduction in the data acquisition time. To reduce the acquisition time, it is necessary to decrease the temperature transition time between the high and low ends as much as possible. We have developed a novel rapid real-time PCR system based on rapid exchange of media maintained at different temperatures. This system consists of two thermal reservoirs and a reaction chamber for PCR observation. The temperature transition was achieved within 0.3 sec, and good thermal stability was achieved during thermal cycling with rapid exchange of circulating media. This system allows rigorous optimization of the temperatures required for each stage of the PCR processes. Resulting amplicons were confirmed by electrophoresis. Using the system, rapid DNA amplification was accomplished within 3.5 min, including initial heating and complete 50 PCR cycles. It clearly shows that the device could allow us faster temperature switching than the conventional conduction-based heating systems based on Peltier heating/cooling.

  9. Analyses of thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle exposed to simulated heat waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Brandl, T M; Eigenberg, R A; Hahn, G L; Nienaber, J A; Mader, T L; Spiers, D E; Parkhurst, A M

    2005-05-01

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance, and in the most severe cases, death of the animals, thus causing the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to evaluate dynamics of thermoregulation and feeding activities when feeder cattle were exposed to simulated heat waves, in comparison with repeated sinusoidal hot and thermoneutral environments. Nine beef steers were randomly assigned to an individual pen in one of three environmental chambers. Each chamber was subjected to each of three temperature regimes (heatwave simulation from Rockport, Mo., 1995, heatwave simulation from Columbia, Mo., 1999, and Controlled heat stress treatment of 32+/-7 degrees C) for a period of 18 days, according to a Latin square treatment design, with a 10-day thermoneutral period (18+/-7 degrees C) separating treatment periods. Respiration rate, core body temperature, heat production, feed intake, and feeding behavior were measured on each animal for the duration of the experiment. Differences were found in all treatments for all parameters except feeding behavior. It was shown that the two simulated heat waves elicited very different thermoregulatory responses. Based on these results the heat wave centered at Rockport, Mo. in 1995 was devastating because the animals were not acclimated to hot conditions, thus causing an acute response to heat stress. The responses of cattle to conditions at Columbia, Mo. showed some acclimation to heat prior to the peak stress days, and therefore a dampened response was seen. It appears the extreme conditions at Columbia, Mo., 1999 were made severe by environmental conditions not simulated during this study (low wind speed and intensive solar radiation). Overall, it was determined while a cyclic heat stress treatment is a representative model to test heat stress in cattle, further heat stress experiments should be conducted in an actual feedlot.

  10. Analyses of thermoregulatory responses of feeder cattle exposed to simulated heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Brandl, T. M.; Eigenberg, R. A.; Hahn, G. L.; Nienaber, J. A.; Mader, T. L.; Spiers, D. E.; Parkhurst, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Heat stress in feedlot cattle causes reduced performance, and in the most severe cases, death of the animals, thus causing the loss of millions of dollars in revenue to the cattle industry. A study was designed to evaluate dynamics of thermoregulation and feeding activities when feeder cattle were exposed to simulated heat waves, in comparison with repeated sinusoidal hot and thermoneutral environments. Nine beef steers were randomly assigned to an individual pen in one of three environmental chambers. Each chamber was subjected to each of three temperature regimes (Heatwave simulation from Rockport, Mo., 1995, Heatwave simulation from Columbia, Mo., 1999, and Controlled heat stress treatment of 32±7°C) for a period of 18 days, according to a Latin square treatment design, with a 10-day thermoneutral period (18±7°C) separating treatment periods. Respiration rate, core body temperature, heat production, feed intake, and feeding behavior were measured on each animal for the duration of the experiment. Differences were found in all treatments for all parameters except feeding behavior. It was shown that the two simulated heat waves elicited very different thermoregulatory responses. Based on these results the heat wave centered at Rockport, Mo. in 1995 was devastating because the animals were not acclimated to hot conditions, thus causing an acute response to heat stress. The responses of cattle to conditions at Columbia, Mo. showed some acclimation to heat prior to the peak stress days, and therefore a dampened response was seen. It appears the extreme conditions at Columbia, Mo., 1999 were made severe by environmental conditions not simulated during this study (low wind speed and intensive solar radiation). Overall, it was determined while a cyclic heat stress treatment is a representative model to test heat stress in cattle, further heat stress experiments should be conducted in an actual feedlot.

  11. Influence of the menstrual cycle and oral contraceptives on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grucza, R; Pekkarinen, H; Titov, E K; Kononoff, A; Hänninen, O

    1993-01-01

    Thermoregulatory responses to exercise in relation to the phase of the menstrual cycle were studied in ten women taking oral contraceptives (P) and in ten women not taking oral contraceptives (NP). Each subject was tested for maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) and for 50% VO2max exercise in the follicular (F) and luteal (L) phases of the menstrual cycle. Since the oral contraceptives would have prevented ovulation a quasi-follicular phase (q-F) and a quasi-luteal phase (q-L) of the menstrual cycle were assumed for P subjects. Exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C and relative air humidity of 50%. Rectal (Tre), mean skin (Tsk), mean body (Tb) temperatures and heart rate (fc) were measured. Sweat rate was estimated by the continuous measurement of relative humidity of air in a ventilated capsule placed on the chest, converted to absolute pressure (PH2Ochest). Gain for sweating was calculated as a ratio of increase in PH2Ochest to the appropriate increase in Tre for the whole period of sweating (G) and for unsteady-state (Gu) separately. The VO2max did not differ either between the groups of subjects or between the phases of the menstrual cycle. In P, rectal temperature threshold for sweating (Tre,td) was 37.85 degrees C in q-L and 37.60 degrees C in q-F (P menstrual phase-related differences were observed either in the dynamics of sweating or in G.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  13. Local and remote thermoregulatory changes affect NIRS measurement in forearm muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messere, Alessandro; Roatta, Silvestro

    2015-11-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assessment in skeletal muscle is potentially affected by circulatory changes occurring in superficial tissues. The aim of this study was to separately assess the interference from skin microcirculation and large vein blood flow by investigating the effect of selective local and remote warming-induced vasodilation, respectively. Blood volume and oxygenation changes were investigated in the forearm muscles of healthy subjects in two experimental series (ES) during selective forearm (ES1, n = 12) or hand warming (ES2, n = 10). In ES1, the response to muscle contraction (10 s, 70 % MVC) and occlusion before and after warming was also investigated, while in ES2 two NIRS probes were expressly positioned over a visible vein and over a vein-free area. Local warming increased the modified Beer-Lambert (BL) blood volume indicator, tHb, by 5.3 ± 3.6 µmol/L cm to an extent comparable to post-contraction hyperemia (6.8 ± 2.9 µmol/L cm, p < 0.01). Remote warming increased skin blood flow at the hand and tHb at both forearm sites (on average: 5.4 ± 4.8 µmol/L cm, p < 0.01). Conversely, indicators of blood volume and oxygenation, based on spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS), were not affected by any of the warming stimuli. These results demonstrate for the first time that: (1) blood drained by superficial veins may affect BL measurement; (2) it is difficult to exclude veins from the measurement by simple visual inspection of the cutaneous surface; (3) SRS effectively rejects artifacts from superficial hemodynamic changes in both cutaneous microcirculation and large veins. These results bear implications to conditions in which thermoregulatory adjustments cannot be excluded.

  14. A Development of Rapid, Practical and Selective Process for Preparation of Z-Oximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Sung, Gi Hyeon; Yoon, Yongjin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeumjong [Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Oximes are important functional groups in organic chemistry due to their synthetic utility as protecting groups for carbonyl groups and their ability to form other functionalities, and their biological activity. Oximes are commonly prepared by condensing aldehydes and ketones with hydroxylamines. These reactions do not always go to completion and reaction times can be long, and therefore there has been interest in more convenient and efficient methods. To avoid the typical disadvantage, conversion of aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding oximes was accomplished by using various catalysts such as organic acid/bases, AcONa, alumina, TiO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} silica gel, Oxone, NaOH, basic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide, polyoxometalates, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and CuSO{sub 4}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} under the solvent, the solvent-free or the microwave conditions. These are one and more drowbacks such as long reaction time, use of catalysts, inconvenients due to solid-sate reaction, low yields and limitaion of some carbonyl compounds. On the other hand, H. Sharghi, et al.,14 reported the catalysis of the stereoselectivity of CuSO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the oximation of aldehydes and ketones under solvent-free conditions. Although this method show high selectivity, it is inconvenient for the large scale experiments and the industrial process due to the solvent-free condition. Therefore, we attempted to develop a more convenient and efficient solution method. According to the literatures, treatment of potassium carbonate with methanol generates slightly the potassium methoxide, which may be useful for forming the free NH{sub 2}OH from its salts. We describe the oximation of aldehyde and ketone using NH{sub 2}OH·HCl/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in methanol solvent. We selected oximation of acetophenone (1a) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a model and its behavior was investigated in seven solvents involving methanol (Table 1). As shown in the Entry 2 in

  15. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  16. Development of a rapid and simple Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system for the fungal pathogen Heterobasidion annosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas Samils; Malin Elfstrand; Daniel L. Lindner Czederpiltz; Jan Fahleson; Ake Olson; Christina Dixelius; Jan Stenlid

    2006-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum causes root and butt-rot in trees and is the most serious forest pathogen in the northern hemisphere. We developed a rapid and simple Agrobacterium-mediated method of gene delivery into H. annosum to be used in functional studies of candidate genes and for visualization of mycelial interactions. Heterobasidion annosum TC 32-1 was cocultivated at...

  17. Working Smarter Not Harder: Using a Pedagogical-Based Model in the Rapid Development of Quality Hybrid Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jodi E.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study explored how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member interviews, course syllabi, and…

  18. Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

  19. Development of an ELISA for Rapid Detection of Anti-Type VII Collagen Autoantibodies in Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, M; Chan, L S; Cai, X; O'Toole, E A; Sample, J C; Woodley, D T

    1997-01-01

    .... In this study, we developed a rapid, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect autoantibody activity against the complete NC1 domain of type VII collagen with the use of an eukaryotic-expressed, recombinant human NC1 antigen...

  20. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seng Fook; Tay, Sun Tee; Sermswan, Rasana; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Chua, Kek Heng; Puthucheary, Savithri D

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a multiplex PCR assay for rapid identification and differentiation of cultures for Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia cepacia complex. The assay is valuable for use in clinical and veterinary laboratories, and in a deployable laboratory during outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  2. Spatial–Temporal Patterns and Driving Factors of Rapid Urban Land Development in Provincial China: A Case Study of Jiangsu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingke Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its economic reform and opening-up, China has undergone unprecedented urbanization, where massive areas of rural land have been converted into urban use. Urban land development plays an important role in dynamic urban economic development. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of urban land development and its mechanisms in China. We conceptualized the mechanism of urban land development from multiple perspectives based on a case study in Jiangsu Province. We employed the methods of global and local spatial auto-correlation detection and spatial lag model to analyze the provincial land use conveyance and survey data from 2004 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 to understand the dynamics of urban land development. The results show that urban land development varies significantly across different time periods, spatial scales, and regions in Jiangsu. Higher absolute urban land development mainly occurred in Sunan, expanding to Subei and Suzhong, while faster development occurred mainly in Subei, where the initial bases were lower but had strong economic growth potential. The regression analysis shows that market activities and administrative levels had played a more critical role in driving urban land development, which suggests that rapid urban land development has institutional and market foundations. Urban land development was not only a consequence of economic development but also a strategy of local governments to stimulate and govern the urban economy. This study enriches the literature on urban dynamics by providing an institutional understanding of rapid urban land development in a transitional economy.

  3. A prototype Lab Box with DSK 'C6711/13 for rapid DSP algorithm development

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Graziano

    2007-01-01

    A system based on the TMS320C6711 DSK Starter Kit, enclosed in a special chassis, designed for real-time DSP algorithms testing, is described. Some evaluation of MATLab software Rapid Prototyping tools for a "Virtual Dubbing" application on damaged speech is also given.

  4. Rapid Naming Speed Components and Reading Development in a Consistent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Fella, Argyro; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict word and text reading fluency in a consistent orthography (Greek). In total, 68 children were followed from Grade 2 to Grade 6 and were assessed three times on RAN (Digits and Objects), phonological awareness, orthographic processing, speed of…

  5. Governing Rapid Growth in Asia: State-led Development in Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T-W. Ngo (Tak-Wing)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth in Asia has often been explained in terms of effective policies pursued by a “developmental state”. In particular, countries in East Asia are said to be characterized by the presence of a strong state with technocratic capacity and social embeddedness. This inaugural address

  6. Development of a novel multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of virulence associated genes of Pasteurella multocida from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkhowa, S

    2015-09-01

    As the pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida is associated with various virulence factors (VFs), the aim of the study was to develop a novel multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay for the rapid detection of important virulence associated genes (VAGs) of P. multocida isolates from pigs. The target recognized VFs used in the study were diverse adhesins (ptfA and pfhA), toxins (toxA), siderophores (tonB and hgbA), sialidases (nanB, nanH) and outer membrane proteins (ompA, ompH, oma87 and plpB). The primers for the genes encoding these VFs were designed by primer3 software (http://bioinfo.ut.ee/primer3-0.4.0/) using gene sequences available in Genbank. The detection limit of the developed assay was 10(2)  CFU ml(-1) . The m-PCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against Bordetella bronchiseptica which also commonly infects pigs. We applied m-PCR to the field samples, and the results obtained were the same as the single PCR results. The developed assay would be very useful for veterinary diagnostic laboratories and for others interested in the rapid virulence profiling of porcine P. multocida isolates circulating in the piggeries. The study reports the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of 11 important VAGs of Pasteurella multocida isolates from pigs. Rapid and simultaneous detection of recognized VFs of the organism are essential to know the virulo-types of P. multocida isolates circulating in the piggeries. The developed novel assay will be very useful for the rapid detection of VAGs of P. multocida isolates from pigs. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling)...

  8. Development a rapid and accurate multiplex real time PCR method for the detection Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarkar, Roya; Mehrabadi, Jalil Fallah; Noormohammadi, Zahra; Mirnejad, Reza

    2017-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases easily spread among sexually active people and often have no symptoms. Rapid and accurate method for detecting these infections are necessary in early stages. The traditional detection methods of them are difficult and time-consuming. In this study, multiplex real time PCR was optimized for rapid identification of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis in a single tube and was performed with our designed primers. The sensitivity test was carried out to designed primers with diluted genomic DNA. To defined the specificity, non STD bacteria were used as DNA template. This study indicated that the developed multiplex real time PCR can be an effective alternative procedure to the conventional methods for rapid and accurate identification of C Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. Multiplex real-time PCR Results of them were checked with melting curves. The sensitivity of our designed primer by multiplex real time PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis were 4.78×1010 and 8.35×1010 , respectively, Which the primers did not amplify any product from a non-STD species. Multiplex real time PCR by our new primers and analysis of melting curves were successfully usable for rapid and accurate detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. This assay instead of traditional culture method, has considerable potential to be rapid, accurate and highly sensitive molecular diagnostic tool for simultaneous and direct detection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzai, S; Safi, S; Mossavari, N; Afshar, D; Bolourchian, M

    2016-08-31

    The present study was conducted to establish a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for the rapid detection of B. mallei the etiologic agent of glanders, a highly contagious disease of equines. A set of six specific primers targeting integrase gene cluster were designed for the LAMP test. The reaction was optimized using different temperatures and time intervals. The specificity of the assay was evaluated using DNA from B.pseudomallei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The LAMP products were analyzed both visually and under UV light after electrophoresis. The optimized conditions were found to be at 63ºC for 60 min. The assay showed high specificity and sensitivity. It was concluded that the established LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive and practical tool for detection of B. mallei and early diagnosis of glanders.

  10. Development of Rapid Temporal Processing and Its Impact on Literacy Skills in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Zimmer, Karin; Lachmann, Thomas; Dirichs, Martin; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, auditory and visual temporal order thresholds (TOTs) were investigated in primary school children (N = 236; mean age at first data point = 6;7) at the beginning of Grade 1 and the end of Grade 2 to test whether rapid temporal processing abilities predict reading and spelling at the end of Grades 1 and 2. Auditory and…

  11. Development of lidocaine-coated microneedle product for rapid, safe, and prolonged local analgesic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Brown, Ken; Siebenaler, Kris; Determan, Amy; Dohmeier, Daniel; Hansen, Kris

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate rapid (~1 min) lidocaine delivery using 3M's solid microstructured transdermal system (sMTS) for prolonged, local analgesic action. Polymeric microneedles were fabricated via injection molding and then dip-coated using an aqueous lidocaine formulation. The amount of lidocaine coated onto the microneedles was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess drug delivery and dermal pharmacokinetics, lidocaine-coated microneedles were inserted into domestic swine. Skin punch biopsies were collected and analyzed to determine lidocaine concentration in skin using HPLC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Commercial lidocaine/prilocaine EMLA (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetic) cream was used as comparative control. Lidocaine dissolves rapidly off the microneedles and into skin such that the 1-min wear time achieves or exceeds lidocaine tissue levels needed to cause analgesia. This therapeutic threshold (100 ng/mg) was estimated by measuring the total amount of lidocaine and prilocaine in skin following a 1 h EMLA application. When co-formulated with 0.03 wt% vasoconstrictor-epinephrine, the concentration of lidocaine in tissue was maintained above 100 ng/mg for approximately 90 min. 3M's sMTS can be used to provide rapid delivery of lidocaine for local analgesia up to 90 min.

  12. The Development and Validation of a Rapid Assessment Tool of Primary Care in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Liang, Yuan; Shi, LeiYu; Zhao, JingGe; Wang, YuTan; Kuang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. With Chinese health care reform increasingly emphasizing the importance of primary care, the need for a tool to evaluate primary care performance and service delivery is clear. This study presents a methodology for a rapid assessment of primary care organizations and service delivery in China. Methods. The study translated and adapted the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Adult Edition (PCAT-AE) into a Chinese version to measure core dimensions of primary care, namely, first contact, continuity, comprehensiveness, and coordination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the Chinese Rapid Primary Care Assessment Tool (CR-PCAT). Eight community health centers in Guangdong province have been selected to participate in the survey. Results. A total of 1465 effective samples were included for data analysis. Eight items were eliminated following principal component analysis and reliability testing. The principal component analysis extracted five multiple-item scales (first contact utilization, first contact accessibility, ongoing care, comprehensiveness, and coordination). The tests of scaling assumptions were basically met. Conclusion. The standard psychometric evaluation indicates that the scales have achieved relatively good reliability and validity. The CR-PCAT provides a rapid and reliable measure of four core dimensions of primary care, which could be applied in various scenarios. PMID:26885509

  13. Hormonal, behavioral, and thermoregulatory responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in captive and free-living white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Ashley, Noah T; Turner, Michael; Hahn, Thomas P; Wingfield, John C

    2006-01-01

    Exposing vertebrates to pathogenic organisms or inflammatory stimuli, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), activates the immune system and triggers the acute phase response. This response involves fever, alterations in neuroendocrine circuits, such as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and -gonadal (HPG) axes, and stereotypical sickness behaviors that include lethargy, anorexia, adipsia, and a disinterest in social activities. We investigated the hormonal, behavioral, and thermoregulatory effects of acute LPS treatment in a seasonally breeding songbird, the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii) using laboratory and field experiments. Captive male and female sparrows were housed on short (8L:16D) or long (20L:4D) day lengths and injected subcutaneously with LPS or saline (control). LPS treatment activated the HPA axis, causing a rapid increase in plasma corticosterone titers over 24 h compared to controls. Suppression of the HPG axis occurred in long-day LPS birds as measured by a decline in luteinizing hormone levels. Instead of a rise in body temperature, LPS-injected birds experienced short-term hypothermia compared to controls. Birds treated with LPS decreased activity and reduced food and water intake, resulting in weight loss. LPS males on long days experienced more weight loss than LPS males on short days, but this seasonal effect was not observed in females. These results paralleled seasonal differences in body condition, suggesting that modulation of the acute phase response is linked to energy reserves. In free-living males, LPS treatment decreased song and several measures of territorial aggression. These studies highlight immune-endocrine-behavior interrelationships that may proximately mediate life-history tradeoffs between reproduction and defense against pathogens.

  14. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H; Ebbesen, Frederik S; Christiansen, David H; Skotte, Jørgen; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm s(-1) [95% confidence interval: (1.33-11.80)] in the 2-min group and 33.2 Nm s(-1) (1.66-12.33) in the 12-min group from baseline to 10-week follow-up, corresponding to an increase of 16.0% and 18.2% for the two groups, respectively. The increase was significantly different compared to controls (Pmuscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Pmuscle strength and pain. Small daily amounts of progressive resistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and, to a less extent, maximal force capacity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  15. Development of an OP9 derived cell line as a robust model to rapidly study adipocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Lane

    Full Text Available One hallmark of obesity is adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. To gain novel insights into adipose biology and therapeutics, there is a pressing need for a robust, rapid, and informative cell model of adipocyte differentiation for potential RNAi and drug screens. Current models are prohibitive for drug and RNAi screens due to a slow differentiation time course and resistance to transfection. We asked if we could create a rapid, robust model of adipogenesis to potentially enable rapid functional and obesity therapeutic screens. We generated the clonal population OP9-K, which differentiates rapidly and reproducibly, and displays classic adipocyte morphology: rounded cell shape, lipid accumulation, and coalescence of lipids into a large droplet. We further validate the OP9-K cells as an adipocyte model system by microarray analysis of the differentiating transcriptome. OP9-K differentiates via known adipogenic pathways, involving the transcriptional activation and repression of common adipose markers Plin1, Gata2, C/Ebpα and C/Ebpβ and biological pathways, such as lipid metabolism, PPARγ signaling, and osteogenesis. We implemented a method to quantify lipid accumulation using automated microscopy and tested the ability of our model to detect alterations in lipid accumulation by reducing levels of the known master adipogenic regulator Pparγ. We further utilized our model to query the effects of a novel obesity therapeutic target, the transcription factor SPI1. We determine that reduction in levels of Spi1 leads to an increase in lipid accumulation. We demonstrate rapid, robust differentiation and efficient transfectability of the OP9-K cell model of adipogenesis. Together with our microscopy based lipid accumulation assay, adipogenesis assays can be achieved in just four days' time. The results of this study can contribute to the development of rapid screens with the potential to deepen our understanding of adipose biology and efficiently

  16. Development of a simultaneous lateral flow strip test for the rapid and simple detection of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong-Yeol; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a 1-step simultaneous lateral flow strip test for the rapid and simple detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in grains. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DON and ZEA were respectively conjugated with gold nanoparticles and used to develop a lateral flow strip test for a single toxin and multiple toxins. First, individual lateral flow strips for a single toxin were optimized, and their conditions were used to develop a simultaneous lateral flow strip for multiple toxins. Limits of detection of both lateral flow strip tests for DON and ZEA were the same (DON: 50 ng/mL, ZEA: 1 ng/mL). Both methods showed cross-reactivity for α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, but no cross-reaction to other mycotoxins. The results can be completed obtained within 15 min. The cut-off values of the simultaneous lateral flow strip for the spiked rice and corn were 500 and 10 ng/g for DON and ZEA, respectively. The results demonstrated that the developed simultaneous lateral flow strip test offers a rapid, easy-to-use, and portable analytical system and can be used as a convenient qualitative tool for the on-site detection of DON and ZEA in food and agricultural commodities. Simultaneous lateral strip test is useful for a rapid detection of DON and ZEA at a time in food and grain samples. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Effect of Half Time Cooling on Thermoregulatory Responses and Soccer-Specific Performance Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined two active coolings (forearm and hand cooling, and neck cooling during a simulated half-time recovery on thermoregulatory responses and subsequent soccer-specific exercise performance. Following a 45-min treadmill run in the heat, participants (N=7 undertook 15-min recovery with either passive cooling, forearm and hand cooling, or neck cooling in a simulated cooled locker room environment. After the recovery, participants performed a 6×15-m sprint test and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 test (YYIR1 in a temperate environment. During the 15-min recovery, rectal temperature fell significantly (p<0.05. Neither active coolings induced further reduction in rectal temperature compared to passive cooling. No effect of active coolings was found in repeated sprint test. However, neck cooling reduced (p<0.05 the thermal sensation (TS compared to passive cooling during the 15-min recovery. Active coolings attenuated (p<0.05 the sweat rate compared to passive cooling: 1.2±0.3 l•h-1 vs. 0.8±0.1 l•h-1 vs. 0.8±0.3 l•h-1, for passive cooling, forearm and hand cooling, and neck cooling, respectively. For passive cooling, elevated sweat rate resulted in higher (p<0.05 dehydration (2.1±0.3% compared to neck cooling (1.5±0.3% and forearm and hand cooling (1.4±0.3%. YYIR1 was improved (p<0.05 following forearm and hand cooling (869±320 m and neck cooling (814±328 m compared to passive cooling (654±311 m. Neck cooling (4.6±0.6 reduced (p=0.03 the session TS compared to passive cooling (5.3±0.5. These results suggest that active coolings effectively improved comfort and sweating response, which delayed exercise-heat induced performance diminish during a second bout of exercise.

  18. Geochemical Methods of Inference the Thermoregulatory Strategies in Middle Triassic Marine Reptiles - A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surmik, Dawid; Pelc, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The oxygen stable isotopes investigation to elucidate thermoregulatory strategies in Middle Triassic basal sauropterygians is currently ongoing at University of Silesia and University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska. The results of similar studies on Late Mesozoic marine reptiles indicate that some of fully aquatic reptiles like plesiosaurs or ichthyosaurs could be warm-blooded animals. Our investigation is an important part of the aim of the research project "The Marine and Terrestrial reptiles in the Middle Triassic environmental background of Southern Poland" to solve the thermoregulation issue in basal marine reptiles and show how, and when did homoiothermy evolve in Sauropterygia.. Homeothermy and gigantothermy were important physiological adaptations which allowed sauropterygian ancestors to leave the shores and conquer the open seas and oceans. Badania nad paleofizjologią kopalnych kręgowców ostatnimi laty stały się niezwykle modne. Polegają one na kompilacji danych uzyskanych wieloma komplementarnymi metodami z zakresu fizjologii (badania współczesnych form, zgodnie z zasadą aktualizmu) i geochemii izotopowej. Szczególnie interesujące stały się kwestie gospodarki termicznej u gadów kopalnych, które silnie dyskutowane są w kręgach badaczy dinozaurów (Reid, 1997; Ruben i in., 1996). Badania na izotopach stabilnych tlenu szkliwa zębowego przeprowadzone na obligatoryjnie morskich gadach okresu jurajskiego i kredowego (Bernard i in., 2010; zob. także Motani, 2010) wskazują, że ichtiozaury i plezjozaury późniejszego mezozoiku mogły być zwierzętami stałocieplnymi. Brak obecnie jednoznacznych danych dotyczących gospodarki termicznej bazalnych przedstawicieli gadów morskich z triasu, choć przyjmuje się, że te zamieszkujące nadbrzeżne i marginalne strefy mórz zwierzęta były gadami zmiennocieplnymi (pojkilotermicznymi), podobnie jak współczesny legwan morski, czy też smok z Komodo. Czy przejście z pojkilo- do homojotermii by

  19. Development of a Fieldable, Rapid, Accurate and Sensitive Bio-Electronic, DNA Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    single molecule of DNA or RNA and therefore does not require the use of PCR. The sensor chip can be engineered with an array of hundreds of independent test sites, which allows for confirmatory tests leading to a high level of specificity, the ability to screen for multiple threat agents simultaneously, and the capability to detect genetically engineered organisms. Biological agents continue to pose a major threat to U.S. troops as well as U.S. civilians both domestically and overseas. Rapid, accurate and sensitive detection and identification of biological agents is

  20. Rapid development of a mycotic aneurysm of the intracranial artery secondary to Scedosporium apiospermum sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Ogawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An 85-year-old man complained of a 2-month history of pain on the left side of his face. Brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography did not clearly show any intracranial abnormality and only showed fluid effusion in his left sphenoid sinus. Filamentous fungi were detected from the left sphenoid sinus specimen. The isolate was Scedosporium apiospermum. He was empirically treated with voriconazole, to which the isolate was susceptible. His consciousness decreased rapidly. Urgent 3D-CT angiography revealed an intracranial aneurysm near the left sphenoid sinus. Despite urgent coil embolization, the aneurysm ruptured, and he died.

  1. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  2. Effects of encouraged water drinking on thermoregulatory responses after 20 days of head-down bed rest in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Maki; Kanikowska, Dominika; Iwase, Satoshi; Shimizu, Yuuki; Inukai, Yoko; Nishimura, Naoki; Sugenoya, Junichi

    2009-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that encouraged water drinking according to urine output for 20 days could ameliorate impaired thermoregulatory function under microgravity conditions. Twelve healthy men, aged 24 ± 1.5 years (mean ± SE), underwent -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) for 20 days. During bed rest, subjects were encouraged to drink the same amount of water as the 24-h urine output volume of the previous day. A heat exposure test consisting of water immersion up to the knees at 42°C for 45 min after a 10 min rest (baseline) in the sitting position was performed 2 days before the 20-day HDBR (PRE), and 2 days after the 20-day HDBR (POST). Core temperature (tympanic), skin temperature, skin blood flow and sweat rate were recorded continuously. We found that the -6° HDBR did not increase the threshold temperature for onset of sweating under the encouraged water drinking regime. We conclude that encouraged water drinking could prevent impaired thermoregulatory responses after HDBR.

  3. Development of a SERS-Based Rapid Vertical Flow Assay for Point-of-Care Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, O J R; Goodall, B L; Hui, H P; Vats, N; Brosseau, C L

    2017-02-07

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic testing platforms are a growing sector of the healthcare industry as they offer the advantages of rapid provision of results, ease of use, reduced cost, and the ability to link patients to care. While many POC tests are based on chromatographic flow assay technology, this technology suffers from a lack of sensitivity along with limited capacity for multiplexing and quantitative analysis. Several recent reports have begun to investigate the feasibility of coupling chromatographic flow platforms to more advanced read-out technologies which in turn enable on-site acquisition, storage, and transmission of important healthcare metrics. One such technology being explored is surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy or SERS. In this work, SERS is coupled for the first time to a rapid vertical flow (RVF) immunotechnology for detection of anti-HCV antibodies in an effort to extend the capabilities of this commercially available diagnostic platform. High-quality and reproducible SERS spectra were obtained using reporter-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Serial dilution studies indicate that the coupling of SERS with RVF technology shows enormous potential for next-generation POC diagnostics.

  4. Heat Treatment Development for a Rapidly Solidified Heat Resistant Cast Al-Si Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, W.; Chen, D. L.; Shaha, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Existing heat treatment standards do not properly define tempers for thin-walled castings that solidified with high solidification rates. Recently emerged casting processes such as vacuum high pressure die casting should not require long solution treatment times due to the fine microstructures arising from rapid solidification rates. The heat treatment studies involving rapidly solidified samples with secondary dendrite arm spacing between 10 and 35 μm were conducted for solution times between 30 min and 9 h and temperatures of 510 and 525 °C and for various aging parameters. The metallurgical analysis revealed that an increase in microstructure refinement could enable a reduction of solution time up to 88%. Solution treatment resulted in the dissolution of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2, while Fe- and TiZrV-based phases remained partially in the microstructure. The highest strength of approximately 351 ± 9.7 and 309 ± 3.4 MPa for the UTS and YS, respectively, was achieved for a 2-step solution treatment at 510 and 525 °C in the T6 peak aging conditions, i.e., 150 °C for 100 h. The T6 temper did not yield dimensionally stable microstructure since exceeding 250 °C during in-service operation could result in phase transformation corresponding to the over-aging reaction. The microstructure refinement had a statistically stronger effect on the alloy strength than the increase in solutionizing time. Additionally, thermal analysis and dilatometer results were presented to assess the dissolution of phases during solution treatment, aging kinetics as well as dimensional stability.

  5. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  6. Merging ORS Standards to Facilitate Rapid Development of Reusable Spacecraft Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DNet has been actively pursuing strategies for shortening the software development portion of the satellite development life-cycle for some time. We recognized upon...

  7. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay strip for rapid detection of CagA antigen of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Cebrail

    2015-01-01

    About half of the world populations are known to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. The CagA antigen secreting strains provoke severe mucosal damages and act as a risk factor for the development of peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip was developed based on sandwich format for rapid detection of CagA antigen of H. pylori using gold conjugated monoclonal antibody. This LFIA strip will provide a good aid in the diagnosis of CagA-secreting H. pylori within 10 min instead of time consuming, expensive and laborious invasive approaches.

  8. Challenging the sleep homeostat does not influence the thermoregulatory system in men: evidence from a nap vs. sleep-deprivation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kräuchi, Kurt; Knoblauch, Vera; Wirz-Justice, Anna; Cajochen, Christian

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of our study was to understand the relationship between the components of the three-process model of sleepiness regulation (homeostatic, circadian, and sleep inertia) and the thermoregulatory system. This was achieved by comparing the impact of a 40-h sleep deprivation vs. a 40-h multiple nap paradigm (10 cycles with 150/75 min wakefulness/sleep episodes) on distal and proximal skin temperatures, core body temperature (CBT), melatonin secretion, subjective sleepiness, and nocturnal sleep EEG slow-wave activity in eight healthy young men in a "controlled posture" protocol. The main finding of the study was that accumulation of sleep pressure increased subjective sleepiness and slow-wave activity during the succeeding recovery night but did not influence the thermoregulatory system as measured by distal, proximal, and CBT. The circadian rhythm of sleepiness (and proximal temperature) was significantly correlated and phase locked with CBT, whereas distal temperature and melatonin secretion were phase advanced (by 113 +/- 28 and 130 +/- 30 min, respectively; both P sleep inertia. These effects showed minor and nonsignificant circadian modulation. In summary, the thermoregulatory system seems to be independent of the sleep homeostat, but the circadian modulation of sleepiness and sleep inertia is clearly associated with thermoregulatory changes.

  9. Development of a colloidal gold-based lateral-flow immunoassay for the rapid simultaneous detection of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, Anna Yu; De Saeger, Sarah; Sibanda, Liberty; Verheijen, Ron; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2007-12-01

    A multianalyte lateral-flow technique using colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies was developed for the rapid simultaneous detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA). The results of this qualitative one-step test were interpreted visually. A very simple and fast sample preparation was used, and the assay procedure could be accomplished within 10 min. When applied to spiked wheat samples, the technique gave accurate and reproducible results. Cut-off levels of 1500 and 100 microg kg(-1) for DON and ZEA, respectively, were observed. The described multianalyte format can be used as a reliable, rapid and cost-effective on-site screening technique for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in grain samples.

  10. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Courten Maximilian

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to

  11. Ex vivo piperaquine resistance developed rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in northern Cambodia compared to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanna Chaorattanakawee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. Methods Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai–Cambodian and Thai–Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015. Immediate ex vivo (IEV histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2 assays were used on fresh patient Plasmodium falciparum isolates to determine drug susceptibility profiles. Results IEV HRP-2 assays detected the precipitous emergence of PPQ resistance in Cambodia beginning in 2013 when 40 % of isolates had an IC90 greater than the upper limit of prior years, and this rate doubled to 80 % by 2015. In contrast, Thai–Myanmar isolates from 2013 to 14 remained PPQ-sensitive, while northeastern Thai isolates appeared to have an intermediate resistance profile. The opposite trend was observed for MQ where Cambodian isolates appeared to have a modest increase in overall sensitivity during the same period, with IC50 declining to median levels comparable to those found in Thailand. A significant association between increased PPQ IC50 and IC90 among Cambodian isolates with DHA-PPQ treatment failure was observed. Nearly all Cambodian and Thai isolates were deemed artemisinin resistant with a >1 % survival rate for DHA in the ring-stage assay (RSA, though there was no correlation among isolates to indicate cross-resistance between PPQ and artemisinins. Conclusions Clinical DHA-PPQ failures appear to be associated with declines in the long-acting partner drug PPQ, though sensitivity appears to remain largely intact for now in western Thailand. Rapid progression of PPQ resistance associated with DHA-PPQ treatment failures in northern Cambodia limits drugs of choice in

  12. Ex vivo piperaquine resistance developed rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in northern Cambodia compared to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Jongsakul, Krisada; Gawee, Jariyanart; Sok, Somethy; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Thamnurak, Chatchadaporn; Chann, Soklyda; Chattrakarn, Sorayut; Praditpol, Chantida; Buathong, Nillawan; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Smith, Philip; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Huy, Rekol; Prom, Satharath; Fukuda, Mark M; Bethell, Delia; Walsh, Douglas S; Lanteri, Charlotte; Saunders, David

    2016-10-21

    The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ) resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015. Immediate ex vivo (IEV) histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2) assays were used on fresh patient Plasmodium falciparum isolates to determine drug susceptibility profiles. IEV HRP-2 assays detected the precipitous emergence of PPQ resistance in Cambodia beginning in 2013 when 40 % of isolates had an IC90 greater than the upper limit of prior years, and this rate doubled to 80 % by 2015. In contrast, Thai-Myanmar isolates from 2013 to 14 remained PPQ-sensitive, while northeastern Thai isolates appeared to have an intermediate resistance profile. The opposite trend was observed for MQ where Cambodian isolates appeared to have a modest increase in overall sensitivity during the same period, with IC50 declining to median levels comparable to those found in Thailand. A significant association between increased PPQ IC50 and IC90 among Cambodian isolates with DHA-PPQ treatment failure was observed. Nearly all Cambodian and Thai isolates were deemed artemisinin resistant with a >1 % survival rate for DHA in the ring-stage assay (RSA), though there was no correlation among isolates to indicate cross-resistance between PPQ and artemisinins. Clinical DHA-PPQ failures appear to be associated with declines in the long-acting partner drug PPQ, though sensitivity appears to remain largely intact for now in western Thailand. Rapid progression of PPQ resistance associated with DHA-PPQ treatment failures in northern Cambodia limits drugs of choice in this region, and urgently requires alternative therapy. The temporary re

  13. Organizational innovation: a comprehensive model for catalyzing organizational development and change in a rapidly changing world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steiber, Annika; Alänge, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    ..., especially the processes through which organizational innovations are created, diffused, and sustained. There is thus a need for a more comprehensive understanding of mechanisms catalyzing organizational development...

  14. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  15. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  16. Development of a rapid HRM genotyping method for detection of dog-derived Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic flagellate protozoan in the intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To assess a threat of dog-derived G. lamblia to humans, the common dog-derived G. lamblia assemblages A, C, and D were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. According to β-giardin gene sequence, the qPCR-HRM primers BG5 and BG7 were designed. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the HRM method were also tested. Results showed that the primers BG5 and BG7 could distinguish among three assemblages A, C, and D, which Tm value differences were about 1 °C to each other. The melting curves of intra-assay reproducibility were almost coincided, and those of inter-assay reproducibility were much the same shape. The lowest detection concentration was about 5 × 10(-6)-ng/μL sample. The genotyping results from 21 G. lamblia samples by the HRM method were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the HRM genotyping method is rapid, stable, specific, highly sensitive, and suitable for clinical detection and molecular epidemiological survey of dog-derived G. lamblia.

  17. Development of a New Decision Tree to Rapidly Screen Chemical Estrogenic Activities of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Weiying; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhifen; Kong, Deyang

    2014-02-01

    During the last past decades, there is an increasing number of studies about estrogenic activities of the environmental pollutants on amphibians and many determination methods have been proposed. However, these determination methods are time-consuming and expensive, and a rapid and simple method to screen and test the chemicals for estrogenic activities to amphibians is therefore imperative. Herein is proposed a new decision tree formulated not only with physicochemical parameters but also a biological parameter that was successfully used to screen estrogenic activities of the chemicals on amphibians. The biological parameter, CDOCKER interaction energy (Ebinding ) between chemicals and the target proteins was calculated based on the method of molecular docking, and it was used to revise the decision tree formulated by Hong only with physicochemical parameters for screening estrogenic activity of chemicals in rat. According to the correlation between Ebinding of rat and Xenopus laevis, a new decision tree for estrogenic activities in Xenopus laevis is finally proposed. Then it was validated by using the randomly 8 chemicals which can be frequently exposed to Xenopus laevis, and the agreement between the results from the new decision tree and the ones from experiments is generally satisfactory. Consequently, the new decision tree can be used to screen the estrogenic activities of the chemicals, and combinational use of the Ebinding and classical physicochemical parameters can greatly improves Hong's decision tree. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Development of a Rapid and Simple Method to Remove Polyphenols from Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imali Ranatunge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVPP column and subjected to centrifugation. Supernatant was tested for the total phenol content. The presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine was screened by HPLC and measuring the absorbance at 280. The antioxidant capacity of standards and tea extracts was compared with the polyphenol removed fractions using DPPH scavenging assay. No polyphenols were found in polyphenolic standards or tea extracts after PVPP treatment. The method described in the present study to remove polyphenols is simple, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient and can be employed to investigate the contribution of polyphenols present in natural products to their biological activity.

  19. Development and evaluation of an office ergonomic risk checklist: ROSA--rapid office strain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Michael; Villalta, Dino L; Andrews, David M

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was designed to quickly quantify risks associated with computer work and to establish an action level for change based on reports of worker discomfort. Computer use risk factors were identified in previous research and standards on office design for the chair, monitor, telephone, keyboard and mouse. The risk factors were diagrammed and coded as increasing scores from 1 to 3. ROSA final scores ranged in magnitude from 1 to 10, with each successive score representing an increased presence of risk factors. Total body discomfort and ROSA final scores for 72 office workstations were significantly correlated (R = 0.384). ROSA final scores exhibited high inter- and intra-observer reliability (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Mean discomfort increased with increasing ROSA scores, with a significant difference occurring between scores of 3 and 5 (out of 10). A ROSA final score of 5 might therefore be useful as an action level indicating when immediate change is necessary. ROSA proved to be an effective and reliable method for identifying computer use risk factors related to discomfort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. EJS, JIL Server, and LabVIEW: An Architecture for Rapid Development of Remote Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Jesús; Vargas, Hector; Farias, Gonzalo; Sanchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    Designing and developing web-enabled remote laboratories for pedagogical purposes is not an easy task. Often, developers (generally, educators who know the subjects they teach but lack of the technical and programming skills required to build Internet-based educational applications) end up discarding the idea of exploring these new teaching and…

  1. Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing: Its Application in Both Product Development and System Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable discussion around the need for certification and regulation of healthcare information technology (IT). In particular, the usability of the products being developed needs to be evaluated. This has included the application of standards designed to ensure the process of system development is user-centered and takes usability into consideration while a product is being developed. In addition to this, in healthcare, organizations in the United States and Europe have also addressed the need and requirement for product certification. However, despite these efforts there are continued reports of unusable and unsafe implementations. In this paper we discuss the need to not only include (and require) usability testing in the one-time development process of health IT products (such as EHRs), but we also argue for the need to additionally develop specific usability standards and requirements for usability testing during the implementation of vendor products (i.e. post product development) in healthcare settings. It is further argued that health IT products that may have been certified regarding their development process will still require application of usability testing in the process of implementing them in real hospital settings in order to ensure usability and safety. This is needed in order to ensure that the final result of both product development and implementation processes take into account and apply the latest usability principles and methods.

  2. Extended Services in Schools: Developing Resources to Prepare Student Teachers for a Rapidly Changing Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sue; Smith, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The role of schools in providing extended services to their communities continues to undergo change and development. This has raised issues regarding the training of student teachers who are increasingly likely to take up appointments in schools offering extended services. This research project investigated the development of resources to prepare…

  3. Thyroid hormone fluctuations indicate a thermoregulatory function in both a tropical (Alouatta palliata) and seasonally cold-habitat (Macaca fuscata) primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cynthia L; Powell, Brianna L; Williams, Susan H; Hanya, Goro; Glander, Kenneth E; Vinyard, Christopher J

    2017-11-01

    Thyroid hormones boost animals' basal metabolic rate and represent an important thermoregulatory pathway for mammals that face cold temperatures. Whereas the cold thermal pressures experienced by primates in seasonal habitats at high latitudes and elevations are often apparent, tropical habitats also display distinct wet and dry seasons with modest changes in thermal environment. We assessed seasonal and temperature-related changes in thyroid hormone levels for two primate species in disparate thermal environments, tropical mantled howlers (Alouatta palliata), and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). We collected urine and feces from animals and used ELISA to quantify levels of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (fT 3 ). For both species, fT 3 levels were significantly higher during the cooler season (wet/winter), consistent with a thermoregulatory role. Likewise, both species displayed greater temperature deficits (i.e., the degree to which animals warm their body temperature relative to ambient) during the cooler season, indicating greater thermoregulatory pressures during this time. Independently of season, Japanese macaques displayed increasing fT 3 levels with decreasing recently experienced maximum temperatures, but no relationship between fT 3 and recently experienced minimum temperatures. Howlers increased fT 3 levels as recently experienced minimum temperatures decreased, although demonstrated the opposite relationship with maximum temperatures. This may reflect natural thermal variation in howlers' habitat: wet seasons had cooler minimum and mean temperatures than the dry season, but similar maximum temperatures. Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that both tropical howlers and seasonally cold-habitat Japanese macaques utilize thyroid hormones as a mechanism to boost metabolism in response to thermoregulatory pressures. This implies that cool thermal pressures faced by tropical primates are sufficient to invoke an

  4. Shaping travels and land use with bus rapid transit: a developed city’s visualisation with smartcard and census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit and land-use integration is regarded as one of the most important means of avoiding or reducing car dependence and urban sprawl, which are thought as major culprits of unsustainability. In developing countries, rail rapid transit could be too expensive to become the predominant component of their respective systems. However, bus rapid transit (BRT as one of the cheapest forms of mass transit is a better alternative for those countries. In developing countries, BRT has transformed numerous cities such as Curitiba, Brazil; Bogota, Columbia; and Guangzhou, China. Can BRT have the same transformative impacts for cities in developed countries as well? Can the impacts of BRT be visualized using the transit population? Given that few cities in developed countries have BRT and ridership data of BRT are not always available, the above questions have not been well addressed before. To answer these two questions, we analysed smartcard swipes over a five-day weekday period (11–15 March 2013 for Brisbane in Queensland, Australia, and reconstructed trip trajectories of those 255,887 transit riders. We found that BRT serves a significant percentage and number of travellers, thus shaping travel behaviour and ultimately land use – when transit ridership and rate of transit usage are used as indicators. This is a significant achievement in Australia, a country known for its car dependence and urban sprawl.

  5. Rapid development of microsatellite markers for Callosobruchus chinensis using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can-Xing Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L., is one of the most destructive pests of stored legume seeds such as mungbean, cowpea, and adzuki bean, which usually cause considerable loss in the quantity and quality of stored seeds during transportation and storage. However, a lack of genetic information of this pest results in a series of genetic questions remain largely unknown, including population genetic structure, kinship, biotype abundance, and so on. Co-dominant microsatellite markers offer a great resolving power to determine these events. Here, we report rapid microsatellite isolation from C. chinensis via high-throughput sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 94,560,852 quality-filtered and trimmed reads were obtained for the assembly of genome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, the genome with total length of 497,124,785 bp, comprising 403,113 high quality contigs was generated with de novo assembly. More than 6800 SSR loci were detected and a suit of 6303 primer pair sequences were designed and 500 of them were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 196 pair of primers, i.e. 39.2%, produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 8 C. chinensis genotypes collected from different geographical regions. Twenty out of 196 polymorphic SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 18 C. chinensis populations. The results showed the twenty SSR loci were highly polymorphic among these populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a first report of genome sequencing and de novo assembly for C. chinensis and demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information and SSR loci isolation by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results provide a valuable resource for C. chinensis research. These novel markers are valuable for future genetic mapping, trait association, genetic structure and kinship among C. chinensis.

  6. Development of a rapid, one-step screening method for the isolation of presumptive proteolytic enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ken; Rea, Rosemary; Simpson, Paul; Stack, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Enterococci show higher proteolytic activities than other lactic acid bacteria and thus have received considerable attention in scientific literature in recent years. Proteolytic enzymes of enterococci have warranted the use of some species as starter, adjuncts or protective cultures and as probiotics, while in some strains they have also been linked with virulence. Consequently, the isolation and identification of proteolytic enterococci is becoming of increasing interest and importance. However, current screening methods for proteolytic enterococci can be time consuming, requiring a two-step procedure which may take up to 96h. This study describes a method, utilising Kanamycin Skim Milk Aesculin Azide (KSMEA) agar, for the isolation of proteolytic enterococci in one-step, thereby significantly reducing screening time. KSMEA combines the selective properties of Kanamycin Aesculin Azide Agar (KAA) with skim milk powder for the detection of proteolytic enterococci. Enterococci produced colonies with a black halo on KSMEA which were accompanied by a zone of clearing in the media when enterococci were proteolytic. KSMEA medium retained the selectivity of KAA, while proteolytic enterococci were easily distinguished from non-proteolytic enterococci when two known strains were propagated on KSMEA. KSMEA also proved effective at isolating and detecting enterococci in raw milk, faeces and soil. Isolates recovered from the screen were confirmed as enterococci using genus-specific primers. Proteolytic enterococci were present in the raw milk sample only and were easily distinguishable from non-proteolytic enterococci and other microorganisms. Therefore, KSMEA provides a rapid, one-step screening method for the isolation of presumptive proteolytic enterococci. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis using Xpert MTB/RIF assay - Report from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Shagufta; Zeenat, Asyia; Hussain, Shahida; Wasim Yusuf, Noshin; Aslam, Maleeha

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the detection of M. tuberculosis in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens and to compare it with conventional techniques. During a period of 10 months from December 2012 through September 2013, two hundred and forty five clinically TB suspects were enrolled for Xpert MTB\\RIF assay. The cohort comprised of 205 suspects of pulmonary TB and 40 of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). The 40 EPTB samples included pus aspirated from different sites of the body (n=19), pleural fluid (n=11), ascitic fluid (n=7), pericardial fluid, CSF and urine one each. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) Stained smear microscopy, culture on LJ media and Xpert MTB/RIF assay was performed on samples from these patients. M. tuberculosis (MTB) were detected by Xpert MTB/RIF test in 111 (45.3%) out of 245 samples. Of these, 85 (34.7%) were smear positive on ZN staining and 102 (41.6%) were positive on LJ cultures. Rifampicin resistance was detected in 16 (6.5%) patients. Nine out of 19 pus samples (47.3%) were positive for MTB by Gene Xpert, 03 (15.8%) on ZN staining and 04 (21%) on LJ culture. MTB could not be detected in any other extrapulmonary sample. Xpert MTB/RIF is a sensitive method for rapid diagnosis of Tuberculosis, especially in smear negative cases and in EPTB as compared to the conventional ZN staining. Among EPTB cases the highest yield of positivity was shown in Pus samples. For countries endemic for TB GeneXpert can serve as a sensitive and time saving diagnostic modality for pulmonary and EPTB.

  8. Selection for rapid embryo development correlates with embryo exposure to maternal androgens among passerine birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, H.; Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Greater offspring predation favors evolution of faster development among species. We hypothesized that greater offspring predation exerts selection on mothers to increase levels of anabolic androgens in egg yolks to achieve faster development. Here, we tested whether (1) concentrations of yolk androgens in passerine species were associated with offspring predation and (2) embryo and nestling development rates were associated with yolk androgen concentrations. We examined three androgens that increase in potency along the synthesis pathway: androstenedione (A4) to testosterone (T) to 5??- dihydrotestosterone (5??-DHT). Concentrations of none of these steroids were related to clutch size; only A4 was allometrically related to egg volume. Species that experience greater predation showed higher yolk concentrations of T and 5??-DHT. Higher concentrations of T and particularly 5??-DHT were strongly correlated with faster development during the embryo period and less so during the nestling period. Development rates were most strongly correlated with 5??-DHT, suggesting that potency increases along the androgen synthesis pathway and that effects are mediated by the androgen receptor pathway. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection for faster development by time-dependent offspring mortality may be achieved epigenetically by varying embryo exposure to maternal anabolic steroids. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  9. Infant Feeding Practices of Emirati Women in the Rapidly Developing City of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gardner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates (UAE has been accompanied by new challenges to public health; most notably a rapid rise in chronic disease. Breastfeeding is known to improve health outcomes in adulthood, is associated with reduced risk of developing chronic disease, and is therefore an important public health issue for this rapidly increasing population. Factors associated with infant feeding practices were examined in a cohort of 125 Emirati women and their infants, with data collected at birth and 3, 6 and 15 months postpartum by questionnaires and interviews. Participants were recruited in the Corniche Hospital, the main maternity hospital in the city of Abu Dhabi. Factors affecting the duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods were investigated using univariate and multivariate statistics. Recommended infant feeding practices, such as exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods, were poorly adhered to. Factors implicated in early cessation of breastfeeding included: time to first breastfeed, mother’s education level, employment status and early introduction of complementary foods.

  10. Development of a Rapid Microbore Metabolic Profiling Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach for High-Throughput Phenotyping Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicola; Adesina-Georgiadis, Kyrillos; Chekmeneva, Elena; Plumb, Robert S; Wilson, Ian D; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2016-06-07

    A rapid gradient microbore ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method has been developed to provide a high-throughput analytical platform for the metabolic phenotyping of urine from large sample cohorts. The rapid microbore metabolic profiling (RAMMP) approach was based on scaling a conventional reversed-phase UPLC-MS method for urinary profiling from 2.1 mm × 100 mm columns to 1 mm × 50 mm columns, increasing the linear velocity of the solvent, and decreasing the gradient time to provide an analysis time of 2.5 min/sample. Comparison showed that conventional UPLC-MS and rapid gradient approaches provided peak capacities of 150 and 50, respectively, with the conventional method detecting approximately 19 000 features compared to the ∼6 000 found using the rapid gradient method. Similar levels of repeatability were seen for both methods. Despite the reduced peak capacity and the reduction in ions detected, the RAMMP method was able to achieve similar levels of group discrimination as conventional UPLC-MS when applied to rat urine samples obtained from investigative studies on the effects of acute 2-bromophenol and chronic acetaminophen administration. When compared to a direct infusion MS method of similar analysis time the RAMMP method provided superior selectivity. The RAMMP approach provides a robust and sensitive method that is well suited to high-throughput metabonomic analysis of complex mixtures such as urine combined with a 5-fold reduction in analysis time compared with the conventional UPLC-MS method.

  11. The rapid bi-level exploration on the evolution of regional solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Hao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the renewable energy, solar energy is experiencing increased but exploratory development worldwide. The positive or negative influences of regional characteristics, like economy, production capacity and allowance policies, make them have uneven solar energy development. In this paper, we aim at quickly exploring the features of provincial solar energy development, and their concerns about solar energy. We take China as a typical case, and combine text mining and two-actor networks. We find that the classification of levels based on certain nodes and the amount of degree avoids missing meaningful information that may be ignored by global level results. Moreover, eastern provinces are hot focus for the media, western countries are key to bridge the networks and special administrative region has local development features; third, most focus points are more about the application than the improvement of material. The exploration of news provides practical information to adjust researches and development strategies of solar energy. Moreover, the bi-level exploration, which can also be expanded to multi-level, is helpful for governments or researchers to grasp more targeted and precise knowledge.

  12. The MetSkill Program — Rapidly Developing Effective Young Engineers in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Diana; Bianco, Nina

    MetSkill is a professional development program for metallurgical engineers that integrates with normal duties in their first one or two years of service. Graduates work together on a structured technical project, facilitated by specialists and supported by formal learning, and ultimately reported to their technical managers. The program enables graduates to "fill the gaps" in their undergraduate education, which is increasingly pertinent as engineering degrees become more general. Participants report that they enjoy the focus on more challenging (rewarding) aspects of their jobs and feel more confident about problem solving. Sponsor companies add that the relationships developed with external technical specialists enhances opportunities for innovation and development. MetSkill was delivered to two major resource companies in Australia in 2012. This paper provides an outline of the program and the reasons for its success, and demonstrates how the learning model could be applied to groups of graduates in other engineering disciplines.

  13. Development of a real-time SYBR Green PCR assay for the rapid detection of Dermatophilus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfredo; Martínez, Remigio; Benitez-Medina, José Manuel; Risco, David; Garcia, Waldo Luis; Rey, Joaquín; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Methods such as real time (RT)-PCR have not been developed for the rapid detection and diagnosis of Dermatophilus (D.) congolensis infection. In the present study, a D. congolensis-specific SYBR Green RT-PCR assay was evaluated. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was 1 pg of DNA per PCR reaction. No cross-reaction with nucleic acids extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, or Austwickia chelonae was observed. Finally, the RT-PCR assay was used to evaluate clinical samples collected from naturally infected animals with D. congolensis. The results showed that this assay is a fast and reliable method for diagnosing dermatophilosis.

  14. Development of a real-time SYBR Green PCR assay for the rapid detection of Dermatophilus congolensis

    OpenAIRE

    García, Alfredo; Martínez, Remigio; Benitez-Medina, José Manuel; Risco, David; García, Waldo Luis; Rey, Joaquín; Alonso, Juan Manuel; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso

    2013-01-01

    Methods such as real time (RT)-PCR have not been developed for the rapid detection and diagnosis of Dermatophilus (D.) congolensis infection. In the present study, a D. congolensis-specific SYBR Green RT-PCR assay was evaluated. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was 1 pg of DNA per PCR reaction. No cross-reaction with nucleic acids extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, or Austwickia chelonae was observed. Finally, the RT-PCR assay was ...

  15. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid and sensitive identification of ostrich meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abdulmawjood

    Full Text Available Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes.

  16. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  17. Extinction, Reacquisition, and Rapid Forgetting of Eyeblink Conditioning in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin L.; Freeman, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning is a well-established model for studying the developmental neurobiology of associative learning and memory. However, age differences in extinction and subsequent reacquisition have yet to be studied using this model. The present study examined extinction and reacquisition of eyeblink conditioning in developing rats. In…

  18. Developing Rapid and Cost-Effective Tools for Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research developed quick and inexpensive methods that can be useful in characterizing the interaction of water and solids within the GW/SW transition zone to explain processes that occur during physical contact between groundwater and sediments. The research used self-conta...

  19. Service platform for rapid development and deployment of context-Aware, mobile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokraev, S.; Koolwaaij, J.; van Setten, M.; Broens, T.H.F.; Dockhorn Costa, P.; Wibbels, M.; Ebben, P.; Strating, P.; Strating, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a web services-based platform that facilitates and speeds up the development and deployment of context-aware, integrated mobile speech and data applications. The platform is capable of handling different types of context and offers sophisticated personalization mechanisms.

  20. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  1. Recent developments in the rapid analysis of plants and tracking their bioactive constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Tetala, K.K.R.; Koleva, I.; Dapkevicius, A.; Exarchou, V.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Claassen, F.W.; Klift, van der E.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Natural products chemistry has witnessed many new developments in the last 5 years like extractions with subcritical water and ionic liquids, LC/HRMS and LC/SPE/cryo-NMR, UHPLC, TLC/MS, MS-based preparative HPLC, comprehensive chromatography (GC × GC, LC × LC), high-throughput screening,

  2. A Survey of Hardware and Software Technologies for the Rapid Development of Multimedia Instructional Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Nanda

    2008-01-01

    A survey of hardware and software technologies was conducted to identify suitable technologies for the development of instructional modules representing various instructional approaches. The approaches modeled were short PowerPoint presentations, chalk-and-talk type of lectures and software tutorials. The survey focused on identifying application…

  3. Rapid development of bromodomain probes using flow synthesis methods and frontal affinity chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Richard; Guetzoyan, Lucie; Nikbin, Nikzad; Ley, Steven V.

    2014-01-01

    This poster illustrates aspects of a project involving the development of new probes for bromodomain 9 protein. Flow chemistry technologies and remote monitoring techniques were used for the synthesis, and Frontal Affinity Chromatography assays were used for analysis of the products.

  4. Using INGRES as a rapid prototyping device during development of management information applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, L.; Connell, J.; Shafer, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents case studies from the Administrative Data Processing Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory where a prototyping too, the INGRES relational database system, has been used to develop management information systems. The tool has proved valuable in satisfying user requirements and expectations, and in aiding data processing in the analysis and specification phases of the system life cycle. The prototype approach helps enormously in bridging the developer-user communication gap and has been found to add a negligible amount of cost to the entire software development project. Presented here are four case studies of how INGRES has been employed in prototyping. Also presented are examples of specific INGRES features and how they were used in one of the case studies and further examples involving another similar case. Special considerations and cautions are required when using INGRES for prototyping, but the overall conclusion is that it is a tool which has tremendously benefited our organization. Whether the final implemented system is INGRES-based or not, prototyping greatly enhances the possibility of complete, correct and unambiguous specifications prior to final software product development.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  6. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Change Agents - Development - Current, Near-Term, and Long-Term Potential High Landscape Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows areas of high current, near-term, and long-term potential landscape development, based on factors such as urban areas, agriculture, roads, and energy...

  7. Towards an ASEAN Human Rights Framework : Rapid Development in the Kingdom of Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Marie, Mårtensson

    2016-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) has since its origins in the late 1960’s been connected to the emphasis on Economic, Social and Cultural rights and the regional need for economic development. Through the intense years and debates that followed the first ASEAN Declaration the unity has made significant contributions to the Human Rights discourse due to the challenges and possibilities that surfaced. The Kingdom of Cambodia is one of the ASEAN member states poorest countries b...

  8. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Capripoxvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kanisht Batra; Aman Kumar; Vinay Kumar; Trilok Nanda; Maan, Narender S.; Sushila Maan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to develop a nucleic acid-based diagnostic assay loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) targeting highly conserved genomic regions of Capripoxvirus (CaPVs) and its comparative evaluation with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Material and Methods: Lyophilized vaccine strain of sheeppox virus (SPPV) was used for optimization of LAMP assay. The LAMP assay was designed using envelope immunogenic protein (P32) coding gene targeting highl...

  9. Framework for rapid in-house development of web applications for higher education institutions in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mincer-Daszkiewicz, Janina

    2013-01-01

    1. ABSTRACTUSOS [2] is a student management information system developed in-house for higher educationinstitutions (HEIs) in Poland, from the MUCI consortium. It consists of a desktop applicationdeveloped in Oracle technology for the university administration, and a suite of web basedapplications, for handling admission, course registration, grades, student diploma theses, social aid,course surveys and many other services, dedicated for students and university teachers. They weredeveloped in ...

  10. Mobile Application Development for Optimal and Rapid Diagnosis of Vine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lucia TOMOIAGĂ

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments in the field of machine learning (Ghahramani, 2015, breakthroughs in computer vision (Krizhevsky et al., 2012 and the availability of cheap computational hardware has led us to look for a way to automatically detect and classify a disease just by having a computer or a mobile phone process a picture of an affected plant. Given the widespread availability of mobile devices, we believe we can help the vine growers further.

  11. Rapid development of cognitive maps in people with visual impairments when exploring novel geographic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Dan; Lippa, Yvonne; Golledge, Reginald G.; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2001-01-01

    'Cognitive' map is a term that refers to a person's environmental knowledge. Anyone experiencing a new environment will, over time, develop a cognitive representation of that environment, including information derived from that environment (e.g., about places, routes and spatial relationships) and information about personal experiences (e.g. memories about events at locations and attitudes towards places). There is now a great deal of research into the cognitive maps of sighted people (see Go...

  12. Investigation of Capabilities and Technologies Supporting Rapid UAV Launch System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    OF PAGES 169 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19. SECURITY ...Development System LCD liquid-crystal display xv LED light-emitting diode NPS Naval Postgraduate School RATO rocket assisted take-Off RFID radio frequency...platform interface by the AMPPS’s radio frequency identification ( RFID ) reader • Green Light–A launch has been initiated by the technician and is either

  13. Rapid torque development in older female fallers and nonfallers: a comparison across lower-extremity muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Dain P; Cremin, Kim A; Greenleaf, Brittnee; Croce, Ronald V

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare reaction time, joint torque, rate of torque development, and magnitude of neuromuscular activation of lower-extremity muscles in elderly female fallers and nonfallers. Participants included 11, elderly, female fallers (71.3+/-5.4 years) and twelve nonfallers (71.3+/-6.2 years) who completed a fall risk questionnaire. Then, maximal, voluntary, isometric contractions of the knee and ankle muscles were performed in reaction to a visual cue to determine joint torque, rate of torque development, reaction time, and nervous activation of agonists and antagonists. Results indicated that significantly more fallers reported "dizziness upon rising", "use of balance altering medications", "stress or depression", "not enough sleep", "arthritis in lower body", "chronic pain in lower body", and "tiring easily while walking" (all Ptorque, rate of torque development and impulse) were lower in fallers than in nonfallers (Pmuscle groups, fallers demonstrated 19% lower peak torque and 29% longer motor time (P<0.05). In conclusion, comprehensive fall risk screening and prevention programs should address both neuromuscular and non-muscular factors, and, weakness of the ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors should be further studied as potential contributors to falls in older adults. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Learning from marketing: Rapid development of medication messages that engage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yank, Veronica; Tribett, Erika; Green, Lydia; Pettis, Jasmine

    2015-08-01

    To adapt marketing approaches in a health services environment. Researchers and advertising professionals partnered in developing advertising-style messages designed to activate patients pre-identified as having chronic kidney disease to ask providers about recommended medications. We assessed feasibility of the development process by evaluating partnership structure, costs, and timeframe. We tested messages with patients and providers using preliminary surveys to refine initial messages and subsequent focus groups to identify the most persuasive ones. The partnership achieved an efficient structure, $14,550 total costs, and 4-month timeframe. The advertising team developed 11 initial messages. The research team conducted surveys and focus groups with a total of 13 patients and 8 providers to identify three messages as most activating. Focus group themes suggested the general approach of using advertising-style messages was acceptable if it supported patient-provider relationships and had a credible evidence base. Individual messages were more motivating if they elicited personal identification with imagery, particular emotions, active patient role, and message clarity. We demonstrated feasibility of a research-advertising partnership and acceptability and likely impact of advertising-style messages on patient medication-seeking behavior. Healthcare systems may want to replicate our adaptation of marketing approaches to patients with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nerve growth factor influences cleavage rate and embryo development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, M; Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Vilariño, M; Mulet, A P; de León, A; Barbeito, L; Menchaca, A

    2016-10-01

    Recent information about Nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein traditionally associated to the nervous system that regulates survival and maturation of developing neurons, suggests that it may exert action also on different levels in the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NGF added during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization or in vitro embryo development in sheep. Nerve growth factor was supplemented to the culture medium at 0, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL, during either in vitro maturation (Exp. 1), in vitro fertilization (Exp. 2), or in vitro culture (Exp. 3). In addition, NGF mRNA expression was determined in cumulus cells and oocytes. Nerve growth factor induced early cleavage when added during oocyte maturation or fertilization, improved embryo development when added during fertilization, and had no significant effect when added during embryo culture. In general, the effect was more evident with 100 rather than 1,000 ng/mL (P growth factor on oocyte maturation and mainly on the fertilization process.

  16. Development of rapidly dissolving pellets within the Quality by Design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzas, A A; Politis, S N; Rekkas, D M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of novel, fast disintegrating, effervescent pellets by employing the direct pelletization technique as a single step process. In line with the Quality by Design (QbD) regulatory framework, statistical experimental design was extensively applied to correlate significant formulation and process variables with the critical quality attributes of the product. Pellets were studied with regards to sphericity, size and size distribution. In contrast to the existing multiparticulate platforms, this development integrated only water-soluble excipients to facilitate the multifunctional use of the final dosage form. The application of a screening fractional factorial design augmented to a full factorial design set the roadmap for the rational selection of the composition and process parameters, revealing in parallel the positive contribution of the powder feeder on the CQAs, when the critical process and formulation factors were properly adjusted. The response surface methodology was exploited for the final process optimization phase, which allowed the construction of appropriate mathematical models connecting the input variables and the CQAs under study. The implementation of the desirability function, lead to the optimum formulation and process settings for the production of pellets with narrow size distribution and geometric mean diameter of approximately 800 μm. In conclusion, using a lean approach supported by design of experiments (DoE) techniques within the QbD framework, a novel multifunctional formulation platform has been developed.

  17. Developing a More Rapid Test to Assess Sulfate Resistance of Hydraulic Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Chiara; Stutzman, Paul; Peltz, Max; Winpigler, John

    2005-01-01

    External sulfate attack of concrete is a major problem that can appear in regions where concrete is exposed to soil or water containing sulfates, leading to softening and cracking of the concrete. Therefore, it is important that materials selection and proportioning of concrete in susceptible regions be carefully considered to resist sulfate attack. American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) limits the tricalcium aluminate phase in cements when sulfate exposure is of concern. The hydration products of tricalcium aluminate react with the sulfates resulting in expansion and cracking. While ASTM standard tests are available to determine the susceptibility of cements to sulfate attack, these tests require at least 6 months and often up to a year to perform; a delay that hinders development of new cements. This paper presents a new method for testing cement resistance to sulfate attack that is three to five times faster than the current ASTM tests. Development of the procedure was based upon insights on the degradation process by petrographic examination of sulfate-exposed specimens over time. Also key to the development was the use of smaller samples and tighter environmental control. PMID:27308177

  18. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  19. Development and evaluation of rapid novel isothermal amplification assays for important veterinary pathogens: Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jelocnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum are important veterinary pathogens, with the former also being responsible for zoonoses, and the latter adversely affecting koala populations in Australia and livestock globally. The rapid detection of these organisms is still challenging, particularly at the point-of-care (POC. In the present study, we developed and evaluated rapid, sensitive and robust C. psittaci-specific and C. pecorum-specific Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP assays for detection of these pathogens. Methods and Materials The LAMP assays, performed in a Genie III real-time fluorometer, targeted a 263 bp region of the C. psittaci-specific Cps_0607 gene or a 209 bp region of a C. pecorum-specific conserved gene CpecG_0573, and were evaluated using a range of samples previously screened using species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs. Species-specificity for C. psittaci and C. pecorum LAMP targets was tested against DNA samples from related chlamydial species and a range of other bacteria. In order to evaluate pathogen detection in clinical samples, C. psittaci LAMP was evaluated using a total of 26 DNA extracts from clinical samples from equine and avian hosts, while for C. pecorum LAMP, we tested a total of 63 DNA extracts from clinical samples from koala, sheep and cattle hosts. A subset of 36 C. pecorum samples was also tested in a thermal cycler (instead of a real-time fluorometer using newly developed LAMP and results were determined as an end point detection. We also evaluated rapid swab processing (without DNA extraction to assess the robustness of these assays. Results Both LAMP assays were demonstrated to species-specific, highly reproducible and to be able to detect as little as 10 genome copy number/reaction, with a mean amplification time of 14 and 24 min for C. psittaci and C. pecorum, respectively. When testing clinical samples, the overall congruence between the newly developed LAMP assays and q

  20. Development and evaluation of rapid novel isothermal amplification assays for important veterinary pathogens: Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelocnik, Martina; Islam, Md Mominul; Madden, Danielle; Jenkins, Cheryl; Branley, James; Carver, Scott; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum are important veterinary pathogens, with the former also being responsible for zoonoses, and the latter adversely affecting koala populations in Australia and livestock globally. The rapid detection of these organisms is still challenging, particularly at the point-of-care (POC). In the present study, we developed and evaluated rapid, sensitive and robust C. psittaci-specific and C. pecorum-specific Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of these pathogens. The LAMP assays, performed in a Genie III real-time fluorometer, targeted a 263 bp region of the C. psittaci-specific Cps_0607 gene or a 209 bp region of a C. pecorum-specific conserved gene CpecG_0573, and were evaluated using a range of samples previously screened using species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs). Species-specificity for C. psittaci and C. pecorum LAMP targets was tested against DNA samples from related chlamydial species and a range of other bacteria. In order to evaluate pathogen detection in clinical samples, C. psittaci LAMP was evaluated using a total of 26 DNA extracts from clinical samples from equine and avian hosts, while for C. pecorum LAMP, we tested a total of 63 DNA extracts from clinical samples from koala, sheep and cattle hosts. A subset of 36 C. pecorum samples was also tested in a thermal cycler (instead of a real-time fluorometer) using newly developed LAMP and results were determined as an end point detection. We also evaluated rapid swab processing (without DNA extraction) to assess the robustness of these assays. Both LAMP assays were demonstrated to species-specific, highly reproducible and to be able to detect as little as 10 genome copy number/reaction, with a mean amplification time of 14 and 24 min for C. psittaci and C. pecorum, respectively. When testing clinical samples, the overall congruence between the newly developed LAMP assays and qPCR was 92.3% for C. psittaci (91.7% sensitivity and 92

  1. GSL: An Open Source Framework for the Rapid Development of Data Archive Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, J.; Boler, F. M.; Bock, Y.; Squibb, M. B.; Ratzesberger, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Geodetic Seamless Archive Center (GSAC) project is a NASA ROSES ACCESS funded effort with the goal to define and implement a web service API for uniform querying across multiple geodetic data repositories. The project information technology partners include two International GNSS Service (IGS) Data Centers, CDDIS and SOPAC, and a third global NSF and NASA-funded Data Center, UNAVCO. A science partner, the University of Nevada, Reno Geodetic Laboratory is utilizing the services and contributing new quality assessment products. Each of the participant data centers has its own internal database schema and various web-based access mechanisms to suit the needs of their individual user communities. The software engineering challenge that we faced was to unify these access mechanisms into a common web service API. To facilitate the development of the GSAC interfaces within these disparate repositories we have developed a Java-based open source middleware framework called the GSAC Service Layer (GSL). It was recognized early on in the project that much of the required functionality within each repository could be provided by a common software layer, thus achieving a substantial reduction in the development effort required by each partner institution. The GSL provides a range of common services for repository configuration, initialization, database management, web interface generation, and data model and metadata creation. Each repository implementation then simply focuses on the core task of responding to query requests and delivering to the GSL layer the internal results. The GSL layer is then responsible for encoding the results in the desired format. A fundamental challenge in developing a framework such as the GSL is balancing the trade-off between the agnosticism needed within the GSL so that it is applicable to a wide range of problem domains and the specific needs required for a particular repository implementations. The GSL addresses this challenge through an

  2. Development of Rapid Pipe Moulding Process for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Direct Resistance Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuto; Harada, Ryuki; Uemura, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutao; Kuwahara, Hideyuki

    To deal with environmental issues, the gasoline mileage of passenger cars can be improved by reduction of the car weight. The use of car components made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is increasing because of its superior mechanical properties and relatively low density. Many vehicle structural parts are pipe-shaped, such as suspension arms, torsion beams, door guard bars and impact beams. A reduction of the car weight is expected by using CFRP for these parts. Especially, when considering the recyclability and ease of production, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics are a prime candidate. On the other hand, the moulding process of CFRTP pipes for mass production has not been well established yet. For this pipe moulding process an induction heating method has been investigated already, however, this method requires a complicated coil system. To reduce the production cost, another system without such complicated equipment is to be developed. In this study, the pipe moulding process of CFRTP using direct resistance heating was developed. This heating method heats up the mould by Joule heating using skin effect of high-frequency current. The direct resistance heating method is desirable from a cost perspective, because this method can heat the mould directly without using any coils. Formerly developed Non-woven Stitched Multi-axial Cloth (NSMC) was used as semi-product material. NSMC is very suitable for the lamination process due to the fact that non-crimp stitched carbon fiber of [0°/+45°/90°/-45°] and polyamide 6 non-woven fabric are stitched to one sheet, resulting in a short production cycle time. The use of the pipe moulding process with the direct resistance heating method in combination with the NSMC, has resulted in the successful moulding of a CFRTP pipe of 300 mm in length, 40 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.

  3. Non-obese diabetic mice rapidly develop dramatic sympathetic neuritic dystrophy: a new experimental model of diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Beaudet, Lucie N; Frederick, Kathy E; Parvin, Curtis A; Plurad, Santiago B; Levisetti, Matteo G

    2003-11-01

    To address the pathogenesis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, we have examined the sympathetic nervous system in non-obese diabetic (NOD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, two models of type 1 diabetes, and the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes. After only 3 to 5 weeks of diabetes, NOD mice developed markedly swollen axons and dendrites ("neuritic dystrophy") in the prevertebral superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMG-CG), similar to the pathology described in diabetic STZ- and BBW-rat and man. Comparable changes failed to develop in the superior cervical ganglia of the NOD mouse or in the SMG-CG of non-diabetic NOD siblings. STZ-induced diabetic mice develop identical changes, although at a much slower pace and to a lesser degree than NOD mice. NOD-SCID mice, which are genetically identical to NOD mice except for the absence of T and B cells, do not develop diabetes or neuropathology comparable to diabetic NOD mice. However, STZ-treated NOD-SCID mice develop severe neuritic dystrophy, evidence against an exclusively autoimmune pathogenesis for autonomic neuropathy in this model. Chronically diabetic type 2 db/db mice fail to develop neuritic dystrophy, suggesting that hyperglycemia alone may not be the critical and sufficient element. The NOD mouse appears to be a valuable model of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy with unambiguous, rapidly developing neuropathology which corresponds closely to the characteristic pathology of other rodent models and man.

  4. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid diagnosis of invasive candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengxin He; Lanchun Shi; Xiangyang Ran; Wei Li; Xianling Wang; Fukun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) is very important. In this study, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed to detect antibody against Candida albicans enolase (Eno). Colloidal gold particle labeled mouse anti human IgG (1.0 mg/L) was used as the detector reagent. Recombinant enolase (rEno, 1.0 mg/L) and goat anti IgG (1.0 mg/L) were immobilized in test and control lines, respectively, of a nitrocellulose membrane, acting as the capture reagents. The LFIA was u...

  5. Development of microLIPS (Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems): a novel microfluidic assay for rapid serum antibody detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrangsu, Matt; Burbelo, Peter D.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Smith, Paul D.; Morgan, Nicole Y.

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of rapid, point-of-care antibody detection for the diagnosis of infectious and auto-immune diseases. In this paper, we present work on the development of a self-contained microfluidic format for the Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) assay. Whereas the majority of immunoassays for antigen-specific antibodies employ either bacteria- or yeast-expressed proteins and require the use of secondary antibodies, the LIPS technique uses a fusion protein comprised of a Renilla luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest produced via mammalian cell culture, ensuring the addition of mammalian post-translational modifications. Patient serum is mixed with the fusion protein and passed over immobilized Protein A/G; after washing, the only remaining luciferase-tagged antigens are those retained by specific antibodies. These can be quantitatively measured using chemiluminescence upon the introduction of coelenterazine. The assay has been successfully employed for a wide variety of diseases in a microwell format. We report on a recent demonstration of rapid HSV-2 diagnosis with the LIPS assay in a microfluidic format, using one microliter of serum and obtaining results in under ten minutes. We will also discuss recent progress on two fronts, both aimed at the deployment of this technology in the field: first, simplifying assay operation through the automation of flow control using power-free means; and second, efforts to increase signal levels, primarily through strategies to increase antibody binding capacity, in order to move towards portable battery powered electronics.

  6. Development of rapidly quenched nickel-based non-boron filler metals for brazing corrosion resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A.; Kalin, B.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion-resistant steels are stably applied in modern rocket and nuclear technology. Creating of permanent joints of these steels is a difficult task that can be solved by means of welding or brazing. Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing filler metals is perspective. However, the use of such alloys leads to the formation of brittle borides in brazing zone, which degrades the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the compounds. Therefore, the development of non-boron alloys for brazing stainless steels is important task. The study of binary systems Ni-Be and Ni-Si revealed the perspective of replacing boron in Ni-based filler metals by beryllium, so there was the objective of studying of phase equilibrium in the system Ni-Be-Si. The alloys of the Ni-Si-Be with different contents of Si and Be are considered in this paper. The presence of two low-melting components is revealed during of their studying by methods of metallography analysis and DTA. Microhardness is measured and X-ray diffraction analysis is conducted for a number of alloys of Ni-Si-Be. The compositions are developed on the basis of these data. Rapidly quenched brazing alloys can be prepared from these compositions, and they are suitable for high temperature brazing of steels.

  7. Development of an ELISA for rapid detection of anti-type VII collagen autoantibodies in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Chan, L S; Cai, X; O'Toole, E A; Sample, J C; Woodley, D T

    1997-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an acquired blistering skin disease characterized by the presence of IgG autoantibodies to type VII collagen. EBA autoantibodies recognize four major immunodominant epitopes localized within the amino-terminal, noncollagenous (NC1) domain. In this study, we developed a rapid, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect autoantibody activity against the complete NC1 domain of type VII collagen with the use of an eukaryotic-expressed, recombinant human NC1 antigen. With the ELISA, we tested serum from patients with EBA (n = 24), bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) (n = 3), bullous pemphigoid (n = 16), pemphigus (n = 11), and normal controls (n = 12). All EBA and BSLE serum, including four sera that were negative by indirect immunofluorescence, demonstrated reactivity with immobilized NC1 in the ELISA. In contrast, none of the sera from healthy control subjects or patients with unrelated blistering skin diseases reacted with NC1. The EBA sera also reacted with recombinant NC1 by immunoblot analysis but with less sensitivity. Thus, the newly developed ELISA using recombinant NC1 is a sensitive, specific assay and a useful tool for rapidly screening EBA and BSLE serum.

  8. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-08

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.

  9. Development of a Rapid Detection Method for Potato virus X by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joojin Jeong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary step for efficient control of viral diseases is the development of simple, rapid, and sensitive virus detection. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP has been used to detect viral RNA molecules because of its simplicity and high sensitivity for a number of viruses. RT-LAMP for the detection of Potato virus X (PVX was developed and compared with conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to demonstrate its advantages over RT-PCR. RT-LAMP reactions were conducted with or without a set of loop primers since one out of six primers showed PVX specificity. Based on real-time monitoring, RT-LAMP detected PVX around 30 min, compared to 120 min for RT-PCR. By adding a fluorescent reagent during the reaction, the extra step of visualization by gel electrophoresis was not necessary. RT-LAMP was conducted using simple inexpensive instruments and a regular incubator to evaluate whether RNA could be amplified at a constant temperature instead of using an expensive thermal cycler. This study shows the potential of RT-LAMP for the diagnosis of viral diseases and PVX epidemiology because of its simplicity and rapidness compared to RT-PCR.

  10. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  11. Ultrasensitive Silicon Nanowire Sensor Developed by a Special Ag Modification Process for Rapid NH3 Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Liu, Diao; Zhang, Tianyi; Cui, Zhen

    2017-08-30

    Surface functionalization is very effective in enhancing sensing properties of a chemiresistive gas sensor. In this work, we develop a novel and cost-effective process to prepare Ag-modified silicon nanowire (SiNW) sensors and further suggest a resistance effect model to clarify the enhanced sensing mechanism of Ag-modified SiNWs. The SiNWs were formed via metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE), and the Ag nanoparticle (NP) modification was achieved in situ based on the MACE-produced Ag dendrites by involving a crucial anisotropic postetching of TMAH. The TMAH etching induces a loose array of needle-like, rough SiNWs (RNWs) with firm attachment of tiny Ag NPs. Comparative investigations for NH3-sensing properties indicate that the RNWs modified by discrete Ag NPs (Ag@RNWs) display an ∼3-fold enhancement in gas response at room temperature compared with pristine SiNWs. Meanwhile, transient response and ultrafast recovery are observed for the Ag@RNW sensor (tres ≤ 2 s and trec ≤ 9 s to 0.33-10 ppm of NH3). The study demonstrates the considerable effect and potential of the Ag modification process developed in this work. A resistance effect model was further suggested to clarify the underlying mechanism of the enhanced response and the response saturation characteristic of the Ag@RNWs. The promotion of TMAH etching-induced microstructure modulation to sensing properties was also demonstrated.

  12. Rapid Sequestration of Leishmania mexicana by Neutrophils Contributes to the Development of Chronic Lesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Hurrell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The protozoan Leishmania mexicana parasite causes chronic non-healing cutaneous lesions in humans and mice with poor parasite control. The mechanisms preventing the development of a protective immune response against this parasite are unclear. Here we provide data demonstrating that parasite sequestration by neutrophils is responsible for disease progression in mice. Within hours of infection L. mexicana induced the local recruitment of neutrophils, which ingested parasites and formed extracellular traps without markedly impairing parasite survival. We further showed that the L. mexicana-induced recruitment of neutrophils impaired the early recruitment of dendritic cells at the site of infection as observed by intravital 2-photon microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Indeed, infection of neutropenic Genista mice and of mice depleted of neutrophils at the onset of infection demonstrated a prominent role for neutrophils in this process. Furthermore, an increase in monocyte-derived dendritic cells was also observed in draining lymph nodes of neutropenic mice, correlating with subsequent increased frequency of IFNγ-secreting T helper cells, and better parasite control leading ultimately to complete healing of the lesion. Altogether, these findings show that L. mexicana exploits neutrophils to block the induction of a protective immune response and impairs the control of lesion development. Our data thus demonstrate an unanticipated negative role for these innate immune cells in host defense, suggesting that in certain forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis, regulating neutrophil recruitment could be a strategy to promote lesion healing.

  13. Maximizing opportunities and mitigating risks in Canada's rapidly developing clean coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tse, D.W. [GE Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The power generation industry faces many challenges. Across the U.S., 132 coal plants to deliver 82 GW of power are proposed. IGCC and advanced PC/SCPC are compared. Data is presented to show the environmental benefits of IGCC. Advantages of IGCC include a proven technology, fuel flexibility, good emissions performance, high efficiency, comparable cost of electricity at launch, energy security, and public acceptance. GE acquired CVX gasification technology in 2004 and formed the IGCC alliance with Bechtel later that year. The key requirements for an IGCC reference plant are outlined: plant performance, design status, reference plant options, capital costs, project phases, multiple offerings, global activities, development budget, gasification programmes, and future plans. 18 figs.

  14. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  15. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A.; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A.; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D.; Smith, Colette J.; Powderly, B.; Shortman, N.; Moecklinghoff, C.; Reilly, G.; Franquet, X.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C. A.; Kamara, D.; Smith, C.; Phillips, A.; Mocroft, A.; Tverland, J.; Mansfeld, M.; Nielsen, J.; Raben, D.; Lundgren, J. D.; Brandt, R. Salbøl; Rickenbach, M.; Fanti, I.; Krum, E.; Hillebregt, M.; Geffard, S.; Sundström, A.; Delforge, M.; Fontas, E.; Torres, F.; McManus, H.; Wright, S.; Kjær, J.; Sjøl, A.; Meidahl, P.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Iversen, J. Schmidt; Kirk, O.; Ross, M.; Fux, C. A.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Kesselring, A. M.; Kamara, D. A.; Weber, R.; Pradier, C.; Friis-Møller, N.; Kowalska, J.; Sabin, C.; Law, M.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Dabis, F.; Bruyand, M.; Bower, M.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Donald, A.; Grulich, A.; Zaheri, S.; Gras, L.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; van der Poll, dr T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, Drs J. C.; van der Valk, Drs M.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W. R.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; Pronk, M. J. H.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Driessen, G. J. A.; van Rossum, A. M. C.; Branger, J.; Schippers, F.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Groeneveld, P. H. P.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R. W.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Jolink, H.; ter Vollaard, H. J. M.; Bauer, M. P.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; van Twillert, Drs G.; Kortmann, W.; Stuart, J. W. T. Cohen; Diederen, B. M. W.; Leyten, M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Kootstra, G. J.; Delsing, C. E.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Lauw, F. N.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Barth, R. E.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Bont, L. J.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Weijer, S.; el Moussaoui, R.; Winkel, C.; Muskiet, F.; Durand, N. N.; Voigt, R.; Chêne, G.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Bernard, N.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Dauchy, F. A.; de Witte, S.; Dupon, M.; Duffau, P.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaborieau, V.; Gemain, M. C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lataste, P.; Lafarie, S.; Lazaro, E.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J. P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J. L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Receveur, M. C.; Tchamgoué, S.; Vandenhende, M. A.; Viallard, J. F.; Moreau, J. F.; Pellegrin, I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M. E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M. J.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; D'Ivernois, C.; Hanapier, C.; Leleux, O.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Sicard, X.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Petoumenos, K.; Bendall, C.; Moore, R.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Watson, K.; Roth, N.; Nicholson, J.; Bloch, M.; Franic, T.; Baker, D.; Vale, R.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Calvo, G.; Mateu, S.; Domingo, P.; Sambeat, M. A.; Gatell, J.; del Cacho, E.; Cadafalch, J.; Fuster, M.; Codina, C.; Sirera, G.; Vaqué, A.; de Wit, S.; Clumeck, N.; Necsoi, C.; Gennotte, A. F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Payen, M. C.; Semaille, P.; van Laethem, Y.; Neaton, J.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; Abrams, D. I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L. R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Lundgren, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Grint, D.; Podlekareva, D.; Peters, L.; Reekie, J.; Fischer, A. H.; Losso, M.; Elias, C.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Suetnov, O.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Machala, L.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Kronborg, G.; Gerstoft, J.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Katzenstein, T.; Hansen, A.-B. E.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J.- P.; Girard, P.- M.; Livrozet, J. M.; Vanhems, P.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stellbrink, H. J.; Staszewski, S.; Bickel, M.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Panos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Pollack, S.; Hassoun, G.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Chirianni, A.; Montesarchio, E.; Gargiulo, M.; Antonucci, G.; Testa, A.; Narciso, P.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Pynka, M.; Parczewski, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Babes, Victor; Zakharova, N.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Soriano, V.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miró, J. M.; Gutierrez, M.; Karlsson, A.; Mateo, G.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Francioli, P.; Cavassini, M.; Hirschel, B.; Boffi, E.; Kravchenko, E.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A. M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M. A.; Murphy, M.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Morfeldt, L.; Thulin, G.; Åkerlund, B.; Koppel, K.; Håkangård, C.; Moroni, M.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Perno, C. F.; von Schloesser, F.; Viale, P.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Girardi, E.; Lo Caputo, S.; Puoti, M.; Andreoni, Massimo; Ammassari, Adriana; Antinori, Andrea; Balotta, Claudia; Bonfanti, Paolo; Bonora, Stefano; Borderi, Marco; Capobianchi, M. Rosaria; Castagna, Antonella; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Cingolani, Antonella; Cinque, Paola; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; de Luca, Andrea; Di Biagio, Antonio; Girardi, Enrico; Gianotti, Nicola; Gori, Andrea; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Lichtner, Miriam; Madeddu, Giordano; Maggiolo, Franco; Marchetti, Giulia; Marcotullio, Simone; Monno, Laura; Mussini, Cristina; Puoti, Massimo; Quiros, Eugenia; Rusconi, Stefano; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Giacometti, A.; Costantini, A.; Monno, L.; Santoro, C.; Maggiolo, F.; Suardi, C.; Vanino, E.; Verucchi, G.; Quiros Roldan, E.; Minardi, C.; Quirino, T.; Abeli, C.; Manconi, P. E.; Piano, P.; Vecchiet, J.; Falasca, K.; Sighinolfi, L.; Segala, D.; Cassola, G.; Viscoli, G.; Alessandrini, A.; Piscopo, R.; Mazzarello, G.; Mastroianni, C.; Belvisi, V.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, A. P.; Rizzardini, G.; Ridolfo, A. L.; Piolini, R.; Salpietro, S.; Carenzi, L.; Moioli, M. C.; Marchetti, G.; Puzzolante, C.; Gori, A.; Onofrio, M.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Guida, M. G.; Baldelli, F.; Francisci, D.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M. A.; Andreoni, M.; Cingolani, A.; d' Avino, A.; Ammassari, A.; Gallo, L.; Nicastri, E.; Acinapura, R.; Capozzi, M.; Libertone, R.; Tebano, G.; Cattelan, A.; Mura, M. S.; Madeddu, G.; Caramello, P.; Orofino, G. C.; Bonora, S.; Sciandra, M.; Pellizzer, G.; Manfrin, V.; Caissotti, C.; Dellamonica, P.; Bernard, E.; Cua, E.; de Salvador- Guillouet, F.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pillet, S.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P. M.; Dollet, K.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H. C.; Burton- Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Egger, M.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Haerry, D.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H. H.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Martinetti, G.; de Tejada, B. Martinez; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, A.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Yerly, S.

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data

  16. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons : the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D; Smith, Colette J; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the

  17. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, D.A.; Ryom, L.; Ross, M.; Kirk, O.; Reiss, P.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Fux, C.A.; Mocroft, A.; Sabin, C.; Lundgren, J.D.; Smith, C.J.; Koopmans, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Crevel, R. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in

  18. Development of a Rapid Cell-free Method for Cytotoxicity Assessment of Vapor Phase of Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, several in vitro tests are widely used to measure toxicological properties of mainstream smoke (Neutral Red Uptake Assay, Micronucleus assay, Ames Test. These tests are necessary to assess cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity, but are time consuming. This is essentially due to the preparation and the handling of cells. It is difficult to use these in vitro tests as screening method for product testing and development. For a better assessment of the cytotoxicity of the vapor phase, a rapid cell-free method has been developed. This paper describes a capillary electrophoresis cell-free method, based on the depletion of an anti-oxidant L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine (GSH, applied to an aliquot of vapor phase phosphate buffered saline (PBS-trapped cigarette smoke (as recommended for in vitro testing. The correlation between this method and the survival/viability test (Neutral Red cytotoxicity is excellent (coefficient of correlation (r = 0.99.

  19. Rapid development of thymic neuroendocrine carcinoma despite transcervical thymectomy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhalapathy Sadacharan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymic neuroendocrine (NE tumors are a rare manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1. They are malignant and aggressive tumors and form a major cause of mortality in MEN-1. Transcervical thymectomy (TCT at the time of parathyroid surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT in MEN-1 usually prevents thymic NE tumors. We report a 56-year-old nonsmoker male with sporadic MEN-1 who presented with thymic NE carcinoma developing rapidly within a span of 8 months after subtotal parathyroidectomy and TCT for PHPT. We present a brief review of literature on this rare NE malignancy, focusing on its occurrence despite TCT. This case highlights the fact that thymic NE carcinoma may develop even after TCT in MEN-1. Regular surveillance for these aggressive thymic NE tumors is mandatory even after TCT in MEN-1 setting.

  20. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  1. Development of a rapid agglutination latex test for diagnosis of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli infection in developing world: defining the biomarker, antibody and method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia B Rocha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC/EHEC are human intestinal pathogens responsible for diarrhea in both developing and industrialized countries. In research laboratories, EPEC and EHEC are defined on the basis of their pathogenic features; nevertheless, their identification in routine laboratories is expensive and laborious. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to develop a rapid and simple assay for EPEC/EHEC detection. Accordingly, the EPEC/EHEC-secreted proteins EspA and EspB were chosen as target antigens.First, we investigated the ideal conditions for EspA/EspB production/secretion by ELISA in a collection of EPEC/EHEC strains after cultivating bacterial isolates in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM or DMEM containing 1% tryptone or HEp-2 cells-preconditioned DMEM, employing either anti-EspA/anti-EspB polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies developed and characterized herein. Subsequently, a rapid agglutination latex test (RALT was developed and tested with the same collection of bacterial isolates.EspB was defined as a biomarker and its corresponding monoclonal antibody as the tool for EPEC/EHEC diagnosis; the production of EspB was better in DMEM medium. RALT assay has the sensitivity and specificity required for high-impact diagnosis of neglected diseases in the developing world.RALT assay described herein can be considered an alternative assay for diarrhea diagnosis in low-income countries since it achieved 97% sensitivity, 98% specificity and 97% efficiency.

  2. Prevalence of organic and inorganic contaminants within a rapidly developing catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njumbe, E. S.; Curtis, C. D.; Cooke, D. A.; Polya, D. A.; Wogelius, R. A.; Hughes, C.

    2003-04-01

    Industrialization rates in many developing countries typically outpace investment in water supply, sewage treatment and other waste water facilities. This is futher compounded by the absence of stringent land-use and waste disposal policies. The consequence of this has been contamination of land, surface water, and groundwater in such areas. Efforts to control and remediate these types of systems will rely on a thorough understanding of contaminant levels and mobility. Reliable data, however, is usually not available. Therefore this study was designed to acquire baseline data from a representative developing urban area in tropical west Africa. 43 water and 20 sediment/soil samples from streams, hand-dug wells, springs and deep boreholes within the city and surrounding areas of Douala in Cameroon were characterised. Analyses were aimed at obtaining information on the type and quantity of organic and inorganic contaminants present, and linking them to specific point and non-point sources. Results from gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of total organic extracts (TOE) of water samples have revealed the presence of a wide range of organic compounds including phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phthalates, acids and aliphatic derivatives. Concentrations as high as 500 ng ml-1 were detected. These high levels of non-polar compounds measured in drinking water represent a clear health problem. Heavy metal concentrations in bulk alluvial sands and loamy soil have been determined by microwave assisted nitric acid digestion. Concentration ranges (in ppm of dry weight) for the important metals were: Cr, 3.2-84.2 ; Ni, 0.2-57.4 ; Zn, 2.1-92 ; Pb, 0.3-33 ; As, 0.081-9.4 ; Cu, 0.61-17.4 ; and Cd, 0-3.1. Point sources have been identified for several of the organic and inorganic compounds and this spatial information will be integrated with the chemical data to present an overview of

  3. Rapid development of cardiac dysfunction in a canine model of insulin resistance and moderate obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Josiane L; Nelson, Michael D; Kolka, Cathryn M; Bediako, Isaac Asare; Paszkiewicz, Rebecca L; Smith, Laura; Szczepaniak, Edward W; Stefanovski, Darko; Szczepaniak, Lidia S; Bergman, Richard N

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide incidence of obesity and diabetes continues to rise at an alarming rate. A major cause of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes is heart disease, yet the mechanisms that lead to cardiovascular complications remain unclear. We performed cardiac MRI to assess left ventricular morphology and function during the development of moderate obesity and insulin resistance in a well-established canine model (n = 26). To assess the influence of dietary fat composition, we randomised animals to a traditional lard diet (rich in saturated and monounsaturated fat; n = 12), a salmon oil diet (rich in polyunsaturated fat; n = 8) or a control diet (n = 6). High-fat feeding with lard increased body weight and fasting insulin and markedly reduced insulin sensitivity. Lard feeding also significantly reduced left ventricular function, evidenced by a worsening of circumferential strain and impairment in left ventricular torsion. High-fat feeding with salmon oil increased body weight; however, salmon oil feeding did not impair insulin sensitivity or cardiac function. These data emphasise the importance of dietary fat composition on both metabolic and cardiac function, and have important implications for the relationship between diet and health.

  4. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Capripoxvirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanisht Batra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to develop a nucleic acid-based diagnostic assay loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP targeting highly conserved genomic regions of Capripoxvirus (CaPVs and its comparative evaluation with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Material and Methods: Lyophilized vaccine strain of sheeppox virus (SPPV was used for optimization of LAMP assay. The LAMP assay was designed using envelope immunogenic protein (P32 coding gene targeting highly conserved genomic regions of CaPV responsible for causing sheep pox, goat pox, and lumpy skin disease in sheep, goat and cattle respectively. Serial tenfold dilution of SPPV recombinant plasmid DNA was used for a calculating limit of detection. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were performed. Results: The test described is quick (30 min, sensitive and specific for detection of CaPVs. The described assay did not show any cross-reactivity to other related viruses that cause apparently similar clinical signs. It was found to be ten times more sensitive than conventional PCR however, 100 times less sensitive than quantitative PCR (qPCR. LAMP assay results were monitored by color change method using picogreen dye and agarose gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: LAMP assay can be a very good alternative for CaPV detection to other molecular techniques requiring sophisticated equipments.

  5. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Capripoxvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Kanisht; Kumar, Aman; Kumar, Vinay; Nanda, Trilok; Maan, Narender S; Maan, Sushila

    2015-11-01

    The present study was undertaken to develop a nucleic acid-based diagnostic assay loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) targeting highly conserved genomic regions of Capripoxvirus (CaPVs) and its comparative evaluation with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lyophilized vaccine strain of sheeppox virus (SPPV) was used for optimization of LAMP assay. The LAMP assay was designed using envelope immunogenic protein (P32) coding gene targeting highly conserved genomic regions of CaPV responsible for causing sheep pox, goat pox, and lumpy skin disease in sheep, goat and cattle respectively. Serial tenfold dilution of SPPV recombinant plasmid DNA was used for a calculating limit of detection. Analytical sensitivity and specificity were performed. The test described is quick (30 min), sensitive and specific for detection of CaPVs. The described assay did not show any cross-reactivity to other related viruses that cause apparently similar clinical signs. It was found to be ten times more sensitive than conventional PCR however, 100 times less sensitive than quantitative PCR (qPCR). LAMP assay results were monitored by color change method using picogreen dye and agarose gel electrophoresis. LAMP assay can be a very good alternative for CaPV detection to other molecular techniques requiring sophisticated equipments.

  6. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid diagnosis of invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengxin He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Early and accurate diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC is very important. In this study, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA was developed to detect antibody against Candida albicans enolase (Eno. Colloidal gold particle labeled mouse anti human IgG (1.0 mg/L was used as the detector reagent. Recombinant enolase (rEno, 1.0 mg/L and goat anti IgG (1.0 mg/L were immobilized in test and control lines, respectively, of a nitrocellulose membrane, acting as the capture reagents. The LFIA was used to detect anti Eno in 38 sera from clinically proven IC patients, as well as in 50 healthy control subjects. Compared with an indirect ELISA designed as a reference test, the specificity and sensitivity of the LFIA were 98.2% and 84.8%, respectively. Excellent agreement between the results obtained by ELISA and the LFIA (kappa = 0.851 was observed in this study. In addition, the agreement between the blood culture results and LFIA test is strong (kappa = 0.658. The data presented in the study indicate that the LFIA test is a suitable tool for the serological surveillance of IC in the field or in poorly equipped laboratories.

  7. Development of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zheng-Xin; Shi, Lan-Chun; Ran, Xiang-Yang; Li, Wei; Wang, Xian-Ling; Wang, Fu-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) is very important. In this study, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed to detect antibody against Candida albicans enolase (Eno). Colloidal gold particle labeled mouse anti human IgG (1.0 mg/L) was used as the detector reagent. Recombinant enolase (rEno, 1.0 mg/L) and goat anti IgG (1.0 mg/L) were immobilized in test and control lines, respectively, of a nitrocellulose membrane, acting as the capture reagents. The LFIA was used to detect anti Eno in 38 sera from clinically proven IC patients, as well as in 50 healthy control subjects. Compared with an indirect ELISA designed as a reference test, the specificity and sensitivity of the LFIA were 98.2 and 84.8%, respectively. Excellent agreement between the results obtained by ELISA and the LFIA (κ = 0.851) was observed in this study. In addition, the agreement between the blood culture results and LFIA test is strong (κ = 0.658). The data presented in the study indicate that the LFIA test is a suitable tool for the serological surveillance of IC in the field or in poorly equipped laboratories.

  8. Rapid development of 36 polymorphic microsatellite markers for Tetranychus truncatus by transferring from Tetranychus urticae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cheng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Cui, Yu-Nan; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-10-01

    Tetranychus truncatus Ehara is a phytophagous spider mite that is now one of the most important pests of agricultural and economic crops in East and Southeast Asia. However, population genetics and other studies of T. truncatus have been impeded by the lack of microsatellite markers, which are expensive and time-consuming to identify. Previous studies indicated a high potential of cross-amplification of microsatellites in Tetranychus species, meaning that the microsatellite flanking sequences are sufficiently homologous among Tetranychus species that the primers for one species may work in another species. Here, we tested 205 primer pairs designed from the whole genome sequence of Tetranychus urticae Koch, a sister species of T. truncatus, for microsatellite markers in three populations of T. truncatus in China (N = 94). About half (102) of these primer pairs yielded the desired PCR products, 36 of which revealed polymorphism in T. truncatus. Each of the 36 markers harbored between 2 and 23 alleles, with a mean polymorphic information content of 0.589 (0.119-0.922 range). The mean observed and expected heterozygosity across loci and the three populations were 0.468 and 0.628, respectively. Of the 36 primer pairs, 22 also worked in Tetranychus piercei, but only a few of them worked in T. ludeni and T. phaselus. Cross-amplification is thus a cost-effective way to develop microsatellite markers, which can be of great value in population genetics studies.

  9. Analysis and Development of FACE Automatic Apparatus for Rapid Identification of Transuranium Isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebesta, Edward Henri [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1978-09-01

    A description of and operating manual for the FACE Automatic Apparatus has been written along with a documentation of the FACE machine operating program, to provide a user manual for the FACE Automatic Apparatus. In addition, FACE machine performance was investigated to improve transuranium throughput. Analysis of the causes of transuranium isotope loss was undertaken both chemical and radioactive. To lower radioactive loss, the dynamics of the most time consuming step of the FACE machine, the chromatographic column output droplet drying and flaming, in preparation of sample for alpha spectroscopy and counting, was investigated. A series of droplets were dried in an experimental apparatus demonstrating that droplets could be dried significantly faster through more intensie heating, enabling the FACE machine cycle to be shortened by 30-60 seconds. Proposals incorporating these ideas were provided for FACE machine development. The 66% chemical loss of product was analyzed and changes were proposed to reduce the radioisotopes product loss. An analysis of the chromatographic column was also provided. All operating steps in the FACE machine are described and analyzed to provide a complete guide, along with the proposals for machine improvement.

  10. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater contamination in the rapid urban development areas of Coimbatore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvakumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Singanallur Sub-basin is one of the major waterways and it supplies water to the Coimbatore city. Currently, it is vulnerable to pollution due to an increase of unplanned urban developments, industrial, and agricultural activities that compromise both the quality and quantity. In the present study three major hydrochemical facies were identified (mixed Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3. Irrigation suitability indexes are specifies that the groundwater in the areas has very high salinity hazard and low to medium alkali hazard. The mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry originally regulated by the evaporation process is dominated by reason of arid condition and anthropogenic activities existing throughout the region. The multivariate statistical analysis (Correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA and Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA indicates, most of the variations are elucidated by the anthropogenic pollutant predominantly due to population growth, industrial effluents, and irrigation water return flow. This study demonstrates enhanced information of evolution of groundwater quality by integrating hydrochemical data and multivariate statistical methods are used to understand the factors influencing contamination due to natural and anthropogenic impacts.

  11. Development of a Rapid and Sensitive HPLC Assay Method for Lenalidomide Capsules and Its Related Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Maheshwara Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chromatographic method was established for the determination of lenalidomide and related substances in 10 mg and 5 mg capsules using Sunfire C-18(250×4.6 mm ID, 5 μm HPCL column with 85:15 v/v ratio of mobile phases A (mixture of phosphoric acid buffer and 1-octane sulphonic acid sodium salt and B(55: 45 v/v ratio of methanol and acetonitrile at 40°C and 210 nm wave length. The degradation studies were performed using 0.1N HCl, 0.1 N NaOH, 1% v/v hydrogen peroxide, humidity, UV at 254 nm, Sun light, and heat to 60°C. No significant degradation of lenalidomide was observed. However, the slight degradation was observed in presence of NaOH. The developed HPLC method gave the peaks purity angle was less their threshold angle, indicating it to be suitable for stability studies. It was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and robustness.

  12. Development of SCoT-Based SCAR Marker for Rapid Authentication of Taxus Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Juan; Jiao, Kaili; Yu, Chenliang; Guo, Hong; Zhu, Yujia; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Siyang; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Shangguo; Song, Yaobin; Dong, Ming; Wang, Huizhong; Shen, Chenjia

    2018-01-31

    Taxus media is an important species in the family Taxaceae with high medicinal and commercial value. Overexploitation and illegal trade have led T. media to a severe threat of extinction. In addition, T. media and other Taxus species have similar morphological traits and are easily misidentified, particularly during the seedling stage. The purpose of this study is to develop a species-specific marker for T. media. Through a screening of 36 start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism primers, among 15 individuals of 4 Taxus species (T. media, T. chinensis, T. cuspidate and T. fuana), a clear species-specific DNA fragment (amplified by primer SCoT3) for T. media was identified. After isolation and sequencing, a DNA sequence with 530 bp was obtained. Based on this DNA fragment, a primer pair for the sequence-characterized amplified region marker was designed and named MHSF/MHSR. PCR analysis with primer pair MHSF/MHSR revealed a clear amplified band for all individuals of T. media but not for T. chinensis, T. cuspidate and T. fuana. Therefore, this marker can be used as a quick, efficient and reliable tool to identify T. media among other related Taxus species. The results of this study will lay an important foundation for the protection and management of T. media as a natural resource.

  13. Development of a loop-mediated Isothermal amplification assay for sensitive and rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawahara Ryuji

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine seafood-borne pathogen causing gastrointestinal disorders in humans. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH are known as major virulence determinants of V. parahaemolyticus. Most V. parahaemolyticus isolates from the environment do not produce TDH or TRH. Total V. parahaemolyticus has been used as an indicator for control of seafood contamination toward prevention of infection. Detection of total V. parahaemolyticus using conventional culture- and biochemical-based assays is time-consuming and laborious, requiring more than three days. Thus, we developed a novel and highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for the sensitive and rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Results The assay provided markedly more sensitive and rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus strains than conventional biochemical and PCR assays. The assay correctly identified 143 V. parahaemolyticus strains, but did not detect 33 non-parahaemolyticus Vibrio and 56 non-Vibrio strains. Sensitivity of the LAMP assay for direct detection of V. parahaemolyticus in pure cultures and in spiked shrimp samples was 5.3 × 102 CFU per ml/g (2.0 CFU per reaction. The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 10-fold more sensitive than that of the conventional PCR assay. The LAMP assay was markedly faster, requiring for amplification 13–22 min in a single colony on TCBS agar from each of 143 V. parahaemolyticus strains and less than 35 min in spiked shrimp samples. The LAMP assay for detection of V. parahaemolyticus required less than 40 min in a single colony on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS agar and 60 min in spiked shrimp samples from the beginning of DNA extraction to final determination. Conclusion The LAMP assay is a sensitive, rapid and simple tool for the detection of V. parahaemolyticus and will facilitate the surveillance for control of contamination of V

  14. Parental preference for fluoride varnish: a new concept in a rapidly developing nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendaus MA

    2016-07-01

    availability of the fluoride varnish in all clinics. Conclusion: The robust positive attitude of parents in this sample suggests that introducing fluoride varnish is feasible and acceptable in our community. Actions to augment fluoride varnish acceptability in the developing world, such as focusing on safety, could be important in the disseminated implementation of fluoride varnish. Keywords: fluoride, parents, varnish, Qatar

  15. Rapid Development of Microsatellite Markers for Plantago ovata Forsk.: Using Next Generation Sequencing and Their Cross-Species Transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranbir Singh Fougat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk. is an important medicinal plant having high pharmacological activity in its seed husk, which is substantially used in the food, beverages and packaging industries. Nevertheless, isabgol lags behind in research, particularly for genomic resources, like molecular markers, genetic maps, etc. Presently, molecular markers can be easily developed through next generation sequencing technologies, more efficiently, cost effectively and in less time than ever before. This study was framed keeping in view the need to develop molecular markers for this economically important crop by employing a microsatellite enrichment protocol using a next generation sequencing platform (ion torrent PGM™ to obtain simple sequence repeats (SSRs for Plantago ovata for the very first time. A total of 3447 contigs were assembled, which contained 249 SSRs. Thirty seven loci were randomly selected for primer development; of which, 30 loci were successfully amplified. The developed microsatellite markers showed the amplification of the expected size and cross-amplification in another six species of Plantago. The SSR markers were unable to show polymorphism within P. ovata, suggesting that low variability exists within genotypes of P. ovata. This study suggests that PGM™ sequencing is a rapid and cost-effective tool for developing SSR markers for non-model species, and the markers so-observed could be useful in the molecular breeding of P. ovata.

  16. Design and Development of an Equipotential Voltage Reference (Grounding) System for a Low-Cost Rapid-Development Modular Spacecraft Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukash, James A.; Daley, Earl

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the design and development effort to adapt rapid-development space hardware by creating a ground system using solutions of low complexity, mass, & cost. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft is based on the modular common spacecraft bus architecture developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The challenge was building upon the existing modular common bus design and development work and improving the LADEE spacecraft design by adding an Equipotential Voltage Reference (EVeR) system, commonly referred to as a ground system. This would aid LADEE in meeting Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) requirements, thereby making the spacecraft more compatible with itself and its space environment. The methods used to adapt existing hardware are presented, including provisions which may be used on future spacecraft.

  17. Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Candida auris from Surveillance Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, L; Zhu, Y; Chaturvedi, S

    2018-02-01

    Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast causing invasive health care-associated infection with high mortality worldwide. Rapid identification of C. auris is of primary importance for the implementation of public health measures to control the spread of infection. To achieve these goals, we developed and validated a TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 ( ITS 2) region of the ribosomal gene. The assay was highly specific, reproducible, and sensitive, with the detection limit of 1 C. auris CFU/PCR. The performance of the C. auris real-time PCR assay was evaluated by using 623 surveillance samples, including 365 patient swabs and 258 environmental sponges. Real-time PCR yielded positive results from 49 swab and 58 sponge samples, with 89% and 100% clinical sensitivity with regard to their respective culture-positive results. The real-time PCR also detected C. auris DNA from 1% and 12% of swab and sponge samples with culture-negative results, indicating the presence of dead or culture-impaired C. auris The real-time PCR yielded results within 4 h of sample processing, compared to 4 to 14 days for culture, reducing turnaround time significantly. The new real-time PCR assay allows for accurate and rapid screening of C. auris and can increase effective control and prevention of this emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen in health care facilities. Copyright © 2018 Leach et al.

  18. Rapidly disintegrating vagina retentive cream suppositories of progesterone: development, patient satisfaction and in vitro/in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendas, Ehab Rasmy; Basalious, Emad B

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to develop novel vagina retentive cream suppositories (VRCS) of progesterone having rapid disintegration and good vaginal retention. VRCS of progesterone were prepared using oil in water (o/w) emulsion of mineral oil or theobroma oil in hard fat and compared with conventional vaginal suppositories (CVS) prepared by hard fat. VRCS formulations were tested for content uniformity, disintegration, melting range, in vitro release and stability studies. The most stable formulation (VRCS I) was subjected to scaling-up manufacturing and patients' satisfaction test. The rapid disintegration, good retentive properties are applicable through the inclusion of emulsified theobroma oil rather than hydrophilic surfactant into the hard fat bases. The release profile of progesterone from VRCS I showed a biphasic pattern due to the formation of progesterone reservoir in the emulsified theobroma oil. All volunteers involved in patients' satisfaction test showed high satisfactory response to the tested formulation (VRCS). The in vivo pharmacokinetic study suggests that VRCS of progesterone provided higher rate and extent of absorption compared to hard fat based suppositories. Our results proposed that emulsified theobroma oil could be promising to solve the problems of poor patients' satisfaction and variability of drug absorption associated with hard fat suppositories.

  19. Development and application of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of 4 major bacterial pathogens in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, B; Cha, S-Y; Kang, M; Park, I-J; Moon, O-K; Park, C-K; Jang, H-K

    2013-05-01

    Infections with Pasteurella multocida, Salmonella enterica, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Escherichia coli result in high morbidity and mortality, which cause significant economic loss in the poultry industry. It can be difficult to distinguish these pathogens based on clinical signs because these pathogens can cause similar clinical signs and coinfections can occur. Thus, rapid and sensitive detection of these 4 major bacterial pathogens are important in ducks. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for simultaneously detecting and identifying these 4 pathogenic bacteria in a single tube reaction. The target genes used were KMT1 of P. multocida, the invasion protein gene of S. enterica, 16S rDNA of R. anatipestifer, and the alkaline phosphatase gene of E. coli. The detection limit of the assay for all bacterial DNA was 10 pg. The mPCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against other related pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Mycoplasma gallinarum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, which can also infect ducks. We applied mPCR to field samples, and the results were the same as the single PCR results. These results suggest that mPCR for the 4 bacteria is a useful and rapid technique to apply to field samples.

  20. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Callcott, Anne-Marie A

    2016-07-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia, and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the USA to minimize further spread of the ant. To aid the quarantine efforts, there remains an acute need for a rapid, field portable method for the identification of these ants. In this report, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind the S. invicta venom protein 2 produced by S. invicta. Using these monoclonal antibodies we developed a lateral flow immunoassay that provides a rapid and portable method for the identification of S. invicta ants. The lateral flow immunoassay was validated against purified S. invicta venom protein 2 and 33 unique ant species (representing 15 % of the total species and 42 % of the Myrmicinae genera found in Florida), and only S. invicta and the S. invicta/richteri hybrid produced a positive result. These monoclonal antibodies were selective to S. invicta venom protein 2 and did not bind to proteins from congeners (i.e., S. geminata or S. richteri) known to produce a S. invicta venom protein 2 ortholog. This S. invicta lateral flow immunoassay provides a new tool for regulatory agencies in the USA to enforce quarantine protocols and limit the spread of this invasive ant. Graphical Abstract Field method to detect and identify the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

  1. Development of a Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for Pork Components in Raw Beef and Chicken Meats: a Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Depamede

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A rapid immunodiagnostic test that provides visual evidence of the presence of pork components in raw beef and chicken meats was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-Swine IgG polyclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then were used to test laboratory adulterated raw meat samples. The samples consisted adulteration meat, immunodiagnostic, pork, rapid test of pork-in-beef, or pork-in-chicken at 1/0; 1/100; 1/1,000; 1/5,000; 1/10,000 (w/w adulteration levels that were extracted in phosphate-buffered saline. Raw beef and chicken meats without pork were included as controls. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 1/5,000 (w/w, although 1/10,000 was also observed. This immunodiagnostic tests can be conveniently applied to detect low levels of pork components in raw beef and chicken meat products. For the commercial purposes, further studies need to be carried out.

  2. Fat and Moisture Content in Chinese Fried Bread Sticks: Assessment and Rapid Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Method Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fried bread sticks (FBS are one of the most widely consumed deep fried food products in China. Understanding the fat and moisture content in FBS will help consumers make healthy food choices as well as assist food processors to provide FBS with desirable quality. Rapid Fourier transform near-infrared methods (FT-NIR were developed for determining fat and moisture content in FBS collected from 123 different vendors in Shanghai, China. FBS samples with minimum sample preparation (either finely or coarsely ground were used for NIR analyses. Spectra of FBS were treated with different mathematic pretreatments before being used to build models between the spectral information and fat (7.71%–30.89% or moisture (17.39%–32.65% content in FBS. Finely ground samples may lead to slightly more robust PLS models, but the particle sizes of ground FBS samples did not seriously affect the predictability of the models with appropriate mathematical treatments. The fat and moisture content in FBS predicted by FT-NIR methods had very good correlation with their values determined via traditional methods (fat, R2=0.965; moisture, R2=0.983, which clearly indicated that FT-NIR methods could be used as an effective tool for rapid determination of fat and moisture content in FBS.

  3. Development of a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of CFP-10 for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianyi; Zou, Lilin; Liu, Bin; Li, Xiaoqing; Tan, Jinrong; Zhao, Ai; Xiong, Chunhui; Li, Xiang; Lu, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin

    2015-07-01

    Tuberculous pleural effusion is the second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, which is very difficult to rapidly distinguish from malignant pleural effusion in the clinical setting. A time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRF) of CFP-10, a low molecular weight protein secreted by pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was developed to differentiate tuberculous pleural effusion from malignant one. The measuring range was 0.3-187.5 ng/ml with the dose-response coefficient of 0.9998 and detection limit of 0.036 ng/ml. The intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 3.6-9.2% and 10.0-12.4%, respectively. The concentration of CFP-10 in malignant pleural effusion was less than 0.8 ng/ml. The negative predictive value was 93.1% in malignant pleural effusion (n = 247) while the positive predictive value was 83.0% in tuberculous pleural effusion (n = 235). Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference in the CFP-10 concentration of pleural effusion between the groups before and after clinical therapy of tuberculosis (P CFP-10 may be used for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion and further monitoring the clinical therapeutic efficacy of tuberculosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Between Land and People: A Review of Socioeconomic Issues within the context of Rapid Development in Iskandar Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sultan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to globalization and economic competitiveness, Malaysia launched six economic development corridors, covering all the potential areas in Malaysia, and Johor Bahru is one of them. Iskandar Malaysia was launched in 2006 for future economic development in the country as well as to cater the needs of Johor Bahru to modernize its urban and economic infrastructure. Situated in a strategic location and space, Iskandar Malaysia is targeted to be the player of catalytic investment role that will bring direct and indirect investment to Johor. The whole landscape of Johor Bahru is now transforming dramatically, thus worrying the locals and the environmentalists. Environmental issues as well as the concern for social inequality issues have been raised by the locals. Hence, the aim of this study is to address the issues created by the rapid development of Iskandar Malaysia, particularly in Johor Bahru and Nusajaya. The objectives of this paper are to assess the consequences of the coastal land reclamation for Danga Bay waterfront city development and to identify the impact of new-build gentrification towards the local people. The research identifies key social and economic issues and the impacts of these issues have also been identified. To achieve the objective of the study a detailed review on secondary data has been done. The study found that more cooperation and attention from the local authorities, stakeholders and public is needed to ensure urban regeneration and to achieve the objective of social inclusiveness as promised by the vision of Iskandar Malaysia.

  5. Development and validation of a rapid chromatographic method for the analysis of flunarizine and its main production impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh O’Connor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A rapid selective method for the analysis of flunarizine and its associated impurities was developed and validated according to ICH guidelines. The separation was carried out using a Thermo Scientific Hypersil Gold C18 column (50mm×4.6mm i.d., 1.9μm particle size with a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile–ammonium acetate–tetrabutylammoniumhydrogen sulfate buffer, at a flow rate of 1.8mL/min and UV detection at 230nm. Naturally aged samples were also tested to determine sample stability. A profile of sample and impurity breakdown was also presented. Keywords: Flunarizine, Sub 2μm column, Active pharmaceutical ingredient, HPLC

  6. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Assay for Quantitation of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. Carinii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; Kovacs, Joseph A; Stock, Frida

    2002-01-01

    ) PCR assay for detecting P. carinii f. sp. carinii, the subspecies of P. carinii commonly used in research models of PCP. The assay was based on the single-copy dihydrofolate reductase gene and was able to detect ... axenic cultivation system for P. carinii and confirmed our microscopy findings that no organism multiplication had occurred during culture. For all cultures analyzed, QTD PCR assays showed a decrease in P. carinii DNA that exceeded the expected decrease due to dilution of the inoculum upon transfer....... In conclusion, a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible quantitative PCR assay for P. carinii f. sp. carinii has been developed and is applicable to in vivo as well as in vitro systems. The assay should prove useful for conducting studies in which quantification of organism burden or growth assessment is critical...

  7. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  8. Development of a Rapid and Sensitive Method for Detection of African Swine Fever Virus Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xulong Wu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV. A set of LAMP primers was designed based on the sequence of the ASFV gene K205R. Reaction temperature and time were optimized to 64 oC and 60 min, respectively. LAMP products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis or visually with the addition of fluorescent dye. The detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 6 copies of the target gene per microliter, 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. LAMP is a simple and inexpensive molecular assay format for ASFV detection. To date, African swine fever has not been reported in China. LAMP can be used to monitor ASFV spread into China, thereby reducing the threat of ASF.

  9. The Athena Breast Health Network: developing a rapid learning system in breast cancer prevention, screening, treatment, and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, Sarah L; Hiatt, Robert A; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Howell, Lydia P; Naeim, Arash; Parker, Barbara A; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogarth, Michael; Pierce, John P; Duwors, Robert J; Hajopoulos, Kathy; Esserman, Laura J

    2013-07-01

    The term breast cancer covers many different conditions, whose clinical course ranges from indolent to aggressive. However, current practice in breast cancer prevention and care, and in breast cancer epidemiology, does not take into account the heterogeneity of the disease. A comprehensive understanding of the etiology and progression of different breast cancer subtypes would enable a more patient-centered approach to breast health care: assessing an individual's risk of getting specific subtypes of the disease, providing risk-based screening and prevention recommendations, and, for those diagnosed with the disease, tailored treatment options based on risk and timing of progression and mortality. The Athena Breast Health Network is an initiative of the five University of California medical and cancer centers to prototype this approach and to enable the development of a rapid learning system-connecting risk and outcome information from a heterogeneous patient population in real time and using new knowledge from research to continuously improve the quality of care. The Network is based on integrating clinical and research processes to create a comprehensive approach to accelerating patient-centered breast health care. Since its inception in 2009, the Network has developed a multi-site, transdisciplinary collaboration that enables the learning system. The five-campus collaboration has implemented a shared informatics platform, standardized electronic patient intake questionnaires, and common biospecimen protocols, as well as new clinical programs and multi-center research projects. The Athena Breast Health Network can serve as a model of a rapid learning system that integrates epidemiologic, behavioral, and clinical research with clinical care improvements.

  10. Rapid orthophoto development system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The DMC system procured in the project represented state-of-the-art, large-format digital aerial camera systems at the start of : project. DMC is based on the frame camera model, and to achieve large ground coverage with high spatial resolution, the ...

  11. Development of rapid and simultaneous quantitative method for green tea catechins on the bioanalytical study using UPLC/ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaka, Shingen; Kawabe, Keisuke; Onoue, Satomi; Werba, José Pablo; Giroli, Monica; Kimura, Junko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and quantitative analytical method for the simultaneous determination of green tea catechins using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry was developed. Total analytical run time was 3.5 min for the detection of (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) and myricetin as the internal standard (IS) in rat plasma. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 10-5000 ng/mL for all the catechins. The inter- and intra-day precision (relative standard deviation) and accuracy (percentage deviation) of the method were both lower than 10%. The average extraction recoveries in plasma ranged from 68.5 to 86.5%, and the lower limits of quantification of EC, EGC, ECG and EGCG were 10 ng/mL with a signal-to-noise ratio of >10. The assay developed was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of catechins following intravenous and intragastric administrations of green tea extract in rats. Plasma concentrations of four catechins were detected up to 5-24 h after administration, and the pharmacokinetic parameters of catechins were in agreement with previous studies. From these findings, taken together with the high productivity and precision, the developed method could be a reliable and reproducible tool for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic properties of catechins. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Development of a model system for rapid assessment of insect mortality in heated controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Lisa G

    2008-04-01

    The development of postharvest quarantine treatments can be both expensive and time-consuming. It is necessary to determine the species and stage of the pest most tolerant to the treatment, if more than one species is the target of the treatment. Initial laboratory studies often include infesting the commodity with various egg and larval stages of the pest and performing treatments and evaluations of the fruit. In collaboration with others, I have previously developed combination high temperature under controlled atmosphere treatments against two quarantine pests in apples (Malus spp.) and peaches and nectarines (both Prunus spp.). I decided to develop an artificial system that can be used for these initial tests without the need for infesting large quantities of the fruit. I tested the system on the immature stages of the pests under regular air and controlled atmospheres by using the controlled atmosphere water bath system. This system can be used for rapid assessment of the most tolerant stage and species of a pest to a combination heat and controlled atmosphere treatment without the expense of infesting, treating, and evaluating the commodity.

  13. Potential for modal shift by passenger car and motorcycle users towards Bus Rapid Transit (BRT in an Asian developing city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned Satiennam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many developing Asian cities consider a Bus Rapid Transit (BRT system in their public transport planning because of its advantages, offering lower investment cost and flexible implementation over rail systems. The objective of this research is to assess the potential of BRT for attracting travelers from passenger cars and motorcycles. Three different BRT systems were designed for the main corridor passing through Khon Kaen City in Thailand. The study developed modal split models for predicting the choices of passenger car users and motorcycle users. The models were developed based on a Stated Preference (SP survey. It was found that BRT could attract significantly private vehicle users to change mode choice. The proportion of motorcycle users shifting is higher than passenger car users. However, the majority of private vehicle users still prefer their own private vehicles. Both travel time and travel cost affects the mode choice, in which travel time has a highly significant effect on passenger car users' choice of BRT, but travel cost has a highly significant effect on motorcyclists' choice. Some socio-economic factors, including gender, age, driving license holding and residence location also influence the choice of BRT.

  14. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid, sensitive detection of Campylobacter jejuni in cattle farm samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Cho, Ae-Ri; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Cho, Seongbeom

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. The detection of this organism in cattle and their environment is important for the control of C. jejuni transmission and the prevention of campylobacteriosis. Here, we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of C. jejuni in naturally contaminated cattle farm samples, based on real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of the hipO gene. The LAMP assay was specific (100% inclusivity and exclusivity for 84 C. jejuni and 41 non-C. jejuni strains, respectively), sensitive (detection limit of 100 fg/μl), and quantifiable (R(2) = 0.9133). The sensitivity of the LAMP assay was then evaluated for its application to the naturally contaminated cattle farm samples. C. jejuni strains were isolated from 51 (20.7%) of 246 cattle farm samples, and the presence of the hipO gene was tested using the LAMP assay. Amplification of the hipO gene by LAMP within 30 min (mean ~10.8 min) in all C. jejuni isolates (n = 51) demonstrated its rapidity and accuracy. Next, template DNA was prepared from a total of 186 enrichment broth cultures of cattle farm samples either by boiling or using a commercial kit, and the sensitivity of detection of C. jejuni was compared between the LAMP and PCR assays. In DNA samples prepared by boiling, the higher sensitivity of the LAMP assay (84.4%) compared with the PCR assay (35.5%) indicates that it is less susceptible to the existence of inhibitors in sample material. In DNA samples prepared using a commercial kit, both the LAMP and PCR assays showed 100% sensitivity. We anticipate that the use of this rapid, sensitive, and simple LAMP assay, which is the first of its kind for the identification and screening of C. jejuni in cattle farm samples, may play an important role in the prevention of C. jejuni contamination in the food chain, thereby reducing the risk of human campylobacteriosis.

  15. Development of a rapid serological assay for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis using a novel diffraction-based biosensor technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J Pak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a persistent human parasitic infection caused by the intestinal nematode, Strongyloides stercoralis. The parasite has a world-wide distribution, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitary conditions. Since individuals with strongyloidiasis are typically asymptomatic, the infection can persist for decades without detection. Problems arise when individuals with unrecognized S. stercoralis infection are immunosuppressed, which can lead to hyper-infection syndrome and disseminated disease with an associated high mortality if untreated. Therefore a rapid, sensitive and easy to use method of diagnosing Strongyloides infection may improve the clinical management of this disease.An immunological assay for diagnosing strongyloidiasis was developed on a novel diffraction-based optical bionsensor technology. The test employs a 31-kDa recombinant antigen called NIE derived from Strongyloides stercoralis L3-stage larvae. Assay performance was tested using retrospectively collected sera from patients with parasitologically confirmed strongyloidiasis and control sera from healthy individuals or those with other parasitoses including schistosomiasis, trichinosis, echinococcosis or amebiasis who were seronegative using the NIE ELISA assay. If we consider the control group as the true negative group, the assay readily differentiated S. stercoralis-infected patients from controls detecting 96.3% of the positive cases, and with no cross reactivity observed in the control group These results were in excellent agreement (κ = 0.98 with results obtained by an NIE-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. A further 44 sera from patients with suspected S. stercoralis infection were analyzed and showed 91% agreement with the NIE ELISA.In summary, this test provides high sensitivity detection of serum IgG against the NIE Strongyloides antigen. The assay is easy to perform and provides results in less than 30 minutes

  16. Application of a novel automatic disintegration apparatus for the development and evaluation of a direct compression rapidly disintegrating tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Huijeong Ashley; Augsburger, Larry L

    2012-07-01

    An automatic disintegration tester was developed and used to explore disintegration mechanism and times of rapidly disintegrating tablets. DT50, the time required for a tablet to decrease in its thickness by half, allowed an unbiased determination of disintegration time. Calcium silicate concentration, Explotab® concentration, DiPac®/Xylitab® ratio as fillers, and compression pressure were evaluated using a central composite model design analysis for their DT50, tensile strength, and friability. Tablets that could reasonably be handled (friability tablets, originally measured by Caramella et al. using force kinetics, could be determined from axial displacement data measured directly without the need to assume that disintegration force generation was indicative of changes in tablet volume. The n values of tablets containing calcium silicate, Ditab® and/or Xylitab®, magnesium stearate, and Explotab® suggested that the amount of Explotab® was not a significant factor in determining the disintegration mechanism; however, the type of disintegrant used did alter the n value. Primojel® and Explotab®, which are in the same class of disintegrants, exhibited similar DT50, n, and k. Polyplasdone® XL exhibited a much higher n, while yielding faster DT50, suggesting that its performance is more dependent on facilitating the interfacial separation of particles. AcDiSol® showed no apparent moisture sensitivity in regards to disintegration efficiency. The use of the novel apparatus proved to be useful in measuring disintegration efficiency of rapidly disintegrating tablets and in providing valuable information on the disintegration phenomena.

  17. Development of Rapid Immune-gold Strip Kit for On-Site Diagnosis of Tomato spotted wilt virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, user-friendly and simple immune-chromatographic dipstick kit named ‘rapid immune-gold strip’ (RIGS kit was developed in a novel single strip format to detect on-site detection of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV. Immunoglobulin G (IgG from polyclonal antisera raised in rabbits against TSWV was purified through protein- A affinity chromatography and then the purified TSWV-IgG was conjugated to colloidal gold nano-particles which served as a test line on nitrocellulose membrane. Protein A that non-specifically binds to TSWV antibody was used as a control line on the same strip. The diagnosis process with the TSWV-RIGS involves simply grinding the suspect plant sample in a bag that contains the extraction buffer and inserting the strip the bag. Results can be seen in 2-5 minutes. The flow of the complexes of gold particles coated with TSWV-IgG and a crude sap from TSWV-infected pepper, tobacco and tomato plants resulted in intensive color formed on the test lines proportional to the concentrations of TSWV. The RIGS-TSWV kit did not show any cross-reactions against other tomato-infecting viruses unrelated to TSWV. These results indicate that the TSWV-RIGS kit is highly sensitive and is not required for laboratory training and experience prior to testing. The TSWV-RIGS kit is suitable for on-site detection of suspect TSWV-infected plants as well as for laboratory diagnosis.

  18. Development of a drivable hybrid drive prototype in a rapid prototyping environment; Entwicklung einer Antriebssteuerung fuer ein Hybridfahrzeug in einer Rapid-Prototyping-Umgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Klaus [ETAS GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Escherle, Thomas; Nazareth, Dieter [Hochschule Landshut (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Informatik

    2010-07-01

    At least since the automotive crisis hybrid drives for motor vehicles resound throughout the land. All automobile manufacturers and many suppliers are working on appropriate concepts and components. In order to train students in step with actual practice on this relevant topics, mechanical engineering professor Dr. Prexler hat the idea to develop a drivable hybrid drive prototype with students within three terms. A joint project of the departments of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and information technology at university of Landshut succeeded in developing a drivable serial plug-in hybrid named ''MBL-ex-drive''. (orig.)

  19. HybriFree: a robust and rapid method for the development of monoclonal antibodies from different host species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivi, Gaily; Teesalu, Kaupo; Parik, Jüri; Kontkar, Elen; Ustav, Mart; Noodla, Liis; Ustav, Mart; Männik, Andres

    2016-01-08

    The production of recombinant monoclonal antibodies in mammalian cell culture is of high priority in research and medical fields. A critical step in this process is the isolation of the antigen-binding domain sequences of antibodies possessing the desired properties. Many different techniques have been described to achieve this goal, but all have shortcomings; most techniques have problems with robustness, are time-consuming and costly, or have complications in the transfer from isolation to production phase. Here, we report a novel HybriFree technology for the development of monoclonal antibodies from different species that is robust, rapid, inexpensive and flexible and can be used for the subsequent production of antibodies in mammalian cell factories. HybriFree technology is illustrated herein via detailed examples of isolating mouse, rabbit and chicken monoclonal antibody sequences from immunized animals. Starting from crude spleen samples, antigen capturing of specific B-cells is performed initially. cDNA of antibody variable domains is amplified from the captured cells and used a source material for simple and rapid restriction/ligation free cloning of expression vector library in order to produce scFv-Fc or intact IgG antibodies. The vectors can be directly used for screening purposes as well as for the subsequent production of the developed monoclonal antibodies in mammalian cell culture. The antibodies isolated by the method have been shown to be functional in different immunoassays, including ELISA, immunofluorescence and Western blot. In addition, we demonstrate that by using a modified method including a negative selection step, we can isolate specific antibodies targeting the desired epitope and eliminate antibodies directed to undesired off-targets. HybriFree can be used for the reliable development of monoclonal antibodies and their subsequent production in mammalian cells. This simple protocol requires neither the culturing of B-cells nor single

  20. Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP): Development of a novel system for detecting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brian L.; Shivas, Martin A.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Edwards, Jim; Hamilton, Nicholas A.; Jansen, Cassie C.; McMahon, Jamie L.; Warrilow, David

    2017-01-01

    Background The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP) system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species. Methodology/Principal findings We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap) samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA. Firstly, specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were developed which detect a single Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus first instar larva in samples containing 4,999 and 999 non-target mosquitoes, respectively. ImageJ software was evaluated as an automated egg counting tool using ovitrap collections obtained from Brisbane, Australia. Qualitative assessment of ovistrips was required prior to automation because ImageJ did not differentiate between Aedes eggs and other objects or contaminants on 44.5% of ovistrips assessed, thus compromising the accuracy of egg counts. As a proof of concept, the RSVP was evaluated in Brisbane, Rockhampton and Goomeri, locations where Ae. aegypti is considered absent, present, and at the margin of its range, respectively. In Brisbane, Ae. aegypti was not detected in 25 pools formed from 477 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 54,300 eggs. In Rockhampton, Ae. aegypti was detected in 4/6 pools derived from 45 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 1,700 eggs. In Goomeri, Ae. aegypti was detected in 5/8 pools derived from 62 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 4,200 eggs. Conclusions/Significance RSVP can rapidly detect nucleic acids from low numbers of target species within large samples of endemic species aggregated from multiple ovitraps. This screening capability facilitates deployment of ovitrap configurations of varying spatial

  1. Development of monoclonal antibodies and immunochromatographic lateral flow device for rapid test of alanine aminotransferase isoenzyme 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaomei; Cheng, Shiliang; Liu, Xinfeng; Li, Jie; Zheng, Wen; Lu, Gang; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) has been used as a sensitive marker for liver injury in people and in preclinical toxicity studies. But measurement of ALT isoenzymes, ALT1 and ALT2, was reported to be of more diagnostic value. The aim of this study is to develop an ideal pair of anti-ALT1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of high specificity and affinity, and subsequently prepare a Immunochromatographic lateral flow device (LFD) for rapid test of ALT1 in human serums. The complete coding sequence of ALT1 gene (1500 bp) was cloned from human hepatoma G2 cells (HepG2) and inserted into the expression vector pET-32a(+). ALT1 recombinant protein was routinely prepared by E. coli BL21 (DE3) expression and Ni(2+) affinity purification. Balb/c mice were immunized with purified ALT1 and the splenocytes were fused with Sp2/0 myeloma cells. The positive clones, verified by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using purified ALT1, were subcloned to single clones by limiting dilution process. A MAb pair was selected from the obtained MAbs according the sandwich ELISA pairing results and then used for lateral flow device (LFD) production. After evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity, the LFD strips were employed to test human serum samples with known ALT activity levels. ALT1 recombinant protein was expectedly prepared by expression and purification. A total of 8 stable clones that produced antibodies specifically recognizing ALT1 protein were developed. After sandwich ELISA pairing, an ideal pair of anti-ALT1 MAbs, designated as BD7 and DG3, were selected and proved to be of high specificity, titer and affinity. Based on the MAb pair, LFD strips specifically for ALT1 rapid test were subsequently prepared. The detection threshold of the LFD strips was 12 U/L. No cross reaction was found. The ALT1 LFD with high sensitivity and specificity was successfully developed. It is valuable for testing ALT1 protein in human sera and can be a beneficial complement for

  2. Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP): Development of a novel system for detecting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brian L; Shivas, Martin A; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Edwards, Jim; Hamilton, Nicholas A; Jansen, Cassie C; McMahon, Jamie L; Warrilow, David; van den Hurk, Andrew F

    2017-03-01

    The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP) system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species. We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap) samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA. Firstly, specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were developed which detect a single Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus first instar larva in samples containing 4,999 and 999 non-target mosquitoes, respectively. ImageJ software was evaluated as an automated egg counting tool using ovitrap collections obtained from Brisbane, Australia. Qualitative assessment of ovistrips was required prior to automation because ImageJ did not differentiate between Aedes eggs and other objects or contaminants on 44.5% of ovistrips assessed, thus compromising the accuracy of egg counts. As a proof of concept, the RSVP was evaluated in Brisbane, Rockhampton and Goomeri, locations where Ae. aegypti is considered absent, present, and at the margin of its range, respectively. In Brisbane, Ae. aegypti was not detected in 25 pools formed from 477 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 54,300 eggs. In Rockhampton, Ae. aegypti was detected in 4/6 pools derived from 45 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 1,700 eggs. In Goomeri, Ae. aegypti was detected in 5/8 pools derived from 62 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 4,200 eggs. RSVP can rapidly detect nucleic acids from low numbers of target species within large samples of endemic species aggregated from multiple ovitraps. This screening capability facilitates deployment of ovitrap configurations of varying spatial scales, from a single residential block to entire suburbs or towns

  3. Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP: Development of a novel system for detecting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Montgomery

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The globally important Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses are primarily transmitted by the invasive mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. In Australia, there is an increasing risk that these species may invade highly urbanized regions and trigger outbreaks. We describe the development of a Rapid Surveillance for Vector Presence (RSVP system to expedite presence- absence surveys for both species.We developed a methodology that uses molecular assays to efficiently screen pooled ovitrap (egg trap samples for traces of target species ribosomal RNA. Firstly, specific real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays were developed which detect a single Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus first instar larva in samples containing 4,999 and 999 non-target mosquitoes, respectively. ImageJ software was evaluated as an automated egg counting tool using ovitrap collections obtained from Brisbane, Australia. Qualitative assessment of ovistrips was required prior to automation because ImageJ did not differentiate between Aedes eggs and other objects or contaminants on 44.5% of ovistrips assessed, thus compromising the accuracy of egg counts. As a proof of concept, the RSVP was evaluated in Brisbane, Rockhampton and Goomeri, locations where Ae. aegypti is considered absent, present, and at the margin of its range, respectively. In Brisbane, Ae. aegypti was not detected in 25 pools formed from 477 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 54,300 eggs. In Rockhampton, Ae. aegypti was detected in 4/6 pools derived from 45 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 1,700 eggs. In Goomeri, Ae. aegypti was detected in 5/8 pools derived from 62 ovitraps, comprising ≈ 4,200 eggs.RSVP can rapidly detect nucleic acids from low numbers of target species within large samples of endemic species aggregated from multiple ovitraps. This screening capability facilitates deployment of ovitrap configurations of varying spatial scales, from a single residential block to entire

  4. Development of a rapid matrix digestion technique for ultrastructural analysis of elastic fibers in the intervertebral disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Javad; Costi, John J

    2017-07-01

    Collagen and elastic fibers are two major fibrous constituents of the annulus fibrosus (AF) in the disc that contribute to its mechanical and viscoelastic properties. It was thought that elastic fibers play no substantial role in the function and properties of the disc as these fibers were irregularly distributed. Studies that have revealed highly organized elastic fibers with different regional orientation and distribution, while being strongly crosslinked with matrix, suggesting their contribution to disc structure-function properties. These studies that were performed by light microscopic analysis of histologically prepared samples, have not been able to reveal the fine-scale architectural details of the elastic fiber network. Since elastic fibers are intermingled with other fibrous components of the disc and mostly obscured by the extracellular matrix, it is difficult to demonstrate their ultra-structural organization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Therefore the aim of this study was to develop a rapid matrix digestion technique for ultrastructural analysis of the disc elastic fibers. This study provides a new method for fundamental visualization of elastic fibers and their architecture in the disc. Through the ultra-structural analysis, the relationship between structure and function, as well as the role of elastic fibers on AF mechanical properties can be studied. This method may be used to develop a three-dimensional map of elastic fibers distribution within the disc, which would provide valuable information for designing tissue engineered scaffolds for AF repair and replacement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of rapid, sensitive and non-radioactive tissue-blot diagnostic method for the detection of citrus greening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Miyata, Shin-Ichi; Ghosh, Dilip; Irey, Mike; Garnsey, Stephen M; Gowda, Siddarame

    2013-01-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening) is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus worldwide. The disease is caused by Gram-negative, phloem-limited α-proteobacterium, 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus', vectored by the psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Citrus plants infected by the HLB bacterium may not show visible symptoms sometimes for years following infection and non-uniform distribution within the tree makes the detection of the pathogen very difficult. Efficient management of HLB disease requires rapid and sensitive detection early in the infection followed by eradication of the source of pathogen and the vector. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based method is most commonly employed for screening the infected/suspected HLB plants and psyllids. This is time consuming, cumbersome and not practical for screening large number of samples in the field. To overcome this, we developed a simple, sensitive, non-radioactive, tissue-blot diagnostic method for early detection and screening of HLB disease. Digoxigenin labeled molecular probes specific to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' nucleotide sequences have been developed and used for the detection of the pathogen of the HLB disease. The copy number of the target genes was also assessed using real-time PCR experiments and the optimized real-time PCR protocol allowed positive 'Ca. L. asiaticus' detection in citrus samples infected with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' bacterium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and evaluation of a novel and rapid detection assay for Botrytis cinerea based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Bing Duan

    Full Text Available Botrytis cinerea is a devastating plant pathogen that causes grey mould disease. In this study, we developed a visual detection method of B. cinerea based on the Bcos5 sequence using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB. The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63 °C for 45 min. When HNB was added prior to amplification, samples with B. cinerea DNA developed a characteristic sky blue color after the reaction but those without DNA or with DNA of other plant pathogenic fungi did not. Results of HNB staining method were reconfirmed when LAMP products were subjected to gel electrophoresis. The detection limit of this LAMP assay for B. cinerea was 10(-3 ng µL(-1 of genomic DNA per reaction, which was 10-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR (10(-2 ng µL(-1. Detection of the LAMP assay for inoculum of B. cinerea was possible in the inoculated tomato and strawberry petals. In the 191 diseased samples, 180 (94.2% were confirmed as positive by LAMP, 172 (90.1% positive by the tissue separation, while 147 (77.0% positive by PCR. Because the LAMP assay performed well in aspects of sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reliability, and visibility, it is suitable for rapid detection of B. cinerea in infected plant materials prior to storage and during transportation, such as cut flowers, fruits and vegetables.

  7. Development and evaluation of a novel and rapid detection assay for Botrytis cinerea based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ya-Bing; Ge, Chang-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Jian-Xin; Zhou, Ming-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis cinerea is a devastating plant pathogen that causes grey mould disease. In this study, we developed a visual detection method of B. cinerea based on the Bcos5 sequence using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB). The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63 °C for 45 min. When HNB was added prior to amplification, samples with B. cinerea DNA developed a characteristic sky blue color after the reaction but those without DNA or with DNA of other plant pathogenic fungi did not. Results of HNB staining method were reconfirmed when LAMP products were subjected to gel electrophoresis. The detection limit of this LAMP assay for B. cinerea was 10(-3) ng µL(-1) of genomic DNA per reaction, which was 10-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR (10(-2) ng µL(-1)). Detection of the LAMP assay for inoculum of B. cinerea was possible in the inoculated tomato and strawberry petals. In the 191 diseased samples, 180 (94.2%) were confirmed as positive by LAMP, 172 (90.1%) positive by the tissue separation, while 147 (77.0%) positive by PCR. Because the LAMP assay performed well in aspects of sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reliability, and visibility, it is suitable for rapid detection of B. cinerea in infected plant materials prior to storage and during transportation, such as cut flowers, fruits and vegetables.

  8. Low-cost, rapidly-developed, 3D printed in vitro corpus callosum model for mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabet, Anthony; Gardner, Matthew; Swanson, Sebastian; Crump, Sydney; McMeekin, Austin; Gong, Diana; Tabet, Rebecca; Hacker, Benjamin; Nestrasil, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The rising prevalence of high throughput screening and the general inability of (1) two dimensional (2D) cell culture and (2) in vitro release studies to predict in vivo neurobiological and pharmacokinetic responses in humans has led to greater interest in more realistic three dimensional (3D) benchtop platforms. Advantages of 3D human cell culture over its 2D analogue, or even animal models, include taking the effects of microgeometry and long-range topological features into consideration. In the era of personalized medicine, it has become increasingly valuable to screen candidate molecules and synergistic therapeutics at a patient-specific level, in particular for diseases that manifest in highly variable ways. The lack of established standards and the relatively arbitrary choice of probing conditions has limited in vitro drug release to a largely qualitative assessment as opposed to a predictive, quantitative measure of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in tissue. Here we report the methods used in the rapid, low-cost development of a 3D model of a mucopolysaccharidosis type I patient's corpus callosum, which may be used for cell culture and drug release. The CAD model is developed from in vivo brain MRI tracing of the corpus callosum using open-source software, printed with poly (lactic-acid) on a Makerbot Replicator 5X, UV-sterilized, and coated with poly (lysine) for cellular adhesion. Adaptations of material and 3D printer for expanded applications are also discussed.

  9. A teleost androgen promotes development of primary ovarian follicles in coho salmon and rapidly alters the ovarian transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Christopher; Forsgren, Kristy; Goetz, Giles; Harding, Louisa; Swanson, Penny; Young, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies using several teleost models have revealed that androgens increase the size of previtellogenic (primary and/or early secondary) ovarian follicles. To explore our hypothesis that androgens drive the development of primary follicles into early secondary follicles, and to determine the mechanisms underlying these androgenic effects, we exposed juvenile coho salmon to near-physiological and relatively sustained levels of the nonaromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This resulted in significant growth of primary ovarian follicles after 10 and 20 days, with follicles after 20 days displaying a morphological phenotype characteristic of early secondary follicles (presence of cortical alveoli). Utilizing the same experimental approach, we then analyzed how 11-KT rapidly altered the ovarian transcriptome after 1 and 3 days of treatment. RNA-Seq analysis revealed that 69 (day 1) and 1,022 (day 3) contiguous sequences (contigs) were differentially expressed relative to controls. The differentially expressed contigs mapped to genes including those encoding proteins involved in gonadotropin, steroid hormone, and growth factor signaling, and in cell and ovarian development, including genes with putative androgen-response elements. Biological functions and canonical pathways identified as potentially altered by 11-KT include those involved in ovarian development, tissue differentiation and remodeling, and lipid metabolism. We conclude that androgens play a major role in stimulating primary ovarian follicle development and the transition into secondary growth. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Society for the Study of Reproduction. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Heat storage in Asian elephants during submaximal exercise: behavioral regulation of thermoregulatory constraints on activity in endothermic gigantotherms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, M F; Bakken, G S; Ratliff, J J; Langman, V A

    2013-05-15

    Gigantic size presents both opportunities and challenges in thermoregulation. Allometric scaling relationships suggest that gigantic animals have difficulty dissipating metabolic heat. Large body size permits the maintenance of fairly constant core body temperatures in ectothermic animals by means of gigantothermy. Conversely, gigantothermy combined with endothermic metabolic rate and activity likely results in heat production rates that exceed heat loss rates. In tropical environments, it has been suggested that a substantial rate of heat storage might result in a potentially lethal rise in core body temperature in both elephants and endothermic dinosaurs. However, the behavioral choice of nocturnal activity might reduce heat storage. We sought to test the hypothesis that there is a functionally significant relationship between heat storage and locomotion in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), and model the thermoregulatory constraints on activity in elephants and a similarly sized migratory dinosaur, Edmontosaurus. Pre- and post-exercise (N=37 trials) measurements of core body temperature and skin temperature, using thermography were made in two adult female Asian elephants at the Audubon Zoo in New Orleans, LA, USA. Over ambient air temperatures ranging from 8 to 34.5°C, when elephants exercised in full sun, ~56 to 100% of active metabolic heat production was stored in core body tissues. We estimate that during nocturnal activity, in the absence of solar radiation, between 5 and 64% of metabolic heat production would be stored in core tissues. Potentially lethal rates of heat storage in active elephants and Edmontosaurus could be behaviorally regulated by nocturnal activity.

  11. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) strip for the rapid detection of 1-aminohydantoin in meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Xu, Xialing; Liu, Xi; Huang, Xiaoming; Chen, Yaoqiang; Wang, WuZhou; Xiang, Junjian

    2011-08-01

    Due to the potential toxic effects of the nitrofuran family of antibiotics, their use in animals in the food industry has raised health concerns. This study was aimed to develop a lateral flow assay (LFA) based on competitive format for the detection of 1-aminohydantoin (AHD) in meat samples. The assay could be completed in 1 min and detected AHDs derivates (CPAHD) at 3 ng/mL, equivalent to 1.40 ng/mL of AHD, which was much lower than that reported in the literature by similar method. The antibody showed no cross-reactivity with a panel of more than 10 nitrofuran analogs except for nitrofurantoin at a high concentration. The test strip was stable at room temperature for up to 8 wk or at 37 °C for 4 wk. Parallel analyses of meat samples with LFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) obtained data in good agreement. This developed gold nanoparticle based LFA had a good specificity, sensitivity, stability, and reliability. It was potentially suitable for on-the-spot large-scale screening of meat samples, and even more other applications. Nitrofurantoin is one of antibiotics of the nitrofuran family, which has been used not only to prevent and treat diseases, but also to promote growth in animals. However, concerning the carcinogenicity of the metabolite of nitrofurantoin (AHD), a new fast and convenient method for monitoring AHD should be established. We describe the development of a new test assay for rapid screening of meat samples. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Birth weight and delivery practice in a Vietnamese rural district during 12 year of rapid economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thu; Eriksson, Bo; Tran, Toan Khanh; Nguyen, Chuc Thi Kim; Ascher, Henry

    2013-02-19

    Since the Doi Moi reform 1986 economic conditions in Vietnam have changed significantly and positive health and health care developments have been observed. International experience shows that improved economic conditions in a country can reduce the risk of perinatal mortality, decrease the risk of low birth weight and increase the mean birth weight in newborns. The Health and Demographic Surveillance Site (HDSS) FilaBavi in Bavi district outside Hanoi city has been operational since 1999. An open cohort of more than 12,000 households (52,000 persons) has been followed primarily with respect to demography, economy and education. The aim of this research is to study trends in birth weight as well as birth and delivery practices over the time period 1999-2010 in FilaBavi in relation to the social and economic development. Information about birth weight, sex, place and method of delivery, mother's age and education as well as household economy of 10,114 children, born from 1999 to 2010, was obtained from the routine data collection in the HDSS. Over the study period the mean birth weight remained at the same level, about 3,100 g, in spite of increased economic resources and technology development. At the individual child level we found associations between birth weight and household economy as well as the education of the mother. Hospital delivery increased from about 35% to 65% and the use of Caesarian section increased from 2.6% to 10.1%. During the twelve years studied, household income as well as the use of modern technology increased rapidly. In spite of that, the mean and variation of birth weight did not change systematically. It is suggested that increasing gaps in economic conditions and misallocation of resources, possibly to overuse of technology, are partly responsible.

  13. Development of a self-contained device for rapid detection of volatile impurities in the oil system of a turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostin, A. A.; Shangin, V. V.; Bukhman, V. G.; Volosnikov, D. V.; Skripov, P. V.

    2016-08-01

    The research is devoted to development of a self-contained device for rapid detection of volatile impurities in the oil system of a turbine and testing it using the operating equipment. The device consists of a remote sensor, whose sensitive element is a 3-5-mm long wire probe 20 microns in diameter, and a measurement unit that comprises a microcontroller with a set of peripherals. The design of the device enables automation of the measurement procedure with a minimum number of preset settings and real-time output of information to the operator console. The software of the device provides two-stage pulse heating of the wire probe and a resistance temperature detector. The two-stage mode proves to be the most sensitive to appearance in the system of moisture, including its trace amounts. The characteristic time of the heating is of the order of 10 ms. The measurement procedure is based on a method that consists in automatic search for spontaneous boiling-up temperature of the oil accompanied by a characteristic response signal. The results were interpreted by formal correlation of the measured values with an array of calibration data obtained in similar experiments with well-defined oil samples. An experimental method for application of the device has been developed that takes into account technological factors, such as comparatively high values of the flow rate and the temperature of the oil in locations of the oil drain from bearings, the variability of these values, and the variety of noise types that accompany the operation of the thermal power equipment that complicate the online measurements. Tests of the device were carried out in locations of oil drain from supporting bearings. The test results have demonstrated the possibility of applying the device directly in the oil system of a turbine and provided a practical basis for development of a system of multipoint control of the technological scheme in real time.

  14. Development of an EMF Measurements Database, EMF Rapid Program, Project #5, Interim Report: April 1995-December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-04-01

    The EMF measurement data sets in existence today were compiled with varying goals and techniques. Consequently, they have different information content as well as varying logical and physical structure. Future studies will continue to pursue varying goals and utilize techniques that cannot be known in advance. Primary goals for the EMF Measurements Database developed under the Department of Energy EMF RAPID Program are to develop a database structure that can accommodate the diversity of EMF data sets, provide guidance for production of future EMF data sets, and serve as an accessible repository of EMF measurement data. Specific objectives of the EMF Measurements Database are: o to preserve study descriptions, results and data; o to provide readily accessible, well-documented data; and o to facilitate communication among researchers. In addition, the EMF Measurements Database will encourage additional analysis of existing data sets, facilitate analysis of data from multiple projects, support design of new studies, and permit future issues in EMF exposure assessment to be addressed with existing data. Preservation of study descriptions and data is accomplished with a formal, but open, structure. Specifications have been developed for the various elements of the database. Each data set in the database is formally described by a metadata file. The structured metadata file describes the origin, development, logical and physical structure and distribution mechanism for each data set. The metadata for each data set is generated according to a specification developed for the EMF Measurements Database. The actual measurement data is contained in data Products for each data set. The number and type of data product will vary by data set. Most of the data products in the possession of the EMF Measurements Database are available for download from an Internet site. For some data sets, the data products will be maintained by other parties who may have their own access procedures

  15. Development and Evaluation of a Rapid Latex Agglutination Test Using a Monoclonal Antibody To Identify Candida dubliniensis Colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot-Leblond, Agnes; Beucher, Bertrand; David, Sandrine; Nail-Billaud, Sandrine; Robert, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Cell components of the dimorphic pathogenic fungus Candida dubliniensis were used to prepare monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). One MAb, designated 12F7-F2, was shown by indirect immunofluorescence to be specific for a surface antigen of Candida dubliniensis yeast cells. No reactivity was observed with other fungal genera or with other Candida species, including Candida albicans, that share many phenotypic features with C. dubliniensis. The use of different chemical and physical treatments for cell component extraction suggested that the specific epitope probably resides on a protein moiety absent from C. albicans. However, we failed to identify the target protein by Western blotting, owing to its sensitivity to heat and sodium dodecyl sulfate. MAb 12F7-F2 was further used to develop a commercial latex agglutination test to identify C. dubliniensis colonies (Bichro-dubli Fumouze test; Fumouze Diagnostics). The test was validated on yeast strains previously identified by PCR and on fresh clinical isolates; these included 46 C. dubliniensis isolates, 45 C. albicans isolates, and other yeast species. The test had 100% sensitivity and specificity for C. dubliniensis isolated on Sabouraud dextrose, CHROMagar Candida, and CandiSelect media and 97.8% sensitivity for C. dubliniensis grown on Candida ID medium. The test is rapid (5 min) and easy to use and may be recommended for routine use in clinical microbiology laboratories and for epidemiological investigations. PMID:16390961

  16. Rapid Microsatellite Marker Development Using Next Generation Pyrosequencing to Inform Invasive Burmese Python—Python molurus bivittatus—Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. Hart

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive species represent an increasing threat to native ecosystems, harming indigenous taxa through predation, habitat modification, cross-species hybridization and alteration of ecosystem processes. Additionally, high economic costs are associated with environmental damage, restoration and control measures. The Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus, is one of the most notable invasive species in the US, due to the threat it poses to imperiled species and the Greater Everglades ecosystem. To address population structure and relatedness, next generation sequencing was used to rapidly produce species-specific microsatellite loci. The Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium platform provided 6616 di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats in 117,516 sequences. Using stringent criteria, 24 of 26 selected tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci were polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplified and 18 were polymorphic. An additional six cross-species loci were amplified, and the resulting 24 loci were incorporated into eight PCR multiplexes. Multi-locus genotypes yielded an average of 61% (39%–77% heterozygosity and 3.7 (2–6 alleles per locus. Population-level studies using the developed microsatellites will track the invasion front and monitor population-suppression dynamics. Additionally, cross-species amplification was detected in the invasive Ball, P. regius, and Northern African python, P. sebae. These markers can be used to address the hybridization potential of Burmese pythons and the larger, more aggressive P. sebae.

  17. It's about time: The development and validation of a rapid optimized single antigen bead (ROB) assay protocol for LABScreen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwski, Robert S; Greenshields, Anna L; Murphey, Cathi; Bray, Robert A; Gebel, Howard M

    The LABScreen single antigen bead assay (SAB) is a method widely used for the identification and monitoring of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies in patients pre-and post-transplant. While accurate testing of patient samples is key for optimal patient care, time can also be important, especially during deceased donor workups or post-transplant assessments. Here we describe the development and validation of the Rapid Optimized SAB (ROB) protocol, a modified version of the One Lambda LABScreen SAB (OLSAB) procedure, which reduces assay time from 85 to 25min (>70% reduction) without impacting assay quality or sensitivity. Optimization steps included shortened centrifugation cycles and reduced serum and secondary antibody incubation times in combination with increased secondary antibody concentration. Linear regression analysis of baseline median fluorescence intensity (MFI) values showed excellent correlation between the ROB and OLSAB protocols (r(2)>0.98) for both class I and class II antibodies in 58 sera tested in two HLA laboratories. Importantly, the ROB protocol demonstrated a trend towards improved inter-laboratory MFI concordance when compared to the OLSAB procedure (r(2)=0.9816 vs 0.9451), especially for HLA antibody specificities in the 500-2000 MFI range (r(2)=0.7824 vs 0.6313). Implementation of the ROB protocol will expedite HLA antibody testing and may improve reproducibility of the SAB assay. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid microsatellite marker development using next generation pyrosequencing to inform invasive Burmese python -- Python molurus bivittatus -- management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Margaret E.; Hart, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species represent an increasing threat to native ecosystems, harming indigenous taxa through predation, habitat modification, cross-species hybridization and alteration of ecosystem processes. Additionally, high economic costs are associated with environmental damage, restoration and control measures. The Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus, is one of the most notable invasive species in the US, due to the threat it poses to imperiled species and the Greater Everglades ecosystem. To address population structure and relatedness, next generation sequencing was used to rapidly produce species-specific microsatellite loci. The Roche 454 GS-FLX Titanium platform provided 6616 di-, tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats in 117,516 sequences. Using stringent criteria, 24 of 26 selected tri- and tetra-nucleotide loci were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified and 18 were polymorphic. An additional six cross-species loci were amplified, and the resulting 24 loci were incorporated into eight PCR multiplexes. Multi-locus genotypes yielded an average of 61% (39%–77%) heterozygosity and 3.7 (2–6) alleles per locus. Population-level studies using the developed microsatellites will track the invasion front and monitor population-suppression dynamics. Additionally, cross-species amplification was detected in the invasive Ball, P. regius, and Northern African python, P. sebae. These markers can be used to address the hybridization potential of Burmese pythons and the larger, more aggressive P. sebae.

  19. Development of a rapid culture method to induce adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Yuichi [Translational Research Center, Saitama International Medical, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan); Sugahara-Yamashita, Yzumi; Nakachi, Yutaka; Tokuzawa, Yoshimi; Okazaki, Yasushi [Division of Functional Genomics and Systems Medicine, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Nishiyama, Masahiko, E-mail: yamacho@saitama-med.ac.jp [Translational Research Center, Saitama International Medical, Saitama Medical University, 1397-1 Yamane, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1298 (Japan)

    2010-04-02

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow are multipotent stem cells that can regenerate mesenchymal tissues such as adipose, bone or muscle. It is thought that hMSCs can be utilized as a cell resource for tissue engineering and as human models to study cell differentiation mechanisms, such as adipogenesis, osteoblastogenesis and so on. Since it takes 2-3 weeks for hMSCs to differentiate into adipocytes using conventional culture methods, the development of methods to induce faster differentiation into adipocytes is required. In this study we optimized the culture conditions for adipocyte induction to achieve a shorter cultivation time for the induction of adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow-derived hMSCs. Briefly, we used a cocktail of dexamethasone, insulin, methylisobutylxanthine (DIM) plus a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} agonist, rosiglitazone (DIMRo) as a new adipogenic differentiation medium. We successfully shortened the period of cultivation to 7-8 days from 2-3 weeks. We also found that rosiglitazone alone was unable to induce adipocyte differentiation from hMSCs in vitro. However, rosiglitazone appears to enhance hMSC adipogenesis in the presence of other hormones and/or compounds, such as DIM. Furthermore, the inhibitory activity of TGF-{beta}1 on adipogenesis could be investigated using DIMRo-treated hMSCs. We conclude that our rapid new culture method is very useful in measuring the effect of molecules that affect adipogenesis in hMSCs.

  20. Development of Rapid, Continuous Calibration Techniques and Implementation as a Prototype System for Civil Engineering Materials Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M. L.; Gagarin, N.; Mekemson, J. R.; Chintakunta, S. R.

    2011-06-01

    Until recently, civil engineering material calibration data could only be obtained from material sample cores or via time consuming, stationary calibration measurements in a limited number of locations. Calibration data are used to determine material propagation velocities of electromagnetic waves in test materials for use in layer thickness measurements and subsurface imaging. Limitations these calibration methods impose have been a significant impediment to broader use of nondestructive evaluation methods such as ground-penetrating radar (GPR). In 2006, a new rapid, continuous calibration approach was designed using simulation software to address these measurement limitations during a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) research and development effort. This continuous calibration method combines a digitally-synthesized step-frequency (SF)-GPR array and a data collection protocol sequence for the common midpoint (CMP) method. Modeling and laboratory test results for various data collection protocols and materials are presented in this paper. The continuous-CMP concept was finally implemented for FHWA in a prototype demonstration system called the Advanced Pavement Evaluation (APE) system in 2009. Data from the continuous-CMP protocol is processed using a semblance/coherency analysis to determine material propagation velocities. Continuously calibrated pavement thicknesses measured with the APE system in 2009 are presented. This method is efficient, accurate, and cost-effective.

  1. Heterochronic shifts in germband movements contribute to the rapid embryonic development of the coffin fly Megaselia scalaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, Karl R

    2014-11-01

    The coffin fly, Megaselia scalaris, is a species of medical and forensic importance and is increasingly being used for the study of genetics. Postmortem interval can be estimated based on the life stage of M. scalaris recovered from corpses, therefore many studies have addressed the duration of each life stage. These studies demonstrate that embryogenesis completes significantly faster in M. scalaris than in the congener Megaselia abdita and faster even than the 24 h needed for Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. However, until now it has been unclear if this increased speed is achieved by reducing developmental time across all embryonic stages or by the acceleration of individual stages and processes. Here I use time-lapse imaging to create a staging scheme for M. scalaris embryogenesis. Comparison of stages between D. melanogaster and both Megaselia species reveals that heterochronic shifts, simultaneous morphogenetic movements and compression of individual stages all contribute to the rapid development of M. scalaris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and Development Comparison of Rapid Cycle Amine 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Conger, Bruce; McMillin, Summer

    2016-01-01

    The development of the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swing-bed technology for carbon dioxide (CO2) removal has been in progress since favorable results were published in 1996. Shortly thereafter, a prototype was designed, developed, and tested successfully and delivered to Johnson Space Center in 1999. An improved prototype (RCA 1.0) was delivered to NASA in 2006 and sized for the extravehicular activity (EVA). The RCA swing-bed technology is a regenerative system which employs two alternating solid-amine sorbent beds to remove CO2 and water. The two-bed design employs a chemisorption process whereby the beds alternate between adsorption and desorption. This process provides for an efficient RCA operation that enables one bed to be in adsorb (uptake) mode, while the other is in the desorb (regeneration) mode. The RCA has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels. Test articles have now been designed, developed, and tested for the advanced space suit portable life support system (PLSS) including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0. The RCA 3.0 was the most recent RCA fabrication and was delivered to NASA-JSC in June 2015. The RCA 1.0 test article was designed with a pneumatically actuated linear motion spool valve. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source. RCA 2.0 and 3.0 also include an embedded controller design to control RCA operation and provide the capability of interfacing with various sensors and other ventilation loop components. The RCA technology is low power, small, and has fulfilled all test requirements levied upon the technology during development testing thus far. This paper will provide an overview of the design and development of RCA 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 including detail differences between the design specifications of each. Nomenclature.

  3. Development of a rapid loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for diagnosis and assessment of cure of Leishmania infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sandeep; Singh, Ruchi; Sharma, Vanila; Bumb, Ram Avtar; Negi, Narendra Singh; Ramesh, V; Salotra, Poonam

    2017-03-23

    Leishmaniasis is a spectrum of diseases with great relevance to public health. Conventional diagnostic methods are time consuming, needing trained personnel. A robust, rapid and cost effective diagnostic test is warranted for on-time diagnosis and field application. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with primers (n = 6) based on Leishmania donovani kDNA for detection of Leishmania infection, using a closed tube to prevent cross-contamination. The assay was used to detect Leishmania infection in biological samples obtained from patients of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). The assay was positive for L. donovani, L. tropica and L. major parasites, with the highest sensitivity towards L. donovani (1 fg DNA). The high sensitivity of the assay for detection of L. donovani was reflected in its ability to detect parasite DNA within 30 min of amplification time with a threshold detection limit of ≥25 copies per reaction. The assay detected parasite in 64 of 66 VL blood samples (sensitivity, 96.9%; 95% CI: 89.6-99.2%), 15 of 15 VL bone marrow aspirate samples (sensitivity, 100%; 95% CI:79.6-100%), 65 of 67 PKDL tissue biopsy samples (sensitivity, 97%; 95% CI:89.7-99.2%). The assay was evaluated in a few cases of CL wherein it was found positive in 8 of 10 tissue biopsies (sensitivity, 80%; 95% CI: 49-94.3%). The assay was negative in all control blood (n = 76) and tissue biopsy (n = 24) samples (specificity, 100%; 95% CI: 96.3-100%). Further, the assay was evaluated for its utility in assessment of cure in treated VL and PKDL patients. The assay detected parasite DNA in 2 of 20VL blood samples and 2 of 21 PKDL tissue samples. Out of 4 cases that were positive for parasite DNA at post treatment stage, 2 patients (1VL and 1 PKDL) returned with relapse. The study demonstrated a Leishmania genus specific closed tube LAMP assay for reliable and rapid

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID DIAGNOSTIC KIT FOR DETECTION OF SALMONELLA ENTERITIDIS IN FOOD USING INDIRECT COAGGLUTINATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyanda Arnafia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific assay for detection of Salmonella Enteritidis in food. The kit-prototype was developed by using indirect coagglutination technique with three main components, namely Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I, rabbit IgG anti-chicken Fc IgY and chicken IgY anti-S. Enteritidis. Isa Brown layer chickens were used to produce specific antibodies against S. Enteritidis. Monospecific antisera were prepared by absorption method. Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I was coupled with rabbit IgG anti-chicken Fc IgY and monospecific antisera anti-S. Enteritidis. Kit-prototype was compared with multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine sensitivity and specificity of kit-prototype. Artificially inoculated food sample was used to determine the limit of detection of kit-prototype in a food sample. Indirect coagglutination kit-prototype was able to differentiate positive control from negative control without self-agglutination reaction. This assay has a high specificity to S. Enteritidis without significant cross-reactivity towards other bacteria. Kit-prototype was able to detect 108 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis in the buffer and 1 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis in a food sample after selective enrichment procedure. The application of this kit was able to give a fast result (reaction can be observed in 10 sec, to be applied in a sample without extraction in the preparation of antigen and to reduce detection time of S. Enteritidis in food until 4 days.

  5. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Jones, Claire; Gibani, Malick M; Dobinson, Hazel; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Shrestha, Sonu; Blohmke, Christoph J; Darton, Thomas C; Pollard, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day. Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C) before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A. An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1-6.9) CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood), but utilized only half the volume of specimens. The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a lower limit of detection equal to 0.3 CFU

  6. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Zhou

    Full Text Available Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day.Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A.An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1-6.9 CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood, but utilized only half the volume of specimens.The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a lower limit of detection

  7. The impacts of climate change on poverty in 2030, and the potential from rapid, inclusive and climate-informed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.

    2016-12-01

    There is a consensus on the fact that poor people are more vulnerable to climate change than the rest of the population, but, until recently, few quantified estimates had been proposed and few frameworks existed to design policies for addressing the issue. In this paper, we analyze the impacts of climate change on poverty using micro-simulation approaches. We start from household surveys that describe the current distribution of income and occupations, we project these households into the future and we look at the impacts of climate change on people's income. To project households into the future, we explore a large range of assumptions on future demographic changes (including on education), technological changes, and socio-economic trends (including redistribution policies). This approach allows us to identify the main combination of factors that lead to fast poverty reduction, and the ones that lead to high climate change impacts on the poor. Identifying these factors is critical for designing efficient policies to protect the poorest from climate change impacts and making economic growth more inclusive. Conclusions are twofold. First, by 2030 climate change can have a large impact on poverty, with between 3 and 122 million more people in poverty, but climate change remains a secondary driver of poverty trends within this time horizon. Climate change impacts do not only affect the poorest: in 2030, the bottom 40 percent lose more than 4 percent of income in many countries. The regional hotspots are Sub-Saharan Africa and - to a lesser extent - India and the rest of South Asia. The most important channel through which climate change increases poverty is through agricultural income and food prices. Second, by 2030 and in the absence of surprises on climate impacts, inclusive climate-informed development can prevent most of (but not all) the impacts on poverty. In a scenario with rapid, inclusive and climate-proof development, climate change impact on poverty is

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Blood Culture PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Jones, Claire; Gibani, Malick M.; Dobinson, Hazel; Thomaides-Brears, Helena; Shrestha, Sonu; Blohmke, Christoph J.; Darton, Thomas C.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enteric fever remains an important cause of morbidity in many low-income countries and Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged as the aetiological agent in an increasing proportion of cases. Lack of adequate diagnostics hinders early diagnosis and prompt treatment of both typhoid and paratyphoid but development of assays to identify paratyphoid has been particularly neglected. Here we describe the development of a rapid and sensitive blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A from blood, potentially allowing for appropriate diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment to be initiated on the same day. Methods Venous blood samples from volunteers experimentally challenged orally with Salmonella Paratyphi A, who subsequently developed paratyphoid, were taken on the day of diagnosis; 10 ml for quantitative blood culture and automated blood culture, and 5 ml for blood culture PCR. In the latter assay, bacteria were grown in tryptone soy broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease for 5 hours (37°C) before bacterial DNA was isolated for PCR detection targeting the fliC-a gene of Salmonella Paratyphi A. Results An optimized broth containing 2.4% ox bile and micrococcal nuclease, as well as a PCR test was developed for a blood culture PCR assay of Salmonella Paratyphi A. The volunteers diagnosed with paratyphoid had a median bacterial burden of 1 (range 0.1–6.9) CFU/ml blood. All the blood culture PCR positive cases where a positive bacterial growth was shown by quantitative blood culture had a bacterial burden of ≥ 0.3 CFU/ ml blood. The blood culture PCR assay identified an equal number of positive cases as automated blood culture at higher bacterial loads (≥0.3 CFU/ml blood), but utilized only half the volume of specimens. Conclusions The blood culture PCR method for detection of Salmonella Paratyphi A can be completed within 9 hours and offers the potential for same-day diagnosis of enteric fever. Using 5 ml blood, it exhibited a

  9. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  10. Trading certainty for speed - how much uncertainty are decisionmakers and guideline developers willing to accept when using rapid reviews: an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gernot; Nussbaumer-Streit, Barbara; Greimel, Judith; Ciapponi, Agustín; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2017-08-14

    Decisionmakers and guideline developers demand rapid syntheses of the evidence when time sensitive evidence-informed decisions are required. A potential trade-off of such rapid reviews is that their results can have less reliability than results of systematic reviews that can lead to an increased risk of making incorrect decisions or recommendations. We sought to determine how much incremental uncertainty about the correctness of an answer guideline developers and health policy decisionmakers are willing to accept in exchange for a rapid evidence-synthesis. Employing a purposive sample, we conducted an international web-based, anonymous survey of decisionmakers and guideline developers. Based on a clinical treatment, a public health, and a clinical prevention scenario, participants indicated the maximum risk of getting an incorrect answer from a rapid review that they would be willing to accept. We carefully reviewed data and performed descriptive statistical analyses. In total, 325 (58.5%) of 556 participants completed our survey and were eligible for analysis. The median acceptable incremental risk for getting an incorrect answer from a rapid review across all three scenarios was 10.0% (interquartile range [IQR] 5.0-15.0). Acceptable risks were similar for the clinical treatment (n = 313, median 10.0% [IQR 5.0-15.0]) and the public health scenarios (n = 320, median 10.0% [IQR 5.0-15.0]) and lower for the clinical prevention scenario (n = 312, median 6.5% [IQR 5.0-10.5]). Findings suggest that decisionmakers are willing to accept some trade-off in validity in exchange for a rapid review. Nevertheless, they expect the validity of rapid reviews to come close to that of systematic reviews.

  11. Gnotobiotic IL-10; NF-kappaB mice develop rapid and severe colitis following Campylobacter jejuni infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Lippert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms associated with Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni induced food-borne diarrheal illnesses. In this study, we investigated the function of TLR/NF-kappaB signaling in C. jejuni induced pathogenesis using gnotobiotic IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice. In vitro analysis showed that C. jejuni induced IkappaB phosphorylation, followed by enhanced NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and increased IL-6, MIP-2alpha and NOD2 mRNA accumulation in infected-mouse colonic epithelial cells CMT93. Importantly, these events were blocked by molecular delivery of an IkappaB inhibitor (Ad5IkappaBAA. NF-kappaB signalling was also important for C.jejuni-induced cytokine gene expression in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Importantly, C. jejuni associated IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice developed mild (day 5 and severe (day 14 ulcerating colonic inflammation and bloody diarrhea as assessed by colonoscopy and histological analysis. Macroscopic analysis showed elevated EGFP expression indicating NF-kappaB activation throughout the colon of C. jejuni associated IL-10(-/-; NF-kappaB(EGFP mice, while fluorescence microscopy revealed EGFP positive cells to be exclusively located in lamina propria mononuclear cells. Pharmacological NF-kappaB inhibition using Bay 11-7085 did not ameliorate C. jejuni induced colonic inflammation. Our findings indicate that C. jejuni induces rapid and severe intestinal inflammation in a susceptible host that correlates with enhanced NF-kappaB activity from lamina propria immune cells.

  12. Marked increase in the prevalence of obesity in children of the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country, between 1998 and 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovet, Pascal; Chiolero, Arnaud; Madeleine, George; Gabriel, Anne; Stettler, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    There are few data on overweight in children in developing countries. Such data are important to guide public health policy. We assessed trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from the Seychelles, a middle-income island state in the Indian Ocean. Multiple cross-sectional surveys were conducted each year between 1998 and 2004 on all students of all schools in four selected school grades (creche, 4th, 7th and 10th years of mandatory school). Weight and height were measured and children were asked about walking time and frequency of physical exercise at leisure time. Excess weight categories were defined according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data were available for 33 340 observations in 1998-2004, corresponding to 23,459 individual children measured once or several times. Based on IOTF criteria, the prevalence of 'overweight' or 'obesity' increased from 8.7% to 13.5% in boys, and from 11.8% to 18.6% in girls from 1998 to 2004 (P risk of overweight' and 'overweight' increased by similar proportions. The shift towards higher values over time was larger in the upper than the lower tail of the BMI distribution. Physical activity decreased over calendar years and was inversely associated with excess weight. The prevalence of excess weight increased markedly over a seven-year period in children in the Seychelles. This is likely to reflect a rapid nutrition transition with increasingly positive energy balance. These findings stress the need for programs and policies aimed at promoting physical activity and healthy nutrition in countries in epidemiological transition.

  13. Development of improved enzyme-based and lateral flow immunoassays for rapid and accurate serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Novak, Analía; Melli, Luciano J; Elena, Sebastián; Corbera, Natalia; Romero, Juan E; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2017-09-01

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. Brucella canis is the etiological agent of canine brucellosis, a disease that can lead to sterility in bitches and dogs causing important economic losses in breeding kennels. Early and accurate diagnosis of canine brucellosis is central to control the disease and lower the risk of transmission to humans. Here, we develop and validate enzyme and lateral flow immunoassays for improved serodiagnosis of canine brucellosis using as antigen the B. canis rough lipopolysaccharide (rLPS). The method used to obtain the rLPS allowed us to produce more homogeneous batches of the antigen that facilitated the standardization of the assays. To validate the assays, 284 serum samples obtained from naturally infected dogs and healthy animals were analyzed. For the B. canis-iELISA and B. canis-LFIA the diagnostic sensitivity was of 98.6%, and the specificity 99.5% and 100%, respectively. We propose the implementation of the B. canis-LFIA as a screening test in combination with the highly accurate laboratory g-iELISA. The B. canis-LFIA is a rapid, accurate and easy to use test, characteristics that make it ideal for the serological surveillance of canine brucellosis in the field or veterinary laboratories. Finally, a blind study including 1040 serum samples obtained from urban dogs showed a prevalence higher than 5% highlighting the need of new diagnostic tools for a more effective control of the disease in dogs and therefore to reduce the risk of transmission of this zoonotic pathogen to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and evaluation of a pseudovirus-luciferase assay for rapid and quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies against enterovirus 71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    Full Text Available The level of neutralizing antibodies (NtAb induced by vaccine inoculation is an important endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine. In order to evaluate the efficacy of EV71 vaccine, here, we reported the development of a novel pseudovirus system expression firefly luciferase (PVLA for the quantitative measurement of NtAb. We first evaluated and validated the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method. A total of 326 serum samples from an epidemiological survey and 144 serum specimens from 3 clinical trials of EV71 vaccines were used, and the level of each specimen's neutralizing antibodies (NtAb was measured in parallel using both the conventional CPE-based and PVLA-based assay. Against the standard neutralization assay based on the inhibition of the cytopathic effect (CPE, the sensitivity and specificity of the PVLA method are 98% and 96%, respectively. Then, we tested the potential interference of NtAb against hepatitis A virus, Polio-I, Polio-II, and Polio-III standard antisera (WHO and goat anti-G10/CA16 serum, the PVLA based assay showed no cross-reactivity with NtAb against other specific sera. Importantly, unlike CPE based method, no live replication-competent EV71 is used during the measurement. Taken together, PVLA is a rapid and specific assay with higher sensitivity and accuracy. It could serve as a valuable tool in assessing the efficacy of EV71 vaccines in clinical trials and disease surveillance in epidemiology studies.

  15. Development of a specific immunomagnetic capture-PCR for rapid detection of viable Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, G; Lecca, V; Foddai, A; Tola, S

    2014-12-01

    To develop an immunomagnetic capture (IMC) to detect viable Mycoplasma agalactiae in routine ovine milk samples. Polyclonal antibodies against two M. agalactiae membrane surface proteins (P80 and P55) were covalently conjugated to magnetic beads (MBs) to form MB-Ab80 and MB-Ab55. Mycoplasma agalactiae cells were captured by a specific antigen-antibody reaction and magnetic separation. Immunomagnetic capture (IMC) was used to isolate and concentrate M. agalactiae in serial decimal dilutions and in artificially contaminated milk to facilitate subsequent detection by PCR. A 375-bp fragment of M. agalactiae was amplified using a pair of M. agalactiae-specific primers in PCR. The limit of detection of IMC-PCR method ranged from 10 to 10(2)  CCU ml(-1) when mycoplasmas were resuspended in PBS and from 10(2) to 10(3)  CCU ml(-1) when mycoplasmas were resuspended in uncontaminated ovine milk. This study also describes the application of IMC-PCR method to test for M. agalactiae in 516 milk samples collected from sheep with suspected contagious agalactia. Its performance was evaluated relative to culture. This report has demonstrated for the first time, the effective use of rapid and reliable IMC combined with PCR assay for the detection of viable M. agalactiae. The method IMC-PCR provides an alternative to conventional microbiological detection, method and it could be applied to quick detection of M. agalactiae in routine sheep milk samples. © 2014 The Authors published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Time-of-night variations in the story-like organization of dream experience developed during rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Guazzelli, Mario; Bellucci, Claudia; Mazzetti, Michela; Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas; Feinberg, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the cycles (2nd/4th) and duration-related (5/10 min) variations in the story-like organization of dream experience elaborated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dream reports were analysed using story grammar rules. Reports were provided by those subjects (14 of 22) capable of reporting a dream after each of the four awakenings provoked in 2 consecutive nights during REM sleep of the 2nd and 4th cycles, after periods of either 5 or 10 min, counterbalanced across the nights. Two researchers who were blind as to the sleep condition scored the dream reports independently. The values of the indicators of report length (measured as value of total word count) and of story-like organization of dream reports were matched taking time-of-night (2nd and 4th cycles) and REM duration (5 versus 10 min) as factors. Two-way analyses of variance showed that report length increased significantly in 4th-cycle REM sleep and nearly significantly for longer REM duration, whereas the number of dream-stories per report did not vary. The indices of sequential (number of statements describing the event structure developed in the story) and hierarchical (number of episodes per story) organization increased significantly only in dream-stories reported after 10 min of 4th-cycle REM sleep. These findings indicate that the characteristics of structural organization of dream-stories vary along with time of night, and suggest that the elaboration of a long and complex dream-story requires a fairly long time and the availability of a great amount of cognitive resources to maintain its continuity and coherence. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Rapid development of adaptive, climate-driven clinal variation in seed mass in the invasive annual Forb Echium plantagineum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara K Konarzewski

    Full Text Available We examined adaptive clinal variation in seed mass among populations of an invasive annual species, Echium plantagineum, in response to climatic selection. We collected seeds from 34 field populations from a 1,000 km long temperature and rainfall gradient across the species' introduced range in south-eastern Australia. Seeds were germinated, grown to reproductive age under common glasshouse conditions, and progeny seeds were harvested and weighed. Analyses showed that seed mass was significantly related to climatic factors, with populations sourced from hotter, more arid sites producing heavier seeds than populations from cooler and wetter sites. Seed mass was not related to edaphic factors. We also found that seed mass was significantly related to both longitude and latitude with each degree of longitude west and latitude north increasing seed mass by around 2.5% and 4% on average. There was little evidence that within-population or between-population variation in seed mass varied in a systematic manner across the study region. Our findings provide compelling evidence for development of a strong cline in seed mass across the geographic range of a widespread and highly successful invasive annual forb. Since large seed mass is known to provide reproductive assurance for plants in arid environments, our results support the hypothesis that the fitness and range potential of invasive species can increase as a result of genetic divergence of populations along broad climatic gradients. In E. plantagineum population-level differentiation has occurred in 150 years or less, indicating that the adaptation process can be rapid.

  18. Voluntary drinking versus imposed drinking in the methodology of investigations about the drinking-induced thermoregulatory sweating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Khamnei, Saeed; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2014-01-01

    Studies have shown that dehydrated humans or animals in a warm environment begin to sweat within seconds to minutes after drinking. This phenomenon is one of the drinking-induced thermoregulatory responses; being investigated from different aspects. Our objective is to show the difference of voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the methodology of these experiments. Six healthy subjects 23.7 ± 0.6 yr old and 80.7 ± 5.7 kg wt were dehydrated by performing mild exercise (ergometer cycling) in a hot and humid chamber (38-40°C, 20-28% relative humidity). We incorporated two protocols: after dehydration, subjects were allowed to drink water with 1) imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/kg and 2) voluntary volumes; on four separate days. The sweating rate was measured on the forehead area before and after drinking. Sweating increased markedly just a few minutes after the onset of drinking. The mean sweat rates of the imposed volumes of 1, 3, 5 ml/Kg were 0.33 ± 0.15, 0.31 ± 0.17, 0.47 ± 0.21 respectively and for the voluntary volume it was 0.54 ± 0.19. The mean intake in the voluntary trial was 6.58 ± 1.14 ml/Kg, more than the imposed volume of 5 ml/Kg. The trend of the rate of the sweating response in the imposed trials was distinct from the response in the voluntary trial. There exists a difference between voluntary drinking and imposed drinking in the sweating response that follows rehydration. So it is suggested to use the methods of voluntary drinking in the investigations of this phenomenon, to reveal the natural events that happen in the actual circumstances.

  19. Daily variations in the thermoregulatory behaviors of naked neck broilers in an equatorial semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, João Paulo Araújo Fernandes; de Souza, João Batista Freire; de Lima, Hiagos Felipe Ferreira; de Oliveira Costa, Monik Kelly; de Macedo Costa, Leonardo Lelis; de Arruda, Alex Martins Varela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the daily variations in the thermoregulatory behavior of 4- to 6-week-old naked neck broilers (Label Rouge) in an equatorial semi-arid environment. A total of 220 birds were monitored for 5 days starting at 0600 hours and ending at 1800 hours. The period of observation was divided into classes of hours (C H). The observed behaviors were as follows: feed and water intake, wing-spreading, sitting or lying, and beak-opening. A total of 14,300 behavioral data values were registered. In C H 2 (0900 hours to 1100 hours) and 3 (1200 hours to 1500 hours), the greatest average body surface temperature was recorded (34.67 ± 0.25 °C and 35.12 ± 0.22 °C, respectively). The C H had an effect on the exhibition of all behaviors with the exception of the water intake behavior. Feed intake was more frequent in C H 1 (0600 hours to 0800 hours) and 4 (1600 hours to 1800 hours). In C H 2 and 3, the highest frequency of sitting or lying behavior was observed. Beak-opening and wing-spreading behaviors occurred more frequently in C H 3 where the body surface temperature (35.12 ± 0.22 °C), radiant heat load (519.38 ± 2.22 W m(-2)), and enthalpy (82.74 ± 0.36 kJ kg(-1) of dry air) reached maximum recorded averages. Thus, it can be concluded that naked neck broilers adjust their behavior in response to daily variations in the thermal environment. Wing-spreading and beak-opening behaviors are important adaptive responses to the thermal challenges posed by the equatorial semi-arid environment.

  20. The Spatial and Temporal Consumptive Water Use Impacts of Rapid Shale Gas Development and Use in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, A. P.; Allen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several years, the development of shale gas resources has proceeded rapidly in many areas of the United States, and this shale gas development requires the use of millions of gallons of water, per well, for hydraulic fracturing. Recent life cycle assessments of natural gas from shale formations have calculated the potential for water use reduction when water use is integrated along the entire natural gas supply chain, if the shale gas is used in natural-gas power plants to displace coal-fired electricity generation. Actual grid operation, however, is more complicated and would require both that sufficient unused natural gas generation capacity exists for the displacement of coal-fired power generation and that the natural gas price is low enough that the switching is financially feasible. In addition, water savings, which would occur mainly from a reduction in the cooling water demand at coal-fired power plants, may occur in different regions and at different times than water used in natural gas production. Thus, consumptive water impacts may be spatial and temporally disparate, which is not a consideration in current life-cycle literature. The development of shale gas resources in Texas in August 2008 through December 2009 was chosen as a case study for characterizing this phenomenon since Texas accounted for two-thirds of the shale gas produced in the United States during this period and since the price of natural gas for electricity generation dropped significantly over the episode. Changes to the Texas self-contained electric grid (ERCOT) for a scenario with actual natural gas production and prices was estimated using a constrained grid model, rather than assuming that natural gas generation would displace coal-fired power plant usage. The actual development scenario was compared to an alternative development scenario in which natural gas prices remained elevated throughout the episode. Upstream changes in water consumption from lignite (coal

  1. Development and application of a rapid rehabilitation system for reconstruction of maxillofacial soft-tissue defects related to war and traumatic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shi-Zhu; Feng, Zhi-Hong; Gao, Rui; Dong, Yan; Bi, Yun-Peng; Wu, Guo-Feng; Chen, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The application of a maxillofacial prosthesis is an alternative to surgery in functional-aesthetic facial reconstruction. Computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing has opened up a new approach to the fabrication of maxillofacial prostheses. An intelligentized rapid simulative design and manufacturing system for prostheses was developed to facilitate the prosthesis fabrication procedure. The rapid simulation design and rapid fabrication system for maxillofacial prostheses consists of three components: digital impression, intelligentized prosthesis design, and rapid manufacturing. The patients' maxillofacial digital impressions were taken with a structured-light 3D scanner; then, the 3D model of the prostheses and their negative molds could be designed with specific software; lastly, with resin molds fabricated by the rapid prototyping machine, the prostheses could be produced directly and quickly. Fifteen patients with maxillofacial defects received prosthesis rehabilitation provided by the established system. The total clinical time used for each patient was only 4 hours over 2 appointments on average. The contours of the prostheses coordinated properly with the appearance of the patients, and the uniform-thickness border sealed well to adjacent tissues. All of the patients were satisfied with their prostheses. The rapid simulative rehabilitation system of maxillofacial defects is approaching completion. It could provide an advanced technological solution for the Army in cases of maxillofacial defect rehabilitation.

  2. Comparison of thermoregulatory devices used during anesthesia of C57BL/6 mice and correlations between body temperature and physiologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Adam C; Hankenson, F Claire; Marx, James O

    2013-09-01

    General anesthesia affects several body systems, including thermoregulation. Decreased body temperature during anesthesia has potential negative effects, including delayed recovery to consciousness. Thermoregulatory support devices are used to maintain temperature in anesthetized rodents. We analyzed 2 novel thermoregulatory devices, thermogenic gel packs and reflective foils, to compare their effectiveness in maintaining temperatures with that of a standard circulating-warm-water blanket (CWWB) in C57BL/6 mice. Mice were grouped randomly: control (no thermal support), reflective foil, gel pack, gel pack plus reflective foil, CWWB on medium setting, CWWB on high setting, and CWWB on high setting plus reflective foil. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane for 30 min, and temperature and heart and respiratory rates were monitored. Results indicated that the temperatures of mice with reflective foil only (start temperature, 36.2 ± 0.38 °C; end temperature, 28.8 ± 0.78 °C) did not differ significantly from those of control mice; however, the inclusion of foil heightened thermogenic properties when combined with other devices. Thermogenic gel packs and CWWB on high setting, both with and without reflective foil, caused significant temperature increases (that is, 1.6 °C to 4.4 °C) in mice. CWWB on medium setting (blanket temperature, 37.5 °C) maintained mice at temperatures within 1 °C of the 36.1 °C baseline. Strong correlations existed between temperature, heart and respiratory rates, and recovery time to consciousness. This information provides guidance regarding the use of thermoregulatory devices in anesthetized rodents and demonstrates the effect of maintaining a consistent core temperature on physiologic parameters.

  3. Clinical follow-up data and the rate of development of precocious and rapidly progressive puberty in patients with premature thelarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiçek, Dilek; Savas-Erdeve, Senay; Cetinkaya, Semra; Aycan, Zehra

    2018-01-26

    We aimed to evaluate the clinical follow-up data of patients with premature thelarche and determine the rate of development of precocious and early puberty in these patients. The charts of 158 girls with premature thelarche who were followed-up in our pediatric endocrinology polyclinic were reviewed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the age at onset: group 1 (0-1 month) (n=12), group 2 (1-24 months) (n=40) and group 3 (2-8 years) (n=106). At admission, the mean height standard deviation score (SDS), body weight (BW)-SDS, body mass index (BMI) and BMI-SDS were significantly higher in group 3 than in group 1 and group 2. At admission, 8.8% of the patients were obese and 24% of the patients were overweight. The majority of patients who were obese and overweight were in group 3. At the end of the follow-up, thelarche regressed in 24.7%, persisted in 32.9%, progressed in 25.9% and had a cyclic pattern in 16.5% of the patients. Precocious or rapidly progressive puberty developed in 47 of the 158 patients (29.7%). The mean age at progression to early or rapidly progressive puberty was 98.1±17.6 months. A total of 89.3% of the patients who progressed to early or rapidly progressive puberty were in group 3. Precocious or rapidly progressive puberty developed in 29.7% of subjects with premature thelarche. As patients who developed rapidly progressive puberty had a higher BW-SDS and BMI-SDS than those who did not, it is suggested that the increase in weight could stimulate rapidly progressive puberty in cases with premature thelarche.

  4. Influence of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

    OpenAIRE

    I Pokora; R Grucza

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular (F) and luteal (L) phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten subjects performed a graded bicycle exercise in a thermoneutral environment (23oC, 52-60% relative humidity). Women were tested after consuming, for 3 days, a control diet (C: 60% carbohydrates, 20% fat, 20% protein) and after that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCHO: 50% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbohyd...

  5. Development of a triple hyphenated HPLC-radical scavenging detection-DAD-SPE-NMR system for the rapid identification of antioxidants in complex plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.

    2005-01-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of radical scavenging compounds in plant extracts was developed by combining an HPLC with on-line radical scavenging using DPPH as a model radical and an HPLC¿DAD¿SPE¿NMR system. Using this method a commercial rosemary extract was

  6. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  7. Development of a rapid and sensitive battery of bioassays for risk assessment of cyanobacterial microcystin-LR in drinking water of rural water treatment plants, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholster, Paul J

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available become necessary to assess and develop additional methods that are rapid, yet realistic and cheap for the detection of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water of rural conventional water treatment plants in South Africa. A well-known cyanobacterial...

  8. Development of a rapid, cost-effective TaqMan Real-Time PCR Assay for identification and differentiation of Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Kelly W; York, Emily R; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Barker, Bridget M; Rounsley, Steven D; Waddell, Victor G; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen M; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James S; Keim, Paul S; Engelthaler, David M

    2010-05-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an infection caused by Coccidioides immitis or C. posadasii. We developed a TaqMan real-time PCR assay that rapidly and accurately differentiates the species. This assay can be used as a tool to improve disease surveillance, increase understanding of the natural history of the infection, and assist in clinical differentiation studies.

  9. Rapid Change without Transformation: The Dominance of a National Policy Paradigm over International Influences on ECEC Development in Ireland 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Toby; O'Donoghue-Hynes, Bernie; Hayes, Nóirín

    2013-01-01

    The rapidity of change in Irish early childhood policy over the last 20 years is clear to observers (OECD Thematic Review of Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Ireland. "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development," Paris, 2004). What may be debated is how significant the changes are. In this paper, we analyse…

  10. Developing and Validating a Rapid Small-Scale Column Test Procedure for GAC Selection using Reconstituted Lyophilized NOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost effective design and operation of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) facilities requires the selection of GAC that is optimal for a specific site. Rapid small-scale column tests (RSSCTs) are widely used for GAC assessment due to several advantages, including the ability to simu...

  11. Imagining Identities: Young People Constructing Discourses of Race, Ethnicity, and Community in a Contentious Context of Rapid Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario, Maria L.

    2017-01-01

    This article uses a critical sociohistorical lens to discuss and explain examples of the ways in which young people reflect, refract, and contribute to discourses of gentrification, displacement, and racial, ethnic, and geographic community identity building in a rapidly changing urban neighborhood. The article explores examples from open-ended…

  12. Development of immunochromatographic strip test using fluorescent, micellar silica nanosensors for rapid detection of B. abortus antibodies in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Swati S; Jadhav, Sushma V; Majee, Sharmila B; Shastri, Jayanthi S; Patravale, Vandana B

    2015-08-15

    Presence of bacteria such as Brucella spp. in dairy products is an immense risk to public health. Point of care immunoassays are rapid in that they can quickly screen various samples in a relatively short amount of time, are sensitive, specific and offer a great advantage in accurate and fast diagnosis of infectious diseases. We have fabricated a point of care rapid diagnostic assay that employs fluorescent, micellar silica nanosensors capable of specifically detecting Brucella IgG antibodies in milk samples of afflicted animals. Currently, point of care detection assays are not commercially available for field testing of farm animals using milk samples. The nanosensing allows precise detection of antibodies with low sample volumes (50 μl). We demonstrate recognition of B. abortus antibodies through capture by fluorescent silica nanosensors using spiked and raw milk samples validated by ELISA and PCR. The test results are accurate and repeatable with high sensitivity and specificity, and a short assay time of 10 min for antigenic recognition and do not require any sample processing procedures such as isolation and separation. Additionally, well defined antigenic components and surface biomarkers of various disease causing microbes can be broadly incorporated within the purview of this technology for accurate and rapid detection of suspected bovine pathological conditions, and can largely enable rapid field testing that can be implemented in farms and food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a Comprehensive Thermoregulatory Model for Exercise and Resting Response in Women Exposed to Thermal Stress Wearing Military Clothing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Richard

    1998-01-01

    .... Effects of the menstrual cycle on heat loss and heat production (M), core (Tc), and skin temperature responses were studied in six unacclimatized, women nonsmokers (ages 18-29 yr), resting supine...

  14. 2010 Carl Ludwig Distinguished Lectureship of the APS Neural Control and Autonomic Regulation Section: Central neural pathways for thermoregulatory cold defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F

    2011-05-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and to alter body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the research leading to a model representing our current understanding of the neural pathways through which cutaneous thermal receptors alter thermoregulatory effectors: the cutaneous circulation for control of heat loss, and brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and the heart for thermogenesis. The activation of these effectors is regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific core efferent pathways within the central nervous system (CNS) that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors includes neurons in the spinal dorsal horn projecting to lateral parabrachial nucleus neurons that project to the medial aspect of the preoptic area. Within the preoptic area, warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons control heat production by reducing the discharge of thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. The rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, receives projections form the dorsomedial hypothalamus and contains spinally projecting premotor neurons that provide the excitatory drive to spinal circuits controlling the activity of thermogenic effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus sympathetic premotor neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. The model proposed for central thermoregulatory control provides a platform for further understanding of the functional organization of central thermoregulation.

  15. Development of a System for Rapid Detection of Contaminants in Water Supplies Using Magnetic Resonance and Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowery, Thomas J; Neely, Lori; Chepin, James; Wellman, Parris; Toso, Ken; Murray, Paul; Audeh, Mark; Demas, Vasiliki; Palazzolo, Robert; Min, Michael; Phung, Nu; Blanco, Matt; Raphel, Jordan; O' Neil, Troy

    2010-09-14

    To keep the water supply safe and to ensure a swift and accurate response to a water supply contamination event, rapid and robust methods for microbial testing are necessary. Current technologies are complex, lengthy and costly and there is a need for rapid, reliable, and precise approaches that can readily address this fundamental security and safety issue. T2 Biosystems is focused on providing solutions to this problem by making breakthroughs in nanotechnology and biosensor techniques that address the current technical restrictions facing rapid, molecular analysis in complex samples. In order to apply the T2 Biosystems nucleic acid detection procedure to the analysis of nucleic acid targets in unprocessed water samples, Bacillus thuringeinsis was selected as a model organism and local river water was selected as the sample matrix. The initial assay reagent formulation was conceived with a manual magnetic resonance reader, was optimized using a high throughput system, and transferred back to the MR reader for potential field use. The final assay employing the designed and manufactured instruments was capable of detecting 10 CFU/mL of B. thuringiensis directly within the environmental water sample within 90 minutes. Further, discrimination of two closely related species of Bacilli was accomplished using the methods of this project; greater than 3-fold discrimination between B. cereus and B. thuringiensis at a concentrations spanning 10 CFU/mL to 10{sup 5} CFU/mL was observed.

  16. Review on modeling heat transfer and thermoregulatory responses in human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ming; Weng, Wenguo; Chen, Weiwang; Luo, Na

    2016-12-01

    Several mathematical models of human thermoregulation have been developed, contributing to a deep understanding of thermal responses in different thermal conditions and applications. In these models, the human body is represented by two interacting systems of thermoregulation: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. This paper reviews the recent research of human thermoregulation models. The accuracy and scope of the thermal models are improved, for the consideration of individual differences, integration to clothing models, exposure to cold and hot conditions, and the changes of physiological responses for the elders. The experimental validated methods for human subjects and manikin are compared. The coupled method is provided for the manikin, controlled by the thermal model as an active system. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is also used along with the manikin or/and the thermal model, to evaluate the thermal responses of human body in various applications, such as evaluation of thermal comfort to increase the energy efficiency, prediction of tolerance limits and thermal acceptability exposed to hostile environments, indoor air quality assessment in the car and aerospace industry, and design protective equipment to improve function of the human activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Swim performance and thermoregulatory effects of wearing clothing in a simulated cold-water survival situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowes, Heather; Eglin, Clare M; Tipton, Michael J; Barwood, Martin J

    2016-04-01

    Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) impairs swim performance, increases drowning risk and often occurs whilst clothed. The impact of clothing on thermoregulation and swim performance during CWI was explored with the view of making recommendations on whether swimming is viable for self-rescue; contrary to the traditional recommendations. Ten unhabituated males (age 24 (4) years; height 1.80 (0.08) m; mass 78.50 (10.93) kg; body composition 14.8 (3.4) fat %) completed four separate CWIs in 12 °C water. They either rested clothed or naked (i.e. wearing a bathing costume) or swum self-paced clothed or naked for up to 1 h. Swim speed, distance covered, oxygen consumption and thermal responses (rectal temperature (T re), mean skin temperature (T msk) and mean body temperature T b) were measured. When clothed, participants swum at a slower pace and for a significantly shorter distance (815 (482) m, 39 (19) min) compared to when naked (1264 (564) m, 52 (18) min), but had a similar oxygen consumption indicating clothing made them less efficient. Swimming accelerated the rate of T msk and T b cooling and wearing clothing partially attenuated this drop. The impairment to swimming performance caused by clothing was greater than the thermal benefit it provided; participants withdrew due to exhaustion before hypothermia developed. Swimming is a viable self-rescue method in 12 °C water, however, clothing impairs swimming capability. Self-rescue swimming could be considered before clinical hypothermia sets in for the majority of individuals. These suggestions must be tested for the wider population.

  18. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  19. Emergency Ebola response: a new approach to the rapid design and development of vaccines against emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Claire M; Lambe, Teresa; Gilbert, Sarah C; Hill, Adrian V S

    2015-03-01

    The epidemic of Ebola virus disease has spread at an alarming rate despite containment efforts. As a result, unprecedented large-scale international response efforts have been made in an attempt to gain control of the outbreak and reduce transmission. Several international consortia have been formed in a remarkable worldwide collaborative effort to expedite trials of two candidate Ebola virus vaccines: cAd3-EBOZ and rVSV-EBOV. In parallel, both vaccines are being manufactured in large amounts to enable future rapid deployment for management of the crisis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated techniques for rapid and highly-efficient development and production of ultra-deep tight sand gas reservoirs of Keshen 8 Block in the Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unusually ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure gas reservoirs in the Keshen 8 Block on the Kelasu structural belt of the Tarim Basin are also featured by high temperature, well-developed fault fissures, huge thickness, tight matrix, complex oil–water distribution, etc., which brings about great difficulties to reserves evaluation and further development. In view of this, an overall study was made on the fine description of reservoir fractures and their seepage mechanism, technical problems were being tackled on seismic data processing and interpretation of complex and high & steep structural zones, optimal development design, safe & rapid drilling and completion wells, reservoir stimulation, dynamic monitoring, etc. to promote the development level of such ultra-deep tight gas reservoirs, and 22 complete sets of specific techniques were formulated in the fields of high-efficiency well spacing, safe and fast drilling, recovery enhancement by well completion transformation, efficient development of optimization design, and so on. Through the technical progress and innovative management of integrated exploration & development, reserves evaluation and productivity construction have been completed on the Keshen 8 Block in the last three years of the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015, as a result, rapid and high-efficiency productivity construction is realized, and a new area is explored in the development of ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure fractured tight sand gas reservoirs. This study is of great reference to the development of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  1. Supporting the Development of a New Health R&D Strategy: A Rapid Review of International Theory and Practice for Norway's HelseOmsorg21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jonathan; Pollitt, Alexandra; Castle-Clarke, Sophie; Cochrane, Gavin; Sondergaard, Susanne; Horvath, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The HelseOmsorg21 initiative was set up by the Ministry of Health and Care Services to develop a new research and innovation strategy for health and care services in Norway. The HelseOmsorg21 Strategy Group, through the Research Council of Norway which is providing the secretariat for the strategy development, asked RAND Europe to support the strategic review process. RAND Europe's role was to conduct a series of rapid evidence reviews around the recommendations arising from the five working groups that comprise the initiative. The reviews were conducted around networks and collaboration, data linkage and exchange, culture, values and leadership, and incentives for innovation, while capacity building was a recurrent theme throughout. This study presents the rapid evidence reviews, summarising relevant literature and highlighting international examples of particularly relevant or innovative approaches. The issues and ideas identified around each theme are then pulled together in a suggested conceptual representation of the Norwegian health and care research system.

  2. KMCThinFilm: A C++ Framework for the Rapid Development of Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    196–201. 44. Kratzer P. Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo methods–a tutorial. In: Grotendorst J, Attig N, Blügel S, Marx D, editors. Multiscale...Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth by James J Ramsey Approved for public release; distribution is...Research Laboratory KMCThinFilm: A C++ Framework for the Rapid Development of Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) Simulations of Thin Film Growth by

  3. Dallas area rapid transit impact study: A framework for assessing land use and development impacts. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, P.J.; Euritt, M.A.; Walton, C.M.

    1993-05-01

    Seven transit system impact reports were reviewed in an effort to identify strategies for measuring land-use impacts for Dallas Area Rapid Transit's (DART) light rail starter line. These systems were selected on the basis of impact study quality, system characteristics (type, size, and age), and city demographics. From these existing studies some commonly used techniques are identified and then used to form the basis for the land use component of the DART impact study design. The report concludes that DART's success in fostering economic growth will depend on many factors, including interagency coordination and, perhaps most importantly, how public/private opportunities are promoted. Other variables range from the tangible (ridership, on-time performance, operating efficiency) to the abstract (civic pride, world-class-city status, desirable urban form).

  4. Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Trichosporon asahii in Experimental and Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Liao, Yong; Li, Haitao; Lu, Xuelian; Han, Xiufeng; Tian, Yanli; Chen, Shanshan; Yang, Rongya

    2015-01-01

    Invasive trichosporonosis is a deep mycosis found mainly in immunocompromised hosts, and the major pathogen is Trichosporon asahii. We detected the species-specific intergenic spacers (IGS) of rRNA gene of T. asahii using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in 15 isolates with 3 different visualization methods, including SYBR green detection, gel electrophoresis, and turbidimetric methods. The LAMP assay displayed superior rapidity to other traditional methods in the detection time; that is, only 1 h was needed for detection and identification of the pathogen DNA. Furthermore, the detection limit of the LAMP assay was more sensitive than the PCR assay. We also successfully detect the presence of T. asahii in samples from experimentally infected mice and samples from patients with invasive trichosporonosis caused by T. asahii, suggesting that this method may become useful in clinical applications in the near future. PMID:25692144

  5. Selecting the correct exercise intensity for unbiased comparisons of thermoregulatory responses between groups of different mass and surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Matthew N; Jay, Ollie

    2014-05-01

    We assessed whether comparisons of thermoregulatory responses between groups unmatched for body mass and surface area (BSA) should be performed using a metabolic heat production (prod) in Watts or Watts per kilogram for changes in rectal temperature (ΔTre), and an evaporative heat balance requirement (Ereq) in Watts or Watts per square meter for local sweat rates (LSR). Two groups with vastly different mass and BSA [large (LG): 91.5 ± 6.8 kg, 2.12 ± 0.09 m(2), n = 8; small (SM): 67.6 ± 5.6 kg, 1.80 ± 0.09 m(2), n = 8; P age, and with the same onset threshold esophageal temperatures (LG: +0.37 ± 0.12°C; SM: +0.41 ± 0.17°C; P = 0.364) and thermosensitivities (LG: 1.02 ± 0.54, SM: 1.00 ± 0.38 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1)·°C(-1); P = 0.918) for sweating, cycled for 60 min in 25°C at different levels of prod (500 W, 600 W, 6.5 W/kg, 9.0 W/kg) and Ereq (340 W, 400 W, 165 W/m(2), 190 W/m(2)). ΔTre was different between groups at a prod of 500 W (LG: 0.52 ± 0.15°C, SM: 0.92 ± 0.24°C; P 0.230). End-exercise LSR was different at Ereq of 400 W (LG: 0.41 ± 0.18, SM: 0.57 ± 0.13 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.043) with a trend toward higher LSR in SM at 340 W (LG: 0.28 ± 0.06, SM: 0.37 ± 0.15 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.057), but similar at 165 W/m(2) (LG: 0.28 ± 0.06, SM: 0.28 ± 0.12 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.988) and 190 W/m(2) (LG: 0.41 ± 0.18, SM: 0.37 ± 0.15 mg·cm(-2)·min(-1); P = 0.902). In conclusion, when comparing groups unmatched for mass and BSA, future experiments can avoid systematic differences in ΔTre and LSR by using a fixed prod in Watts per kilogram and Ereq in Watts per square meter, respectively.

  6. Development of automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits with application of universal system of representation of rocks, transition rocks and coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schejbal Ctirad

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The Geoinformatic section of Institute of geological engineering HGF VŠB-TU Ostrava is engaged a long time in the creation of coal databases, elaboration of automated systems of graphical presentation of exploration and/or mining data and in the development of automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits. This paper describes the main stages of problems solving, namely:− analysis of both classification and documentation systems of coal deposits,− creation of both structure and content of specialized databases,− principles of the selection of appropriate statistical/geostatistical procedures of geodata analysis,− proposal of the automated generation of both deposits documents and graphical symbols,− elaboration of the automated system for rapid evaluation of coal deposits.

  7. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris - wilt pathogen of chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Nagavardhini, Avuthu; Sengupta, Anindita; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-02-11

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt is a devastating pathogen of chickpea. In chickpea, various soil borne pathogens produce (s) similar symptoms, therefore cannot be distinguished easily at field level. There is real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of Fusarium wilt outbreaks. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequence for visual detection of Foc. The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63°C for 60 min. When hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was added before amplification, samples with Foc DNA developed a characteristic sky blue colour but those without DNA or with the DNA of six other plant pathogenic fungi did not. Results obtained with LAMP and HNB were confirmed when LAMP products were subjected to gel electrophoresis. The detection limit of this LAMP assay for Foc was 10 fg of genomic DNA per reaction, while that of conventional PCR was 100 pg. In conclusion, it was found that a LAMP assay combined with HNB is simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific. The LAMP assay does not require specialized equipment, hence can be used in the field for the rapid detection of Foc. This is the first report of the use of LAMP assay for the detection of Foc. The presented LAMP method provides a specific, sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool for the distinction of Foc, with the potential to be standardized as a detection method for Foc in endemic areas and will be very useful for monitoring the disease complex in the field further suggesting the management strategies.

  8. Rapid and ultrasensitive flexible palladium nano-thin film biosensing electrode development for cancer antigen HER2 detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun-Tzu; Chang, Chia-Yu; Chen, Wei; Su, Chien-Hao; Hsu, Guo-Cheng; Chang, Chia-Ching

    HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) is one of the significant surface antigens of breast cancer Trace amount of HER2 protein in human serum is highly correlated to the tumor progression in breast cancers especially in the cases of recurrence. Therefore, HER2 detection of human serum is significant for early detection of cancer recurrence. Conventional HER2 detection approaches may not be sensitive enough or contain highly false positive rate or time consuming for accurate detection. Therefore, a rapid, highly sensitive and specific sensing is highly desired. By using HER2 specific binding peptide functionalized palladium thin film electrochemical electrode the HER2 protein concentration can be determined at sub-nanogram level by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) within 10 mins. The Pd nano-film is sputtered on the flexible plastics substrate and reduces the cost of this electrode. Due to the low cost of the electrode, it is designed as a disposable biosensing probe which may reduce the concern of human sample contamination. The self-management after breast cancer operation may be feasible in the near future. Keywords: Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS), breast cancer, biosensor Corresponding author: ccchang01@faculty.nctu.edu.tw; Cheeshin Technology Co. Collaboration.

  9. Rapidly developed squamous cell carcinoma after laser therapy used to treat chemical burn wound: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyung-Rok; Kwon, Soon-Sung; Chung, Seum; Kie, Jeong-Hae

    2015-02-07

    In chronic wounds, especially burn scars, malignant tumors can arise. However, it is rare for a subacute burn injury to change to a malignant lesion within one month. Moreover, a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from HeNe laser therapy after a chemical burn has never been reported. In this report, we examine a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from HeNe laser therapy after a chemical burn. Because pathologic investigations were made from the first operation, both early detection of the squamous cell carcinoma and consideration of the HeNe laser therapy as a risk factor for the skin cancer were possible. The cancer was completely removed and reconstruction of the defect was successfully achieved in a timely manner. Although there has as yet been no reported case of squamous cell carcinoma induced by laser therapy, it is important for clinicians to recognize both the possibility of laser-induced cancer and the rapid change of cancer, so they can provide appropriate and timely treatment.

  10. Development of rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology for ethanol production from extractive ammonia pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Mingjie; Liu, Yanping; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Dale, Bruce E; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-08-01

    High enzyme loading and low productivity are two major issues impeding low cost ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. This work applied rapid bioconversion with integrated recycle technology (RaBIT) and extractive ammonia (EA) pretreatment for conversion of corn stover (CS) to ethanol at high solids loading. Enzymes were recycled via recycling unhydrolyzed solids. Enzymatic hydrolysis with recycled enzymes and fermentation with recycled yeast cells were studied. Both enzymatic hydrolysis time and fermentation time were shortened to 24 h. Ethanol productivity was enhanced by two times and enzyme loading was reduced by 30%. Glucan and xylan conversions reached as high as 98% with an enzyme loading of as low as 8.4 mg protein per g glucan. The overall ethanol yield was 227 g ethanol/kg EA-CS (191 g ethanol/kg untreated CS). Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1713-1720. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Control of thermal balance by a liquid circulating garment based on a mathematical representation of the human thermoregulatory system. Ph.D. Thesis - California Univ., Berkeley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetz, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Test data and a mathematical model of the human thermoregulatory system were used to investigate control of thermal balance by means of a liquid circulating garment (LCG). The test data were derived from five series of experiments in which environmental and metabolic conditions were varied parametrically as a function of several independent variables, including LCG flowrate, LCG inlet temperature, net environmental heat exchange, surrounding gas ventilation rate, ambient pressure, metabolic rate, and subjective/obligatory cooling control. The resultant data were used to relate skin temperature to LCG water temperature and flowrate, to assess a thermal comfort band, to demonstrate the relationship between metabolic rate and LCG heat dissipation, and so forth. The usefulness of the mathematical model as a tool for data interpretation and for generation of trends and relationships among the various physiological parameters was also investigated and verified.

  12. Five shared decision-making tools in 5 months: use of rapid reviews to develop decision boxes for seniors living with dementia and their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawani, Moulikatou Adouni; Valéra, Béatriz; Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Légaré, France; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Côté, Luc; Voyer, Philippe; Kröger, Edeltraut; Witteman, Holly; Rodriguez, Charo; Giguere, Anik M C

    2017-03-15

    Decision support tools build upon comprehensive and timely syntheses of literature. Rapid reviews may allow supporting their development by omitting certain components of traditional systematic reviews. We thus aimed to describe a rapid review approach underlying the development of decision support tools, i.e., five decision boxes (DB) for shared decision-making between seniors living with dementia, their caregivers, and healthcare providers. We included studies based on PICO questions (Participant, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) describing each of the five specific decision. We gave priority to higher quality evidence (e.g., systematic reviews). For each DB, we first identified secondary sources of literature, namely, clinical summaries, clinical practice guidelines, and systematic reviews. After an initial extraction, we searched for primary studies in academic databases and grey literature to fill gaps in evidence. We extracted study designs, sample sizes, populations, and probabilities of benefits/harms of the health options. A single reviewer conducted the literature search and study selection. The data extracted by one reviewer was verified by a second experienced reviewer. Two reviewers assessed the quality of the evidence. We converted all probabilities into absolute risks for ease of understanding. Two to five experts validated the content of each DB. We conducted descriptive statistical analyses on the review processes and resources required. The approach allowed screening of a limited number of references (range: 104 to 406/review). For each review, we included 15 to 26 studies, 2 to 10 health options, 11 to 62 health outcomes and we conducted 9 to 47 quality assessments. A team of ten reviewers with varying levels of expertise was supported at specific steps by an information specialist, a biostatistician, and a graphic designer. The time required to complete a rapid review varied from 7 to 31 weeks per review (mean ± SD, 19 ± 10

  13. Effect of ambient temperature on the thermoregulatory and locomotor stimulant effects of 4-methylmethcathinone in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jerry Wright

    Full Text Available The drug 4-methylmethcathinone (4-MMC; aka, mephedrone, MMCAT, "plant food", "bath salts" is a recent addition to the list of popular recreational psychomotor-stimulant compounds. Relatively little information about this drug is available in the scientific literature, but popular media reports have driven recent drug control actions in the UK and several US States. Online user reports of subjective similarity to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy" prompted the current investigation of the thermoregulatory and locomotor effects of 4-MMC. Male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats were monitored after subcutaneous administration of 4-MMC (1-10 mg/kg using an implantable radiotelemetry system under conditions of low (23°C and high (27°C ambient temperature. A reliable reduction of body temperature was produced by 4-MMC in Wistar rats at 23°C or 27°C with only minimal effect in Sprague-Dawley rats. Increased locomotor activity was observed after 4-MMC administration in both strains with significantly more activity produced in the Sprague-Dawley strain. The 10 mg/kg s.c. dose evoked greater increase in extracellular serotonin, compared with dopamine, in the nucleus accumbens. Follow-up studies confirmed that the degree of locomotor stimulation produced by 10 mg/kg 4-MMC was nearly identical to that produced by 1 mg/kg d-methamphetamine in each strain. Furthermore, hypothermia produced by the serotonin 1(A/7 receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-N,N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT was similar in each strain. These results show that the cathinone analog 4-MMC exhibits thermoregulatory and locomotor properties that are distinct from those established for methamphetamine or MDMA in prior work, despite recent evidence of neuropharmacological similarity with MDMA.

  14. Metabolic rates and thermoregulatory characteristics of Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae Tasas metabólicas y características termorregulatorias de Akodon azarae (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. DANIEL ANTINUCHI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we evaluated the energetic status, activity daily metabolic rate, thermoregulatory capacity and the existence of torpor in Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829. Basal metabolic rate (BMR was similar to the expected value from Kleiber´s, and also according to the BMR of phylogenetically related species. No statistical difference in BMR between sexes was detected. For both males and females, activity daily metabolic rate was 235 % of BMR. Body temperature was not statistically different, neither at different ambient temperatures nor between sexes. In the thermoneutral zone, body temperature was 36.1 ± 1.5 °C. Thermal conductance was lower than the expected for mammals whereas thermoregulatory capacity was 136 % of the expected. Akodon azarae did not show evidence of torporEn este trabajo fueron evaluadas, para Akodon azarae (Fisher 1829, la tasa metabólica basal (BMR y de actividad diaria así como la capacidad termorregulatoria y la posible existencia de torpor. La BMR no presentó diferencias estadísticas con la esperada por la ecuación de Kleiber así como con la esperada para especies filogenéticamente relacionadas. Tampoco fueron detectadas diferencias significativas en la BMR entre sexos. La tasa metabólica de actividad diaria para ambos sexos fue el 235 % de la BMR. La temperatura corporal no presentó variaciones entre individuos mantenidos a diferentes temperaturas ambiente ni tampoco entre sexos y en termoneutralidad fue de 36,1 ± 1,5 °C. Por otra parte, la conductancia térmica fue menor a la esperada mientras que la capacidad termorregulatoria fue el 136% de la esperada. Akodon azarae no presenta sopor

  15. Oracle Application Express 5 for beginners a practical guide to rapidly develop data-centric web applications accessible from desktop, laptops, tablets, and smartphones

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Oracle Application Express has taken another big leap towards becoming a true next generation RAD tool. It has entered into its fifth version to build robust web applications. One of the most significant feature in this release is a new page designer that helps developers create and edit page elements within a single page design view, which enormously maximizes developer productivity. Without involving the audience too much into the boring bits, this full colored edition adopts an inspiring approach that helps beginners practically evaluate almost every feature of Oracle Application Express, including all features new to version 5. The most convincing way to explore a technology is to apply it to a real world problem. In this book, you’ll develop a sales application that demonstrates almost every feature to practically expose the anatomy of Oracle Application Express 5. The short list below presents some main topics of Oracle APEX covered in this book: Rapid web application development for desktops, la...

  16. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  17. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications