WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly developing areas

  1. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater contamination in the rapid urban development areas of Coimbatore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvakumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Singanallur Sub-basin is one of the major waterways and it supplies water to the Coimbatore city. Currently, it is vulnerable to pollution due to an increase of unplanned urban developments, industrial, and agricultural activities that compromise both the quality and quantity. In the present study three major hydrochemical facies were identified (mixed Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3. Irrigation suitability indexes are specifies that the groundwater in the areas has very high salinity hazard and low to medium alkali hazard. The mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry originally regulated by the evaporation process is dominated by reason of arid condition and anthropogenic activities existing throughout the region. The multivariate statistical analysis (Correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA and Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA indicates, most of the variations are elucidated by the anthropogenic pollutant predominantly due to population growth, industrial effluents, and irrigation water return flow. This study demonstrates enhanced information of evolution of groundwater quality by integrating hydrochemical data and multivariate statistical methods are used to understand the factors influencing contamination due to natural and anthropogenic impacts.

  2. Dallas area rapid transit impact study: A framework for assessing land use and development impacts. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, P.J.; Euritt, M.A.; Walton, C.M.

    1993-05-01

    Seven transit system impact reports were reviewed in an effort to identify strategies for measuring land-use impacts for Dallas Area Rapid Transit's (DART) light rail starter line. These systems were selected on the basis of impact study quality, system characteristics (type, size, and age), and city demographics. From these existing studies some commonly used techniques are identified and then used to form the basis for the land use component of the DART impact study design. The report concludes that DART's success in fostering economic growth will depend on many factors, including interagency coordination and, perhaps most importantly, how public/private opportunities are promoted. Other variables range from the tangible (ridership, on-time performance, operating efficiency) to the abstract (civic pride, world-class-city status, desirable urban form).

  3. Role of the Wnt-Frizzled system in cardiac pathophysiology: a rapidly developing, poorly understood area with enormous potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kristin; Aflaki, Mona; Nattel, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd) G-protein-coupled receptor system, involving 19 distinct Wnt ligands and 10 Fzd receptors, plays key roles in the development and functioning of many organ systems. There is increasing evidence that Wnt-Fzd signalling is important in regulating cardiac function. Wnt-Fzd signalling primarily involves a canonical pathway, with dishevelled-1-dependent nuclear translocation of β-catenin that derepresses Wnt-sensitive gene transcription, but can also include non-canonical pathways via phospholipase-C/Ca2+ mobilization and dishevelled-protein activation of small GTPases. Wnt-Fzd effects vary with specific ligand/receptor interactions and associated downstream pathways. This paper reviews the biochemistry and physiology of the Wnt-Fzd complex, and presents current knowledge of Wnt signalling in cardiac remodelling processes such as hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as disease states such as myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure and arrhythmias. Wnt signalling is activated during hypertrophy; inhibiting Wnt signalling by activating glycogen synthase kinase attenuates the hypertrophic response. Wnt signalling has complex and time-dependent actions post-MI, so that either beneficial or harmful effects might result from Wnt-directed interventions. Stem cell biology, a promising area for therapeutic intervention, is highly regulated by Wnt signalling. The Wnt system regulates fibroblast function, and is prominently altered in arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy, a familial disease involving excess deposition of fibroadipose tissue. Wnt signalling controls connexin43 expression, thereby contributing to the regulation of cardiac electrical stability and arrhythmia generation. Although much has been learned about Wnt-Fzd signalling in hypertrophy and infarction, its role is poorly understood for a broad range of other heart disorders. Much more needs to be learned for its contributions to be fully appreciated, and to permit more effective

  4. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  5. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  6. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  7. Promoting environmental public health in rapidly urbanizing areas of less-developed countries in Africa: a collaborative interdisciplinary training in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Ana, Godson R E E

    2011-01-01

    Globally, urbanization has been occurring more rapidly in small-to-medium-sized cities in less-developed countries of Africa and Asia. Studies have suggested associations between traffic and industry-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. These chemical and physical exposure agents have also received increased attention for environmental quality concerns like global climate change. Most research to date, however, was conducted in larger industrialized country urban centers. Ibadan, Nigeria, is a historic city characterized by urban sprawl and increasing modernization as an academic and medical training center but is lacking in the implementation of environmental laws. The authors conducted their first training in Ibadan, Nigeria, May 19-23, 2008, based on initial collaborative work during 2006-2008 as well as a trip in mid-March 2007. They describe the rationale for and components of the training, likely one of the first of its kind in Africa. The title of the training was "Advances in Community Outdoor and Indoor Air and Environmental Quality Monitoring and Exposure Assessment." Content was multimedia and interdisciplinary. The authors included lectures, group discussions, field experiences at community and industrial sites with cross-sectional environmental monitoring, and planned pilot studies including master's thesis projects based on real-time, grant-funded monitoring equipment provided to the University of Ibadan, including protocol development demonstrations.

  8. Development and testing of a new framework for rapidly assessing legal and managerial protection afforded by marine protected areas: Mediterranean Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-02-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) states the need to effectively conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas of particular importance for biodiversity by 2020. Here, a new indicator-based methodological framework to assess biodiversity protection afforded by marine protected areas' (MPA) was developed as a quick surrogate for MPAs' potential conservation effectiveness: the Marine Protected Area Protection Assessment Framework (MaPAF). The MaPAF consists of a limited number of headline indicators that are integrated in two indexes: Legal protection and Management effort, which eventually integrate in the overall MPA Protection super-index. The MaPAF was then tested in the Mediterranean MPA network as a case study. Spatial analyses were performed at three meaningful scales: the whole Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean ecoregions and countries. The results of this study suggest that: 1) The MaPAF can serve as a useful tool for consistent, adaptive, quick and cost-effective MPA effectiveness assessments of MPAs and MPA networks in virtually any marine region, as the headline indicators used are commonly compiled and easy to retrieve; 2) The MaPAF proved usable and potentially relevant in the Mediterranean Sea where most indicators in the framework can be publicly accessed through the MAPAMED database and are planned to be regularly updated; 3) Protection afforded by MPAs is low across the whole Mediterranean, with only few MPAs having relatively high legal and managerial protection; and 4) Most Mediterranean countries need to devote substantially more work to improve MPA effectiveness mainly through increased management effort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. WIST: toolkit for rapid, customized LIMS development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Y Wayne; Arkin, Adam P; Chandonia, John-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Workflow Information Storage Toolkit (WIST) is a set of application programming interfaces and web applications that allow for the rapid development of customized laboratory information management systems (LIMS...

  10. Practical implications of rapid development methodologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gerber, A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development methodologies are popular approaches for the development of modern software systems. The goals of these methodologies are the inclusion of the client into the analysis, design and implementation activities, as well...

  11. Development of a Rapid Thermoplastic Impregnation Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weustink, A.P.D.

    2007-01-01

    A melt impregnation device for rapid thermoplastic impregnation of fiber bundles has been developed through modeling and experiments. The basic principles behind the thermoplastic impregnation process are investigated and the properties needed for a successful thermoplastic impregnation device are

  12. LIHTC Difficult to Develop Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Difficult Development Area (DDA) for the Low Income Housing Tax Credit program is an area designated by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)...

  13. Rapid detection of flooded areas after Tohoku March 2011 tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Falconieri, A.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the recent years there has been a continuous increase of natural disasters affecting the world. Their catastrophic consequences generally have extreme impacts both from an economic and social point of view. The effects are the more severe the higher are the population density and concentration of industrial facilities and infrastructures in disaster-affected areas. Systems able to provide timely information about the affected areas may help in supporting decision makers to manage the crisis. In this context, satellite data may give a useful and effectively support. The devastating earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 off the Japan coasts produced a huge tsunami which strongly affected the municipality of Miyagi, where more than two millions of inhabitants were used to live. In this paper, the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach was used to detect areas affected by the flood due to such a tsunami. RST have been already applied with satisfactory results for the detection and monitoring of flooded area by using data acquired both from polar (NOAA-AVHRR and EOS-MODIS) and geostationary (MSG-SEVIRI) system. The potential of such data acquired in the visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum has already been verified, allowing the development of an all-day detection and monitoring system of flooded areas. In particular, the potential of RST when implemented on optical data acquired by the Japan geostationary MT-SAT series satellites for rapid detection of flooded areas within Sendai district will be investigated in this study. MT-SAT, guaranteeing a temporal resolution of 30 minutes and a spatial resolution of up to 1km in the visible channel, together with the high sensitivity to detecting changes, offered by RST approach, should assure the capability for a prompt and effective detection, allowing for a near real time identification of the dynamics and the evolution of the disaster. Results and main achievements of this study will be

  14. New developments in rapidly solidified magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.K. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Chang, C.F. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); Raybould, D. [Allied-Signal, Inc., Morristown, NJ (United States); King, J.F. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom); Thistlethwaite, S. [Magnesium Elektron Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    In the present paper, we will examine the new developments in the rapidly solidified Mg-Al-Zn-Nd (EA55RS) alloy. We shall first briefly review the process scale-up currently employed for producing rapidly solidified magnesium alloys in large quantities, and then discuss the effect of billet size and processing parameters on the mechanical properties of various mill product forms such as extrusions and sheets. The superplastic behavior of EA55RS extrusions and rolled sheets are also discussed. Finally, some results on magnesium metal-matrix composites using rapidly solidified EA55RS matrix powders and SiC particulates are presented. (orig.)

  15. VT Designated Neighborhood Development Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Neighborhood Development Area designation encourages municipalities and/or developers to plan for new and infill housing in the area within walking distance of...

  16. Rapid shape detection signals in area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Katherine F; Ghose, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Vision in foveate animals is an active process that requires rapid and constant decision-making. For example, when a new object appears in the visual field, we can quickly decide to inspect it by directing our eyes to the object's location. We studied the contribution of primate area V4 to these types of rapid foveation decisions. Animals performed a reaction time task that required them to report when any shape appeared within a peripherally-located noisy stimulus by making a saccade to the stimulus location. We found that about half of the randomly sampled V4 neurons not only rapidly and precisely represented the appearance of this shape, but they were also predictive of the animal's saccades. A neuron's ability to predict the animal's saccades was not related to the specificity with which the cell represented a single type of shape but rather to its ability to signal whether any shape was present. This relationship between sensory sensitivity and behavioral predictiveness was not due to global effects such as alertness, as it was equally likely to be observed for cells with increases and decreases in firing rate. Careful analysis of the timescales of reliability in these neurons implies that they reflect both feedforward and feedback shape detecting processes. In approximately 7% of our recorded sample, individual neurons were able to predict both the delay and precision of the animal's shape detection performance. This suggests that a subset of V4 neurons may have been directly and causally contributing to task performance and that area V4 likely plays a critical role in guiding rapid, form-based foveation decisions.

  17. Development and tendency of rapid prototyping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongnian; Hong, Guodong

    1998-08-01

    The definition of the rapid prototyping is given in this paper. Various RP processes, which build the prototypes with 2.5 or 3 dimensional layers, are introduced. The relative techniques of RP and the differences between RP technique and CNC manufacturing are analyzed. The paper discusses the RP's applied fields and methods and presents the RP development in the world. According to the idea that requirements determine the developing, the RP's tendency is discussed.

  18. Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Daly, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of the Hanford 200 Areas Development Plan (Development Plan) is to guide the physical development of the 200 Areas (which refers to the 200 East Area, 200 West Area, and 200 Area Corridor, located between the 200 East and 200 West Areas) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4320.lB (DOE 1991a) by performing the following: Establishing a land-use plan and setting land-use categories that meet the needs of existing and proposed activities. Coordinating existing, 5-year, and long-range development plans and guiding growth in accordance with those plans. Establishing development guidelines to encourage cost-effective development and minimize conflicts between adjacent activities. Identifying site development issues that need further analysis. Integrating program plans with development plans to ensure a logical progression of development. Coordinate DOE plans with other agencies [(i.e., Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)]. Being a support document to the Hanford Site Development Plan (DOE-RL 1990a) (parent document) and providing technical site information relative to the 200 Areas.

  19. YAM- A Framework for Rapid Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    YAM is a software development framework with tools for facilitating the rapid development and integration of software in a concurrent software development environment. YAM provides solutions for thorny development challenges associated with software reuse, managing multiple software configurations, the development of software product-lines, multiple platform development and build management. YAM uses release-early, release-often development cycles to allow developers to incrementally integrate their changes into the system on a continual basis. YAM facilitates the creation and merging of branches to support the isolated development of immature software to avoid impacting the stability of the development effort. YAM uses modules and packages to organize and share software across multiple software products. It uses the concepts of link and work modules to reduce sandbox setup times even when the code-base is large. One side-benefit is the enforcement of a strong module-level encapsulation of a module s functionality and interface. This increases design transparency, system stability as well as software reuse. YAM is in use by several mid-size software development teams including ones developing mission-critical software.

  20. Population coding in area V4 during rapid shape detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    While previous studies have suggested that neuronal correlations are common in visual cortex over a range of timescales, the effect of correlations on rapid visually based decisions has received little attention. We trained Macaca mulatta to saccade to a peripherally presented shape embedded in dynamic noise as soon as the shape appeared. While the monkeys performed the task, we recorded from neuronal populations (5–29 cells) using a microelectrode array implanted in area V4, a visual area thought to be involved in form perception. While modest correlations were present between cells during visual stimulation, their magnitude did not change significantly subsequent to the appearance of a shape. We quantified the reliability and temporal precision with which neuronal populations signaled the appearance of the shape and predicted the animals' choices using mutual information analyses. To study the impact of correlations, we shuffled the activity from each cell across observations while retaining stimulus-dependent modulations in firing rate. We found that removing correlations by shuffling across trials minimally affected the reliability or timing with which pairs, or larger groups of cells, signaled the presence of a shape. To assess the downstream impact of correlations, we also studied how shuffling affected the ability of V4 populations to predict behavioral choices. Surprisingly, shuffling created a modest increase in the accuracy of such predictions, suggesting that the reliability of downstream neurons is slightly compromised by activity correlations. Our findings are consistent with neuronal correlations having a minimal effect on the reliability and timing of rapid perceptual decisions. PMID:25787961

  1. Rapid Glass Refiner Development Program, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-20

    A rapid glass refiner (RGR) technology which could be applied to both conventional and advanced class melting systems would significantly enhance the productivity and the competitiveness of the glass industry in the United States. Therefore, Vortec Corporation, with the support of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-90ID12911, conducted a research and development program for a unique and innovative approach to rapid glass refining. To provide focus for this research effort, container glass was the primary target from among the principal glass types based on its market size and potential for significant energy savings. Container glass products represent the largest segment of the total glass industry accounting for 60% of the tonnage produced and over 40% of the annual energy consumption of 232 trillion Btu/yr. Projections of energy consumption and the market penetration of advanced melting and fining into the container glass industry yield a potential energy savings of 7.9 trillion Btu/yr by the year 2020.

  2. Cluster development in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheliazkov Georgi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in creating a base-line for development patterns of clusters and clusters' specific characteristics in rural areas is particularly imposed by certain problems, which manifest themselves in similar degrees and provide a generic pattern in different regions and countries, e.g. depopulation and land abandonment, unemployment level and insufficient access to basic services and infrastructure. Certain development patterns and priorities are identified in the regional development in the old EU-members, while the member states from the Eastern parts are still partially restricted by their economic situation and political instability. This puts forth the concept of the 'integration maturity', which refers to the preparedness of each country and its capability to fully exploit the benefits and the advantages of the integration form (Palánkai, 2003, and is still applicable in terms of the economic convergence level of the new-member states in comparison to the EU-15. This statement is especially relevant to the rural business and development that often remains distant and isolated from capital and sources of information and support. With the consequences of the economic crisis and the ongoing economic instability economists, business experts and social scientists have refined a broad range of techniques for making sense of regional economies and analyzing the public policy implications of their workings. Clusters are therefore often perceived not only as patterns for economic transactions and economic outcomes, but also as social systems and multidisciplinary environmental drivers for change.

  3. The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the challenges of rapid urbanization on the sustainable development of Nyanya, Abuja. An interesting finding of the study is that the primary factor for the rapid urbanization of Nyanya within a short period of time is migration. The consequence of this rapid urbanization and population rise within a short ...

  4. [Rapid development of cosmetic medicine in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kaihua; Pan, Baohua; Xia, Wei

    2006-04-01

    To review and summarize the development during the last 20 years and the current status of cosmetic medicine, i.e., cosmetic surgery, in China, for the healthier development of this specialty in the future. Literature concerned was reviewed, including conference abstracts, papers, and publications, and the present status and problems were analyzed. Cosmetic medicine was recognized as an independent specialty and gained its clear definition. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the changing medical modules and the developing science and civilization. This trend fulfilled the need of the people. The related problems consisted of a high complication rate, confusion of management, and insufficient specific knowledge in part of the providers. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the civilization development. For the healthy development of this specialty, scientific management and systemic education for the providers are crucial. Only those who have the plastic surgery background are able to participate in this practice.

  5. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  6. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  7. Rapid Development of Intestinal Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Oh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma is felt to develop over a protracted time period through a series of defined steps. Several potential risk factors for the development of gastric cancer have been identified, including a family history of gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection. We present the case of a patient with neither risk factor who progressed in a 14 month time frame from histologically normal gastric mucosa to early stage intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma in the setting of diffuse gastric intestinal metaplasia and atrophic gastritis. This patient’s presentation conflicts with our current understanding of the development of intestinal type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  8. Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke’s area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie Yen

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of connected speech samples and language testing following infarction of Wernicke’s area revealed rapid improvements in almost all speech/language measures, spanning phonological, syntactic and semantic domains. The greatest changes occurred early, with recovery slowing over time, and the data were well fit by logarithmic recovery curves. Despite the importance of Wernicke’s area, the rapidity and extent of recovery observed suggest that other brain regions can be rapidly recruited to support many of the functions of Wernicke’s area (Weiller et al., 1995.

  9. [The rapid development of child neuropsychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, C; Jambaqué, I

    2008-05-01

    The past few years have seen important progress and new developments in the field of child neuropsychology. Children can exhibit acquired or learning disorders, but in all cases such deficits take place in a developmental trajectory that requires taking into account cerebral maturation and plasticity processes. Child neuropsychology finds its specificity in the perspective of developmental neuropsychology and has close connections with health and education. This article focuses on two pathologies - childhood epilepsies and developmental dyslexia - that highlight the recent progress in this specialty and its perspectives.

  10. Developing and validating rapid assessment instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Abell, Neil; Kamata, Akihito

    2009-01-01

    This book provides an overview of scale and test development. From conceptualization through design, data collection, analysis, and interpretation, critical concerns are identified and grounded in the increasingly sophisticated psychometric literature. Measurement within the health, social, and behavioral sciences is addressed, and technical and practical guidance is provided. Acknowledging the increasingly sophisticated contributions in social work, psychology, education, nursing, and medicine, the book balances condensation of complex conceptual challenges with focused recommendations for conceiving, planning, and implementing psychometric study. Primary points are carefully referenced and consistently illustrated to illuminate complicated or abstract principles. Basics of construct conceptualization and establishing evidence of validity are complimented with introductions to concept mapping and cross-cultural translation. In-depth discussion of cutting edge topics like bias and invariance in item responses...

  11. Future Development and Priority Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labour Education, 1973

    1973-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) will have to concentrate on: instructor training; strengthening the education, research and documentation services of trade unions; establishing and reinforcing permanent institutions of workers' education; promoting workers' education for all forms of participation in development; and teaching workers about…

  12. The reasons for the rapid development of human technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    While playing with a two-year-old girl in Australia, Alan Macfarlane explains one reason for the rapid development of humans, namely their curiosity and desire to experiment and to imagine and make new things.

  13. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Neugarten

    Full Text Available The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES, the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower, regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection, and cultural (nature tourism ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF. Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions.

  15. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamaro, Luciano; Cano, Carlos Andres; Grantham, Hedley S.; Hole, David; Juhn, Daniel; McKinnon, Madeleine; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Steininger, Marc; Wright, Timothy Max

    2016-01-01

    The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower), regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection), and cultural (nature tourism) ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF). Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions. PMID:28006005

  16. Development and implementation of a rapid real-time polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assays which use real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology can be developed for the rapid identification of genetic sequences carried by waterborne pathogens. Rand Water has established facilities within which a selection of PCR assays will be developed. This paper reports on the optimisation and ...

  17. Methods for Rapid Screening in Woody Plant Herbicide Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stanley

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Methods for woody plant herbicide screening were assayed with the goal of reducing resources and time required to conduct preliminary screenings for new products. Rapid screening methods tested included greenhouse seedling screening, germinal screening, and seed screening. Triclopyr and eight experimental herbicides from Dow AgroSciences (DAS 313, 402, 534, 548, 602, 729, 779, and 896 were tested on black locust, loblolly pine, red maple, sweetgum, and water oak. Screening results detected differences in herbicide and species in all experiments in much less time (days to weeks than traditional field screenings and consumed significantly less resources (<500 mg acid equivalent per herbicide per screening. Using regression analysis, various rapid screening methods were linked into a system capable of rapidly and inexpensively assessing herbicide efficacy and spectrum of activity. Implementation of such a system could streamline early-stage herbicide development leading to field trials, potentially freeing resources for use in development of beneficial new herbicide products.

  18. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  19. Development and implementation of a rapid real-time polymerase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6–10 May 2012. * To whom all correspondence should be addressed. ☎ +27 16 430-8403; fax: +27 16 455-2055; e-mail: nleat@randwater.co.za. Development and implementation of a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae in water. Neil Leat* and Monique Grundlingh.

  20. Urban area disadvantage and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: the effect of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Moradi, Tahereh

    2010-06-01

    Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.

  1. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  2. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L. [Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cubitt, Toby S. [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lucia, Angelo, E-mail: anlucia@ucm.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Michalakis, Spyridon [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, California 91125 (United States); Perez-Garcia, David [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); ICMAT, C/Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.

  3. [Large trade clusters as areas of intensified occurrences of states of rapid health worsening in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Michał; Zuzańska-Żyśko, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    In the modern world, people gather more increasingly in large clusters such as shopping centres, markets, cinema centres, operas, ferries, liners, recreation areas and resorts. Such clusters predispose to intensified occurrences of states of rapid health worsening and health hazard. The main aim is to indicate that in trade space, especially in municipal markets, states of rapid health worsening and health hazard appear, as well as to characterize the individual incidents and types of medical interventions. The empirical material originates from the sheets of records of first-aid concerning life-saving actions, the nurse work register, as well as the security agency reports. Records of first-aid of events taking place during one selected weekend day, for 6 hours of highest population density, underwent a retrospective analysis. The analysis of the material was carried out in terms of reasons of interventions, in states of rapid health worsening and health hazard, as well as the frequency of calls of medical first-aid service. During 2011, there were approximately 100 such states in the municipal markets which underwent the study. In shopping centres there were 95% of such states. In each of the three analysed areas, the internal factors responsible for rapid health worsening constitute over 60%. Among interventions caused by a disease, states related to circulatory system and nervous system occurred most frequently. Big municipal market themselves are potential areas of an increased occurrence of states of rapid health worsening and health hazard. They can be compared to religious ceremonies described in the subject bibliography. Large trade spaces, especially municipal markets in city centres, generate a high risk of occurrences of states of rapid health worsening and health hazard, in comparison to shopping malls. The risk increases with the age of customers. The incidences related to sicknesses are the majority of interventions in trade areas.

  4. Security policy development in health area

    OpenAIRE

    Grilc, Uroš

    2012-01-01

    In the following assignment, we will research the concepts of information security and information security management system in a business environment. Then we will try to develop an actual information security management system for an organization, active in healthcare area, which will be specified by restrictions, introduced by the current state legislation for the healthcare area. In the developing information security management system, we will first try to define the desired system's...

  5. Conditions of enterprise development in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Wyszkowska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the research results describing some motivating factors of enterprise development in rural areas and also the ones that limit them. The research was provided in the area of one commune of the Kujawsko-Pomorskievoivodeship. The information has been gathered from 179 businessmen in 6 countries. There was a questionnaire with closed questions used. The carried out research showed that there are chances of developing new types of activities other than those of typically rural character in the areas in focus. Owing to the conducted analysis of the data some inducement and deterrent factors appeared connected with business running in the country.

  6. Managing Risk Areas in Software Development Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2015-01-01

    Software companies are increasingly offshoring development to countries with high expertise at lower cost. Offshoring involves particular risk areas that if ignored increase the likelihood of failure. However, the offshoring client’s maturity level may influence the management of these risk areas...... of the offshoring risk areas in accordance with the findings of previous research. However, the risk area of task distribution is a notable exception. In this case, managers perceive high task uncertainty, equivocality, and coupling across sites as risk mitigation rather than risk taking. The paper discusses how....... Against this backdrop, we present an interpretive case study of how managers perceive and mitigate the risk areas in software development offshoring with a mature CMMI level 5 (Capability Maturity Model, Integrated) software company as the client. We find that managers perceive and mitigate most...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PRIEST RAPIDS TURBINE UPGRADE PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBolt, Donald; Richmond, Marshall C.; Donelson, Richard K.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly

    2015-07-14

    The Priest Rapids Dam is located on the Columbia River and is operated by Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County, WA (GCPUD). In operation since 1959, GCPUD decided that a major upgrade was necessary. As with other hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River, improving fish passage at Priest Rapids Dam is of great importance for salmon and steelhead populations in the Pacific Northwest. Consequently, GCPUD established the Priest Rapids Turbine Upgrade Project to extend the life of the units, increase efficiency and power production, and improve fish-passage. The Priest Rapids powerhouse is equipped with 10 vertical Kaplan turbines with runner diameters of 7.21 m operating under net heads varying from 18 m to 27 m. The scope of the project included a design competition involving three turbine manufacturers providing up to two designs for evaluation. Selection of the replacement design was determined by the lowest evaluated price based on model test results conducted at an independent laboratory (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne in Lausanne Switzerland) and a biological performance score determined by a newly developed Biological Performance Assessment (BioPA) performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, WA. In the paper, the hydraulic design challenges are reviewed, in addition to comparisons of designs evaluated during the competitive model test program and biological assessment. The paper also provides a description of the process followed by GCPUD, and how the evaluation criteria influenced the development and the finally selected solution.

  8. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  9. The development areas - between cohesion and disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Magdalena LUPCHIAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The current development regions are composed by counties with very different development levels, and the urban centres they include are also characterised by different polarisation abilities. Great differences persist among the Romanian development regions, created in order to mitigate the development discrepancies existing in Romania. The comparative analysis of socio-economic development, attractiveness and quality of life benchmarks, from the beginning of these territorial constructions to the current time, seeks to outline the extent to which they have led to a rebalancing or, on the contrary, to greater disparities, not only within the development areas themselves, but also at national level

  10. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brian N.; Mahaffee, Walter F.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field.

  11. Urban Area Development in Stochastic Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Mulianta; Yun Hariadi

    2004-01-01

    Urban is still an interesting topic to discuss whether in government or public studies. As economy grows in cities, many people are attracted to come to cities from villages to try their luck. In this paper, we investigated urban area development using von Thunen’s economic location theory. By using stochastic Cellular Automata which views land location as agents that will change their states in agriculture, industry, and service series, here we show how the urban areas dominated by economy, ...

  12. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  13. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nachalida Yukalang; Beverley Clarke; Kirstin Ross

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management w...

  14. Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: The Effect of Rapid Urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Antai, D.; Moradi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality). Objective: In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under-5 mortal...

  15. Rapid development of fungicide resistance by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa on turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Young-Ki; Chang, Seog Won; Boehm, Michael; Jung, Geunhwa

    2008-12-01

    Dollar spot, caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa, is the most prevalent and economically important turfgrass disease in North America. Increasing levels of fungicide resistance, coupled with tightening environmental scrutiny of existing fungicides, has left fewer options for managing dollar spot. More knowledge about S. homoeocarpa populations is needed to improve dollar spot management strategies, especially with respect to minimizing the development of fungicide resistance. Population diversity of S. homoeocarpa was examined using inter-simple sequence repeat markers and vegetative compatibility assays. Two subgroups were found in S. homoeocarpa field populations on both fairway and putting green turfgrass at a research field in Wisconsin. These subgroups were genetically different, vegetatively incompatible, and had different fungicide sensitivities. The frequency of the two genetic subgroups differed significantly between the fairway and putting green, but was uniform within the fairway or within the green. Population dynamics of S. homoeocarpa in response to two systemic fungicides (thiophanate-methyl and propiconazole) were assessed based on in vitro fungicide sensitivity. Dynamics of S. homoeocarpa populations depended on the presence of fungicide-resistant isolates in the initial populations before fungicide applications and changed rapidly after fungicide applications. Shifting of the population toward propiconazole resistance was gradual, whereas thiophanate-methyl resistance developed rapidly in the population. In conclusion, field populations of S. homoeocarpa containing genetically distinct, vegetatively incompatible groups were different on turfgrass that was managed differently, and they were changed rapidly after exposure to fungicides.

  16. Modeling of subglacial hydrological development following rapid supraglacial lake drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. F.; Kulessa, B.; Rutt, I. C.; Tsai, V. C.; Pimentel, S.; Doyle, S. H.; van As, D.; Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Jones, G. A.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-06-01

    The rapid drainage of supraglacial lakes injects substantial volumes of water to the bed of the Greenland ice sheet over short timescales. The effect of these water pulses on the development of basal hydrological systems is largely unknown. To address this, we develop a lake drainage model incorporating both (1) a subglacial radial flux element driven by elastic hydraulic jacking and (2) downstream drainage through a linked channelized and distributed system. Here we present the model and examine whether substantial, efficient subglacial channels can form during or following lake drainage events and their effect on the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system. We force the model with field data from a lake drainage site, 70 km from the terminus of Russell Glacier in West Greenland. The model outputs suggest that efficient subglacial channels do not readily form in the vicinity of the lake during rapid drainage and instead water is evacuated primarily by a transient turbulent sheet and the distributed system. Following lake drainage, channels grow but are not large enough to reduce the water pressure in the surrounding distributed system, unless preexisting channels are present throughout the domain. Our results have implications for the analysis of subglacial hydrological systems in regions where rapid lake drainage provides the primary mechanism for surface-to-bed connections.

  17. Simulated field trip on ski area development

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Lindsay; Hubertus J. Mittmann

    1979-01-01

    Not too long ago winter sports facilities were small and simple. As more people participated in winter sports and technology advanced, the impact on the land in-creased not only from the standpoint of actual facilities needed for winter recreation but also from associated facilities. In many instances winter sports areas developed into full fledged tourist oriented...

  18. Lake Holloman Recreational Area Development Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    1-4 1.4 Summary of Key Environmental Requirements ......................................................1-5 1.4.1 National...and Need for Development of Holloman Lake Recreational Area 1.4 Summary of Key Environmental Requirements 1.4.1 National Environmental Policy Act...Sylvilagus audubonii), kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys spp.), White sands woodrat (Neotomamicropus leaucophaea), house mouse (Mus musculus), long-tailed

  19. Lung Cancer in a Rural Area of China: Rapid Rise in Incidence and Poor Improvement in Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Ding, Lu-Lu; Kensler, Thomas W; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a major health problem in developed countries for several decades, and has emerged recently as the leading cause of cancer death in many developing countries. The incidence of lung cancer appears to be increasing more rapidly in rural than in urban areas of China. This paper presents the trends of lung cancer incidence and survival derived from a 40-year population-based cancer monitoring program in a rural area, Qidong, China. The Qidong cancer registration data of 1972- 2011 were used to calculate the crude rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR), birth cohort rates, and other descriptive features. Active and passive methods were used to construct the data set, with a deadline of the latest follow-up of April 30, 2012. The total number of lung cancer cases was 15,340, accounting for 16.5% of all sites combined. The crude incidence rate, CASR and WASR of this cancer were 34.1, 15.7 and 25.4 per 100,000, respectively. Males had higher crude rates than females (49.7 vs 19.0). Rapidly increasing trends were found in annual percent change resulting in lung cancer being a number one cancer site after year 2010 in Qidong. Birth cohort analysis showed incidence rates have increased for all age groups over 24 years old. The 5 year observed survival rates were 3.55% in 1973-1977, 3.92 in 1983-1987, 3.69% in 1993-1997, and 6.32% in 2003-2007. Males experienced poorer survival than did females. Lung cancer has become a major cancer-related health problem in this rural area. The rapid increases in incidence likely result from an increased cigarette smoking rate and evolving environmental risk factors. Lung cancer survival, while showing some improvement in prognosis, still remains well below that observed in the developed areas of the world.

  20. Potentials of development in protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Tiran

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expose the ways of recognizing potentials for development in the following selected protected areas: Triglav National Park (TNP, Goričko Landscape Park (KPG and Logarska dolina Landscape Park (KPLD. Basing our results on a survey, which was carried out among locals and tourists, we found out that the ways in which people see potentials for development differ. On the basis of their answers and our analysis of the actual state we established certain potentials for development, which are in compliance with the following principles: they result from the local sources, are in compliance with the applicable legislation and are sustainable.

  1. Rapidly developing iatrogenic hyponatremia in a child following tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Umit; Binay, Omer; Binay, Cigdem; Yigit, Ozgur

    2012-11-01

    Hyponatremia develops as a result of the inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. In rare cases, it develops as an iatrogenic complication. For example, acute iatrogenic post-tonsillectomy hyponatremia has been described in children following the infusion of hypo- or isotonic fluid. We report a case of rapidly developing post-tonsillectomy iatrogenic hyponatremia in a 5-year-old girl following an excessive infusion of hypotonic fluid. Her signs and symptoms began with nausea and vomiting and progressed to seizures and coma. We corrected the electrolyte disturbance by infusing a 3% sodium chloride solution until her neurologic manifestations disappeared, at which time her serum sodium concentration had risen back to 135 mEq/L. Otolaryngologists are not generally exposed to much information about hyponatremia, so we must be aware of its associated neurologic signs and symptoms.

  2. Rapid fabrication of large-area, corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic Mg alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenji; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Lu, Yao; Yu, Ziyuan

    2011-11-01

    A superhydrophobic magnesium (Mg) alloy surface was successfully fabricated via a facile electrochemical machining process, and subsequently covered with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results show hierarchal rough structures and an FAS film with a low surface energy on the Mg alloy surfaces, which confers good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165.2° and a water tilting angle of approximately 2°. The processing conditions, such as the processing time and removal rate per unit area at a constant removal mass per unit area, were investigated to determine their effects on the superhydrophobicity. Interestingly, when the removal mass per unit area is constant at approximately 11.10 mg/cm(2), the superhydrophobicity does not change with the removal rate per unit area. Therefore, a superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface can be rapidly fabricated based on this property. A large-area superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface was also fabricated for the first time using a small-area moving cathode. The corrosion resistance and durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined.

  3. WRAP process area development control work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leist, K.L., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-27

    This work plan defines the manner in which the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module I Process Area will be maintained under development control status. This status permits resolution of identified design discrepancies, control system changes, as-building of equipment, and perform modifications to increase process operability and maintainability as parallel efforts. This work plan maintains configuration control as these efforts are undertaken. This task will end with system testing and reissue of field verified design drawings.

  4. MANAGING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERI-URBAN AREAS OF KUMASI, GHANA: A CASE OF ABUAKWA

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Amoateng; Patrick B. Cobbinah; Kwasi Owusu-Adade

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable trait of the 21 st century has been the high rate of urbanization which has characterized the growth and development of cities especially in developing countries. This situation has fuelled rapid physical development and expansion of peri-urban areas as urban dwellers relocate to cities’ peripheries. Focusing on Abuakwa a peri-urban area in Kumasi, the second largest city in Ghana, this paper assesses the nature and extent of physical development in peri-urban areas, and identifi...

  5. Macro Study of Spatial Development Area on Tourism Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widhianthini Widhianthini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macro study is one approach that combines the rational method based on the results of previous studies by the authority with the empirical method utilizing the survey techniques. The purpose of this macro study is to identify and analyze the potentials, problems, and the limiting factors, and the needs of the regency; and to recommend the programs and models required by the community to achieve the sustainable development. This research uses the Participatory Rural Appraisal method, the  interview techniques (Semi Structured Interview, the technique of focused group discussion (FGD, the Rapid District Appraisal (RDA, then it is analyzed by the empirical and dynamical systems. The overview of macro studies is particularly relevant in developing the regions, especially the rural areas, based on the existing advantages, such as in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency is a granary in Bali Province and the zoning of agricultural commodities in quadrant III,which is the rural farming area with combined functions between the cultivated and rural areas supported by the tourism department. The studies of the areas in the form of potential analysis, problem analysis, requirement analysis become the guidelines for preparing the development scenarios and program formats. The studies will then constitute the factors driving the realization of sustainable development of tourism villages in supporting the sustainable agriculture.

  6. Development of Nylon Based FDM Filament for Rapid Tooling Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Singh, S.

    2014-04-01

    There has been critical need for development of cost effective nylon based wire to be used as feed stock filament for fused deposition modelling (FDM) machine. But hitherto, very less work has been reported for development of alternate solution of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) based wire which is presently used in most of FDM machines. The present research work is focused on development of nylon based wire as an alternative of ABS wire (which is to be used as feedstock filament on FDM) without changing any hardware or software of machine. For the present study aluminium oxide (Al2O3) as additive in different proportion has been used with nylon fibre. Single screw extruder was used for wire preparation and wire thus produced was tested on FDM. Mechanical properties i.e. tensile strength and percentage elongation of finally developed wire have been optimized by Taguchi L9 technique. The work represented major development in reducing cost and time in rapid tooling applications.

  7. Microstructural development of rapid solidification in Al-Si powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Feng [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-09-26

    The microstructure and the gradient of microstructure that forms in rapidly solidificated powder were investigated for different sized particles. High pressure gas atomization solidification process has been used to produce a series of Al-Si alloys powders between 0.2 μm to 150 μm diameter at the eutectic composition (12.6 wt pct Si). This processing technique provides powders of different sizes which solidify under different conditions (i.e. interface velocity and interface undercooling), and thus give different microstructures inside the powders. The large size powder shows dendritic and eutectic microstructures. As the powder size becomes smaller, the predominant morphology changes from eutectic to dendritic to cellular. Microstructures were quantitatively characterized by using optical microscope and SEM techniques. The variation in eutectic spacing within the powders were measured and compared with the theoretical model to obtain interface undercooling, and growth rate during the solidification of a given droplet. Also, nucleation temperature, which controls microstructures in rapidly solidified fine powders, was estimated. A microstructural map which correlates the microstructure with particle size and processing parameters is developed.

  8. Microstructural Development in Al-Si Powder During Rapid Solidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genau, Amber Lynn [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Powder metallurgy has become an increasingly important form of metal processing because of its ability to produce materials with superior mechanical properties. These properties are due in part to the unique and often desirable microstructures which arise as a result of the extreme levels of undercooling achieved, especially in the finest size powder, and the subsequent rapid solidification which occurs. A better understanding of the fundamental processes of nucleation and growth is required to further exploit the potential of rapid solidification processing. Aluminum-silicon, an alloy of significant industrial importance, was chosen as a model for simple eutectic systems displaying an unfaceted/faceted interface and skewed coupled eutectic growth zone, Al-Si powder produced by high pressure gas atomization was studied to determine the relationship between microstructure and alloy composition as a function of powder size and atomization gas. Critical experimental measurements of hypereutectic (Si-rich) compositions were used to determine undercooling and interface velocity, based on the theoretical models which are available. Solidification conditions were analyzed as a function of particle diameter and distance from nucleation site. A revised microstructural map is proposed which allows the prediction of particle morphology based on temperature and composition. It is hoped that this work, by providing enhanced understanding of the processes which govern the development of the solidification morphology of gas atomized powder, will eventually allow for better control of processing conditions so that particle microstructures can be optimized for specific applications.

  9. Rapid Development of Bespoke Unmanned Platforms for Atmospheric Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobester, A.; Johnston, S. J.; Scanlan, J. P.; Hart, E. E.; O'Brien, N. S.

    2012-04-01

    The effective deployment of airborne atmospheric science instruments often hinges on the development cycle time of a suitable platform, one that is capable of delivering them to the desired altitude range for a specified amount of time, along a pre-determined trajectory. This could be driven by the need to respond rapidly to sudden, unexpected events (e.g., volcano eruptions, nuclear fallout, etc.) or simply to accommodate the iterative design and flight test cycle of the instrument developer. A shorter development cycle time would also afford us the ability to quickly adapt the hardware and control logic in response to unexpected results during an experimental campaign. We report on recent developments aimed at meeting this demand. As part of the Atmospheric Science Through Robotic Aircraft (ASTRA) initiative we have investigated the use of rapid prototyping technologies to this end, both on the 'airframe' of the platform itself and on the on-board systems. We show how fast multi-disciplinary design optimization techniques, coupled with computer-controlled additive manufacturing (3D printing) and laser cutting methods and electronic prototyping (using standard, modular, programmable building blocks) can lead to the delivery of a fully customized platform integrating a given instrument in a timescale of the order of ten days. Specific examples include the design and testing of a balloon-launched glider sensorcraft and a stratospheric balloon system. The 'vehicle' for the latter was built on a 3D printer using a copolymer thermoplastic material and fitted with a sacrificial protective 'cage' laser-cut from an open-cell foam. The data logging, tracking, sensor integration and communications services of the platform were constructed using the .net Gadgeteer open source hardware kit. The flight planning and eventual post-flight recovery of the system is enabled by a generic, stochastic trajectory simulation tool, also developed as part of the ASTRA initiative. This

  10. [Child development in poor areas of Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Adrián Alberto; Gallestey, Jorge Bacallao; Vargas-Machuca, Rocío; Velarde, Roxana Aguilar

    2017-06-08

    The objective of the study was to demonstrate the influence of several socioeconomic factors on the motor and language development of children under 5 from the baseline study conducted within the framework of the Joint Program for Children, Food Security, and Nutrition, implemented by five United Nations agencies across 65 districts in the departments of Loreto, Ayacucho, Huancavelica, and Apurímac, Peru. Dichotomous logistic regression models were used to estimate the likelihood of achievement of motor and language milestones, while polynomial regression models were used to estimate the last milestone achieved and the number of milestones achieved. The study analyzes the influence that maternal education, urban vs. rural housing, and unmet basic needs have on the difference between actual results and expected results for age was analyzed. Children living in rural areas, those whose mothers had low educational attainment, and those from households with unmet basic needs exhibited poorer outcomes in the two areas of development assessed. As the number of risk factors increased, so did the developmental delay. Evaluation of child development and follow-up of families during the child-rearing process should be prioritized by health systems and social programs. The instruments used were sensitive to three criteria for validation.

  11. Improved rapid prototyping methodology for MPEG-4 IC development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Clive K. K.; Moseler, Kathy; Levi, Sami

    1998-12-01

    One important factor in deciding the success of a new consumer product or integrated circuit is minimized time-to- market. A rapid prototyping methodology that encompasses algorithm development in the hardware design phase will have great impact on reducing time-to-market. In this paper, a proven hardware design methodology and a novel top-down design methodology based on Frontier Design's DSP Station tool are described. The proven methodology was used during development of the MC149570 H.261/H.263 video codec manufactured by Motorola. This paper discusses an improvement to this method to create an integrated environment for both system and hardware development, thereby further reducing the time-to-market. The software tool chosen is DSP Station tool by Frontier Design. The rich features of DSP Station tool will be described and then it will be shown how these features may be useful in designing from algorithm to silicon. How this methodology may be used in the development of a new MPEG4 Video Communication ASIC will be outlined. A brief comparison with a popular tool, Signal Processing WorkSystem tool by Cadence, will also be given.

  12. Rapid Response Risk Assessment in New Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Robert R.

    2010-01-01

    A capability for rapidly performing quantitative risk assessments has been developed by JSC Safety and Mission Assurance for use on project design trade studies early in the project life cycle, i.e., concept development through preliminary design phases. A risk assessment tool set has been developed consisting of interactive and integrated software modules that allow a user/project designer to assess the impact of alternative design or programmatic options on the probability of mission success or other risk metrics. The risk and design trade space includes interactive options for selecting parameters and/or metrics for numerous design characteristics including component reliability characteristics, functional redundancy levels, item or system technology readiness levels, and mission event characteristics. This capability is intended for use on any project or system development with a defined mission, and an example project will used for demonstration and descriptive purposes, e.g., landing a robot on the moon. The effects of various alternative design considerations and their impact of these decisions on mission success (or failure) can be measured in real time on a personal computer. This capability provides a high degree of efficiency for quickly providing information in NASA s evolving risk-based decision environment

  13. Rapid Application Development with OpenStudio: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, E.; Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Schott, M.; Benne, K.; Hale, E.

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents several case studies of rapidly implemented, audience-specific applications for whole building energy modeling and standards analysis. By tailoring each application to the audience and the task at hand, the required learning curve for new users was greatly reduced. Each case study used OpenStudio, the U.S. Department of Energy's middleware software development kit (SDK). OpenStudio provides an easy interface to the EnergyPlus whole building simulation engine, while extending its capability and providing higher-level functionality such as software interoperability, standards, analysis, and optimization. Each case study is unique in the technology employed to interface with OpenStudio as well as the methods used for user interaction and data presentation. Four case studies are presented.

  14. Polygenic Risk, Rapid Childhood Growth, and the Development of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Houts, Renate; Bennett, Gary G.; Biddle, Andrea K.; Blumenthal, James A.; Evans, James P.; Harrington, HonaLee; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test how genomic loci identified in genome-wide association studies influence the development of obesity. Design A 38-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants One thousand thirty-seven male and female study members. Main Exposures We assessed genetic risk with a multilocus genetic risk score. The genetic risk score was composed of single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies of obesity-related phenotypes. We assessed family history from parent body mass index data collected when study members were 11 years of age. Main Outcome Measures Body mass index growth curves, developmental phenotypes of obesity, and adult obesity outcomes were defined from anthropometric assessments at birth and at 12 subsequent in-person interviews through 38 years of age. Results Individuals with higher genetic risk scores were more likely to be chronically obese in adulthood. Genetic risk first manifested as rapid growth during early childhood. Genetic risk was unrelated to birth weight. After birth, children at higher genetic risk gained weight more rapidly and reached adiposity rebound earlier and at a higher body mass index. In turn, these developmental phenotypes predicted adult obesity, mediating about half the genetic effect on adult obesity risk. Genetic associations with growth and obesity risk were independent of family history, indicating that the genetic risk score could provide novel information to clinicians. Conclusions Genetic variation linked with obesity risk operates, in part, through accelerating growth in the early childhood years after birth. Etiological research and prevention strategies should target early childhood to address the obesity epidemic. PMID:22665028

  15. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas. PMID:28869572

  16. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachalida Yukalang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  17. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-09-04

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  18. Navigating sticky areas in transdermal product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasinger, Caroline; Raney, Sam G; Tran, Doanh C; Ghosh, Priyanka; Newman, Bryan; Bashaw, Edward D; Ghosh, Tapash; Shukla, Chinmay G

    2016-07-10

    The benefits of transdermal delivery over the oral route to combat such issues of low bioavailability and limited controlled release opportunities are well known and have been previously discussed by many in the field (Prausnitz et al. (2004) [1]; Hadgraft and Lane (2006) [2]). However, significant challenges faced by developers as a product moves from the purely theoretical to commercial production have hampered full capitalization of the dosage forms vast benefits. While different technical aspects of transdermal system development have been discussed at various industry meetings and scientific workshops, uncertainties have persisted regarding the pharmaceutical industry's conventionally accepted approach for the development and manufacturing of transdermal systems. This review provides an overview of the challenges frequently faced and the industry's best practices for assuring the quality and performance of transdermal delivery systems and topical patches (collectively, TDS). The topics discussed are broadly divided into the evaluation of product quality and the evaluation of product performance; with the overall goal of the discussion to improve, advance and accelerate commercial development in the area of this complex controlled release dosage form. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF ORADEA - DEVELOPMENT DIRECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Metropolitan Area of Oradea has certain directions of development settled in accordance with the objectives of development assumed by The Local Council of Oradea on 10 March 2015 once with the approval of the strategy for development of Oradea Municipality for the period 2016 – 2020. It is very important for for the Municipality of Oradea to become, by quantifiable arguments in a relatively short period of time a real competitor of the great cities surrounding it or of Timişoara, Cluj-Napoca, Arad and Debrecen. Domains, in which Oradea can excel as a clear differentiator in front of its competitor, are closely related to the local traditional specific and resources. Thus, Oradea proposed to be the capital of Art Nouveau and thermal-ism. The fulfilment of this goal would definitely bring more tourists and obviously additional financial resources to the local budget. At this moment, OMA is prepared in what concerns the hotelier infrastructure and utilities for taking the new tourists. In addition, another important objective regarded at macro level for the entire OMA is the assurance of a security comfort for the citizens of the Municipality of Oradea and implicitly of the neighbouring villages. One of the objectives – Oradea, the safest city – is closely linked to another one which represents the follow-up of some successful beginnings in 2012 with the award Oradea – the green city. In the following period an increase of the surfaces covered with green spaces and recreational areas is being planned for the optimum comfort of the inhabitants and tourists of the OMA. The three main objectives mentioned above must be added to the imperative need of completing the necessary investments for the increase of the quality of life. The infrastructure for the assurance of the quality of health and education is reflected by the completed HURO programme accessed by the executive of OMA.

  20. Cerebellum of the Premature Infant: Rapidly Developing, Vulnerable, Clinically Important

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Joseph J.

    2009-01-01

    Brain abnormality in surviving premature infants is associated with an enormous amount of neurodevelopmental disability, manifested principally by cognitive, behavioral, attentional, and socialization deficits, most commonly with only relatively modest motor deficits. The most recognized contributing neuropathology is cerebral white matter injury. The thesis of this review is that acquired cerebellar abnormality is a relatively less recognized but likely important cause of neurodevelopmental disability in small premature infants. The cerebellar disease may be primarily destructive (eg, hemorrhage, infarction) or primarily underdevelopment. The latter appears to be especially common and relates to a particular vulnerability of the cerebellum of the small premature infant. Central to this vulnerability are the extraordinarily rapid and complex developmental events occurring in the cerebellum. The disturbance of development can be caused either by direct adverse effects on the cerebellum, especially the distinctive transient external granular layer, or by indirect remote trans-synaptic effects. This review describes the fascinating details of cerebellar development, with an emphasis on events in the premature period, the major types of cerebellar abnormality acquired during the premature period, their likely mechanisms of occurrence, and new insights into the relation of cerebellar disease in early life to subsequent cognitive/behavioral/attentional/socialization deficits. PMID:19745085

  1. RAPIDE 0.0 RHIC Accelerator Physics Intrepid Development Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Saltmarsh, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-08-01

    This document is a guide to the common environmental features of computing in (and around) the RHIC Accelerator Physics.sectio on the 'zoo' cluster of UNJX workstations, in RAPIDE, the RHIC Accelerator Physics Intrepid Development Environment It is hoped tliat later revisions of this document will approach a more professional 'style guide', beyond the convenient collection of pointers and hints presented here. RAP does two kinds of computing, "controls" and "general", addressed in sections 2 and 3 of this document For general computing, efficient system administration requires cooperation in using a common environment There is a much stronger need to define - and adhere to - a commonly agreed set of styles (or rules) in developing controls software. Right now, these rules have been set "de facto". Future improvements to the controls environment, particularly in response to the opinions of users, depends on broad knowledge of what the rules are. There are environmental issues that are basic to both controls and general computing, and that are so fundamental that they are (almost) unarguable. They are described immediately below, in the next section.

  2. Aniline Is Rapidly Converted Into Paracetamol Impairing Male Reproductive Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Chalmey, Clementine; Modick, Hendrik; Jensen, Lars Skovgaard; Dierkes, Georg; Weiss, Tobias; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech; Nørregård, Mette Marie; Borkowski, Kamil; Styrishave, Bjarne; Martin Koch, Holger; Mazaud-Guittot, Severine; Jegou, Bernard; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kristensen, David Møbjerg

    2015-11-01

    Industrial use of aniline is increasing worldwide with production estimated to surpass 5.6 million metric tons in 2016. Exposure to aniline occurs via air, diet, and water augmenting the risk of exposing a large number of individuals. Early observations suggest that aniline is metabolized to paracetamol/acetaminophen, likely explaining the omnipresence of low concentrations of paracetamol in European populations. This is of concern as recent studies implicate paracetamol as a disrupter of reproduction. Here, we show through steroidogenic profiling that exposure to aniline led to increased levels of the Δ4 steroids, suggesting that the activity of CYP21 was decreased. By contrast, paracetamol decreased levels of androgens likely through inhibition of CYP17A1 activity. We confirm that aniline in vivo is rapidly converted to paracetamol by the liver. Intrauterine exposure to aniline and paracetamol in environmental and pharmaceutical relevant doses resulted in shortening of the anogenital distance in mice, a sensitive marker of fetal androgen levels that in humans is associated with reproductive malformations and later life reproductive disorders. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a scenario where aniline, through its conversion into antiandrogenic paracetamol, impairs male reproductive development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Development of Multiple Big Data Analytics Platforms with Rapid Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Rong Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The crucial problem of the integration of multiple platforms is how to adapt for their own computing features so as to execute the assignments most efficiently and gain the best outcome. This paper introduced the new approaches to big data platform, RHhadoop and SparkR, and integrated them to form a high-performance big data analytics with multiple platforms as part of business intelligence (BI to carry out rapid data retrieval and analytics with R programming. This paper aims to develop the optimization for job scheduling using MSHEFT algorithm and implement the optimized platform selection based on computing features for improving the system throughput significantly. In addition, users would simply give R commands rather than run Java or Scala program to perform the data retrieval and analytics in the proposed platforms. As a result, according to performance index calculated for various methods, although the optimized platform selection can reduce the execution time for the data retrieval and analytics significantly, furthermore scheduling optimization definitely increases the system efficiency a lot.

  4. Drosophila provides rapid modeling of renal development, function, and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of specialized excretory cells is a cornerstone of the metazoan radiation, and the basic tasks performed by Drosophila and human renal systems are similar. The development of the Drosophila renal (Malpighian) tubule is a classic example of branched tubular morphogenesis, allowing study of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transitions, stem cell-mediated regeneration, and the evolution of a glomerular kidney. Tubule function employs conserved transport proteins, such as the Na+, K+-ATPase and V-ATPase, aquaporins, inward rectifier K+ channels, and organic solute transporters, regulated by cAMP, cGMP, nitric oxide, and calcium. In addition to generation and selective reabsorption of primary urine, the tubule plays roles in metabolism and excretion of xenobiotics, and in innate immunity. The gene expression resource FlyAtlas.org shows that the tubule is an ideal tissue for the modeling of renal diseases, such as nephrolithiasis and Bartter syndrome, or for inborn errors of metabolism. Studies are assisted by uniquely powerful genetic and transgenic resources, the widespread availability of mutant stocks, and low-cost, rapid deployment of new transgenics to allow manipulation of renal function in an organotypic context. PMID:20926630

  5. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Utility and Usability of the Rapid Assessment of Hospital Procurement Barriers in Donation (RAPiD) as a Tool for OPO Hospital Development Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alolod, Gerard P; Traino, Heather M; Siminoff, Laura A

    2016-09-01

    Few systematic assessment tools are available to organ procurement organizations (OPOs) for evaluating donation climates of hospitals in their donation service areas (DSAs). The Rapid Assessment of hospital Procurement barriers in Donation (RAPiD) was developed for OPO hospital development staff to assess the organ donation climate of hospitals. To implement a national test of the RAPiD to examine its efficacy and usability by OPO hospital development staff. Two-arm randomized design, comparing implementation of RAPiD protocol between qualitatively trained researchers (n = 7) and OPO hospital development staff (n = 24); all evaluators received the same training assessments of high-yield hospitals. A total of 77 hospitals in DSAs of 8 OPOs. A total of 2552 health-care providers (HCPs) in high organ donor potential units. Twenty-four donation-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors. More HCPs interviewed in the autonomous condition were positive toward the concept of organ donation. However, HCPs in the assisted condition were more candid about and critical of the OPO. As for knowledge, fewer HCPs in the autonomous condition reported familiarity with the donation process, need for donors, and generally accepted timely referral criteria. With respect to behaviors, more respondents in the autonomous condition reported frequent or occasional contact with the OPO and routine or occasional referral criteria use. Due to issues of bias, inadequate research experience, conflicts of interest, and ongoing OPO hospital development initiatives, the RAPiD's usability by OPO-based hospital development staff is questionable and not recommended in its current form. A next generation of the RAPiD is described for future consideration. © 2016, NATCO.

  7. Director of Program Area | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary The Director of a Program Area is accountable to the Vice President of the Program and Partnership Branch for providing strategic intelligence, intellectual leadership and the overall management of the Program Areas personnel (20-35 staff per Program Area).

  8. Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Campbell, Colin; Papale, William; Hawes, Kevin; Wichowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) 3.0 system is currently under development by NASA, the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) in conjunction with United Technologies Corporation Aerospace Systems (UTAS). The RCA technology is a new carbon dioxide (CO2) and humidity removal system that has been baselined for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System. The evolution of the RCA development has progressed through several iterations of technology readiness levels including RCA 1.0, RCA 2.0, and RCA 3.0 test articles. The RCA is an advancement over currently technologies due to its unique regeneration capability. The RCA is capable of simultaneously removing CO2 and humidity from an influent air steam and subsequent regeneration when exposed to a vacuum source. The RCA technology uses two solid amine sorbent beds in an alternating fashion to adsorb CO2 and water (uptake mode) and desorb CO2 and water (regeneration mode) at the same time. The two beds operate in an efficient manner so that while one bed is in the uptake mode, the other is in the regeneration mode, thus continuously providing an on-service sorbent bed by which CO2 and humidity may be removed. The RCA 2.0 and 3.0 test articles were designed with a novel valve assembly which allows for switching between uptake and regeneration modes with only one moving part while minimizing gas volume losses to the vacuum source by means of an internal pressure equalization step during actuation. The RCA technology also is low power, small, and has performed extremely well in all development testing thus far. A final design was selected for the RCA 3.0, fabricated, assembled, and performance tested in 2014 with delivery to NASAJSC in January 2015. This paper will provide an overview on the RCA 3.0 system design and results of pre-delivery testing with references to the development of RCA 1.0 and RCA 2.0.

  9. [Rapidly developing vertebral eosinophilic granuloma. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laburthe-Tolra, Y; Boutillier, J B; Chome, J

    1983-04-01

    Radiographs taken at an interval of one week showed collapse of the twelfth dorsal vertebra, very suggestive of an eosinophilic granuloma. A biopsy performed during surgery, because of the rapid progression of the lesion, was able to confirm the diagnosis.

  10. Particulate Matter Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Train Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, L.; Macias, S.; Romero, N.; Lockett, N.; Polar, J.; Madrigal, C.; Lopez, F.; Sanchez, R.; Webster, D.; Torio, M.; Rios, V.; Marks-Block, T.; Toli, F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a general effort to assess air quality in different regions of the San Francisco Bay Area, we collected Particulate Matter (PM) data within passenger train cars along multiple commuter train lines simultaneously during the summer and fall of 2012. We visited numerous Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system stations, including those along the Fremont, Pittsburg and SF/Daly City lines. In conducting this study we used a Dustrak 8530 aerosol sensor equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to measure PM size 2.5 μm concentrations every second. Of all the BART stations we visited, average PM concentration levels at the Embarcadero station in San Francisco were the highest during multiple visits, with a value of 104.95 μg/m3. We also noted that high levels of PM 2.5 were released when the cloth seats on the trains were struck, which resulted in significant, temporary increases of hazardous PM levels of up to 3000 μg/m3! Embarcadero station's high PM concentration correlates to past research in other underground train stations throughout the world, where PM produced through the abrasive interaction of train wheels and tracks or brake pads becomes trapped. Compared to levels measured at outdoor stations (average of 8.52μg/m3) and other underground stations, levels detected at the Embarcadero station are particularly alarming. We believe this is due to the fact that this station is located at one end of a long, underground and underwater transbay tunnel that connects the East San Francisco Bay area to San Francisco to the west. To reduce PM exposure risk to BART employees and passengers, we suggest increasing and/or installing filtration and ventilation systems, which should substantially reduce PM concentrations at Embarcadero station.

  11. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  12. Rapid large- and site scale RPAS mission planning for remote sensing of rock falls and landslides in alpine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräupl, Thomas; Pschernig, Elias; Rokitansky, Carl-Herbert; Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Zobl, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Since landslides and rock falls are complex phenomena involving a multitude of factors, current and historic surface data play besides geologic conditions and others an important role in analyzing hazard situation and efficient site-specific remediation actions. Especially in displacement acceleration phases which are frequently linked to bad weather conditions, data acquisition remains difficult. Therefore RPAS with their small ground sampling distance and correspondingly high resolution open up possibilities for surveying ground situations not only for visual inspection but also for geodetic data acquisition. Both, visual and geodetic data provide valuable information for geologists and related decision makers. Slides or rock falls in alpine areas pose special challenges due to mostly acute and unforeseen displacements on the one hand and geographic conditions of narrow valleys along with steep slopes on the other hand. Rapid RPAS mission planning and mission adaption for individual requirements according to different project stages (initial investigation, repeat measurements, identification of hazard zones for urgent remediation actions, etc.) is therefore of particular importance. Here we present a computer-simulation supported approach to RPAS mission planning taking the identified thematic and remote sensing targets, the relevant terrain and obstacle databases, legal restrictions, aircraft performance, sensor characteristics, and communication ranges into account in order to produce a safe and mission-optimized flight route. For the RPAS mission planning, we combine and adapt tools developed at University of Salzburg, namely a flight track generator taking into account a 3D-model of the earth surface with both, focus on large area coverage (e.g. Austria) and the highest available resolution (e.g. sub-meter for specific areas), available obstacle data bases for the mission area (e.g. cable car lines, power lines, buildings, slope stabilization constructions

  13. Rapid gas development in the Fayetteville shale basin, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in drilling and extraction of natural gas have resulted in rapid expansion of wells in shale basins. The rate of gas well installation in the Fayetteville shale is 774 wells a year since 2005 with thousands more planned. The Fayetteville shale covers 23,000 km2 although ...

  14. Development of a potential lignocellulolytic resource for rapid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Crops and Floriculture, Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia to characterize the potential lignocellulolytic bacteria for rapid bio-bioconversion of rice straw. Fifty isolates of bacteria were isolated from several in-situ and in-vitro sources. Isolates B3, B13 ...

  15. Developing Collective Learning Extension for Rapidly Evolving Information System Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Nitin; Ahmed, Faysal

    2017-01-01

    Due to rapidly evolving Information System (IS) technologies, instructors find themselves stuck in the constant game of catching up. On the same hand students find their skills obsolete almost as soon as they graduate. As part of IS curriculum and education, we need to emphasize more on teaching the students "how to learn" while keeping…

  16. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology ...

  17. Large area super-resolution chemical imaging via rapid dithering of a nanoprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languirand, Eric R.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2015-05-01

    Super-resolution chemical imaging via Raman spectroscopy provides a significant ability to simultaneously or pseudosimultaneously monitor numerous label-free analytes while elucidating their spatial distribution on the surface of the sample. However, spontaneous Raman is an inherently weak phenomenon making trace detection and thus superresolution imaging extremely difficult, if not impossible. To circumvent this and allow for trace detection of the few chemical species present in any sub-diffraction limited resolution element of an image, we have developed a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coherent fiber-optic imaging bundle probe consisting of 30,000 individual fiber elements. When the probes are tapered, etched and coated with metal, they provide circular Raman chemical images of a sample with a field of view of approximately 20μm (i.e. diameter) via the array of 30,000 individual 50 nm fiber elements. An acousto-optic tunable filter is used to rapidly scan or select discrete frequencies for multi- or hyperspectral analysis. Although the 50nm fiber element dimensions of this probe inherently provide spatial resolutions of approximately 100nm, further increases in the spatial resolution can be achieved by using a rapid dithering process. Using this process, additional images are obtained one-half fiber diameter translations in the x- and y- planes. A piezostage drives the movement, providing the accurate and reproducible shifts required for dithering. Optimal probability algorithms are then used to deconvolute the related images producing a final image with a three-fold increase in spatial resolution. This paper describes super-resolution chemical imaging using these probes and the dithering method as well as its potential applications in label-free imaging of lipid rafts and other applications within biology and forensics.

  18. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p < 0.001). Presence and/or absence of certain species such as Dormitor gobiomorus, Rhamdia nicaraguensis, Parachromis loiseillei and Atractosteus tropicus explained most of the spatial variation among sites. Habitat structure also contributed to explain differences among sites (lamda = 0.004, F(60.183) = 5.52, p < 0.001). Substratum (soft and hard bottom types) and habitat attributes (elevation, width and depth) explained most of the variability observed in Infiernillo River, Caño Crucitas and Tamagá Creek. In addition, a significant association between fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific

  19. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  20. Pools and rapids as spawning and nursery areas for fish in a river stretch without floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine de Ávila-Simas

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of two environments situated in the main channel of the Peixe River (a tributary of the upper Uruguay River on fish reproduction and initial growth. Ichthyoplankton, macrozooplankton, and zoobenthos collections were taken on a monthly basis from October 2011 to March 2012, sampling a rapids and a pool environment. The instrument used for the capture of the ichthyoplankton in both environments was a light trap. In total, 795 eggs and 274 larvae were captured. The species that presented higher abundance and occurrence frequency out of the total captured in both environments were Leporinus obtusidens, Bryconamericus iheringii, and Bryconamericus stramineus. The evaluation of the feeding activity reveals a major repletion degree of the larvae in more advanced stages in the pool. The pool environment presented a higher abundance of larvae in more advanced development stages. We conclude that the channel of the Peixe River is important for the reproduction and initial growth of fish and that each river environment seems to fulfill a different role in the life cycle of the ichthyoplankton community.

  1. Developing a Rapid Algorithm to Enable Rapid Characterization of Alginate Microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Ka Hei; Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.

    2017-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β-cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a life-long condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a su...

  2. Peculiar features of boron distribution in high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant nickel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulga, A. V., E-mail: avshulga@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    This article comprises the results of comprehensive study of the structure and distribution in the high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant superalloy of grade EP741NP after tensile tests. The structure and boron distribution in the fracture area are studied in detail by means of direct track autoradiography in combination with metallography of macro- and microstructure. A rather extensive region of microcracks generation and intensive boron redistribution is detected in the high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched nickel superalloy of grade EP741NP. A significant decrease in boron content in the fracture area and formation of elliptically arranged boride precipitates are revealed. The mechanism of intense boron migration and stability violation of the structural and phase state in the fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant nickel superalloy of grade EP741NP is proposed on the basis of accounting for deformation occurring in the fracture area and analysis of the stressed state near a crack.

  3. Developing a Rapid Algorithm to Enable Rapid Characterization of Alginate Microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Hei; Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Lakey, Jonathan R T

    2017-05-09

    The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β-cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a life-long condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a surgical procedure that has demonstrated the ability to normalize blood sugar levels for up to a few years, but the need for chronic immunosuppression relegates it to a last resort that is often only used sparingly and in seriously ill patients. Islet microencapsulation is a biomedical innovation designed to protect islets from the immune system by coating them with a biocompatible polymer, and this new technology has demonstrated various degrees of success in small- and large-animal studies. This success is significantly impacted by microcapsule morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Since hundreds of thousands of microcapsules are generated during the process, characterization of encapsulated islets without the help of some degree of automation would be difficult, time-consuming, and error prone due to inherent observer bias. We have developed an image analysis algorithm that can analyze hundreds of microencapsulated islets and characterize their size, shape, circularity, and distortion with minimal observer bias. This algorithm can be easily adapted to similar nano- or microencapsulation technologies to implement stricter quality control and improve biomaterial device design and success.

  4. Developing a Rapid Algorithm to Enable Rapid Characterization of Alginate Microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Hei; Krishnan, Rahul; Alexander, Michael; Lakey, Jonathan R. T.

    2017-01-01

    The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β-cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them, leading to the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a life-long condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a surgical procedure that has demonstrated the ability to normalize blood sugar levels for up to a few years, but the need for chronic immunosuppression relegates it to a last resort that is often only used sparingly and in seriously ill patients. Islet microencapsulation is a biomedical innovation designed to protect islets from the immune system by coating them with a biocompatible polymer, and this new technology has demonstrated various degrees of success in small- and large-animal studies. This success is significantly impacted by microcapsule morphology and encapsulation efficiency. Since hundreds of thousands of microcapsules are generated during the process, characterization of encapsulated islets without the help of some degree of automation would be difficult, time-consuming, and error prone due to inherent observer bias. We have developed an image analysis algorithm that can analyze hundreds of microencapsulated islets and characterize their size, shape, circularity, and distortion with minimal observer bias. This algorithm can be easily adapted to similar nano- or microencapsulation technologies to implement stricter quality control and improve biomaterial device design and success. PMID:27729095

  5. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  6. 77 FR 31831 - Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration....S.C. 71-87k. Alan R. Christian, Acting Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  7. Talisman--rapid application development for the grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oinn, Thomas M

    2003-01-01

    In order to make use of the emerging grid and network services offered by various institutes and mandated by many current research projects, some kind of user accessible client is required. In contrast with attempts to build generic workbenches, Talisman is designed to allow a bioinformatics expert to rapidly build custom applications, immediately visible using standard web technology, for users who wish to concentrate on the biology of their problem rather than the informatics aspects. As a component of the MyGrid project, it is intended to allow access to arbitrary resources, including but not limited to relational, object and flat file data sources, analysis programs and grid based storage, tracking and distributed annotation systems.

  8. The Development of Rapidly Solidified Magnesium – Copper Ribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastuszak M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to plan and carry out an experiment consisting of amorphization of industrial magnesium alloy WE 43 (Mg - 4 Y - 3 RE - 0.5 Zr modified by the copper addition. Investigated alloy modified with 20% of copper was rapidly quenched with the use of melt spinning technique. The effects of cooling rate on the structure and properties of the obtained material were extensively analyzed. The structure and phase analysis of samples were examined using X-ray diffraction method (XRD while the thermal stability of the samples was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Microstructure observations were also conducted. The microhardness tests (HV0.02 and corrosion resistance tests were carried out to investigate the properties of the material. Corrosion resistance measurements were held using a typical three-electrode system. As the result of the research, the effect of cooling rate on microstructure and properties of investigated alloy was determined.

  9. RAPID NAMING IN CHILDREN WITH SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT AND IN CHILDREN WITH TYPICAL LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda MILOSHEVIĆ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at the detailed insight into the phonological ability of Serbian-speaking children of preschool age, with and without language impairment, the ability of rapid naming was examined. Method: Operationalization of the set goal was carried out by using the Test for evaluating reading and writing pre-skills. In describing and analyzing the obtained data, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The sample included 120 subjects of both gender, 40 children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI, age from 5,11 to 7 years, and 80 children with typical language development (TLD, age between 5,11 and 7 years, with no statistically significant differences in relation to age and gender of the participants. Results: Summing up the overall results and achievements of children with SLI and children with TLD, we concluded that there are statistically significant differences in the rapid naming between children with specific language impairment and children with typical language development. Conclusions: As it is a global trend to work on preventing disorders and obstructions, and phonological skills in this age are a timely indicator of the development of reading and writing skills, the examined children with SLI are at risk for the occurrence of obstructions and disorders in the area of reading and writing abilities.

  10. Evaluation of urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern in a rapidly developing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Dai, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Urban sprawl is a worldwide phenomenon happening particularly in rapidly developing regions. A study on the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and urban pattern is useful for the sustainable management of land management and urban land planning. The present research explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl in the context of a rapid urbanization process in a booming economic region of southern China from 1979 to 2005. Three urban sprawl types are distinguished by analyzing overlaid urban area maps of two adjacent study years which originated from the interpretation of remote sensed images and vector land use maps. Landscape metrics are used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl for each study period. Study results show that urban areas have expanded dramatically, and the spatiotemporal landscape pattern configured by the three sprawl types changed obviously. The different sprawl type patterns in five study periods have transformed significantly, with their proportions altered both in terms of quantity and of location. The present research proves that urban sprawl quantification and pattern analysis can provide a clear perspective of the urbanization process during a long time period. Particularly, the present study on urban sprawl and sprawl patterns can be used by land use and urban planners.

  11. Objective rapid delineation of areas at risk from block-and-ash pyroclastic flows and surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiwijayanti, C.; Voight, B.; Hidayat, D.; Schilling, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Assessments of pyroclastic flow (PF) hazards are commonly based on mapping of PF and surge deposits and estimations of inundation limits, and/or computer models of varying degrees of sophistication. In volcanic crises a PF hazard map may be sorely needed, but limited time, exposures, or safety aspects may preclude fieldwork, and insufficient time or baseline data may be available for reliable dynamic simulations. We have developed a statistically constrained simulation model for block-and-ash type PFs to estimate potential areas of inundation by adapting methodology from Iverson et al. (Geol Soc America Bull 110:972-984, (1998) for lahars. The predictive equations for block-and-ash PFs are calibrated with data from several volcanoes and given by A = (0.05 to 0.1) V2/3, B = (35 to 40) V2/3, where A is cross-sectional area of inundation, B is planimetric area and V is deposit volume. The proportionality coefficients were obtained from regression analyses and comparison of simulations to mapped deposits. The method embeds the predictive equations in a GIS program coupled with DEM topography, using the LAHARZ program of Schilling (1998). Although the method is objective and reproducible, any PF hazard zone so computed should be considered as an approximate guide only, due to uncertainties on the coefficients applicable to individual PFs, the authenticity of DEM details, and the volume of future collapses. The statistical uncertainty of the predictive equations, which imply a factor of two or more in predicting A or B for a specified V, is superposed on the uncertainty of forecasting V for the next PF to descend a particular valley. Multiple inundation zones, produced by simulations using a selected range of volumes, partly accommodate these uncertainties. The resulting maps show graphically that PF inundation potentials are highest nearest volcano sources and along valley thalwegs, and diminish with distance from source and lateral distance from thalweg. The model does

  12. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a

  13. Metropolitan area of the developing world: sustainability from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gakenheimer, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Dep. of Urban Studies and Planning, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    If demand for individual mobility is measured with reasonable attention to human and development needs we must acknowledge that there is no way to meet its full requirements in the development world. Rapid technological change, primarily rapid motorization, has created a composition of spatial and institutional structures that make mobility very difficult. This paper hypothesizes the key obstacles to the success of sustainable mobility actions in the developing world as a first step in research designed to better understand these obstacles and how to overcome them. (author)

  14. Building Blocks for the Rapid Development of Parallel Simulations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Scientists need to be able to quickly develop and run parallel simulations without paying the high price of writing low-level message passing codes using compiled...

  15. Kivy framework for rapid development of mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Brajar, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    There are more and more tools and libraries, offering multi-platform application development, on the market. This is due increased number of mobile operating systems in the last couple of years. The goal of this thesis is to get familiar with Kivy architecture, which provides support for desktop and mobile application development. We compared the mentioned tool with competing tools called PhoneGap and Titanium. Kivy is a library for Python programming language. All of the functions of the ...

  16. Development of districts in undermined areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyushev, V.S.; Losev, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the case of a Pavlogradugol' mine where a decision was taken to mine a coal seam above a previous mining district without leaving the regulation rock thickness between seams. According to the 1976 Safety Regulations this thickness should be at least 6 times the seam thickness for seams mined with roof caving. The seams were 1.1-1.4 m thick, the intervening thickness 4.5-6.1 m. The development roadways for the upper seam were moved to minimize damage, and the stables in the lower seam remained outside the extent of the upper seam district. There was some floor swelling and curvature of the seam, but within acceptable limits. The time difference between mining in the upper and lower seams was 4-6 years. Given the weak plastic (argillite/aleurolite) rocks in the intervening beds, the decision to mine with a rock/seam thickness ratio of 3.7-5.1 was considered justified.

  17. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyda Osorio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical diagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5% were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5 were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors.

  18. MANAGING PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT IN PERI-URBAN AREAS OF KUMASI, GHANA: A CASE OF ABUAKWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Amoateng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable trait of the 21st century has been the high rate of urbanization which has characterized the growth and development of cities especially in developing countries. This situation has fuelled the rapid and unguided development and expansion of peri-urban areas as urban dwellers relocate to cities’ peripheries. Focusing on Abuakwa a peri-urban area in Kumasi, the second largest city in Ghana, this paper assesses the nature and extent of physical development in peri-urban areas, and identifies the factors contributing to the rapid development of peri-urban areas. The paper further examines the effects of the increasing physical growth on the development of peri-urban Abuakwa. Using a case study approach, both primary and secondary sources of data were collected from decentralized government institutions of Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly (KMA and Atwima Nwabiagya District Assembly (ANDA, as well as the indigenous residents and relocated urban dwellers in Abuakwa. The paper reveals that the outward drift has manifested itself in an increased scramble for land for residential and commercial purposes in the peri-urban area. The resultant effect has been the fast and spontaneous physical development in the urban periphery which has significantly altered the peri-urban morphology. The paper recommends the establishment of Customary Land Secretariat (CLS and the application of settlement growth management approaches to ensure the creation of functional city and liveable peri-urban areas.

  19. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-20

    Apr 20, 2013 ... Infectious diseases are major cause of mortality in developing countries. The statistical data ... Gram-negative oxidase-positive non- fermenting bacilli are known for their ability to cause infection ..... Badreddine S 2009 Misdiagnosis of an imported case of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. J. Infect.

  20. Rapid development of paper-based fluidic diagnostic devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available DEVELOPMENT OF PAPER-BASED FLUIDIC DIAGNOSTIC DEVICES S. Smith1*, H. Chen2, K. Moodley3, T. Joubert4 & K. Land5 1-5Department of Materials Science and Manufacturing Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa 1ssmith@csir.co.za,2jchen...

  1. Developing and evaluating rapid field methods to estimate peat carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Chimner; Cassandra A. Ott; Charles H. Perry; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    Many international protocols (e.g., REDD+) are developing inventories of ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes at country and regional scales, which can include peatlands. As the only nationally implemented field inventory and remeasurement of forest soils in the US, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) samples the top 20 cm of organic soils...

  2. Enhancing water security in a rapidly developing shale gas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Holding

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Initiatives and tools enhancing water security in the region include strategic partnerships and stakeholder collaborations, policy and regulation development, and data collection and distribution efforts. The contributions and limitations of each of these are discussed. A vulnerability mapping framework is presented which addresses data gaps and provides a tool for decision-making surrounding risk to water quality from various hazards. An example vulnerability assessment was conducted for wastewater transport along pipeline and trucking corridors.

  3. Multilingual Phoneme Models for Rapid Speech Processing System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Frequency Cepstral Coefficients . . . . . . . 11 2.4.3 Pronunciation Lexicon or Dictionary . . . . . . 12 2.4.4 Language Model...also a requirement for a pronunciation dictionary, and time is required for algorithm development and for building the speech recognition system. To...down into nasals, plosives, fricatives, approx- imants, trills, and flaps. Vowels are broken down by where the tongue is positioned within the mouth

  4. Rapid Modelling of Urban Mission Areas Using Ground-Based Imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, R. van; Kuijper, F.; Heuvel, F. van den

    2007-01-01

    Current modelling techniques for urban mission areas are mainly based on the use of data which is not specific or detailed enough to accurately model an existing area. Consequently, additional (manual) effort and time are required to perform data acquisition and to model the environment. The

  5. Rapid and Reusable Text Visualization and Exploration Development with DELVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel R; Kavuluru, Ramakanth; Jaromczyk, Jerzy W; Johnson, Todd R

    2017-01-01

    We present DELVE (Document ExpLoration and Visualization Engine), a framework for developing interactive visualizations as modular Web-applications to assist researchers with exploratory literature search. The goal for web-applications driven by DELVE is to better satisfy the information needs of researchers and to help explore and understand the state of research in scientific liter ature by providing immersive visualizations that both contain facets and are driven by facets derived from the literature. We base our framework on principles from user-centered design and human-computer interaction (HCI). Preliminary evaluations demon strate the usefulness of DELVE's techniques: (1) a clinical researcher immediately saw that her original query was inappropriate simply due to the frequencies displayed via generalized clouds and (2) a muscle biologist quickly learned of vocabulary differences found between two disciplines that were referencing the same idea, which we feel is critical for interdisciplinary work. We dis cuss the underlying category-theoretic model of our framework and show that it naturally encourages the development of reusable visualizations by emphasizing interoperability.

  6. Infrastructure for Rapid Development of Java GUI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeremy; Hostetter, Carl F.; Wheeler, Philip

    2006-01-01

    The Java Application Shell (JAS) is a software framework that accelerates the development of Java graphical-user-interface (GUI) application programs by enabling the reuse of common, proven GUI elements, as distinguished from writing custom code for GUI elements. JAS is a software infrastructure upon which Java interactive application programs and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for those programs can be built as sets of plug-ins. JAS provides an application- programming interface that is extensible by application-specific plugins that describe and encapsulate both specifications of a GUI and application-specific functionality tied to the specified GUI elements. The desired GUI elements are specified in Extensible Markup Language (XML) descriptions instead of in compiled code. JAS reads and interprets these descriptions, then creates and configures a corresponding GUI from a standard set of generic, reusable GUI elements. These elements are then attached (again, according to the XML descriptions) to application-specific compiled code and scripts. An application program constructed by use of JAS as its core can be extended by writing new plug-ins and replacing existing plug-ins. Thus, JAS solves many problems that Java programmers generally solve anew for each project, thereby reducing development and testing time.

  7. Controlled precipitation for enhanced dissolution rate of flurbiprofen: development of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ebtessam A; Elmarakby, Amira O; Donia, Ahmed M A; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of controlled precipitation of flurbiprofen on solid surface, in the presence or absence of hydrophilic polymers, as a tool for enhanced dissolution rate of the drug. The work was extended to develop rapidly disintegrated tablets. This strategy provides simple technique for dissolution enhancement of slowly dissolving drugs with high scaling up potential. Aerosil was dispersed in ethanolic solution of flurbiprofen in the presence and absence of hydrophilic polymers. Acidified water was added as antisolvent to produce controlled precipitation. The resultant particles were centrifuged and dried at ambient temperature before monitoring the dissolution pattern. The particles were also subjected to FTIR spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses. The FTIR spectroscopy excluded any interaction between flurbiprofen and excipients. The thermal analysis reflected possible change in the crystalline structure and or crystal size of the drug after controlled precipitation in the presence of hydrophilic polymers. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The modulation in the crystalline structure and size was associated with a significant enhancement in the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen. Optimum formulations were successfully formulated as rapidly disintegrating tablet with subsequent fast dissolution. Precipitation on a large solid surface area is a promising strategy for enhanced dissolution rate with the presence of hydrophilic polymers during precipitation process improving the efficiency.

  8. Development of a fluorescence-based sensor for rapid diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Randy; Oda, Robert P; Bhandari, Raj K; Mahon, Sari B; Brenner, Matthew; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2014-02-04

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole. An integrated cyanide capture "apparatus", consisting of sample and cyanide capture chambers, allowed rapid separation of cyanide from blood samples. Rabbit whole blood was added to the sample chamber, acidified, and the HCN gas evolved was actively transferred through a stainless steel channel to the capture chamber containing a basic solution of naphthalene dialdehyde (NDA) and taurine. The overall analysis time (including the addition of the sample) was cyanide exposure. Most importantly, the sensor was 100% accurate in diagnosing cyanide poisoning for acutely exposed rabbits.

  9. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  10. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  11. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamara, David A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90ml/min/1.73m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data Collec...

  12. Development of a rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Shao-Hong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis japonica (schistosomiasis is a zoonosis that can seriously affect human health. At present, the immunodiagnostic assays for schistosomiasis detection are time-consuming and require well-trained personnel and special instruments, which can limit their use in the field. Thus, there is a pressing need for a simple and rapid immunoassay to screen patients on a large scale. In this study, we developed a novel rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA to detect anti-Schisaosoma japonicum antibodies in human serum. Results Using latex microspheres as a color probe, DLIA was established to test standard positive and negative sera, in comparison with the classical enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of DLIA were 95.10% (97/102 and 94.91% (261/275, respectively. The cross-reaction rates with clonorchiosis, intestinal nematodes, Angiostrongylus cantonensis and paragonimiasis were 0, 0, 0 and 42.11% respectively. All the results showed no significant difference to the ELISA. In field tests, 333 human serum samples from an endemic area were tested with DLIA, and compared with ELISA and Kato-Katz method. There was no significant difference between DLIA and ELISA on positive and negative rates of detection; however, significant differences existed between DLIA and Kato-Katz method, and between ELISA and Kato-Katz method. The kappa value between DLIA and ELISA was 0.90. Conclusions This is the first study in which DLIA was used to detect anti-Schistosoma japonicum antibody. The results show that DLIA is a simple, rapid, convenient, sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis and is therefore very suitable for large-scale field applications and clinical detection.

  13. A rapid decision-making method for the evaluation of pollution-sensitive coastal areas in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Michael O; Kamizoulis, George

    2005-06-01

    Places of natural beauty and/or cultural value in the Mediterranean Sea are presenting adverse effects due to pollution. These environmental threats caused by point and nonpoint sources are mainly the reason why these areas represent "pollution-sensitive areas," where the risk of deterioration is immediate. However, the risk will decrease and eventually disappear if protective measures are applied. In the present article, a multicriteria decision-making method is proposed for the prioritization of the Mediterranean sensitive coastal areas, taking into consideration criteria of pollution risk such as impact on human health, aquatic ecosystems, and socioeconomic value of the area. Weighting factors were then attributed to the different criteria according to their regional priorities, and a total pollution risk score was calculated for every sensitive area. However, some sensitive areas are more vulnerable than others because of their natural characteristics. Therefore, the total pollution risk score was then multiplied by a vulnerability weighting factor and a Total Sensitivity Score was calculated for every sensitive area. With this method, Mediterranean sensitive areas in coastal zones can be ranked on a priority list and then categorized according to their "sensitivity," in a way that decision-makers can select the most urgent cases to direct their attention for the effective protection of the Mediterranean marine environment. The method is rapid and practicable and has already been used with existing data and information in several Mediterranean countries.

  14. The development of an intensive educational area at Pilanesberg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of an intensive educational area at Pilanesberg national park. Pete Hancock, Mike Molefe, Pat Irwin. Abstract. Staff at Pilanesberg National Park are currently developing an Intensive Educational Area (lEA), adjacent to the present Education Centre, for the teaching of basic ecological principles. This article ...

  15. Parallel grid library for rapid and flexible simulation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkonen, I.; von Alfthan, S.; Sandroos, A.; Janhunen, P.; Palmroth, M.

    2013-04-01

    We present an easy to use and flexible grid library for developing highly scalable parallel simulations. The distributed cartesian cell-refinable grid (dccrg) supports adaptive mesh refinement and allows an arbitrary C++ class to be used as cell data. The amount of data in grid cells can vary both in space and time allowing dccrg to be used in very different types of simulations, for example in fluid and particle codes. Dccrg transfers the data between neighboring cells on different processes transparently and asynchronously allowing one to overlap computation and communication. This enables excellent scalability at least up to 32 k cores in magnetohydrodynamic tests depending on the problem and hardware. In the version of dccrg presented here part of the mesh metadata is replicated between MPI processes reducing the scalability of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to between 200 and 600 processes. Dccrg is free software that anyone can use, study and modify and is available at https://gitorious.org/dccrg. Users are also kindly requested to cite this work when publishing results obtained with dccrg. Catalogue identifier: AEOM_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOM_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU Lesser General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 54975 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 974015 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++. Computer: PC, cluster, supercomputer. Operating system: POSIX. The code has been parallelized using MPI and tested with 1-32768 processes RAM: 10 MB-10 GB per process Classification: 4.12, 4.14, 6.5, 19.3, 19.10, 20. External routines: MPI-2 [1], boost [2], Zoltan [3], sfc++ [4] Nature of problem: Grid library supporting arbitrary data in grid cells, parallel adaptive mesh refinement, transparent remote neighbor data updates and

  16. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2010-09-28

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  17. State and Federal project development procedures for bus rapid transit : managing differences and reducing implementation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    This report documents an investigation into the transportation project development process in the : context of the implementation of bus rapid transit systems on the State Highway System as well as such : systems being part of the Federal New Starts ...

  18. Rapidly developing renal milk of calcium in a patient with myelomonocytic leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Morjaria, Anika; Balasubramaniam, Gowrie; Perera, Saman; Almond, Mike K

    2014-01-01

    Rapidly developing renal milk of calcium, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT), X-ray and ultrasound, should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in patients with apparent ureteric obstruction to prevent unnecessary interventions.

  19. Super-FRS Target Area Remote Handling: Scenario and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Orona

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Super-FRS, Superconducting Fragment Separator, is a unique machine that presents several challenging technical problems. One of these is regarding how to conduct maintenance in the target area where high levels of radiation will be generated and human access is forbidden. To address this problem the use of a remote maintenance system is foreseen. The objective of this paper is to develop a systems engineering (SE research and development (R&D approach suitable to develop the Super-FRS Target Area Remote Maintenance Systems (TARMS and the RH design adaptation of the components in the target area. The Super-FRS target area is described in detail in order to introduce the need for a remote maintenance system. Components in the target area are classified by adopting ITER RH maintenance classification. The general scenario of remote handling and the current target area remote maintenance system are described. Finally, the proposed systems engineering approach is presented.

  20. Overcoming challenges to initiating cell therapy clinical trials in rapidly developing countries: India as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Rao, Mahendra; Keating, Armand; Srivastava, Alok

    2013-08-01

    Increasingly, a number of rapidly developing countries, including India, China, Brazil, and others, are becoming global hot spots for the development of regenerative medicine applications, including stem cell-based therapies. Identifying and overcoming regulatory and translational research challenges and promoting scientific and ethical clinical trials with cells will help curb the growth of stem cell tourism for unproven therapies. It will also enable academic investigators, local regulators, and national and international biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies to accelerate stem cell-based clinical research that could lead to effective innovative treatments in these regions. Using India as a model system and obtaining input from regulators, clinicians, academics, and industry representatives across the stem cell field in India, we reviewed the role of key agencies and processes involved in this field. We have identified areas that need attention and here provide solutions from other established and functioning models in the world to streamline and unify the regulatory and ethics approval processes for cell-based therapies. We also make recommendations to check the growth and functioning of clinics offering unproven treatments. Addressing these issues will remove considerable hurdles to both local and international investigators, accelerate the pace of research and development, and create a quality environment for reliable products to emerge. By doing so, these countries would have taken one important step to move to the forefront of stem cell-based therapeutics.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF CROSS-BORDER AREAS. STUDY CASES REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela\tȘLUSARCIUC

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to review study cases found in the scientific literature concerning the development of cross- border areas in European Union and its neighbourhood. The introductory part of the paper is drawing few considerations about the cross-border areas. Further we identified in the specific literature relevant study cases that provide lessons learned, tools and models that can contribute to the development of the cross-border areas. The last part of the paper is focusing on an inquiry about how this lessons, learned, tools and models may be adapted in case of cross-border areas along the Romanian border with the EU Eastern Neighbourhood.

  2. Spatial–Temporal Patterns and Driving Factors of Rapid Urban Land Development in Provincial China: A Case Study of Jiangsu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingke Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its economic reform and opening-up, China has undergone unprecedented urbanization, where massive areas of rural land have been converted into urban use. Urban land development plays an important role in dynamic urban economic development. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of urban land development and its mechanisms in China. We conceptualized the mechanism of urban land development from multiple perspectives based on a case study in Jiangsu Province. We employed the methods of global and local spatial auto-correlation detection and spatial lag model to analyze the provincial land use conveyance and survey data from 2004 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012 to understand the dynamics of urban land development. The results show that urban land development varies significantly across different time periods, spatial scales, and regions in Jiangsu. Higher absolute urban land development mainly occurred in Sunan, expanding to Subei and Suzhong, while faster development occurred mainly in Subei, where the initial bases were lower but had strong economic growth potential. The regression analysis shows that market activities and administrative levels had played a more critical role in driving urban land development, which suggests that rapid urban land development has institutional and market foundations. Urban land development was not only a consequence of economic development but also a strategy of local governments to stimulate and govern the urban economy. This study enriches the literature on urban dynamics by providing an institutional understanding of rapid urban land development in a transitional economy.

  3. Developing and sustainably utilize the coastal mudflat areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Li-Ping; Shao, Tian-Yun; Shao, Hong-Bo; Liu, Zhao-Pu

    2016-11-01

    Coastal mudflat areas are regarded as the important reserve land resource in China. Rational exploitation and development of the mudflat areas can relieve the stress of inadequate land resources. Probing into the developing models of resource exploitation of coastal tidal mudflats is one of the important components of achieving the sustainable development in the coastal areas. Therefore, the development history of coastal mudflats after 1950s in China is briefly introduced in this paper. Then, the status in quo of the modes of development and utilization of coastal mudflat in China the paper is reviewed with a special attention payed to the agricultural use of coastal resource, especially halophytes and improved salt-tolerant varieties planting, agricultural dyke pond and coastal saline-alkali soil remediation. Based on related research frontier, sustainable developmental prospects of these coastal areas are presented as well. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Determinação da área foliar em videira cultivar Niagara Rosada Rapid estimation of leaf area in grape, cv. Niagara Rosada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a relação entre a área foliar (AF e a largura da folha (L em videira do cultivar Niagara Rosada. A área foliar pode ser estimada pelo uso de um coeficiente que corrige a área do círculo, considerando seu diâmetro igual à largura da folha, mediante a fórmula: AF = 0,85 pi (L/2².Width of leaf blade was closely correlated with leaf area in leaves of grapes cv. Niagara Rosada. It was found that the shape of any leaf was similar to a circle. A short-cut procedure for estimating easily, rapidly and precisely the leaf area was developed. The equation relating leaf area (AF to width of leaf blade (L was: AF = 0.85 pi (L/2².

  5. Rapid broad area search and detection of Chinese surface-to-air missile sites using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Richard A.; Davis, Curt H.; Scott, Grant J.; Nivin, Tyler W.

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated how deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) could assist in the labor-intensive process of human visual searches for objects of interest in high-resolution imagery over large areas of the Earth's surface. Various DCNN were trained and tested using fewer than 100 positive training examples (China only) from a worldwide surface-to-air-missile (SAM) site dataset. A ResNet-101 DCNN achieved a 98.2% average accuracy for the China SAM site data. The ResNet-101 DCNN was used to process ˜19.6 M image chips over a large study area in southeastern China. DCNN chip detections (˜9300) were postprocessed with a spatial clustering algorithm to produce a ranked list of ˜2100 candidate SAM site locations. The combination of DCNN processing and spatial clustering effectively reduced the search area by ˜660X (0.15% of the DCNN-processed land area). An efficient web interface was used to facilitate a rapid serial human review of the candidate SAM sites in the China study area. Four novice imagery analysts with no prior imagery analysis experience were able to complete a DCNN-assisted SAM site search in an average time of ˜42 min. This search was ˜81X faster than a traditional visual search over an equivalent land area of ˜88,640 km2 while achieving nearly identical statistical accuracy (˜90% F1).

  6. Potential Areas of Future Oil and Gas Development, Greater Wattenberg Area, Front Range of Colorado (friogdevu)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The potential for oil and gas development in the greater Wattenberg area (GWA), which lies near the Front Range between Denver and Greeley, Colo., in the Denver...

  7. Small - Scale Livestock Farming in Developing Areas of Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... shortage of feed, poor breading practice, lack of production skills, poor infrastructure, livestock theft, inadequate veterinary services, poor marketing services, and poor extension services. Keywords: Small scale farmer, livestock farming, agricultural development, socio-economic development, developing areas, Swaziland ...

  8. Development of sorghum varieties and hybrids for dryland areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    A study was conducted to scrutinize the development of sorghum (Sorghum bicolar) varieties and hybrids that have been carried out for the dryland areas of Ethiopia in the past 35 years (1969-2003). The experiments were conducted at the three major research centers and sub-centers representing the dryland areas of the ...

  9. Mental health in remote rural developing areas: concepts and cases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    "In this book, we illustrate some of the social and environmental incluences that shape health and mental health care, using examples from rural villages in Alaska as well as other developing areas of the world...

  10. Long-term histories of land use and rapid urbaniSation of rural areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors reflect on how consideration of the long-term history of a landscape can and should contribute to urban planning strategies that, through the incorporation of concepts such as historical urban landscapes and sustainable social and economic development, could lead to a more equitable management of land and ...

  11. Rapid Hip Osteoarthritis Development in a Patient with Anterior Acetabular Cyst with Sagittal Alignment Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Homma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is rare and develops unusual clinical course. Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms of the development of RDC. However the exact mechanism of RDC is still not clear. The difficulty of the study on RDC is attributed to its rareness and the fact that the data before the onset of RDC is normally unavailable. In this report, we presented the patient having the radiographic data before the onset who had rapid osteoarthritis (OA development after contralateral THA, which meets the current criteria of RDC. We thought that the increased posterior tilt of the pelvis after THA reinforced the stress concentration at pre-existed anterior acetabular cyst, thereby the destruction of the cyst was occurred. As a result the rapid OA was developed. We think that there is the case of rapid osteoarthritis developing due to alternating load concentration by posterior pelvic tilt on preexisting anterior acetabular cyst such as our patient among the cases diagnosed as RDC without any identifiable etiology. The recognition of sagittal alignment changes and anterior acetabular cyst may play important role in prediction and prevention of the rapid hip osteoarthritis development similar to RDC.

  12. Boom and bust: rapid feedback responses between insect outbreak dynamics and canopy leaf area impacted by rainfall and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlenda, Andrew N; Esveld, Jessica L; Hall, Aidan A G; Duursma, Remko A; Riegler, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Frequency and severity of insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems are predicted to increase with climate change. How this will impact canopy leaf area in future climates is rarely tested. Here, we document function of insect outbreaks that fortuitously and rapidly occurred in an ecosystem under free-air CO2 enrichment. Over the first 2 years of CO2 fumigation of a naturally established mature Eucalyptus woodland, we continuously assessed population responses of three sap-feeding insect species of the psyllid genera Cardiaspina, Glycaspis and Spondyliaspis for up to ten consecutive generations. Concurrently, we quantified changes in the canopy leaf area index (LAI). Large and rapid shifts in psyllid community composition were recorded between species with either flush (Glycaspis) or senescence-inducing (Cardiaspina, Spondyliaspis) feeding strategies. Within the second year, two psyllid species experienced significant and rapid population build-up resulting in two consecutive outbreaks: first, rainfall stimulated Eucalyptus leaf production increasing LAI, which supported population growth of flush-feeding Glycaspis without impacting LAI. Glycaspis numbers then crashed and were followed by the outbreak of senescence-feeding Cardiaspina fiscella that led to significant defoliation and reduction in LAI. For all three psyllid species, the abundance of lerps, protective coverings excreted by the sessile nymphs, decreased at e[CO2 ]. Higher lerp weight at e[CO2 ] for Glycaspis but not the other psyllid species provided evidence for compensatory feeding by the flush feeder but not the two senescence feeders. Our study demonstrates that rainfall drives leaf phenology, facilitating the rapid boom-and-bust succession of psyllid species, eventually leading to significant defoliation due to the second but not the first outbreaking psyllid species. In contrast, e[CO2 ] may impact psyllid abundance and feeding behaviour, with psyllid species-specific outcomes for defoliation

  13. ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF PRIORITY DEVELOPMENT AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Gruzdeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the most important issues in priority development areas, including the commitment of the Kamchatka region in which such territory is focused primarily on the development of tourism. The relevance of the article due to the increase in the activity of creation of territories of operahouse development in Russia.Goal/objectives. The purpose of this article is to identify both advantages and disadvantages of priority development areas as a mechanism of economic development. To achieve this goal, the author formulated and solved two tasks – analysis of theoretical questions of development of territories of priority development and evaluation of a practical example of creating such a site.Methodology. The theoretical basis of the research was normative legal acts devoted to the question of priority development areas and strategic documents of the Kamchatka region. As a methodological basis of applied methods: analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, induction and deduction.Results. Found that despite the existing shortcomings and limitations, the creation of territories of priority development is an eff ective tool for the development of entrepreneurship.Conclusions/significance. Creation within the country's territory, favorable for attracting long-term investment, is a widespread global practice to attract large companies. In Russia, this tool is relatively new, but is already actively used for the development of entrepreneurial activities in troubled regions.This tool provides its residents with sufficient opportunities to gain competitive advantage, accordingly, is a critical study of all questions of implementation and follow-up work of priority development areas, given companies' business activities both within and outside the area.

  14. Sustainable energy for the future. Modelling transitions to renewable and clean energy in rapidly developing countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urban, Frauke

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is first to adapt energy models for the use in developing countries and second to model sustainable energy transitions and their effects in rapidly developing countries like China and India. The focus of this thesis is three-fold: a) to elaborate the differences

  15. RURAL AREA – AN UNTAPPED OPPORTUNITY FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Costin CÎRSTEA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Romanian rural area faces a violent lack of entrepreneurship initiatives, which can generate negative economic and social phenomena, with medium and long-term effects, such as: the decreased living standards of people in rural areas, the migration of young people from rural areas, which generates psychosocial problems among children who have to stay with their grandparents, the sharp decrease of interest for agriculture and, thus, the decrease of GDP ratio from agricultural activities, the lack of education among rural people etc. Under these circumstances, thepaper tries, through documentation, analysis and processing statistical data, to quantify the development level of entrepreneurship in rural areas in Romania, compared with developed EU countries (such as: Germany, Great Britain, France etc., in order to reveal the gaps in this sector. To increase the relevance of the analysis, the paper also analyzes the possible causes that can stimulate or repress the expression of entrepreneurship and its implementation in Romanian and European rural areas, such as: different levels of fiscal pressure, the existence, effectiveness and efficiency of programs implementation for stimulating and supporting entrepreneurship in general and in rural areas, in particular, the different business culture etc. These results generated from the research will finally create a set of premises for adopting international best practices and develop pragmatic solutions and programs to increase entrepreneurship, which can leads to new business initiatives in the Romanian rural area.In conclusion, for a quality of life growth and a decrease of negative social and economic phenomena with medium and long-term impact, it is necessary an increase of the living standards, done by increasing the opportunities for entrepreneurship in agriculture and rural areas. Specifically, there are needed investments in the development of human resources in rural areas and in supporting its

  16. Considerations for Task Analysis Methods and Rapid E-Learning Development Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ismail Ipek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide basic dimensions for rapid training development in e-learning courses in education and business. Principally, it starts with defining task analysis and how to select tasks for analysis and task analysis methods for instructional design. To do this, first, learning and instructional technologies as visions of the future were discussed. Second, the importance of task analysis methods in rapid e-learning was considered, with learning technologies as asynchronous and synchronous e-learning development. Finally, rapid instructional design concepts and e-learning design strategies were defined and clarified with examples, that is, all steps for effective task analysis and rapid training development techniques based on learning and instructional design approaches were discussed, such as m-learning and other delivery systems. As a result, the concept of task analysis, rapid e-learning development strategies and the essentials of online course design were discussed, alongside learner interface design features for learners and designers.

  17. Natural Protected Areas and Rural/Local Development: A Sustainable Strategy in Remote Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pallares-Blanch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The value and resources of the landscape and heritage of the Pyrenees, conserved in Natural Conservation Areas, have not been included in local social/economic development. The necessary policies and transverse working methods have not taken on board the benefits of these natural, protected areas on local, economic development. In some parts of the Pyrenees like Alt Urgell county the process of naturbanisation is just beginning. There is a great opportunity to put the brakes on uncontrolled urban development. At the same time, the potential to exploit the heritage and resources of the Pyrenees still exists. Therefore, the research defences that Natural Reserved Areas can act as a driving force to articulate a quality label of landscape, heritage and territory in peripheral areas like West Catalan Pyrenees. At the same time, by through promotion of Natural Reserved Areas a multi-organisational project of local development can be build. In the framework of rural-urban dynamics in a global context, the paper explains how the values of landscape and heritage in the mountain areas can be an opportunity to put into practice integrated territorial policies applying transversal methodologies among actors, institutions and private sector. At the same time, local development projects would priories young people and women support as one of the sector more likely to innovate and to maintain social and human capital in peripheral areas. A cooperation and collaboration practices are needed to create new economic activities with the participation of local actors. This paper puts forward suggestions for action to be taken.

  18. [Development of a rapid test kit for antibody to HIV by nano immunomagnetic lateral flow method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fa-qing; Lee, Tony; Wang, Chao-nan; Sun, Shu-ye; Li, Shan-shan; Tian, Hui

    2010-06-01

    To develop a rapid test kit for antibody to HIV by nano immunomagnetic lateral flow method. A rapid test kit was developed by conjugation of the HIV antigen gp41 and gp36 to 200nm super paramagnetic particles by carbodiimide (EDC) and coating of the HIV antigen gp41 and gp36 to nitrocellulose membrane. Then the kit was evaluated with serials of experiments. The kit was qualified with examination of national reference panel of anti-HIV antibody for colloidal gold diagnostic kit. The sensitivity was 100% by tested with 20 HIV antibody positive sera, the specificity was 98.5% by tested with 600 HIV antibody negative sera, respectively. The stability of the kit was over 12 month by storage at room temperature. A diagnostic kit for antibody to HIV was developed with the advantages of convenience, rapid test, good stability and point of care.

  19. Development of a prototype lateral flow immunoassay (LFI for the rapid diagnosis of melioidosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L Houghton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is a soil-dwelling bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Isolation of B. pseudomallei from clinical samples is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of melioidosis; results can take 3-7 days to produce. Alternatively, antibody-based tests have low specificity due to a high percentage of seropositive individuals in endemic areas. There is a clear need to develop a rapid point-of-care antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of melioidosis. Previously, we employed In vivo Microbial Antigen Discovery (InMAD to identify potential B. pseudomallei diagnostic biomarkers. The B. pseudomallei capsular polysaccharide (CPS and numerous protein antigens were identified as potential candidates. Here, we describe the development of a diagnostic immunoassay based on the detection of CPS. Following production of a CPS-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb, an antigen-capture immunoassay was developed to determine the concentration of CPS within a panel of melioidosis patient serum and urine samples. The same mAb was used to produce a prototype Active Melioidosis Detect Lateral Flow Immunoassay (AMD LFI; the limit of detection of the LFI for CPS is comparable to the antigen-capture immunoassay (∼0.2 ng/ml. The analytical reactivity (inclusivity of the AMD LFI was 98.7% (76/77 when tested against a large panel of B. pseudomallei isolates. Analytical specificity (cross-reactivity testing determined that 97.2% of B. pseudomallei near neighbor species (35/36 were not reactive. The non-reactive B. pseudomallei strain and the reactive near neighbor strain can be explained through genetic sequence analysis. Importantly, we show the AMD LFI is capable of detecting CPS in a variety of patient samples. The LFI is currently being evaluated in Thailand and Australia; the focus is to optimize and validate testing procedures on melioidosis patient samples prior to initiation of a large, multisite pre-clinical evaluation.

  20. ROLE OF RURAL TOURISM FOR DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Udovč

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyse the role of rural tourism for the development of rural areas, on the comparison of two regions with different types of rural tourism. One area is of highly diversifi ed rural tourism with wide range of tourist products (rafting, hiking, cycling, farm tourism, skiing …. The tourism offer in the second area is much more uniform (mainly farm tourism and some spa. The study analysed how the two different types of tourist product diversifi cations influence the development possibilities of studied rural areas. We analysed how different systems are able to maintain its functions in the context of identifi ed perturbations (socio-economic and geophysical. We analysed the infl uence of different factors on systems stability, its resilience, robustness and integrity. The gained results show that only the higher level of diversifi cation is not a guarantee for systems higher stability, resilience, robustness and integrity, but there also other

  1. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Change Agents - Development - Current, Near-Term, and Long-Term Potential High Landscape Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows areas of high current, near-term, and long-term potential landscape development, based on factors such as urban areas, agriculture, roads, and energy...

  2. Risk management of infrastructure development in border area Indonesia - Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Suryani; Trikariastoto, Reinita, Ita

    2017-11-01

    Border area is geographically adjacent to neighboring countries with the primary function of maintaining state sovereignty and public welfare. Area in question is part of the provinces, districts or cities that directly intersect with national boundaries (or territory) and / or that have a functional relationship (linkage) and has a strategic value for the state. The border area is considered strategic because it involves the national lives of many people in terms of the interests of political, economic, social and cultural as well as defense and security (poleksosbudhankam) both located on land, sea or air. The border area is geographically adjacent to neighboring countries with the primary function of maintaining state sovereignty and public welfare. Area in question is part of the provinces, districts or cities that directly intersect with national boundaries (or territory) and / or that have a functional relationship (linkage) and has a strategic value for the state. To realize the necessary research on the development of the area, based on good practices from other countries some of the city that can meet all these challenges and at least can be applied with minor changes / adjustments. Furthermore, the application must be supported by the availability of funds. This study to discuss about any problems either obstacles or things that drive to develop function becomes an ideal border area with major support infrastructure for housing, transportation, energy availability, and distribution of clean water which will strengthen in its function which consists of five pillars, namely: central community service; trade and distribution center; financial center; tourism center; related to the field of community development. Articulation between key stakeholders such as government, private, and community is a major concern in this study, including in determining the appropriate financing schemes. The results of this study will be recommended to the government to improve

  3. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ömer Faruk Sözcü; İsmail İpek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training and developing e-learning projects as well as multimedia design tools. For this reason, this paper will clarify the basic e-learning development tech...

  4. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Courten Maximilian

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for the gathering of other data through site visits, discussions, and document reviews. Methods The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access draws on the principles of Rapid Assessment Protocols which have been developed and implemented in several different areas. This protocol was adapted through a thorough literature review on diabetes, chronic condition management and medicine supply in developing countries. A visit to three countries in sub-Saharan Africa and meetings with different experts in the field of diabetes helped refine the questionnaires. Following the development of the questionnaires these were tested with various people familiar with diabetes and/or healthcare in developing countries. The Protocol was piloted in Mozambique then refined and had two further iterations in Zambia and Mali. Translations of questionnaires were made into local languages when necessary, with back translation to ensure precision. Results In each country the protocol was implemented in 3 areas – the capital city, a large urban centre and a predominantly rural area and their respective surroundings. Interviews were carried out by local teams trained on how to use the tool. Data was then collected and entered into a database for analysis. Conclusion The Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access was developed to provide a situational analysis of Type 1 diabetes, in order to make recommendations to the national Ministries of Health and Diabetes Associations. It provided valuable information on patients' access to insulin, syringes, monitoring and care. It was thus able to sketch a picture of the health care system with regards to its ability to

  5. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  6. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Jennifer E.; Rassweiler, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott L.; Warner, Robert R.

    2015-09-01

    Oceans currently face a variety of threats, requiring ecosystem-based approaches to management such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluated changes in fish biomass on temperate rocky reefs over the decade following implementation of a network of MPAs in the northern Channel Islands, California. We found that the biomass of targeted (i.e. fished) species has increased consistently inside all MPAs in the network, with an effect of geography on the strength of the response. More interesting, biomass of targeted fish species also increased outside MPAs, although only 27% as rapidly as in the protected areas, indicating that redistribution of fishing effort has not severely affected unprotected populations. Whether the increase outside of MPAs is due to changes in fishing pressure, fisheries management actions, adult spillover, favorable environmental conditions, or a combination of all four remains unknown. We evaluated methods of controlling for biogeographic or environmental variation across networks of protected areas and found similar performance of models incorporating empirical sea surface temperature versus a simple geographic blocking term based on assemblage structure. The patterns observed are promising indicators of the success of this network, but more work is needed to understand how ecological and physical contexts affect MPA performance.

  7. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Jennifer E; Rassweiler, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott L; Warner, Robert R

    2015-09-16

    Oceans currently face a variety of threats, requiring ecosystem-based approaches to management such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluated changes in fish biomass on temperate rocky reefs over the decade following implementation of a network of MPAs in the northern Channel Islands, California. We found that the biomass of targeted (i.e. fished) species has increased consistently inside all MPAs in the network, with an effect of geography on the strength of the response. More interesting, biomass of targeted fish species also increased outside MPAs, although only 27% as rapidly as in the protected areas, indicating that redistribution of fishing effort has not severely affected unprotected populations. Whether the increase outside of MPAs is due to changes in fishing pressure, fisheries management actions, adult spillover, favorable environmental conditions, or a combination of all four remains unknown. We evaluated methods of controlling for biogeographic or environmental variation across networks of protected areas and found similar performance of models incorporating empirical sea surface temperature versus a simple geographic blocking term based on assemblage structure. The patterns observed are promising indicators of the success of this network, but more work is needed to understand how ecological and physical contexts affect MPA performance.

  8. Strategic Planning for the Development of the Danube Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIO VALENTIN TACHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article includes concepts, information, methodologies of spatial planning focused on the Danube carried out within the European projects "Donauregionen" and "Donauregionen+", financed by the European Union through the South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme. The article proposes solutions for solving problems related to the opportunities offered by the Danube as an important corridor to support the economic growth and competitiveness of functional regions in the Danube area. The current situation in the Danube River riparian land-use planning policies involves (a creating the spatial concept of the Danube area interregional level, b developing integrated strategies to develop sectoral strategies embodied in the Danube area, the Transdanube strategy and development strategies for the Danube region as a whole. In this general scheme, indicators have been proposed, designed on four main areas (natural conditions, housing and human resources, technical infrastructure and transport, and economy. Based on the analyses conducted in the project, five Danube sub-regions and 19 Transdanube regions were established. Using the forecasting methodology proposed in the “Donauregionen+” project, three types of scenarios were developed for each sub-region: pessimistic, realistic and optimistic. All these scenarios have resulted in GIS cartograms, based on groups of territorial indicators that highlight the socio-economic development capacity of the Danube sub-regions.

  9. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.); Severinghaus, W.D. (Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States)); Brent, J.J. (US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany))

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA's barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  10. Freihoelser Forst Local Training Area Demonstration Project: Prescription development and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchman, R.R.; Zellmer, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Systems Div.; Severinghaus, W.D. [Corps of Engineers, Champaign, IL (United States); Brent, J.J. [US Army 282nd Base Support Battalion, Hohenfels (Germany)

    1989-04-01

    The Freiholser Forst Local Training Area (LTA) Rehabilitation Demonstration Project is part of the Integrated Training Area Management program being developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers` Construction Engineering Research Laboratory for the Seventh Army Training Command of the US Army in Europe. The rehabilitation demonstration project was begun in 1987 to develop and demonstrate rapid, cost-effective methods to stabilize the LTA`s barren, eroding maneuver areas and make training conditions more realistic. The sandy, infertile, and acidic soils at the LTA are considered the major factor limiting rehabilitation efforts there. The project involves the evaluation of three procedures to revegetate the soils, each incorporating identical methods for preparing the seedbed and a single seed mixture consisting of adapted, native species but using different soil amendments. All three treatments have satisfactorily reestablished vegetation and controlled erosion on the demonstration plots at the LTA, but their costs have varied widely.

  11. An integrated approach to tourism development in protected natural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor S. Kuznetsov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the assessment of tourist activity in terms of development of economy and a result of increased interest of people to rest and travel in the Arctic. Development of the ecotourism in the protected areas is in focus of the article. A draft concept of tourism development in the National park “Russian Arctic” and the state nature reserve of federal importance “Franz Josef Land” are discussed in the context of the most promising approaches to the their development.

  12. Human-environment sustainable development of rural areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Zhu, Hongbing; Hu, Shanfeng

    2017-05-01

    Human-environment sustainable development has become the important issue of rural transformation development in China. This paper analyses the development status of rural sustainability in China, and also presents the challenges facing the sustainability from the economic, social and environmental levels, including land and energy efficiency, solid waste, water and other types of environmental pollution. At last, the paper proposes the measures to establish the sustainable and liveable rural areas in China, like raising rural community awareness of sustainable development thinking; improving resource efficiency and new energy; and creating rural green industries and green products.

  13. Development of protected area system of the Komi Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Vyacheslavovna Tikhonova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the damages for biodiversity on the Republic of Komi Protected Areas are outlined. World experience of organizing Protected Areas is represented. The central management tasks into categories of domestic Protected areas are shown. Analysis of prevailing categories of these objects functioning by continents is carried out. The main resources of financing are listed including state investments, various payments, taxes and charitable and grant incomes. In the result of the economic evaluation potential recipients of benefits from the usage of bioresources and ecosystem services on model objects are defined, including the world community, local inhabitants and tourists. Territories that possess reserve for increased usage of its resources and services are represented. The Russian experience of attracting investment, using of economic potential and cultural traditions, development of recreation, tourism and tourism industry and revival of native craft is shown. Actual and perspective objects of tourism and recreation on the territory of Protected Areas are represented

  14. Anti-urbanisation as development chance for rural areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Lise Byskov; Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    retirement migration. In the region around Copenhagen such life style related migration to more peripheral areas can be detected counting especially the middle-aged and retired groups. Their migration is amenity-driven as they are attracted to coastal areas and rural amenities. They are also searching...... for a less stressful life, freedom and peace and quiet; a better quality of life. Anti-urbanisation might be a development chance for more remote areas in the metropolitan region. Some in-migrants start a micro-business in knowledge or creative services at their new home in the countryside in order...... to combine a dwelling far from the city, life style considerations with a continued carrier. By statistical analysis based on age-related migration data for municipalities we studied the extent of anti-urbanisation in the case area. The data indicates an ongoing and amplifying trend of amenity...

  15. Rapid Development of Hybrid Courses for Distance Education: A Midwestern University's Pilot Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    A descriptive case study was used to explore how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality distance education courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member…

  16. Rapid E-learning Development Strategies and a Multimedia Project Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sözcü, Ömer Faruk; Ipek, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to discuss e-learning design strategies which can be used for multimedia projects as a design model. Recent advances in instructional technologies have been found to be very important in the design of training courses by using rapid instructional design (ID) approaches. The approaches were developed to use in training…

  17. Experiments in rapid development of accurate phonetic alignments for TTS in Afrikaans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, DR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The quality of corpus-based text-to-speech (TTS) systems depends on the accuracy of phonetic annotation (alignments) which directly influences the process of acoustic modelling. In this paper the author discusses the rapid development of accurate...

  18. Development of flexural vibration inspection techniques to rapidly assess the structural health of rural bridge systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert Vatalaro; Xiping Wang; Kevin Sarvela; James P. Wacker

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 4,000 vehicle bridges in the State of Minnesota contain structural timber members. Recent research at the University of Minnesota Duluth Natural Resources Research Institute (UMD NRRI) has been conducted on vibration testing of timber bridges as a means of developing rapid in-place testing techniques for assessing the structural health of bridges. The...

  19. Analysis of Shield Construction in Spherical Weathered Granite Development Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Quan; Li, Peigang; Gong, Shuhua

    2018-01-01

    The distribution of spherical weathered bodies (commonly known as "boulder") in the granite development area directly affects the shield construction of urban rail transit engineering. This paper is based on the case of shield construction of granite globular development area in Southern China area, the parameter control in shield machine selection and shield advancing during the shield tunneling in this special geological environment is analyzed. And it is suggested that shield machine should be selected for shield construction of granite spherical weathered zone. Driving speed, cutter torque, shield machine thrust, the amount of penetration and the speed of the cutter head of shield machine should be controlled when driving the boulder formation, in order to achieve smooth excavation and reduce the disturbance to the formation.

  20. Viticulture – Challenge for Tourism Development (Znojmo Case Study Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Foret

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article, which deals with the issue whether the viticulture can be the challenge for tourism development, is based on research conducted in Znojmo case study area (the Czech Republic. It starts with general introduction of wine tourism concept based on the selected results of the previous scientific researches. The second part of the article brings description of the methods and brief characterisation of case study area. The third part pays attention to the analyses of the selected statistical data showing importance of viticulture for the case study area. The main fourth part is focused on selected activities which are connected with projects developing wine tourism (especially vineyards and vine festivals, where cooperation of different actors is necessary and continues by analysing of the potential of more intensive development of wine tourism on example of the important actor in case study area – wine producer Znovín Znojmo. The conducted research shows strong local embededness and association of company with the tourism industry. The article concludes with general recommendations, which emphasize the importance of effective partnership of the different actors by successful development of wine tourism.

  1. Workshop on problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    A workshop was conducted to discuss problem areas associated with developing carcinogen guidelines. Session topics included (1) definition of a carcinogen for regulatory purposes; (2) potency; (3) risk assessment; (4) uncertainties; (5) de minimis quantity; and (6) legal and regulatory issues. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  2. Accessibility and transit-oriented development in European metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papa, E.; Bertolini, L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how urban form is related to accessibility. In particular, it explores the relationship between Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and rail-based accessibility in a metropolitan area. The following overarching questions are addressed: Does a TOD-informed urban spatial

  3. Developing allometric equations for estimating leaf area and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of leaf area (LA) and leaf biomass (LB) is important to understand plant physiological and carbon assimilation processes, and tree growth models. The aim of this study was to develop and compare allometric equations for predicting LA and LB of Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb. taking diameter at breast height ...

  4. Thrust Area Report, Engineering Research, Development and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langland, R. T.

    1997-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through our collaboration with U.S. industry in pursuit of the most cost- effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where we can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance our capabilities and establish ourselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts technology {ital thrust areas} are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1996. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Microtechnology; Manufacturing Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Information Engineering. Readers desiring more information are encouraged to contact the individual thrust area leaders or authors. 198 refs., 206 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm......OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women.......05) for both training groups. Maximal muscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant...

  6. Socio-economic aspects development of the rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Skubiak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a change in the urban-rural relations in recent decades, as a result of increased mobility and intensity of information flow, changes in the production processes and the growing globalization of markets. The old urban-rural division lost its importance for the new ones: the metropolitan areas and those beside metropolitan. This can lead to the end of the traditional urban-rural relations, some signs are already seen. This is already observed in the process of “growing” the cities with their territories to rural areas. The risk of loss of the relationship between urban and rural areas is high because of the growing disproportion between these areas and decreased territorial cohesion. It requires strengthening new and deliberate efforts in regional policy, those that are not “fighting with windmills”, ie will take into account the objective processes already taking place. The purpose of this paper is an attempt to characterise the development of economic and social processes in rural areas and proposals for further action in the context of sustainable development.

  7. Sustainable development of rural areas: Case studies Vojvodina - Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forcan Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important strategic aims of Serbian economic development is supporting of the villages sustainable development through rural economy diversification where rural tourism development has an important place. In spite of this model of tourism importance recognition as a possible way of rural areas development, Serbia is in an opening phase of. Although there are several positive examples, it is significant that recent projects haven't been established according to national and European development programs, but according to private initiatives of individuals and groups. Rural tourism is an important component of integrated and sustainable development and revitalization of villages, as well an an important factor in encouraging the development of local agricultural and non-farmer activities in rural areas and villages, and also a special incentive to employment. This work highlights the importance of rural tourism in the function of the revitalization of the village, focusing on the challenges of the environment and the possible directions of development in the context of creating a recognizable tourist product and brand of rural tourism in Vojvodina.

  8. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Wei-Hsiang; Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm × 6 cm × 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm × 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm -2 and 0.4 mg cm -2, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm -2 at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm -2 at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 °C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of parallel connected and

  9. Planar array stack design aided by rapid prototyping in development of air-breathing PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chen-Yu.; Lai, Wei-Hsiang [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No.1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 701 (China); Weng, Biing-Jyh; Chuang, Huey-Jan; Hsieh, Ching-Yuan; Kung, Chien-Chih [Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, Materials and Electro-Optics Research Division, P.O. Box No. 90008-8-3 Lung-Tan, Tao-Yuan 325 (China)

    2008-04-15

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most important research topics in the new and clean energy area. The middle or high power PEMFCs can be applied to the transportation or the distributed power system. But for the small power application, it is needed to match the power requirement of the product generally. On the other hand, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is one of the most common type that researchers are interested in, but recently the miniature or the micro-PEMFCs attract more attention due to their advantages of high open circuit voltage and high power density. The objective of this study is to develop a new air-breathing planar array fuel cell stacked from 10 cells made by rapid prototyping technology which has potential for fast commercial design, low cost manufacturing, and even without converters/inverters for the system. In this paper, the main material of flow field plates is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) which allows the fuel cell be mass-manufactured by plastic injection molding technology. The rapid prototyping technology is applied to construct the prototype and verify the practicability of the proposed stack design. A 10-cell air-breathing miniature PEMFC stack with a volume of 6 cm x 6 cm x 0.9 cm is developed and tested. Its segmented membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is designed with the active surface area of 1.3 cm x 1.3 cm in each individual MEA. The platinum loading at anode and cathode are 0.2 mg cm{sup -2} and 0.4 mg cm{sup -2}, respectively. Results show that the peak power densities of the parallel connected and serial connected stack are 99 mW cm{sup -2} at 0.425 V and 92 mW cm{sup -2} at 4.25 V, respectively under the conditions of 70 C relative saturated humidity (i.e., dew point temperature), ambient temperature and free convection air. Besides, the stack performance is increased under forced convection. If the cell surface air is blown by an electric fan, the peak power densities of

  10. Developing Student’s Notion of Measurement Unit For Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Rahmi Yuberta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers found that students have difficulties in understandingarea measurement. Students mostly focus on applying formula to find the area of certain shapes without knowing what the area is and why theformula works. It is important for the students to know what attribute being measured and to construct the unit for area measurement. Therefore, the aim of this research is to develop activities that support students to know the attribute of area and  the notion of measurementunit in learning area measurement. For this purpose, design research is chosen for achieving the research goal. Realistic Mathematics Education (RME underlies the design of context and activities. A teacher and students in grade 3 in elementary school (SDN 21 in Palembang Indonesia will be involved in this research.Keywords: Area measurement, unit, design research, RME DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.775.173-184

  11. Tourism as a driver of development in the Inner Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangela Andreoli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at evaluating on one hand tourism development potentiality in territories involved in Italian “National Strategy for Inner Areas” (SNAI; on the other hand, at eliciting the conditions to be secured so that tourism could act as a real engine for growth. Starting from the analysis of available documents produced by Inner Areas so far, we classify the different territories on the basis of their emphasis on the tourism issue. The analysis is followed by an explanatory section, where we interpret the main tourism strategies referring to mainstream and heterodox economics approaches to local development. Finally, we consider the possible actions to be implemented in Inner Areas to get a tourism driven development.

  12. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  13. Developing technologies for rainwater utilization in urbanized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, R H; Lee, S; Lee, J H; Kim, Y M; Suh, J Y

    2005-04-01

    Rainwater utilization has potential to recover the hydrological cycle, to buffer extreme run-off situations in the watercourses, and to reduce the costs for water supply in urban areas. However, relatively few works have been done for developing technologies to improve the water quality during rainwater utilization in large cities where the contamination of rainwater is anticipated. Therefore, this study focused on developing technologies for rainwater utilization subsystems including catchment, storage, treatment, infiltration, and use for buildings in urban areas. The rainwater samples collected from roof and roof garden were compared with wet deposition to analyze and identify the major components that may cause problems in rainwater utilization. Based on these results, novel techniques utilizing TiO2, sunlight, and bauxsol to minimize the contamination level by particles, microorganisms, and nutrients were developed for rainwater subsystems and applied to explore their suitability.

  14. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2016-08-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  15. SUBSTANTIATING THE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR TOURISM IN PROTECTED AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Costencu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected natural areas, irrespective of their classification modality or the motivations they propose, have become more and more attractive for tourists. However, in time, the increasing touristic flows they attract, often developed in an uncontrolled manner, lead to the erosion of the space and the degradation of ecosystems. Developing tourism on sustainable principles, with the appropriate balance of the two functions of a protected area – the scientific and the touristic function – should start from the analysis of this form of tourism and of the development opportunities and limits regarded from the perspective of the external environment, and from the particularisation of the concept “site’s tourist reception capacity”. Destination areas should meet the economic, social and ecological requirements in competition, so that they observe the integrity of natural resources and of local communities. The upper limit of the number of visits allowed in a protected area is purposefully set at a level below the identified level of accepted use, so that, in the long run, the environment could be able to cover the possible increases occurred in the number of tourists, without subjecting the environment to further harm.

  16. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  17. Rapid Genotyping of the Human Renin (REN Gene by the LightCycler® Instrument: Identification of Unexpected Nucleotide Substitutions within the Selected Hybridization Probe Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Wee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a serious disorder affecting nearly 3% of all in the Western world. It is associated with hypertension and proteinuria, and several lines of evidence suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may be involved in the development of hypertension at different stages of a preeclamptic pregnancy. In this study, we developed rapid genotyping assays on the LightCycler® instrument to allow the detection of genetic variants in the renin gene (REN that may predispose to preeclampsia. The method is based on real-time PCR and allele-specific hybridization probes, followed by fluorescent melting curve analysis to expose a change in melting temperature (Tm. Ninety-two mother-father-child triads (n=276 from preeclamptic pregnancies were genotyped for three haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs in REN. All three htSNPs (rs5705, rs1464816 and rs3795575 were successfully genotyped. Furthermore, two unexpected nucleotide substitutions (rs11571084 and rs61757041 were identified within the selected hybridization probe area of rs1464816 and rs3795575 due to aberrant melting peaks. In conclusion, genotyping on the LightCycler® instrument proved to be rapid and highly reproducible. The ability to uncover additional nucleotide substitutions is particularly important in that it allows the identification of potentially etiological variants that might otherwise be overlooked by other genotyping methods.

  18. READERS: Rapid English Assimilation Developing English Reading and Speaking; Social and Academic Implications of English Proficiency amongst Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Russell

    2017-01-01

    The READERS (Rapid English Assimilation Developing English Reading and Speaking) program is designed to facilitate teachers and students in rapid English assimilation, focusing on grammar and verbal recall as pertaining to the English language. The purpose of this qualitative method case study was to investigate the effects of rapid English…

  19. IL-6 trans-Signaling-Dependent Rapid Development of Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Böttcher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune control of infections with viruses or intracellular bacteria relies on cytotoxic CD8+ T cells that use granzyme B (GzmB for elimination of infected cells. During inflammation, mature antigen-presenting dendritic cells instruct naive T cells within lymphoid organs to develop into effector T cells. Here, we report a mechanistically distinct and more rapid process of effector T cell development occurring within 18 hr. Such rapid acquisition of effector T cell function occurred through cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs in the absence of innate immune stimulation and known costimulatory signaling. Rather, interleukin-6 (IL-6 trans-signaling was required and sufficient for rapid induction of GzmB expression in CD8+ T cells. Such LSEC-stimulated GzmB-expressing CD8+ T cells further responded to inflammatory cytokines, eliciting increased and protracted effector functions. Our findings identify a role for IL-6 trans-signaling in rapid generation of effector function in CD8+ T cells that may be beneficial for vaccination strategies.

  20. Functional Segregation and Development of Mouse Higher Visual Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomonari; Matsui, Teppei; Ohki, Kenichi

    2017-09-27

    Recent studies suggest that higher visual areas (HVAs) in the mouse visual cortex are segregated anatomically into two visual streams, likely analogous to the ventral and dorsal streams in primates. However, HVAs in mice have yet to be characterized functionally. Moreover, it is unknown when the functional segregation of HVAs occurs during development. Here, we investigated spatiotemporal selectivity of HVAs and their development using wide-field calcium imaging. We found that lateral HVAs in the anatomical ventral stream shared similar spatiotemporal selectivity, whereas the spatiotemporal selectivity of anterior and medial HVAs in the anatomical dorsal stream was not uniform and these areas were segregated functionally into multiple groups. This functional segregation of HVAs developed and reached an adult-like pattern ∼10 d after eye opening (EO). These results suggest, not only the functional segregation of ventral and dorsal streams, but also the presence of multiple substreams in the dorsal stream, and indicate that the functional segregation of visual streams occurs gradually after EO.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Investigation of the spatiotemporal selectivity of nine higher visual areas (HVAs) in adult and developing mice revealed that lateral HVAs belonging to the putative ventral stream shared similar spatiotemporal selectivity, whereas the spatiotemporal selectivity of anterior and medial HVAs belonging to the putative dorsal stream was not uniform and these areas were segregated functionally into multiple groups. These results suggest the presence of multiple substreams within the putative dorsal stream for visuospatial processing. Furthermore, we found that initially immature functional segregation among HVAs developed to an adult-like pattern ∼10 d after eye opening. These results provide a foundation for using mouse HVAs as a model to understand parallel processing and its developmental mechanism. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/379424-14$15.00/0.

  1. Small Project Rapid Integration and Test Environment (SPRITE) An Innovation Space for Small Projects Design, Development, Integration, and Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ashley; Rackoczy, John; Heater, Daniel; Sanders, Devon; Tashakkor, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years interest in the development and use of small satellites has rapidly gained momentum with universities, commercial, and government organizations. In a few years we may see networked clusters of dozens or even hundreds of small, cheap, easily replaceable satellites working together in place of the large, expensive and difficult-to-replace satellites now in orbit. Standards based satellite buses and deployment mechanisms, such as the CubeSat and Poly Pico-satellite Orbital Deployer (P-POD), have stimulated growth in this area. The use of small satellites is also proving to be a cost effective capability in many areas traditionally dominated by large satellites, though many challenges remain. Currently many of these small satellites undergo very little testing prior to flight. As these small satellites move from technology demonstration and student projects toward more complex operational assets, it is expected that the standards for verification and validation will increase.

  2. Rapid tolerance development to the NREM sleep promoting effect of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep; Thakkar, Mahesh M

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol tolerance is a major contributor towards the development of alcohol dependence. Does alcohol intake result in rapid tolerance development to alcohol induced NREM sleep promotion? This has never been examined. Our objective was to examine whether two bouts of alcohol consumption on consecutive days results in rapid tolerance development to alcohol-induced NREM sleep promotion. N/A. N/A. C57BL/6J mice. Mice (N = 5) were implanted with sleep electrodes using standard surgical conditions. Following postoperative recovery and habituation, the experiment was begun. On baseline day, water bottle changes were performed at 10:00 (3 h after dark onset) and 14:00 to mimic conditions during alcohol consumption days. On next 2 days, (Days 1 and 2) mice were allowed to self-administer alcohol (20% v/v) for 4 h beginning at 10:00 and ending at 14:00. Sleep-wakefulness was continuously recorded from 10:00 to 18:00 (8 h; 4 h during alcohol + 4 h post-alcohol) on all 3 days. Although mice consumed comparable amounts of alcohol on Days 1 and 2, NREM sleep and wakefulness were significantly and differentially affected during 4 h post-alcohol period. A robust alcohol-induced NREM sleep promotion was observed on Day 1. However, no such sleep promotion was observed on Day 2, suggesting rapid tolerance development. Our study is the first to demonstrate that alcohol consumption for two consecutive days results in development of rapid tolerance to alcohol-induced sleep promotion.

  3. New Products and Technologies, Based on Calculations Developed Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Vertan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Following statistics, currently prosperous and have high GDP / capita, only countries that have and fructify intensively large natural resources and/or produce and export products massive based on patented inventions accordingly. Without great natural wealth and the lowest GDP / capita in the EU, Romania will prosper only with such products. Starting from the top experience in the country, some patented, can develop new and competitive technologies and patentable and exportable products, based on exact calculations of developed areas, such as that double shells welded assemblies and plating of ships' propellers and blade pump and hydraulic turbines.

  4. The Role of Open Government Data in Urban Areas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The next step for our urban areas is to become friendly using open data. The focus of this paper is to highlight the necessity and the implementation of Open Government Data (OGD. It also presents the principles of Open Government Data. The paper aims to analyze the OGD solutions and the impact of these for urban development using a SWOT analysis. In our age OGD confers an important advantage in development economy. In this case everybody tries to implement efficient OGD.

  5. Grid-based mapping: A method for rapidly determining the spatial distributions of small features over very large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdale, Jason D.; Balme, Matthew R.; Conway, Susan J.; Gallagher, Colman; van Gasselt, Stephan A.; Hauber, Ernst; Orgel, Csilla; Séjourné, Antoine; Skinner, James A.; Costard, Francois; Johnsson, Andreas; Losiak, Anna; Reiss, Dennis; Swirad, Zuzanna M.; Kereszturi, Akos; Smith, Isaac B.; Platz, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The increased volume, spatial resolution, and areal coverage of high-resolution images of Mars over the past 15 years have led to an increased quantity and variety of small-scale landform identifications. Though many such landforms are too small to represent individually on regional-scale maps, determining their presence or absence across large areas helps form the observational basis for developing hypotheses on the geological nature and environmental history of a study area. The combination of improved spatial resolution and near-continuous coverage significantly increases the time required to analyse the data. This becomes problematic when attempting regional or global-scale studies of metre and decametre-scale landforms. Here, we describe an approach for mapping small features (from decimetre to kilometre scale) across large areas, formulated for a project to study the northern plains of Mars, and provide context on how this method was developed and how it can be implemented. Rather than ;mapping; with points and polygons, grid-based mapping uses a ;tick box; approach to efficiently record the locations of specific landforms (we use an example suite of glacial landforms; including viscous flow features, the latitude dependant mantle and polygonised ground). A grid of squares (e.g. 20 km by 20 km) is created over the mapping area. Then the basemap data are systematically examined, grid-square by grid-square at full resolution, in order to identify the landforms while recording the presence or absence of selected landforms in each grid-square to determine spatial distributions. The result is a series of grids recording the distribution of all the mapped landforms across the study area. In some ways, these are equivalent to raster images, as they show a continuous distribution-field of the various landforms across a defined (rectangular, in most cases) area. When overlain on context maps, these form a coarse, digital landform map. We find that grid-based mapping

  6. Analyze of Tourism Development Impacts on the Development of Rural Areas (Case Study: Kesselian County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Ebrahimi Koohbone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development in rural areas is one of the main strategies to achieve rural development. The aim of this descriptive-analytical study is to analyze the impact of rural tourism in the socio-economic development of rural areas (Kesselian County of Mazandaran province. Data collected using 190 questionnaires determined using Cochrane formula. The validity of the questionnaires were confirmed by Cronbach Alpha equal to 0.796. The results show that there is significant positive relationship between rural tourism and improve in rural household income, health, sewage and waste disposal systems as well as development of rural homes and roads. The factor analysis results show that the best important positive effects of rural tourism in rural areas are infrastructural development, economic development and development of employment; and main negative effects of rural tourism in rural areas are destruction of the business environment, increased of social abnormalities and destruction of cultural environment.

  7. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-01-01

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T1 relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improveme...

  8. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of pigeon circovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shinn Shyong; Chang, Yeng Ling; Huang, Yen Li; Liu, Hung Jen; Ke, Guan Ming; Chiou, Chwei Jang; Hsieh, Yao Ching; Chang, Tsung Chou; Cheng, Li Ting; Chuang, Kuo Pin

    2014-05-01

    There are no effective antiviral treatments for pigeon circovirus (PiCV); thus, rapid diagnosis is critical for effective control of the disease caused by this virus. The recent development of a novel LAMP technique that amplifies nucleic acids rapidly with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions has overcome some of the deficiencies of nucleic-acid-based diagnostic tests. We established a LAMP method for rapid detection of PiCV using two pairs of primers that were designed from PiCV and compared its sensitivity and specificity with that of PCR. Amplification by LAMP was optimal at 63 °C for 60 min. The detection limit was nearly 0.5 pg of PiCV DNA, making it ten times more sensitive than PCR. There was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), pigeon Trichomonas gallinae, or pigeon herpesvirus (PHV) under the same conditions. The assay also successfully detected the pathogen DNA in the tissues of infected pigeons. This is the first report indicating that LAMP is a valuable, rapid method of detecting PiCV with high sensitivity and specificity.

  9. Development of a double-antibody sandwich ELISA for rapid detection of Bacillus Cereus in food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Longjiao; He, Jing; Cao, Xiaohan; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is increasingly recognized as one of the major causes of food poisoning in the industrialized world. In this paper, we describe a sensitive double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that was developed for rapid detection of B. cereus in food to minimize the risk of contamination. The polyclonal antibody (pAb) and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific to B. cereus were generated from rabbit antiserum and mouse ascites, respectively, using the octanoic acid/saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation method and protein A-sepharose columns. IgG-isotype mAbs were specially developed to undergo a novel peripheral multiple sites immunization for rapid gain of hybridomas and a subtractive screen was used to eliminate cross reactivity with closely related species such as Bacillus thuringiensis, B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. perfringens. The linear detection range of the method was approximately 1 × 104–2.8 × 106 cells/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.9 × 103 cells/mL. The assay was able to detect B. cereus when the samples were prepared in meat with various pathogens. The newly developed analytical method provides a rapid method to sensitively detect B. cereus in food specimens. PMID:26976753

  10. Evaluation of simple rapid HIV assays and development of national rapid HIV test algorithms in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbwana Judica

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suitable algorithms based on a combination of two or more simple rapid HIV assays have been shown to have a diagnostic accuracy comparable to double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or double ELISA with Western Blot strategies. The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of five simple rapid HIV assays using whole blood samples from HIV-infected patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors, and to formulate an alternative confirmatory strategy based on rapid HIV testing algorithms suitable for use in Tanzania. Methods Five rapid HIV assays: Determine™ HIV-1/2 (Inverness Medical, SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc., First Response HIV Card 1–2.0 (PMC Medical India Pvt Ltd, HIV1/2 Stat-Pak Dipstick (Chembio Diagnostic System, Inc and Uni-Gold™ HIV-1/2 (Trinity Biotech were evaluated between June and September 2006 using 1433 whole blood samples from hospital patients, pregnant women, voluntary counseling and testing attendees and blood donors. All samples that were reactive on all or any of the five rapid assays and 10% of non-reactive samples were tested on a confirmatory Inno-Lia HIV I/II immunoblot assay (Immunogenetics. Results Three hundred and ninety samples were confirmed HIV-1 antibody positive, while 1043 were HIV negative. The sensitivity at initial testing of Determine, SD Bioline and Uni-Gold™ was 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 while First Response and Stat-Pak had sensitivity of 99.5% (95% CI; 98.2–99.9 and 97.7% (95% CI; 95.7–98.9, respectively, which increased to 100% (95% CI; 99.1–100 on repeat testing. The initial specificity of the Uni-Gold™ assay was 100% (95% CI; 99.6–100 while specificities were 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9, 99.4% (95% CI; 98.8–99.7, 99.6% (95% CI; 99–99.9 and 99.8% (95% CI; 99.3–99.9 for Determine, SD Bioline, First Response and Stat-Pak assays, respectively. There was no any sample which was

  11. The impact of telecommunication on rural areas in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, P. A. M.; Kwaks, A. M. J.; Bruza, I. V.; Dijk, J.

    1987-12-01

    The economic and social impact of telecommunication in developing countries was studied. The economic impact not only depends on the direct returns of the investment, like tariffs, through the improved communication facilities, other sectors can indirectly profit from the investments too. Especially, in areas with a very low telephone density, the indirect returns of a telecommunication investment are enormous. Technical possibilities for building up transmission links in a rural network include coaxial cables, glass fibers, radio transmission, and satellite communication. In thinly populated rural areas, satellite communication with a single channel per carrier (SCPC) system is a good solution. With a SCPC system few groundstations can be used. These stations are easy to maintain, and use little power. As soon as a satellite channel and two groundstations are operational, transmission is possible, so a SCPC system can be implemented quickly.

  12. Development of a highly sensitive lateral immunochromatographic assay for rapid detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Guan, Yuyao; Cheng, Shiliang; Huang, Yidan; Yan, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Guanjun; Zheng, Jian; Liu, Tianqiang

    2016-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is widely present in brackish water all over the world, causing infections in certain aquatic animals. It is also a foodborne pathogen that causes diarrhea in humans. The aim of this study is to develop an immunochromatographic lateral flow assay (LFA) for rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus in both aquatic products and human feces of diarrheal patients. Two monoclonal antibody (MAb) pairs, GA1a-IC9 and IC9-KB4c, were developed and proven to be highly specific and sensitive to V. parahaemolyticus. Based on the two MAb pairs, two types of LFA strips were prepared. Their testing limits for V. parahaemolyticus culture were both 1.2×103CFU/ml. The diagnostic sensitivities and specificities were both 100% for the 32 tested microbial species, including 6 Vibrio species. Subsequently, the LFA strips were used to test Whiteleg shrimps and human feces. The type II strip showed a higher diagnostic sensitivity. Its sensitivity and specificity for hepatopancreas and fecal samples from 13 Whiteleg shrimps and fecal samples from 146 human diarrheal patients were all 100%. In conclusion, our homemade type II LFA is a very promising testing device for rapid and convenient detection of V. parahaemolyticus infection not only in aquatic animals, but also in human diarrheal patients. This sensitive immunochromtographic LFA allows rapid detection of V. parahaemolyticus without requirement of culture enrichment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Modelling Local Attitudes to Protected Areas in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Bragagnolo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerous studies our understanding of what drives positive attitudes to PAs is still exceedingly limited. Here, we review the literature on local attitudes towards PAs in developing countries. Our survey reveals a highly fragmented research area where studies typically lack an explicit conceptual basis, and where there is wide variation in choice of statistical approach, explanatory and response variables, and incorporation of contextual information. Nevertheless, there is a relatively high degree of concordance between studies, with certain variables showing strong associations with attitudes. We recommend that PA attitude researchers in developing countries adopt a more rigorous model building approach based on a clear conceptual framework and drawing on the extensive empirical literature. Such an approach would improve the quality of research, increase comparability, and provide a stronger basis to support conservation decision-making.

  14. Rapidly developing multimorbidity and disability in older adults: does social background matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Santoni, Giola; Wang, Hui Xin; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Rizzuto, Debora; Vetrano, Davide L; Marengoni, Alessandra; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2018-02-07

    Multimorbidity is among the most disabling geriatric conditions. In this study we explored whether a rapid development of multimorbidity potentiates its impact on the functional independence of older adults, and whether different sociodemographic factors play a role beyond the rate of chronic disease accumulation. A random sample of persons aged ≥60 years (n = 2387) from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen (SNAC-K) was followed over 6 years. The speed of multimorbidity development was estimated as the rate of chronic disease accumulation (linear mixed models) and further dichotomized into the upper versus the three lower rate quartiles. Binomial negative mixed models were used to analyse the association between speed of multimorbidity development and disability (impaired basic and instrumental activities of daily living), expressed as the incidence rate ratio (IRR). The effect of sociodemographic factors, including sex, education, occupation and social network, was investigated. The risk of new activity impairment was higher among participants who developed multimorbidity faster (IRR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.1) compared with those who accumulated diseases more slowly over time, even after considering the baseline number of chronic conditions. Only female sex (IRR for women vs. men 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) and social network (IRR for poor vs. rich social network 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.2) showed an effect on disability beyond the rate of chronic disease accumulation. Rapidly developing multimorbidity is a negative prognostic factor for disability. However, sociodemographic factors such as sex and social network may determine older adults' reserves of functional ability, helping them to live independently despite rapid accumulation of chronic conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. A Large-Area Nanoplasmonic Sensor Fabricated by Rapid Thermal Annealing Treatment for Label-Free and Multi-Point Immunoglobulin Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hana Tzu-Han; Yang, Chuan-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wu, Albert Meng-Hsin; Wang, Lon A; Huang, Nien-Tsu

    2017-05-02

    Immunoglobulins are important biomarkers to evaluate the immune status or development of infectious diseases. To provide timely clinical treatments, it is important to continuously monitor the level of multiple immunoglobulins. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based nanoplasmonic sensors have been demonstrated for multiplex immunoglobulins detection. However, the sensor fabrication process is usually slow and complicated, so it is not accessible for large-area and batch fabrication. Herein, we report a large-area (2 cm × 2 cm) nanofabrication method using physical vapor deposition followed by a rapid thermal annealing treatment. To optimize the sensor performance, we systematically characterized three fabrication conditions, including (1) the deposition thickness; (2) the maximum annealing temperature, and (3) the annealing time. The corresponding absorbance spectrum profile and surface morphology of the nanostructures were observed by a UV-VIS spectrometer and atomic force microscopy. We then tested the sensitivity of the sensor using a glucose solution at different concentrations. The results showed that the sensor with 10 nm gold deposition thickness under 5-min 900 °C rapid thermal annealing can achieve the highest sensitivity (189 nm RIU-1). Finally, we integrated this nanoplasmonic sensor with a microchannel and a motorized stage to perform a 10-spot immunoglobulin detection in 50 min. Based on its real-time, dynamic and multi-point analyte detection capability, the nanoplasmonic sensor has the potential to be applied in high-throughput or multiplex immunoassay analysis, which would be beneficial for disease diagnosis or biomedical research in a simple and cost-effective platform.

  16. Rapid culture-based diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in developed and developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eDRANCOURT

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, with 9 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths mainly in developing countries. Reviewing data reported over 20 years yields a state-of-the-art procedure for the routine culture of M. tuberculosis in both developed and developing countries. Useful specimens include sputum, induced sputum and stools collected in quaternary ammonium preservative-containing sterile cans. The usefulness of other non-invasive specimens remains to be evaluated. Specimens can be collected in a diagnosis kit also containing sampling materials, instructions, laboratory requests and informed consent. Automated direct LED fluorescence microscopy after auramine staining precedes inoculation of an egg-lecithin-containing culture solid medium under microaerophilic atmosphere, inverted microscope reading or scanning video-imaging detection of colonies and colonies identification by recent molecular methods. This procedure should result in a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis as fast as 5 days. It may be implemented in both developed and developing countries with automated steps replaceable by manual steps depending on local resources.

  17. SOAR telescope control system: a rapid prototype and development in LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Michael C.; Schumacher, German

    2000-06-01

    A Rapid Prototype and full development plan of the SOAR TCS is reviewed to show advances in: (1) Prototyping speed, which makes implementation and test of features faster than specification under older methods. This allows the development environment and prototype modules to become partners with and part of the specification documents. (2) Real-Time performance and reliability through use of RT Linux. (3) Visually Rich GUI development that allows an emphasis on `seeing' versus `reading'. (4) Long-Term DataLogging and Internet subscription service of all desired variables with instant recall of historical trend data. (5) A `plug-in' software architecture which enables rapid reconfiguration and reuse of the system and/or plug-ins utilizing LabVIEW graphical modules, a scripting language engine (in LabVIEW) and encapsulation of interfaces in `instrument-driver' style `plug-in' modules. (6) A platform- independent development environment and distributed architecture allowing secure internet observation and control via every major OS and hardware platform.

  18. The history of aggregate development in the denver, Co area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, W.H.

    2009-01-01

    At the start of the 20th century Denver's population was 203,795. Most streets were unpaved. Buildings were constructed of wood frame or masonry. Transport was by horse-drawn-wagon or rail. Statewide, aggregate consumption was less than 0.25 metric tons per person per year. One hundred years later Denver had a population of 2,365,345. Today Denver is a major metropolitan area at the crossroads of two interstates, home to a new international airport, and in the process of expanding its light rail transit system. The skyline is punctuated with skyscrapers. The urban center is surrounded with edge cities. These changes required huge amounts of aggregate. Statewide, aggregate consumption increased 50 fold to over 13 metric tons per person per year. Denver has a large potential supply of aggregate, but sand and gravel quality decreases downstream from the mountain front and potential sources of crushed stone occur in areas prized for their scenic beauty. These issues, along with urban encroachment and citizen opposition, have complicated aggregate development and have paved a new path for future aggregate development including sustainable resource management and reclamation techniques.

  19. Historical Development of Skiing: Case Study in Durmitor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Milašinović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is the history of skiing, while the main goal will be the historical development of skiing in the mountain Durmitor area in Montenegro. The study consists two goals. The first goal is the emergence of the first ski in the Montenegro and benefits that are brought. The second and the main goal is the occurrence and development of skiing and ski sports in the territory of mountain Durmitor. During the making of this study, the authors used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous authors’ experience in this field was also so useful. Moreover, the author used the analytic method and parallel method that is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance. The main outcome of this study was showing of historical progress of ski sports in the territory of mountain Durmitor from early beginnings to the modern Olympic skiing. Skis and ski sport were early appeared in the region of Mount Durmitor. The mountain and the region around it, are very rich with slopes with Olympic diameter, with plenty of snowfall and long winters. However, lack of financial investment, channeling money to other centers, led to the fact that the skiing in this area is at a low level.

  20. Development of Rapid Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Phytophthora spp. in Plant Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing

  1. Identification of pollutant sources in a rapidly developing urban river catchment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingshui; Yin, Hailong; Jomma, Seifeddine; Rode, Michael; Zhou, Qi

    2016-04-01

    Rapid economic development and urbanization worldwide cause serious ecological and environmental problems. A typical region that is in transition and requires systemic research for effective intervention is the rapidly developing city of Hefei in central P. R. China. In order to investigate the sources of pollutants over a one-year period in Nanfei River catchment that drains the city of Hefei, discharges were measured and water samples were taken and measured along the 14km river section at 10 sites for 4 times from 2013 to 2014. Overflow concentrations of combined sewer and separate storm drains were also measured by selecting 15 rain events in 4 typical drainage systems. Loads and budgets of water and different pollutant sources i.e., wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, urban drainage overflow, unknown wastewater were calculated. The water balance demonstrated that >70% of the discharge originated from WWTP effluent. Lack of clean upstream inflow thereby is threatening ecological safety and water quality. Furthermore, mass fluxes calculations revealed that >40% of the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) loads were from urban drainage overflow because of a large amount of discharge of untreated wastewater in pumping stations during rain events. WWTP effluent was the predominant source of the total nitrogen loads (>60%) and ammonia loads (>45%). However, the total phosphorous loads from three different sources are similar (˜1/3). Thus, our research provided a basis for appropriate and prior mitigation strategies (state-of-art of WWTP upgrade, sewer systems modification, storm water regulation and storage capacity improvement, etc.) for different precedence-controlled pollutants with the limited infrastructure investments in these rapidly developing urban regions.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF THE TOTAL MINERALIZATION OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new approach has been proposed for rapid and easy evaluation of a indicator of quality and properties of natural water - soluble salt content (mineralization. The method of quartz crystal microbalance is employed at load of the mass-sensitive resonator electrode (BAW-type with investigated water. The degree of correlation between the various indicators related to the contents of salts and insoluble compounds and the level of mineralization obtained by the standard method (gravimetry has been studied. A procedure for salt weighing by single sensor at unilateral load with small sample of natural water has been developed. The optimal conditions for measurement is established using the design of experiment by model 23 . The possibilities of quartz crystal microbalance for determination of non-volatile compounds in the water are described. The calibration of piezosensor is produced by standard solution NaCl (c = 1.000 g / dm3 at optimal conditions of experiment. The adequacy and accuracy of proposed technique is assessed by the correlation between the results of quartz crystal microbalance and conductometry. The correlation between indicators of mineralization established by quartz crystal microbalance and gravimetry is found. It has been obtained an equation that can be used to calculate the standard indicator of the mineralization by the results of a quartz crystal microbalance using single sensor. The approaches to enhance the analytical capabilities of the developed technique for water with low and high mineralization are proposed. The metrological characteristics of quartz crystal microbalance of insoluble compounds in natural water are estimated. A new technique of determination of the mass concentration of the dry residue in water with a conductivity of 0.2 mS or above has been developed, which can be used for rapid analysis of the water at nonlaboratory conditions and in the laboratory for rapid obtaining the information about a sample.

  3. Bordetella trematum sepsis with shock in a diabetic patient with rapidly developing soft tissue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Lorrance L; Nogi, Masayuki; Bankowski, Matthew J; Chung, Heath H

    2016-09-01

    Bordetella is a gram-negative, glucose non-fermenting bacillus, consisting of many host-associated species. B. trematum has previously been identified in wound infections, but rarely known to be a source of bacteremia. Currently, 16S rRNA sequencing represents the reference standard method by which identification is made. Herein, we present a case of fatal B. trematum bacteremia with septic shock. The presumed primary site of the infection was a rapidly developing left leg deep soft tissue infection without necrotizing fasciitis. B. trematum should now be considered as a significant pathogen in sepsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time while...... the tool does its job, change descriptions must be memorised until your next check-in, etc. This kind of overhead and disruption does not fit well with fast-paced development processes like rapid prototyping, explorative programming, and eXtreme Programming that favour creativity, speed, and communication...... more that managerial rigour. In the cost/benefit equation the balance may tip in favour of not using any SCM tool or only using a fraction of its potential. We think SCM has something to offer such projects, and present some proposals that may allow SCM tools to better suit the characteristics of fast...

  5. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  6. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  7. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  8. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  9. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  10. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Akito; Furukawa, Kazuro

    2015-08-01

    Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs), the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN) faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  11. Development of wide area environment accelerator operation and diagnostics method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Uchiyama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Remote operation and diagnostic systems for particle accelerators have been developed for beam operation and maintenance in various situations. Even though fully remote experiments are not necessary, the remote diagnosis and maintenance of the accelerator is required. Considering remote-operation operator interfaces (OPIs, the use of standard protocols such as the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP is advantageous, because system-dependent protocols are unnecessary between the remote client and the on-site server. Here, we have developed a client system based on WebSocket, which is a new protocol provided by the Internet Engineering Task Force for Web-based systems, as a next-generation Web-based OPI using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System Channel Access protocol. As a result of this implementation, WebSocket-based client systems have become available for remote operation. Also, as regards practical application, the remote operation of an accelerator via a wide area network (WAN faces a number of challenges, e.g., the accelerator has both experimental device and radiation generator characteristics. Any error in remote control system operation could result in an immediate breakdown. Therefore, we propose the implementation of an operator intervention system for remote accelerator diagnostics and support that can obviate any differences between the local control room and remote locations. Here, remote-operation Web-based OPIs, which resolve security issues, are developed.

  12. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  13. COORDINATES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen-Maria IORDACHE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internationally, urban tourism began to develop gradually from the '80s, nowadays being a distinct form of tourism whose importance is increasing. Thus, there were concerns about specific facilities for different categories of visitors and their harmonization with the demands of caring for the smooth functioning of urban settlements. By adding tourism to the local economy inventory activities of an urban area, it can be considered a catalyst and a reviving factor for strengthening urban cities especially because it represents an important source of income and it is responsible for creating thousands of jobs. Given the need to adapt to the demands of tourists, this paper attempts to clarify some issues related to content, characteristics and influencing factors of urban tourism, but also the adoption of policies for exploitation through tourism of the specific elements of urban space and urban tourism prospects.

  14. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal models used for analyzing dendritic web growth and calculating the thermal stress were reexamined to establish the validity limits imposed by the assumptions of the models. Also, the effects of thermal conduction through the gas phase were evaluated and found to be small. New growth designs, both static and dynamic, were generated using the modeling results. Residual stress effects in dendritic web were examined. In the laboratory, new techniques for the control of temperature distributions in three dimensions were developed. A new maximum undeformed web width of 5.8 cm was achieved. A 58% increase in growth velocity of 150 micrometers thickness was achieved with dynamic hardware. The area throughput goals for transient growth of 30 and 35 sq cm/min were exceeded.

  15. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  16. Non-Obese Diabetic Mice Rapidly Develop Dramatic Sympathetic Neuritic Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E.; Dorsey, Denise A.; Beaudet, Lucie N.; Frederick, Kathy E.; Parvin, Curtis A.; Plurad, Santiago B.; Levisetti, Matteo G.

    2003-01-01

    To address the pathogenesis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, we have examined the sympathetic nervous system in non-obese diabetic (NOD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, two models of type 1 diabetes, and the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes. After only 3 to 5 weeks of diabetes, NOD mice developed markedly swollen axons and dendrites (“neuritic dystrophy”) in the prevertebral superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMG-CG), similar to the pathology described in diabetic STZ- and BBW-rat and man. Comparable changes failed to develop in the superior cervical ganglia of the NOD mouse or in the SMG-CG of non-diabetic NOD siblings. STZ-induced diabetic mice develop identical changes, although at a much slower pace and to a lesser degree than NOD mice. NOD-SCID mice, which are genetically identical to NOD mice except for the absence of T and B cells, do not develop diabetes or neuropathology comparable to diabetic NOD mice. However, STZ-treated NOD-SCID mice develop severe neuritic dystrophy, evidence against an exclusively autoimmune pathogenesis for autonomic neuropathy in this model. Chronically diabetic type 2 db/db mice fail to develop neuritic dystrophy, suggesting that hyperglycemia alone may not be the critical and sufficient element. The NOD mouse appears to be a valuable model of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy with unambiguous, rapidly developing neuropathology which corresponds closely to the characteristic pathology of other rodent models and man. PMID:14578206

  17. Old knowledge and new technologies allow rapid development of model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charles E; Chenevert, Janet; Larsson, Tomas A; Arendt, Detlev; Houliston, Evelyn; Lénárt, Péter

    2016-03-15

    Until recently the set of "model" species used commonly for cell biology was limited to a small number of well-understood organisms, and developing a new model was prohibitively expensive or time-consuming. With the current rapid advances in technology, in particular low-cost high-throughput sequencing, it is now possible to develop molecular resources fairly rapidly. Wider sampling of biological diversity can only accelerate progress in addressing cellular mechanisms and shed light on how they are adapted to varied physiological contexts. Here we illustrate how historical knowledge and new technologies can reveal the potential of nonconventional organisms, and we suggest guidelines for selecting new experimental models. We also present examples of nonstandard marine metazoan model species that have made important contributions to our understanding of biological processes. © 2016 Cook et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. Development of a Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Hansen

    Full Text Available The detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP infections in ruminants is crucial to control spread among animals and to humans. Cultivation of MAP is seen as the gold standard for detection, although it is very time consuming and labour intensive. In addition, several PCR assays have been developed to detect MAP in around 90 minutes, but these assays required highly sophisticated equipment as well as lengthy and complicated procedure.In this study, we have developed a rapid assay for the detection of MAP based on the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assay targeting a MAP specific region, the IS900 gene. The detection limit was 16 DNA molecules in 15 minutes as determined by the probit analysis on eight runs of the plasmid standard. Cross reactivity with other mycobacterial and environmentally associated bacterial strains was not observed. The clinical performance of the MAP RPA assay was tested using 48 MAP-positive and 20 MAP-negative blood, sperm, faecal and tissue samples. All results were compared with reads of a highly sensitive real-time PCR assay. The specificity of the MAP RPA assay was 100%, while the sensitivity was 89.5%.The RPA assay is quicker and much easier to handle than real-time PCR. All RPA reagents were cold-chain independent. Moreover, combining RPA assay with a simple extraction protocol will maximize its use at point of need for rapid detection of MAP.

  19. Development of a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay for the rapid diagnosis of Orf virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kui; He, Wenqi; Bi, Jingying; Zhang, Ximu; Zhang, Di; Huang, Houshuang; Zhang, Yuexiang; Song, Deguang; Gao, Feng

    2016-10-01

    A rapid and simple lateral-flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) was developed for the specific detection of Orf virus (ORFV) using two distinct monoclonal antibodies (MAbs: 5A5 and 6F2) against the ORFV ORF011 protein. The MAb 5A5 was conjugated with colloidal gold, and the MAb 6F2 and goat anti-mouse IgG were sprayed onto a nitrocellulose membrane in strips at positions designated test (T) and control (C), respectively. The results showed that samples of ORFV complexed with colloidal gold-conjugated MAb 5A5, were captured by MAb 6F2 at the T line resulting in the appearance of a purple band. When samples did not contain ORFV or when they contained a quantity of ORFV below the detection limit of the test, only the C line was visible. The analysis of sensitivity of the test demonstrated that the lowest detected quantity of ORFV was 2.03×10(3.0) TCID50/ml. Storage at room temperature for 6 months did not result in the loss of performance of the LFIA test. Using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as a reference test, the relative specificity and sensitivity of the LFIA test were determined to be 100% and 92.1%, respectively. Based on these results, the LFIA test developed may be a suitable tool for rapid on-site testing for ORFV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a Rapid Beam Emittance Measurement System using a Real-Time Beam Profile Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, Keita; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Ueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Takane; Morinobu, Shunpei; Nagayama, Keiichi; Tamura, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Yuusuke

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a rapid beam emittance measurement system for the injection beam of the K140 azimuthally varying field (AVF) cyclotron at Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP). So far, a conventional emittance monitor has been used in a section of a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) system to evaluate the quality of the injected beam to the K400 ring cyclotron. Two kinds of emittance monitors were supplemented in the low energy beam line for evaluation of ion beams from ion sources. One of them is a conventional type consisting of two sets of position-variable slits and a three-wire profile monitor (TPM), similar to the one installed in the MEBT system of the AVF cyclotron. It takes about 30 min to get emittances in both the horizontal and vertical planes. For quick emittance measurements, we have developed a new system equipped with a set of fast moving slits with a fixed gap and a real-time beam profile monitor (BPM83) with a rotating helical wire. With this system the measurement time was considerably reduced to 70 s for both the horizontal and vertical emittances. Moreover the data analysis and graphical processing were completely automated. The overall measurement and analysis time was successfully minimized within 75 s. This rapid emittance measurement system has contributed to improve the beam quality by optimizing parameters of ion sources and the beam transport system.

  1. Designing a strategic plan development approach for integrated area development projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kort, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, it has become evident that spatial problems can no longer be resolved in isolation, but should be solved in conjunction with other development-related issues. Interest in integrated area development is growing, and a more integrated planning approach is desired. In this design-based

  2. Professional Development Needs of Novice Nursing Clinical Teachers: A Rapid Evidence Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Farah; Boschma, Geertje; Clauson, Marion

    2016-02-26

    The current nursing profession is challenged with a decreasing supply of competent clinical teachers due to several factors consequently impacting the quality of nursing education. To meet this demand, academic nursing programs are resorting to hiring expert nurses who may have little or no teaching experience. They need support during their transition from practice to teaching. Using the systematic approach of a Rapid Evidence Assessment (REA), scholarly literature was reviewed to identify existing professional development needs for novice clinical teachers as well as supportive strategies to aid the transition of experienced nurses into teaching practice. The REA included 29 relevant studies. Findings revealed three main professional development needs for novice clinical teachers and key supportive strategies. Based on these findings recommendations for best practices to support and prepare novice clinical teachers are presented.

  3. Rapid crown root development confers tolerance to zinc deficiency in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Kaur eNanda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa. Many studies have identified Zn efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. Here we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. Zn deficiency delayed crown root development and plant biomass accumulation in both Zn efficient and inefficient genotypes, with the effects being much stronger in the latter. Zn efficient genotypes had developed new crown roots as early as three days after transplanting (DAT to a Zn deficient field and that was followed by a significant increase in total biomass by 7 DAT. Zn-inefficient genotypes developed few new crown roots and did not increase biomass during the first seven days following transplanting. This correlated with Zn efficient genotypes retranslocating a higher proportion of shoot Zn to their roots, compared to Zn inefficient genotypes. These latter genotypes were furthermore not efficient in utilizing the limited Zn for root development. Histological analyses indicated no anomalies in crown tissue of Zn-efficient or inefficient genotypes that would have suggested crown root emergence was impeded. We therefore conclude that the rate of crown root initiation was differentially affected by Zn deficiency between genotypes. Rapid crown root development, following transplanting, was identified as a main causative trait for tolerance to Zn deficiency and better Zn retranslocation from shoot to root was a key attribute of Zn-efficient genotypes.

  4. A system for rapid large-area monitoring of gamma dose rates in the environment based on MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) TL detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzanowski, M; Olko, P; Ryba, E; Woźnicka, U

    2002-01-01

    One lesson learned from the Chernobyl accident was that the spatial distribution of far-field contamination was strongly non-uniform due to local variation of atmospheric conditions, such as wind direction, rain etc. An environmental monitoring system using highly sensitive thermoluminescent LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) detectors has been completed and field-tested. The system consists of 3000 MCP-N detectors in 1000 TLD cards (three TLDs per card), two Mikrolab automatic TL readers, heating ovens, and specially developed software which includes a database for rapid evaluation of results. The main dosimetric parameters of MCP-N dosemeters, such as thermally-induced fading, light sensitivity, minimum detectable dose, self-dose, zero-dose, energy response up to 6-7 MeV, influence of annealing and readout conditions on detector stability, have been tested. About 100 locations over an area of about 15,000 km2 in the south of Poland were selected for measurements lasting from 4 days to 3 months. The kerma rates measured over a 4 day screening period agree well with kerma rates determined over a 75 day monitoring period. Results from short- and long-term exposure periods agree well with those performed using MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) over southern Poland in 1985, before the Chernobyl accident. Thus, using the system based on MCP-N detectors, one is able simultaneously to monitor environmental radiation kerma rates at a large number of locations over periods of four days or less. Provided natural background kerma rates at selected monitoring points are available prior to the accident, the system can be applied to assess kerma rates rapidly in the environment, following a nuclear accident.

  5. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid diagnosis of potato blackleg caused by Dickeya species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safenkova, Irina V; Zaitsev, Ilya A; Varitsev, Yuri A; Byzova, Nadezhda A; Drenova, Natalia V; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2017-03-01

    Early detection of potato infections is essential for effective disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) for rapid detection of a serious potato disease, potato blackleg, caused by Dickeya dianthicola and Dickeya solani. Polyclonal antibodies specific to different strains of Dickeya were obtained from rabbits after immunization with bacterial cells of D. dianthicola and D. solani. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing with use of a wide range of bacterial species showed that the polyclonal antibodies detect closely related strains of D. dianthicola and D. solani. Cross-reactivity with widespread pathogenic bacteria (nine species) and saprophytes of healthy potato plants was not detected. The LFIA based on the obtained antibodies and gold nanoparticles with average diameter of 20 nm was developed. Under optimized conditions, the LFIA method enabled the analysis of potato extracts within 10 min, with a visual limit of detection of 1 × 10 5  CFU/ml for leaves and 4 × 10 5  CFU/ml for tubers. The assay was tested on potato stem and tuber extracts, and the results of the LFIA were confirmed in 92.1% of samples using the real-time polymerase chain reaction. The findings confirmed that the developed LFIA could be used for monitoring blackleg infection without the need for special equipment or skills. Graphical Abstract The developed lateral flow immunoassay is an efficient tool for rapid detection of a serious potato disease, potato blackleg, caused by Dickeya dianthicola and Dickeya solani.

  6. Interagency partnering for weed prevention--progress on development of a National Early Detection and Rapid Response System for Invasive Plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, R.; Westbrooks, R.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, experience has shown that interagency groups provide an effective forum for addressing various invasive species issues and challenges on multiple land units. However, more importantly, they can also provide a coordinated framework for early detection, reporting, identification and vouchering, rapid assessment, and rapid response to new and emerging invasive plants in the United States. Interagency collaboration maximizes the use of available expertise, resources, and authority for promoting early detection and rapid response (EDRR) as the preferred management option for addressing new and emerging invasive plants. Currently, an interagency effort is underway to develop a National EDRR System for Invasive Plants in the United States. The proposed system will include structural and informational elements. Structural elements of the system include a network of interagency partner groups to facilitate early detection and rapid response to new invasive plants, including the Federal Interagency Committee for the Management of Noxious and Exotic Weeds (FICMNEW), State Invasive Species Councils, State Early Detection and Rapid Response Coordinating Committees, State Volunteer Detection and Reporting Networks, Invasive Plant Task Forces, and Cooperative Weed Management Areas. Informational elements and products being developed include Regional Invasive Plant Atlases, and EDRR Guidelines for EDRR Volunteer Network Training, Rapid Assessment and Rapid Response, and Criteria for Selection of EDRR Species. System science and technical support elements which are provided by cooperating state and federal scientists, include EDRR guidelines, training curriculum for EDRR volunteers and agency field personnel, plant identification and vouchering, rapid assessments, as well as predictive modeling and ecological range studies for invasive plant species.

  7. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafique Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low impact development (LID/green infrastructure (GI practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.. Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  8. Retrofitting the Low Impact Development Practices into Developed Urban areas Including Barriers and Potential Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafique, Muhammad; Kim, Reeho

    2017-06-01

    Low impact development (LID)/green infrastructure (GI) practices have been identified as the sustainable practices of managing the stormwater in urban areas. Due to the increasing population, most of the cities are more developing which results in the change of natural area into impervious areas (roads, buildings etc.). Moreover, urbanization and climate change are causing many water-related problems and making over cities unsafe and insecure. Under these circumstances, there is a need to introduce new stormwater management practices into developed cities to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization. For this purpose, retrofitting low impact development practices demands more attention to reduce these water-related problems and trying to make our cities sustainable. In developed areas, there is a little space is available for the retrofitting of LID practices for the stormwater management. Therefore, the selection of an appropriate place to retrofitting LID practices needs more concern. This paper describes the successfully applied retrofitting LID practices around the globe. It also includes the process of applying retrofitting LID practices at the suitable place with the suitable combination. Optimal places for the retrofitting of different LID practices are also mentioned. This paper also highlights the barriers and potential solutions of retrofitting LID practices in urban areas.

  9. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Rapid Detection of NDM-Producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutal, Hervé; Naas, Thierry; Devilliers, Karine; Oueslati, Saoussen; Dortet, Laurent; Bernabeu, Sandrine; Simon, Stéphanie; Volland, Hervé

    2017-07-01

    The global spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) that are often resistant to most, if not all, classes of antibiotics is a major public health concern. The NDM-1 carbapenemase is among the most worrisome carbapenemases given its rapid worldwide spread. We have developed and evaluated a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) (called the NDM LFIA) for the rapid and reliable detection of NDM-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from culture colonies. We evaluated the NDM LFIA using 175 reference enterobacterial isolates with characterized β-lactamase gene content and 74 nonduplicate consecutive carbapenem-resistant clinical isolates referred for expertise to the French National Reference Center (NRC) for Antibiotic Resistance during a 1-week period (in June 2016). The reference collection included 55 non-carbapenemase producers and 120 carbapenemase producers, including 27 NDM producers. All 27 NDM-like carbapenemase producers of the reference collection were correctly detected in less than 15 min by the NDM LFIA, including 22 strains producing NDM-1, 2 producing NDM-4, 1 producing NDM-5, 1 producing NDM-7, and 1 producing NDM-9. All non-NDM-1 producers gave a negative result with the NDM LFIA. No cross-reaction was observed with carbapenemases (VIM, IMP, NDM, KPC, and OXA-48-like), extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) (TEM, SHV, and CTX-M), AmpCs (CMY-2, DHA-2, and ACC-1), and oxacillinases (OXA-1, -2, -9, and -10). Similarly, among the 74 referred nonduplicate consecutive clinical isolates, all 7 NDM-like producers were identified. Overall, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 100% for NDM-like carbapenemase detection with strains cultured on agar. The NDM LFIA was efficient, rapid, and easy to implement in the routine workflow of a clinical microbiology laboratory for the confirmation of NDM-like carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae . Copyright © 2017 Boutal et al.

  10. Rapid Identification of Cortical Motor Areas in Rodents by High-Frequency Automatic Cortical Stimulation and Novel Motor Threshold Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemi, Mitsuaki; Castagnola, Elisa; Ansaldo, Alberto; Ricci, Davide; Fadiga, Luciano; Taoka, Miki; Iriki, Atsushi; Ushiba, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Cortical stimulation mapping is a valuable tool to test the functional organization of the motor cortex in both basic neurophysiology (e.g., elucidating the process of motor plasticity) and clinical practice (e.g., before resecting brain tumors involving the motor cortex). However, compilation of motor maps based on the motor threshold (MT) requires a large number of cortical stimulations and is therefore time consuming. Shortening the time for mapping may reduce stress on the subjects and unveil short-term plasticity mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to establish a cortical stimulation mapping procedure in which the time needed to identify a motor area is reduced to the order of minutes without compromising reliability. We developed an automatic motor mapping system that applies epidural cortical surface stimulations (CSSs) through one-by-one of 32 micro-electrocorticographic electrodes while examining the muscles represented in a cortical region. The next stimulus intensity was selected according to previously evoked electromyographic responses in a closed-loop fashion. CSS was repeated at 4 Hz and electromyographic responses were submitted to a newly proposed algorithm estimating the MT with smaller number of stimuli with respect to traditional approaches. The results showed that in all tested rats (n = 12) the motor area maps identified by our novel mapping procedure (novel MT algorithm and 4-Hz CSS) significantly correlated with the maps achieved by the conventional MT algorithm with 1-Hz CSS. The reliability of the both mapping methods was very high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≧0.8), while the time needed for the mapping was one-twelfth shorter with the novel method. Furthermore, the motor maps assessed by intracortical microstimulation and the novel CSS mapping procedure in two rats were compared and were also significantly correlated. Our novel mapping procedure that determined a cortical motor area within a few minutes could help to study the

  11. Between Land and People: A Review of Socioeconomic Issues within the context of Rapid Development in Iskandar Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sultan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to globalization and economic competitiveness, Malaysia launched six economic development corridors, covering all the potential areas in Malaysia, and Johor Bahru is one of them. Iskandar Malaysia was launched in 2006 for future economic development in the country as well as to cater the needs of Johor Bahru to modernize its urban and economic infrastructure. Situated in a strategic location and space, Iskandar Malaysia is targeted to be the player of catalytic investment role that will bring direct and indirect investment to Johor. The whole landscape of Johor Bahru is now transforming dramatically, thus worrying the locals and the environmentalists. Environmental issues as well as the concern for social inequality issues have been raised by the locals. Hence, the aim of this study is to address the issues created by the rapid development of Iskandar Malaysia, particularly in Johor Bahru and Nusajaya. The objectives of this paper are to assess the consequences of the coastal land reclamation for Danga Bay waterfront city development and to identify the impact of new-build gentrification towards the local people. The research identifies key social and economic issues and the impacts of these issues have also been identified. To achieve the objective of the study a detailed review on secondary data has been done. The study found that more cooperation and attention from the local authorities, stakeholders and public is needed to ensure urban regeneration and to achieve the objective of social inclusiveness as promised by the vision of Iskandar Malaysia.

  12. A STUDY ON THE INTRODUCTION OF BUS RAPID TRANSIT SYSTEM IN ASIAN DEVELOPING CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaned SATIENNAM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus Rapid Transit (BRT has increasingly become an attractive urban transit alternative in many Asian developing cities due to its cost-effective and flexible implementation. However, it still seems to be difficult to introduce BRT to these cities because almost all of their city structures have been developed under solely a road transport development city plan and weakness of land use control gives rise to many problems, such as urban sprawl, traffic congestion, and air pollution. The purpose of this study was to introduce several strategies to support BRT implementation in Asian developing cities, such as a strategy to appropriately integrate the paratransit system into BRT system as being a feeder along a BRT corridor to supply demand. These proposed strategies were evaluated by applying demand forecasting and emission models to the BRT project plan of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA in Thailand. It was demonstrated that the proposed strategies could effectively improve the BRT ridership, traffic conditions, and air pollution emission of the entire system in Bangkok. This study could be further extended to include strategy recommendation if a BRT system were to be introduced to other Asian developing cities.

  13. Penerapan Aplikasi Program Penjualan Dan Pembelian Menggunakan Model Rapid Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Febriani

    2017-09-01

    Abstract The development of information technology at the moment quickly and rapidly, supported by one means namely computer. Of course the computer has been equipped with a particular application is used to help facilitate the work of the man to manage the data of an organization or company so that getting accurate results and according to needs. The results of the observations that have been made, showed a sales and purchase activities are still using manual systems, one of them at a clothing store. Starting from the data processing of the goods, the difficulty of checking stock, purchase transaction, sales transactions, as well as other data storage associated with all types of such activities, so that it could make a loss for the store owner, errors in the logging and less akuratnya the report is made. Judging from the large number of transactions done on clothing stores, required system information more quickly and accurately. Thus, the author makes the program architecture-based computer, use the Microsoft Visual Basic.net programming language and the MySQL database, so that the information and activities that occur can be done quickly and accurately. The methods used in making architecture the program using the model of Rapid Application Development (RAD. This RAD model is an adaptation of the waterfall model for high speed version of the development of each component of its software. Results achieved from the discussion of this theme is the form of the application program selling and buying the ready-made. In this case, the use of the application program is the best solution to solve the existing problems, as well as with the use of application programs can be reached by an activity which is effective and efficient in supporting that activity, especially for addressing the problem of the sale and purchase of.   Keywords: Sales Program, Purchasing Program.

  14. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiolero Arnaud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

  15. Development of field-based separations for the rapid identification of uranium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, Carol J.; Kaminski, Michael D.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Kalensky, Michael; Sullivan, Vivian S.; Tsai, Yifen

    2015-05-08

    The development of rapid, radioanalytical techniques to separate uranium and plutonium from complex, field samples are needed for the timely and accurate determination of nuclear material origin, and processing activities. Widespread use of nuclear power and technology in the world has increased demands on analytical laboratories from the monitoring of numerous low-level, environmental samples with variable compositions. Environmental sampling has proven to be one of the strongest technical measures for detecting nuclear material and activities. With the increase in sampling demands, new technologies must offer improvements such as automation, high throughput, reproducible chemical separations, short analysis times, and reduced costs to be effective. We have been developing a portable, separations system for uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) separations based upon selective extraction of target elements using an extraction chromatographic resin which would allow for simple and fast identifcation when coupled with the appropriate sample digestor and detection systems. The microfluidic design minimizes elution volumes and concentrates the elements of interest in a purified stream. Flowsheet development and testing was demonstrated on a single, micro-column system with an acidified, iron, uranium, and plutonium nitrate stream. The recovery of Pu was optimized by examining various reducing agents at different concentrations for rapid, quantitative recovery from the flow-through design. Quantitative recovery and high selectivity of U and Pu was achieved in the appropriate stripping stages and provided purified and concentrated U and Pu streams. The microfluidic system suggests automation in a small, footprint unit while exploiting the in-line processing of extraction chromatographic resins as the primary means of concentrating the radionuclides from the raw acidic feed and separating the elements into purified streams.

  16. Development of a Rapid Salivary Proteomic Platform for Oral Feeding Readiness in the Preterm Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Khanna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral feeding competency is a major determinant of length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. An infant must be able to consistently demonstrate the ability to take all required enteral nutrition by mouth before discharge home. Most infants born prematurely (<37 weeks will require days, if not weeks, to master this oral feeding competency skill. Inappropriately timed feeding attempts can lead to acute and long-term morbidities, prolonged hospitalizations, and increased health-care costs. Previously, a panel of five genes involved in essential developmental pathways including sensory integration (nephronophthisis 4, Plexin A1, hunger signaling [neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R, adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK], and facial development (wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3 required for oral feeding success were identified in neonatal saliva. This study aimed to translate these five transcriptomic biomarkers into a rapid proteomic platform to provide objective, real-time assessment of oral feeding skills, to better inform care, and to improve neonatal outcomes. Total protein was extracted from saliva of 10 feeding-successful and 10 feeding-unsuccessful infants matched for age, sex, and post-conceptional age. Development of immunoassays was attempted for five oral feeding biomarkers and two reference biomarkers (GAPDH and YWHAZ to normalize for starting protein concentrations. Normalized protein concentrations were correlated to both feeding status at time of sample collection and previously described gene expression profiles. Only the reference proteins and those involved in hunger signaling were detected in neonatal saliva at measurable levels. Expression patterns for NPY2R and AMPK correlated with the gene expression patterns previously seen between successful and unsuccessful feeders and predicted feeding outcome. Salivary proteins associated with hunger signaling are readily quantifiable in

  17. Development of novel hybrid poly(l-lactide)/chitosan scaffolds using the rapid freeze prototyping technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, N; Chen, X B [Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Li, M G [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Cooper, D, E-mail: xbc719@mail.usask.ca [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2011-09-15

    Engineered scaffolds have been shown to be critical to various tissue engineering applications. This paper presents the development of a novel three-dimensional scaffold made from a mixture of chitosan microspheres (CMs) and poly(l-lactide) by means of the rapid freeze prototyping (RFP) technique. The CMs were used to encapsulate bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the scaffold mechanical properties. Experiments to examine the BSA release were carried out; the BSA release could be controlled by adjusting the crosslink degree of the CMs and prolonged after the CMs were embedded into the PLLA scaffolds, while the examination of the mechanical properties of the scaffolds illustrates that they depend on the ratio of CMs to PLLA in the scaffolds as well as the cryogenic temperature used in the RFP fabrication process. The chemical characteristics of the PLLA/chitosan scaffolds were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphological and pore structure of the scaffolds were also examined by scanning electron microscopy and micro-tomography. The results obtained show that the scaffolds have higher porosity and enhanced pore size distribution compared to those fabricated by the dispensing-based rapid prototyping technique. This study demonstrates that the novel scaffolds have not only enhanced porous structure and mechanical properties but also showed the potential to preserve the bioactivities of the biomolecules and to control the biomolecule distribution and release rate.

  18. HomeSpace:Maputo Dwelling Processes in ten Rapidly Expanding Peri-Urban Areas of an African City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...

  19. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost...

  20. Development of a novel multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of virulence associated genes of Pasteurella multocida from pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rajkhowa, S

    2015-01-01

    Significance and Impact of the Study: The study reports the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of 11 important VAGs of Pasteurella multocida isolates from pigs...

  1. Mapping availability of sea view for potential building development areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphan, Hakan; Sonmez, Fizyon

    2015-07-01

    Scenic attraction can be regarded as one of the most important factors for recreation- and/or tourism-oriented landscape planning and management processes. Sea view is generally one of the most predominant scenery components of coastal landscapes. Therefore, presence and degree of its availability contribute to scenic attraction of residential development sites. This attribute of the environment can be quantified by GIS-based visibility analyses that rely on multiple viewshed calculations, during which observation and/or target locations are taken as variables. The main aim of this paper is to analyze availability of sea view for currently undeveloped (i.e., non-built-up) areas in an urbanized coast in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Four study sites (sites 1-4) of varying geomorphological and built-up features, located approximately 40 km south of the city of Mersin, were taken into consideration. Multiple viewshed analyses were performed using a high-resolution terrain model and 541, 533, 540, and 532 observation points for the sites, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Impact of topography and built-up features on sea visibility was discussed in the light of visibility information classified as percentage visibility of the sea surface available from each of the sites.

  2. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  3. Elder Abuse in a Developing Area in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Torres, Juan Manuel; López-Soto, Pablo Jesús; Coimbra-Roca, Ana Isabel; Gálvez-Rioja, Ruth Mary; Goergen, Thomas; Rodríguez-Borrego, M Aurora

    2015-10-06

    In many parts of the world, elder abuse happens almost unnoticed. Until recently, this serious social problem was hidden from public view and was regarded as an essentially private matter. However, there is growing evidence that elder abuse is an important problem of public health and in the society. The objective of this study is to determine the degree of abuse of elder and vulnerable people in the families and communities of Eastern Bolivia. With this end in mind, we conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample size of 210 60-year-old people coming from different health care areas. Elder Abuse Suspicion Index (EASI) and Yaffe's Evaluation Form of Social Work were used. An abuse rate of 39% of the older adults was identified. The most common type of abuse observed was psychological abuse (32.4% of cases), followed by neglect (21.9%). Children were identified as triggers of the abuse in 66.7% of cases of abuse. The prevalence of elder abuse was similar to the prevalence of other types of abuse that exist in Bolivia, such as the gender-based abuse. Also, this prevalence is comparable to other developing countries and European countries. The profile of abused older adult is as follows: woman, widow, 70 years old, incomplete primary education, without an occupation, and an average of 4.59 children. The information obtained shows that dysfunctional families have a higher percentage of elder abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Anesthetics rapidly promote synaptogenesis during a critical period of brain development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias De Roo

    Full Text Available Experience-driven activity plays an essential role in the development of brain circuitry during critical periods of early postnatal life, a process that depends upon a dynamic balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals. Since general anesthetics are powerful pharmacological modulators of neuronal activity, an important question is whether and how these drugs can affect the development of synaptic networks. To address this issue, we examined here the impact of anesthetics on synapse growth and dynamics. We show that exposure of young rodents to anesthetics that either enhance GABAergic inhibition or block NMDA receptors rapidly induce a significant increase in dendritic spine density in the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus. This effect is developmentally regulated; it is transient but lasts for several days and is also reproduced by selective antagonists of excitatory receptors. Analyses of spine dynamics in hippocampal slice cultures reveals that this effect is mediated through an increased rate of protrusions formation, a better stabilization of newly formed spines, and leads to the formation of functional synapses. Altogether, these findings point to anesthesia as an important modulator of spine dynamics in the developing brain and suggest the existence of a homeostatic process regulating spine formation as a function of neural activity. Importantly, they also raise concern about the potential impact of these drugs on human practice, when applied during critical periods of development in infants.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of familial cherubism characterized by early onset and rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortellaro, Carmen; Bello, Lucilla; Lucchina, Alberta Greco; Pucci, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Cherubism is a benign maxillary bone dysplasia of childhood, usually showing an autosomically dominant inheritance with variable penetrance and spontaneously resolving after puberty. Only maxillary bones are affected and develop pseudocystic osteolytic lesions. This article presents an early and rapidly evolving familial case of cherubism. The 3-year-old child underwent conservative curettage of lesions, with a conservative approach that allowed a normal permanent dentition in adolescence. Family history revealed that the father had been treated for similar lesions between 14 and 21 years of age, but the late treatment caused edentulism. In conclusion, although cherubism represents a benign and localized maxillary dysplasia, it requires prompt surgical but conservative treatment and careful follow-up to avoid permanent lesions, that is, malocclusion and/or edentulism.

  6. Rapid Development and Use of a Nationwide Training Program for Cholera Management, Haiti, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Lambert, Yves; Sobel, Jeremy; Domerçant, Jean W.; Khan, Azharul

    2011-01-01

    When epidemic cholera appeared in Haiti in October 2010, the medical community there had virtually no experience with the disease and needed rapid training as the epidemic spread throughout the country. We developed a set of training materials specific to Haiti and launched a cascading training effort. Through a training-of-trainers course in November 14–15, 2010, and department-level training conducted in French and Creole over the following 3 weeks, 521 persons were trained and equipped to further train staff at the institutions where they worked. After the training, the hospitalized cholera patients’ case-fatality rate dropped from 4% to <2% by mid-December and was <1% by January 2011. Continuing in-service training, monitoring and evaluation, and integration of cholera management into regular clinical training will help sustain this success. PMID:22099112

  7. Development of Middle Stone Age innovation linked to rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Simon, Margit H; Hall, Ian R; Barker, Stephen; Stringer, Chris; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The development of modernity in early human populations has been linked to pulsed phases of technological and behavioural innovation within the Middle Stone Age of South Africa. However, the trigger for these intermittent pulses of technological innovation is an enigma. Here we show that, contrary to some previous studies, the occurrence of innovation was tightly linked to abrupt climate change. Major innovational pulses occurred at times when South African climate changed rapidly towards more humid conditions, while northern sub-Saharan Africa experienced widespread droughts, as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling. These millennial-scale teleconnections resulted from the bipolar seesaw behaviour of the Atlantic Ocean related to changes in the ocean circulation. These conditions led to humid pulses in South Africa and potentially to the creation of favourable environmental conditions. This strongly implies that innovational pulses of early modern human behaviour were climatically influenced and linked to the adoption of refugia.

  8. [Development and scientific rationale for a universal index for rapid assessment of readability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teksheva, L M

    2007-01-01

    The hygienic regulations of academic books, including teachware, for children and adolescents necessitate the performance of special studies to assess their readability by the unified procedure that would suggest a visual response while reading. This study has developed and warranted a universal readability index by the velocity of reading. There are significant regression correlations between the velocity of reading as the readability index and the degree of tiredness, detected by various visual functions. The parameters of accommodation and adaptive properties of the eye are most sensitive to visual load on reading. Reading velocity as an indicator of readability of illogical texts may be used as a rapid method under laboratory and natural conditions to determine the action of various textual loads on the visual system.

  9. Development of cross-priming amplification assays for rapid and sensitive detection of Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, S; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Liu, D; Ye, C

    2015-08-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila has been increasingly implicated as the aetiologic agent of various human diseases. Therefore, reliable laboratory detection and identification of this bacterium has become clinically and epidemiologically desirable. We developed a nearly instrument-free, simple molecular method for rapid detection of Aer. hydrophila using a cross-priming amplification (CPA) assay with the desA gene as the target. The desA gene is crucial for the survival and growth of Aer. hydrophila under iron starvation. The results can be visualized as colour changes without opening the reaction tubes. No false-positive results were observed for the 33 non-Aer. hydrophila strains tested to evaluate assay specificity. The limit of detection for Aer. hydrophila was approximately 200 copies of desA per reaction (on reference plasmids) and 5 × 10(3)  CFU g(-1) Aer. hydrophila in simulated human stool, which is the same sensitivity as a qPCR assay. The performance of the CPA assay was also evaluated with 100 stool specimens from diarrhoea patients and 40 environmental water samples. In conclusion, the simplicity, cost-effectiveness and nearly instrument-free platform of the CPA assay make it practical for use in primary care facilities and smaller clinical laboratories. Aeromonas hydrophila is a human pathogen that infects via exposed wounds or ingestion of contaminated water and food. In this study, a CPA-based PCR method was developed for specific, rapid, cost-effective detection of Aer. hydrophila, and the test results could be visualized without opening the reaction tubes. This is the first report on the application of the CPA method for the detection of Aer. hydrophila. This novel method could be practical for use in primary care facilities and smaller clinical laboratories. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Development and testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanteau, Suzanne; Rahalison, Lila; Ralafiarisoa, Lalao; Foulon, Jeanine; Ratsitorahina, Mahery; Ratsifasoamanana, Lala; Carniel, Elisabeth; Nato, Farida

    2003-01-18

    Plague is often fatal without prompt and appropriate treatment. It affects mainly poor and remote populations. Late diagnosis is one of the major causes of human death and spread of the disease, since it limits the effectiveness of control measures. We aimed to develop and assess a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for plague. We developed a test that used monoclonal antibodies to the F1 antigen of Yersinia pestis. Sensitivity and specificity were assessed with a range of bacterial cultures and clinical samples, and compared with findings from available ELISA and bacteriological tests for plague. Samples from patients thought to have plague were tested with the RDT in the laboratory and by health workers in 26 pilot sites in Madagascar. The RDT detected concentrations of F1 antigen as low as 0.5 ng/mL in up to 15 min, and had a shelf life of 21 days at 60 degrees C. Its sensitivity and specificity were both 100%. RDT detected 41.6% and 31% more positive clinical specimens than did bacteriological methods and ELISA, respectively. The agreement rate between tests done at remote centres and in the laboratory was 89.8%. With the combination of bacteriological methods and F1 ELISA as reference standard, the positive and negative predictive values of the RDT were 90.6% and 86.7%, respectively. Our RDT is a specific, sensitive, and reliable test that can easily be done by health workers at the patient's bedside, for the rapid diagnosis of pneumonic and bubonic plague. This test will be of key importance for the control of plague in endemic countries.

  11. Using aerial photography to estimate riparian zone impacts in a rapidly developing river corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owers, Katharine A; Albanese, Brett; Litts, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Riparian zones are critical for protecting water quality and wildlife, but are often impacted by human activities. Ongoing threats and uncertainty about the effectiveness of buffer regulations emphasize the importance of monitoring riparian buffers through time. We developed a method to rapidly categorize buffer width and landuse attributes using 2007 leaf-on aerial photography and applied it to a 65 km section of the Toccoa River in north Georgia. We repeated our protocol using 1999 leaf-off aerial photographs to assess the utility of our approach for monitoring. Almost half (45%) of the length of the Toccoa River was bordered by buffers less than 50 ft wide in 2007, with agricultural and built-up lands having the smallest buffers. The percentage of river length in each buffer width category changed little between 1999 and 2007, but we did detect a 5% decrease in agricultural land use, a corresponding increase in built-up land use, and an additional 149 buildings within 100 ft of the river. Field verification indicated that our method overestimated buffer widths and forested land use and underestimated built-up land use and the number of buildings within 100 ft of the river. Our methodology can be used to rapidly assess the status of riparian buffers. Including supplemental data (e.g., leaf-off imagery, road layers) will allow detection of the fine-scale impacts underestimated in our study. Our results on the Toccoa River reflect historic impacts, exemptions and variances to regulations, and the ongoing threat of vacation home development. We recommend additional monitoring, improvements in policy, and efforts to increase voluntary protection and restoration of stream buffers.

  12. The Influence of Technical Infrastructure on the Roundabout Areas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecki, Jakub; Greinert, Andrzej; Owoc, Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    The article presents the analysis of roundabouts design aspects including the location of underground and overground infrastructure. Authors also undertake an attempt to assess the existing situation with planning conditions. Many differences depended on the roundabout size, location, surroundings, natural conditions, landform technology used were noted. Roundabouts design should include both the natural arrangements and art installations, increasing the area of urban green areas in parallel using the area as a place for works of art exposure. For Zielona Góra urban area this is of particular importance because of the multitude of roundabouts and their good position in the city structure.

  13. The Influence of Technical Infrastructure on the Roundabout Areas Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostecki Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis of roundabouts design aspects including the location of underground and overground infrastructure. Authors also undertake an attempt to assess the existing situation with planning conditions. Many differences depended on the roundabout size, location, surroundings, natural conditions, landform technology used were noted. Roundabouts design should include both the natural arrangements and art installations, increasing the area of urban green areas in parallel using the area as a place for works of art exposure. For Zielona Góra urban area this is of particular importance because of the multitude of roundabouts and their good position in the city structure.

  14. Rapid-X - An FPGA Development Toolset Using a Custom Simulink Library for MTCA.4 Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prędki, Paweł; Heuer, Michael; Butkowski, Łukasz; Przygoda, Konrad; Schlarb, Holger; Napieralski, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    The recent introduction of advanced hardware architectures such as the Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture (MTCA) caused a change in the approach to implementation of control schemes in many fields. The development has been moving away from traditional programming languages ( C/C++), to hardware description languages (VHDL, Verilog), which are used in FPGA development. With MATLAB/Simulink it is possible to describe complex systems with block diagrams and simulate their behavior. Those diagrams are then used by the HDL experts to implement exactly the required functionality in hardware. Both the porting of existing applications and adaptation of new ones require a lot of development time from them. To solve this, Xilinx System Generator, a toolbox for MATLAB/Simulink, allows rapid prototyping of those block diagrams using hardware modelling. It is still up to the firmware developer to merge this structure with the hardware-dependent HDL project. This prevents the application engineer from quickly verifying the proposed schemes in real hardware. The framework described in this article overcomes these challenges, offering a hardware-independent library of components that can be used in Simulink/System Generator models. The components are subsequently translated into VHDL entities and integrated with a pre-prepared VHDL project template. Furthermore, the entire implementation process is run in the background, giving the user an almost one-click path from control scheme modelling and simulation to bit-file generation. This approach allows the application engineers to quickly develop new schemes and test them in real hardware environment. The applications may range from simple data logging or signal generation ones to very advanced controllers. Taking advantage of the Simulink simulation capabilities and user-friendly hardware implementation routines, the framework significantly decreases the development time of FPGA-based applications.

  15. Recent developments in the area of SoftQCD and Diffractive Physics at the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Astalos, Robert; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration released several new measurements in the area of SoftQCD and diffractive physics, ranging from the exclusive production of dimuons, over the total pp cross section measurement to studies of correlated hadron production. An overview of these most recent developments will be given in this talk: The total inelastic proton-proton cross section and the diffractive part of the inelastic cross section has been measured at 8 and 13 TeV in special data sets taken with low beam currents and using forward scintillators. More precise measurements of the total pp cross section and the elastic and inelastic contributions have been extracted from measurements of the differential elastic cross section using the optical theorem. In the absence of forward proton tagging, exclusive processes can be distinguished in the central part of the ATLAS detector exploiting the large rapidity gap in the central region and the absence of charged particles reconstructed in the inner tracking detector. This strategy ...

  16. AIBench: a rapid application development framework for translational research in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glez-Peña, D; Reboiro-Jato, M; Maia, P; Rocha, M; Díaz, F; Fdez-Riverola, F

    2010-05-01

    Applied research in both biomedical discovery and translational medicine today often requires the rapid development of fully featured applications containing both advanced and specific functionalities, for real use in practice. In this context, new tools are demanded that allow for efficient generation, deployment and reutilization of such biomedical applications as well as their associated functionalities. In this context this paper presents AIBench, an open-source Java desktop application framework for scientific software development with the goal of providing support to both fundamental and applied research in the domain of translational biomedicine. AIBench incorporates a powerful plug-in engine, a flexible scripting platform and takes advantage of Java annotations, reflection and various design principles in order to make it easy to use, lightweight and non-intrusive. By following a basic input-processing-output life cycle, it is possible to fully develop multiplatform applications using only three types of concepts: operations, data-types and views. The framework automatically provides functionalities that are present in a typical scientific application including user parameter definition, logging facilities, multi-threading execution, experiment repeatability and user interface workflow management, among others. The proposed framework architecture defines a reusable component model which also allows assembling new applications by the reuse of libraries from past projects or third-party software. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Isolation, amplification and characterization of foodborne pathogen disease bacteria gene for rapid kit test development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjayadi, M.; Santoso, I.; Kartika, I. R.; Kurniadewi, F.; Saamia, V.; Sofihan, W.; Nurkhasanah, D.

    2017-07-01

    There is a lot of public concern over food safety. Food-safety cases recently, including many food poisoning cases in both the developed and developing countries, considered to be the national security threats which involved police investigation. Quick and accurate detection methods are needed to handle the food poisoning cases with a big number of sufferers at the same time. Therefore, the research is aimed to develop a specific, sensitive, and rapid result molecular detection tool for foodborne pathogen bacteria. We, thus, propose genomic level approach with Polymerase Chain Reaction. The research has successfully produced a specific primer to perform amplification to fim-C S. typhi, E. coli, and pef Salmonella typhimurium genes. The electrophoresis result shows that amplification products are 95 base pairs, 121 base pairs, and 139 base pairs; and all three genes are in accordance with the size of the in silico to third genes bacteria. In conclusion, the research has been successfully designed a specific detection tool to three foodborne pathogen bacteria genes. Further stages test and the uses of Real-time PCR in the detection are still in the trial process for better detection method.

  18. Evaluation of Proteus as a Tool for the Rapid Development of Models of Hydrologic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, T. M.; Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Miller, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of modern hydrologic systems can be complex and involve a variety of operators with varying character. The goal is to implement approximations of such models that are both efficient for the developer and computationally efficient, which is a set of naturally competing objectives. Proteus is a Python-based toolbox that supports prototyping of model formulations as well as a wide variety of modern numerical methods and parallel computing. We used Proteus to develop numerical approximations for three models: Richards' equation, a brine flow model derived using the Thermodynamically Constrained Averaging Theory (TCAT), and a multiphase TCAT-based tumor growth model. For Richards' equation, we investigated discontinuous Galerkin solutions with higher order time integration based on the backward difference formulas. The TCAT brine flow model was implemented using Proteus and a variety of numerical methods were compared to hand coded solutions. Finally, an existing tumor growth model was implemented in Proteus to introduce more advanced numerics and allow the code to be run in parallel. From these three example models, Proteus was found to be an attractive open-source option for rapidly developing high quality code for solving existing and evolving computational science models.

  19. Late winter feeding stimulates rapid spring development of carniolan honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera carnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavourable weather conditions after the queen starts with intensive oviposition during early spring may cause an imbalance in the division of tasks among worker bees in the bee colony. This can lead to slow spring development and poor exploitation of the main spring nectar flows. In order to accelerate the spring development, it is necessary, as a technological measure, to feed supplemental candy to bee colonies. In this research, the necessity of supplemental feeding, as well as the composition of candy (pollen and protein substitute were analysed. Three groups of ten bee colonies each were formed - the control, unfed group, pollen candy fed and protein substitute candy fed. In the period from 22/02/2016 and 04/04/2016 three control measurements were performed during which the number of bees, the number of brood cells and weight of the bee colonies were determined. The research has shown that supplemental feeding of the bee colony in late winter in order to encourage the rapid spring development is justified. Namely, at the final measurements in April, the results showed differences between groups. The treated colonies had higher net hive weight, a greater number of bees and statistically significantly more brood cells. The results of this study confirm that the technological measure of supplemental feeding in late winter should be performed on all commercial apiaries for the production of honey, pollen, royal jelly, queen bees and bee venom.

  20. Development of compact rapid charging power supply for capacitive energy storage in pulsed power drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-02-01

    High energy capacitor bank is used for primary electrical energy storage in pulsed power drivers. The capacitors used in these pulsed power drivers have low inductance, low internal resistance, and less dc life, so it has to be charged rapidly and immediately discharged into the load. A series resonant converter based 45 kV compact power supply is designed and developed for rapid charging of the capacitor bank with constant charging current up to 150 mA. It is short circuit proof, and zero current switching technique is used to commute the semiconductor switch. A high frequency resonant inverter switching at 10 kHz makes the overall size small and reduces the switching losses. The output current of the power supply is limited by constant on-time and variable frequency switching control technique. The power supply is tested by charging the 45 kV/1.67 μF and 15 kV/356 μF capacitor banks. It has charged the capacitor bank up to rated voltage with maximum charging current of 150 mA and the average charging rate of 3.4 kJ/s. The output current of the power supply is limited by reducing the switching frequency at 5 kHz, 3.3 kHz, and 1.7 kHz and tested with 45 kV/1.67 μF capacitor bank. The protection circuit is included in the power supply for over current, under voltage, and over temperature. The design details and the experimental testing results of the power supply for resonant current, output current, and voltage traces of the power supply with capacitive, resistive, and short circuited load are presented and discussed.

  1. Anemia management: development of a rapid-access anemia and intravenous iron service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radia D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Deepti Radia,1 Ibrahim Momoh,2 Richard Dillon,1 Yvonne Francis,1 Laura Cameron,1 Toni-Lee Fagg,1 Hannah Overland,1 Susan Robinson,1 Claire N Harrison11Haematology Department, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK; 2Bupa Home Healthcare, Harlow, UKAbstract: This article describes the initiation and evolution of the Rapid-Access Anemia Clinic (RAAC at Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, London, UK. This clinic was set up to provide diagnosis and treatment, and to coordinate investigative procedures, where necessary, into the underlying causes of anemia. Initially piloted with anemic preoperative orthopedic patients, the clinic now treats a wide range of conditions, deriving from both internal and external referrals. Treatment includes dietary advice, supplementation with iron, vitamin B12 and folate, and blood transfusion. Most patients at the RAAC need iron replacement, the majority of which require intravenous (IV iron. Therefore the first-line IV iron-administration protocol is carefully considered to ensure viability of the service and patient satisfaction. Four IV irons available in the UK are discussed, with explanation of the benefits and drawbacks of each product and the reasoning behind the IV iron choice at different stages of the RAAC's development. Costs to the service, affected by IV iron price and administration regimen, are considered, as well as the product's contraindications. Finally, the authors reflect on the success of the RAAC and how it has improved patients' quality-of-treatment experience, in addition to benefiting the hospital and National Health Service in achieving specific health-care mandates and directives. Drawing from the authors' experiences, recommendations are given to assist others in setting up and providing a successful rapid-access anemia service or similar facility.Keywords: hemoglobin, iron deficiency, ferric carboxymaltose, iron sucrose, iron dextran, iron isomaltoside

  2. Evaluation of nine HIV rapid test kits to develop a national HIV testing algorithm in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orji Bassey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-cold chain-dependent HIV rapid testing has been adopted in many resource-constrained nations as a strategy for reaching out to populations. HIV rapid test kits (RTKs have the advantage of ease of use, low operational cost and short turnaround times. Before 2005, different RTKs had been used in Nigeria without formal evaluation. Between 2005 and 2007, a study was conducted to formally evaluate a number of RTKs and construct HIV testing algorithms. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to assess and select HIV RTKs and develop national testing algorithms. Method: Nine RTKs were evaluated using 528 well-characterised plasma samples. These comprised 198 HIV-positive specimens (37.5% and 330 HIV-negative specimens (62.5%, collected nationally. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with 95% confidence intervals for all nine RTKs singly and for serial and parallel combinations of six RTKs; and relative costs were estimated. Results: Six of the nine RTKs met the selection criteria, including minimum sensitivity and specificity (both ≥ 99.0% requirements. There were no significant differences in sensitivities or specificities of RTKs in the serial and parallel algorithms, but the cost of RTKs in parallel algorithms was twice that in serial algorithms. Consequently, three serial algorithms, comprising four test kits (BundiTM, DetermineTM, Stat-Pak® and Uni-GoldTM with 100.0% sensitivity and 99.1% – 100.0% specificity, were recommended and adopted as national interim testing algorithms in 2007. Conclusion: This evaluation provides the first evidence for reliable combinations of RTKs for HIV testing in Nigeria. However, these RTKs need further evaluation in the field (Phase II to re-validate their performance.

  3. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  4. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarquin, Robin; Hanning, Irene; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered. PMID:22346699

  5. Development and validation of a rapid, aldehyde dehydrogenase bright-based cord blood potency assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulars, Kevin; Noldner, Pamela; Troy, Jesse D; Cheatham, Lynn; Parrish, Amanda; Page, Kristin; Gentry, Tracy; Balber, Andrew E; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2016-05-12

    Banked, unrelated umbilical cord blood provides access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients lacking matched bone marrow donors, yet 10% to 15% of patients experience graft failure or delayed engraftment. This may be due, at least in part, to inadequate potency of the selected cord blood unit (CBU). CBU potency is typically assessed before cryopreservation, neglecting changes in potency occurring during freezing and thawing. Colony-forming units (CFUs) have been previously shown to predict CBU potency, defined as the ability to engraft in patients by day 42 posttransplant. However, the CFU assay is difficult to standardize and requires 2 weeks to perform. Consequently, we developed a rapid multiparameter flow cytometric CBU potency assay that enumerates cells expressing high levels of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH bright [ALDH(br)]), along with viable CD45(+) or CD34(+) cell content. These measurements are made on a segment that was attached to a cryopreserved CBU. We validated the assay with prespecified criteria testing accuracy, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, and linearity. We then prospectively examined the correlations among ALDH(br), CD34(+), and CFU content of 3908 segments over a 5-year period. ALDH(br) (r = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.79), but not CD34(+) (r = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22-0.28), was strongly correlated with CFU content as well as ALDH(br) content of the CBU. These results suggest that the ALDH(br) segment assay (based on unit characteristics measured before release) is a reliable assessment of potency that allows rapid selection and release of CBUs from the cord blood bank to the transplant center for transplantation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  6. Development and validation of a rapid, aldehyde dehydrogenase bright–based cord blood potency assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noldner, Pamela; Troy, Jesse D.; Cheatham, Lynn; Parrish, Amanda; Page, Kristin; Gentry, Tracy; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Banked, unrelated umbilical cord blood provides access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients lacking matched bone marrow donors, yet 10% to 15% of patients experience graft failure or delayed engraftment. This may be due, at least in part, to inadequate potency of the selected cord blood unit (CBU). CBU potency is typically assessed before cryopreservation, neglecting changes in potency occurring during freezing and thawing. Colony-forming units (CFUs) have been previously shown to predict CBU potency, defined as the ability to engraft in patients by day 42 posttransplant. However, the CFU assay is difficult to standardize and requires 2 weeks to perform. Consequently, we developed a rapid multiparameter flow cytometric CBU potency assay that enumerates cells expressing high levels of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH bright [ALDHbr]), along with viable CD45+ or CD34+ cell content. These measurements are made on a segment that was attached to a cryopreserved CBU. We validated the assay with prespecified criteria testing accuracy, specificity, repeatability, intermediate precision, and linearity. We then prospectively examined the correlations among ALDHbr, CD34+, and CFU content of 3908 segments over a 5-year period. ALDHbr (r = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-0.79), but not CD34+ (r = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22-0.28), was strongly correlated with CFU content as well as ALDHbr content of the CBU. These results suggest that the ALDHbr segment assay (based on unit characteristics measured before release) is a reliable assessment of potency that allows rapid selection and release of CBUs from the cord blood bank to the transplant center for transplantation. PMID:26968535

  7. Change of Land Use Patterns in the Areas Close to the Airport Development Area and Some Implicating Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokporn Swangjang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description of land use change in the suburbs near Suvarnabhumi International Airport, with a focus on land use patterns before and during airport development. According to geographic information system (GIS, land use patterns are categorized into three main groups, namely intensive urban development land, areas developed under environmental conditions, and natural land. Steps of land use changes, land use planning and related factors concerning number of population, dwelling units and factories were analyzed. In the short term, urban development dramatically increases by 39.97% whereas the areas developed under environmental conditions decreased by 37.52%, with significant correlation (P < 0.05. The natural land which is typically grassland and watercourses changed insignificantly (P > 0.05. Urbanization of the areas where the airport is located increased between 10.07% and 15.57%. The changes of land use comply with the Integrated Town and Country Planning. The areas where urbanization is small are under the area designated as the green area. Urban expansion is mainly a result of increase in residential areas which is closely related to number of population. Such changes indicate a need for more effective urban development planning and management to conserve environmental quality.

  8. Ex vivo piperaquine resistance developed rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in northern Cambodia compared to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanna Chaorattanakawee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. Methods Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai–Cambodian and Thai–Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015. Immediate ex vivo (IEV histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2 assays were used on fresh patient Plasmodium falciparum isolates to determine drug susceptibility profiles. Results IEV HRP-2 assays detected the precipitous emergence of PPQ resistance in Cambodia beginning in 2013 when 40 % of isolates had an IC90 greater than the upper limit of prior years, and this rate doubled to 80 % by 2015. In contrast, Thai–Myanmar isolates from 2013 to 14 remained PPQ-sensitive, while northeastern Thai isolates appeared to have an intermediate resistance profile. The opposite trend was observed for MQ where Cambodian isolates appeared to have a modest increase in overall sensitivity during the same period, with IC50 declining to median levels comparable to those found in Thailand. A significant association between increased PPQ IC50 and IC90 among Cambodian isolates with DHA-PPQ treatment failure was observed. Nearly all Cambodian and Thai isolates were deemed artemisinin resistant with a >1 % survival rate for DHA in the ring-stage assay (RSA, though there was no correlation among isolates to indicate cross-resistance between PPQ and artemisinins. Conclusions Clinical DHA-PPQ failures appear to be associated with declines in the long-acting partner drug PPQ, though sensitivity appears to remain largely intact for now in western Thailand. Rapid progression of PPQ resistance associated with DHA-PPQ treatment failures in northern Cambodia limits drugs of choice in

  9. Ex vivo piperaquine resistance developed rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in northern Cambodia compared to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Jongsakul, Krisada; Gawee, Jariyanart; Sok, Somethy; Sundrakes, Siratchana; Kong, Nareth; Thamnurak, Chatchadaporn; Chann, Soklyda; Chattrakarn, Sorayut; Praditpol, Chantida; Buathong, Nillawan; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Smith, Philip; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Huy, Rekol; Prom, Satharath; Fukuda, Mark M; Bethell, Delia; Walsh, Douglas S; Lanteri, Charlotte; Saunders, David

    2016-10-21

    The recent dramatic decline in dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ) efficacy in northwestern Cambodia has raised concerns about the rapid spread of piperaquine resistance just as DHA-PPQ is being introduced as first-line therapy in neighbouring countries. Ex vivo parasite susceptibilities were tracked to determine the rate of progression of DHA, PPQ and mefloquine (MQ) resistance from sentinel sites on the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders from 2010 to 2015. Immediate ex vivo (IEV) histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP-2) assays were used on fresh patient Plasmodium falciparum isolates to determine drug susceptibility profiles. IEV HRP-2 assays detected the precipitous emergence of PPQ resistance in Cambodia beginning in 2013 when 40 % of isolates had an IC90 greater than the upper limit of prior years, and this rate doubled to 80 % by 2015. In contrast, Thai-Myanmar isolates from 2013 to 14 remained PPQ-sensitive, while northeastern Thai isolates appeared to have an intermediate resistance profile. The opposite trend was observed for MQ where Cambodian isolates appeared to have a modest increase in overall sensitivity during the same period, with IC50 declining to median levels comparable to those found in Thailand. A significant association between increased PPQ IC50 and IC90 among Cambodian isolates with DHA-PPQ treatment failure was observed. Nearly all Cambodian and Thai isolates were deemed artemisinin resistant with a >1 % survival rate for DHA in the ring-stage assay (RSA), though there was no correlation among isolates to indicate cross-resistance between PPQ and artemisinins. Clinical DHA-PPQ failures appear to be associated with declines in the long-acting partner drug PPQ, though sensitivity appears to remain largely intact for now in western Thailand. Rapid progression of PPQ resistance associated with DHA-PPQ treatment failures in northern Cambodia limits drugs of choice in this region, and urgently requires alternative therapy. The temporary re

  10. Development of materials for the rapid manufacture of die cast tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardro, Peter Jason

    The focus of this research is to develop a material composition that can be processed by rapid prototyping (RP) in order to produce tooling for the die casting process. Where these rapidly produced tools will be superior to traditional tooling production methods by offering one or more of the following advantages: reduced tooling cost, shortened tooling creation time, reduced man-hours for tool creation, increased tool life, and shortened die casting cycle time. By utilizing RP's additive build process and vast material selection, there was a prospect that die cast tooling may be produced quicker and with superior material properties. To this end, the material properties that influence die life and cycle time were determined, and a list of materials that fulfill these "optimal" properties were highlighted. Physical testing was conducted in order to grade the processability of each of the material systems and to optimize the manufacturing process for the downselected material system. Sample specimens were produced and microscopy techniques were utilized to determine a number of physical properties of the material system. Additionally, a benchmark geometry was selected and die casting dies were produced from traditional tool materials (H13 steel) and techniques (machining) and from the newly developed materials and RP techniques (selective laser sintering (SLS) and laser engineered net shaping (LENS)). Once the tools were created, a die cast alloy was selected and a preset number of parts were shot into each tool. During tool creation, the manufacturing time and cost was closely monitored and an economic model was developed to compare traditional tooling to RP tooling. This model allows one to determine, in the early design stages, when it is advantageous to implement RP tooling and when traditional tooling would be best. The results of the physical testing and economic analysis has shown that RP tooling is able to achieve a number of the research objectives, namely

  11. 77 FR 33388 - Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Areas; Correction AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  12. the development of an intensive educational area at pilanesberg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dongas and a sma 11 dam. A further advantage is that the area abuts onto the park perimeter, thereby a 11 owing for useful comparisons to be made with the adjacent area which is su~ject to a different fonn of land-use. The lEA was first delimited on a 1:10 000 orthophoto which showed the existing infrastructure and main.

  13. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Windell L; Ong, Vanissa A

    2013-06-01

    To develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Entamoeba histolytica E. histolytica, the causative agent of amebiasis. The LAMP primer set was designed from E. histolytica hemolysin gene HLY6. Genomic DNA of E. histolytica trophozoites strain HK9 was used to optimize the LAMP mixture and conditions. Amplification of DNA in the LAMP mixture was monitored through visual inspection for turbidity of the LAMP mix as well as addition of fluorescent dye. Positive LAMP reactions turned turbid while negative ones remained clear. Upon addition of a fluorescent dye, all positive reactions turned green while the negative control remained orange under ambient light. After electrophoresis in 1.5% agarose gels, a ladder of multiple bands of different sizes can be observed in positive samples while no bands were detected in the negative control. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be 5 parasites per reaction which corresponds to approximately 15.8 ng/μ L DNA. The specificity of the assay was verified by the absence of amplified products when DNA from other gastrointestinal parasites such as the morphologically similar but non-pathogenic species, Entamoeba dispar 39, and other diarrhea-causing organisms such as Blastocystis hominis and Escherichia coli were used. The LAMP assay we have developed enables the detection of E. histolytica with rapidity and ease, therefore rendering it is suitable for laboratory and field diagnosis of amebiasis. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. SCOUT: developing a modular multimission spacecraft architecture for high-capability rapid access to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Aaron; Shoemaker, James; Jordan, Luis; McDermott, Scott

    2004-08-01

    The long lead and cycle times currently associated with development and launch of satellite systems have established a prohibitive environment for responsive deployment of tactical capability to orbit. With the advent of the RASCAL program - poised to offer launch capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) within 24 hours - there is a clear motivation for a comparable, multi-mission, rapidly configurable microsatellite. The SCOUT program is developing the key enabling technologies that will enable this capability while also addressing the production and logistic challenges essential to its implementation. Intrinsic to the design will be a "Plug-and-Sense" capability, which will enable a vehicle to detect the presence and orientation of integrated subsystem modules, as well as ascertain their function, and communicate key performance parameters. The system will utilize a heuristic, self-interrogation approach to provide a robust means of performing configuration and diagnostics activities that transcend nominal housekeeping routines to include an enhanced degree of system autonomy. A minimally structured design, emphasizing a lightweight, interchangeable framework will enable quick integration and deployment, while preserving high on-orbit payload mass fraction. Similarly, the system will also feature a novel approach to assembly, integration, and test activities that spans ground through on-orbit operations.

  15. Ideas for the rapid development of the structural models in mechanical engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanta, E.; Raicu, A.; Panait, C.

    2017-08-01

    Conceiving computer based instruments is a long run concern of the authors. Some of the original solutions are: optimal processing of the large matrices, interfaces between the programming languages, approximation theory using spline functions, numerical programming increased accuracy based on the extended arbitrary precision libraries. For the rapid development of the models we identified the following directions: atomization, ‘librarization’, parameterization, automatization and integration. Each of these directions has some particular aspects if we approach mechanical design problems or software development. Atomization means a thorough top-down decomposition analysis which offers an insight regarding the basic features of the phenomenon. Creation of libraries of reusable mechanical parts and libraries of programs (data types, functions) save time, cost and effort when a new model must be conceived. Parameterization leads to flexible definition of the mechanical parts, the values of the parameters being changed either using a dimensioning program or in accord to other parts belonging to the same assembly. The resulting templates may be also included in libraries. Original software applications are useful for the model’s input data generation, to input the data into CAD/FEA commercial applications and for the data integration of the various types of studies included in the same project.

  16. Minimising invasiveness in diagnostics: developing a rapid urine-based monoclonal antibody dipstick test for malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakpo, Uri S; Bosompem, Kwabena M; Dzodzomenyo, Mawuli; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Essuman, Edward E; Anyan, William K; Suzuki, Mitsuko; Stephens, Judith K; Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Asmah, Richard H; Ofori, Michael F; Madjitey, Parnor; Danquah, Jonas B; Frempong, Naa Adjeley; Kwofie, Kofi D; Amoa-Bosompem, Michael; Sullivan, David; Fobil, Julius N; Quakyi, Isabella A

    2016-10-01

    To generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for developing a rapid malaria diagnostic urine-based assay (RUBDA), using Plasmodium-infected human urinary antigens. Plasmodium-infected human urinary (PAgHU) and cultured parasite (CPfAg) antigens were used to generate mouse MAbs. The reactivity and accuracy of the MAbs produced were then evaluated using microplate ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting assay, microscopy and immunochromatographic tests. Ninety-six MAb clones were generated, of which 68.8% reacted to both PAgHU and CPfAg, 31.3% reacted to PAgHU only, and none reacted to CPfAg only. One promising MAb (UCP4W7) reacted in WBA, to both PAgHU and CPfAg, but not to Plasmodium-negative human urine and blood, Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni antigens nor measles and poliomyelitis vaccines. MAb UCP4W7 seems promising for diagnosing Plasmodium infection. Urine is a reliable biomarker source for developing non-invasive malaria diagnostic tests. SDS-PAGE and MAb-based WBA appear explorable in assays for detecting different levels of Plasmodium parasitaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. SURVEY DESIGN TO GRASP AND COMPARE USER'S ATTITUDES ON BUS RAPID TRANSIT (BRT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillaiampalam SIVAKUMAR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In mitigating urban transportation problems and providing a sustainable transit system, rail-based systems have become popular. While rail-based systems are welcome in many developed countries, it is impractical for cities in developing countries due to the high cost of system building and operation. Thus, a staged or incremental adjustment towards fixed guide way transit implementation of greater interest to many agencies today, and these days it has started developing in terms of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT. As it is very new to developing cities, it is a challenge to get the users to understand the system and to grasp their attitude. Besides, there are many other general issues like literacy, lack of a sample frame etc. Survey design needs to be tuned carefully for these cities to obtain a resonant output. Concerning all these problems, a hypothetical questionnaire survey such as Stated Preference (SP has become popular. This study conducted a survey on BRT implementation with SP as a hypothetical tool at a selected corridor in Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka. The main objectives were to identify questionnaire design(media effects, literacy of users, segmental variation, and the important variable(s. In this survey design, system explanation has been set in two slightly different ways (media: TEXT ∼ IMAGE for comparison and it was found that even a slight difference on design affected the users' response considerably. Income level could not be predicted directly, but car ownership was found to be a good predictor, it was found to be an important variable and it showed a correlation with literacy.

  18. Geothermal Resource Area 5, Churchill, Douglas, Lyon and Storey Counties area development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugsley, M.

    1981-01-01

    Within this four county area there are many known geothermal resources ranging in temperature from 70 to over 350{sup 0}F. Thirteen of these resources are considered major and have been selected for evaluation. Various potential uses of the energy found were determined after evaluating the study area's physical characteristics, land ownership and land use patterns, existing population and projected growth rates, and transportation facilities. These factors were then compared with the site specific resource characteristics. The uses considered were divided into five main categories: electrical generation; space heating; recreation; industrial process heat; and agriculture.

  19. The development of a prototype of a “rapid test” for detection of equine antibodies against tetanus

    OpenAIRE

    Stelzmann, Mareike

    2011-01-01

    the following dissertation, the prototype of a “rapid test” for detection of equine antibodies against tetanus is developed. This test makes it possible to detect antibodies against tetanus in equine serum within one hour. Moreover the prototype allows making a statement about the antibody titer. The standard values of the OIE (WORLD ORGANISATION FOR ANIMAL HEALTH, 2009) to validate in vitro-diagnostical tests for veterinary medicine were followed. The rapid test achieves results comparabl...

  20. Development of a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for rapid detection of Ulva prolifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Chun; Liu, Qing; Kang, Zhen-Jun; Yu, Ren-Cheng; Yan, Tian; Zhou, Ming-Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Large-scale green tides have occurred consecutively since 2007 in the Yellow Sea (YS), China. The dominant causative species of the green tides has been identified as Ulva prolifera. The origin of green tides in the YS has been traced back to the Subei Shoal based on the results of remote-sensing, numerical simulations and field investigations. However, it is difficult to study the early development of green tides in the Subei Shoal because of the mixture of multiple green algae and the morphological diversity of U. prolifera when under variable environmental conditions. In this study, a rapid and accurate fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method was developed to detect U. prolifera from the community of green algae targeting the 5S rDNA spacer region of U. prolifera. Two specific probes, 5S-1 and 5S-2, were designed based on the sequences of the 5S rDNA spacer regions of U. prolifera, Ulva linza and Ulva flexuosa. Specificity of the FISH method was tested using the six species of green algae commonly occurring in the Subei Shoal, including U. prolifera, U. linza, U. flexuosa, Ulva compressa, Ulva pertusa and Blidingia sp. The results showed that only U. prolifera could be labeled with both probes. Probe 5S-1, which showed a much higher labeling efficiency on U. prolifera, was ultimately selected as the probe for the FISH detection. The sample preparation method was optimized, particularly for the mature green algae, by the addition of cellulase and proteinase K in the pre-hybridization solution. Labeling efficiency with the probe 5S-1 reached 96% on average under the optimized conditions. The successful development of the FISH method has been applied to qualitative and quantitative analysis of field samples collected from the YS, and the results indicate a potential use in future green algae studies.

  1. VaxCelerate II: rapid development of a self-assembling vaccine for Lassa fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Pierre; Moise, Leonard; Luza, Cybelle; Chantaralawan, Kanawat; Lezeau, Lynchy; Yuan, Jianping; Field, Mary; Richer, Daniel; Boyle, Christine; Martin, William D; Fishman, Jordan B; Berg, Eric A; Baker, David; Zeigler, Brandon; Mais, Dale E; Taylor, William; Coleman, Russell; Warren, H Shaw; Gelfand, Jeffrey A; De Groot, Anne S; Brauns, Timothy; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Development of effective vaccines against emerging infectious diseases (EID) can take as much or more than a decade to progress from pathogen isolation/identification to clinical approval. As a result, conventional approaches fail to produce field-ready vaccines before the EID has spread extensively. Lassa is a prototypical emerging infectious disease endemic to West Africa for which no successful vaccine is available. We established the VaxCelerate Consortium to address the need for more rapid vaccine development by creating a platform capable of generating and pre-clinically testing a new vaccine against specific pathogen targets in less than 120 d A self-assembling vaccine is at the core of the approach. It consists of a fusion protein composed of the immunostimulatory Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 70 (MtbHSP70) and the biotin binding protein, avidin. Mixing the resulting protein (MAV) with biotinylated pathogen-specific immunogenic peptides yields a self-assembled vaccine (SAV). To meet the time constraint imposed on this project, we used a distributed R&D model involving experts in the fields of protein engineering and production, bioinformatics, peptide synthesis/design and GMP/GLP manufacturing and testing standards. SAV immunogenicity was first tested using H1N1 influenza specific peptides and the entire VaxCelerate process was then tested in a mock live-fire exercise targeting Lassa fever virus. We demonstrated that the Lassa fever vaccine induced significantly increased class II peptide specific interferon-γ CD4(+) T cell responses in HLA-DR3 transgenic mice compared to peptide or MAV alone controls. We thereby demonstrated that our SAV in combination with a distributed development model may facilitate accelerated regulatory review by using an identical design for each vaccine and by applying safety and efficacy assessment tools that are more relevant to human vaccine responses than current animal models.

  2. Remote sensing for developing world agriculture: opportunities and areas for technical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunnette, Mark N.; Hart, Douglas P.

    2016-10-01

    A parameterized numerical model is constructed to compare platform options for collecting aerial imagery to support agriculture electronic information services in developing countries like India. A sensitivity analysis shows that when Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAVs, are limited in flight altitude by regulations, the velocity and altitude available to manned aircraft lead to a lower cost of operation at altitudes greater than 2000ft above ground level, AGL. If, however, the UAVs are allowed to fly higher, they become cost-competitive once again at approximately 1000ft AGL or higher. Examination of assumptions in the model highlights two areas for additional technology development: baseline-dependent feature-based image registration to enable wider area coverage, and reflectance reconstruction for ratio-based agriculture indices.

  3. Glutaraldehyde test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an area with high tuberculosis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ben Hadj Hassine; Manel, Marzouk; Mohamed, Dhaou; Jalel, Boukadida

    2017-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary method for controlling TB is the rapid and accurate identification of infected individuals. Immune response exploitation represents one of the main methods used for early TB diagnosis; however, few studies have reported that whole blood originating from TB-infected patients gels faster in the presence of aldehyde than blood originating from healthy subjects, which is the focus of the current study. The study objectives are to determine the diagnostic value of a glutaraldehyde test (GT) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and to assess its performance compared with light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM). This study included 272 specimens (176 suspected PTB specimens and 96 suspected EPTB specimens). Of the 272 patients, 98 patients had TB infection confirmed by culture (64 PTB cases and 34 EPTB cases), and 174 patients had no TB infection. The gold standard technique (culture) was used as reference to verify the GT's performance. The GT showed a high sensitivity (96.9%) and specificity (82.1%) for PTB with a good positive predictive value (PPV = 75.6%) and negative predictive value (NPV = 97.9%). For EPTB, the GT showed a sensitivity of 91.2% and a specificity of 77.4%, with PPV = 68.9% and NPV = 94.1%. LED-FM had lower sensitivities for PTB (65.6%) and EPTB (42.1%) and an excellent specificity of 100%, with PPV = 100% and NPV = 100%. We concluded that GT is rapid, easy, simple and cost-effective and does not require qualified personnel with a specific background or sophisticated equipment like molecular biology or mycobacterium-specific genotyping techniques. These qualities make the GT attractive for use in low- and high-income countries in addition to other conventional methods, particularly culture, which continues to be the gold standard.

  4. Area development plan of the geothermal potential in planning region 8, Roosevelt - Custer area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Geothermal resource data, the Roosevelt-Custer Region development plan, and energy, economic, and institutional considerations are presented. Environmental considerations and water availability are discussed. (MHR)

  5. The development of area wide traffic management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zuylen, H.J.; Lu, S.; Li, J.; Yusen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic management in cities with congestion is a big challenge with still unused opportunities. Intersection control is a corner stone but this should be done in an area-wide context. The dominant traffic process on urban roads is the traffic flow on the intersections. Spill back is a most

  6. the development of an intensive educational area at pilanesberg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an Intensive Educational Area (lEA), adjacent to the present. Education Centre, for the teaching of basic ecological princ- iples. This article describes .... Increasing distance from the Education Centre. "' Q. Weather station. Self-guided trails to. -"" places of interest such. "' Snake pit as erosion dongas, dam, z: - Tame animals.

  7. A tool for rapid assessment of product usability and universal design: development and preliminary psychometric testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenker, James A; Nasarwanji, Mahiyar; Paquet, Victor; Feathers, David

    2011-01-01

    While there are many available tools and methods to evaluate product usability, few have been tested on user groups with disabilities and even fewer systematically consider universal design principles. This paper describes the development and preliminary psychometric testing of the Rapid Assessment of Product Usability & Universal Design (RAPUUD), a 12-item user-report tool based on the seven principles of universal design. A preliminary set of items was created to elicit ratings of diverse product characteristics (e.g., physical effort, cognitive effort, assistance required, safety). Data were gathered from 61 participants who rated the usability of products they use in their own environments. Each item elicited a full range of responses, with no apparent floor or ceiling effects. Collectively, the 12 items achieved a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.80). The data indicate that the tool was sensitive to differences in functional abilities, as well as differences in product characteristics. The instrument was usable for a range of consumer products, though not all items were appropriate for each and every product. The results suggest that the instrument could become a pragmatic tool for designers to identify usability problems experienced by a diversity of user populations. © 2011 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved

  8. Payments for carbon sequestration to alleviate development pressure in a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Dorning, Monica; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Méley, Andréanne; Dupey, Lauren; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine individuals' willingness to enroll in voluntary payments for carbon sequestration programs through the use of a discrete choice experiment delivered to forest owners living in the rapidly urbanizing region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We examined forest owners' willingness to enroll in payments for carbon sequestration policies under different levels of financial incentives (annual revenue), different contract lengths, and different program administrators (e.g., private companies versus a state or federal agency). We also examined the influence forest owners' sense of place had on their willingness to enroll in hypothetical programs. Our results showed a high level of ambivalence toward participating in payments for carbon sequestration programs. However, both financial incentives and contract lengths significantly influenced forest owners' intent to enroll. Neither program administration nor forest owners' sense of place influenced intent to enroll. Although our analyses indicated that payments from carbon sequestration programs are not currently competitive with the monetary returns expected from timber harvest or property sales, certain forest owners might see payments for carbon sequestration programs as a viable option for offsetting increasing tax costs as development encroaches and property values rise.

  9. The multimod application framework: a rapid application development tool for computer aided medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; Zannoni, Cinzia; Testi, Debora; Petrone, Marco; Perticoni, Stefano; Quadrani, Paolo; Taddei, Fulvia; Imboden, Silvano; Clapworthy, Gordon

    2007-02-01

    This paper describes a new application framework (OpenMAF) for rapid development of multimodal applications in computer-aided medicine. MAF applications are multimodal in data, in representation, and in interaction. The framework supports almost any type of biomedical data, including DICOM datasets, motion-capture recordings, or data from computer simulations (e.g. finite element modeling). The interactive visualization approach (multimodal display) helps the user interpret complex datasets, providing multiple representations of the same data. In addition, the framework allows multimodal interaction by supporting the simultaneous use of different input-output devices like 3D trackers, stereoscopic displays, haptics hardware and speech recognition/synthesis systems. The Framework has been designed to run smoothly even on limited power computers, but it can take advantage of all hardware capabilities. The Framework is based on a collection of portable libraries and it can be compiled on any platform that supports OpenGL, including Windows, MacOS X and any flavor of Unix/linux.

  10. Rapid development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Psammomys obesus (Israeli sand rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana Spolding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A major impediment to establishing new treatments for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is the lack of suitable animal models that accurately mimic the biochemical and metabolic characteristics of the disease. The aim of this study was to explore a unique polygenic animal model of metabolic disease as a model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by determining the effects of 2% dietary cholesterol supplementation on metabolic and liver endpoints in Psammomys obesus (Israeli sand rat. METHODS: P. obesus were provided ad libitum access to either a standard rodent diet (20% kcal/fat or a standard rodent diet supplemented with 2% cholesterol (w/w for 4 weeks. Histological sections of liver from animals on both diets were examined for key features of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The expression levels of key genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism were measured by real-time PCR. RESULTS: P. obesus fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet exhibited profound hepatomegaly and steatosis, and higher plasma transaminase levels. Histological analysis identified extensive steatosis, inflammation, hepatocyte injury and fibrosis. Hepatic gene expression profiling revealed decreased expression of genes involved in delivery and uptake of lipids, and fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis, and increased expression of genes involved in very low density lipoprotein cholesterol synthesis, triglyceride and cholesterol export. CONCLUSIONS: P. obesus rapidly develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet that appears to be histologically and mechanistically similar to patients.

  11. Development of Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus virus type II (PCV2 is the etiology of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, porcine dermatitis, nephropathy syndrome (PDNS, and necrotizing pneumonia. Rapid diagnosis tool for detection of PCV2 plays an important role in the disease control and eradication program. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (PCV2 real-time RPA assay and RPA combined with lateral flow dipstick (PCV2 RPA LFD assay were developed targeting the PCV2 ORF2 gene. The results showed that the sensitivity of the PCV2 real-time RPA assay was 102 copies per reaction within 20 min at 37°C and the PCV2 RPA LFD assay had a detection limit of 102 copies per reaction in less than 20 min at 37°C. Both assays were highly specific for PCV2, with no cross-reactions with porcine circovirus virus type 1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, pseudorabies virus, porcine parvovirus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and classical swine fever virus. Therefore, the RPA assays provide a novel alternative for simple, sensitive, and specific identification of PCV2.

  12. Rapid development of pulmonary cavitation as manifestation of a candida species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rix, E.; Bickel, R.H.; Baldauf, G.

    1987-01-01

    The roentgenologic pattern of the pulmonary manifestation of candida species, resulting in a rapid development of pulmonary cavitations with mycetoma-like structures, was described in three patients. All patients, undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy because of acute leukemia, presented with fever and expectoration, which were resistant to various antibiotic regimes. Cultures of blood and urine were sterile; but Torulopsis glabrata, a candida species, was found in multiple cultures of the sputum of all patients and also in a bronchoscopic lavage obtained from one patient after reconstitution of the granulopoesis. The roetgenologic appearance of the infiltrates was accompanied by a rise of the Ig-M immunoglobulins against candida. Following intravenous treatment with amphotericin B a reduction of the cavitation and of the infiltrates to small residues was observed. Simultaneously the body temperature and the sputum became normal and a fall in the immunoglobulin titers was found. The diagnostic problems of pulmonary cavitation and especially of pulmonary mycosis in immuosuppressed and therapy-induced granulocytopenic and thrombocytopenic patients with acute leukemia were discussed.

  13. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Veronica A; King, Susan Codi; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid recognition at 10 months as a predictor of language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Caroline; Kooijman, Valesca; Hagoort, Peter; Cutler, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Infants' ability to recognize words in continuous speech is vital for building a vocabulary. We here examined the amount and type of exposure needed for 10-month-olds to recognize words. Infants first heard a word, either embedded within an utterance or in isolation, then recognition was assessed by comparing event-related potentials to this word versus a word that they had not heard directly before. Although all 10-month-olds showed recognition responses to words first heard in isolation, not all infants showed such responses to words they had first heard within an utterance. Those that did succeed in the latter, harder, task, however, understood more words and utterances when re-tested at 12 months, and understood more words and produced more words at 24 months, compared with those who had shown no such recognition response at 10 months. The ability to rapidly recognize the words in continuous utterances is clearly linked to future language development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Giant Mediastinal Cystic Teratoma Involving Pancreatic Tissue and Showing Rapid Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samil Gunay

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 23 year old female patient having increasing chest pain by breathing. In her lung graphy and computed tomography there observed 152 mm x 97mm thick encapsulated cystic lesion in the middle lobe medial part of lung that makes pressure on heart and mediastinal structures . It was also obtained that the lung graphy that had been taken a year ago was normal and a suspected view in right mediastinal region of lung graphy that had been taken 6 months ago . With the surgical operation 170 mm x 100 mm thick encapsulated cystic lesion was totally excised. There were also 5 dark brownish random tissue parts which was 10x6x2 cm as the biggest and 5x3x1 cm as the smallest in size macroscopically. During examination on tissue smples that were taken out from the bulk, there observed a pancreatic tissue with acinars, ductusus and crawlings which creats lobular structures in hyalinizing fibrotic stroma We want to present this pancreatic cystic teratoma rarely seen in mediasten which shows rapid development.

  16. Neurophysiological basis of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: informing future drug development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennum P

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Poul Jennum, Julie AE Christensen, Marielle Zoetmulder Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: Rapid eye movement (REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD is a parasomnia characterized by a history of recurrent nocturnal dream enactment behavior and loss of skeletal muscle atonia and increased phasic muscle activity during REM sleep: REM sleep without atonia. RBD and associated comorbidities have recently been identified as one of the most specific and potentially sensitive risk factors for later development of any of the alpha-synucleinopathies: Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and other atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Several other sleep-related abnormalities have recently been identified in patients with RBD/Parkinson’s disease who experience abnormalities in sleep electroencephalographic frequencies, sleep–wake transitions, wake and sleep stability, occurrence and morphology of sleep spindles, and electrooculography measures. These findings suggest a gradual involvement of the brainstem and other structures, which is in line with the gradual involvement known in these disorders. We propose that these findings may help identify biomarkers of individuals at high risk of subsequent conversion to parkinsonism. Keywords: motor control, brain stem, hypothalamus, hypocretin

  17. Development and validation of a rapid test system for detection of pork meat and collagen residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, J; Benoit, L; Barrios-Lopez, B; Thienes, C; Meshgi, M; Agapov, A; Dobritsa, A; Nadala, C; Samadpour, M

    2016-11-01

    Mislabeling, contamination, and economic adulteration of meat products with undeclared pork tissues are illegal under regulations promulgated by numerous regulatory agencies. Nonetheless, analysis of the European meat industry has revealed pervasive meat adulteration, necessitating more extensive application of meat authentication testing. As existing methods for meat speciation require specialized equipment and/or training, we developed a detection system based on a lateral flow device (LFD) assay format capable of rapidly (~35min) identifying porcine residues derived from raw meat, cooked meat, and gelatin down to 0.01%, 1.0%, and 2.5% contamination, respectively. Specificity analysis revealed no cross-reactivity with meat derived from chicken, turkey, horse, beef, lamb, or goat. Comparison with a commercial ELISA kit and PCR method revealed similar if not improved sensitivity, with the added feature that the LFD-based system required considerably less time to perform. Accordingly, this test system should aid the food industry and food control authorities in monitoring for adulteration with pork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of multiplex-PCR assay for rapid detection of Candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made A. Tarini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim Candida spp. infection commonly occur in immunocompromised patients. Biochemical assay for identification of Candida spp. is time-consuming and shows many undetermined results. Specific detection for antibody, antigen and metabolites of Candida spp. had low sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we developed a rapid diagnostic method, Multiplex-PCR, to identify Candida spp.Methods Five Candida spp. isolates were cultured, identifi ed with germ tube and API® 20 C AUX (BioMerieux® SA kit. Furthermore, DNA was purified by QIAamp DNA mini (Qiagen® kit for Multiplex-PCR assay.Results DNA detection limit by Multiplex-PCR assays for C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. glabrata were 4 pg, 0.98 pg, 0.98 pg, 0.5 pg and 16 pg respectively. This assay was also more sensitive than culture in that Multiplex-PCR could detect 2.6-2.9 x 100 CFU/ml, whereas culture 2.6-2.9 x 102 CFU/ml.Conclusion Multiplex-PCR is much more sensitive than culture and thus, can be recommended as a sensitive and specific assay for identification of Candida spp. (Med J Indones 2010; 19:83-7Keywords: Candida spp., multiplex-PCR

  19. Development of a micropulverized extraction method for rapid toxicological analysis of methamphetamine in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Hajime; Kakuta, Masaya; Iwata, Yuko T; Matsuda, Hideaki; Tazawa, Hidekatsu; Kimura, Hiroko; Inoue, Hiroyuki

    2007-09-07

    We developed a rapid sample preparation method for the toxicological analysis of methamphetamine and amphetamine (the major metabolite of methamphetamine) in human hair by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), to facilitate fast screening and quantitation. Two milligrams of hair were mechanically micropulverized for 5 min in a 2-ml plastic tube together with 100 microl of an aqueous solvent containing 10% acetonitrile, 100 mM trifluoroacetic acid and the corresponding deuterium analogues as internal standards. The pulverizing highly disintegrated the hair components, simultaneously allowing the extraction of any drugs present in the hair. After filtering the suspension with a membrane-filter unit, the clear filtrate was directly analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. No evaporation processes were required for sample preparation. Method optimization and validation study were carried out using real-case specimens and fortified samples in which the drugs had been artificially absorbed, respectively. Concentration ranges for quantitation were 0.040-125 and 0.040-25 ng/mg for methamphetamine and amphetamine, respectively. Real-case specimens were analyzed by the method presented here and by conventional ones to verify the applicability of our method to real-world analysis. Our method took less than 30 min for a set of chromatograms to be obtained from a washed hair sample.

  20. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  1. Assessing health systems for type 1 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa: developing a 'Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beran, David; Yudkin, John S; de Courten, Maximilian

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the health of people with Type 1 diabetes in developing countries, a clear analysis of the constraints to insulin access and diabetes care is needed. We developed a Rapid Assessment Protocol for Insulin Access, comprising a series of questionnaires as well as a protocol for th...

  2. Undergraduate medical education: tendencies and requirements in a rapidly developing Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breipohl, W; Johansson, C; Hansis, M; Steiger, J; Naguro, T; Müller, K; Mestres, P

    2000-01-01

    This study pinpoints the necessity to constantly monitor local approaches in undergraduate medical education on an inter-European scale. Traditional undergraduate medical curricula need restructuring to account for the increasing amount of medical knowledge and rapid changes and developments in societies, nosology, therapy and IT. European undergraduate medical curricula should be harmonized not egalized, with a focus on inter-European sharing of resources, mobility, credit (allocation, accumulation and transfer), definition of European and trans-European mission statements, identification of quality metrics, advice on dealing with conflicting aims such as specialization and generalization, on communicating core knowledge instead of providing overabundance of information, and on introducing multifaceted teaching and learning methods, as well as providing strategies for life long learning. Sound medical education can no longer and nowhere be considered under the autonomous auspices of individual Medical Schools or national philosophies. It has to be perceived and structured as a competitive and flexible approach which promotes life long learning of teachers, students, physicians and other related staff with international awareness. It is stressed that student and staff mobility, as well as virtual mobility in the form of worldwide available teaching modules and expertise have to be incorporated into national medical curricula. This is to guarantee up-to-date education in support of patient demands, future professionality and competitiveness of students, physicians and Public Health System institutions. The formal approaches of traditional subject related curricula as well as problem based learning must be linked with quality approved state of the art ODL, evaluated international CME strategies and training in the utilization of IT in preparation of lifelong learning. Strategies for the use of IT need updating on a regular basis to diminish the gap between

  3. Development of rapid methods for relaxation time mapping and motion estimation using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilani, Syed Irtiza Ali

    2008-09-15

    Recent technological developments in the field of magnetic resonance imaging have resulted in advanced techniques that can reduce the total time to acquire images. For applications such as relaxation time mapping, which enables improved visualisation of in vivo structures, rapid imaging techniques are highly desirable. TAPIR is a Look- Locker-based sequence for high-resolution, multislice T{sub 1} relaxation time mapping. Despite the high accuracy and precision of TAPIR, an improvement in the k-space sampling trajectory is desired to acquire data in clinically acceptable times. In this thesis, a new trajectory, termed line-sharing, is introduced for TAPIR that can potentially reduce the acquisition time by 40 %. Additionally, the line-sharing method was compared with the GRAPPA parallel imaging method. These methods were employed to reconstruct time-point images from the data acquired on a 4T high-field MR research scanner. Multislice, multipoint in vivo results obtained using these methods are presented. Despite improvement in acquisition speed, through line-sharing, for example, motion remains a problem and artefact-free data cannot always be obtained. Therefore, in this thesis, a rapid technique is introduced to estimate in-plane motion. The presented technique is based on calculating the in-plane motion parameters, i.e., translation and rotation, by registering the low-resolution MR images. The rotation estimation method is based on the pseudo-polar FFT, where the Fourier domain is composed of frequencies that reside in an oversampled set of non-angularly, equispaced points. The essence of the method is that unlike other Fourier-based registration schemes, the employed approach does not require any interpolation to calculate the pseudo-polar FFT grid coordinates. Translation parameters are estimated by the phase correlation method. However, instead of two-dimensional analysis of the phase correlation matrix, a low complexity subspace identification of the phase

  4. Development of an isothermal amplification-based assay for the rapid visual detection of Salmonella bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hai-Bin; Zang, Yu-Xuan; Du, Xin-Jun; Li, Ping; Wang, Shuo

    2017-09-01

    The efficient and timely detection of pathogens is a major concern worldwide. The aim of this study was to establish a rapid detection method for Salmonella bacteria in food samples to facilitate timely treatment. Widely used detection methods currently include culture-based methods and PCR-based methods. The former are time consuming, requiring 2 to 3 d, whereas the latter have higher accuracy but are typically complicated, requiring expertise and expensive instruments. In this study, a sensitive and rapid approach for the visual and point-of-use detection of Salmonella bacteria based on recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and a lateral-flow (LF) nucleic acid strip was established. We designed a pair of primers according to the invA gene of Salmonella bacteria: one was modified with digoxin, and the other was modified with biotin. In the presence of the biotin- and digoxin-modified primers and target DNA, the RPA produced a substantial amount of duplex DNA attached to biotin and digoxin. The products were detected using LF strips through immunoreaction: anti-digoxin antibodies on the gold nanoparticles, digoxin on the duplex, streptavidin on the LF test line, and biotin on the duplex. The developed RPA-LF assay allowed detection of Salmonella genomic DNA in less than 20 min with simple water bath equipment or portable thermal equipment. In addition, the RPA-LF assay was highly sensitive, with a detection limit as low as 20 fg of target DNA or 1.05 × 101 cfu of bacteria in pure culture, and highly specific, exhibiting no cross-reaction with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella, Enterobacter aerogenes, or Campylobacter jejuni. Importantly, Salmonella could be detected in milk and chicken breast at concentrations as low as 1.05 × 100 cfu/mL or 1.05 × 100 cfu/g after enrichment for 2 h and in eggs at 1.05 × 100 cfu/g after enrichment for 4 h. Furthermore, RPA was more sensitive than PCR, which requires a thermal cycling

  5. Software Toolbox Development for Rapid Earthquake Source Optimisation Combining InSAR Data and Seismic Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isken, Marius P.; Sudhaus, Henriette; Heimann, Sebastian; Steinberg, Andreas; Bathke, Hannes M.

    2017-04-01

    We present a modular open-source software framework (pyrocko, kite, grond; http://pyrocko.org) for rapid InSAR data post-processing and modelling of tectonic and volcanic displacement fields derived from satellite data. Our aim is to ease and streamline the joint optimisation of earthquake observations from InSAR and GPS data together with seismological waveforms for an improved estimation of the ruptures' parameters. Through this approach we can provide finite models of earthquake ruptures and therefore contribute to a timely and better understanding of earthquake kinematics. The new kite module enables a fast processing of unwrapped InSAR scenes for source modelling: the spatial sub-sampling and data error/noise estimation for the interferogram is evaluated automatically and interactively. The rupture's near-field surface displacement data are then combined with seismic far-field waveforms and jointly modelled using the pyrocko.gf framwork, which allows for fast forward modelling based on pre-calculated elastodynamic and elastostatic Green's functions. Lastly the grond module supplies a bootstrap-based probabilistic (Monte Carlo) joint optimisation to estimate the parameters and uncertainties of a finite-source earthquake rupture model. We describe the developed and applied methods as an effort to establish a semi-automatic processing and modelling chain. The framework is applied to Sentinel-1 data from the 2016 Central Italy earthquake sequence, where we present the earthquake mechanism and rupture model from which we derive regions of increased coulomb stress. The open source software framework is developed at GFZ Potsdam and at the University of Kiel, Germany, it is written in Python and C programming languages. The toolbox architecture is modular and independent, and can be utilized flexibly for a variety of geophysical problems. This work is conducted within the BridGeS project (http://www.bridges.uni-kiel.de) funded by the German Research Foundation DFG

  6. Colon cancer in rapidly developing countries: review of the lifestyle, dietary, consanguinity and hereditary risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer rates are rising dramatically in once low incidence nations. These nations are undergoing rapid economic development and are known as “nations in transition” (NIT. This review identifies some of the most common etiological risk factors of colon cancer in these nations and evaluates the existing epidemiological evidence. The main risk factors which were found to be prevalent in NIT include: lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity, obesity and abdominal adiposity, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking; dietary factors such as fatty food and red meat consumption. Protective factors included white meat and fiber consumption. Several studies found to have significantly higher rates of colon cancer among the young population (<40 years old. There appears to be a quantitative and qualitative increase in risk to relatives of patients diagnosed at a young age compared with those diagnosed later in life, at least part of which is likely to be the result of a hereditary susceptibility. Close relatives of patients with colon cancer are at an increased risk of developing a colon cancer. Close relatives of early onset cases warrant more intensive endoscopic screening and at an earlier age than relatives of patients diagnosed at older ages. Furthermore, these suggest the existence of genetic predispositions in these nations which need to be investigated further and have implications for screening programs. In conclusion, public health awareness campaigns promoting prevention of modifiable risk factors and screening initiatives with guidelines suited to the age-specific incidence rates of NIT are needed very urgently.

  7. Development of a Systematic Vital Area Identification for a Physical Protection of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Jung, Woo Sik; Lee, Yoon Hwan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Soo; Yoo, Ho Sik [KINAC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Post 911, in the U.S., the budget relate to security was rapidly increased, and U.S. NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) requires to evaluate the security at the new nuclear power plant design. Moreover, actions strengthening security are adopted to defense terror such as the security relation department is established newly in the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), etc. NUREG-1860 defines the goals and expectations for safety, security, and preparedness required at future plants licensed by the NRC. Since safety, security and preparedness to achieve the overall level of safety for the safety of future plants are necessary; Vital Area Identification (VAI) technology on the nuclear facilities has been required. Korea prepared the legal and the systematic foundation by establishing and effectuating 'A law of a protection and radioactivity disaster prevention measures' for nuclear facilities, etc. in February 2004 by reflecting INFCRC/274/Rev. 1[8] and INFCRC/225/Rev. 4. However, U.S. owns most physical protection technologies, and most of them are classified as the secret for the prevention of terror. Therefore, the development of vital area identification method considering the domestic actual conditions is necessary. This report provides with a process which can be used as a base for vital area identification (VAI), and helps to understand VAI of beginners and managers of a licensee and regulatory body through the description for the Top Event Prevention Sets (TEPS) evaluation process based on Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) the vital area priority determination. The result of the VAI selects the cost-effective TEPS from many candidate TEPSs. However, the systematic procedure to determine TEPS priority has not been provided. Therefore, in the report, we provide the description about the whole process for the TEPS selection, a qualitative evaluation method required for the prioritization of TEPS drawn through the code task, and high

  8. North Base Industrial Area Development Plan Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    two paint booths, as well as areas for welding, upholstery repair, and parts fabrication. Also included would be a dynamometer facility for vehicle...Table 3-5. Employment by Industry (2003) Hampton Newport News Poquoson York County ROI Natural Resources & Mining 0 1 * 19 20 Construction...direct buried underground 34.5- kilovolt loop express feeder system. Additionally, ten new transformers, (5 megavolt-amp each), and associated

  9. Glutaraldehyde test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an area with high tuberculosis incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Hadj Hassine Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary method for controlling TB is the rapid and accurate identification of infected individuals. Immune response exploitation represents one of the main methods used for early TB diagnosis; however, few studies have reported that whole blood originating from TB-infected patients gels faster in the presence of aldehyde than blood originating from healthy subjects, which is the focus of the current study. OBJECTIVES The study objectives are to determine the diagnostic value of a glutaraldehyde test (GT in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB and to assess its performance compared with light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 272 specimens (176 suspected PTB specimens and 96 suspected EPTB specimens. Of the 272 patients, 98 patients had TB infection confirmed by culture (64 PTB cases and 34 EPTB cases, and 174 patients had no TB infection. The gold standard technique (culture was used as reference to verify the GT's performance. RESULTS The GT showed a high sensitivity (96.9% and specificity (82.1% for PTB with a good positive predictive value (PPV = 75.6% and negative predictive value (NPV = 97.9%. For EPTB, the GT showed a sensitivity of 91.2% and a specificity of 77.4%, with PPV = 68.9% and NPV = 94.1%. LED-FM had lower sensitivities for PTB (65.6% and EPTB (42.1% and an excellent specificity of 100%, with PPV = 100% and NPV = 100%. CONCLUSION We concluded that GT is rapid, easy, simple and cost-effective and does not require qualified personnel with a specific background or sophisticated equipment like molecular biology or mycobacterium-specific genotyping techniques. These qualities make the GT attractive for use in low- and high-income countries in addition to other conventional methods, particularly culture, which continues to be the gold standard.

  10. Priority Development Area (Solar Energy Zone) and Variance Area letter-size Maps for Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Map (letter-size) showing BLM-administered lands available for solar energy development as identified in the Solar PEIS Record of Decision, including maps of the...

  11. Rapid Response to a Typhoon-Induced Flood with an SAR-Derived Map of Inundated Areas: Case Study and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wei Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful case of a rapid response to a flash flood in I-Lan County of Taiwan with a map of inundated areas derived from COSMO-SkyMed 1 radar satellite imagery within 24 hours. The flood was caused by the intensive precipitation brought by Typhoon Soulik in July 2013. Based on the ensemble forecasts of trajectory, an urgent request of spaceborne SAR imagery was made 24 hours before Typhoon Soulik made landfall. Two COSMO-SkyMed images were successfully acquired when the center of Typhoon Soulik had just crossed the northern part of Taiwan. The standard level-1b product (radiometric-corrected, geometric-calibrated and orthorectified image was generated by using the off-the-shelf SARscape software. Following the same approach used with the Expert Landslide and Shadow Area Delineating System, the regional threshold of each tile image was determined to delineate still water surface and quasi-inundated areas in a fully-automatic manner. The results were overlaid on a digital elevation model, and the same tile was visually compared to an optical image taken by Formosat-2 before this event. With this ancillary information, the inundated areas were accurately and quickly identified. The SAR-derived map of inundated areas was published on a web-based platform powered by Google Earth within 24 hours, with the aim of supporting the decision-making process of disaster prevention and mitigation. A detailed validation was made afterwards by comparing the map with in situ data of the water levels at 17 stations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly responding to a typhoon-induced flood with a spaceborne SAR-derived map of inundated areas. A standard operating procedure was derived from this work and followed by the Water Hazard Mitigation Center of the Water Resources Agency, Taiwan, in subsequent typhoon seasons, such as Typhoon Trami (August, 2013 and Typhoon Soudelor (August, 2015.

  12. Holographic Spectroscopy for Rapid Electron Bunch Analysis: Development of an Instrument with THZ Resolved Optical Gating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Albert

    2011-10-28

    radiation and provided the first step in the development of a self contained THz HFTS for rapid electron bunch shape analysis. Our first experiments confirmed the idea and as a side result made possible a completely new bunch length monitor eliminating any need for an external laser since only radiation produced by the bunch itself is involved. A more advanced instrument was designed to use the incoherent visible radiation pulse from the synchrotron source for sampling the THz interference pattern. It has been built and the first tests are to be conducted in April 2011 at the Jefferson FEL facility.

  13. Rapid HIV testing for developing countries: the challenge of false-negative tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogev, Ram

    2012-06-01

    It is a common practice in resource-constrained countries to accept two positive rapid HIV antibody test results as diagnostic for HIV infection. Because these tests are inexpensive and results are obtained quickly, they are recommended by the WHO to "scale-up" HIV testing to increase the number of people tested. The negative predictive value of rapid HIV tests is so high that negative results are considered conclusive despite the fact that false-negative results can occur in several situations. While the specificity and sensitivity of rapid HIV tests in resource-rich countries is acceptable, there are only limited data about their performance in resource-constrained countries. The challenges of rapid HIV testing in these situations will be discussed.

  14. The learning curve is rapid in medical termination of pregnancy--first-year results from the Helsinki area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Tikka, Marja; Haukkamaa, Maija

    2003-03-01

    Medical termination of pregnancy by means of mifepristone and prostaglandin became available in Finland in May 2000. We summarize the first year results of medical abortion in a large tertiary care unit in Helsinki. A regimen of 200 mg of mifepristone followed by 0.4 mg vaginally administered misoprostol 2 days later was used. The maximum duration of pregnancy was 56 days. Four hundred and seventeen women, 47% of those with a pregnancy duration of up to 56 days, chose medical instead of surgical abortion. The monthly percentage of medical abortions varied from 27% to 63%. The percentage of complete terminations increased from 92% among the first quarter of the subjects to 97% among the fourth quarter, the overall success rate being 95%. Subject satisfaction, duration and self-estimated amount of bleeding, as well as analgesia needs were similar to those reported elsewhere. Most subjects (61%) chose combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills for future contraception; 75% of the COCs were started around the day of misoprostol administration. The reported amounts and duration of bleeding were not influenced by the immediate start of oral contraceptives. Intrauterine contraception was planned for 28% of the subjects, and 16% of them chose a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device. We conclude that the learning curve in medical termination of pregnancy is rapid, and results comparable to those in centers with extensive experience with the method can be reached within the first year.

  15. Developing native plant nurseries in emerging market areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Duemler

    2012-01-01

    The importance of developing a market for quality native plant materials in a region prior to the establishment of a nursery is crucial to ensure its success. Certain tactics can be applied to help develop a demand for native plant materials in a region. Using these tactics will help create a new market for native plant materials.

  16. Development of conceptual groundwater flow model for Pali Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of representative conceptual groundwater flow model is an important step before translating it into a numerical model. In this paper, a methodology for development of conceptual groundwater flow model has been presented in which spatially distributed values for groundwater recharge has been utilized ...

  17. Results-based management - Developing one's key results areas (KRAs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Om Prakash; Goel, Sonu

    2015-01-01

    In spite of aspiring to be a good manager, we public health experts fail to evaluate ourselves against our personal and professional goals. The Key Result Areas (KRAs) or key performance indicators (KPIs) help us in setting our operational (day-to-day) and/or strategic (long-term) goals followed by grading ourselves at different times of our careers. These shall help in assessing our strengths and weaknesses. The weakest KRA should set the maximum extent to which one should use his/her skills and abilities to have the greatest impact on his/her career.

  18. Development and application of a thermoelectric cooler extended area blackbody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-zhou; Sun, Xian-zhong; Lei, Hao; Zhang, Jin

    2016-11-01

    Calibration is important to the application of infrared camera. For improving low temperature infrared measurement accuracy. A small extend blackbody is specially designed to meeting the requirement of low temperature calibration. The temperature range of blackbody is 5° 90° with effective radiation area 150mm×150mm.The design adopts thermoelectric cooler as driver and chooses the PID temperature control algorithm. By testing the stability, emissivity and uniformity of blackbody, the design is proved quiet practical, which meets the needs of infrared camera, spectrometer and other measuring equipment in low temperature calibration.

  19. Tourists events in under-developed areas of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjeljac Željko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the countries in transition, such as Serbia, event tourism represents a form of tourist offer and marketing directed towards attractive natural and anthropogenic touristic values and localities, with the purpose of their inclusion into important international tourist destinations. Event tourism as a part of overall economic activities, with its own economic effects, has a role in opening of less developed regions towards potential investors manufacturers and consumers and also in improving employment and overall national income. This paper will point out the events in less developed regions of Serbia, as a base for development of touristic and overall economy.

  20. Development of a rapid method for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol using Quenchbody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, Tomoya [Division of Microbiology, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1, Kamiyoga, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501 (Japan); Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Ryoji; Kaigome, Rena [Biomedical Division, Ushio Inc., 1-12 Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki 210-0855 (Japan); Ohkawa, Hideo [Research Center for Environmental Genomics, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko, E-mail: y-konishi@azabu-u.ac.jp [Department of Food and Life Science, Azabu University, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5201 (Japan)

    2015-08-12

    Quenchbody (Q-body) is a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the antigen-dependent removal of a quenching effect on a fluorophore attached to antibody domains. In order to develop a method using Q-body for the quantitative determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by some Fusarium species, anti-DON Q-body was synthesized from the sequence information of a monoclonal antibody specific to DON. When the purified anti-DON Q-body was mixed with DON, a dose-dependent increase in the fluorescence intensity was observed and the detection range was between 0.0003 and 3 mg L{sup −1}. The coefficients of variation were 7.9% at 0.003 mg L{sup −1}, 5.0% at 0.03 mg L{sup −1} and 13.7% at 0.3 mg L{sup −1}, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.006 mg L{sup −1} for DON in wheat. The Q-body showed an antigen-dependent fluorescence enhancement even in the presence of wheat extracts. To validate the analytical method using Q-body, a spike-and-recovery experiment was performed using four spiked wheat samples. The recoveries were in the range of 94.9–100.2%. The concentrations of DON in twenty-one naturally contaminated wheat samples were quantitated by the Q-body method, LC-MS/MS and an immunochromatographic assay kit. The LC-MS/MS analysis showed that the levels of DON contamination in the samples were between 0.001 and 2.68 mg kg{sup −1}. The concentrations of DON quantitated by LC-MS/MS were more strongly correlated with those using the Q-body method (R{sup 2} = 0.9760) than the immunochromatographic assay kit (R{sup 2} = 0.8824). These data indicate that the Q-body system for the determination of DON in wheat samples was successfully developed and Q-body is expected to have a range of applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • A rapid method for quantitation of DON using Q-body has been developed. • A recovery test using the anti-DON Q-body was performed. • The concentrations of DON in wheat

  1. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Management Question E2: Where are the areas with potential to change from wildfire?

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current, near-term, and long-term estimates of fire occurrence potential due to human and natural causes. These estimates were developed using a...

  2. Integrated techniques for rapid and highly-efficient development and production of ultra-deep tight sand gas reservoirs of Keshen 8 Block in the Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwen Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unusually ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure gas reservoirs in the Keshen 8 Block on the Kelasu structural belt of the Tarim Basin are also featured by high temperature, well-developed fault fissures, huge thickness, tight matrix, complex oil–water distribution, etc., which brings about great difficulties to reserves evaluation and further development. In view of this, an overall study was made on the fine description of reservoir fractures and their seepage mechanism, technical problems were being tackled on seismic data processing and interpretation of complex and high & steep structural zones, optimal development design, safe & rapid drilling and completion wells, reservoir stimulation, dynamic monitoring, etc. to promote the development level of such ultra-deep tight gas reservoirs, and 22 complete sets of specific techniques were formulated in the fields of high-efficiency well spacing, safe and fast drilling, recovery enhancement by well completion transformation, efficient development of optimization design, and so on. Through the technical progress and innovative management of integrated exploration & development, reserves evaluation and productivity construction have been completed on the Keshen 8 Block in the last three years of the 12th Five-Year Plan period (2011–2015, as a result, rapid and high-efficiency productivity construction is realized, and a new area is explored in the development of ultra-deep and ultra-high-pressure fractured tight sand gas reservoirs. This study is of great reference to the development of similar gas reservoirs at home and abroad.

  3. Session: What can we learn from developed wind resource areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelander, Carl; Erickson, Wally

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop was composed of two parts intended to examine what existing science tells us about wind turbine impacts at existing wind project sites. Part one dealt with the Altamont Wind Resource area, one of the older wind projects in the US, with a paper presented by Carl Thelander titled ''Bird Fatalities in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: A Case Study, Part 1''. Questions addressed by the presenter included: how is avian habitat affected at Altamont and do birds avoid turbine sites; are birds being attracted to turbine strings; what factors contribute to direct impacts on birds by wind turbines at Altamont; how do use, behavior, avoidance and other factors affect risk to avian species, and particularly impacts those species listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern, and other state listed species. The second part dealt with direct impacts to birds at new generation wind plants outside of California, examining such is sues as mortality, avoidance, direct habitat impacts from terrestrial wind projects, species and numbers killed per turbine rates/MW generated, impacts to listed threatened and endangered species, to USFWS Birds of Conservation Concern, and to state listed species. This session focused on newer wind project sites with a paper titled ''Bird Fatality and Risk at New Generation Wind Projects'' by Wally Erickson. Each paper was followed by a discussion/question and answer period.

  4. Development of macroporous calcium phosphate scaffold processed via microwave rapid drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamuna-Thevi, K., E-mail: jamuna@sirim.my [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Zakaria, F.A. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia); Othman, R. [Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Muhamad, S. [Bioassay Unit, Herbal Medicine Research Centre (HMRC), Institute for Medical Research (IMR), Jalan Pahang, 50588 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2009-06-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold has great potential in bone tissue engineering applications. A new method to fabricate macroporous calcium phosphate (CP) scaffold via microwave irradiation, followed by conventional sintering to form HA scaffold was developed. Incorporation of trisodium citrate dihydrate and citric acid in the CP mixture gave macroporous scaffolds upon microwave rapid drying. In this work, a mixture of {beta}-tricalcium phosphate ({beta}-TCP), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), trisodium citrate dihydrate, citric acid and double distilled de-ionised water (DDI) was exposed to microwave radiation to form a macroporous structure. Based on gross eye examinations, addition of trisodium citrate at 30 and 40 wt.% in the CP mixture ({beta}-TCP and CaCO{sub 3}) without citric acid indicates increasing order of pore volume where the highest porosity yield was observed at 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate addition and the pore size was detected at several millimeters. Therefore, optimization of pore size was performed by adding 3-7 wt.% of citric acid in the CP mixture which was separately mixed with 30 and 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate for comparison purposes. Fabricated scaffolds were calcined at 600 deg. C and washed with DDI water to remove the sodium hydroxycarbonate and sintered at 1250 deg. C to form HA phase as confirmed in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Based on Archimedes method, HA scaffolds prepared from 40 wt.% of trisodium citrate with 3-7 wt.% of citric acid added CP mixture have an open and interconnected porous structure ranging from 51 to 53 vol.% and observation using Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the pore size distribution between 100 and 500 {mu}m. The cytotoxicity tests revealed that the porous HA scaffolds have no cytotoxic potential on MG63 osteoblast-like cells which might allow for their use as biomaterials.

  5. Using Simulation to Develop Care Models for Rapid Response and Code Teams at a Satellite Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Amy R L; Snider, Julie; Marshall, Cheryl; Kramer, Kathleen; Geis, Gary L; Tegtmeyer, Ken; Gosdin, Craig H

    2017-12-01

    Our institution recently completed an expansion of an acute care inpatient unit within a satellite hospital that does not include an on-site ICU or PICU. Because of expected increases in volume and acuity, new care models for Rapid Response Teams (RRTs) and Code Blue Teams were necessary. Using simulation-based training, our objectives were to define the optimal roles and responsibilities for team members (including ICU physicians via telemedicine), refine the staffing of RRTs and code Teams, and identify latent safety threats (LSTs) before opening the expanded inpatient unit. The laboratory-based intervention consisted of 8 scenarios anticipated to occur at the new campus, with each simulation followed by an iterative debriefing process and a 30-minute safety talk delivered within 4-hour interprofessional sessions. In situ sessions were delivered after construction and before patients were admitted. A total of 175 clinicians completed a 4-hour course in 17 sessions. Over 60 clinicians participated during 2 in situ sessions before the opening of the unit. Eleven team-level knowledge deficits, 19 LSTs, and 25 system-level issues were identified, which directly informed changes and refinements in care models at the bedside and via telemedicine consultation. Simulation-based training can assist in developing staffing models, refining the RRT and code processes, and identify LSTs in a new pediatric acute care unit. This training model could be used as a template for other facilities looking to expand pediatric acute care at outlying smaller, more resource-limited facilities to evaluate new teams and environments before patient exposure. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of capripoxviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amaresh; Babiuk, Shawn; McIntosh, Michael T

    2012-05-01

    Sheep pox (SP), goat pox (GP), and lumpy skin disease (LSD), caused by capripoxviruses (CaPVs), are economically important diseases of sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Here, we report the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of CaPVs. LAMP primers were designed to target a conserved gene encoding the poly(A) polymerase small subunit (VP39) of CaPVs. Hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was incorporated to monitor assay progress by color change from violet when negative to sky blue when positive, and results were verified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP assay was shown to be highly specific for CaPVs, with no apparent cross-reactivity to other related viruses (near neighbors) or viruses that cause similar clinical signs (look-a-like viruses). The performance of LAMP was compared to that of a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. LAMP and qPCR exhibited similar analytical sensitivities, with limits of detection of 3 and 8 viral genome copies, respectively. Diagnostic specificity was assessed on 36 negative specimens, including swabs and EDTA blood from control sheep, goats, and cattle. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed on 275 specimens, including EDTA blood, swabs, and tissues from experimentally infected sheep, goats, and cattle. Overall agreement on diagnostic test results between the two assays was 90 to 95% for specificity and 89 to 100% for sensitivity. The LAMP assay described in this report is simple to use, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and particularly well suited for the diagnosis of capripox in less well equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited.

  7. Development of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Rapid Molecular Serotyping of Haemophilus parasuis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sarah E.; Wang, Jinhong; Hernandez-Garcia, Juan; Weinert, Lucy A.; Luan, Shi-Lu; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Angen, Øystein; Aragon, Virginia; Williamson, Susanna M.; Langford, Paul R.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Wren, Brendan W.; Maskell, Duncan J.; Tucker, Alexander W.

    2015-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis causes Glässer's disease and pneumonia in pigs. Indirect hemagglutination (IHA) is typically used to serotype this bacterium, distinguishing 15 serovars with some nontypeable isolates. The capsule loci of the 15 reference strains have been annotated, and significant genetic variation was identified between serovars, with the exception of serovars 5 and 12. A capsule locus and in silico serovar were identified for all but two nontypeable isolates in our collection of >200 isolates. Here, we describe the development of a multiplex PCR, based on variation within the capsule loci of the 15 serovars of H. parasuis, for rapid molecular serotyping. The multiplex PCR (mPCR) distinguished between all previously described serovars except 5 and 12, which were detected by the same pair of primers. The detection limit of the mPCR was 4.29 × 105 ng/μl bacterial genomic DNA, and high specificity was indicated by the absence of reactivity against closely related commensal Pasteurellaceae and other bacterial pathogens of pigs. A subset of 150 isolates from a previously sequenced H. parasuis collection was used to validate the mPCR with 100% accuracy compared to the in silico results. In addition, the two in silico-nontypeable isolates were typeable using the mPCR. A further 84 isolates were analyzed by mPCR and compared to the IHA serotyping results with 90% concordance (excluding those that were nontypeable by IHA). The mPCR was faster, more sensitive, and more specific than IHA, enabling the differentiation of 14 of the 15 serovars of H. parasuis. PMID:26424843

  8. Continuing Professional Development Evaluation: Two Rapid Review Courses inNephrology and Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shehab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Continuing professional development (CPD is anovel approach to increase professional knowledge and skills. The aim of this study is to explore participants’ characteristics and to understand participants’ views on two rapid review courses (RRCs as part of CPD program, and to assess healthcare providers’ views about the use of internet for accessing medical information.Methods: Data were collected from 150 participants who attended an RRC in Nephrology and Rheumatology as part of an ongoing CME program.Results: Participants’ response rate was 92% and 84.4% in Nephrology and Rheumatology RRCs, respectively. Participants’ Mean Age±SD were 39±2.1 and 41±2.1 years in the Nephrology and Rheumatology courses, respectively. Demographic variables, i.e., age, gender, and specialization showed a significant (p<0.01 impact on the learning objectives of the program. Further, participants reported that the course material had a significant (p<0.02 impacton their knowledge. Finding new medical information was the primary motive to search the internet among all participants. About half of the subjects reported knowledge of their preferred medical education sites and had access at their clinical setup. Barriers to internet use included lack of specific information, difficulty to download contents, and excessive material. Professional association websites, online journals, and CME programs were the most frequently searched sources of information. Most of the subjects reported significant (p<0.02 barriers to find medical resources on the internet and to adequately utilize the currently available medical search engines available in the healthcare system.Conclusion: A discipline specific and integrated CPD programmay have provided dual benefit such as accredited CME hours and a significant change in the participants’ knowledge. There is a need to increase Internet accessibility and capacity in the current healthcare facilities. Future CPD

  9. Activation of Notch3 in Glomeruli Promotes the Development of Rapidly Progressive Renal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Machhour, Fala; Keuylian, Zela; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Notch3 expression is found in the glomerular podocytes of patients with lupus nephritis or focal segmental GN but not in normal kidneys. Here, we show that activation of the Notch3 receptor in the glomeruli is a turning point inducing phenotypic changes in podocytes promoting renal inflammation and fibrosis and leading to disease progression. In a model of rapidly progressive GN, Notch3 expression was induced by several-fold in podocytes concurrently with disease progression. By contrast, mice lacking Notch3 expression were protected because they exhibited less proteinuria, uremia, and inflammatory infiltration. Podocyte outgrowth from glomeruli isolated from wild-type mice during the early phase of the disease was higher than outgrowth from glomeruli of mice lacking Notch3. In vitro studies confirmed that podocytes expressing active Notch3 reorganize their cytoskeleton toward a proliferative/migratory and inflammatory phenotype. We then administered antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting Notch3 or scramble control oligodeoxynucleotides in wild-type mice concomitant to disease induction. Both groups developed chronic renal disease, but mice injected with Notch3 antisense had lower values of plasma urea and proteinuria and inflammatory infiltration. The improvement of renal function was accompanied by fewer deposits of fibrin within the glomeruli and by decreased peritubular inflammation. Finally, abnormal Notch3 staining was observed in biopsy samples of patients with crescentic GN. These results demonstrate that abnormal activation of Notch3 may be involved in the progression of renal disease by promoting migratory and proinflammatory pathways. Inhibiting Notch3 activation could be a novel, promising approach to treat GN. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of

  11. Rapid development of tissue bank achieved by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Tissue Banking Programme in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Min; Wang, Jian-Ru; Zhang, Nai-Li; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Mo; Ma, Shao-Ying; Yang, Ting; Li, Bao-Xing

    2014-09-01

    Before 1986, the development of tissue banking in China has been slow and relatively uncoordinated. Under the support of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Tissue Banking in China experienced rapid development. In this period, China Institute for Radiation Protection tissue bank mastered systematic and modern tissue banking technique by IAEA training course and gradually developed the first regional tissue bank (Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank, SPTB) to provide tissue allograft. Benefit from training course, SPTB promoted the development of tissue transplantation by ways of training, brochure, advertisement and meeting. Tissue allograft transplantation acquired recognition from clinic and supervision and administration from government. Quality system gradually is developing and perfecting. Tissue allograft transplantation and tissue bank are developing rapidly and healthy.

  12. Development of Novel Method for Rapid Extract of Radionuclides from Solution Using Polymer Ligand Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Jung H.

    Accurate and fast determination of the activity of radionuclides in a sample is critical for nuclear forensics and emergency response. Radioanalytical techniques are well established for radionuclides measurement, however, they are slow and labor intensive, requiring extensive radiochemical separations and purification prior to analysis. With these limitations of current methods, there is great interest for a new technique to rapidly process samples. This dissertation describes a new analyte extraction medium called Polymer Ligand Film (PLF) developed to rapidly extract radionuclides. Polymer Ligand Film is a polymer medium with ligands incorporated in its matrix that selectively and rapidly extract analytes from a solution. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure necessary to chemically isolate radionuclides for determination by alpha spectrometry or beta counting. Five different ligands were tested for plutonium extraction: bis(2-ethylhexyl) methanediphosphonic acid (H2DEH[MDP]), di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), trialkyl methylammonium chloride (Aliquat-336), 4,4'(5')-di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), and 2-ethylhexyl 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (HEH[EHP]). The ligands that were effective for plutonium extraction further studied for uranium extraction. The plutonium recovery by PLFs has shown dependency on nitric acid concentration and ligand to total mass ratio. H2DEH[MDP] PLFs performed best with 1:10 and 1:20 ratio PLFs. 50.44% and 47.61% of plutonium were extracted on the surface of PLFs with 1M nitric acid for 1:10 and 1:20 PLF, respectively. HDEHP PLF provided the best combination of alpha spectroscopy resolution and plutonium recovery with 1:5 PLF when used with 0.1M nitric acid. The overall analyte recovery was lower than electrodeposited samples, which typically has recovery above 80%. However, PLF is designed to be a rapid field deployable screening technique and consistency is more important

  13. Prevalence of organic and inorganic contaminants within a rapidly developing catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njumbe, E. S.; Curtis, C. D.; Cooke, D. A.; Polya, D. A.; Wogelius, R. A.; Hughes, C.

    2003-04-01

    Industrialization rates in many developing countries typically outpace investment in water supply, sewage treatment and other waste water facilities. This is futher compounded by the absence of stringent land-use and waste disposal policies. The consequence of this has been contamination of land, surface water, and groundwater in such areas. Efforts to control and remediate these types of systems will rely on a thorough understanding of contaminant levels and mobility. Reliable data, however, is usually not available. Therefore this study was designed to acquire baseline data from a representative developing urban area in tropical west Africa. 43 water and 20 sediment/soil samples from streams, hand-dug wells, springs and deep boreholes within the city and surrounding areas of Douala in Cameroon were characterised. Analyses were aimed at obtaining information on the type and quantity of organic and inorganic contaminants present, and linking them to specific point and non-point sources. Results from gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of total organic extracts (TOE) of water samples have revealed the presence of a wide range of organic compounds including phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), phthalates, acids and aliphatic derivatives. Concentrations as high as 500 ng ml-1 were detected. These high levels of non-polar compounds measured in drinking water represent a clear health problem. Heavy metal concentrations in bulk alluvial sands and loamy soil have been determined by microwave assisted nitric acid digestion. Concentration ranges (in ppm of dry weight) for the important metals were: Cr, 3.2-84.2 ; Ni, 0.2-57.4 ; Zn, 2.1-92 ; Pb, 0.3-33 ; As, 0.081-9.4 ; Cu, 0.61-17.4 ; and Cd, 0-3.1. Point sources have been identified for several of the organic and inorganic compounds and this spatial information will be integrated with the chemical data to present an overview of

  14. Less developed areas as an element of balanced regional development policy in Slovenia: past experiences and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Kušar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Slovenian experiences with place prosperity policy go a few decades back. Less developed areas were introduced in 1971 for the first time and since then they have been continuously used as an instrument of regional policy. The paper presents some major experiences and basic achievements of Slovenian regional policy with the emphasis on less developed areas. Some basic conceptual questions which should be answered in planning further development of less developed areas are adressed later.

  15. Human Development in Dobrogea Area – from Crisis to Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Patache Laura

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paperwork is, on the one hand, to analyze the data represented by the Human Development Index and, on the other hand, to reveals some possible directions followed by human development under the impact of national and international trends. The position held by Romania and the two Dobrogea’s counties in the rankings of HDI is highlighted in a comparative perspective for the period 1998–2009. Taking into consideration that Romania ranks among the last European Union members, the ...

  16. Management and development of local area network upgrade prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouser, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Given the situation of having management and development users accessing a central computing facility and given the fact that these same users have the need for local computation and storage, the utilization of a commercially available networking system such as CP/NET from Digital Research provides the building blocks for communicating intelligent microsystems to file and print services. The major problems to be overcome in the implementation of such a network are the dearth of intelligent communication front-ends for the microcomputers and the lack of a rich set of management and software development tools.

  17. Essential Function of Dicer in Resolving DNA Damage in the Rapidly Dividing Cells of the Developing and Malignant Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Swahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of genomic integrity is critical during neurodevelopment, particularly in rapidly dividing cerebellar granule neuronal precursors that experience constitutive replication-associated DNA damage. As Dicer was recently recognized to have an unexpected function in the DNA damage response, we examined whether Dicer was important for preserving genomic integrity in the developing brain. We report that deletion of Dicer in the developing mouse cerebellum resulted in the accumulation of DNA damage leading to cerebellar progenitor degeneration, which was rescued with p53 deficiency; deletion of DGCR8 also resulted in similar DNA damage and cerebellar degeneration. Dicer deficiency also resulted in DNA damage and death in other rapidly dividing cells including embryonic stem cells and the malignant cerebellar progenitors in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. Together, these results identify an essential function of Dicer in resolving the spontaneous DNA damage that occurs during the rapid proliferation of developmental progenitors and malignant cells.

  18. CALACS: Mapping Out New Area Studies for Development | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian Association for Latin American and Caribbean Studies (CALACS) has undergone a number of changes in the last two years, relocating its secretariat to a stronger institutional host, revising its strategy and changing the way it supports development-oriented knowledge activities on the part of its membership.

  19. Mathematics Phobia in Developing Areas: Implications for Technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the problems of mathematics phobia among students and the impact on technical manpower development in Rivers State of Nigeria. Two sets of structured questionnaires were used to elicit appropriate responses from the respondents and simple proportion /percentage scores were employed for ...

  20. Management of microbial water quality: New perspectives for developing areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steynberg, MC

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available , sabotage of the sewage reticulation system, lack of money and management skills to provide the essential services and limited integrated development planning for the catchment. Due to non-steady state conditions in the catchment, the specific use...

  1. Assessment on the Impact of Arable Land Protection Policies in a Rapidly Developing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of arable land protection policies in China, a practical framework that integrates geographic information systems (GIS, soil quality assessment and landscape metrics analysis was employed to track and analyze arable land transformations and landscape changes in response to rampant urbanization within the Ningbo region (China from 2005 to 2013. The results showed that arable land loss and degradation have continued, despite the development of a comprehensive legal framework for arable land protection. The implementation of arable land protection policies is judged to be effective, but not entirely successful, because it guarantees the overall amount of arable land but does not consider soil quality and spatial distribution. In addition, there are distinct variations in arable land change dynamics between two temporal intervals. From 2005–2009, the transformation of arable land was diversified, with intensified conversion among arable land, built-up land, water and orchards. Moreover, many new arable land parcels were adjacent to built-up land, and are in danger of being occupied again through urban sprawl. By 2009–2013, most of the arable land was occupied by urban expansion, whereas a majority of newly increased arable land was reclaimed from coastal tideland. Although the newly increased arable land was contiguous and far from the urban area, it is of poor quality and has limited use. The permanent loss of high-quality arable land due to intensified urban sprawl may threaten sustainable development and food security on a larger scale.

  2. Development of a precipitation-area curve for warning criteria of short-duration flash flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Deg-Hyo; Lee, Moon-Hwan; Moon, Sung-Keun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative criteria for flash flood warning that can be used to rapidly assess flash flood occurrence based on only rainfall estimates. This study was conducted for 200 small mountainous sub-catchments of the Han River basin in South Korea because South Korea has recently suffered many flash flood events. The quantitative criteria are calculated based on flash flood guidance (FFG), which is defined as the depth of rainfall of a given duration required to cause frequent flooding (1-2-year return period) at the outlet of a small stream basin and is estimated using threshold runoff (TR) and antecedent soil moisture conditions in all sub-basins. The soil moisture conditions were estimated during the flooding season, i.e., July, August and September, over 7 years (2002-2009) using the Sejong University Rainfall Runoff (SURR) model. A ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis was used to obtain optimum rainfall values and a generalized precipitation-area (P-A) curve was developed for flash flood warning thresholds. The threshold function was derived as a P-A curve because the precipitation threshold with a short duration is more closely related to basin area than any other variables. For a brief description of the P-A curve, generalized thresholds for flash flood warnings can be suggested for rainfall rates of 42, 32 and 20 mm h-1 in sub-basins with areas of 22-40, 40-100 and > 100 km2, respectively. The proposed P-A curve was validated based on observed flash flood events in different sub-basins. Flash flood occurrences were captured for 9 out of 12 events. This result can be used instead of FFG to identify brief flash flood (less than 1 h), and it can provide warning information to decision-makers or citizens that is relatively simple, clear and immediate.

  3. Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan Community Growth Options: Vacant, Developed, and Constrained Areas; UTM 15N NAD83; LRA (2007); [developable

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS raster data set illustrates vacant, developed, and constrained areas for the 35 parishes in the Louisiana Speaks Regional Plan South Louisiana study area....

  4. Integrating Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing into Agile System Development of Healthcare IT: A Methodological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    The development of more usable and effective healthcare information systems has become a critical issue. In the software industry methodologies such as agile and iterative development processes have emerged to lead to more effective and usable systems. These approaches highlight focusing on user needs and promoting iterative and flexible development practices. Evaluation and testing of iterative agile development cycles is considered an important part of the agile methodology and iterative processes for system design and re-design. However, the issue of how to effectively integrate usability testing methods into rapid and flexible agile design cycles has remained to be fully explored. In this paper we describe our application of an approach known as low-cost rapid usability testing as it has been applied within agile system development in healthcare. The advantages of the integrative approach are described, along with current methodological considerations.

  5. Development of a high-speed real-time PCR system for rapid and precise nucleotide recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Hideyuki; Takei, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a common method used to create copies of a specific target region of a DNA sequence and to produce large quantities of DNA. A few DNA molecules, which act as templates, are rapidly amplified by PCR into many billions of copies. PCR is a key technology in genome-based biological analysis, revolutionizing many life science fields such as medical diagnostics, food safety monitoring, and countermeasures against bioterrorism. Thus, many applications have been developed with the thermal cycling. For these PCR applications, one of the most important key factors is reduction in the data acquisition time. To reduce the acquisition time, it is necessary to decrease the temperature transition time between the high and low ends as much as possible. We have developed a novel rapid real-time PCR system based on rapid exchange of media maintained at different temperatures. This system consists of two thermal reservoirs and a reaction chamber for PCR observation. The temperature transition was achieved within 0.3 sec, and good thermal stability was achieved during thermal cycling with rapid exchange of circulating media. This system allows rigorous optimization of the temperatures required for each stage of the PCR processes. Resulting amplicons were confirmed by electrophoresis. Using the system, rapid DNA amplification was accomplished within 3.5 min, including initial heating and complete 50 PCR cycles. It clearly shows that the device could allow us faster temperature switching than the conventional conduction-based heating systems based on Peltier heating/cooling.

  6. Large area sheet task: Advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of silicon dendritic web for photovoltaic applications was investigated. The application of a thermal model for calculating buckling stresses as a function of temperature profile in the web is discussed. Lid and shield concepts were evaluated to provide the data base for enhancing growth velocity. An experimental web growth machine which embodies in one unit the mechanical and electronic features developed in previous work was developed. In addition, evaluation of a melt level control system was begun, along with preliminary tests of an elongated crucible design. The economic analysis was also updated to incorporate some minor cost changes. The initial applications of the thermal model to a specific configuration gave results consistent with experimental observation in terms of the initiation of buckling vs. width for a given crystal thickness.

  7. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application. PMID:27187394

  8. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata

    2016-05-12

    This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application.

  9. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Venčkauskas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS. We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application.

  10. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidences have revealed that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5-7 and 8-11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS are different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz. The delta and theta activities were co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats.

  11. A Development of Rapid, Practical and Selective Process for Preparation of Z-Oximes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bo Ram; Sung, Gi Hyeon; Yoon, Yongjin [Gyeongsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeumjong [Electronic and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Oximes are important functional groups in organic chemistry due to their synthetic utility as protecting groups for carbonyl groups and their ability to form other functionalities, and their biological activity. Oximes are commonly prepared by condensing aldehydes and ketones with hydroxylamines. These reactions do not always go to completion and reaction times can be long, and therefore there has been interest in more convenient and efficient methods. To avoid the typical disadvantage, conversion of aldehydes and ketones to the corresponding oximes was accomplished by using various catalysts such as organic acid/bases, AcONa, alumina, TiO{sub 2}/SO{sub 4} silica gel, Oxone, NaOH, basic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydroxide, polyoxometalates, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, and CuSO{sub 4}/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} under the solvent, the solvent-free or the microwave conditions. These are one and more drowbacks such as long reaction time, use of catalysts, inconvenients due to solid-sate reaction, low yields and limitaion of some carbonyl compounds. On the other hand, H. Sharghi, et al.,14 reported the catalysis of the stereoselectivity of CuSO{sub 4} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the oximation of aldehydes and ketones under solvent-free conditions. Although this method show high selectivity, it is inconvenient for the large scale experiments and the industrial process due to the solvent-free condition. Therefore, we attempted to develop a more convenient and efficient solution method. According to the literatures, treatment of potassium carbonate with methanol generates slightly the potassium methoxide, which may be useful for forming the free NH{sub 2}OH from its salts. We describe the oximation of aldehyde and ketone using NH{sub 2}OH·HCl/K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in methanol solvent. We selected oximation of acetophenone (1a) with hydroxylamine hydrochloride as a model and its behavior was investigated in seven solvents involving methanol (Table 1). As shown in the Entry 2 in

  12. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products, and animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 µg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line ...

  13. Development of a rapid and simple Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system for the fungal pathogen Heterobasidion annosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas Samils; Malin Elfstrand; Daniel L. Lindner Czederpiltz; Jan Fahleson; Ake Olson; Christina Dixelius; Jan Stenlid

    2006-01-01

    Heterobasidion annosum causes root and butt-rot in trees and is the most serious forest pathogen in the northern hemisphere. We developed a rapid and simple Agrobacterium-mediated method of gene delivery into H. annosum to be used in functional studies of candidate genes and for visualization of mycelial interactions. Heterobasidion annosum TC 32-1 was cocultivated at...

  14. Working Smarter Not Harder: Using a Pedagogical-Based Model in the Rapid Development of Quality Hybrid Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jodi E.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study explored how repurposing and a pedagogical-based instructional design model, the multimodal model (Picciano, 2009), were used to create quality courses in a rapid development setting at a Midwestern land grant university. Data triangulation was used to secure data from faculty member interviews, course syllabi, and…

  15. Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

  16. Development of an ELISA for Rapid Detection of Anti-Type VII Collagen Autoantibodies in Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, M; Chan, L S; Cai, X; O'Toole, E A; Sample, J C; Woodley, D T

    1997-01-01

    .... In this study, we developed a rapid, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect autoantibody activity against the complete NC1 domain of type VII collagen with the use of an eukaryotic-expressed, recombinant human NC1 antigen...

  17. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seng Fook; Tay, Sun Tee; Sermswan, Rasana; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Chua, Kek Heng; Puthucheary, Savithri D

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a multiplex PCR assay for rapid identification and differentiation of cultures for Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia cepacia complex. The assay is valuable for use in clinical and veterinary laboratories, and in a deployable laboratory during outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant Growth and Development: An Outline for a Unit Structured Around the Life Cycle of Rapid-Cycling Brassica Rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Wayne M.

    This outline is intended for use in a unit of 10-12 lectures on plant growth and development at the introductory undergraduate level as part of a course on organismal biology. The series of lecture outlines is structured around the life cycle of rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr). The unit begins with three introductory lectures on general plant…

  19. 77 FR 69637 - Development of Prioritized Therapeutic Area Data Standards; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... projects that develop ] disease and domain-specific therapeutic area data standards. On July 9, 2012... medical products. Therapeutic area disease and domain specific data standards should enable and enhance... standardization projects underway, and (3) areas with greater drug development pipeline activity. The initial...

  20. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  1. Digital development of products with NX9 for academical areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goanta, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    International competitiveness forced the manufacturing enterprises to look for new ways to accelerate the development of digital products through innovation, global alliances and strategic partnerships. In an environment of global research and development of distributed geographically, all members of the joint teams made up of companies and universities need to access updated and accurate information about products created by any of the type employed, student, teacher. Current design processes involve more complex products consisting of elements of design created by multiple teams, disciplines and suppliers using independent CAD systems. Even when using a 3D CAD mature technology, many companies fail to significantly reduce losses in the process, improve product quality or product type to ensure successful innovations to market arouse interest. These challenges require a radical rethinking of the business model, which belongs to the field of design, which must be based on digital development of products based on integrated files. Through this work, the author has proposed to provide both synthesis and transformations brought news of the integrated NX [1, 2, 3] from Siemens PLM Software 9, following a news results detailed documentary study, and personal results obtained by applying the same version, the digital and integrated development of a product type device test beams. Based on educational license received for NX 9 was made a detailed study of the innovations made by this release, and the application of some of them went to graphical modelling and getting all the documentation of a test device bearing beams. Also, were synthesized in terms of methodology, the steps to take to obtain graphical documentation. The results consist of: 3D models of all parts and assembly 3D model of the three-dimensional constraints of all component parts and not least respectively all drawings and assembly drawing. The most important consequence of the paper is the obtaining of

  2. Tradition, religion and sustainable development in the Romanian cultural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorea, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is not unusual within Western culture. One of the causes accounting for the Romanian people’s compatibility with the behaviours associated with sustainable development is represented by the persistence of the consumer behaviour before 1989 in the Romanians’ memory. Other causes underlying this compatibility are represented by the axiological survival of the cultural tradition and by the Romanians’ affiliation to the Orthodox Church. The concept of “sustainable development” connotes either change or recovery in the human relationship with the environment. The main advantage brought forth by this orientation comes from the promoted natural behaviours.

  3. An Ecological Inventory Approach to Developing Curricula for Rural Areas of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baine, David; Puhan, Biranchi; Puhan, Gautam; Puhan, Siba

    2000-05-01

    The paper describes a curriculum development pilot study in a rural village in India. The purpose of the study was to develop and test application of an ecological inventory approach to curriculum development integrating academic and functional skill training. Ecologically valid curricula teach the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values required by students to function effectively in current and future environments (e.g., urban and/or rural, academic, vocational, domestic, community and recreational) in which the students perform. The discussion illustrates application of ecological inventories and describes several related data collection instruments and procedures. The paper also describes an Integrated Core Curriculum Structure (ICCS) as a guide for designing curricula based on ecological inventories. An example is provided of a practical Thematic Unit Plan derived from the ICCS and integrating a variety of functional and academic skills into a guide for instruction and evaluation. The discussion provides a clear insight into many of the problems faced by students, school leavers and graduates in rural areas of developing countries, both in their daily lives and as they plan for their futures.

  4. A prototype Lab Box with DSK 'C6711/13 for rapid DSP algorithm development

    OpenAIRE

    Bertini, Graziano

    2007-01-01

    A system based on the TMS320C6711 DSK Starter Kit, enclosed in a special chassis, designed for real-time DSP algorithms testing, is described. Some evaluation of MATLab software Rapid Prototyping tools for a "Virtual Dubbing" application on damaged speech is also given.

  5. Rapid Naming Speed Components and Reading Development in a Consistent Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Fella, Argyro; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We examined how rapid automatized naming (RAN) components--articulation time and pause time--predict word and text reading fluency in a consistent orthography (Greek). In total, 68 children were followed from Grade 2 to Grade 6 and were assessed three times on RAN (Digits and Objects), phonological awareness, orthographic processing, speed of…

  6. Governing Rapid Growth in Asia: State-led Development in Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T-W. Ngo (Tak-Wing)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractRapid growth in Asia has often been explained in terms of effective policies pursued by a “developmental state”. In particular, countries in East Asia are said to be characterized by the presence of a strong state with technocratic capacity and social embeddedness. This inaugural address

  7. Development of a novel multiplex PCR assay for rapid detection of virulence associated genes of Pasteurella multocida from pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkhowa, S

    2015-09-01

    As the pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida is associated with various virulence factors (VFs), the aim of the study was to develop a novel multiplex PCR (m-PCR) assay for the rapid detection of important virulence associated genes (VAGs) of P. multocida isolates from pigs. The target recognized VFs used in the study were diverse adhesins (ptfA and pfhA), toxins (toxA), siderophores (tonB and hgbA), sialidases (nanB, nanH) and outer membrane proteins (ompA, ompH, oma87 and plpB). The primers for the genes encoding these VFs were designed by primer3 software (http://bioinfo.ut.ee/primer3-0.4.0/) using gene sequences available in Genbank. The detection limit of the developed assay was 10(2)  CFU ml(-1) . The m-PCR did not produce any nonspecific amplification products when tested against Bordetella bronchiseptica which also commonly infects pigs. We applied m-PCR to the field samples, and the results obtained were the same as the single PCR results. The developed assay would be very useful for veterinary diagnostic laboratories and for others interested in the rapid virulence profiling of porcine P. multocida isolates circulating in the piggeries. The study reports the development and evaluation of a novel multiplex PCR assay for the rapid detection of 11 important VAGs of Pasteurella multocida isolates from pigs. Rapid and simultaneous detection of recognized VFs of the organism are essential to know the virulo-types of P. multocida isolates circulating in the piggeries. The developed novel assay will be very useful for the rapid detection of VAGs of P. multocida isolates from pigs. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Willingness to use a rapid diagnostic test for malaria in a rural area of central Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoé, Colombe Coffie; Ouattara, Allassane F; Raso, Giovanna; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2012-12-18

    Malaria mortality is mainly a direct consequence of inadequate and/or delayed diagnosis and case management. Some important control interventions (e.g. long-lasting insecticidal nests) have contributed to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in different parts of the world. Moreover, the development and effective use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) hold promise to further enhance the control and elimination of malaria, particularly in areas where health services are deficient. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs in relation to RDTs for malaria in rural Côte d'Ivoire. One hundred individuals from Bozi and Yoho who sought care at the health centre in Bozi and were offered an RDT for malaria were interviewed in April 2010 using a pre-tested questionnaire on practice and perceptions in relation to RDTs for malaria. The relationships between acceptance of RDTs and factors related to opinions were identified, using generalized linear mixed models. Qualitative data from open-ended questions complemented the quantitative analysis. Only 34 out of 100 patients who were offered an RDT for malaria were willing to undergo the test. People who perceived blood as a sacred body fluid were less likely to comply with an RDT. The concurrent availability and use of RDTs for HIV and malaria was associated with an unwilling attitude towards RDTs for malaria (Fisher's exact test, p malaria testing with RDTs was significantly related to general fear and wanting to know malaria infection status. For further and regular use of RDTs, a strong relationship was observed between acceptance and the idea that an RDT is a pretext used by health worker to know HIV status (odds ratio (OR) = 16.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-268.5). Those thinking that blood samples were useful for medical diagnoses were 8.31-times (95% CI = 2.22-31.1) more likely to undergo an RDT compared to those rejecting blood sampling as a diagnostic strategy. Socio

  9. SHAPES AND TOURISM DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES OF URBAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen IORDACHE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Along time, towns have proven to be landmarks in travelling, meaning that either their endowment has ben used as halt places during travels, or by the architecture of their buildings and assemblies, monuments, sculptures and bas-reliefs which have been used to decorate squares, public and private places, elements of decorative art, landscape painting, whereas the attractions they shelter have themselves proven to be some highly appreciated tourist destinations.Towns’ growth and modernization on one hand and the manifold of their supplies on the other have led along time to the emergence of a typical tourism form which is urban tourism. Along with travels’ increase, this form of tourism has aquired more and more substance, as it now benefits from the features of a distinct form of travelling with very diverse motivations. Taking account of the need to adapt towns to tourists’ demands, this paper attempts to clarify certain aspects related to the contents, specificity and materialization ways of urban tourism as well as to adopt certain urban tourism development strategies.

  10. Development a rapid and accurate multiplex real time PCR method for the detection Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarkar, Roya; Mehrabadi, Jalil Fallah; Noormohammadi, Zahra; Mirnejad, Reza

    2017-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases easily spread among sexually active people and often have no symptoms. Rapid and accurate method for detecting these infections are necessary in early stages. The traditional detection methods of them are difficult and time-consuming. In this study, multiplex real time PCR was optimized for rapid identification of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis in a single tube and was performed with our designed primers. The sensitivity test was carried out to designed primers with diluted genomic DNA. To defined the specificity, non STD bacteria were used as DNA template. This study indicated that the developed multiplex real time PCR can be an effective alternative procedure to the conventional methods for rapid and accurate identification of C Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. Multiplex real-time PCR Results of them were checked with melting curves. The sensitivity of our designed primer by multiplex real time PCR for Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis were 4.78×1010 and 8.35×1010 , respectively, Which the primers did not amplify any product from a non-STD species. Multiplex real time PCR by our new primers and analysis of melting curves were successfully usable for rapid and accurate detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis. This assay instead of traditional culture method, has considerable potential to be rapid, accurate and highly sensitive molecular diagnostic tool for simultaneous and direct detection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Review of thermal recovery technologies for the Clearwater and lower Grand Rapids formations in the Cold Lake area in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q.; Thornton, B.; Houston, J.R.; Spence, S. [OSUM Oil Sands Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described a performance review conducted to assess steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) projects in the Cold Lake region. Commercial and pilot plant projects in the region were discussed. The aim of the study was to design a development plan for achieving bitumen production rates of 35,000 barrels per day in the Taiga region. While relatively high pressure drawdowns are created between the wellbore and formation during CSS production phases, the CSS process has limited applications in fine grain sands reservoirs, or in reservoirs with thick bottom water. SAGD processes require a minimum pressure drawdown to drive reservoir fluids to the wellbore, making them ideal for reservoirs with top gas, or in formations with fine grain sands and bottom water. Selection criteria for CSS and SAGD technologies were reviewed. Simulations were conducted to assess the impacts of well placement, reservoir heterogeneity, and operating parameters on SAGD and CSS performance. Well configurations for optimal SAGD performance were also presented. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 20 figs.

  12. Induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis and recovery rapidly modulate brain areas related to phonatory behavior: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashwini; Jiang, Yang; Stemple, Joseph C; Archer, Sanford M; Andreatta, Richard D

    2011-03-01

    Peripheral and behavioral effects of voice disorders are well documented in the literature; yet, there is little information regarding the central neural biomarkers and mechanisms underlying these disorders. Understanding the details of brain function changes in disordered voice production is a critical factor for developing better treatment strategies that result in more robust patient outcomes. To examine a model of induced unilateral vocal fold paralysis (iUVFP) to demonstrate and characterize the form of activity changes within central mappings of the larynx to the induced paralysis. The induced paralysis model allowed the participant to serve as his or her own control when comparing baseline results of normal voice with results during the paralysis and subsequent recovery. Prospective, case-study design. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine central laryngeal representations during three time points: pre-iUVFP, during iUVFP, and postrecovery from iUVFP. iUVFP was induced using a lidocaine with epinephrine nerve block unilaterally. Percent changes in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity served as the dependent variable. Results indicated an overall reduced activity level in sensorimotor, subcortical, and cerebellar regions during paralysis. Recovery from paralysis led to augmented responses, particularly in sensory, association, and cerebellar zones. The decrease in activity during iUVFP and the significantly increased activity during the recovery phase likely represent immediate neuroplastic events occurring within minutes of nerve blockade. Recovery-related changes in the BOLD response are hypothesized to be associated with a recalibration of the system after return of normal laryngeal function. Copyright © 2011 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzai, S; Safi, S; Mossavari, N; Afshar, D; Bolourchian, M

    2016-08-31

    The present study was conducted to establish a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for the rapid detection of B. mallei the etiologic agent of glanders, a highly contagious disease of equines. A set of six specific primers targeting integrase gene cluster were designed for the LAMP test. The reaction was optimized using different temperatures and time intervals. The specificity of the assay was evaluated using DNA from B.pseudomallei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The LAMP products were analyzed both visually and under UV light after electrophoresis. The optimized conditions were found to be at 63ºC for 60 min. The assay showed high specificity and sensitivity. It was concluded that the established LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive and practical tool for detection of B. mallei and early diagnosis of glanders.

  14. The Spatial and Temporal Consumptive Water Use Impacts of Rapid Shale Gas Development and Use in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, A. P.; Allen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several years, the development of shale gas resources has proceeded rapidly in many areas of the United States, and this shale gas development requires the use of millions of gallons of water, per well, for hydraulic fracturing. Recent life cycle assessments of natural gas from shale formations have calculated the potential for water use reduction when water use is integrated along the entire natural gas supply chain, if the shale gas is used in natural-gas power plants to displace coal-fired electricity generation. Actual grid operation, however, is more complicated and would require both that sufficient unused natural gas generation capacity exists for the displacement of coal-fired power generation and that the natural gas price is low enough that the switching is financially feasible. In addition, water savings, which would occur mainly from a reduction in the cooling water demand at coal-fired power plants, may occur in different regions and at different times than water used in natural gas production. Thus, consumptive water impacts may be spatial and temporally disparate, which is not a consideration in current life-cycle literature. The development of shale gas resources in Texas in August 2008 through December 2009 was chosen as a case study for characterizing this phenomenon since Texas accounted for two-thirds of the shale gas produced in the United States during this period and since the price of natural gas for electricity generation dropped significantly over the episode. Changes to the Texas self-contained electric grid (ERCOT) for a scenario with actual natural gas production and prices was estimated using a constrained grid model, rather than assuming that natural gas generation would displace coal-fired power plant usage. The actual development scenario was compared to an alternative development scenario in which natural gas prices remained elevated throughout the episode. Upstream changes in water consumption from lignite (coal

  15. Development of Rapid Temporal Processing and Its Impact on Literacy Skills in Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbrink, Claudia; Zimmer, Karin; Lachmann, Thomas; Dirichs, Martin; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, auditory and visual temporal order thresholds (TOTs) were investigated in primary school children (N = 236; mean age at first data point = 6;7) at the beginning of Grade 1 and the end of Grade 2 to test whether rapid temporal processing abilities predict reading and spelling at the end of Grades 1 and 2. Auditory and…

  16. Development of lidocaine-coated microneedle product for rapid, safe, and prolonged local analgesic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Brown, Ken; Siebenaler, Kris; Determan, Amy; Dohmeier, Daniel; Hansen, Kris

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate rapid (~1 min) lidocaine delivery using 3M's solid microstructured transdermal system (sMTS) for prolonged, local analgesic action. Polymeric microneedles were fabricated via injection molding and then dip-coated using an aqueous lidocaine formulation. The amount of lidocaine coated onto the microneedles was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). To assess drug delivery and dermal pharmacokinetics, lidocaine-coated microneedles were inserted into domestic swine. Skin punch biopsies were collected and analyzed to determine lidocaine concentration in skin using HPLC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Commercial lidocaine/prilocaine EMLA (Eutectic Mixture of Local Anesthetic) cream was used as comparative control. Lidocaine dissolves rapidly off the microneedles and into skin such that the 1-min wear time achieves or exceeds lidocaine tissue levels needed to cause analgesia. This therapeutic threshold (100 ng/mg) was estimated by measuring the total amount of lidocaine and prilocaine in skin following a 1 h EMLA application. When co-formulated with 0.03 wt% vasoconstrictor-epinephrine, the concentration of lidocaine in tissue was maintained above 100 ng/mg for approximately 90 min. 3M's sMTS can be used to provide rapid delivery of lidocaine for local analgesia up to 90 min.

  17. The Development and Validation of a Rapid Assessment Tool of Primary Care in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Liang, Yuan; Shi, LeiYu; Zhao, JingGe; Wang, YuTan; Kuang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. With Chinese health care reform increasingly emphasizing the importance of primary care, the need for a tool to evaluate primary care performance and service delivery is clear. This study presents a methodology for a rapid assessment of primary care organizations and service delivery in China. Methods. The study translated and adapted the Primary Care Assessment Tool-Adult Edition (PCAT-AE) into a Chinese version to measure core dimensions of primary care, namely, first contact, continuity, comprehensiveness, and coordination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the validity and reliability of the Chinese Rapid Primary Care Assessment Tool (CR-PCAT). Eight community health centers in Guangdong province have been selected to participate in the survey. Results. A total of 1465 effective samples were included for data analysis. Eight items were eliminated following principal component analysis and reliability testing. The principal component analysis extracted five multiple-item scales (first contact utilization, first contact accessibility, ongoing care, comprehensiveness, and coordination). The tests of scaling assumptions were basically met. Conclusion. The standard psychometric evaluation indicates that the scales have achieved relatively good reliability and validity. The CR-PCAT provides a rapid and reliable measure of four core dimensions of primary care, which could be applied in various scenarios. PMID:26885509

  18. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H; Ebbesen, Frederik S; Christiansen, David H; Skotte, Jørgen; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm s(-1) [95% confidence interval: (1.33-11.80)] in the 2-min group and 33.2 Nm s(-1) (1.66-12.33) in the 12-min group from baseline to 10-week follow-up, corresponding to an increase of 16.0% and 18.2% for the two groups, respectively. The increase was significantly different compared to controls (Pmuscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Pmuscle strength and pain. Small daily amounts of progressive resistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and, to a less extent, maximal force capacity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  19. Regional-development problematic of area near Slovene-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Pak

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Introductory regional developmental activities in European and also in some other border areas are represented in general on some concrete examples. Analysis is following of regional developmental factors, including position, natural environ-ment, political elements as well as general and cultural development. Most border areas near Slovene-Croatian border are not developed also due to many other factors, and further development of such areas is subject to traffic approachability, development of gravitation centers and innovations in these very areas.

  20. Estimation and Validation of RapidEye-Based Time-Series of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in the Rur Catchment (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important variable for numerous processes in various disciplines of bio- and geosciences. In situ measurements are the most accurate source of LAI among the LAI measuring methods, but the in situ measurements have the limitation of being labor intensive and site specific. For spatial-explicit applications (from regional to continental scales, satellite remote sensing is a promising source for obtaining LAI with different spatial resolutions. However, satellite-derived LAI measurements using empirical models require calibration and validation with the in situ measurements. In this study, we attempted to validate a direct LAI retrieval method from remotely sensed images (RapidEye with in situ LAI (LAIdestr. Remote sensing LAI (LAIrapideye were derived using different vegetation indices, namely SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Additionally, applicability of the newly available red-edge band (RE was also analyzed through Normalized Difference Red-Edge index (NDRE and Soil Adjusted Red-Edge index (SARE. The LAIrapideye obtained from vegetation indices with red-edge band showed better correlation with LAIdestr (r = 0.88 and Root Mean Square Devation, RMSD = 1.01 & 0.92. This study also investigated the need to apply radiometric/atmospheric correction methods to the time-series of RapidEye Level 3A data prior to LAI estimation. Analysis of the the RapidEye Level 3A data set showed that application of the radiometric/atmospheric correction did not improve correlation of the estimated LAI with in situ LAI.

  1. Development of an OP9 derived cell line as a robust model to rapidly study adipocyte differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Lane

    Full Text Available One hallmark of obesity is adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. To gain novel insights into adipose biology and therapeutics, there is a pressing need for a robust, rapid, and informative cell model of adipocyte differentiation for potential RNAi and drug screens. Current models are prohibitive for drug and RNAi screens due to a slow differentiation time course and resistance to transfection. We asked if we could create a rapid, robust model of adipogenesis to potentially enable rapid functional and obesity therapeutic screens. We generated the clonal population OP9-K, which differentiates rapidly and reproducibly, and displays classic adipocyte morphology: rounded cell shape, lipid accumulation, and coalescence of lipids into a large droplet. We further validate the OP9-K cells as an adipocyte model system by microarray analysis of the differentiating transcriptome. OP9-K differentiates via known adipogenic pathways, involving the transcriptional activation and repression of common adipose markers Plin1, Gata2, C/Ebpα and C/Ebpβ and biological pathways, such as lipid metabolism, PPARγ signaling, and osteogenesis. We implemented a method to quantify lipid accumulation using automated microscopy and tested the ability of our model to detect alterations in lipid accumulation by reducing levels of the known master adipogenic regulator Pparγ. We further utilized our model to query the effects of a novel obesity therapeutic target, the transcription factor SPI1. We determine that reduction in levels of Spi1 leads to an increase in lipid accumulation. We demonstrate rapid, robust differentiation and efficient transfectability of the OP9-K cell model of adipogenesis. Together with our microscopy based lipid accumulation assay, adipogenesis assays can be achieved in just four days' time. The results of this study can contribute to the development of rapid screens with the potential to deepen our understanding of adipose biology and efficiently

  2. Development of a simultaneous lateral flow strip test for the rapid and simple detection of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong-Yeol; Shim, Won-Bo; Kim, Jeong-Sook; Chung, Duck-Hwa

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a 1-step simultaneous lateral flow strip test for the rapid and simple detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in grains. Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DON and ZEA were respectively conjugated with gold nanoparticles and used to develop a lateral flow strip test for a single toxin and multiple toxins. First, individual lateral flow strips for a single toxin were optimized, and their conditions were used to develop a simultaneous lateral flow strip for multiple toxins. Limits of detection of both lateral flow strip tests for DON and ZEA were the same (DON: 50 ng/mL, ZEA: 1 ng/mL). Both methods showed cross-reactivity for α-zearalenol and β-zearalenol, but no cross-reaction to other mycotoxins. The results can be completed obtained within 15 min. The cut-off values of the simultaneous lateral flow strip for the spiked rice and corn were 500 and 10 ng/g for DON and ZEA, respectively. The results demonstrated that the developed simultaneous lateral flow strip test offers a rapid, easy-to-use, and portable analytical system and can be used as a convenient qualitative tool for the on-site detection of DON and ZEA in food and agricultural commodities. Simultaneous lateral strip test is useful for a rapid detection of DON and ZEA at a time in food and grain samples. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Development of a Fieldable, Rapid, Accurate and Sensitive Bio-Electronic, DNA Biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    single molecule of DNA or RNA and therefore does not require the use of PCR. The sensor chip can be engineered with an array of hundreds of independent test sites, which allows for confirmatory tests leading to a high level of specificity, the ability to screen for multiple threat agents simultaneously, and the capability to detect genetically engineered organisms. Biological agents continue to pose a major threat to U.S. troops as well as U.S. civilians both domestically and overseas. Rapid, accurate and sensitive detection and identification of biological agents is

  4. Rapid development of a mycotic aneurysm of the intracranial artery secondary to Scedosporium apiospermum sinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko Ogawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An 85-year-old man complained of a 2-month history of pain on the left side of his face. Brain computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography did not clearly show any intracranial abnormality and only showed fluid effusion in his left sphenoid sinus. Filamentous fungi were detected from the left sphenoid sinus specimen. The isolate was Scedosporium apiospermum. He was empirically treated with voriconazole, to which the isolate was susceptible. His consciousness decreased rapidly. Urgent 3D-CT angiography revealed an intracranial aneurysm near the left sphenoid sinus. Despite urgent coil embolization, the aneurysm ruptured, and he died.

  5. Development of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris - wilt pathogen of chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Raju; Nagavardhini, Avuthu; Sengupta, Anindita; Sharma, Mamta

    2015-02-11

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt is a devastating pathogen of chickpea. In chickpea, various soil borne pathogens produce (s) similar symptoms, therefore cannot be distinguished easily at field level. There is real need for a rapid, inexpensive, and easy to operate and maintain genotyping tool to facilitate accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of Fusarium wilt outbreaks. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the elongation factor 1 alpha gene sequence for visual detection of Foc. The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63°C for 60 min. When hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was added before amplification, samples with Foc DNA developed a characteristic sky blue colour but those without DNA or with the DNA of six other plant pathogenic fungi did not. Results obtained with LAMP and HNB were confirmed when LAMP products were subjected to gel electrophoresis. The detection limit of this LAMP assay for Foc was 10 fg of genomic DNA per reaction, while that of conventional PCR was 100 pg. In conclusion, it was found that a LAMP assay combined with HNB is simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific. The LAMP assay does not require specialized equipment, hence can be used in the field for the rapid detection of Foc. This is the first report of the use of LAMP assay for the detection of Foc. The presented LAMP method provides a specific, sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool for the distinction of Foc, with the potential to be standardized as a detection method for Foc in endemic areas and will be very useful for monitoring the disease complex in the field further suggesting the management strategies.

  6. Comparing the Dry Season In-Situ Leaf Area Index (LAI Derived from High-Resolution RapidEye Imagery with MODIS LAI in a Namibian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Mayr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Leaf Area Index (LAI is one of the most frequently applied measures to characterize vegetation and its dynamics and functions with remote sensing. Satellite missions, such as NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operationally produce global datasets of LAI. Due to their role as an input to large-scale modeling activities, evaluation and verification of such datasets are of high importance. In this context, savannas appear to be underrepresented with regards to their heterogeneous appearance (e.g., tree/grass-ratio, seasonality. Here, we aim to examine the LAI in a heterogeneous savanna ecosystem located in Namibia’s Owamboland during the dry season. Ground measurements of LAI are used to derive a high-resolution LAI model with RapidEye satellite data. This model is related to the corresponding MODIS LAI/FPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation scene (MOD15A2 in order to evaluate its performance at the intended annual minimum during the dry season. Based on a field survey we first assessed vegetation patterns from species composition and elevation for 109 sites. Secondly, we measured in situ LAI to quantitatively estimate the available vegetation (mean = 0.28. Green LAI samples were then empirically modeled (LAImodel with high resolution RapidEye imagery derived Difference Vegetation Index (DVI using a linear regression (R2 = 0.71. As indicated by several measures of model performance, the comparison with MOD15A2 revealed moderate consistency mostly due to overestimation by the aggregated LAImodel. Model constraints aside, this study may point to important issues for MOD15A2 in savannas concerning the underlying MODIS Land Cover product (MCD12Q1 and a potential adjustment by means of the MODIS Burned Area product (MCD45A1.

  7. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) in a malaria endemic area in Ghana, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyasi, Dennis; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Newton, Sam; Dosoo, David; Amoako, Sabastina; Adjei, George; Amoako, Nicholas; Ankrah, Love; Tchum, Samuel Kofi; Mahama, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Veronica; Kayan, Kingsley; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most widespread enzyme defect that can result in red cell breakdown under oxidative stress when exposed to certain medicines including antimalarials. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) as a point-of-care tool for screening G6PD deficiency. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 randomly selected and consented participants from a group with known G6PD deficiency status between February 2013 and June 2013. A maximum of 1.6ml of capillary blood samples were used for G6PD deficiency screening using CareStart G6PD RDT and Trinity qualitative with Trinity quantitative methods as the "gold standard". Samples were also screened for the presence of malaria parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using Microsoft Access 2010 and Stata Software version 12. Kintampo Health Research Centre Institutional Ethics Committee granted ethical approval. The sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT was 100% and 72.1% compared to Trinity quantitative method respectively and was 98.9% and 96.2% compared to Trinity qualitative method. Malaria infection status had no significant (P=0.199) change on the performance of the G6PD RDT test kit compared to the "gold standard". The outcome of this study suggests that the diagnostic performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit was high and it is acceptable at determining the G6PD deficiency status in a high malaria endemic area in Ghana. The RDT kit presents as an attractive tool for point-of-care G6PD deficiency for rapid testing in areas with high temperatures and less expertise. The CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit could be used to screen malaria patients before administration of the fixed dose primaquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  8. Business Development Management and Services Area; La Direccion de Desarrollo de Negocios y el Area de Servicios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The creation in ENSA of the new Business Development Management is meant to leverage ENSA's activities by taking advantage of the previous experience gained by the services area to have a much more active presence than before in both the national and international market for goods and services of the nuclear industry. The Management's activities go beyond the traditional, mature activity of large nuclear components manufacturing developed in ENSA since it was founded. This article details the activities of this new Management and its future projection. (Author)

  9. Development of a SERS-Based Rapid Vertical Flow Assay for Point-of-Care Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, O J R; Goodall, B L; Hui, H P; Vats, N; Brosseau, C L

    2017-02-07

    Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic testing platforms are a growing sector of the healthcare industry as they offer the advantages of rapid provision of results, ease of use, reduced cost, and the ability to link patients to care. While many POC tests are based on chromatographic flow assay technology, this technology suffers from a lack of sensitivity along with limited capacity for multiplexing and quantitative analysis. Several recent reports have begun to investigate the feasibility of coupling chromatographic flow platforms to more advanced read-out technologies which in turn enable on-site acquisition, storage, and transmission of important healthcare metrics. One such technology being explored is surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy or SERS. In this work, SERS is coupled for the first time to a rapid vertical flow (RVF) immunotechnology for detection of anti-HCV antibodies in an effort to extend the capabilities of this commercially available diagnostic platform. High-quality and reproducible SERS spectra were obtained using reporter-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Serial dilution studies indicate that the coupling of SERS with RVF technology shows enormous potential for next-generation POC diagnostics.

  10. Development Model of Oxide of Nitrogen Concentration and Land Use Characteristics in Bangkok Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratthapol Sillaparassamee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, NOx concentrations and land use characteristics were correlated to develop a Land Use Regression (LUR model for application in Bangkok Metropolitan, Thailand. Measured NOx concentrations data from thirteen air quality monitoring stations located in Bangkok area were analyzed to develop LUR equations. Land use data obtained from site survey method and was characterized into the following categories, i.e., building with 1-2 floors, building with 3-5 floors, building with over 5 floors, green area, road area, space area and open water. The results showed that NOx concentration positively correlated with percentage areas of building 3-5 floors, building >5 floors and road area while NOx had a negative relationship with building 1-2 floors, green area, and space area. The obtained regression model was able to predict 89% of the variation in NOx concentration.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF CFD SIMULATION APPLICATIONS FOR LOCAL-SCALE AREAS AND POTENTIAL INTERFACE WITH MESOSCALE MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presentation summarizes developments of ongoing applications of fine-scale (geometry specific) CFD simulations to urban areas within atmospheric boundary layers. Enabling technology today and challenges for the future are discussed. There is a challenging need to develop a ...

  12. Planning of Agro-Tourism Development, Specific Location in Green Open Space Sarbagita Area, Bali Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanya, I.; Subadiyasa, N.; Sardiana, K.; Ratna Adi, G. P.

    2018-02-01

    Tourism development has a negative impact on agricultural land in Bali, resulted in the transfer of rice field of 800 ha/year. Subak rice field area as a world cultural heritage, requires conservation strategy, increasing economic and environmental value, through integrated agriculture development with tourism. Tourism destination planning in the form of tourist destination (TD) and tourism object (TO) by raising local genius, at specific location, is expected to preserve nature and culture, as well as the economic value of the region. Research Methods: (1) identification of agrarian cultures, (2) field survey, (3) mapping of site specific TD/TO plans, and (4) compile documents of agro-tourism road map based on local genius. Seven subak areas in the green open space area have the potential to develop new TD/TO, namely: (1) Gedon2Subak in Tanah Lot area, is developed for the preservation of agriculture, the implementation of the zoning plan of the sacred, madya and nista areas, (2) the Kerdung and Penatih Subak areas, developed for urban farming in Denpasar City, (3) Cangi south Subak area, built for agro-tourism plasmanutfah banana and Cemagi Let Subak area developed agro-tourism food crops and horticulture, (4) Erjeruk Subak area, developed tourism plasmanutfah coconut.

  13. Leadership for Sustainable Regional Development in Rural Areas: Bridging Personal and Institutional Aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horlings, L.G.; Padt, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid transformations offer new challenges for rural regions to invent new pathways for development. For many, an obvious choice is to set out on the path towards economic growth and to compete with other regions for global, mobile capital and labor. There is however an increasing awareness that in

  14. Servicing land for housing development in peri-urban areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the 1950s, developing countries have been experiencing phenomenal growth in urban population and this is reflected in high demand for housing and residential land. In Ghana, the rapid population growth of the national capital and the regional capital towns including Kumasi has brought to the fore the need for ...

  15. Reflections on Developing Secondary Vocational Education in High-Poverty Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Chen, Guofeng

    2013-01-01

    Developing vocational education is a necessity for the economic and social development of high-poverty areas in China. But vocational education in impoverished areas lacks social recognition and faces funding shortages, along with difficulties in recruiting students. Vocational high schools themselves also have shortcomings. This article considers…

  16. Housing development erodes avian community structure in U.S. protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric M. Wood; Anna M. Pidgeon; Volker C. Radeloff; David Helmers; Patrick D. Culbert; Nicholas S. Keuler; Curtis H. Flather

    2014-01-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone for biodiversity conservation, but they also provide amenities that attract housing development on inholdings and adjacent private lands. We explored how this development affects biodiversity within and near protected areas among six ecological regions throughout the United States. We quantified the effect of housing density within, at...

  17. Geomorphology and land development in the Maraca area of northern Roraima, Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor,Duncan F. M.; Eden, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The geomorphological materials and forms of the Maraca area of Roraima, Brazil are described, an their sgnificance for land development examined. Significant contrasts are noted in areas presently under rainforest and savanna vegetation. Lateritic gravels and extensive shetwash accumulations in savanna areas constrast with incipient or absent plinthite development, few gravels and limited evidence of colluvium under rainforest. Terrain is in general relatively highly-dissected. Slope profiles...

  18. Heat Treatment Development for a Rapidly Solidified Heat Resistant Cast Al-Si Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, W.; Chen, D. L.; Shaha, S. K.

    2013-07-01

    Existing heat treatment standards do not properly define tempers for thin-walled castings that solidified with high solidification rates. Recently emerged casting processes such as vacuum high pressure die casting should not require long solution treatment times due to the fine microstructures arising from rapid solidification rates. The heat treatment studies involving rapidly solidified samples with secondary dendrite arm spacing between 10 and 35 μm were conducted for solution times between 30 min and 9 h and temperatures of 510 and 525 °C and for various aging parameters. The metallurgical analysis revealed that an increase in microstructure refinement could enable a reduction of solution time up to 88%. Solution treatment resulted in the dissolution of Al2Cu and Al5Mg8Si6Cu2, while Fe- and TiZrV-based phases remained partially in the microstructure. The highest strength of approximately 351 ± 9.7 and 309 ± 3.4 MPa for the UTS and YS, respectively, was achieved for a 2-step solution treatment at 510 and 525 °C in the T6 peak aging conditions, i.e., 150 °C for 100 h. The T6 temper did not yield dimensionally stable microstructure since exceeding 250 °C during in-service operation could result in phase transformation corresponding to the over-aging reaction. The microstructure refinement had a statistically stronger effect on the alloy strength than the increase in solutionizing time. Additionally, thermal analysis and dilatometer results were presented to assess the dissolution of phases during solution treatment, aging kinetics as well as dimensional stability.

  19. Murine Neonates Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica Develop Rapid and Robust Proinflammatory Responses in Intestinal Lymphoid Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefker, David T.; Echeverry, Andrea; Brambilla, Roberta; Fukata, Masayuki; Schesser, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal animals are generally very susceptible to infection with bacterial pathogens. However, we recently reported that neonatal mice are highly resistant to orogastric infection with Yersinia enterocolitica. Here, we show that proinflammatory responses greatly exceeding those in adults arise very rapidly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) of neonates. High-level induction of proinflammatory gene expression occurred in the neonatal MLN as early as 18 h postinfection. Marked innate phagocyte recruitment was subsequently detected at 24 h postinfection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISPOT) analyses indicated that enhanced inflammation in neonatal MLN is contributed to, in part, by an increased frequency of proinflammatory cytokine-secreting cells. Moreover, both CD11b+ and CD11b− cell populations appeared to play a role in proinflammatory gene expression. The level of inflammation in neonatal MLN was also dependent on key bacterial components. Y. enterocolitica lacking the virulence plasmid failed to induce innate phagocyte recruitment. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) protein expression and neutrophil recruitment were strikingly higher in neonatal MLN after infection with a yopP-deficient strain than with wild-type Y. enterocolitica, whereas only modest increases occurred in adults. This hyperinflammatory response was associated with greater colonization of the spleen and higher mortality in neonates, while there was no difference in mortality among adults. This model highlights the dynamic levels of inflammation in the intestinal lymphoid tissues and reveals the protective (wild-type strain) versus harmful (yopP-deficient strain) consequences of inflammation in neonates. Moreover, these results reveal that the neonatal intestinal lymphoid tissues have great potential to rapidly mobilize innate components in response to infection with bacterial enteropathogens. PMID:24478090

  20. Merging ORS Standards to Facilitate Rapid Development of Reusable Spacecraft Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DNet has been actively pursuing strategies for shortening the software development portion of the satellite development life-cycle for some time. We recognized upon...

  1. Evaluating the influence of the Red Edge band from RapidEye sensor in quantifying leaf area index for hydrological applications specifically focussing on plant canopy interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Shoko, Cletah; Chemura, Abel

    2017-08-01

    Reliable and accurate quantification of plant Leaf Area Index (LAI) is critical in understanding its role in reducing runoff. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the Red Edge (RE) band derived from RapidEye in estimating LAI for applications in quantifying canopy interception at landscape scale. To achieve this objective, the study also compares the predictive power of two machine learning algorithms (Random Forest-RF and Stochastic Gradient Boosting-SGB) in estimating LAI. Comparatively, the results of the study have demonstrated that the inclusion of spectral information derived from the Red Edge band yields high accurate LAI estimates, when compared to the use of traditional traditional Red, Green, Blue and Near Infra-Red (traditional RGBNIR) spectral information. The results indicate that the use of the four traditional RGBNIR bands yielded comparatively lower R2 values and high Root Mean Squares, Mean Absolute Error (Pinus taeda: R2 of 0.60; the lowest RMSE (0.35 m2/m2) and MAE of 28); whereas the use of integration of traditional RGBNIR + RE in more accurate LAI estimates (Pinus taeda: R2 = 0.65; RMSE = 0.30 m2/m2) and the lowest MAE of 0.23). These findings therefore underscores the importance of new generation multispectral sensors with strategically-position bands and machine learning algorithms in estimating LAI for quantifying canopy interception, especially in resource-poor areas.

  2. Evaluation of opening pattern and bone neoformation at median palatal suture area in patients submitted to surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME through cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Gomes SALGUEIRO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSurgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME is the treatment of choice to adult patients even with severe transversal maxillary discrepancies. However, the adequate retention period to achieve the bone remodeling, thus assuring treatment stability, is controversial.Objective To evaluate the opening pattern and bone neoformation process at the midpalatal suture in patients submitted to surgically assisted (SARME through cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods Fourteen patients were submitted to SARME through subtotal Le Fort I osteotomy. Both the opening pattern and the mean bone density at midpalatal suture area to evaluate bone formation were assessed pre- and post-operatively (15, 60 and 180 days through CBCT.Results Type I opening pattern (from anterior to posterior nasal spine occurred in 12 subjects while type II opening pattern (from anterior nasal spine to transverse palatine suture occurred in 2 individuals. The 180-day postoperative mean (PO 180 of bone density value was 49.9% of the preoperative mean (Pre value.Conclusions The opening pattern of midpalatal suture is more related to patients’ age (23.9 years in type I and 33.5 years in type II and surgical technique. It was not possible to observe complete bone formation at midpalatal suture area at the ending of the retention period studied (180 days.

  3. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay strip for rapid detection of CagA antigen of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Cebrail

    2015-01-01

    About half of the world populations are known to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. The CagA antigen secreting strains provoke severe mucosal damages and act as a risk factor for the development of peptic ulceration and gastric cancer. A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) strip was developed based on sandwich format for rapid detection of CagA antigen of H. pylori using gold conjugated monoclonal antibody. This LFIA strip will provide a good aid in the diagnosis of CagA-secreting H. pylori within 10 min instead of time consuming, expensive and laborious invasive approaches.

  4. DEVELOPMENT POLICIES IN ALBA IULIA AREA OF INFLUENCE. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. NICULA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Development Policies in Alba Iulia Area of Influence. An Integrated Approach. The paper represents an integrated and holarchical perspective on the spatial development policies and its component measures and projects related to the City of Alba Iulia, its area of influence and the all-encompassing County of Alba, Romania. The goal was to see how the development and management policies from all levels merge into a single strategic framework that might create a favourable basis for the sustainable growth of Alba Iulia and its area of influence. As this area surrounding the city is subjected to different hierarchical plans and programmes, some that are not properly correlated, it is extremely clear that this area and Areas of Influence in general need legislative stipulations made specifically for them and also a well-thought holarchical planning approach.

  5. Gis Based Analysis For Suitability Location Finding In The Residential Development Areas Of Greater Matara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K.G.M Madurika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban Planning and Land utilization for the Residential is one of crucial factors in high density Cities. Many theories in Planning explain the Residential areas are moving to periphery areas in cities by its commercial development. Martara is one of developing city in Southern Sri Lanka and Residential land value are comparative high in city sub urban areas. In this study it is examined that where is the best locations for residential development in Grater Matara Region by using five criteria. GIS based Multi Criteria Method MCE method have been applied to find the suitable locations. The results of analysis have been shown that there are 5378.99 hectares area suitable within study area and however extremely importance areas only 1.40 hectares accordingly given criteria but very strongly importance and importance category have 1560.51 and 2468.22 respectively.

  6. EVENING-OUT OF DISPROPORTIONS IN SOCIO-ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT OF MUNICIPAL FORMINGS IN SVERDLOVSK AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Rossel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Socio-economical development of municipal forming in Sverdlovsk area as for the year 2006 is analyzed in the article, the questions of unevenness of territorial development is considered, ways of definition of priority directions of development of economy and social sphere of most retarded regions, making conditions for economic growth, rapprochement of levels of socio-economic development are considered.

  7. Development of a colloidal gold-based lateral-flow immunoassay for the rapid simultaneous detection of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, Anna Yu; De Saeger, Sarah; Sibanda, Liberty; Verheijen, Ron; Van Peteghem, Carlos

    2007-12-01

    A multianalyte lateral-flow technique using colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies was developed for the rapid simultaneous detection of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA). The results of this qualitative one-step test were interpreted visually. A very simple and fast sample preparation was used, and the assay procedure could be accomplished within 10 min. When applied to spiked wheat samples, the technique gave accurate and reproducible results. Cut-off levels of 1500 and 100 microg kg(-1) for DON and ZEA, respectively, were observed. The described multianalyte format can be used as a reliable, rapid and cost-effective on-site screening technique for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in grain samples.

  8. [Status of penis and testicular development and effects of overweight/obesity on them in boys in the Zhengzhou area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yao-Dong; Tan, Li-Na; Luo, Shu-Ying; Chen, Yong-Xing; Wei, Hai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the current status of penis and testicular development in boys and the effects of overweight/obesity on their development in the Zhengzhou area of Henan Province. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, penis length and testicular volume were measured in 3 546 4 to 12-year-old boys. The penis length and testicular volume were compared between the overweight/obesity and normal weight groups. Before 9 years of age, the testicular volume was progressively smaller, and after 9 years old, it gradually increased. By the age of 11, it increased rapidly. The penis length increased gradually between 4 and 11 years of age, and after the age of 11 it increased rapidly. Phimosis was found in 144 cases (4.01%) and cryptorchidism was found in 18 cases (0.51%). A total of 639 (18.02%) boys were overweight or obese among 3 546 boys. At the ages of 6 and 7 years, the testicular volume in the overweight/obesity group was greater than in the normal control group (Ppenis length in the overweight/obesity group was significantly shorter than in the normal control group (Ppenis length at the ages of 7 and 8 years was negatively correlated with weight, waist circumference and hip circumference. By the age of 12 years, the penis length was positively correlated with the height. The development of penis and testicles in boys in the Zhengzhou area is in line with the level of sex development of Chinese boys. Overweight/obesity adversely affects the development of penis and testicles.

  9. Changes in Underlying Determinants Explain Rapid Increases in Child Linear Growth in Alive & Thrive Study Areas between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Headey, Derek; Frongillo, Edward A; Tran, Lan Mai; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-03-01

    nutritional change in intervention and comparison areas. Improvements in underlying determinants explained rapid improvements in HAZs between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

  10. Toward mechanistic understanding of nuclear reprocessing chemistries by quantifying lanthanide solvent extraction kinetics via microfluidics with constant interfacial area and rapid mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kevin P; Pompano, Rebecca R; Li, Liang; Gelis, Artem V; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2011-10-05

    The closing of the nuclear fuel cycle is an unsolved problem of great importance. Separating radionuclides produced in a nuclear reactor is useful both for the storage of nuclear waste and for recycling of nuclear fuel. These separations can be performed by designing appropriate chelation chemistries and liquid-liquid extraction schemes, such as in the TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes). However, there are no approved methods for the industrial scale reprocessing of civilian nuclear fuel in the United States. One bottleneck in the design of next-generation solvent extraction-based nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes is a lack of interfacial mass transfer rate constants obtained under well-controlled conditions for lanthanide and actinide ligand complexes; such rate constants are a prerequisite for mechanistic understanding of the extraction chemistries involved and are of great assistance in the design of new chemistries. In addition, rate constants obtained under conditions of known interfacial area have immediate, practical utility in models required for the scaling-up of laboratory-scale demonstrations to industrial-scale solutions. Existing experimental techniques for determining these rate constants suffer from two key drawbacks: either slow mixing or unknown interfacial area. The volume of waste produced by traditional methods is an additional, practical concern in experiments involving radioactive elements, both from disposal cost and experimenter safety standpoints. In this paper, we test a plug-based microfluidic system that uses flowing plugs (droplets) in microfluidic channels to determine absolute interfacial mass transfer rate constants under conditions of both rapid mixing and controlled interfacial area. We utilize this system to determine, for the first time, the rate constants for interfacial transfer of all lanthanides, minus promethium, plus yttrium, under TALSPEAK

  11. Organizational innovation: a comprehensive model for catalyzing organizational development and change in a rapidly changing world

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steiber, Annika; Alänge, Sverker

    2015-01-01

    ..., especially the processes through which organizational innovations are created, diffused, and sustained. There is thus a need for a more comprehensive understanding of mechanisms catalyzing organizational development...

  12. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  13. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  14. Development of a rapid HRM genotyping method for detection of dog-derived Giardia lamblia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liping; Yu, Xingang; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Wu, Sheng; Zheng, Guochao; Hu, Wei; Song, Meiran; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Biao; Li, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    Giardia lamblia is a zoonotic flagellate protozoan in the intestine of human and many mammals including dogs. To assess a threat of dog-derived G. lamblia to humans, the common dog-derived G. lamblia assemblages A, C, and D were genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) technology. According to β-giardin gene sequence, the qPCR-HRM primers BG5 and BG7 were designed. A series of experiments on the stability, sensitivity, and accuracy of the HRM method were also tested. Results showed that the primers BG5 and BG7 could distinguish among three assemblages A, C, and D, which Tm value differences were about 1 °C to each other. The melting curves of intra-assay reproducibility were almost coincided, and those of inter-assay reproducibility were much the same shape. The lowest detection concentration was about 5 × 10(-6)-ng/μL sample. The genotyping results from 21 G. lamblia samples by the HRM method were in complete accordance with sequencing results. It is concluded that the HRM genotyping method is rapid, stable, specific, highly sensitive, and suitable for clinical detection and molecular epidemiological survey of dog-derived G. lamblia.

  15. Development of a New Decision Tree to Rapidly Screen Chemical Estrogenic Activities of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Li, Weiying; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Lin, Zhifen; Kong, Deyang

    2014-02-01

    During the last past decades, there is an increasing number of studies about estrogenic activities of the environmental pollutants on amphibians and many determination methods have been proposed. However, these determination methods are time-consuming and expensive, and a rapid and simple method to screen and test the chemicals for estrogenic activities to amphibians is therefore imperative. Herein is proposed a new decision tree formulated not only with physicochemical parameters but also a biological parameter that was successfully used to screen estrogenic activities of the chemicals on amphibians. The biological parameter, CDOCKER interaction energy (Ebinding ) between chemicals and the target proteins was calculated based on the method of molecular docking, and it was used to revise the decision tree formulated by Hong only with physicochemical parameters for screening estrogenic activity of chemicals in rat. According to the correlation between Ebinding of rat and Xenopus laevis, a new decision tree for estrogenic activities in Xenopus laevis is finally proposed. Then it was validated by using the randomly 8 chemicals which can be frequently exposed to Xenopus laevis, and the agreement between the results from the new decision tree and the ones from experiments is generally satisfactory. Consequently, the new decision tree can be used to screen the estrogenic activities of the chemicals, and combinational use of the Ebinding and classical physicochemical parameters can greatly improves Hong's decision tree. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Development of a Rapid and Simple Method to Remove Polyphenols from Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imali Ranatunge

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants, which are responsible for prevention of many diseases. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP has a high affinity towards polyphenols. This method involves the use of PVPP column to remove polyphenols under centrifugal force. Standards of gallic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, vanillin, and tea extracts (Camellia sinensis were used in this study. PVPP powder was packed in a syringe with different quantities. The test samples were layered over the PVPP column and subjected to centrifugation. Supernatant was tested for the total phenol content. The presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine was screened by HPLC and measuring the absorbance at 280. The antioxidant capacity of standards and tea extracts was compared with the polyphenol removed fractions using DPPH scavenging assay. No polyphenols were found in polyphenolic standards or tea extracts after PVPP treatment. The method described in the present study to remove polyphenols is simple, inexpensive, rapid, and efficient and can be employed to investigate the contribution of polyphenols present in natural products to their biological activity.

  17. Development and evaluation of an office ergonomic risk checklist: ROSA--rapid office strain assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonne, Michael; Villalta, Dino L; Andrews, David M

    2012-01-01

    The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was designed to quickly quantify risks associated with computer work and to establish an action level for change based on reports of worker discomfort. Computer use risk factors were identified in previous research and standards on office design for the chair, monitor, telephone, keyboard and mouse. The risk factors were diagrammed and coded as increasing scores from 1 to 3. ROSA final scores ranged in magnitude from 1 to 10, with each successive score representing an increased presence of risk factors. Total body discomfort and ROSA final scores for 72 office workstations were significantly correlated (R = 0.384). ROSA final scores exhibited high inter- and intra-observer reliability (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Mean discomfort increased with increasing ROSA scores, with a significant difference occurring between scores of 3 and 5 (out of 10). A ROSA final score of 5 might therefore be useful as an action level indicating when immediate change is necessary. ROSA proved to be an effective and reliable method for identifying computer use risk factors related to discomfort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Economic Development Mode and Countermeasure Research on the Nansi Lake Drainage Area Based on Circular Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yong-fei; Peng, Li-min

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, it is pointed out that circular economy should be vigorously developed in the Nansi Lake Drainage Area, and the connotation of circular economy is expounded. Then, problems in developing circular economy in Nansi Lake Drainage Area are analyzed from the aspects of agriculture, industrial enterprises, and waste utilization. Finally, combining with the four modes of peasant household, enterprise, region and society in the development of circular economy, corresponding countermeasures a...

  19. EJS, JIL Server, and LabVIEW: An Architecture for Rapid Development of Remote Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Jesús; Vargas, Hector; Farias, Gonzalo; Sanchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    Designing and developing web-enabled remote laboratories for pedagogical purposes is not an easy task. Often, developers (generally, educators who know the subjects they teach but lack of the technical and programming skills required to build Internet-based educational applications) end up discarding the idea of exploring these new teaching and…

  20. Low-Cost Rapid Usability Testing: Its Application in Both Product Development and System Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushniruk, Andre; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable discussion around the need for certification and regulation of healthcare information technology (IT). In particular, the usability of the products being developed needs to be evaluated. This has included the application of standards designed to ensure the process of system development is user-centered and takes usability into consideration while a product is being developed. In addition to this, in healthcare, organizations in the United States and Europe have also addressed the need and requirement for product certification. However, despite these efforts there are continued reports of unusable and unsafe implementations. In this paper we discuss the need to not only include (and require) usability testing in the one-time development process of health IT products (such as EHRs), but we also argue for the need to additionally develop specific usability standards and requirements for usability testing during the implementation of vendor products (i.e. post product development) in healthcare settings. It is further argued that health IT products that may have been certified regarding their development process will still require application of usability testing in the process of implementing them in real hospital settings in order to ensure usability and safety. This is needed in order to ensure that the final result of both product development and implementation processes take into account and apply the latest usability principles and methods.

  1. Extended Services in Schools: Developing Resources to Prepare Student Teachers for a Rapidly Changing Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sue; Smith, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The role of schools in providing extended services to their communities continues to undergo change and development. This has raised issues regarding the training of student teachers who are increasingly likely to take up appointments in schools offering extended services. This research project investigated the development of resources to prepare…

  2. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  3. Shaping travels and land use with bus rapid transit: a developed city’s visualisation with smartcard and census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit and land-use integration is regarded as one of the most important means of avoiding or reducing car dependence and urban sprawl, which are thought as major culprits of unsustainability. In developing countries, rail rapid transit could be too expensive to become the predominant component of their respective systems. However, bus rapid transit (BRT as one of the cheapest forms of mass transit is a better alternative for those countries. In developing countries, BRT has transformed numerous cities such as Curitiba, Brazil; Bogota, Columbia; and Guangzhou, China. Can BRT have the same transformative impacts for cities in developed countries as well? Can the impacts of BRT be visualized using the transit population? Given that few cities in developed countries have BRT and ridership data of BRT are not always available, the above questions have not been well addressed before. To answer these two questions, we analysed smartcard swipes over a five-day weekday period (11–15 March 2013 for Brisbane in Queensland, Australia, and reconstructed trip trajectories of those 255,887 transit riders. We found that BRT serves a significant percentage and number of travellers, thus shaping travel behaviour and ultimately land use – when transit ridership and rate of transit usage are used as indicators. This is a significant achievement in Australia, a country known for its car dependence and urban sprawl.

  4. Selection of strategic replacement areas for CBM exploration and development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyi Shao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, the increase in proved reserves and production of coalbed methane (CBM in China depends mainly on several CBM bases in the southern Qinshui Basin and in the eastern margin of the Ordos Basin. Therefore, it is urgent to find new batches of exploration and development strategic replacement areas. For this purpose, we investigated the resources, reservoir properties, preservation conditions, and development conditions of CBM in China, and put forward eight general factors and four critical factors that can be used in establishing selection criteria of strategic replacement areas for affecting the CBM exploration and development in China. The eight general factors are resource abundance, coalbed thickness, gas content, original permeability, burial depth, hydrogeological conditions, coalbed depositional environment, and landforms, and the four critical factors include genetic type, stability type, later reservoir reformation, and damage degree of coal structure. Comparison shows that the low-rank coal area in the northwestern area, the northeastern medium-low rank coal area, and the southwestern medium-high rank and structurally-complex coal area are the major replacement areas for CBM following the northern area of China. Key factors affecting CBM enrichment in each of the three key areas, respectively, are: a genetic type and stability of coal seams, b genetic type and reconstruction of the reservoir by volcanic intrusion, and c stability of coal seams and damage degree of coal structure. Based on these factors, a system for selection and evaluation of strategic replacement areas for CBM development was established. Fifteen blocks in the above three areas were evaluated by using multi-layered fuzzy mathematics, selecting eight favorable areas and seven relatively favorable areas that contain 1.8 trillion m3 of predicted CBM geological resources. The eight favorable areas include the Wucaiwan-Dajing coal exploration area in the Zhundong

  5. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT in a malaria endemic area in Ghana, Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Adu-Gyasi

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most widespread enzyme defect that can result in red cell breakdown under oxidative stress when exposed to certain medicines including antimalarials. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT as a point-of-care tool for screening G6PD deficiency.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 randomly selected and consented participants from a group with known G6PD deficiency status between February 2013 and June 2013. A maximum of 1.6ml of capillary blood samples were used for G6PD deficiency screening using CareStart G6PD RDT and Trinity qualitative with Trinity quantitative methods as the "gold standard". Samples were also screened for the presence of malaria parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using Microsoft Access 2010 and Stata Software version 12. Kintampo Health Research Centre Institutional Ethics Committee granted ethical approval.The sensitivity (SE and specificity (SP of CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT was 100% and 72.1% compared to Trinity quantitative method respectively and was 98.9% and 96.2% compared to Trinity qualitative method. Malaria infection status had no significant (P=0.199 change on the performance of the G6PD RDT test kit compared to the "gold standard".The outcome of this study suggests that the diagnostic performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit was high and it is acceptable at determining the G6PD deficiency status in a high malaria endemic area in Ghana. The RDT kit presents as an attractive tool for point-of-care G6PD deficiency for rapid testing in areas with high temperatures and less expertise. The CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit could be used to screen malaria patients before administration of the fixed dose primaquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  6. Rapid development of microsatellite markers for Callosobruchus chinensis using Illumina paired-end sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can-Xing Duan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adzuki bean weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis L., is one of the most destructive pests of stored legume seeds such as mungbean, cowpea, and adzuki bean, which usually cause considerable loss in the quantity and quality of stored seeds during transportation and storage. However, a lack of genetic information of this pest results in a series of genetic questions remain largely unknown, including population genetic structure, kinship, biotype abundance, and so on. Co-dominant microsatellite markers offer a great resolving power to determine these events. Here, we report rapid microsatellite isolation from C. chinensis via high-throughput sequencing. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, 94,560,852 quality-filtered and trimmed reads were obtained for the assembly of genome using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. In total, the genome with total length of 497,124,785 bp, comprising 403,113 high quality contigs was generated with de novo assembly. More than 6800 SSR loci were detected and a suit of 6303 primer pair sequences were designed and 500 of them were randomly selected for validation. Of these, 196 pair of primers, i.e. 39.2%, produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 8 C. chinensis genotypes collected from different geographical regions. Twenty out of 196 polymorphic SSR markers were used to analyze the genetic diversity of 18 C. chinensis populations. The results showed the twenty SSR loci were highly polymorphic among these populations. CONCLUSIONS: This study presents a first report of genome sequencing and de novo assembly for C. chinensis and demonstrates the feasibility of generating a large scale of sequence information and SSR loci isolation by Illumina paired-end sequencing. Our results provide a valuable resource for C. chinensis research. These novel markers are valuable for future genetic mapping, trait association, genetic structure and kinship among C. chinensis.

  7. Development of a rapid, one-step screening method for the isolation of presumptive proteolytic enterococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ken; Rea, Rosemary; Simpson, Paul; Stack, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Enterococci show higher proteolytic activities than other lactic acid bacteria and thus have received considerable attention in scientific literature in recent years. Proteolytic enzymes of enterococci have warranted the use of some species as starter, adjuncts or protective cultures and as probiotics, while in some strains they have also been linked with virulence. Consequently, the isolation and identification of proteolytic enterococci is becoming of increasing interest and importance. However, current screening methods for proteolytic enterococci can be time consuming, requiring a two-step procedure which may take up to 96h. This study describes a method, utilising Kanamycin Skim Milk Aesculin Azide (KSMEA) agar, for the isolation of proteolytic enterococci in one-step, thereby significantly reducing screening time. KSMEA combines the selective properties of Kanamycin Aesculin Azide Agar (KAA) with skim milk powder for the detection of proteolytic enterococci. Enterococci produced colonies with a black halo on KSMEA which were accompanied by a zone of clearing in the media when enterococci were proteolytic. KSMEA medium retained the selectivity of KAA, while proteolytic enterococci were easily distinguished from non-proteolytic enterococci when two known strains were propagated on KSMEA. KSMEA also proved effective at isolating and detecting enterococci in raw milk, faeces and soil. Isolates recovered from the screen were confirmed as enterococci using genus-specific primers. Proteolytic enterococci were present in the raw milk sample only and were easily distinguishable from non-proteolytic enterococci and other microorganisms. Therefore, KSMEA provides a rapid, one-step screening method for the isolation of presumptive proteolytic enterococci. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis using Xpert MTB/RIF assay - Report from a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Shagufta; Zeenat, Asyia; Hussain, Shahida; Wasim Yusuf, Noshin; Aslam, Maleeha

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the detection of M. tuberculosis in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens and to compare it with conventional techniques. During a period of 10 months from December 2012 through September 2013, two hundred and forty five clinically TB suspects were enrolled for Xpert MTB\\RIF assay. The cohort comprised of 205 suspects of pulmonary TB and 40 of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). The 40 EPTB samples included pus aspirated from different sites of the body (n=19), pleural fluid (n=11), ascitic fluid (n=7), pericardial fluid, CSF and urine one each. Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) Stained smear microscopy, culture on LJ media and Xpert MTB/RIF assay was performed on samples from these patients. M. tuberculosis (MTB) were detected by Xpert MTB/RIF test in 111 (45.3%) out of 245 samples. Of these, 85 (34.7%) were smear positive on ZN staining and 102 (41.6%) were positive on LJ cultures. Rifampicin resistance was detected in 16 (6.5%) patients. Nine out of 19 pus samples (47.3%) were positive for MTB by Gene Xpert, 03 (15.8%) on ZN staining and 04 (21%) on LJ culture. MTB could not be detected in any other extrapulmonary sample. Xpert MTB/RIF is a sensitive method for rapid diagnosis of Tuberculosis, especially in smear negative cases and in EPTB as compared to the conventional ZN staining. Among EPTB cases the highest yield of positivity was shown in Pus samples. For countries endemic for TB GeneXpert can serve as a sensitive and time saving diagnostic modality for pulmonary and EPTB.

  9. A strategic approach to policy tasks for the development of Korea’s island areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hyun Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discussed the creation of a strategic approach to the policy tasks associated with the development of Korean island areas based on DEMATEL. To this end, after having derived the problematic elements hindering the development of Korean island areas, an attempt was made to structuralize residents’ perceptions via the implementation of a DEMATEL survey with the leaders of island areas. The problematic elements hindering the development of Korean island areas were identified as serious aging society, shortage of resident welfare facilities, fragmented industrial structure, limited labor forces, decreasing income sources, underdeveloped public transportation to the mainland, underdeveloped public transportation within islands, shortage of educational services, low sense of solidarity in villages, shortage of accommodation and leisure facilities, poor residential environments, and the serious debts accumulated by fishing households. The residents of island areas perceived underdeveloped public transportation to the mainland as the most fundamental and central element hindering the development of island areas. Impacting the regional economy and overall resident welfare, these problematic elements can be regarded as exhibiting the structural characteristics of underdeveloped areas. As such, the prerequisite for endogenous development of island areas is the improvement of the underdeveloped nature of accessibility to the mainland.

  10. Selection for rapid embryo development correlates with embryo exposure to maternal androgens among passerine birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, H.; Palacios, M.G.; Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    Greater offspring predation favors evolution of faster development among species. We hypothesized that greater offspring predation exerts selection on mothers to increase levels of anabolic androgens in egg yolks to achieve faster development. Here, we tested whether (1) concentrations of yolk androgens in passerine species were associated with offspring predation and (2) embryo and nestling development rates were associated with yolk androgen concentrations. We examined three androgens that increase in potency along the synthesis pathway: androstenedione (A4) to testosterone (T) to 5??- dihydrotestosterone (5??-DHT). Concentrations of none of these steroids were related to clutch size; only A4 was allometrically related to egg volume. Species that experience greater predation showed higher yolk concentrations of T and 5??-DHT. Higher concentrations of T and particularly 5??-DHT were strongly correlated with faster development during the embryo period and less so during the nestling period. Development rates were most strongly correlated with 5??-DHT, suggesting that potency increases along the androgen synthesis pathway and that effects are mediated by the androgen receptor pathway. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that selection for faster development by time-dependent offspring mortality may be achieved epigenetically by varying embryo exposure to maternal anabolic steroids. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  11. Infant Feeding Practices of Emirati Women in the Rapidly Developing City of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gardner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid economic and cultural transition in the United Arab Emirates (UAE has been accompanied by new challenges to public health; most notably a rapid rise in chronic disease. Breastfeeding is known to improve health outcomes in adulthood, is associated with reduced risk of developing chronic disease, and is therefore an important public health issue for this rapidly increasing population. Factors associated with infant feeding practices were examined in a cohort of 125 Emirati women and their infants, with data collected at birth and 3, 6 and 15 months postpartum by questionnaires and interviews. Participants were recruited in the Corniche Hospital, the main maternity hospital in the city of Abu Dhabi. Factors affecting the duration of breastfeeding and the introduction of complementary foods were investigated using univariate and multivariate statistics. Recommended infant feeding practices, such as exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and timely introduction of appropriate complementary foods, were poorly adhered to. Factors implicated in early cessation of breastfeeding included: time to first breastfeed, mother’s education level, employment status and early introduction of complementary foods.

  12. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE IGNIȘ – GUTÂI MOUNTAIN AREA BY TYPE OF TOURISM PREDOMINANTLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana PUI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Igniș – Gutâi mountain area has a complex picturesque landscape, an attractive anthropogenic potential and a favorable position which allows national and international tourist flows. The area’s tourist profile is revealed by combining rural tourism with mountain recreational tourism, health, hunting and transit tourism. The variety of tourist potential supports the development of various types and forms of tourism which contribute to completing the current tourist offer and the area’s sustainable development. This paper aims at developing new tourist areas within the Igniș – Gutâi mountain area, thus promoting it as a complex tourist destination.

  13. Development of a Rapid Microbore Metabolic Profiling Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach for High-Throughput Phenotyping Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Nicola; Adesina-Georgiadis, Kyrillos; Chekmeneva, Elena; Plumb, Robert S; Wilson, Ian D; Nicholson, Jeremy K

    2016-06-07

    A rapid gradient microbore ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) method has been developed to provide a high-throughput analytical platform for the metabolic phenotyping of urine from large sample cohorts. The rapid microbore metabolic profiling (RAMMP) approach was based on scaling a conventional reversed-phase UPLC-MS method for urinary profiling from 2.1 mm × 100 mm columns to 1 mm × 50 mm columns, increasing the linear velocity of the solvent, and decreasing the gradient time to provide an analysis time of 2.5 min/sample. Comparison showed that conventional UPLC-MS and rapid gradient approaches provided peak capacities of 150 and 50, respectively, with the conventional method detecting approximately 19 000 features compared to the ∼6 000 found using the rapid gradient method. Similar levels of repeatability were seen for both methods. Despite the reduced peak capacity and the reduction in ions detected, the RAMMP method was able to achieve similar levels of group discrimination as conventional UPLC-MS when applied to rat urine samples obtained from investigative studies on the effects of acute 2-bromophenol and chronic acetaminophen administration. When compared to a direct infusion MS method of similar analysis time the RAMMP method provided superior selectivity. The RAMMP approach provides a robust and sensitive method that is well suited to high-throughput metabonomic analysis of complex mixtures such as urine combined with a 5-fold reduction in analysis time compared with the conventional UPLC-MS method.

  14. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Penicillium nordicum in dry-cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, M; Perrone, G; Gallo, A; Epifani, F; Visconti, A; Susca, A

    2015-06-02

    The need of powerful diagnostic tools for rapid, simple, and cost-effective detection of food-borne fungi has become very important in the area of food safety. Currently, several isothermal nucleic acid amplification methods have been developed as an alternative to PCR-based analyses. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is one of these innovative methods; it requires neither gel electrophoresis to separate and visualize the products nor expensive laboratory equipment and it has been applied already for detection of pathogenic organisms. In the current study, we developed a LAMP assay for the specific detection of Penicillium nordicum, the major causative agent of ochratoxin A contamination in protein-rich food, especially dry-cured meat products. The assay was based on targeting otapksPN gene, a key gene in the biosynthesis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in P. nordicum. Amplification of DNA during the reaction was detected directly in-tube by color transition of hydroxynaphthol blue from violet to sky blue, visible to the naked eye, avoiding further post amplification analyses. Only DNAs isolated from several P. nordicum strains led to positive results and no amplification was observed from non-target OTA and non OTA-producing strains. The assay was able to detect down to 100 fg of purified targeted genomic DNA or 10(2) conidia/reaction within 60 min. The LAMP assay for detection and identification of P. nordicum was combined with a rapid DNA extraction method set up on serially diluted conidia, providing an alternative rapid, specific and sensitive DNA-based method suitable for application directly "on-site", notably in key steps of dry-cured meat production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The rapid bi-level exploration on the evolution of regional solar energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qing; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Hao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the renewable energy, solar energy is experiencing increased but exploratory development worldwide. The positive or negative influences of regional characteristics, like economy, production capacity and allowance policies, make them have uneven solar energy development. In this paper, we aim at quickly exploring the features of provincial solar energy development, and their concerns about solar energy. We take China as a typical case, and combine text mining and two-actor networks. We find that the classification of levels based on certain nodes and the amount of degree avoids missing meaningful information that may be ignored by global level results. Moreover, eastern provinces are hot focus for the media, western countries are key to bridge the networks and special administrative region has local development features; third, most focus points are more about the application than the improvement of material. The exploration of news provides practical information to adjust researches and development strategies of solar energy. Moreover, the bi-level exploration, which can also be expanded to multi-level, is helpful for governments or researchers to grasp more targeted and precise knowledge.

  16. The MetSkill Program — Rapidly Developing Effective Young Engineers in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, Diana; Bianco, Nina

    MetSkill is a professional development program for metallurgical engineers that integrates with normal duties in their first one or two years of service. Graduates work together on a structured technical project, facilitated by specialists and supported by formal learning, and ultimately reported to their technical managers. The program enables graduates to "fill the gaps" in their undergraduate education, which is increasingly pertinent as engineering degrees become more general. Participants report that they enjoy the focus on more challenging (rewarding) aspects of their jobs and feel more confident about problem solving. Sponsor companies add that the relationships developed with external technical specialists enhances opportunities for innovation and development. MetSkill was delivered to two major resource companies in Australia in 2012. This paper provides an outline of the program and the reasons for its success, and demonstrates how the learning model could be applied to groups of graduates in other engineering disciplines.

  17. Development of a real-time SYBR Green PCR assay for the rapid detection of Dermatophilus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Alfredo; Martínez, Remigio; Benitez-Medina, José Manuel; Risco, David; Garcia, Waldo Luis; Rey, Joaquín; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Hermoso de Mendoza, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Methods such as real time (RT)-PCR have not been developed for the rapid detection and diagnosis of Dermatophilus (D.) congolensis infection. In the present study, a D. congolensis-specific SYBR Green RT-PCR assay was evaluated. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was 1 pg of DNA per PCR reaction. No cross-reaction with nucleic acids extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, or Austwickia chelonae was observed. Finally, the RT-PCR assay was used to evaluate clinical samples collected from naturally infected animals with D. congolensis. The results showed that this assay is a fast and reliable method for diagnosing dermatophilosis.

  18. Development of a real-time SYBR Green PCR assay for the rapid detection of Dermatophilus congolensis

    OpenAIRE

    García, Alfredo; Martínez, Remigio; Benitez-Medina, José Manuel; Risco, David; García, Waldo Luis; Rey, Joaquín; Alonso, Juan Manuel; de Mendoza, Javier Hermoso

    2013-01-01

    Methods such as real time (RT)-PCR have not been developed for the rapid detection and diagnosis of Dermatophilus (D.) congolensis infection. In the present study, a D. congolensis-specific SYBR Green RT-PCR assay was evaluated. The detection limit of the RT-PCR assay was 1 pg of DNA per PCR reaction. No cross-reaction with nucleic acids extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, or Austwickia chelonae was observed. Finally, the RT-PCR assay was ...

  19. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay for rapid and sensitive identification of ostrich meat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Abdulmawjood

    Full Text Available Animal species identification is one of the primary duties of official food control. Since ostrich meat is difficult to be differentiated macroscopically from beef, therefore new analytical methods are needed. To enforce labeling regulations for the authentication of ostrich meat, it might be of importance to develop and evaluate a rapid and reliable assay. In the present study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay based on the cytochrome b gene of the mitochondrial DNA of the species Struthio camelus was developed. The LAMP assay was used in combination with a real-time fluorometer. The developed system allowed the detection of 0.01% ostrich meat products. In parallel, a direct swab method without nucleic acid extraction using the HYPLEX LPTV buffer was also evaluated. This rapid processing method allowed detection of ostrich meat without major incubation steps. In summary, the LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting ostrich meat and could provide a sampling-to-result identification-time of 15 to 20 minutes.

  20. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  1. Development of the language proficiency of five- to seven-year-olds in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poolman, B.G.; Leseman, P.P.M.; Doornenbal, J. M.; Minnaert, A.E.M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Rural children are a largely understudied population in language and literacy research, despite the fact that these children often enter school with delays in their language development. Since most rural areas suffered from so-called selective rural out migration, many parents in rural areas are

  2. Social, ecological and economic development strategies of urban areas: problems and approaches to elaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Tsihanenko, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the approaches to elaboration of strategic plans of urban areas. Suggested the elaboration methodology of social, ecological and economic development strategies of urban areas on the basis of quality estimation of the urban surroundings that allows you to involve the environmental dimension

  3. Development of the Language Proficiency of Five- to Seven-Year-Olds in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poolman, B. G.; Leseman, P. P. M.; Doornenbal, J. M.; Minnaert, A. E. M. G.

    2017-01-01

    Rural children are a largely understudied population in language and literacy research, despite the fact that these children often enter school with delays in their language development. Since most rural areas suffered from so-called selective rural outmigration, many parents in rural areas are lower or middle educated. The home literacy climate,…

  4. Extinction, Reacquisition, and Rapid Forgetting of Eyeblink Conditioning in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kevin L.; Freeman, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning is a well-established model for studying the developmental neurobiology of associative learning and memory. However, age differences in extinction and subsequent reacquisition have yet to be studied using this model. The present study examined extinction and reacquisition of eyeblink conditioning in developing rats. In…

  5. Developing Rapid and Cost-Effective Tools for Assessing Groundwater Impacts on Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research developed quick and inexpensive methods that can be useful in characterizing the interaction of water and solids within the GW/SW transition zone to explain processes that occur during physical contact between groundwater and sediments. The research used self-conta...

  6. Service platform for rapid development and deployment of context-Aware, mobile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokraev, S.; Koolwaaij, J.; van Setten, M.; Broens, T.H.F.; Dockhorn Costa, P.; Wibbels, M.; Ebben, P.; Strating, P.; Strating, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present a web services-based platform that facilitates and speeds up the development and deployment of context-aware, integrated mobile speech and data applications. The platform is capable of handling different types of context and offers sophisticated personalization mechanisms.

  7. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  8. Recent developments in the rapid analysis of plants and tracking their bioactive constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Tetala, K.K.R.; Koleva, I.; Dapkevicius, A.; Exarchou, V.; Jeurissen, S.M.F.; Claassen, F.W.; Klift, van der E.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Natural products chemistry has witnessed many new developments in the last 5 years like extractions with subcritical water and ionic liquids, LC/HRMS and LC/SPE/cryo-NMR, UHPLC, TLC/MS, MS-based preparative HPLC, comprehensive chromatography (GC × GC, LC × LC), high-throughput screening,

  9. A Survey of Hardware and Software Technologies for the Rapid Development of Multimedia Instructional Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Nanda

    2008-01-01

    A survey of hardware and software technologies was conducted to identify suitable technologies for the development of instructional modules representing various instructional approaches. The approaches modeled were short PowerPoint presentations, chalk-and-talk type of lectures and software tutorials. The survey focused on identifying application…

  10. Rapid development of bromodomain probes using flow synthesis methods and frontal affinity chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Richard; Guetzoyan, Lucie; Nikbin, Nikzad; Ley, Steven V.

    2014-01-01

    This poster illustrates aspects of a project involving the development of new probes for bromodomain 9 protein. Flow chemistry technologies and remote monitoring techniques were used for the synthesis, and Frontal Affinity Chromatography assays were used for analysis of the products.

  11. Using INGRES as a rapid prototyping device during development of management information applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, L.; Connell, J.; Shafer, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents case studies from the Administrative Data Processing Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory where a prototyping too, the INGRES relational database system, has been used to develop management information systems. The tool has proved valuable in satisfying user requirements and expectations, and in aiding data processing in the analysis and specification phases of the system life cycle. The prototype approach helps enormously in bridging the developer-user communication gap and has been found to add a negligible amount of cost to the entire software development project. Presented here are four case studies of how INGRES has been employed in prototyping. Also presented are examples of specific INGRES features and how they were used in one of the case studies and further examples involving another similar case. Special considerations and cautions are required when using INGRES for prototyping, but the overall conclusion is that it is a tool which has tremendously benefited our organization. Whether the final implemented system is INGRES-based or not, prototyping greatly enhances the possibility of complete, correct and unambiguous specifications prior to final software product development.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF NOVEL CERAMIC NANOFILM-FIBER INTEGRATED OPTICAL SENSORS FOR RAPID DETECTION OF COAL DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junhang Dong; Hai Xiao; Xiling Tang; Hongmin Jiang; Kurtis Remmel; Amardeep Kaur

    2012-09-30

    The overall goal of this project is to conduct fundamental studies on advanced ceramic materials and fiber optic devices for developing new types of high temperature (>500{degree}C) fiber optic chemical sensors (FOCS) for monitoring fossil (mainly coal) and biomass derived gases in power plants. The primary technical objective is to investigate and demonstrate the nanocrystalline doped-ceramic thin film enabled FOCS that possess desired stability, sensitivity and selectivity for in-situ, rapid gas detection in the syngas streams from gasification and combustion flue gases. This report summarizes research works of two integrated parts: (1) development of metal oxide solid thin films as sensing materials for detection and measurement of important gas components relevant to the coal- and biomass-derived syngas and combustion gas streams at high temperatures; and (2) development of fiber optic devices that are potentially useful for constructing FOCS in combination with the solid oxide thin films identified in this program.

  13. A multi-modal approach to economic development in the metropolitan area transportation planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-06

    This white paper provides a review of research and current practices of integrating economic development goals in metropolitan area transportation planning. The information presented is intended to serve as a technical resource for transportation pla...

  14. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. D.; Lepman, S. R.; Leung, K. N.; Phillips, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described as well as the structure of the database.

  15. Geothermal resource areas database for monitoring the progress of development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Lepman, S.R.; Leung, K.; Phillips, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The Geothermal Resource Areas Database (GRAD) and associated data system provide broad coverage of information on the development of geothermal resources in the United States. The system is designed to serve the information requirements of the National Progress Monitoring System. GRAD covers development from the initial exploratory phase through plant construction and operation. Emphasis is on actual facts or events rather than projections and scenarios. The selection and organization of data are based on a model of geothermal development. Subjects in GRAD include: names and addresses, leases, area descriptions, geothermal wells, power plants, direct use facilities, and environmental and regulatory aspects of development. Data collected in the various subject areas are critically evaluated, and then entered into an on-line interactive computer system. The system is publically available for retrieval and use. The background of the project, conceptual development, software development, and data collection are described here. Appendices describe the structure of the database in detail.

  16. Towards an ASEAN Human Rights Framework : Rapid Development in the Kingdom of Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Marie, Mårtensson

    2016-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) has since its origins in the late 1960’s been connected to the emphasis on Economic, Social and Cultural rights and the regional need for economic development. Through the intense years and debates that followed the first ASEAN Declaration the unity has made significant contributions to the Human Rights discourse due to the challenges and possibilities that surfaced. The Kingdom of Cambodia is one of the ASEAN member states poorest countries b...

  17. Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Capripoxvirus

    OpenAIRE

    Kanisht Batra; Aman Kumar; Vinay Kumar; Trilok Nanda; Maan, Narender S.; Sushila Maan

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was undertaken to develop a nucleic acid-based diagnostic assay loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) targeting highly conserved genomic regions of Capripoxvirus (CaPVs) and its comparative evaluation with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Material and Methods: Lyophilized vaccine strain of sheeppox virus (SPPV) was used for optimization of LAMP assay. The LAMP assay was designed using envelope immunogenic protein (P32) coding gene targeting highl...

  18. Framework for rapid in-house development of web applications for higher education institutions in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mincer-Daszkiewicz, Janina

    2013-01-01

    1. ABSTRACTUSOS [2] is a student management information system developed in-house for higher educationinstitutions (HEIs) in Poland, from the MUCI consortium. It consists of a desktop applicationdeveloped in Oracle technology for the university administration, and a suite of web basedapplications, for handling admission, course registration, grades, student diploma theses, social aid,course surveys and many other services, dedicated for students and university teachers. They weredeveloped in ...

  19. Mobile Application Development for Optimal and Rapid Diagnosis of Vine Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lucia TOMOIAGĂ

    2017-05-01

    Recent developments in the field of machine learning (Ghahramani, 2015, breakthroughs in computer vision (Krizhevsky et al., 2012 and the availability of cheap computational hardware has led us to look for a way to automatically detect and classify a disease just by having a computer or a mobile phone process a picture of an affected plant. Given the widespread availability of mobile devices, we believe we can help the vine growers further.

  20. Rapid development of cognitive maps in people with visual impairments when exploring novel geographic spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobson, Dan; Lippa, Yvonne; Golledge, Reginald G.; Kitchin, Rob; Blades, Mark

    2001-01-01

    'Cognitive' map is a term that refers to a person's environmental knowledge. Anyone experiencing a new environment will, over time, develop a cognitive representation of that environment, including information derived from that environment (e.g., about places, routes and spatial relationships) and information about personal experiences (e.g. memories about events at locations and attitudes towards places). There is now a great deal of research into the cognitive maps of sighted people (see Go...

  1. Investigation of Capabilities and Technologies Supporting Rapid UAV Launch System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    OF PAGES 169 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19. SECURITY ...Development System LCD liquid-crystal display xv LED light-emitting diode NPS Naval Postgraduate School RATO rocket assisted take-Off RFID radio frequency...platform interface by the AMPPS’s radio frequency identification ( RFID ) reader • Green Light–A launch has been initiated by the technician and is either

  2. LOCAL AREA NETWORK MANAGEMENT (Case Study at Assessment and Development Information Technology Units Brawijaya University Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Hadiwijaya, Mohammad Firman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to know the management local area network at Assessment and Development Information Technology units, furthermore this study focusing on network management functions that applied by Assessment and Development Information Technology Units. This study will explain about the implementation of network management functions in the local area network management. The research method employ in this research is by using descriptive qualitative method by study case approach...

  3. Positive thinking: an innovative strategy of Local Development in the “Inner Areas"

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Lo Presti

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a methodological reflection on the use of the "positive thinking approaches" for the promotion of capacity building of the projects in the local and inner areas. Recently, international policies have focused on the need to identify local development strategies to promote the capacity building in the local administrations, for the development of human and social capital.In the inner areas, it is necessary to experiment innovative approaches that are "place based" and “tailor made...

  4. Rapid torque development in older female fallers and nonfallers: a comparison across lower-extremity muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Dain P; Cremin, Kim A; Greenleaf, Brittnee; Croce, Ronald V

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare reaction time, joint torque, rate of torque development, and magnitude of neuromuscular activation of lower-extremity muscles in elderly female fallers and nonfallers. Participants included 11, elderly, female fallers (71.3+/-5.4 years) and twelve nonfallers (71.3+/-6.2 years) who completed a fall risk questionnaire. Then, maximal, voluntary, isometric contractions of the knee and ankle muscles were performed in reaction to a visual cue to determine joint torque, rate of torque development, reaction time, and nervous activation of agonists and antagonists. Results indicated that significantly more fallers reported "dizziness upon rising", "use of balance altering medications", "stress or depression", "not enough sleep", "arthritis in lower body", "chronic pain in lower body", and "tiring easily while walking" (all Ptorque, rate of torque development and impulse) were lower in fallers than in nonfallers (Pmuscle groups, fallers demonstrated 19% lower peak torque and 29% longer motor time (P<0.05). In conclusion, comprehensive fall risk screening and prevention programs should address both neuromuscular and non-muscular factors, and, weakness of the ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors should be further studied as potential contributors to falls in older adults. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning from marketing: Rapid development of medication messages that engage patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yank, Veronica; Tribett, Erika; Green, Lydia; Pettis, Jasmine

    2015-08-01

    To adapt marketing approaches in a health services environment. Researchers and advertising professionals partnered in developing advertising-style messages designed to activate patients pre-identified as having chronic kidney disease to ask providers about recommended medications. We assessed feasibility of the development process by evaluating partnership structure, costs, and timeframe. We tested messages with patients and providers using preliminary surveys to refine initial messages and subsequent focus groups to identify the most persuasive ones. The partnership achieved an efficient structure, $14,550 total costs, and 4-month timeframe. The advertising team developed 11 initial messages. The research team conducted surveys and focus groups with a total of 13 patients and 8 providers to identify three messages as most activating. Focus group themes suggested the general approach of using advertising-style messages was acceptable if it supported patient-provider relationships and had a credible evidence base. Individual messages were more motivating if they elicited personal identification with imagery, particular emotions, active patient role, and message clarity. We demonstrated feasibility of a research-advertising partnership and acceptability and likely impact of advertising-style messages on patient medication-seeking behavior. Healthcare systems may want to replicate our adaptation of marketing approaches to patients with chronic conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Nerve growth factor influences cleavage rate and embryo development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, M; Dos Santos-Neto, P C; Vilariño, M; Mulet, A P; de León, A; Barbeito, L; Menchaca, A

    2016-10-01

    Recent information about Nerve growth factor (NGF), a protein traditionally associated to the nervous system that regulates survival and maturation of developing neurons, suggests that it may exert action also on different levels in the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NGF added during in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization or in vitro embryo development in sheep. Nerve growth factor was supplemented to the culture medium at 0, 100, or 1,000 ng/mL, during either in vitro maturation (Exp. 1), in vitro fertilization (Exp. 2), or in vitro culture (Exp. 3). In addition, NGF mRNA expression was determined in cumulus cells and oocytes. Nerve growth factor induced early cleavage when added during oocyte maturation or fertilization, improved embryo development when added during fertilization, and had no significant effect when added during embryo culture. In general, the effect was more evident with 100 rather than 1,000 ng/mL (P growth factor on oocyte maturation and mainly on the fertilization process.

  7. Development of rapidly dissolving pellets within the Quality by Design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzas, A A; Politis, S N; Rekkas, D M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was the development of novel, fast disintegrating, effervescent pellets by employing the direct pelletization technique as a single step process. In line with the Quality by Design (QbD) regulatory framework, statistical experimental design was extensively applied to correlate significant formulation and process variables with the critical quality attributes of the product. Pellets were studied with regards to sphericity, size and size distribution. In contrast to the existing multiparticulate platforms, this development integrated only water-soluble excipients to facilitate the multifunctional use of the final dosage form. The application of a screening fractional factorial design augmented to a full factorial design set the roadmap for the rational selection of the composition and process parameters, revealing in parallel the positive contribution of the powder feeder on the CQAs, when the critical process and formulation factors were properly adjusted. The response surface methodology was exploited for the final process optimization phase, which allowed the construction of appropriate mathematical models connecting the input variables and the CQAs under study. The implementation of the desirability function, lead to the optimum formulation and process settings for the production of pellets with narrow size distribution and geometric mean diameter of approximately 800 μm. In conclusion, using a lean approach supported by design of experiments (DoE) techniques within the QbD framework, a novel multifunctional formulation platform has been developed.

  8. Developing a More Rapid Test to Assess Sulfate Resistance of Hydraulic Cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Chiara; Stutzman, Paul; Peltz, Max; Winpigler, John

    2005-01-01

    External sulfate attack of concrete is a major problem that can appear in regions where concrete is exposed to soil or water containing sulfates, leading to softening and cracking of the concrete. Therefore, it is important that materials selection and proportioning of concrete in susceptible regions be carefully considered to resist sulfate attack. American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) limits the tricalcium aluminate phase in cements when sulfate exposure is of concern. The hydration products of tricalcium aluminate react with the sulfates resulting in expansion and cracking. While ASTM standard tests are available to determine the susceptibility of cements to sulfate attack, these tests require at least 6 months and often up to a year to perform; a delay that hinders development of new cements. This paper presents a new method for testing cement resistance to sulfate attack that is three to five times faster than the current ASTM tests. Development of the procedure was based upon insights on the degradation process by petrographic examination of sulfate-exposed specimens over time. Also key to the development was the use of smaller samples and tighter environmental control. PMID:27308177

  9. Method Development for Rapid Analysis of Natural Radioactive Nuclides Using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.M.; Ji, Y.Y.; Lee, H.; Park, J.H.; Jang, M.; Chung, K.H.; Kang, M.J.; Choi, G.S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    As an attempt to reduce the social costs and apprehension arising from radioactivity in the environment, an accurate and rapid assessment of radioactivity is highly desirable. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are widely spread throughout the environment. The concern with radioactivity from these materials has therefore been growing for the last decade. In particular, radiation exposure in the industry when handling raw materials (e.g., coal mining and combustion, oil and gas production, metal mining and smelting, mineral sands (REE, Ti, Zr), fertilizer (phosphate), and building materials) has been brought to the public's attention. To decide the proper handling options, a rapid and accurate analytical method that can be used to evaluate the radioactivity of radionuclides (e.g., {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 226}Ra, and {sup 40}K) should be developed and validated. Direct measuring methods such as alpha spectrometry, a liquid scintillation counter (LSC), and mass-spectrometry are usually used for the measurement of radioactivity in NORM samples, and they encounter the most significant difficulties during pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment). Since the pretreatment process consequently plays an important role in the measurement uncertainty, method development and validation should be performed. Furthermore, a-spectrometry has a major disadvantage of a long counting time, while it has a prominent measurement capability at a very low activity level of {sup 238}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 226}Ra. Contrary to the α-spectrometry method, a measurement technique using ICP-MS allow radioactivity in many samples to be measured in a short time period with a high degree of accuracy and precision. In this study, a method was developed for a rapid analysis of natural radioactive nuclides using ICP-MS. A sample digestion process was established using LiBO{sub 2} fusion and Fe co-precipitation. A magnetic

  10. Development and evaluation of rapid novel isothermal amplification assays for important veterinary pathogens: Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Jelocnik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum are important veterinary pathogens, with the former also being responsible for zoonoses, and the latter adversely affecting koala populations in Australia and livestock globally. The rapid detection of these organisms is still challenging, particularly at the point-of-care (POC. In the present study, we developed and evaluated rapid, sensitive and robust C. psittaci-specific and C. pecorum-specific Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP assays for detection of these pathogens. Methods and Materials The LAMP assays, performed in a Genie III real-time fluorometer, targeted a 263 bp region of the C. psittaci-specific Cps_0607 gene or a 209 bp region of a C. pecorum-specific conserved gene CpecG_0573, and were evaluated using a range of samples previously screened using species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs. Species-specificity for C. psittaci and C. pecorum LAMP targets was tested against DNA samples from related chlamydial species and a range of other bacteria. In order to evaluate pathogen detection in clinical samples, C. psittaci LAMP was evaluated using a total of 26 DNA extracts from clinical samples from equine and avian hosts, while for C. pecorum LAMP, we tested a total of 63 DNA extracts from clinical samples from koala, sheep and cattle hosts. A subset of 36 C. pecorum samples was also tested in a thermal cycler (instead of a real-time fluorometer using newly developed LAMP and results were determined as an end point detection. We also evaluated rapid swab processing (without DNA extraction to assess the robustness of these assays. Results Both LAMP assays were demonstrated to species-specific, highly reproducible and to be able to detect as little as 10 genome copy number/reaction, with a mean amplification time of 14 and 24 min for C. psittaci and C. pecorum, respectively. When testing clinical samples, the overall congruence between the newly developed LAMP assays and q

  11. Development and evaluation of rapid novel isothermal amplification assays for important veterinary pathogens: Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelocnik, Martina; Islam, Md Mominul; Madden, Danielle; Jenkins, Cheryl; Branley, James; Carver, Scott; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum are important veterinary pathogens, with the former also being responsible for zoonoses, and the latter adversely affecting koala populations in Australia and livestock globally. The rapid detection of these organisms is still challenging, particularly at the point-of-care (POC). In the present study, we developed and evaluated rapid, sensitive and robust C. psittaci-specific and C. pecorum-specific Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of these pathogens. The LAMP assays, performed in a Genie III real-time fluorometer, targeted a 263 bp region of the C. psittaci-specific Cps_0607 gene or a 209 bp region of a C. pecorum-specific conserved gene CpecG_0573, and were evaluated using a range of samples previously screened using species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs). Species-specificity for C. psittaci and C. pecorum LAMP targets was tested against DNA samples from related chlamydial species and a range of other bacteria. In order to evaluate pathogen detection in clinical samples, C. psittaci LAMP was evaluated using a total of 26 DNA extracts from clinical samples from equine and avian hosts, while for C. pecorum LAMP, we tested a total of 63 DNA extracts from clinical samples from koala, sheep and cattle hosts. A subset of 36 C. pecorum samples was also tested in a thermal cycler (instead of a real-time fluorometer) using newly developed LAMP and results were determined as an end point detection. We also evaluated rapid swab processing (without DNA extraction) to assess the robustness of these assays. Both LAMP assays were demonstrated to species-specific, highly reproducible and to be able to detect as little as 10 genome copy number/reaction, with a mean amplification time of 14 and 24 min for C. psittaci and C. pecorum, respectively. When testing clinical samples, the overall congruence between the newly developed LAMP assays and qPCR was 92.3% for C. psittaci (91.7% sensitivity and 92

  12. GSL: An Open Source Framework for the Rapid Development of Data Archive Access Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, J.; Boler, F. M.; Bock, Y.; Squibb, M. B.; Ratzesberger, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Geodetic Seamless Archive Center (GSAC) project is a NASA ROSES ACCESS funded effort with the goal to define and implement a web service API for uniform querying across multiple geodetic data repositories. The project information technology partners include two International GNSS Service (IGS) Data Centers, CDDIS and SOPAC, and a third global NSF and NASA-funded Data Center, UNAVCO. A science partner, the University of Nevada, Reno Geodetic Laboratory is utilizing the services and contributing new quality assessment products. Each of the participant data centers has its own internal database schema and various web-based access mechanisms to suit the needs of their individual user communities. The software engineering challenge that we faced was to unify these access mechanisms into a common web service API. To facilitate the development of the GSAC interfaces within these disparate repositories we have developed a Java-based open source middleware framework called the GSAC Service Layer (GSL). It was recognized early on in the project that much of the required functionality within each repository could be provided by a common software layer, thus achieving a substantial reduction in the development effort required by each partner institution. The GSL provides a range of common services for repository configuration, initialization, database management, web interface generation, and data model and metadata creation. Each repository implementation then simply focuses on the core task of responding to query requests and delivering to the GSL layer the internal results. The GSL layer is then responsible for encoding the results in the desired format. A fundamental challenge in developing a framework such as the GSL is balancing the trade-off between the agnosticism needed within the GSL so that it is applicable to a wide range of problem domains and the specific needs required for a particular repository implementations. The GSL addresses this challenge through an

  13. Development of Rapid Pipe Moulding Process for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Direct Resistance Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuto; Harada, Ryuki; Uemura, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutao; Kuwahara, Hideyuki

    To deal with environmental issues, the gasoline mileage of passenger cars can be improved by reduction of the car weight. The use of car components made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is increasing because of its superior mechanical properties and relatively low density. Many vehicle structural parts are pipe-shaped, such as suspension arms, torsion beams, door guard bars and impact beams. A reduction of the car weight is expected by using CFRP for these parts. Especially, when considering the recyclability and ease of production, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics are a prime candidate. On the other hand, the moulding process of CFRTP pipes for mass production has not been well established yet. For this pipe moulding process an induction heating method has been investigated already, however, this method requires a complicated coil system. To reduce the production cost, another system without such complicated equipment is to be developed. In this study, the pipe moulding process of CFRTP using direct resistance heating was developed. This heating method heats up the mould by Joule heating using skin effect of high-frequency current. The direct resistance heating method is desirable from a cost perspective, because this method can heat the mould directly without using any coils. Formerly developed Non-woven Stitched Multi-axial Cloth (NSMC) was used as semi-product material. NSMC is very suitable for the lamination process due to the fact that non-crimp stitched carbon fiber of [0°/+45°/90°/-45°] and polyamide 6 non-woven fabric are stitched to one sheet, resulting in a short production cycle time. The use of the pipe moulding process with the direct resistance heating method in combination with the NSMC, has resulted in the successful moulding of a CFRTP pipe of 300 mm in length, 40 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.

  14. Non-obese diabetic mice rapidly develop dramatic sympathetic neuritic dystrophy: a new experimental model of diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Beaudet, Lucie N; Frederick, Kathy E; Parvin, Curtis A; Plurad, Santiago B; Levisetti, Matteo G

    2003-11-01

    To address the pathogenesis of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, we have examined the sympathetic nervous system in non-obese diabetic (NOD) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, two models of type 1 diabetes, and the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes. After only 3 to 5 weeks of diabetes, NOD mice developed markedly swollen axons and dendrites ("neuritic dystrophy") in the prevertebral superior mesenteric and celiac ganglia (SMG-CG), similar to the pathology described in diabetic STZ- and BBW-rat and man. Comparable changes failed to develop in the superior cervical ganglia of the NOD mouse or in the SMG-CG of non-diabetic NOD siblings. STZ-induced diabetic mice develop identical changes, although at a much slower pace and to a lesser degree than NOD mice. NOD-SCID mice, which are genetically identical to NOD mice except for the absence of T and B cells, do not develop diabetes or neuropathology comparable to diabetic NOD mice. However, STZ-treated NOD-SCID mice develop severe neuritic dystrophy, evidence against an exclusively autoimmune pathogenesis for autonomic neuropathy in this model. Chronically diabetic type 2 db/db mice fail to develop neuritic dystrophy, suggesting that hyperglycemia alone may not be the critical and sufficient element. The NOD mouse appears to be a valuable model of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy with unambiguous, rapidly developing neuropathology which corresponds closely to the characteristic pathology of other rodent models and man.

  15. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for the rapid diagnosis of invasive candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengxin He; Lanchun Shi; Xiangyang Ran; Wei Li; Xianling Wang; Fukun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) is very important. In this study, a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed to detect antibody against Candida albicans enolase (Eno). Colloidal gold particle labeled mouse anti human IgG (1.0 mg/L) was used as the detector reagent. Recombinant enolase (rEno, 1.0 mg/L) and goat anti IgG (1.0 mg/L) were immobilized in test and control lines, respectively, of a nitrocellulose membrane, acting as the capture reagents. The LFIA was u...

  16. [Government policies and actions in Burundi in the area of rural development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mworoha, E

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses policies and actions designed by the government of Burundi to assure food self-sufficiency and to improve living conditions in rural areas. Burundi has had a long history of food self-sufficiency due to good soils, adequate rainfall, and hard work by the rural population. In the past 3 decades, however, the food supply has been threatened by various factors including soil erosion and rapid population increase. The government has undertaken a reforestation program which covered 51,050 hectares in the past 7 years with plans to cover 20% of the national territory by the year 2000. Work has also been done to contain rivers within their courses and to popularize antierosion techniques such as terracing and proper use of pastures. Partly because the population is growing at a rate of 2.7% per year, the average plot available per household is estimated at only 1.3 hectare, rendering efforts to improve productivity imperative. The high cost of chemical fertilizers has forced reliance on compost, and some 6 million compost heaps are now in existence. Agropastoral integration projects are seeking to improve yields through better combinations of livestock and land use. Research to improve the seed supply has already resulted in improved strains of rice, maize, wheat, kidney beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, cotton, tea and coffee. Regional seed production centers are planned to facilitate distribution and adaptation of seeds to each ecological zone. Research is underway to identify appropriate new crops and to extend the ranges of existing crops. To encourage participation of the rural population in agricultural improvement efforts, the government is financing schools and institutions which will train local level agricultural promoters and extension agents. Local governments at all levels, regional development societies, cooperatives and other structures are also being organized to assist farmers. In order to restructure and modernize the rural

  17. Development of microLIPS (Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems): a novel microfluidic assay for rapid serum antibody detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrangsu, Matt; Burbelo, Peter D.; Iadarola, Michael J.; Smith, Paul D.; Morgan, Nicole Y.

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of rapid, point-of-care antibody detection for the diagnosis of infectious and auto-immune diseases. In this paper, we present work on the development of a self-contained microfluidic format for the Luciferase Immunoprecipitation Systems (LIPS) assay. Whereas the majority of immunoassays for antigen-specific antibodies employ either bacteria- or yeast-expressed proteins and require the use of secondary antibodies, the LIPS technique uses a fusion protein comprised of a Renilla luciferase reporter and the antigen of interest produced via mammalian cell culture, ensuring the addition of mammalian post-translational modifications. Patient serum is mixed with the fusion protein and passed over immobilized Protein A/G; after washing, the only remaining luciferase-tagged antigens are those retained by specific antibodies. These can be quantitatively measured using chemiluminescence upon the introduction of coelenterazine. The assay has been successfully employed for a wide variety of diseases in a microwell format. We report on a recent demonstration of rapid HSV-2 diagnosis with the LIPS assay in a microfluidic format, using one microliter of serum and obtaining results in under ten minutes. We will also discuss recent progress on two fronts, both aimed at the deployment of this technology in the field: first, simplifying assay operation through the automation of flow control using power-free means; and second, efforts to increase signal levels, primarily through strategies to increase antibody binding capacity, in order to move towards portable battery powered electronics.

  18. Development of rapidly quenched nickel-based non-boron filler metals for brazing corrosion resistant steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivannikov, A.; Kalin, B.; Suchkov, A.; Penyaz, M.; Yurlova, M.

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion-resistant steels are stably applied in modern rocket and nuclear technology. Creating of permanent joints of these steels is a difficult task that can be solved by means of welding or brazing. Recently, the use rapidly quenched boron-containing filler metals is perspective. However, the use of such alloys leads to the formation of brittle borides in brazing zone, which degrades the corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the compounds. Therefore, the development of non-boron alloys for brazing stainless steels is important task. The study of binary systems Ni-Be and Ni-Si revealed the perspective of replacing boron in Ni-based filler metals by beryllium, so there was the objective of studying of phase equilibrium in the system Ni-Be-Si. The alloys of the Ni-Si-Be with different contents of Si and Be are considered in this paper. The presence of two low-melting components is revealed during of their studying by methods of metallography analysis and DTA. Microhardness is measured and X-ray diffraction analysis is conducted for a number of alloys of Ni-Si-Be. The compositions are developed on the basis of these data. Rapidly quenched brazing alloys can be prepared from these compositions, and they are suitable for high temperature brazing of steels.

  19. Development of an ELISA for rapid detection of anti-type VII collagen autoantibodies in epidermolysis bullosa acquisita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M; Chan, L S; Cai, X; O'Toole, E A; Sample, J C; Woodley, D T

    1997-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA) is an acquired blistering skin disease characterized by the presence of IgG autoantibodies to type VII collagen. EBA autoantibodies recognize four major immunodominant epitopes localized within the amino-terminal, noncollagenous (NC1) domain. In this study, we developed a rapid, quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect autoantibody activity against the complete NC1 domain of type VII collagen with the use of an eukaryotic-expressed, recombinant human NC1 antigen. With the ELISA, we tested serum from patients with EBA (n = 24), bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) (n = 3), bullous pemphigoid (n = 16), pemphigus (n = 11), and normal controls (n = 12). All EBA and BSLE serum, including four sera that were negative by indirect immunofluorescence, demonstrated reactivity with immobilized NC1 in the ELISA. In contrast, none of the sera from healthy control subjects or patients with unrelated blistering skin diseases reacted with NC1. The EBA sera also reacted with recombinant NC1 by immunoblot analysis but with less sensitivity. Thus, the newly developed ELISA using recombinant NC1 is a sensitive, specific assay and a useful tool for rapidly screening EBA and BSLE serum.

  20. Development of an immunochromatographic strip test for rapid detection of melamine in raw milk, milk products and animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangmei; Luo, Pengjie; Tang, Shusheng; Beier, Ross C; Wu, Xiaoping; Yang, Lili; Li, Yanwei; Xiao, Xilong

    2011-06-08

    A simple, rapid and sensitive immunogold chromatographic strip test based on a monoclonal antibody was developed for the detection of melamine (MEL) residues in raw milk, milk products and animal feed. The limit of detection was estimated to be 0.05 μg/mL in raw milk, since the detection test line on the strip test completely disappeared at this concentration. The limit of detection was 2 μg/mL (or 2 μg/g) for milk drinks, yogurt, condensed milk, cheese, and animal feed and 1 μg/g for milk powder. Sample pretreatment was simple and rapid, and the results can be obtained within 3-10 min. A parallel analysis of MEL in 52 blind raw milk samples conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed comparable results to those obtained from the strip test. The results demonstrate that the developed method is suitable for the onsite determination of MEL residues in a large number of samples.