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Sample records for rapidly decreasing functions

  1. Skin surface hydration decreases rapidly during long distance flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéhenneux, Sabine; Gardinier, Sophie; Morizot, Frederique; Le Fur, Isabelle; Tschachler, Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Dehydration of the stratum corneum leads to sensations and symptoms of 'dry skin' such as skin tightness and itchiness. As these complaints are frequently experienced by airline travellers, the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in skin surface hydration during long distance flights. The study was performed on four healthy Caucasian, and on four Japanese women aged 29-39 years, travelling on long distance flights. They had stopped using skin care products at least 12 h before, and did not apply them during the flights. The air temperature and relative humidity inside the cabin, as well as skin capacitance of the face and forearm of participants, were registered at several time points before and during the flights. Relative humidity of the aircraft cabin dropped to levels below 10% within 2 h after take-off and stayed at this value throughout the flight. Skin capacitance decreased rapidly on both the face and forearms with most pronounced changes on the cheeks where it decreased by up to 37%. Our results demonstrate that during long distance flights, the aircraft cabin environment leads to a rapid decrease in stratum corneum hydration, an alteration, which probably accounts for the discomfort experienced by long distance aircraft travellers. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory response; rather, autoimmune response would keep affecting decreased heart function in. RHD patients who ... untreated children. Nearly 30 - 45 % of the affected children could ..... Technology Department of Anhui Province (PR.

  3. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  4. Rapid decreases in preoptic aromatase activity and brain monoamine concentrations after engaging in male sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, C A; Dalla, C; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Z; Baillien, M; Dejace, C; Ball, G F; Balthazart, J

    2005-09-01

    In Japanese quail, as in rats, the expression of male sexual behavior over relatively long time periods (days to weeks) is dependent on the local production of estradiol in the preoptic area via the aromatization of testosterone. On a short-term basis (minutes to hours), central actions of dopamine as well as locally produced estrogens modulate behavioral expression. In rats, a view of and sexual interaction with a female increase dopamine release in the preoptic area. In quail, in vitro brain aromatase activity (AA) is rapidly modulated by calcium-dependent phosphorylations that are likely to occur in vivo as a result of changes in neurotransmitter activity. Furthermore, an acute estradiol injection rapidly stimulates copulation in quail, whereas a single injection of the aromatase inhibitor vorozole rapidly inhibits this behavior. We hypothesized that brain aromatase and dopaminergic activities are regulated in quail in association with the expression of male sexual behavior. Visual access as well as sexual interactions with a female produced a significant decrease in brain AA, which was maximal after 5 min. This expression of sexual behavior also resulted in a significant decrease in dopaminergic as well as serotonergic activity after 1 min, which returned to basal levels after 5 min. These results demonstrate for the first time that AA is rapidly modulated in vivo in parallel with changes in dopamine activity. Sexual interactions with the female decreased aromatase and dopamine activities. These data challenge established views about the causal relationships among dopamine, estrogen action, and male sexual behavior.

  5. Selective activation of estrogen receptors, ERα and GPER-1, rapidly decreases food intake in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Michael J; Hildebrandt, Ryan P; Eckel, Lisa A

    2018-05-25

    Many of estradiol's behavioral effects are mediated, at least partially, via extra-nuclear estradiol signaling. Here, we investigated whether two estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, targeting ERα and G protein-coupled ER-1 (GPER-1), can promote rapid anorexigenic effects. Food intake was measured in ovariectomized (OVX) rats at 1, 2, 4, and 22 h following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of an ERα agonist (PPT; 0-200 μg/kg), a GPER-1 agonist (G-1; 0-1600 μg/kg), and a GPER-1 antagonist (G-36; 0-80 μg/kg). To investigate possible cross-talk between ERα and GPER-1, we examined whether GPER-1 blockade affects the anorexigenic effect of PPT. Feeding was monitored in OVX rats that received s.c. injections of vehicle or 40 μg/kg G-36 followed 30 min later by s.c. injections of vehicle or 200 μg/kg PPT. Selective activation of ERα and GPER-1 alone decreased food intake within 1 h of drug treatment, and feeding remained suppressed for 22 h following PPT treatment and 4 h following G-1 treatment. Acute administration of G-36 alone did not suppress feeding at any time point. Blockade of GPER-1 attenuated PPT's rapid (within 1 h) anorexigenic effect, but did not modulate PPT's ability to suppress food intake at 2, 4 and 22 h. These findings demonstrate that selective activation of ERα produces a rapid (within 1 h) decrease in food intake that is best explained by a non-genomic signaling pathway and thus implicates the involvement of extra-nuclear ERα. Our findings also provide evidence that activation of GPER-1 is both sufficient to suppress feeding and necessary for PPT's rapid anorexigenic effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Decreased function of survival motor neuron protein impairs endocytic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadi, Maria; Derdowski, Aaron; Kalloo, Geetika; Maginnis, Melissa S; O'Hern, Patrick; Bliska, Bryn; Sorkaç, Altar; Nguyen, Ken C Q; Cook, Steven J; Poulogiannis, George; Atwood, Walter J; Hall, David H; Hart, Anne C

    2016-07-26

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by depletion of the ubiquitously expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, with 1 in 40 Caucasians being heterozygous for a disease allele. SMN is critical for the assembly of numerous ribonucleoprotein complexes, yet it is still unclear how reduced SMN levels affect motor neuron function. Here, we examined the impact of SMN depletion in Caenorhabditis elegans and found that decreased function of the SMN ortholog SMN-1 perturbed endocytic pathways at motor neuron synapses and in other tissues. Diminished SMN-1 levels caused defects in C. elegans neuromuscular function, and smn-1 genetic interactions were consistent with an endocytic defect. Changes were observed in synaptic endocytic proteins when SMN-1 levels decreased. At the ultrastructural level, defects were observed in endosomal compartments, including significantly fewer docked synaptic vesicles. Finally, endocytosis-dependent infection by JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was reduced in human cells with decreased SMN levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that SMN depletion causes defects in endosomal trafficking that impair synaptic function, even in the absence of motor neuron cell death.

  7. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocki, Barbara Cristina; Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Langer, Daniel; Souza, Domingos S R; Andreasen, Jan Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure) and 6-min walk test (6MWT) were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years). Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity -0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s -0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001), 6MWT (-37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001) and oxygenation (-2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001), while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001), whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  8. Task-related signal decrease on functional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yoshie; Nakamura, Mitsugu; Tamaki, Norihiko; Tamura, Shogo; Kitamura, Junji

    2001-01-01

    An atypical pattern of signal change was identified on functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in pathologic patients. Three normal volunteers and 34 patients with pathologic lesions near the primary motor cortex underwent fMR imaging with echo-planar imaging while performing a hand motor task. Signal intensities were evaluated with the z-score method, and the time course and changes of the signal intensity were calculated. Nine of the 34 patients with pathologic lesions displayed a significant task-related signal reduction in motor-related areas. They also presented a conventional task-related signal increase in other motor-related areas. The time courses of the increase and decrease were the inverse of each other. There was no significant difference between rates of signal increase and decrease. Our findings suggest that this atypical signal decrease is clinically significant, and that impaired vascular reactivity and altered oxygen metabolism could contribute to the task-related signal reduction. Brain areas showing such task-related signal decrease should be preserved at surgery. (author)

  9. Hyperglycemia decreases mitochondrial function: The regulatory role of mitochondrial biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeira, Carlos M.; Rolo, Anabela P.; Berthiaume, Jessica; Bjork, James A.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2007-01-01

    Increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in 'glucose toxicity' in diabetes. However, little is known about the action of glucose on the expression of transcription factors in hepatocytes, especially those involved in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and transcription. Since mitochondrial functional capacity is dynamically regulated, we hypothesized that stressful conditions of hyperglycemia induce adaptations in the transcriptional control of cellular energy metabolism, including inhibition of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism. Cell viability, mitochondrial respiration, ROS generation and oxidized proteins were determined in HepG2 cells cultured in the presence of either 5.5 mM (control) or 30 mM glucose (high glucose) for 48 h, 96 h and 7 days. Additionally, mtDNA abundance, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) transcripts were evaluated by real time PCR. High glucose induced a progressive increase in ROS generation and accumulation of oxidized proteins, with no changes in cell viability. Increased expression of PAI-1 was observed as early as 96 h of exposure to high glucose. After 7 days in hyperglycemia, HepG2 cells exhibited inhibited uncoupled respiration and decreased MitoTracker Red fluorescence associated with a 25% decrease in mtDNA and 16% decrease in TFAM transcripts. These results indicate that glucose may regulate mtDNA copy number by modulating the transcriptional activity of TFAM in response to hyperglycemia-induced ROS production. The decrease of mtDNA content and inhibition of mitochondrial function may be pathogenic hallmarks in the altered metabolic status associated with diabetes

  10. Decrease in pulmonary function and oxygenation after lung resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cristina Brocki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory deficits are common following curative intent lung cancer surgery and may reduce the patient's ability to be physically active. We evaluated the influence of surgery on pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength and physical performance after lung resection. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure and 6-min walk test (6MWT were assessed pre-operatively, 2 weeks post-operatively and 6 months post-operatively in 80 patients (age 68±9 years. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed in 58% of cases. Two weeks post-operatively, we found a significant decline in pulmonary function (forced vital capacity −0.6±0.6 L and forced expiratory volume in 1 s −0.43±0.4 L; both p<0.0001, 6MWT (−37.6±74.8 m; p<0.0001 and oxygenation (−2.9±4.7 units; p<0.001, while maximal inspiratory and maximal expiratory pressure were unaffected. At 6 months post-operatively, pulmonary function and oxygenation remained significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas 6MWT was recovered. We conclude that lung resection has a significant short- and long-term impact on pulmonary function and oxygenation, but not on respiratory muscle strength. Future research should focus on mechanisms negatively influencing post-operative pulmonary function other than impaired respiratory muscle strength.

  11. Glucose rapidly decreases plasma membrane GLUT4 content in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marette, A; Dimitrakoudis, D; Shi, Q; Rodgers, C D; Klip, A; Vranic, M

    1999-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that chronic hyperglycemia per se decreases GLUT4 glucose transporter expression and plasma membrane content in mildly streptozotocin- (STZ) diabetic rats (Biochem. J. 284, 341-348, 1992). In the present study, we investigated the effect of an acute rise in glycemia on muscle GLUT4 and GLUT1 protein contents in the plasma membrane, in the absence of insulin elevation. Four experimental groups of rats were analyzed in the postabsorptive state: 1. Control rats. 2. Hyperglycemic STZ-diabetic rats with moderately reduced fasting insulin levels. 3. STZ-diabetic rats made normoglycemic with phlorizin treatment. 4. Phlorizin-treated (normoglycemic) STZ-diabetic rats infused with glucose for 40 min. The uniqueness of the latter model is that glycemia can be rapidly raised without any concomitant increase in plasma insulin levels. Plasma membranes were isolated from hindlimb muscle and GLUT1 and GLUT4 proteins amounts determined by Western blot analysis. As predicted, STZ-diabetes caused a significant decrease in the abundance of GLUT4 in the isolated plasma membranes. Normalization of glycemia for 3 d with phlorizin treatment restored plasma membrane GLUT4 content in muscle of STZ-diabetic rats. A sudden rise in glycemia over a period of 40 min caused the GLUT4 levels in the plasma membrane fraction to decrease to those of nontreated STZ-diabetic rats. In contrast to the GLUT4 transporter, plasma membrane GLUT1 abundance was not changed by the acute glucose challenge. It is concluded that glucose can have regulatory effect by acutely reducing plasma membrane GLUT4 protein contents in rat skeletal muscle. We hypothesize that this glucose-induced downregulation of plasma membrane GLUT4 could represent a protective mechanism against excessive glucose uptake under hyperglycemic conditions accompanied by insulin resistance.

  12. Decreased shoulder function and pain common in recreational badminton players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, M; Söderman, K

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and consequences of painful conditions in the shoulder region in recreational badminton players. A questionnaire study was performed on 99 players, of whom 57 were also assessed with Constant score. Previous or present pain in the dominant shoulder was reported by 52% of the players. Sixteen percent of the players had on-going shoulder pain associated with badminton play. A majority of these players reported that their training habits were affected by the pain. Total Constant score was lower in the painful shoulders. Furthermore, range of active pain-free shoulder abduction was decreased. However, isometric shoulder strength test showed no differences when compared with pain-free shoulders. Even though the pain caused functional problems, the players were still playing with on-going symptoms. The diagnoses were mostly unknown, although history and clinical tests indicate problems resembling subacromial impingement.

  13. Charge Energy Transport in Hopping Systems with Rapidly Decreasing Density of States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendels, Dan; Organic Electronics Group Technion Team

    2014-03-01

    An accurate description of the carrier hopping topology in the energy domain of hopping systems incorporating a rapidly decreasing density of states and the subsequent energetic position of these systems' so called effective conduction band is crucial for rationalizing and quantifying these systems' thermo-electric properties, doping related phenomena and carrier gradient effects such as the emergence of the General Einstein Relation under degenerate conditions. Additionally, as will be shown, the 'mobile' carriers propagating through the system can have excess energies reaching 0.3eV above the system quasi-Fermi energy. Hence, since these mobile carriers are most prone to reach systems interfaces and interact with oppositely charged carriers, their excess energy should be considered in determining the efficiencies of energy dependent processes such as carrier recombination and exciton dissociation. In light of the stated motivations, a comprehensive numerical and analytical study of the topology of hopping in the energetic density of such systems (i.e. the statistics regarding which energy values carriers visit most and in what manner) was implemented and the main statistical features of the hopping process that determine the position in energy of the system's effective conduction band were distilled. The obtained results also help shed light on yet to be elucidated discrepancies between predictions given by the widely employed transport energy concept and Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions

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    Shen Yue-Long

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse-momentum dependent (TMD hadronic wave functions develop light-cone divergences under QCD corrections, which are commonly regularized by the rapidity ζ of gauge vector defining the non-light-like Wilson lines. The yielding rapidity logarithms from infrared enhancement need to be resummed for both hadronic wave functions and short-distance functions, to achieve scheme-independent calculations of physical quantities. We briefly review the recent progress on the rapidity resummation for B-meson wave functions which are the key ingredients of TMD factorization formulae for radiative-leptonic, semi-leptonic and non-leptonic B-meson decays. The crucial observation is that rapidity resummation induces a strong suppression of B-meson wave functions at small light-quark momentum, strengthening the applicability of TMD factorization in exclusive B-meson decays. The phenomenological consequence of rapidity-resummation improved B-meson wave functions is further discussed in the context of B → π transition form factors at large hadronic recoil.

  15. Immune activation is associated with decreased thymic function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Reduced thymic function causes poor immunological reconstitution in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The association between immune activation and thymic function in asymptomatic HIVpositive treatment-naive individuals has thus far not been ...

  16. Decreases in soil microbial function and functional diversity in response to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.C.; Paschke, M.W.; McLendon, T.

    1998-01-01

    A soil microcosm experiment was used to analyze effects of depleted uranium (DU) on soil function, and the concomitant changes in bacterial functional diversity. Uranium treatment levels were 0, 50, 500, 5000, 10,000 and 25,000 mg DU kg -1 soil. Three measures of soil function were made. Overall soil biological activity was assessed via measurement of soil respiration. Decomposition was assessed by measurement of mass loss of four different plant litter types: wood sticks, cellulose paper, high-N grass, and low-N grass. Mineral N availability in the microcosms was estimated using ion-exchange resin bags. Functional diversity of the microcosms was analyzed through the use of the Biolog-system of sole-C-utilization patterns. Soil respiration was the most sensitive measure of functional changes, with significant decreases observed starting at the 500 mg kg -1 treatment. No differences in N availability were observed across the U treatments. Litter decomposition was significantly decreased at the 25,000 mg kg -1 level relative to the control for all litter types except the high-N grass. Wood decomposition was reduced by 84% at the 25,000 mg kg - treatment, cellulose paper by 68%, and low-N grass by 15%. Decreases in the functional diversity of the bacterial community were related to the observed decrease in soil respiration, and to the greater effect on decomposition of the lower-quality litter types

  17. Pade approximants for entire functions with regularly decreasing Taylor coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusak, V N; Starovoitov, A P

    2002-01-01

    For a class of entire functions the asymptotic behaviour of the Hadamard determinants D n,m as 0≤m≤m(n)→∞ and n→∞ is described. This enables one to study the behaviour of parabolic sequences from Pade and Chebyshev tables for many individual entire functions. The central result of the paper is as follows: for some sequences {(n,m(n))} in certain classes of entire functions (with regular Taylor coefficients) the Pade approximants {π n,m(n) }, which provide the locally best possible rational approximations, converge to the given function uniformly on the compact set D={z:|z|≤1} with asymptotically best rate

  18. Decreasing the Functioning Consumptions of Plastics Injection Moulding Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilache, V.; Vasilache, M.; Vasilache, A.

    2017-06-01

    A share of about 75% in the cost of a plastic moulded part is held by the energy consumption of the injection machine. It is the heating system of the plasticising unit which is responsible for the energophague character of the process. The transfer rate from the heating elements to the plasticising cylinder depends hardly on the geometry of the system. A new heating system is designed, replacing the classical systems which are applied on the exterior of the cylinder with an “engrooved system”. Proposed heating system leads to decreasing of energy consumption up to 30 % and maintenance costs up to 10 %. A supplementary possibility to decrease the maintenance costs is to modify the geometry of the injection torpedo. The proposed geometry eliminates the possibility of any breaking or gripping related to the injection torpedo.

  19. Oxidative stress decreases functional airway mannose binding lectin in COPD.

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    Hai B Tran

    Full Text Available We have previously established that a defect in the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis and pathogens is a potential therapeutic target in COPD. We further showed that levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL; required for effective macrophage phagocytic function were reduced in the airways but not circulation of COPD patients. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress in the airway could be a cause for such disturbances. We therefore studied the effects of oxidation on the structure of the MBL molecule and its functional interactions with macrophages. Oligomeric structure of plasma derived MBL (pdMBL before and after oxidation (oxMBL with 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidinedihydrochroride (AAPH was investigated by blue native PAGE. Macrophage function in the presence of pd/oxMBL was assessed by measuring efferocytosis, phagocytosis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and expression of macrophage scavenger receptors. Oxidation disrupted higher order MBL oligomers. This was associated with changed macrophage function evident by a significantly reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic cells and NTHi in the presence of oxMBL vs pdMBL (eg, NTHi by 55.9 and 27.0% respectively. Interestingly, oxidation of MBL significantly reduced macrophage phagocytic ability to below control levels. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a significant increase in expression of macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA1 in the presence of pdMBL that was abrogated in the presence of oxMBL. We show the pulmonary macrophage dysfunction in COPD may at least partially result from an oxidative stress-induced effect on MBL, and identify a further potential therapeutic strategy for this debilitating disease.

  20. Extinction order and altered community structure rapidly disrupt ecosystem functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Trond H; Williams, Neal M; Kremen, Claire

    2005-05-01

    By causing extinctions and altering community structure, anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt processes that maintain ecosystem integrity. However, the relationship between community structure and ecosystem functioning in natural systems is poorly understood. Here we show that habitat loss appeared to disrupt ecosystem functioning by affecting extinction order, species richness and abundance. We studied pollination by bees in a mosaic of agricultural and natural habitats in California and dung burial by dung beetles on recently created islands in Venezuela. We found that large-bodied bee and beetle species tended to be both most extinction-prone and most functionally efficient, contributing to rapid functional loss. Simulations confirmed that extinction order led to greater disruption of function than predicted by random species loss. Total abundance declined with richness and also appeared to contribute to loss of function. We demonstrate conceptually and empirically how the non-random response of communities to disturbance can have unexpectedly large functional consequences.

  1. Liver Stiffness Decreases Rapidly in Response to Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Then Plateaus.

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    Sweta Chekuri

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of a sustained virological response (SVR to hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment on liver stiffness (LS.LS, measured by transient elastography (FibroScan, demographic and laboratory data of patients treated with interferon (IFN-containing or IFN-free regimens who had an SVR24 (undetectable HCV viral load 24 weeks after the end of treatment were analyzed using two-tailed paired t-tests, Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests and linear regression. Two time intervals were investigated: pre-treatment to SVR24 and SVR24 to the end of follow-up. LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa indicated LS-defined cirrhosis. A p-value below 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The median age of the patients (n = 100 was 60 years [IQR (interquartile range 54-64; 72% were male; 60% were Caucasian; and 42% had cirrhosis pre-treatment according to the FibroScan measurement. The median LS score dropped from 10.40 kPa (IQR: 7.25-18.60 pre-treatment to 7.60 kPa (IQR: 5.60-12.38 at SVR24, p <0.01. Among the 42 patients with LS-defined cirrhosis pre-treatment, 25 (60% of patients still had LS scores ≥ 12.5 kPa at SVR24, indicating the persistence of cirrhosis. The median change in LS was similar in patients receiving IFN-containing and IFN-free regimens: -1.95 kPa (IQR: -5.75 --0.38 versus -2.40 kPa (IQR: -7.70 --0.23, p = 0.74. Among 56 patients with a post-SVR24 LS measurement, the LS score changed by an additional -0.90 kPa (IQR: -2.98-0.5 during a median follow-up time of 1.17 (IQR: 0.88-1.63 years, which was not a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.99.LS decreased from pre-treatment to SVR24, but did not decrease significantly during additional follow-up. Earlier treatment may be needed to reduce the burden of liver disease.

  2. Helminth antigens counteract a rapid high-fat diet-induced decrease in adipose tissue eosinophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Susan M; van Dam, Andrea D; Kusters, Pascal J H; Beckers, Linda; den Toom, Myrthe; van der Velden, Saskia; Van den Bossche, Jan; van Die, Irma; Boon, Mariëtte R; Rensen, Patrick C N; Lutgens, Esther; de Winther, Menno P J

    2017-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation and white adipose tissue (WAT) beiging can increase energy expenditure and have the potential to reduce obesity and associated diseases. The immune system is a potential target in mediating brown and beige adipocyte activation. Type 2 and anti-inflammatory immune cells contribute to metabolic homeostasis within lean WAT, with a prominent role for eosinophils and interleukin (IL)-4-induced anti-inflammatory macrophages. We determined eosinophil numbers in epididymal WAT (EpAT), subcutaneous WAT (ScAT) and BAT after 1 day, 3 days or 1 week of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in C57Bl/6 mice. One day of HFD resulted in a rapid drop in eosinophil numbers in EpAT and BAT, and after 3 days, in ScAT. In an attempt to restore this HFD-induced drop in adipose tissue eosinophils, we treated 1-week HFD-fed mice with helminth antigens from Schistosoma mansoni or Trichuris suis and evaluated whether the well-known protective metabolic effects of helminth antigens involves BAT activation or beiging. Indeed, antigens of both helminth species induced high numbers of eosinophils in EpAT, but failed to induce beiging. In ScAT, Schistosoma mansoni antigens induced mild eosinophilia, which was accompanied by slightly more beiging. No effects were observed in BAT. To study type 2 responses on brown adipocytes directly, T37i cells were stimulated with IL-4. This increased Ucp1 expression and strongly induced the production of eosinophil chemoattractant CCL11 (+26-fold), revealing that brown adipocytes themselves can attract eosinophils. Our findings indicate that helminth antigen-induced eosinophilia fails to induce profound beiging of white adipocytes. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Pressure overload stimulated cardiac hypertrophy leads to a rapid decrease in the mRNA for creatine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boheler, K.; Popovich, B.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) leads to a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) enzymatic activity. To determine if the mRNA for CK also decreases with CH, they performed the following studies. Cardiac RNA was isolated from rats subjected to either abdominal aortic stenosis (AS) or sham surgery. Through Northern blot analysis, total cardiac RNA was quantitated with a CK specific 32 P-labelled cDNA clone. At 3 and 8 days post-constriction, the mRNA for CK decreases by 54.6 +/- 7% and 65.3 +/- 18% respectively, whereas the heart weight increases by 19% and 37% relative to controls. Further studies indicate that CK mRNA also decreases by 41.8% in hypothyroid rats (Tx) but decreases by a total of 68.1% in Tx rats subjected to 8 days of AS. Pressure overload stimulated CH leads to a rapid decrease in CK mRNA in normal and Tx rats. This CK mRNA decrease may account for the decreased efficiency of contraction seen in CH

  4. Risks of rapid decline renal function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Jing; Sheen; Wayne; HH; Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Progressive rising population of diabetes and related nephropathy, namely, diabetic kidney disease and associated end stage renal disease has become a major global public health issue. Results of observational studies indicate that most diabetic kidney disease progresses over decades; however, certain diabetes patients display a rapid decline in renal function, which may lead to renal failure within months. Although the definition of rapid renal function decline remained speculative, in general,it is defined by the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate(e GFR) in absolute rate of loss or percent change. Based on the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 clinical practice guidelines, a rapid decline in renal function is defined as a sustained declinein e GFR of > 5 m L/min per 1.73 m2 per year. It has been reported that potential factors contributing to a rapid decline in renal function include ethnic/genetic and demographic causes, smoking habits, increased glycated hemoglobin levels, obesity, albuminuria, anemia, low serum magnesium levels, high serum phosphate levels, vitamin D deficiency, elevated systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity values, retinopathy, and cardiac autonomic neuropathy. This article reviews current literatures in this area and provides insight on the early detection of diabetic subjects who are at risk of a rapid decline in renal function in order to develop a more aggressive approach to renal and cardiovascular protection.

  5. Decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice.

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    Yamada, Yosuke; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro; Ito, Tomoki; Kiuchi, Takayuki; Ono, Ayako; Miyajima, Syota; Nagai, Katsura; Higashi, Tsunehito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Dosaka-Akita, Hirotoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Miwa, Soichi; Kasahara, Masanori

    2015-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a disease common in elderly people, characterized by progressive destruction of lung parenchyma and chronic inflammation of the airways. The pathogenesis of COPD remains unclear, but recent studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in alveolar cells contributes to emphysematous lung destruction. The proteasome is a multicatalytic enzyme complex that plays a critical role in proteostasis by rapidly destroying misfolded and modified proteins generated by oxidative and other stresses. Proteasome activity decreases with aging in many organs including lungs, and an age-related decline in proteasomal function has been implicated in various age-related pathologies. However, the role of the proteasome system in the pathogenesis of COPD has not been investigated. Recently, we have established a transgenic (Tg) mouse model with decreased proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity, showing age-related phenotypes. Using this model, we demonstrate here that decreased proteasomal function accelerates cigarette smoke (CS)-induced pulmonary emphysema. CS-exposed Tg mice showed remarkable airspace enlargement and increased foci of inflammation compared with wild-type controls. Importantly, apoptotic cells were found in the alveolar walls of the affected lungs. Impaired proteasomal activity also enhanced apoptosis in cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-exposed fibroblastic cells derived from mice and humans in vitro. Notably, aggresome formation and prominent nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor were observed in CSE-exposed fibroblastic cells isolated from Tg mice. Collective evidence suggests that CS exposure and impaired proteasomal activity coordinately enhance apoptotic cell death in the alveolar walls that may be involved in the development and progression of emphysema in susceptible individuals such as the elderly.

  6. Rapid preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis by microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyeok; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Ko, Ju-Young; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Gwang-Hoon; Lee, Jung-Suck; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-11-20

    This study describes a simple preparation of functional polysaccharides from Pyropia yezoensis using a microwave-assistant rapid enzyme digest system (MAREDS) with various carbohydrases, and evaluates their antioxidative effects. Polysaccharide hydrolysates were prepared using MAREDS under different hydrolytic conditions of the carbohydrases and microwave powers. Polysaccharides less than 10kDa (Low molecular weight polysaccharides, LMWP, ≤10kDa) were efficiently obtained using an ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off of 10kDa). MAREDS increases AMG activation via an increased degree of hydrolysis; the best AMG hydrolysate was prepared using a 10:1 ratio of substrate to enzyme for 2h in MAREDS with 400W. LMWP consisted of galactose (27.3%), glucose (64.5%), and mannose (8.3%) from the AMG hydrolysate had stronger antioxidant effects than the high molecular weight polysaccharides (>10kDa). We rapidly prepared functional LMWPs by using MAREDS with carbohydrases, and suggest that LMWP might be potentially a valuable algal polysaccharide antioxidant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Decreased Sudomotor Function is Involved in the Formation of Atopic Eczema in the Cubital Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that decreased sweating is a major source of water in the stratum corneum, and decreased sudomotor function may be involved in both the cause and aggravation of representative atopic eczema in the cubital fossa.

  8. Ketamine decreases resting state functional network connectivity in healthy subjects: implications for antidepressant drug action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Scheidegger

    Full Text Available Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence underscores the strong and rapid antidepressant properties of the glutamate-modulating NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. Targeting the glutamatergic system might thus provide a novel molecular strategy for antidepressant treatment. Since glutamate is the most abundant and major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, pathophysiological changes in glutamatergic signaling are likely to affect neurobehavioral plasticity, information processing and large-scale changes in functional brain connectivity underlying certain symptoms of major depressive disorder. Using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI, the "dorsal nexus "(DN was recently identified as a bilateral dorsal medial prefrontal cortex region showing dramatically increased depression-associated functional connectivity with large portions of a cognitive control network (CCN, the default mode network (DMN, and a rostral affective network (AN. Hence, Sheline and colleagues (2010 proposed that reducing increased connectivity of the DN might play a critical role in reducing depression symptomatology and thus represent a potential therapy target for affective disorders. Here, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover rsfMRI challenge in healthy subjects we demonstrate that ketamine decreases functional connectivity of the DMN to the DN and to the pregenual anterior cingulate (PACC and medioprefrontal cortex (MPFC via its representative hub, the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. These findings in healthy subjects may serve as a model to elucidate potential biomechanisms that are addressed by successful treatment of major depression. This notion is further supported by the temporal overlap of our observation of subacute functional network modulation after 24 hours with the peak of efficacy following an intravenous ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depression.

  9. Estrogen induces rapid decrease in dendritic thorns of CA3 pyramidal neurons in adult male rat hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Mukai, Hideo

    2005-01-01

    Modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity by estrogen has been attracting much attention. Thorns of thorny excrescences of CA3 hippocampal neurons are post-synaptic regions whose presynaptic partners are mossy fiber terminals. Here we demonstrated the rapid effect of estradiol on the density of thorns of thorny excrescences, by imaging Lucifer Yellow-injected CA3 neurons in adult male rat hippocampal slices. The application of 1 nM estradiol induced rapid decrease in the density of thorns on pyramidal neurons within 2 h. The estradiol-mediated decrease in the density of thorns was blocked by CNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist) and PD98059 (MAP kinase inhibitor), but not by MK-801 (NMDA receptor antagonist). ERα agonist PPT induced the same suppressive effect as that induced by estradiol on the density of thorns, but ERβ agonist DPN did not affect the density of thorns. Note that a 1 nM estradiol treatment did not affect the density of spines in the stratum radiatum and stratum oriens. A search for synaptic ERα was performed using purified RC-19 antibody. The localization of ERα (67 kDa) in the CA3 mossy fiber terminals and thorns was demonstrated using immunogold electron microscopy. These results imply that estradiol drives the signaling pathway including ERα and MAP kinase

  10. Developing rapid methods for analyzing upland riparian functions and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Regulators protecting riparian areas need to understand the integrity, health, beneficial uses, functions, and values of this resource. Up to now most methods providing information about riparian areas are based on analyzing condition or integrity. These methods, however, provide little information about functions and values. Different methods are needed that specifically address this aspect of riparian areas. In addition to information on functions and values, regulators have very specific needs that include: an analysis at the site scale, low cost, usability, and inclusion of policy interpretations. To meet these needs a rapid method has been developed that uses a multi-criteria decision matrix to categorize riparian areas in Washington State, USA. Indicators are used to identify the potential of the site to provide a function, the potential of the landscape to support the function, and the value the function provides to society. To meet legal needs fixed boundaries for assessment units are established based on geomorphology, the distance from "Ordinary High Water Mark" and different categories of land uses. Assessment units are first classified based on ecoregions, geomorphic characteristics, and land uses. This simplifies the data that need to be collected at a site, but it requires developing and calibrating a separate model for each "class." The approach to developing methods is adaptable to other locations as its basic structure is not dependent on local conditions.

  11. A rapid decrease in the rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L; Kelley, Michael S P; Knight, Matthew M

    2018-01-10

    Cometary outgassing can produce torques that change the spin state of the cometary nucleus, which in turn influences the evolution and lifetime of the comet. If these torques increase the rate of rotation to the extent that centripetal forces exceed the material strength of the nucleus, the comet can fragment. Torques that slow down the rotation can cause the spin state to become unstable, but if the torques persist the nucleus can eventually reorient itself and the rotation rate can increase again. Simulations predict that most comets go through a short phase of rapid changes in spin state, after which changes occur gradually over longer times. Here we report observations of comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák during its close approach to Earth (0.142 astronomical units, approximately 21 million kilometres, on 1 April 2017) that reveal a rapid decrease in rotation rate. Between March and May 2017, the apparent rotation period of the nucleus increased from 20 hours to more than 46 hours-a rate of change of more than an order of magnitude larger than has hitherto been measured. This phenomenon must have been caused by the gas emission from the comet aligning in such a way that it produced an anomalously strong torque that slowed the spin rate of the nucleus. The behaviour of comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresák suggests that it is in a distinct evolutionary state and that its rotation may be approaching the point of instability.

  12. A rapid decrease in the rotation rate of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Knight, Matthew M.

    2018-01-01

    Cometary outgassing can produce torques that change the spin state of the cometary nucleus, which in turn influences the evolution and lifetime of the comet. If these torques increase the rate of rotation to the extent that centripetal forces exceed the material strength of the nucleus, the comet can fragment. Torques that slow down the rotation can cause the spin state to become unstable, but if the torques persist the nucleus can eventually reorient itself and the rotation rate can increase again. Simulations predict that most comets go through a short phase of rapid changes in spin state, after which changes occur gradually over longer times. Here we report observations of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák during its close approach to Earth (0.142 astronomical units, approximately 21 million kilometres, on 1 April 2017) that reveal a rapid decrease in rotation rate. Between March and May 2017, the apparent rotation period of the nucleus increased from 20 hours to more than 46 hours—a rate of change of more than an order of magnitude larger than has hitherto been measured. This phenomenon must have been caused by the gas emission from the comet aligning in such a way that it produced an anomalously strong torque that slowed the spin rate of the nucleus. The behaviour of comet 41P/Tuttle–Giacobini–Kresák suggests that it is in a distinct evolutionary state and that its rotation may be approaching the point of instability.

  13. Rapid Evaluation of Platelet Function With T2 Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuker, Adam; Husseinzadeh, Holleh; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Marturano, Joseph E.; Massefski, Walter; Lowery, Thomas J.; Lambert, Michele P.; Abrams, Charles S.; Weisel, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical diagnosis of qualitative platelet disorders (QPDs) based on light transmission aggregometry (LTA) requires significant blood volume, time, and expertise, all of which can be barriers to utilization in some populations and settings. Our objective was to develop a more rapid assay of platelet function by measuring platelet-mediated clot contraction in small volumes (35 µL) of whole blood using T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR). Methods: We established normal ranges for platelet-mediated clot contraction using T2MR, used these ranges to study patients with known platelet dysfunction, and then evaluated agreement between T2MR and LTA with arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, epinephrine, and thrombin receptor activator peptide. Results: Blood from 21 healthy donors was studied. T2MR showed 100% agreement with LTA with each of the four agonists and their cognate inhibitors tested. T2MR successfully detected abnormalities in each of seven patients with known QPDs, with the exception of one patient with a novel mutation leading to Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome. T2MR appeared to detect platelet function at similar or lower platelet counts than LTA. Conclusions: T2MR may provide a clinically useful approach to diagnose QPDs using small volumes of whole blood, while also providing new insight into platelet biology not evident using plasma-based platelet aggregation tests. PMID:28028118

  14. Bird functional diversity decreases with time since disturbance: Does patchy prescribed fire enhance ecosystem function?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitters, Holly; Di Stefano, Julian; Christie, Fiona; Swan, Matthew; York, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Animal species diversity is often associated with time since disturbance, but the effects of disturbances such as fire on functional diversity are unknown. Functional diversity measures the range, abundance, and distribution of trait values in a community, and links changes in species composition with the consequences for ecosystem function. Improved understanding of the relationship between time since fire (TSF) and functional diversity is critical given that the frequency of both prescribed fire and wildfire is expected to increase. To address this knowledge gap, we examined responses of avian functional diversity to TSF and two direct measures of environmental heterogeneity, plant diversity, and structural heterogeneity. We surveyed birds across a 70-year chronosequence spanning four vegetation types in southeast Australia. Six bird functional traits were used to derive four functional diversity indices (richness, evenness, divergence, and dispersion) and the effects of TSF, plant diversity and structural heterogeneity on species richness and the functional diversity indices were examined using mixed models. We used a regression tree method to identify traits associated with species more common in young vegetation. Functional richness and dispersion were negatively associated with TSF in all vegetation types, suggesting that recent prescribed fire generates heterogeneous vegetation and provides greater opportunities for resource partitioning. Species richness was not significantly associated with TSF, and is probably an unreliable surrogate for functional diversity in fire-prone systems. A positive, relationship between functional evenness and structural heterogeneity was comnon to all vegetation types, suggesting that fine-scale (tens of meters) structural variation can enhance ecosystem function. Species more common in young vegetation were primarily linked by their specialist diets, indicating that ecosystem services such as seed dispersal and insect control

  15. Whole brain resting-state analysis reveals decreased functional connectivity in major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, I.M.; Beckmann, C.F.; van Tol, M.J.; Ferrarini, L.; Milles, J.; Veltman, D.J.; Aleman, A.; van Buchem, M.A.; van der Wee, N.J.; Rombouts, S.A.R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been found in major depression. However, these studies only assessed functional connectivity within a specific network or between a few regions of interest, while comorbidity and use of medication was not always

  16. Episodic Memory Retrieval Functionally Relies on Very Rapid Reactivation of Sensory Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldhauser, Gerd T; Braun, Verena; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2016-01-06

    Episodic memory retrieval is assumed to rely on the rapid reactivation of sensory information that was present during encoding, a process termed "ecphory." We investigated the functional relevance of this scarcely understood process in two experiments in human participants. We presented stimuli to the left or right of fixation at encoding, followed by an episodic memory test with centrally presented retrieval cues. This allowed us to track the reactivation of lateralized sensory memory traces during retrieval. Successful episodic retrieval led to a very early (∼100-200 ms) reactivation of lateralized alpha/beta (10-25 Hz) electroencephalographic (EEG) power decreases in the visual cortex contralateral to the visual field at encoding. Applying rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation to interfere with early retrieval processing in the visual cortex led to decreased episodic memory performance specifically for items encoded in the visual field contralateral to the site of stimulation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that episodic memory functionally relies on very rapid reactivation of sensory information. Remembering personal experiences requires a "mental time travel" to revisit sensory information perceived in the past. This process is typically described as a controlled, relatively slow process. However, by using electroencephalography to measure neural activity with a high time resolution, we show that such episodic retrieval entails a very rapid reactivation of sensory brain areas. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation to alter brain function during retrieval revealed that this early sensory reactivation is causally relevant for conscious remembering. These results give first neural evidence for a functional, preconscious component of episodic remembering. This provides new insight into the nature of human memory and may help in the understanding of psychiatric conditions that involve the automatic intrusion of unwanted memories. Copyright

  17. Rapid Recovery of Visual Function Associated with Blue Cone Ablation in Zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Gordon F.; Noel, Nicole C. L.; Cao, Sylvia Y.; DuVal, Michèle G.; Oel, A. Phillip; Allison, W. Ted

    2016-01-01

    Hurdles in the treatment of retinal degeneration include managing the functional rewiring of surviving photoreceptors and integration of any newly added cells into the remaining second-order retinal neurons. Zebrafish are the premier genetic model for such questions, and we present two new transgenic lines allowing us to contrast vision loss and recovery following conditional ablation of specific cone types: UV or blue cones. The ablation of each cone type proved to be thorough (killing 80% of cells in each intended cone class), specific, and cell-autonomous. We assessed the loss and recovery of vision in larvae via the optomotor behavioural response (OMR). This visually mediated behaviour decreased to about 5% or 20% of control levels following ablation of UV or blue cones, respectively (Pvision recovery following UV cone ablation was robust, as measured by both assays, returning to control levels within four days. In contrast, robust functional recovery following blue cone ablation was unexpectedly rapid, returning to normal levels within 24 hours after ablation. Ablation of cones led to increased proliferation in the retina, though the rapid recovery of vision following blue cone ablation was demonstrated to not be mediated by blue cone regeneration. Thus rapid visual recovery occurs following ablation of some, but not all, cone subtypes, suggesting an opportunity to contrast and dissect the sources and mechanisms of outer retinal recovery during cone photoreceptor death and regeneration. PMID:27893779

  18. Decreases in renal functional reserve and proximal tubular fluid output in conscious oophorectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Birch; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2003-01-01

    Age-dependent glomerulosclerosis with reduced GFR develops earlier among men than among women. Therefore, whether female sex hormones could prevent the age-dependent decrease in GFR was investigated. The kidney function in oophorectomized rats treated with placebo (OOX group), estrogen (OOX+E(2...... effects were prevented with administration of estrogen. Sham-operated rats demonstrated values for renal functional reserve and fractional lithium excretion that were between those observed for the OOX group and the groups treated with sex hormones....

  19. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. Methods The study group consisted of 134 elementary school students from 4th to 6th grades and 133 junior high school students from 7th to 9th grades. Participants completed a questionnaire on intrinsic academic motivation. They also performed paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests to measure abilities in motor processing, spatial construction, semantic fluency, immediate memory, short-term memory, delayed memory, spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Results In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores of none of the cognitive tests were correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in elementary school students. However, low digit span forward test score and score for comprehension of the story in the kana pick-out test were positively correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in junior high school students. Conclusions The present findings suggest that decrease in capacity for verbal memory is associated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation among junior high school students. PMID:21235802

  20. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Sanae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. Methods The study group consisted of 134 elementary school students from 4th to 6th grades and 133 junior high school students from 7th to 9th grades. Participants completed a questionnaire on intrinsic academic motivation. They also performed paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests to measure abilities in motor processing, spatial construction, semantic fluency, immediate memory, short-term memory, delayed memory, spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. Results In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores of none of the cognitive tests were correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in elementary school students. However, low digit span forward test score and score for comprehension of the story in the kana pick-out test were positively correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in junior high school students. Conclusions The present findings suggest that decrease in capacity for verbal memory is associated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation among junior high school students.

  1. Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Fukuda, Sanae; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2011-01-14

    Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. The study group consisted of 134 elementary school students from 4th to 6th grades and 133 junior high school students from 7th to 9th grades. Participants completed a questionnaire on intrinsic academic motivation. They also performed paper-and-pencil and computerized cognitive tests to measure abilities in motor processing, spatial construction, semantic fluency, immediate memory, short-term memory, delayed memory, spatial working memory, and selective, alternative, and divided attention. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted for grade and gender, scores of none of the cognitive tests were correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in elementary school students. However, low digit span forward test score and score for comprehension of the story in the kana pick-out test were positively correlated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in junior high school students. The present findings suggest that decrease in capacity for verbal memory is associated with the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation among junior high school students.

  2. Functional Capillary Density Decreases after the First Week of Life in Term Neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Top, A. P. C.; van Dijk, M.; van Velzen, J. E.; Ince, C.; Tibboel, D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Changes in the microcirculation have been recognized to play a crucial role in many disease processes. In premature neonates, functional capillary density (FCD) decreases during the first months of life. Objectives: The aims of this study were to obtain microcirculatory parameters in

  3. Functional capillary density decreases after the first week of life in term neonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.C. Top (Anke); M. van Dijk (Monique); J.E. van Velzen; C. Ince (Can); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Changes in the microcirculation have been recognized to play a crucial role in many disease processes. In premature neonates, functional capillary density (FCD) decreases during the first months of life. Objectives: The aims of this study were to obtain microcirculatory

  4. Kyphoplasty increases vertebral height, decreases both pain score and opiate requirements while improving functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  5. Adaptive Importance Sampling with a Rapidly Varying Importance Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    It is known well that zero-variance Monte Carlo solutions are possible if an exact importance function is available to bias the random walks. Monte Carlo can be used to estimate the importance function. This estimated importance function then can be used to bias a subsequent Monte Carlo calculation that estimates an even better importance function; this iterative process is called adaptive importance sampling.To obtain the importance function, one can expand the importance function in a basis such as the Legendre polynomials and make Monte Carlo estimates of the expansion coefficients. For simple problems, Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15 are able to represent the importance function well enough to reduce the error geometrically by ten orders of magnitude or more. The more complicated problems are addressed in which the importance function cannot be represented well by Legendre expansions of order 10 to 15. In particular, a problem with a cross-section notch and a problem with a discontinuous cross section are considered

  6. Whole brain resting-state analysis reveals decreased functional connectivity in major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya M. Veer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been found in major depression. However, these studies only assessed functional connectivity within a specific network or between a few regions of interest, while comorbidity and use of medication was not always controlled for. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity, unbiased by a priori definition of regions or networks of interest, in medication-free depressive patients without comorbidity. We analyzed resting-state fMRI data of 19 medication-free patients with a recent diagnosis of major depression (within six months before inclusion and no comorbidity, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls. Independent component analysis was employed on the concatenated data sets of all participants. Thirteen functionally relevant networks were identified, describing the entire study sample. Next, individual representations of the networks were created using a dual regression method. Statistical inference was subsequently done on these spatial maps using voxelwise permutation tests. Abnormal functional connectivity was found within three resting-state networks in depression: 1 decreased bilateral amygdala and left anterior insula connectivity in an affective network, 2 reduced connectivity of the left frontal pole in a network associated with attention and working memory, and 3 decreased bilateral lingual gyrus connectivity within ventromedial visual regions. None of these effects were associated with symptom severity or grey matter density. We found abnormal resting-state functional connectivity not previously associated with major depression, which might relate to abnormal affect regulation and mild cognitive deficits, both associated with the symptomatology of the disorder.

  7. Decreased lung function after preschool wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in children at risk to develop asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Singh, Anne Marie; Danov, Zoran; Evans, Michael D; Jackson, Daniel J; Burton, Ryan; Roberg, Kathy A; Anderson, Elizabeth L; Pappas, Tressa E; Gangnon, Ronald; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2011-09-01

    Preschool rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses predict an increased risk of childhood asthma; however, it is not clear how specific viral illnesses in early life relate to lung function later on in childhood. To determine the relationship of virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function in a longitudinal cohort of children at risk for asthma. Two hundred thirty-eight children were followed prospectively from birth to 8 years of age. Early life viral wheezing respiratory illnesses were assessed by using standard techniques, and lung function was assessed annually by using spirometry and impulse oscillometry. The relationships of these virus-specific wheezing illnesses and lung function were assessed by using mixed-effect linear regression. Children with RV wheezing illness demonstrated significantly decreased spirometry values, FEV(1) (P = .001), FEV(0.5) (P Children who wheezed with respiratory syncytial virus or other viral illnesses did not have any significant differences in spirometric or impulse oscillometry indices when compared with children who did not. Children diagnosed with asthma at ages 6 or 8 years had significantly decreased FEF(25-75) (P = .05) compared with children without asthma. Among outpatient viral wheezing illnesses in early childhood, those caused by RV infections are the most significant predictors of decreased lung function up to age 8 years in a high-risk birth cohort. Whether low lung function is a cause and/or effect of RV wheezing illnesses is yet to be determined. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Rapid resensitization of purinergic receptor function in human platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, S J; Barton, J F; Mayo-Martin, M B; Hardy, A R; Poole, A W

    2008-08-01

    Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a critical regulator of platelet activation, mediating its actions through two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors. Recently, we demonstrated that both receptors desensitize and internalize in human platelets by differential kinase-dependent mechanisms. To demonstrate whether responses to P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptors resensitize in human platelets and determine the role of receptor traffic in this process. These studies were undertaken either in human platelets or in cells stably expressing epitope-tagged P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) purinergic receptor constructs. In this study we show for the first time that responses to both of these receptors can rapidly resensitize following agonist-dependent desensitization in human platelets. Further, we show that in human platelets or in 1321N1 cells stably expressing receptor constructs, the disruption of receptor internalization, dephosphorylation or subsequent receptor recycling is sufficient to block resensitization of purinergic receptor responses. We also show that, in platelets, internalization of both these receptors is dependent upon dynamin, and that this process is required for resensitization of responses. This study is therefore the first to show that both P2Y(1) and P2Y(12) receptor activities are rapidly and reversibly modulated in human platelets, and it reveals that the underlying mechanism requires receptor trafficking as an essential part of this process.

  9. Rapid mapping of protein functional epitopes by combinatorial alanine scanning

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, GA; Watanabe, CK; Zhong, A; Goddard, A; Sidhu, SS

    2000-01-01

    A combinatorial alanine-scanning strategy was used to determine simultaneously the functional contributions of 19 side chains buried at the interface between human growth hormone and the extracellular domain of its receptor. A phage-displayed protein library was constructed in which the 19 side chains were preferentially allowed to vary only as the wild type or alanine. The library pool was subjected to binding selections to isolate functional clones, and DNA sequencing was used to determine ...

  10. Mast cell stabilization decreases cardiomyocyte and LV function in dogs with isolated mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Betty; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Chen, Yuanwen; Gladden, James D; Walcott, Greg; Powell, Pamela C; Denney, Thomas; Gupta, Himanshu; Desai, Ravi; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Dell'italia, Louis J

    2010-09-01

    Mast cells are increased in isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) in the dog and may mediate extracellular matrix loss and left ventricular (LV) dilatation. We tested the hypothesis that mast cell stabilization would attenuate LV remodeling and improve function in the MR dog. MR was induced in adult dogs randomized to no treatment (MR, n = 5) or to the mast cell stabilizer, ketotifen (MR + MCS, n = 4) for 4 months. LV hemodynamics were obtained at baseline and after 4 months of MR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at sacrifice. MRI-derived, serial, short-axis LV end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) volumes, LVED volume/mass ratio, and LV 3-dimensional radius/wall thickness were increased in MR and MR + MCS dogs compared with normal dogs (n = 6) (P < .05). Interstitial collagen was decreased by 30% in both MR and MR + MCS versus normal dogs (P < .05). LV contractility by LV maximum time-varying elastance was significantly depressed in MR and MR + MCS dogs. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs and further depressed in MR + MCS dogs (P < .05). In vitro administration of ketotifen to normal cardiomyocytes also significantly decreased fractional shortening and calcium transients. Chronic mast cell stabilization did not attenuate eccentric LV remodeling or collagen loss in MR. However, MCS therapy had a detrimental effect on LV function because of a direct negative inotropic effect on cardiomyocyte function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Decreased IGF-1 concentration during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with normal somatotroph function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persechini, Marie-Laure; Gennero, Isabelle; Grunenwald, Solange; Vezzosi, Delphine; Bennet, Antoine; Caron, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    A decrease of insulin-like growth factor-I levels (IGF-I) has been reported during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with acromegaly before the secretion of placental growth hormone (GH) progressively increases IGF-1 concentration. To evaluate variations of concentrations of IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP3) and GH during the first trimester of pregnancy in women with normal somatotroph function. Sixteen women (median age 31 years) with as who were followed for benign thyroid disorders (n = 15) or prolactin-secreting microadenoma (n = 1) were evaluated before and in the first trimester of pregnancy. Serum concentrations of GH, IGF-1, IGF-BP3, TSH and estradiol (E2) were measured before and in the first trimester (5.4 ± 2.2 weeks of gestation). Before pregnancy, somatotroph and thyroid functions (median TSH 1.2 mU/L) were normal in all women. At the first trimester IGF-1 levels decreased significantly (before = 210 ng/mL, first trimester = 145 ng/mL, p function, IGF-1 levels decrease in the first trimester of pregnancy without changes in GH or IGF-BP3 levels. These results confirm liver resistance to GH as a consequence of the physiological increase of estrogens during the first trimester.

  12. Decreased prefrontal functional brain response during memory testing in women with Cushing's syndrome in remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnarsson, Oskar; Stomby, Andreas; Dahlqvist, Per; Evang, Johan A; Ryberg, Mats; Olsson, Tommy; Bollerslev, Jens; Nyberg, Lars; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2017-08-01

    Neurocognitive dysfunction is an important feature of Cushing's syndrome (CS). Our hypothesis was that patients with CS in remission have decreased functional brain responses in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during memory testing. In this cross-sectional study we included 19 women previously treated for CS and 19 controls matched for age, gender, and education. The median remission time was 7 (IQR 6-10) years. Brain activity was studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging during episodic- and working-memory tasks. The primary regions of interest were the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. A voxel-wise comparison of functional brain responses in patients and controls was performed. During episodic-memory encoding, patients displayed lower functional brain responses in the left and right prefrontal gyrus (pright inferior occipital gyrus (pbrain responses in the left posterior hippocampus in patients (p=0.05). During episodic-memory retrieval, the patients displayed lower functional brain responses in several brain areas with the most predominant difference in the right prefrontal cortex (pbrain response during a more complex working memory task compared with a simpler one. In conclusion, women with CS in long-term remission have reduced functional brain responses during episodic and working memory testing. This observation extends previous findings showing long-term adverse effects of severe hypercortisolaemia on brain function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Decreased serum level of NGF in alcohol-dependent patients with declined executive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae H

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hwallip Bae,1 Youngsun Ra,1 Changwoo Han,2 Dai-Jin Kim3 1Department of Psychiatry, Myongji Hospital, Goyang, 2Department of Psychiatry, Keyo Hospital, Uiwang, 3Department of Psychiatry, Seoul St Mary’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: The role of neurotrophic factors has been highlighted as a cause of decline in the cognitive function of alcohol-dependent patients. It is known that nerve-growth factor (NGF, one of the neurotrophins, is related to the growth and differentiation of nerve cells, as well as to a decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between decreased NGF levels and cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. The serum concentration of NGF was measured in 38 patients with chronic alcohol dependence, and several neuropsychological tests were also performed for cognitive function assessment. The results indicated a significant correlation between serum NGF level and the trail-making test part B, which evaluates executive function, but did not show a significant correlation with other cognitive function tests. An increased serum level of NGF was associated with a decreased completion time in the trail-making test B, and this finding indicates that a high serum level of NGF is related to greater executive function. This finding may imply a protective role of NGF in preventing neuron damage among patients with alcohol dependence. Larger controlled studies will be necessary in the future to investigate this issue further. Keywords: nerve-growth factor, alcohol dependence, executive function, trail-making test

  14. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Audra L.; Card, Daren C.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Schield, Drew R.; Adams, Richard H.; Pollock, David D.; Secor, Stephen M.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and ...

  15. Subacute stress and chronic stress interact to decrease intestinal barrier function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffer, Adriana; Vanuytsel, Tim; Vanormelingen, Christophe; Vanheel, Hanne; Salim Rasoel, Shadea; Tóth, Joran; Tack, Jan; Fornari, Fernando; Farré, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress increases intestinal permeability, potentially leading to low-grade inflammation and symptoms in functional gastrointestinal disorders. We assessed the effect of subacute, chronic and combined stress on intestinal barrier function and mast cell density. Male Wistar rats were allocated to four experimental groups (n = 8/group): 1/sham; 2/subacute stress (isolation and limited movement for 24 h); 3/chronic crowding stress for 14 days and 4/combined subacute and chronic stress. Jejunum and colon were collected to measure: transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER; a measure of epithelial barrier function); gene expression of tight junction molecules; mast cell density. Plasma corticosterone concentration was increased in all three stress conditions versus sham, with highest concentrations in the combined stress condition. TEER in the jejunum was decreased in all stress conditions, but was significantly lower in the combined stress condition than in the other groups. TEER in the jejunum correlated negatively with corticosterone concentration. Increased expression of claudin 1, 5 and 8, occludin and zonula occludens 1 mRNAs was detected after subacute stress in the jejunum. In contrast, colonic TEER was decreased only after combined stress, and the expression of tight junction molecules was unaltered. Increased mast cell density was observed in the chronic and combined stress condition in the colon only. In conclusion, our data show that chronic stress sensitizes the gastrointestinal tract to the effects of subacute stress on intestinal barrier function; different underlying cellular and molecular alterations are indicated in the small intestine versus the colon.

  16. Decreased resting functional connectivity after traumatic brain injury in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asht Mangal Mishra

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI contributes to about 10% of acquired epilepsy. Even though the mechanisms of post-traumatic epileptogenesis are poorly known, a disruption of neuronal networks predisposing to altered neuronal synchrony remains a viable candidate mechanism. We tested a hypothesis that resting state BOLD-fMRI functional connectivity can reveal network abnormalities in brain regions that are connected to the lesioned cortex, and that these changes associate with functional impairment, particularly epileptogenesis. TBI was induced using lateral fluid-percussion injury in seven adult male Sprague-Dawley rats followed by functional imaging at 9.4T 4 months later. As controls we used six sham-operated animals that underwent all surgical operations but were not injured. Electroencephalogram (EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed to measure resting functional connectivity. A week after functional imaging, rats were implanted with bipolar skull electrodes. After recovery, rats underwent pentyleneterazol (PTZ seizure-susceptibility test under EEG. For image analysis, four pairs of regions of interests were analyzed in each hemisphere: ipsilateral and contralateral frontal and parietal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. High-pass and low-pass filters were applied to functional imaging data. Group statistics comparing injured and sham-operated rats and correlations over time between each region were calculated. In the end, rats were perfused for histology. None of the rats had epileptiform discharges during functional imaging. PTZ-test, however revealed increased seizure susceptibility in injured rats as compared to controls. Group statistics revealed decreased connectivity between the ipsilateral and contralateral parietal cortex and between the parietal cortex and hippocampus on the side of injury as compared to sham-operated animals. Injured animals also had abnormal negative connectivity between the ipsilateral and

  17. Association of apneic oxygenation with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by a Chinese emergency medicine service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yong; Qin, Zong-He

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and safe airway management has always been of paramount importance in successful management of critically ill and injured patients in the emergency department. The achievement rate of emergency medicine inhabitants in airway management improved enhanced essentially subsequent to finishing anaesthesiology turn. There was a slightly higher rate of quick sequence intubation in the postapneic oxygenation groups (preapneic oxygenation 6.4%; postapneic oxygenation 9.1%). The majority of patients intubated in both groups were men (preapneic oxygenation 72.3%; postapneic oxygenation 63.5%). A higher percentage of patients in the preapneic oxygenation group had a Cormack-Lehane grade III or worse view (23.2% versus 11.8%). Anaesthesiology turns should be considered as an essential component of emergency medicine training programs. A collateral curriculum of this nature should also focus on the acquisition of skills in airway management.

  18. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina-Guzman, Belem; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, Francesco; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J .; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-05-03

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm. Oxidative damage has been involved in the genotoxic and reproductive effects of OP. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Me-Pa on spermatozoa function and ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. DNA damage was evaluated by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (percentDFI); lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production; sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR); mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 flurochrome; and, fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Results showed alterations in DNA integrity (percentDFI and NT-positive cells) at 7 and 28 dpt, in addition to decreased sperm quality and a decrease in induced-AR; reduced MMP and LPO was observed only at 7 dpt. We found negative correlations between LPO and all sperm alterations. Altered sperm functional parameters were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times, evaluated either in vitro or in vivo. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism ofthe detrimental effects of Me-Pa in male germ cells.

  19. PANNZER2: a rapid functional annotation web server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törönen, Petri; Medlar, Alan; Holm, Liisa

    2018-05-08

    The unprecedented growth of high-throughput sequencing has led to an ever-widening annotation gap in protein databases. While computational prediction methods are available to make up the shortfall, a majority of public web servers are hindered by practical limitations and poor performance. Here, we introduce PANNZER2 (Protein ANNotation with Z-scoRE), a fast functional annotation web server that provides both Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and free text description predictions. PANNZER2 uses SANSparallel to perform high-performance homology searches, making bulk annotation based on sequence similarity practical. PANNZER2 can output GO annotations from multiple scoring functions, enabling users to see which predictions are robust across predictors. Finally, PANNZER2 predictions scored within the top 10 methods for molecular function and biological process in the CAFA2 NK-full benchmark. The PANNZER2 web server is updated on a monthly schedule and is accessible at http://ekhidna2.biocenter.helsinki.fi/sanspanz/. The source code is available under the GNU Public Licence v3.

  20. Rapid decrease in brain enkephalin content after low-dose whole-body X-irradiation of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyachi, Yukihisa (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.); Ogawa, Norio; Mori, Akitane

    1992-03-01

    Methionine-eckephalin (ME) contents in the hypothalamus and other rat brain structures were measured immediately after 10 or 20 cGy whole-body X-irradiation. The ME contents of homogenates of the striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain + thalamus, hindbrain and pituitary were assayed radioimmunologically with {sup 125}I. The contents of all the structure, except the pituitary, decreased significantly after 20 cGy irradiation. The reduction in the hypothalamus was transient, ME content gradually recovering with time. These results suggest that the central nervous system of mammals is one of the most radiosensitive organs as judged by changes in stress-induced mediators such as ME. (author).

  1. Aerobic Swim Training Restores Aortic Endothelial Function by Decreasing Superoxide Levels in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila P. Jordão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether aerobic training decreases superoxide levels, increases nitric oxide levels, and improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation in the aortas of spontaneously hypertensive rats. METHODS: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY were distributed into 2 groups: sedentary (SHRsd and WKYsd, n=10 each and swimming-trained (SHRtr, n=10 and WKYtr, n=10, respectively. The trained group participated in training sessions 5 days/week for 1 h/day with an additional work load of 4% of the animal’s body weight. After a 10-week sedentary or aerobic training period, the rats were euthanized. The thoracic aortas were removed to evaluate the vasodilator response to acetylcholine (10-10 to 10-4 M with or without preincubation with L-NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; 10-4 M in vitro. The aortic tissue was also used to assess the levels of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoforms 1 and 4 proteins, as well as the superoxide and nitrite contents. Blood pressure was measured using a computerized tail-cuff system. RESULTS: Aerobic training significantly increased the acetylcholine-induced maximum vasodilation observed in the SHRtr group compared with the SHRsd group (85.9±4.3 vs. 71.6±5.2%. Additionally, in the SHRtr group, superoxide levels were significantly decreased, nitric oxide bioavailability was improved, and the levels of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 protein were decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Moreover, after training, the blood pressure of the SHRtr group decreased compared to the SHRsd group. Exercise training had no effect on the blood pressure of the WKYtr group. CONCLUSIONS: In SHR, aerobic swim training decreased vascular superoxide generation by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidase subunit isoform 4 and increased nitric oxide bioavailability, thereby improving

  2. Decreased functional connectivity in schizophrenia: The relationship between social functioning, social cognition and graph theoretical network measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdeniz, Burak; Serin, Emin; İbadi, Yelda; Taş, Cumhur

    2017-12-30

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder in which abnormalities in brain connectivity and social functioning play a central role. The aim of this study is to explore small-world network properties, and understand their relationship with social functioning and social cognition in the context of schizophrenia, by testing functional connectivity differences in network properties and its relation to clinical behavioral measures. Resting-state fMRI time series data were acquired from 23 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 23 healthy volunteers. The results revealed that patients with schizophrenia show significantly decreased connectivity between a range of brain regions, particularly involving connections among the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral putamen and left amygdala. Furthermore, topological properties of functional brain networks in patients with schizophrenia were characterized by reduced path length compared to healthy controls; however, no significant difference was found for clustering coefficient, local efficiency or global efficiency. Additionally, we found that nodal efficiency of the amygdala and the putamen were significantly correlated with the independence-performance subscale of social functioning scale (SFC), and Reading the Mind in the Eyes test; however, the correlations do not survive correction for multiple comparison. The current results help to clarify the relationship between social functioning deficits and topological brain measures in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Methyl-parathion decreases sperm function and fertilization capacity after targeting spermatocytes and maturing spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina-Guzman, B.; Sanchez-Gutierrez, M.; Marchetti, F.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2009-01-01

    Paternal germline exposure to organophosphorous pesticides (OP) has been associated with reproductive failures and adverse effects in the offspring. Methyl-parathion (Me-Pa), a worldwide-used OP, has reproductive adverse effects and is genotoxic to sperm, possibly via oxidative damage. This study investigated the stages of spermatogenesis susceptible to be targeted by Me-Pa exposure that impact on spermatozoa function and their ability to fertilize. Male mice were exposed to Me-Pa (20 mg/kg bw, i.p.) and spermatozoa from epididymis-vas deferens were collected at 7 or 28 days post-treatment (dpt) to assess the effects on maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes, respectively. Spermatozoa were examined for DNA damage by nick translation (NT-positive cells) and SCSA (%DFI), lipoperoxidation (LPO) by malondialdehyde production, sperm function by spontaneous- and induced-acrosome reactions (AR), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by using the JC-1 fluorochrome, and fertilization ability by an in vitro assay and in vivo mating. Alterations on DNA integrity (%DFI and NT-positive cells) in spermatozoa collected at 7 and 28 dpt, and decreases in sperm quality and induced-AR were observed; reduced MMP and LPO were observed at 7 dpt only. Negative correlations between LPO and sperm alterations were found. Altered sperm functional parameters evaluated either in vitro or in vivo were associated with reduced fertilization rates at both times. These results show that Me-Pa exposure of maturing spermatozoa and spermatocytes affects many sperm functional parameters that result in a decreased fertilizing capacity. Oxidative stress seems to be a likely mechanism of the detrimental effects of Me-Pa exposure in male germ cells.

  4. Normal Parathyroid Function with Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Treated Celiac Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lemieux

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Decreased bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in patients with celiac disease in association with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The present study investigated whether basal parathyroid hormone (PTH remained elevated and whether abnormalities of parathyroid function were still present in celiac disease patients treated with a gluten-free diet. Basal seric measurements of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and BMD were obtained in 17 biopsy-proven patients under treatment for a mean period of 5.7±3.7 years (range 1.1 to 15.9. In addition, parathyroid function was studied with calcium chloride and sodium citrate infusions in seven patients. Basal measurements of patients were compared with those of 26 normal individuals, while parathyroid function results were compared with those of seven sex- and age-matched controls. Basal results were similar in patients and controls except for intact PTH (I-PTH (3.77±0.88 pmol/L versus 2.28±0.63 pmol/L, P<0.001, which was higher in the former group but still within normal limits. Mean 25-hydroxy vitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D values were normal in patients. Parathyroid function results were also found to be similar in both groups. Compared with a reference population of the same age (Z score, patients had significantly lower BMDs of the hip (-0.60±0.96 SDs, P<0.05 and lumbar spine (-0.76±1.15 SDs, P<0.05. T scores were also decreased for the hip (-1.3±0.9 SDs, P<0.0001 and lumbar spine (-1.4±1.35 SDs, P<0.0001, with two to three patients being osteoporotic (T score less than -2.5 SDs and seven to eight osteopenic (T score less than -1 SDs but greater than or equal to -2.5 SDs in at least one site. Height and weight were the only important determinants of BMD values by multivariate or logistical regression analysis in these patients. The results show higher basal I-PTH values with normal parathyroid function in treated celiac disease. Height and weight values are, but I-PTH values are not

  5. Estrogen inhibits lysyl oxidase and decreases mechanical function in engineered ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cassandra A; Lee-Barthel, Ann; Marquino, Louise; Sandoval, Natalie; Marcotte, George R; Baar, Keith

    2015-05-15

    Women are more likely to suffer an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture than men, and the incidence of ACL rupture in women rises with increasing estrogen levels. We used an engineered ligament model to determine how an acute rise in estrogen decreases the mechanical properties of ligaments. Using fibroblasts isolated from human ACLs from male or female donors, we engineered ligaments and determined that ligaments made from female ACL cells had more collagen and were equal in strength to those made from male ACL cells. We then treated engineered ligaments for 14 days with low (5 pg/ml), medium (50 pg/ml), or high (500 pg/ml) estrogen, corresponding to the range of in vivo serum estrogen concentrations and found that collagen within the grafts increased without a commensurate increase in mechanical strength. Mimicking the menstrual cycle, with 12 days of low estrogen followed by 2 days of physiologically high estrogen, resulted in a decrease in engineered ligament mechanical function with no change in the amount of collagen in the graft. The decrease in mechanical stiffness corresponded with a 61.7 and 76.9% decrease in the activity of collagen cross-linker lysyl oxidase with 24 and 48 h of high estrogen, respectively. Similarly, grafts treated with the lysyl oxidase inhibitor β-aminoproprionitrile (BAPN) for 24 h showed a significant decrease in ligament mechanical strength [control (CON) = 1.58 ± 0.06 N; BAPN = 1.06 ± 0.13 N] and stiffness (CON = 7.7 ± 0.46 MPa; BAPN = 6.1 ± 0.71 MPa) without changing overall collagen levels (CON = 396 ± 11.5 μg; BAPN = 382 ± 11.6 μg). Together, these data suggest that the rise in estrogen during the follicular phase decreases lysyl oxidase activity in our engineered ligament model and if this occurs in vivo may decrease the stiffness of ligaments and contribute to the elevated rate of ACL rupture in women. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamara, David A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Ross, Michael

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90ml/min/1.73m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data...

  7. Ticagrelor Improves Endothelial Function by Decreasing Circulating Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vieceli Dalla Sega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ticagrelor is one of the most powerful P2Y12 inhibitor. We have recently reported that, in patients with concomitant Stable Coronary Artery Disease (SCAD and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, treatment with ticagrelor, as compared to clopidogrel, is associated with an improvement of the endothelial function (Clinical Trial NCT02519608. In the present study, we showed that, in the same population, after 1 month treatment with ticagrelor, but not with clopidogrel, there is a decrease of the circulating levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF and that these changes in circulating levels of EGF correlate with on-treatment platelet reactivity. Furthermore, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC incubated with sera of the patients treated with ticagrelor, but not with clopidogrel there is an increase of p-eNOS levels. Finally, analyzing the changes in EGF and p-eNOS levels after treatment, we observed an inverse correlation between p-eNOS and EGF changes only in the ticagrelor group. Causality between EGF and eNOS activation was assessed in vitro in HUVEC where we showed that EGF decreases eNOS activity in a dose dependent manner. Taken together our data indicate that ticagrelor improves endothelial function by lowering circulating EGF that results in the activation of eNOS in the vascular endothelium.

  8. Exercise in claudicants increase or decrease walking ability and the response relates to mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2017-06-07

    Exercise of patients with intermittent claudication improves walking performance. Exercise does not usually increase blood flow, but seems to increase muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities. Although exercise is beneficial in most patients, it might be harmful in some. The mitochondrial response to exercise might therefore differ between patients. Our hypothesis was that changes in walking performance relate to changes in mitochondrial function after 8 weeks of exercise. At a subgroup level, negative responders decrease and positive responders increase mitochondrial capacity. Two types of exercise were studied, calf raising and walking (n = 28). We wanted to see whether there were negative and positive responders, independent of type of exercise. Measurements of walking performance, peripheral hemodynamics, mitochondrial respiration and content (citrate synthase activity) were obtained on each patient before and after the intervention period. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether changes in peak walking time relate to mitochondrial function. Subgroups of negative (n = 8) and positive responders (n = 8) were defined as those that either decreased or increased peak walking time following exercise. Paired t test and analysis of covariance was used to test changes within and between subgroups. Changes in peak walking time were related to changes in mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.004), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.003), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.037) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (p = 0.046) in the whole group. Negative responders had more advanced peripheral arterial disease. Mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.0013), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.0005), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.011) and electron transfer system capacity (CI + CII + ETF) E (p

  9. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Elevated urine heparanase levels are associated with proteinuria and decreased renal allograft function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itay Shafat

    Full Text Available Heparanase is an endo-β-glucuronidase that cleaves heparan sulfate side chains, leading to structural modifications that loosen the extracellular matrix barrier and associated with tumor metastasis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In addition, the highly sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important constituents of the glomerular basement membrane and its permselective properties. Recent studies suggest a role for heparanase in several experimental and human glomerular diseases associated with proteinuria such as diabetes, minimal change disease, and membranous nephropathy. Here, we quantified blood and urine heparanase levels in renal transplant recipients and patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and assessed whether alterations in heparanase levels correlate with proteinuria and renal function. We report that in transplanted patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated, inversely associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, suggesting a relationship between heparanase and graft function. In CKD patients, urinary heparanase was markedly elevated and associated with proteinuria, but not with eGFR. In addition, urinary heparanase correlated significantly with plasma heparanase in transplanted patients. Such a systemic spread of heparanase may lead to damage of cells and tissues alongside the kidney.The newly described association between heparanase, proteinuria and decreased renal function is expected to pave the way for new therapeutic options aimed at attenuating chronic renal allograft nephropathy, leading to improved graft survival and patient outcome.

  11. Bubble nasal CPAP, early surfactant treatment, and rapid extubation are associated with decreased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in very-low-birth-weight newborns: efficacy and safety considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Charles A; Menchaca, Robert C; Baker, Mary C; Rivas, Clarissa K; Laberge, Raymond N; Rios, Enrique H; Haider, Syed H; Romero, Edgar J; Eason, Elizabeth B; Fraley, J Kennard; Woldesenbet, Mesfin

    2013-07-01

    Current literature has been inconsistent in demonstrating that minimizing the duration of mechanical ventilation in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) newborns reduces lung damage. To determine if introduction of bubble nasal CPAP (bnCPAP), early surfactant treatment, and rapid extubation (combined bnCPAP strategy) in our community-based neonatal ICU reduced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a 7-year retrospective,single-institution review of respiratory outcomes in 633 VLBW babies before and after introduction of the combined bnCPAP strategy. Coincident changes in newborn care were taken into account with a logistic regression model. The average percentage of VLBW newborns with BPD decreased to 25.8% from 35.4% (P = .02), reaching a minimum in the last post-bnCPAP year of22.1% (P = .02). When other coincident changes in newborn care during the study years were taken into account, VLBW babies in the post-bnCPAP years had a 43% lower chance of developing BPD(P = .003, odds ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.25– 0.75). Decreases occurred in mechanical ventilation and the percentage of infants discharged on diuretics and on supplemental oxygen. Among the subset of extremely-low-birth-weight newborns, improved respiratory outcomes in the post-bnCPAP years,as compared to outcomes in the pre-bnCPAP years, included an increase in the percentage alive and off mechanical ventilation at 1 week postnatal age (P < .001), a more rapid extubation rate(P < .03), a decrease in the median days on mechanical ventilation (P = .002), and a decrease in the percentage with BPD plus died (P = .01). Post-bnCPAP extremely-low-birth-weight babies had a statistically significant decrease in retinopathy of prematurity, an increase in low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage, and a decrease in ductal ligations. A combined BnCPAP strategy may contribute to a reduction of BPD, after adjusting for concurrent treatments.

  12. Visceral adiposity is associated with cytokines and decrease in lung function in women with persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Capelo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is associated with a risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and decreased lung function. However, it is not known whether asthma control is influenced by the accumulation of adipose tissue in the various abdominal compartments. Objective: To determine associations among abdominal adiposity distribution, asthma control, lung function and cytokines in women. Methods and design: In this cross-sectional study of asthmatic women, data on demographic variables, comorbid conditions, disease history, anthropometric and spirometric measurements were collected. Subcutaneous (SAT and visceral (VAT adipose tissues were measured by ultrasound, and the steatosis level was obtained. Asthma control was assessed according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA criteria. Atopy was defined on the basis of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E and/or skin prick testing. Cytokine levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays (ELISAs. Results: Eighty-three asthmatic women were included, 37% of whom had uncontrolled asthma. After controlling for variables, a negative association between asthma control and VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio was observed. VAT was negatively associated with respiratory parameters after controlling for explanatory variables. In an adjusted model, body mass index (BMI and SAT were inversely associated with the adiponectin serum level and VAT was associated with the interleukin 6 level. In conclusion, visceral obesity was negatively associated with asthma control and lung function; and positively associated with increased levels of interleukin 6 in women. We hypothesize that women should be studied as a separate group, and we suggest further studies with a control group to know if the uncontrolled asthmatic group is directly affected by visceral adipose inflammatory markers. Keywords: Asthma, Woman, Abdominal obesity, Lung function, Cytokines, Asthma control

  13. Oral nutritional support in malnourished elderly decreases functional limitations with no extra costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelemaat, Floor; Bosmans, Judith E; Thijs, Abel; Seidell, Jaap C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    2012-04-01

    Older people are vulnerable to malnutrition which leads to increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of nutritional supplementation from a societal perspective. This randomized controlled trial included hospital admitted malnourished elderly (≥ 60 y) patients. Patients in the intervention group received nutritional supplementation (energy and protein enriched diet, oral nutritional support, calcium-vitamin D supplement, telephone counselling by a dietician) until three months after discharge from hospital. Patients in the control group received usual care (control). Primary outcomes were Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs), physical activities and functional limitations. Measurements were performed at hospital admission and three months after discharge. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle and multiple imputation was used to impute missing data. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated and bootstrapping was applied to evaluate cost-effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness was expressed by cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. 210 patients were included, 105 in each group. After three months, no statistically significant differences in quality of life and physical activities were observed between groups. Functional limitations decreased significantly more in the intervention group (mean difference -0.72, 95% CI-1.15; -0.28). There were no differences in costs between groups. Cost-effectiveness for QALYs and physical activities could not be demonstrated. For functional limitations we found a 0.95 probability that the intervention is cost-effective in comparison with usual care for ceiling ratios > €6500. A multi-component nutritional intervention to malnourished elderly patients for three months after hospital discharge leads to significant improvement in functional limitations and is neutral in costs. A follow-up of three months is probably too

  14. Implication from thyroid function decreasing during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: chemosensitization role of triiodothyronine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have been shown to regulate breast cancer cells growth, the absence or reduction of thyroid hormones in cells could provoke a proliferation arrest in G0-G1 or weak mitochondrial activity, which makes cells insensitive to therapies for cancers through transforming into low metabolism status. This biological phenomenon may help explain why treatment efficacy and prognosis vary among breast cancer patients having hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and normal function. Nevertheless, the abnormal thyroid function in breast cancer patients has been considered being mainly caused by thyroid diseases, few studied influence of chemotherapy on thyroid function and whether its alteration during chemotherapy can influence the respose to chemotherapy is still unclear. So, we aimed to find the alterations of thyroid function and non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) prevalence druing chemotherapy in breast cancer patients, and investigate the influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy. Methods Thyroid hormones and NTIS prevalence at initial diagnosis and during chemotherapy were analyzed in 685 breast diseases patients (369 breast cancer, 316 breast benign lesions). The influence of thyroid hormones on chemotherapeutic efficacy was evaluated by chemosensitization test, to compare chemotherapeutic efficacy between breast cancer cells with chemotherapeutics plus triiodothyronine (T3) and chemotherapeutics only. Results In breast cancer, NTIS prevalence at the initial diagnosis was higher and increased during chemotherapy, but declined before the next chemotherapeutic course. Thyroid hormones decreased signigicantly during chemotherapy. T3 can enhance the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 to 5-Fu and taxol, with progression from G0-G1 phase to S phase. The similar chemosensitization role of T3 were found in MDA-MB-231. We compared chemotherapeutic efficacy among groups with different usage modes of T3, finding pretreatment with lower dose of T3, using

  15. Longitudinal Lung Function Decrease in Subjects with Spontaneous Healed Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Heon; Kwon, Amy M; Yang, Hae-Chung; Lee, Seung Ku; Kim, Young; Choi, Jong Hyun; Kim, Je Hyeong; Shin, Chol

    2016-01-01

    We compared the longitudinal course of post-bronchodilator Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (pFEV1) over a 10-year period in subjects with spontaneous healed pulmonary tuberculosis (SHPTB) with that in normal subjects. We prospectively investigated 339 subjects with SHPTB and 3211 normal subjects. pFEV1 values measured biannually over 10 years were analyzed using mixed effects model. At baseline, there were no differences in gender, smoking amount, and mean height, except mean age (50.0 ± 8.1 VS. 48.1 ± 7.3, P< 0.001) between the SHPTB and normal group. 52% of the 339 participants with SHPTB and 56% of the 3211 normal participants participated till the end of study. According to the final model, the SHPTB group showed significantly larger decrease in the average pFEV1 over the time than the normal group (P< 0.001) adjusted for gender, age, height, smoking pack years, and time effects. Especially, the interaction effect between time and group was statistically significant (P = 0.036). The average lung function in terms of pFEV1 decreases faster in subjects with SHPTB than in normal individuals over time.

  16. The brain matures with stronger functional connectivity and decreased randomness of its network.

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    Dirk J A Smit

    Full Text Available We investigated the development of the brain's functional connectivity throughout the life span (ages 5 through 71 years by measuring EEG activity in a large population-based sample. Connectivity was established with Synchronization Likelihood. Relative randomness of the connectivity patterns was established with Watts and Strogatz' (1998 graph parameters C (local clustering and L (global path length for alpha (~10 Hz, beta (~20 Hz, and theta (~4 Hz oscillation networks. From childhood to adolescence large increases in connectivity in alpha, theta and beta frequency bands were found that continued at a slower pace into adulthood (peaking at ~50 yrs. Connectivity changes were accompanied by increases in L and C reflecting decreases in network randomness or increased order (peak levels reached at ~18 yrs. Older age (55+ was associated with weakened connectivity. Semi-automatically segmented T1 weighted MRI images of 104 young adults revealed that connectivity was significantly correlated to cerebral white matter volume (alpha oscillations: r = 33, p<01; theta: r = 22, p<05, while path length was related to both white matter (alpha: max. r = 38, p<001 and gray matter (alpha: max. r = 36, p<001; theta: max. r = 36, p<001 volumes. In conclusion, EEG connectivity and graph theoretical network analysis may be used to trace structural and functional development of the brain.

  17. Decreased Fibroblast and Increased Osteoblast Functions on Ionic Plasma Deposited Nanostructured Ti Coatings

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    Storey Dan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBioactive coatings are in high demand to control cellular functions for numerous medical devices. The objective of this in vitro study was to characterize for the first time fibroblast (fibrous scar tissue forming cells adhesion and proliferation on an important polymeric biomaterial (silicone coated with titanium using a novel ionic plasma deposition (IPD process. Fibroblasts are one of the first anchorage-dependent cells to arrive at an implant surface during the wound healing process. Persistent excessive functions of fibroblasts have been linked to detrimental fibrous tissue formation which may cause implant failure. The IPD process creates a surface-engineered nanostructure (with features usually below 100 nm by first using a vacuum to remove all contaminants, then guiding charged metallic ions or plasma to the surface of a medical device at ambient temperature. Results demonstrated that compared to currently used titanium and uncoated silicone, silicone coated with titanium using IPD significantly decreased fibroblast adhesion and proliferation. Results also showed competitively increased osteoblast (bone-forming cells over fibroblast adhesion on silicone coated with titanium; in contrast, osteoblast adhesion was not competitively increased over fibroblast adhesion on uncoated silicone or titanium controls. In this manner, this study strongly suggests that IPD should be further studied for biomaterial applications in which fibrous tissue encapsulation is undesirable (such as for orthopedic implants, cardiovascular components, etc..

  18. Decreases in daily physical activity predict acute decline in attention and executive function in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Hayes, Scott M; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Gunstad, John

    2015-04-01

    Reduced physical activity (PA) may be one factor that contributes to cognitive decline and dementia in heart failure (HF). Yet, the longitudinal relationship between PA and cognition in HF is poorly understood owing to limitations of past work, including single-time assessments of PA. This is the first study to examine changes in objectively measured PA and cognition over time in HF. At baseline and 12 weeks, 57 HF patients completed psychosocial self-report measures and a neuropsychological battery and wore an accelerometer for 7 days. At baseline, HF patients spent an average of 597.83 (SD 75.91) minutes per day sedentary. Steps per day declined from baseline to the 12-week follow-up; there was also a trend for declines in moderate-vigorous PA. Regression analyses controlling for sex, HF severity, and depressive symptoms showed that decreases in light (P = .08) and moderate-vigorous (P = .04) daily PA emerged as strong predictors of declines in attention/executive function over the 12-week period, but not of memory or language. Reductions in daily PA predicted acute decline in attention/executive function in HF, but not of memory or language. Modifications to daily PA may attenuate cognitive decline, and prospective studies are needed to test this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R.; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A.

    2016-01-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal “no-go” pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific

  20. Decreasing Striatopallidal Pathway Function Enhances Motivation by Energizing the Initiation of Goal-Directed Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho Poyraz, Fernanda; Holzner, Eva; Bailey, Matthew R; Meszaros, Jozsef; Kenney, Lindsay; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Balsam, Peter D; Kellendonk, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Altered dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) binding in the striatum has been associated with abnormal motivation in neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. Here, we tested whether motivational deficits observed in mice with upregulated D2Rs (D2R-OEdev mice) are reversed by decreasing function of the striatopallidal "no-go" pathway. To this end, we expressed the Gαi-coupled designer receptor hM4D in adult striatopallidal neurons and activated the receptor with clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Using a head-mounted miniature microscope we confirmed with calcium imaging in awake mice that hM4D activation by CNO inhibits striatopallidal function measured as disinhibited downstream activity in the globus pallidus. Mice were then tested in three operant tasks that address motivated behavior, the progressive ratio task, the progressive hold-down task, and outcome devaluation. Decreasing striatopallidal function in the dorsomedial striatum or nucleus accumbens core enhanced motivation in D2R-OEdev mice and control littermates. This effect was due to increased response initiation but came at the cost of goal-directed efficiency. Moreover, response vigor and the sensitivity to changes in reward value were not altered. Chronic activation of hM4D by administering CNO for 2 weeks in drinking water did not affect motivation due to a tolerance effect. However, the acute effect of CNO on motivation was reinstated after discontinuing chronic treatment for 48 h. Used as a therapeutic approach, striatopallidal inhibition should consider the risk of impairing goal-directed efficiency and behavioral desensitization. Motivation involves a directional component that allows subjects to efficiently select the behavior that will lead to an optimal outcome and an activational component that initiates and maintains the vigor and persistence of actions. Striatal output pathways modulate motivated behavior, but it remains unknown how these pathways regulate specific components of motivation. Here

  1. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  2. Decreased functional connectivity and structural deficit in alertness network with right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yujun; Zheng, Jinou; Li, Yaping; Guo, Danni; Wang, Mingli; Cui, Xiangxiang; Ye, Wei

    2018-04-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often suffer from alertness alterations. However, specific regions connected with alertness remain controversial, and whether these regions have structural impairment is also elusive. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and neural mechanisms underlying the functions and structures of alertness network in patients with right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy (rTLE) by performing the attentional network test (ANT), resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-SfMRI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).A total of 47 patients with rTLE and 34 healthy controls underwent ANT, R-SfMRI, and DTI scan. The seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method and deterministic tractography were used to analyze the data.Patients with rTLE had longer reaction times in the no-cue and double-cue conditions. However, no differences were noted in the alertness effect between the 2 groups. The patient group had lower FC compared with the control group in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), amygdala, and insula. Structural deficits were found in the right parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal pole, insula, and amygdala in the patient group compared with the control group. Also significantly negative correlations were observed between abnormal fractional anisotropy (between the right insula and the superior temporal pole) and illness duration in the patients with rTLE.The findings of this study suggested abnormal intrinsic and phasic alertness, decreased FC, and structural deficits within the alerting network in the rTLE. This study provided new insights into the mechanisms of alertness alterations in rTLE.

  3. Decreased Visual Function Scores on a Low Luminance Questionnaire Is Associated with Impaired Dark Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanie, Mohammad; Alvarez, Jason; Agrón, Elvira; Wong, Wai T; Wiley, Henry E; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Cukras, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    We investigate whether responses on a Low Luminance Questionnaire (LLQ) in patients with a range of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) severity are associated with their performance on focal dark adaptation (DA) testing and with choroidal thickness. Cross-sectional, single-center, observational study. A total of 113 participants older than 50 years of age with a range of AMD severity. Participants answered the LLQ on the same day they underwent DA testing using a focal dark adaptometer measuring rod intercept time (RIT). We performed univariable and multivariable analyses of the LLQ scores and age, RIT, AMD severity, subfoveal choroidal thickness [SFCT], phakic status, and best-corrected visual acuity. The primary outcome of this study was the score on the 32-question LLQ. Each item in the LLQ is designated to 1 of 6 subscales describing functional problems in low luminance: driving, emotional distress, mobility, extreme lighting, peripheral vision, and general dim lighting. Scores were computed for each subscale, in addition to a weighted total mean score. Responses from 113 participants (mean age, 76.2±9.3 years; 58.4% were female) and 113 study eyes were analyzed. Univariable analysis demonstrated that lower scores on all LLQ subscales were correlated with prolonged DA testing (longer RIT) and decreased choroidal thickness. All associations were statistically significant except for the association of choroidal thickness and "peripheral vision." The strongest association was the LLQ subscale of driving with RIT (r =-0.97, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis for each of the LLQ subscale outcomes, adjusted for age, included RIT, with total LLQ score, "driving," "extreme lighting," and "mobility" also including choroidal thickness. In all multivariable analyses, RIT had a stronger association than choroidal thickness. This cross-sectional analysis demonstrates associations of patient-reported functional deficits, as assessed on the LLQ, with both reduced DA and

  4. Decreased plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Casarosa, Elena; Luisi, Michele; Czyzyk, Adam; Meczekalski, Blazej; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2013-09-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a non organic, secondary amenorrhea related to gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile secretion impairment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays an important role in the growth, development, maintenance and function of several neuronal systems. The aim of the study was the evaluation of plasma BDNF concentrations in patients with the diagnosis of FHA. We studied 85 subjects diagnosed with FHA who were compared with 10 healthy, eumenorrheic controls with normal body mass index. Plasma BDNF and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by immunoenzymatic method (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Significantly lower concentration of plasma BDNF was found in FHA patients (196.31 ± 35.26 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (407.20 ± 25.71 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). In the control group, there was a strong positive correlation between plasma BDNF and serum E2 concentrations (r = 0.92, p = 0.0001) but in FHA group it was not found. Role of BDNF in FHA is not yet fully understood. There could be found studies concerning plasma BDNF concentrations in humans and animals in the literature. However, our study is one of the first projects which describes decreased plasma BDNF concentration in patients with diagnosed FHA. Therefore, further studies on BDNF in FHA should clarify the role of this peptide.

  5. Capturing age-related changes in functional contrast sensitivity with decreasing light levels in monocular and binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie-Gallery, Hanna; Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia; Harlow, Jonathan A; Barbur, John L

    2013-09-09

    It is challenging to separate the effects of normal aging of the retina and visual pathways independently from optical factors, decreased retinal illuminance, and early stage disease. This study determined limits to describe the effect of light level on normal, age-related changes in monocular and binocular functional contrast sensitivity. We recruited 95 participants aged 20 to 85 years. Contrast thresholds for correct orientation discrimination of the gap in a Landolt C optotype were measured using a 4-alternative, forced-choice (4AFC) procedure at screen luminances from 34 to 0.12 cd/m(2) at the fovea and parafovea (0° and ±4°). Pupil size was measured continuously. The Health of the Retina index (HRindex) was computed to capture the loss of contrast sensitivity with decreasing light level. Participants were excluded if they exhibited performance outside the normal limits of interocular differences or HRindex values, or signs of ocular disease. Parafoveal contrast thresholds showed a steeper decline and higher correlation with age at the parafovea than the fovea. Of participants with clinical signs of ocular disease, 83% had HRindex values outside the normal limits. Binocular summation of contrast signals declined with age, independent of interocular differences. The HRindex worsens more rapidly with age at the parafovea, consistent with histologic findings of rod loss and its link to age-related degenerative disease of the retina. The HRindex and interocular differences could be used to screen for and separate the earliest stages of subclinical disease from changes caused by normal aging.

  6. Inhibition of autophagy with bafilomycin and chloroquine decreases mitochondrial quality and bioenergetic function in primary neurons

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    Matthew Redmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an important cell recycling program responsible for the clearance of damaged or long-lived proteins and organelles. Pharmacological modulators of this pathway have been extensively utilized in a wide range of basic research and pre-clinical studies. Bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine are commonly used compounds that inhibit autophagy by targeting the lysosomes but through distinct mechanisms. Since it is now clear that mitochondrial quality control, particularly in neurons, is dependent on autophagy, it is important to determine whether these compounds modify cellular bioenergetics. To address this, we cultured primary rat cortical neurons from E18 embryos and used the Seahorse XF96 analyzer and a targeted metabolomics approach to measure the effects of bafilomycin A1 and chloroquine on bioenergetics and metabolism. We found that both bafilomycin and chloroquine could significantly increase the autophagosome marker LC3-II and inhibit key parameters of mitochondrial function, and increase mtDNA damage. Furthermore, we observed significant alterations in TCA cycle intermediates, particularly those downstream of citrate synthase and those linked to glutaminolysis. Taken together, these data demonstrate a significant impact of bafilomycin and chloroquine on cellular bioenergetics and metabolism consistent with decreased mitochondrial quality associated with inhibition of autophagy.

  7. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive, an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin, and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract. The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P<0.05. The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics.

  8. The Role of Levosimendan in Patients with Decreased Left Ventricular Function Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

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    Marija Bozhinovska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The postoperative low cardiac output is one of the most important complications following cardiac surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The condition requires inotropic support to achieve adequate hemodynamic status and tissue perfusion. While catecholamines are utilised as a standard therapy in cardiac surgery, their use is limited due to increased oxygen consumption. Levosimendan is calcium sensitising inodilatator expressing positive inotropic effect by binding with cardiac troponin C without increasing oxygen demand. Furthermore, the drug opens potassium ATP (KATP channels in cardiac mitochondria and in the vascular muscle cells, showing cardioprotective and vasodilator properties, respectively. In the past decade, levosimendan demonstrated promising results in treating patients with reduced left ventricular function when administered in peri- or post- operative settings. In addition, pre-operative use of levosimendan in patients with severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction may reduce the requirements for postoperative inotropic support, mechanical support, duration of intensive care unit stay as well as hospital stay and a decrease in post-operative mortality. However, larger studies are needed to clarify clinical advantages of levosimendan versus conventional inotropes.

  9. Hydroxyapatite nanocrystals functionalized with alendronate as bioactive components for bone implant coatings to decrease osteoclastic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Ruggero; Iafisco, Michele; Tampieri, Anna; Jansen, John A.; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C. G.; van den Beucken, Jeroen J. J. P.

    2015-02-01

    The integration of bone implants within native bone tissue depends on periprosthetic bone quality, which is severely decreased in osteoporotic patients. In this work, we have synthesized bone-like hydroxyapatite nanocrystals (nHA) using an acid-base neutralization reaction and analysed their physicochemical properties. Subsequently, we have functionalized the nHA with alendronate (nHAALE), a well-known bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis. An in vitro osteoclastogenesis test was carried out to evaluate the effect of nHAALE on the formation of osteoclast-like cells from monocytic precursor cells (i.e. RAW264.7 cell line) showing that nHAALE significantly promoted apoptosis of osteoclast-like cells. Subsequently, nHA and nHAALE were deposited on titanium disks using electrospray deposition (ESD), for which characterisation of the deposited coatings confirmed the presence of alendronate in nHAALE coatings with nanoscale thickness of about 700 nm. These results indicate that alendronate linked to hydroxyapatite nanocrystals has therapeutic potential and nHAALE can be considered as an appealing coating constituent material for orthopaedic and oral implants for application in osteoporotic patients.

  10. Dietary Approach to Recurrent or Chronic Hyperkalaemia in Patients with Decreased Kidney Function

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    Adamasco Cupisti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the adequate intake of potassium is relatively high in healthy adults, i.e., 4.7 g per day, a dietary potassium restriction of usually less than 3 g per day is recommended in the management of patients with reduced kidney function, especially those who tend to develop hyperkalaemia including patients who are treated with angiotensin pathway modulators. Most potassium-rich foods are considered heart-healthy nutrients with high fibre, high anti-oxidant vitamins and high alkali content such as fresh fruits and vegetables; hence, the main challenge of dietary potassium management is to maintain high fibre intake and a low net fixed-acid load, because constipation and metabolic acidosis are per se major risk factors for hyperkalaemia. To achieve a careful reduction of dietary potassium load without a decrease in alkali or fibre intake, we recommend the implementation of certain pragmatic dietary interventions as follows: Improving knowledge and education about the type of foods with excess potassium (per serving or per unit of weight; identifying foods that are needed for healthy nutrition in renal patients; classification of foods based on their potassium content normalized per unit of dietary fibre; education about the use of cooking procedures (such as boiling in order to achieve effective potassium reduction before eating; and attention to hidden sources of potassium, in particular additives in preserved foods and low-sodium salt substitutes. The present paper aims to review dietary potassium handling and gives information about practical approaches to limit potassium load in chronic kidney disease patients at risk of hyperkalaemia.

  11. A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. D.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric function, band gap, and exciton binding energies of ultrathin ZnO films as a function of film thickness have been obtained with spectroscopic ellipsometry. As the film thickness decreases, both real (ε 1 ) and imaginary (ε 2 ) parts of the dielectric function decrease significantly, and ε 2 shows a blue shift. The film thickness dependence of the dielectric function is shown related to the changes in the interband absorption, discrete-exciton absorption, and continuum-exciton absorption, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect on both the band gap and exciton binding energies

  12. Using multiple schedules during functional communication training to promote rapid transfer of treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W; Greer, Brian D; Fuhrman, Ashley M; Querim, Angie C

    2015-12-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and therapists. With 2 children, we conducted FCT in the context of mixed (baseline) and multiple (treatment) schedules introduced across settings or therapists using a multiple baseline design. Results indicated that when the multiple schedules were introduced, the functional communication response came under rapid discriminative control, and problem behavior remained at near-zero rates. We extended these findings with another individual by using a more traditional baseline in which problem behavior produced reinforcement. Results replicated those of the previous participants and showed rapid reductions in problem behavior when multiple schedules were implemented across settings. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Rapidly decreased serum IgG to Campylobacter pylori following elimination of Campylobacter in histological chronic biopsy Campylobacter-positive gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bohemen, C G; Langenberg, M L; Rauws, E A; Oudbier, J; Weterings, E; Zanen, H C

    1989-01-15

    The anaerobic bacterium Campylobacter pylori (Cp) is thought to be associated with chronic gastritis. This paper presents clinical data underpinning this view. Five patients with histological chronic gastritis as determined by diagnostic endoscopy, which was associated with Cp as determined by positive biopsy cultures, all possessed statistically raised serum IgG ELISA titers to Cp during a longitudinal period of observation of 15 months. Treatment with the antibiotics amoxycillin (clamoxyl) or colloidal bismuth subcitrate (denol) eliminated Cp within one month. Associated with this, serum IgG ELISA titers were found to decrease sharply and rapidly. Tagamet and spiramycin had little effect. Although the data are preliminary, they support the assumed Cp involvement in chronic gastritis and suggest that specific serum IgG ELISA titers to Cp are useful parameters in monitoring disease status, exceeding bacteriological culture of biopsy specimens in speed and convenience.

  14. Functional diversity of macrobenthic assemblages decreases in response to sewage discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gusmao, Joao B.; Brauko, Kalina M.; Eriksson, Britas K.; Lana, Paulo C.

    We analyzed the effects of sewage discharge on a subtropical estuary by comparing the functional diversity of intertidal macroinvertebrate assemblages in contaminated with non-contaminated reference areas. Functional structure was assessed using biological traits analysis (BTA) and four multivariate

  15. Using Multiple Schedules during Functional Communication Training to Promote Rapid Transfer of Treatment Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W.; Greer, Brian D.; Fuhrman, Ashley M.; Querim, Angie C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple schedules with signaled periods of reinforcement and extinction have been used to thin reinforcement schedules during functional communication training (FCT) to make the intervention more practical for parents and teachers. We evaluated whether these signals would also facilitate rapid transfer of treatment effects across settings and…

  16. Decreased renal function and hypertension are long-term complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.M.; Kaude, J.V.; Newman, R.C.; Peterson, J.C.; Thomas, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative radionuclide renography performed in 21 patients 17-21 months after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy showed a significant decrease in the percentage of effective renal plasma flow (%ERPF) of the treated kidney; in five (24%) patients the %ERPF had decreased by more than 5 percentage units. In seven (8%) of 91 patients sustained hypertension developed that required pharmacologic treatment after lithotripsy. Decreased %ERPF of a treated kidney and hypertension may be related to a Page kidney or similar process resulting from renal trauma and hemorrhage occurring as a side effect of lithotripsy. Hypertension is an important complication of lithotripsy in about 8% of patients

  17. Genistein and tyrphostin AG556 decrease ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current of human atria by inhibiting EGF receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Zhang, Yan-Hui; Wu, Wei; Sun, Hai-Ying; Wang, Yan; Li, Gui-Rong

    2017-03-01

    The ultra-rapidly activating delayed rectifier K + current I Kur (encoded by K v 1.5 or KCNA5) plays an important role in human atrial repolarization. The present study investigates the regulation of this current by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Whole-cell patch voltage clamp technique and immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis were used to investigate whether the PTK inhibitors genistein, tyrphostin AG556 (AG556) and PP2 regulate human atrial I Kur and hKv1.5 channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells. Human atrial I Kur was decreased by genistein (a broad-spectrum PTK inhibitor) and AG556 (a highly selective EGFR TK inhibitor) in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of I Kur induced by 30 μM genistein or 10 μM AG556 was significantly reversed by 1 mM orthovanadate (a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor). Similar results were observed in HEK 293 cells stably expressing hK v 1.5 channels. On the other hand, the Src family kinase inhibitor PP2 (1 μM) slightly enhanced I Kur and hK v 1.5 current, and the current increase was also reversed by orthovanadate. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analysis showed that genistein, AG556, and PP2 decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of hK v 1.5 channels and that the decrease was countered by orthovanadate. The PTK inhibitors genistein and AG556 decrease human atrial I Kur and cloned hK v 1.5 channels by inhibiting EGFR TK, whereas the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 increases I Kur and hK v 1.5 current. These results imply that EGFR TK and the soluble Src kinases may have opposite effects on human atrial I Kur . © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Decreased long- and short-range functional connectivity at rest in drug-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Xue, Zhimin; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal functional connectivity has been observed in major depressive disorder. Anatomical distance may affect functional connectivity in patients with major depressive disorder. However, whether and how anatomical distance affects functional connectivity at rest remains unclear in drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder. Forty-four patients with major depressive disorder, as well as 44 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls, underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Regional functional connectivity strength was calculated for each voxel in the whole brain, which was further divided into short- and long-range functional connectivity strength. The patients showed decreased long-range positive functional connectivity strength in the right inferior parietal lobule, as well as decreased short-range positive functional connectivity strength in the right insula and right superior temporal gyrus relative to those of the controls. No significant correlations existed between abnormal functional connectivity strength and the clinical variables of the patients. The findings revealed that anatomical distance decreases long- and short-range functional connectivity strength in patients with major depressive disorder, which may underlie the neurobiology of major depressive disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. IL-6 trans-Signaling-Dependent Rapid Development of Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P. Böttcher

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Immune control of infections with viruses or intracellular bacteria relies on cytotoxic CD8+ T cells that use granzyme B (GzmB for elimination of infected cells. During inflammation, mature antigen-presenting dendritic cells instruct naive T cells within lymphoid organs to develop into effector T cells. Here, we report a mechanistically distinct and more rapid process of effector T cell development occurring within 18 hr. Such rapid acquisition of effector T cell function occurred through cross-presenting liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs in the absence of innate immune stimulation and known costimulatory signaling. Rather, interleukin-6 (IL-6 trans-signaling was required and sufficient for rapid induction of GzmB expression in CD8+ T cells. Such LSEC-stimulated GzmB-expressing CD8+ T cells further responded to inflammatory cytokines, eliciting increased and protracted effector functions. Our findings identify a role for IL-6 trans-signaling in rapid generation of effector function in CD8+ T cells that may be beneficial for vaccination strategies.

  20. Functional diversity exhibits a diverse relationship with area, even a decreasing one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadimou, Elpida K.; Kallimanis, Athanasios S.; Tsiripidis, Ioannis; Dimopoulos, Panayotis

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between species richness and area is one of the few well-established laws in ecology, and one might expect a similar relationship with functional diversity (FD). However, only a few studies investigate the relationship between trait-based FD and area, the Functional Diversity - Area Relationship (FDAR). To examine FDAR, we constructed the species accumulation curve and the corresponding FD curve. We used plant diversity data from nested plots (1–128 m2), recorded on the Volcanic islands of Santorini Archipelagos, Greece. Six multidimensional FD indices were calculated using 26 traits. We identified a typology of FDARs depending on the facet of FD analyzed: (A) strongly positive for indices quantifying the range of functional traits in the community, (B) negative correlation for indices quantifying the evenness in the distribution of abundance in the trait space, (C) no clear pattern for indices reflecting the functional similarity of species and (D) idiosyncratic patterns with area for functional divergence. As area increases, the range of traits observed in the community increases, but the abundance of traits does not increase proportionally and some traits become dominant, implying a reliance on some functions that may be located in either the center or the periphery of the trait space. PMID:27752086

  1. A rapid method for the preparation of ultrapure, functional lysosomes using functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mathew W; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are an emerging and increasingly important cellular organelle. With every passing year, more novel proteins and key cellular functions are associated with lysosomes. Despite this, the methodologies for their purification have largely remained unchanged since the days of their discovery. With little advancement in this area, it is no surprise that analysis of lysosomal function has been somewhat stymied, largely in part by the change in buoyant densities that occur under conditions where lysosomes accumulate macromolecules. Such phenotypes are often associated with the lysosomal storage diseases but are increasingly being observed under conditions where lysosomal proteins or, in some cases, cellular functions associated with lysosomal proteins are being manipulated. These altered lysosomes poise a problem to the classical methods to purify lysosomes that are reliant largely on their correct sedimentation by density gradient centrifugation. Building upon a technique developed by others to purify lysosomes magnetically, we have developed a unique assay using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) to purify high yields of ultrapure functional lysosomes from multiple cell types including the lysosomal storage disorders. Here we describe this method in detail, including the rationale behind using SPIONs, the potential pitfalls that can be avoided and the potential functional assays these lysosomes can be used for. Finally we also summarize the other methodologies and the exact reasons why magnetic purification of lysosomes is now the method of choice for lysosomal researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Adipose Tissue Inflammation Induces B Cell Inflammation and Decreases B Cell Function in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Frasca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is the greatest risk factor for developing chronic diseases. Inflamm-aging, the age-related increase in low-grade chronic inflammation, may be a common link in age-related diseases. This review summarizes recent published data on potential cellular and molecular mechanisms of the age-related increase in inflammation, and how these contribute to decreased humoral immune responses in aged mice and humans. Briefly, we cover how aging and related inflammation decrease antibody responses in mice and humans, and how obesity contributes to the mechanisms for aging through increased inflammation. We also report data in the literature showing adipose tissue infiltration with immune cells and how these cells are recruited and contribute to local and systemic inflammation. We show that several types of immune cells infiltrate the adipose tissue and these include macrophages, neutrophils, NK cells, innate lymphoid cells, eosinophils, T cells, B1, and B2 cells. Our main focus is how the adipose tissue affects immune responses, in particular B cell responses and antibody production. The role of leptin in generating inflammation and decreased B cell responses is also discussed. We report data published by us and by other groups showing that the adipose tissue generates pro-inflammatory B cell subsets which induce pro-inflammatory T cells, promote insulin resistance, and secrete pathogenic autoimmune antibodies.

  3. Elevated triglycerides are associated with decreased executive function among adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiberg, M R; Newton, D F; Collins, J E; Dickstein, D P; Bowie, C R; Goldstein, B I

    2016-09-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors that comprise metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been linked with cognition in adults with bipolar disorder (BD). This study examines the association between MetS components and executive function in adolescents with BD. A total of 34 adolescents with BD and 35 healthy control (HC) adolescents were enrolled. MetS components included triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, glucose, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Executive functioning was measured using the intra-extra-dimensional (IED) set-shifting task from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery. Adolescents with BD were more likely to have ≥1 MetS components (64.7%) as compared to HC participants (22.9%, χ(2) = 12.29, P = triglyceride levels (ρ = -0.358, P = 0.041 and ρ = -0.396, P = 0.020 respectively). The association of triglycerides with executive function remained significant after controlling for age, IQ, and current use of second-generation antipsychotics. Elevated triglycerides are associated with poorer executive function among adolescents with BD. Studies of behavioural and pharmacological interventions targeting MetS components for the purpose of improving executive function among adolescents with BD are warranted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Functional connectivity decreases in autism in emotion, self, and face circuits identified by Knowledge-based Enrichment Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Zhang, Jie; Sheng, Wenbo; Ma, Liang; Wan, Lin; Luo, Qiang; Feng, Jianfeng

    2017-03-01

    A powerful new method is described called Knowledge based functional connectivity Enrichment Analysis (KEA) for interpreting resting state functional connectivity, using circuits that are functionally identified using search terms with the Neurosynth database. The method derives its power by focusing on neural circuits, sets of brain regions that share a common biological function, instead of trying to interpret single functional connectivity links. This provides a novel way of investigating how task- or function-related networks have resting state functional connectivity differences in different psychiatric states, provides a new way to bridge the gap between task and resting-state functional networks, and potentially helps to identify brain networks that might be treated. The method was applied to interpreting functional connectivity differences in autism. Functional connectivity decreases at the network circuit level in 394 patients with autism compared with 473 controls were found in networks involving the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, middle temporal gyrus cortex, and the precuneus, in networks that are implicated in the sense of self, face processing, and theory of mind. The decreases were correlated with symptom severity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Executive and Attentional Functions in Chronic Pain: Does Performance Decrease with Increasing Task Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joukje M Oosterman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diminished executive function and attentional control has been reported in chronic pain patients. However, the precise pattern of impairment in these aspects of cognition in chronic pain remains unclear. Moreover, a decline in psychomotor speed could potentially influence executive and attentional control performance in pain patients.

  6. Tennis in hot and cool conditions decreases the rapid muscle torque production capacity of the knee extensors but not of the plantar flexors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Racinais, Sébastien; Périard, Julien D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the time course of changes in rapid muscle force/torque production capacity and neuromuscular activity of lower limb muscles in response to prolonged (∼2 h) match-play tennis under heat stress. Methods The rates of torque development (RTD) and electromyographic activity (EMG; ie, root mean square) rise were recorded from 0 to 30, –50, –100 and –200 ms during brief (3–5 s) explosive maximal isometric voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE) and plantar flexors (PF), along with the peak RTD within the entirety of the torque-time curve. These values were recorded in 12 male tennis players before (prematch) and after (postmatch, 24 and 48 h) match-play in HOT (∼37°C) and COOL (∼22°C) conditions. Results The postmatch core temperature was greater in the HOT (∼39.4°C) vs COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (ptorque. Furthermore, the rate of KE EMG activity rise remained unchanged. Conversely, the PF contractile RTD and rate of EMG activity rise were unaffected by the exercise or environmental conditions. Conclusions In the KE, a reduction in maximal torque production capacity following prolonged match-play tennis appears to account for the decrease in the rate of torque development, independent of environmental conditions, while remaining unchanged in the PF. PMID:24668381

  7. Decreased resting-state interhemispheric functional connectivity in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Jiang, Jiajing; Xiao, Changqing; Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Liuyu; Liu, Jianrong; Liu, Guiying

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients can provide clues to the pathophysiology for the development of schizophrenia. However, little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in siblings, although the dysconnectivity hypothesis is prevailing in schizophrenia for years. In the present study, we used a newly validated voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) method to identify whether aberrant interhemispheric FC was present in unaffected siblings at increased risk of developing schizophrenia at rest. Forty-six unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients and 50 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Automated VMHC was used to analyze the data. The sibling group had lower VMHC than the control group in the angular gyrus (AG) and the lingual gyrus/cerebellum lobule VI. No region exhibited higher VMHC in the sibling group than in the control group. There was no significant sex difference of the VMHC values between male siblings and female siblings or between male controls and female controls, although evidence has been accumulated that size and shape of the corpus callosum, and functional homotopy differ between men and women. Our results first suggest that interhemispheric resting-state FC of VMHC is disrupted in unaffected siblings of schizophrenia patients, and add a new clue of abnormal interhemispheric resting-state FC to the pathophysiology for the development of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cholesterol remnants and triglycerides are associated with decreased myocardial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Godsk; Jensen, Magnus Thorsten; Biering-Sørensen, Tor

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, genetic studies have suggested a causal relationship between cholesterol remnants and ischemic heart disease. We aimed to determine whether cholesterol remnants and its marker, triglyceride levels, are associated with cardiac function as determined by sensitive echocardiogra......BACKGROUND: Recently, genetic studies have suggested a causal relationship between cholesterol remnants and ischemic heart disease. We aimed to determine whether cholesterol remnants and its marker, triglyceride levels, are associated with cardiac function as determined by sensitive...... secondary care centers. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, triglycerides and cholesterol remnants were not associated with left ventricular ejection fraction, but with subtle measures of systolic function, including global longitudinal strain by speckle tracking and longitudinal displacement by tissue...... Doppler echocardiography: global longitudinal strain [0.33 % (0.14), p = 0.02 per doubling in cholesterol remnants and 0.28 % (0.13), p = 0.03 per doubling in triglyceride levels] and with longitudinal displacement [-0.25 mm (0.10), p = 0.01 per doubling in cholesterol remnants and -0.25 mm (0.09), p = 0...

  9. The Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor AR9281 Decreases Blood Pressure, Ameliorates Renal Injury and Improves Vascular Function in Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Shaw

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs are demonstrating promise as potential pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammation, and kidney disease. The present study determined the ability of a first-inclass sEHI, AR9281, to decrease blood pressure, improve vascular function, and decrease renal inflammation and injury in angiotensin hypertension. Rats were infused with angiotensin and AR9281 was given orally during the 14-day infusion period. Systolic blood pressure averaged 180 ± 5 mmHg in vehicle treated and AR9281 treatment significantly lowered blood pressure to 142 ± 7 mmHg in angiotensin hypertension. Histological analysis demonstrated decreased injury to the juxtamedullary glomeruli. Renal expression of inflammatory genes was increased in angiotensin hypertension and two weeks of AR9281 treatment decreased this index of renal inflammation. Vascular function in angiotensin hypertension was also improved by AR9281 treatment. Decreased afferent arteriolar and mesenteric resistance endothelial dependent dilator responses were ameliorated by AR9281 treatment of angiotensin hypertensive rats. These data demonstrate that the first-in-class sEHI, AR9281, lowers blood pressure, improves vascular function and reduces renal damage in angiotensin hypertension.

  10. MS Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance While Disorientad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from spaceflight, a majority of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. No operational countermeasure currently exists to mitigate the risks associated with these sensorimotor disturbances. Stochastic resonance (SR) can be thought of simply as "noise benefit" or an increase in information transfer by a system when in the presence of a non-zero level of noise. We have shown that low levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) improve balance and locomotor performance due to SR (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). Additionally, a study in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease demonstrated improvements in locomotor activity after low-level SVS delivery possibly due to an increase in nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in a dopamine independent way (Samoudi et al. 2012). SVS specifically increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. These results suggest that SVS can cause targeted alterations of GABA release to affect performance of functional tasks. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008). Magnusson et al. (2000) supported this finding by showing that the administration of a GABAB agonist caused a reversal of the symptoms that is normally seen after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Thus, GABA could play a significant role in reducing MS and promoting adaptability. We have taken advantage of the SR mechanism as a modulator of neurotransmitters to develop a unique SVS countermeasure system to mitigate MS symptoms and improve functional performance after landing. Healthy

  11. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60-69 years) and old elderly (70-80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. A total of 1288 participants' level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Significant differences (P men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance.

  12. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Z

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Zoran Milanovic,1 Saša Pantelic,1 Nebojša Trajkovic,1 Goran Sporiš,2 Radmila Kostic,1 Nic James31Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Niš, Niš, Serbia; 2Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; 3London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, London, UKAim: To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years and old elderly (70–80 years people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found.Methods: A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg. Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test.Results: Significant differences (P < 0.05 were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years and old elderly (70–80 men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05.Conclusions: This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body

  13. Decreased Cognitive/CNS Function in Young Adults at Risk for Hypertension: Effects of Sleep Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. McCubbin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension has been linked to impaired cognitive/CNS function, and some of these changes may precede development of frank essential hypertension. The stress and fatigue of sleep deprivation may exacerbate these cognitive changes in young adults at risk. We hypothesize that individuals at risk for hypertension will show significant declines in cognitive function during a night of sleep deprivation. Fifty-one young adults were recruited for 28-hour total sleep deprivation studies. Hypertension risk was assessed by mildly elevated resting blood pressure and by family history of hypertension. A series of cognitive memory tasks was given at four test sessions across the sleep deprivation period. Although initially comparable in cognitive performance, persons at risk showed larger declines across the night for several indices of working memory, including code substitution, category, and order recall. These results suggest that cognitive/CNS changes may parallel or precede blood pressure dysregulation in the early stages of hypertension development. The role of CNS changes in the etiology of essential hypertension is discussed.

  14. Decreased Modulation of EEG Oscillations in High-Functioning Autism During a Motor Control Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are thought to result in part from altered cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance; this pathophysiology may impact the generation of oscillations on EEG. We investigated premotor-parietal cortical physiology associated with praxis, which has strong theoretical and empirical associations with ASD symptomatology. 25 children with high-functioning ASD (HFA and 33 controls performed a praxis task involving the pantomiming of tool use, while EEG was recorded. We assessed task-related modulation of signal power in alpha and beta frequency bands. Compared with controls, subjects with HFA showed 27% less left central (motor/premotor beta (18-22 Hz event-related desynchronization (ERD (p = 0.030, as well as 24% less left parietal alpha (7-13 Hz ERD (p = 0.046. Within the HFA group, blunting of central ERD attenuation was associated with impairments in clinical measures of praxis imitation (r = -0.4; p = 0.04 and increased autism severity (r = 0.48; p = 0.016. The modulation of central beta activity is associated, among other things, with motor imagery, which may be necessary for imitation. Impaired imitation has been associated with core features of ASD. Altered modulation of oscillatory activity may be mechanistically involved in those aspects of motor network function that relate to the core symptoms of ASD.

  15. Evidence for top-heavy stellar initial mass functions with increasing density and decreasing metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Kroupa, Pavel; Dabringhausen, Jörg; Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2012-05-01

    Residual-gas expulsion after cluster formation has recently been shown to leave an imprint in the low-mass present-day stellar mass function (PDMF) which allowed the estimation of birth conditions of some Galactic globular clusters (GCs) such as mass, radius and star formation efficiency. We show that in order to explain their characteristics (masses, radii, metallicity and PDMF) their stellar initial mass function (IMF) must have been top heavy. It is found that the IMF is required to become more top heavy the lower the cluster metallicity and the larger the pre-GC cloud-core density are. The deduced trends are in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectation. The results are consistent with estimates of the shape of the high-mass end of the IMF in the Arches cluster, Westerlund 1, R136 and NGC 3603, as well as with the IMF independently constrained for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The latter suggests that GCs and UCDs might have formed along the same channel or that UCDs formed via mergers of GCs. A Fundamental Plane is found which describes the variation of the IMF with density and metallicity of the pre-GC cloud cores. The implications for the evolution of galaxies and chemical enrichment over cosmological times are expected to be major.

  16. Two-loop beam and soft functions for rapidity-dependent jet vetoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangal, Shireen [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Gaunt, Jonathan R. [Nikhef Theory Group and VU University Amsterdam,De Boelelaan 1081, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stahlhofen, Maximilian [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Tackmann, Frank J. [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY),Notkestraße 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-02-06

    Jet vetoes play an important role in many analyses at the LHC. Traditionally, jet vetoes have been imposed using a restriction on the transverse momentum p{sub Tj} of jets. Alternatively, one can also consider jet observables for which p{sub Tj} is weighted by a smooth function of the jet rapidity y{sub j} that vanishes as |y{sub j}|→∞. Such observables are useful as they provide a natural way to impose a tight veto on central jets but a looser one at forward rapidities. We consider two such rapidity-dependent jet veto observables, T{sub Bj} and T{sub Cj}, and compute the required beam and dijet soft functions for the jet-vetoed color-singlet production cross section at two loops. At this order, clustering effects from the jet algorithm become important. The dominant contributions are computed fully analytically while corrections that are subleading in the limit of small jet radii are expressed in terms of finite numerical integrals. Our results enable the full NNLL{sup ′} resummation and are an important step towards N{sup 3}LL resummation for cross sections with a T{sub Bj} or T{sub Cj} jet veto.

  17. Development of a qPCR method to rapidly assess the function of NKT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Silke; Tiper, Irina; Japp, Emily; Sun, Wenji; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Webb, Tonya J

    2014-05-01

    NKT cells comprise a rare, but important subset of T cells which account for ~0.2% of the total circulating T cell population. NKT cells are known to have anti-tumor functions and rapidly produce high levels of cytokines following activation. Several clinical trials have sought to exploit the effector functions of NKT cells. While some studies have shown promise, NKT cells are approximately 50% lower in cancer patients compared to healthy donors of the same age and gender, thus limiting their therapeutic efficacy. These studies indicate that baseline levels of activation should be assessed before initiating an NKT cell based immunotherapeutic strategy. The goal of this study was to develop a sensitive method to rapidly assess NKT cell function. We utilized artificial antigen presenting cells in combination with qPCR in order to determine NKT cell function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and breast cancer patients. We found that NKT cell activation can be detected by qPCR, but not by ELISA, in healthy donors as well as in breast cancer patients following four hour stimulation. This method utilizing CD1d-expressing aAPCs will enhance our knowledge of NKT cell biology and could potentially be used as a novel tool in adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Decreased functional connectivity of the amygdala in Alzheimer's disease revealed by resting-state fMRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Hongxiang [Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Liu, Yong, E-mail: yliu@nlpr.ia.ac.cn [Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Zengqiang [Department of Neurology, Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); An, Ningyu [Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Wang, Pan; Wang, Luning [Department of Neurology, Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Zhang, Xi, E-mail: zhangxi@301hospital.com.cn [Department of Neurology, Institute of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Jiang, Tianzi [Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054 (China); The Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2013-09-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is thought to be a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterised by a decline of memory and other cognitive functions. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be the prodromal stage of AD. However, the relationship between AD and MCI and the development process remains unclear. The amygdala is one of the most vulnerable structures in the early stages of AD. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the alteration of the functional connectivity of the amygdala in AD and MCI subjects. We hypothesised that the amygdala-cortical loop is impaired in AD and that these alterations relate to the disease severity. In our study, we used resting-state functional MRIs to investigate the altered amygdala connectivity patterns in 35 AD patients, 27 MCI patients and 27 age- and gender-matched normal controls (NC). Compared with the NC, the decreased functional connectivity found in the AD patients was mainly located between the amygdala and the regions that are included in the default mode, context conditioning and extinction networks. Importantly, the decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and some of the identified regions was positively correlated with MMSE, which indicated that the cognitive function impairment is related to an altered functional connectivity pattern.

  19. Decreased functional connectivity of the amygdala in Alzheimer's disease revealed by resting-state fMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Hongxiang; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Zengqiang; An, Ningyu; Wang, Pan; Wang, Luning; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Tianzi

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is thought to be a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterised by a decline of memory and other cognitive functions. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be the prodromal stage of AD. However, the relationship between AD and MCI and the development process remains unclear. The amygdala is one of the most vulnerable structures in the early stages of AD. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the alteration of the functional connectivity of the amygdala in AD and MCI subjects. We hypothesised that the amygdala-cortical loop is impaired in AD and that these alterations relate to the disease severity. In our study, we used resting-state functional MRIs to investigate the altered amygdala connectivity patterns in 35 AD patients, 27 MCI patients and 27 age- and gender-matched normal controls (NC). Compared with the NC, the decreased functional connectivity found in the AD patients was mainly located between the amygdala and the regions that are included in the default mode, context conditioning and extinction networks. Importantly, the decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and some of the identified regions was positively correlated with MMSE, which indicated that the cognitive function impairment is related to an altered functional connectivity pattern

  20. Decrease of sexual organ reciprocity between heterostylous primrose species, with possible functional and evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Barbara; de Vos, Jurriaan M; Conti, Elena

    2012-11-01

    Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism that has fascinated evolutionary biologists since Darwin's seminal studies on primroses. The main morphological characteristic of heterostyly is the reciprocal placement of anthers and stigmas in two distinct (distyly) floral morphs. Variation in the degree of intermorph sexual reciprocity is relatively common and known to affect patterns of pollen transfer within species. However, the partitioning of sexual organ reciprocity within and between closely related species remains unknown. This study aimed at testing whether intermorph sexual reciprocity differs within vs. between primrose species that hybridize in nature and whether the positions of sexual organs are correlated with other floral traits. Six floral traits were measured in both floral morphs of 15 allopatric populations of Primula elatior, P. veris and P. vulgaris, and anther-stigma reciprocity was estimated within and between species. A combination of univariate and multivariate approaches was used to test whether positions of reproductive organs were less reciprocal between than within species, to assess correlations between sexual organ positions and other corolla traits, and to quantify differences between morphs and species. The three species were morphologically well differentiated in most floral traits, except that P. veris and P. vulgaris did not differ significantly in sexual organ positions. Overall, lower interspecific than intraspecific sexual organ reciprocity was detected. This decrease was marked between P. elatior and P. vulgaris, intermediate and variable between P. elatior and P. veris, but negligible between P. veris and P. vulgaris. Differences in anther and stigma heights between the analysed primrose species were of the same magnitude or larger than intraspecific differences that altered pollen flow within other heterostylous systems. Therefore, it is possible to suggest that considerable reductions of sexual organ reciprocity between species may

  1. Heat stress and reduced plane of nutrition decreases intestinal integrity and function in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, S C; Mani, V; Weber, T E; Rhoads, R P; Patience, J F; Baumgard, L H; Gabler, N K

    2013-11-01

    Heat stress can compromise intestinal integrity and induce leaky gut in a variety of species. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if heat stress (HS) directly or indirectly (via reduced feed intake) increases intestinal permeability in growing pigs. We hypothesized that an increased heat-load causes physiological alterations to the intestinal epithelium, resulting in compromised barrier integrity and altered intestinal function that contributes to the overall severity of HS-related illness. Crossbred gilts (n=48, 43±4 kg BW) were housed in constant climate controlled rooms in individual pens and exposed to 1) thermal neutral (TN) conditions (20°C, 35-50% humidity) with ad libitum intake, 2) HS conditions (35°C, 20-35% humidity) with ad libitum feed intake, or 3) pair-fed in TN conditions (PFTN) to eliminate confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. Pigs were sacrificed at 1, 3, or 7 d of environmental exposure and jejunum samples were mounted into modified Ussing chambers for assessment of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and intestinal fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) permeability (expressed as apparent permeability coefficient, APP). Further, gene and protein markers of intestinal integrity and stress were assessed. Irrespective of d of HS exposure, plasma endotoxin levels increased 45% (Pwarm summer months.

  2. Unani Treatment Decreased Fibrosis and Improved Liver Functions in Decompensated Cirrhosis of Liver: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhtar Siddiqui

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, liver transplantation remains the only curative option for the patients with cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. The survival rate and recurrent diseases remain the major issues in the patient post-transplantation. Unani medicine is one of the oldest traditional systems of medicine which has been treating chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (Talayyaful-Kabid for centuries. The current study aimed to assess the impact of Unani treatment on decompensated cirrhosis and collect data to warrant further clinical trials. Authors conducted a case series on five patients with decompensated cirrhosis and portal hypertension. The disease was confirmed through FibroScan and ultrasound and treated with Unani treatment orally for seven months. Results were evaluated based on FibroScan, liver function test (LFT, EuroQol-5D (EQ5D, Child-Pugh and TTO-TIME (trade-off question. Significant improvements in LFT, fibrosis and quality of life were achieved in the studied patients. The literature related to the herbal constituents of chief medicines used to treat in this case was reviewed. The herbs proved their potential anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, hepato-protective, immuno-modulator and antiviral activities, suggesting plausible mechanisms of action in the cases. The preliminary findings indicated the potential therapeutic role of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis. Clinical trials should be conducted to explore further therapeutic potential of Unani treatment in decompensated cirrhosis.

  3. Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from long-duration spaceflight, 100% of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is "noise benefit": adding noise to a system might increase the information (examples to the left and above). Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS), or low levels of noise applied to the vestibular system, improves balance and locomotor performance (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). In hemi-lesioned rat models, Samoudi et al. 2012 found that SVS increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008) and was seen to reverse MS symptoms in rats after unilateral labyrinthectomy (Magnusson et al. 2000). Thus, SVS could be used to promote GABA pathways to reduce MS and promote adaptability, eliminate the need for PMZ or other performance-inhibiting drugs.

  4. Suppression of topoisomerase IIα expression and function in human cells decreases chromosomal radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, Samantha Y.A.; Riches, Andrew C.; Bryant, Peter E.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism behind chromatid break formation is as yet unclear, although it is known that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the initiating lesions. Chromatid breaks formed in cells in the G2-phase of the cell-cycle disappear ('rejoin') as a function of time between radiation exposure and cell fixation. However, the kinetics of disappearance of chromatid breaks does not correspond to those of DSB rejoining, leading us to seek alternative models. We have proposed that chromatid breaks could be formed indirectly from DSB and that the mechanism involves topoisomerase IIα. In support of this hypothesis we have recently shown that frequencies of radiation-induced chromatid breaks are lower in two variant human promyelocytic leukaemic cell lines with reduced topoisomerase IIα expression. Here we report that suppression of topoisomerase IIα in human hTERT-RPE1 cells, either by its abrogation using specific siRNA or by inhibition of its catalytic activity with the inhibitor ICRF-193, causes a reduction in frequency of chromatid breaks in radiation-exposed cells. The findings support our hypothesis for the involvement of topoisomerase IIα in the formation of radiation-induced chromatid breaks, and could help explain inter-individual variation in human chromosomal radiosensitivity; elevation of which has been linked with cancer susceptibility.

  5. Sonographic decreased echogenicity of thyroid parenchyma in asymptomatic population: Correction with thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Lee, Ji Ye [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University School of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Jin [Dept. of of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between decreased echogenicity of thyroid and thyroid hormones or autoantibodies. From January 2009 to December 2011, 543 patients with decreased parenchymal echogenicity [M:F = 133:410, median age: 42 years (range: 9-82 years)], who did not have solid nodule, symptom or medication related to thyroid and underwent thyroid function test were retrospectively reviewed. Images were classified based on the degree of hypoechogenicity, heterogenicity or thyroid size. 1) Group A: mild decreased echogenicity, group B: marked decreased echogenicity, 2) group Ho: homogeneous echogenicity, group He: heterogeneous echogenicity, 3) group 1: decreased size, group 2: normal size, group 3: increased size. Differences in triiodiothyronyne (T3), free-thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and anti-TSH receptor antibody (TSH-rAb) were evaluated among groups. T3, fT4, and TSH levels differed between groups A and B (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p < 0.001). TgAb and TPOAb of group B were higher than group A (p = 0.006, p < 0.001). TPOAb of group He was higher than group Ho (p < 0.001). TSH-rAb and TPOAb of group 3 were higher than group 2 (p = 0.017, p < 0.001). The patients with findings of markedly decreased, heterogeneous echogenicity or thyroid enlargement may have abnormal thyroid function and autoantibodies. These may facilitate the physicians' decision to order tests for thyroid function and autoimmune activity.

  6. Decrease in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium content, not myofilament function, contributes to muscle twitch force decline in isolated cardiac trabeculae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Brunello, Lucia; Gyorke, Sándor; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2014-01-01

    We set out to determine the factors responsible for twitch force decline in isolated intact rat cardiac trabeculae. The contractile force of trabeculae declined over extended periods of isometric twitch contractions. The force-frequency relationship within the frequency range of 4–8 Hz, at 37 °C, became more positive and the frequency optimum shifted to higher rates with this decline in baseline twitch tensions. The post-rest potentiation (37 °C), a phenomenon highly dependent on calcium handling mechanisms, became more pronounced with decrease in twitch tensions. We show that the main abnormality during muscle run-down was not due to a deficit in the myofilaments; maximal tension achieved using a K+ contracture protocol was either unaffected or only slightly decreased. Conversely, the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium content, as assessed by rapid cooling contractures (from 27 °C to 0 °C), decreased, and had a close association with the declining twitch tensions (R2 ~ 0.76). SR Ca2+-ATPase, relative to Na+/Ca2+ exchanger activity, was not altered as there was no significant change in paired rapid cooling contracture ratios. Furthermore, confocal microscopy detected no abnormalities in the overall structure of the cardiomyocytes and t-tubules in the cardiac trabeculae (~23 °C). Overall, the data indicates that the primary mechanism responsible for force run-down in multi-cellular cardiac preparations is a decline in the SR calcium content and not the maximal tension generation capability of the myofilaments. PMID:25056841

  7. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Krauss

    Full Text Available Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short

  8. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  9. Organizational Perspectives on Rapid Response Team Structure, Function, and Cost: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patricia L; McSweeney, Jean

    Understanding how an organization determines structure and function of a rapid response team (RRT), as well as cost evaluation and implications, can provide foundational knowledge to guide decisions about RRTs. The objectives were to (1) identify influencing factors in organizational development of RRT structure and function and (2) describe evaluation of RRT costs. Using a qualitative, ethnographic design, nurse executives and experts in 15 moderate-size hospitals were interviewed to explore their decision-making processes in determining RRT structure and function. Face-to-face interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and verified for accurateness. Using content analysis and constant comparison, interview data were analyzed. Demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The sample included 27 participants from 15 hospitals in 5 south-central states. They described a variety of RRT responders and functions, with the majority of hospitals having a critical care charge nurse attending all RRT calls for assistance. Others described a designated RRT nurse with primary RRT duties as responder to all RRT calls. Themes of RRT development from the data included influencers, decision processes, and thoughts about cost. It is important to understand how hospitals determine optimal structure and function to enhance support of quality nursing care. Determining the impact of an RRT on costs and benefits is vital in balancing patient safety and limited resources. Future research should focus on clarifying differences between team structure and function in outcomes as well as the most effective means to estimate costs and benefits.

  10. Functional brain activation differences in stuttering identified with a rapid fMRI sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shelly Jo; Choo, Ai Leen; Sharma, Harish; Ambrose, Nicoline G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether brain activity related to the presence of stuttering can be identified with rapid functional MRI (fMRI) sequences that involved overt and covert speech processing tasks. The long-term goal is to develop sensitive fMRI approaches with developmentally appropriate tasks to identify deviant speech motor and auditory brain activity in children who stutter closer to the age at which recovery from stuttering is documented. Rapid sequences may be preferred for individuals or populations who do not tolerate long scanning sessions. In this report, we document the application of a picture naming and phoneme monitoring task in three minute fMRI sequences with adults who stutter (AWS). If relevant brain differences are found in AWS with these approaches that conform to previous reports, then these approaches can be extended to younger populations. Pairwise contrasts of brain BOLD activity between AWS and normally fluent adults indicated the AWS showed higher BOLD activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right temporal lobe and sensorimotor cortices during picture naming and and higher activity in the right IFG during phoneme monitoring. The right lateralized pattern of BOLD activity together with higher activity in sensorimotor cortices is consistent with previous reports, which indicates rapid fMRI sequences can be considered for investigating stuttering in younger participants. PMID:22133409

  11. Decreased Respiratory Muscle Function Is Associated with Impaired Trunk Balance among Chronic Stroke Patients: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongbong; Cho, Ji-Eun; Hwang, Dal-Yeon; Lee, WanHee

    2018-06-01

    The abdominal muscles play a role in trunk balance. Abdominal muscle thickness is asymmetrical in stroke survivors, who also have decreased respiratory muscle function. We compared the thickness of the abdominal muscles between the affected and less affected sides in stroke survivors. In addition, the relationship between respiratory muscle function and trunk balance was evaluated. Chronic stroke patients (18 men, 15 women; mean age, 58.94 ± 12.30 years; Mini-Mental Status Examination score ≥ 24) who could sit without assist were enrolled. Abdominal muscle thickness during rest and contraction was measured with ultrasonography, and the thickening ratio was calculated. Respiratory muscle function assessment included maximum respiratory pressure, peak flow, and air volume. Trunk function was evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale, and trunk balance was estimated based on the center of pressure velocity and path length within the limit of stability in sitting posture. Abdominal muscles were significantly thinner on the affected side, and the thickening ratio was lower in the affected side (P respiratory muscle function was significantly correlated with higher level of trunk function and balance in stroke patients (P respiratory muscle function has positive correlation with trunk function and balance. We propose that respiratory muscle training should be included as part of trunk balance training in chronic stroke patients.

  12. Decreased in vitro mitochondrial function is associated with enhanced brain metabolism, blood flow, and memory in Surf1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Pulliam, Daniel A; Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Halloran, Jonathan J; Hussong, Stacy A; Burbank, Raquel R; Bresnen, Andrew; Liu, Yuhong; Podlutskaya, Natalia; Soundararajan, Anuradha; Muir, Eric; Duong, Timothy Q; Bokov, Alex F; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Richardson, Arlan G; Van Remmen, Holly; Fox, Peter T; Galvan, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain damage after excitotoxic insults. In the present study, we examined brain metabolism, brain hemodynamics, and memory of Surf1 KO mice using in vitro measures of mitochondrial function, in vivo neuroimaging, and behavioral testing. We show that decreased respiration and increased generation of hydrogen peroxide in isolated Surf1 KO brain mitochondria are associated with increased brain glucose metabolism, cerebral blood flow, and lactate levels, and with enhanced memory in Surf1 KO mice. These metabolic and functional changes in Surf1 KO brains were accompanied by higher levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha, and by increases in the activated form of cyclic AMP response element-binding factor, which is integral to memory formation. These findings suggest that Surf1 deficiency-induced metabolic alterations may have positive effects on brain function. Exploring the relationship between mitochondrial activity, oxidative stress, and brain function will enhance our understanding of cognitive aging and of age-related neurologic disorders. PMID:23838831

  13. A phase I feasibility study of multi-modality imaging assessing rapid expansion of marrow fat and decreased bone mineral density in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Susanta K; Arentsen, Luke; Sueblinvong, Thanasak; Brown, Keenan; Bolan, Pat; Ghebre, Rahel G; Downs, Levi; Shanley, Ryan; Hansen, Karen E; Minenko, Anne G; Takhashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Zhang, Yan; Geller, Melissa; Reynolds, Margaret; Lee, Chung K; Blaes, Anne H; Allen, Sharon; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Le, Chap; Froelich, Jerry; Rosen, Clifford; Yee, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for fractures, but lack of effective and economical biomarkers limits quantitative assessments of marrow fat (MF), bone mineral density (BMD) and their relation in response to cytotoxic cancer treatment. We report dual energy CT (DECT) imaging, commonly used for cancer diagnosis, treatment and surveillance, as a novel biomarker of MF and BMD. We validated DECT in pre-clinical and phase I clinical trials and verified with water-fat MRI (WF-MRI), quantitative CT (QCT) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Basis material composition framework was validated using water and small-chain alcohols simulating different components of bone marrow. Histologic validation was achieved by measuring percent adipocyte in the cadaver vertebrae and compared with DECT and WF-MRI. For a phase I trial, sixteen patients with gynecologic malignancies (treated with oophorectomy, radiotherapy or chemotherapy) underwent DECT, QCT, WF-MRI and DXA before and 12months after treatment. BMD and MF percent and distribution were quantified in the lumbar vertebrae and the right femoral neck. Measured precision (3mg/cm(3)) was sufficient to distinguish test solutions. Adiposity in cadaver bone histology was highly correlated with MF measured using DECT and WF-MRI (r=0.80 and 0.77, respectively). In the clinical trial, DECT showed high overall correlation (r=0.77, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.83) with WF-MRI. MF increased significantly after treatment (p<0.002). Chemotherapy and radiation caused greater increases in MF than oophorectomy (p<0.032). L4 BMD decreased 14% by DECT, 20% by QCT, but only 5% by DXA (p<0.002 for all). At baseline, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between MF and BMD which was dramatically attenuated after treatment. Our study demonstrated that DECT, similar to WF-MRI, can accurately measure marrow adiposity. Both imaging modalities show rapid increase in MF following cancer treatment. Our results suggest that MF and

  14. A robust and rapid method of producing soluble, stable, and functional G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Corin

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, are notoriously difficult to express. Using commercial E. coli cell-free systems with the detergent Brij-35, we could rapidly produce milligram quantities of 13 unique GPCRs. Immunoaffinity purification yielded receptors at >90% purity. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism indicated that the purified receptors were properly folded. Microscale thermophoresis, a novel label-free and surface-free detection technique that uses thermal gradients, showed that these receptors bound their ligands. The secondary structure and ligand-binding results from cell-free produced proteins were comparable to those expressed and purified from HEK293 cells. Our study demonstrates that cell-free protein production using commercially available kits and optimal detergents is a robust technology that can be used to produce sufficient GPCRs for biochemical, structural, and functional analyses. This robust and simple method may further stimulate others to study the structure and function of membrane proteins.

  15. The rapidly evolving centromere-specific histone has stringent functional requirements in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maruthachalam; Kwong, Pak N; Menorca, Ron M G; Valencia, Joel T; Ramahi, Joseph S; Stewart, Jodi L; Tran, Robert K; Sundaresan, Venkatesan; Comai, Luca; Chan, Simon W-L

    2010-10-01

    Centromeres control chromosome inheritance in eukaryotes, yet their DNA structure and primary sequence are hypervariable. Most animals and plants have megabases of tandem repeats at their centromeres, unlike yeast with unique centromere sequences. Centromere function requires the centromere-specific histone CENH3 (CENP-A in human), which replaces histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes. CENH3 evolves rapidly, particularly in its N-terminal tail domain. A portion of the CENH3 histone-fold domain, the CENP-A targeting domain (CATD), has been previously shown to confer kinetochore localization and centromere function when swapped into human H3. Furthermore, CENP-A in human cells can be functionally replaced by CENH3 from distantly related organisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have used cenh3-1 (a null mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana) to replace endogenous CENH3 with GFP-tagged variants. A H3.3 tail domain-CENH3 histone-fold domain chimera rescued viability of cenh3-1, but CENH3's lacking a tail domain were nonfunctional. In contrast to human results, H3 containing the A. thaliana CATD cannot complement cenh3-1. GFP-CENH3 from the sister species A. arenosa functionally replaces A. thaliana CENH3. GFP-CENH3 from the close relative Brassica rapa was targeted to centromeres, but did not complement cenh3-1, indicating that kinetochore localization and centromere function can be uncoupled. We conclude that CENH3 function in A. thaliana, an organism with large tandem repeat centromeres, has stringent requirements for functional complementation in mitosis.

  16. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  17. Rapid high-level production of functional HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in transient plant expression systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Rosenberg

    Full Text Available Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01 or a single chain antibody construct (m9, for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production.

  18. First functional polymorphism in CFTR promoter that results in decreased transcriptional activity and Sp1/USF binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taulan, M.; Lopez, E.; Guittard, C.; Rene, C.; Baux, D.; Altieri, J.P.; DesGeorges, M.; Claustres, M.; Romey, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Growing evidences show that functionally relevant polymorphisms in various promoters alter both transcriptional activity and affinities of existing protein-DNA interactions, and thus influence disease progression in humans. We previously reported the -94G>T CFTR promoter variant in a female CF patient in whom any known disease-causing mutation has been detected. To investigate whether the -94G>T could be a regulatory variant, we have proceeded to in silico analyses and functional studies including EMSA and reporter gene assays. Our data indicate that the promoter variant decreases basal CFTR transcriptional activity in different epithelial cells and alters binding affinities of both Sp1 and USF nuclear proteins to the CFTR promoter. The present report provides evidence for the first functional polymorphism that negatively affects the CFTR transcriptional activity and demonstrates a cooperative role of Sp1 and USF transcription factors in transactivation of the CFTR gene promoter

  19. Profiling of the Tox21 Chemical Collection for Mitochondrial Function to Identify Compounds that Acutely Decrease Mitochondrial Membrane Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Huang, Ruili; Michael, Sam; Witt, Kristine L.; Richard, Ann; Tice, Raymond R.; Simeonov, Anton; Austin, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Understanding whether different environmental chemicals and druglike molecules impact mitochondrial function represents an initial step in predicting exposure-related toxicity and defining a possible role for such compounds in the onset of various diseases. Objectives: We sought to identify individual chemicals and general structural features associated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Methods: We used a multiplexed [two end points in one screen; MMP and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content] quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) approach combined with informatics tools to screen the Tox21 library of 10,000 compounds (~ 8,300 unique chemicals) at 15 concentrations each in triplicate to identify chemicals and structural features that are associated with changes in MMP in HepG2 cells. Results: Approximately 11% of the compounds (913 unique compounds) decreased MMP after 1 hr of treatment without affecting cell viability (ATP content). In addition, 309 compounds decreased MMP over a concentration range that also produced measurable cytotoxicity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) in MMP assay/IC50 in viability assay ≤ 3; p Tice RR, Simeonov A, Austin CP, Xia M. 2015. Profiling of the Tox21 chemical collection for mitochondrial function to identify compounds that acutely decrease mitochondrial membrane potential. Environ Health Perspect 123:49–56; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408642 PMID:25302578

  20. Rapid, Efficient and Versatile Strategies for Functionally Sophisticated Polymers and Nanoparticles: Degradable Polyphosphoesters and Anisotropic Distribution of Chemical Functionalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shiyi

    conjugate by densely attaching the polyphosphoester block with azide-functionalized Paclitaxel by azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition. This Paclitaxel drug conjugate provides a powerful platform for combinational cancer therapy and bioimaging due to its ultra-high Paclitaxel loading (> 65 wt%), high water solubility (>6.2 mg/mL for PTX) and easy functionalization. Another polyphosphoester-based nanoparticle system has been developed by a programmable process for the rapid and facile preparation of a family of nanoparticles with different surface charges and functionalities. The non-ionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic nanoparticles with hydrodynamic diameters between 13 nm to 21 nm and great size uniformity could be rapidly prepared from small molecules in 6 h or 2 days. The anionic and zwitterionic nanoparticles were designed to load silver ions to treat pulmonary infections, while the cationic nanoparticles are being applied to regulate lung injuries by serving as a degradable iNOS inhibitor conjugates. In addition, a direct synthesis of acid-labile polyphosphoramidate by organobase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization and an improved two-step preparation of polyphosphoester ionomer by acid-assisted cleavage of phosphoramidate bonds on polyphosphoramidate were developed. Polyphosphoramidate and polyphosphoester ionomers may be applied to many applications, due to their unique chemical and physical properties.

  1. Rapid production of functionalized recombinant proteins: marrying ligation independent cloning and in vitro protein ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Susanna; Marsac, Yoann; Breitling, Reinhard; Granovsky, Igor; Brok-Volchanskaya, Vera; Goody, Roger S; Becker, Christian F W; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2006-01-01

    Functional genomics and proteomics have been very active fields since the sequencing of several genomes was completed. To assign a physiological role to the newly discovered coding genes with unknown function, new generic methods for protein production, purification, and targeted functionalization are needed. This work presents a new vector, pCYSLIC, that allows rapid generation of Escherichia coli expression constructs via ligation-independent cloning (LIC). The vector is designed to facilitate protein purification by either Ni-NTA or GSH affinity chromatography. Subsequent proteolytic removal of affinity tags liberates an N-terminal cysteine residue that is then used for covalent modification of the target protein with different biophysical probes via protein ligation. The described system has been tested on 36 mammalian Rab GTPases, and it was demonstrated that recombinant GTPases produced with pCYSLIC could be efficiently modified with fluorescein or biotin in vitro. Finally, LIC was compared with the recently developed In-Fusion cloning method, and it was demonstrated that In-Fusion provides superior flexibility in choice of expression vector. By the application of In-Fusion cloning Cys-Rab6A GTPase with an N-terminal cysteine residue was generated employing unmodified pET30a vector and TVMV protease.

  2. Reliable and rapid characterization of functional FCN2 gene variants reveals diverse geographical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ojurongbe Olusola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ficolin-2 coded by FCN2 gene is a soluble serum protein and an innate immune recognition element of the complement system. FCN2 gene polymorphisms reveal distinct geographical patterns and are documented to alter serum ficolin levels and modulate disease susceptibility. Methods We employed a real-time PCR based on Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET method to genotype four functional SNPs including -986 G > A (#rs3124952, -602 G > A (#rs3124953, -4A > G (#rs17514136 and +6424 G > T (#rs7851696 in the ficolin-2 (FCN2 gene. We characterized the FCN2 variants in individuals representing Brazilian (n = 176, Nigerian (n = 180, Vietnamese (n = 172 and European Caucasian ethnicity (n = 165. Results We observed that the genotype distribution of three functional SNP variants (−986 G > A, -602 G > A and -4A > G differ significantly between the populations investigated (p p  Conclusions The observed distribution of the FCN2 functional SNP variants may likely contribute to altered serum ficolin levels and this may depend on the different disease settings in world populations. To conclude, the use of FRET based real-time PCR especially for FCN2 gene will benefit a larger scientific community who extensively depend on rapid, reliable method for FCN2 genotyping.

  3. Earthquake Magnitude and Shaking Intensity Dependent Fragility Functions for Rapid Risk Assessment of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-José Nollet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated web application, referred to as ER2 for rapid risk evaluator, is under development for a user-friendly seismic risk assessment by the non-expert public safety community. The assessment of likely negative consequences is based on pre-populated databases of seismic, building inventory and vulnerability parameters. To further accelerate the computation for near real-time analyses, implicit building fragility curves were developed as functions of the magnitude and the intensity of the seismic shaking defined with a single intensity measure, input spectral acceleration at 1.0 s implicitly considering the epicentral distance and local soil conditions. Damage probabilities were compared with those obtained with the standard fragility functions explicitly considering epicentral distances and local site classes in addition to the earthquake magnitudes and respective intensity of the seismic shaking. Different seismic scenarios were considered first for 53 building classes common in Eastern Canada, and then a reduced number of 24 combined building classes was proposed. Comparison of results indicate that the damage predictions with implicit fragility functions for short (M ≤ 5.5 and medium strong motion duration (5.5 < M ≤ 7.5 show low variation with distance and soil class, with average error of less than 3.6%.

  4. Rapid detection of polyethylene glycol sonolysis upon functionalization of carbon nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Vasanth S; Wang, Ruhung; Mikoryak, Carole A; Pantano, Paul; Draper, Rockford

    2015-09-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and related polymers are often used in the functionalization of carbon nanomaterials in procedures that involve sonication. However, PEG is very sensitive to sonolytic degradation and PEG degradation products can be toxic to mammalian cells. Thus, it is imperative to assess potential PEG degradation to ensure that the final material does not contain undocumented contaminants that can introduce artifacts into experimental results. Described here is a simple and inexpensive polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method to detect the sonolytic degradation of PEG. The method was used to monitor the integrity of PEG phospholipid constructs and branched chain PEGs after different sonication times. This approach not only helps detect degraded PEG, but should also facilitate rapid screening of sonication parameters to find optimal conditions that minimize PEG damage. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  5. Decreased functional connectivity between ventral tegmental area and nucleus accumbens in Internet gaming disorder: evidence from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ma, Shan-Shan; Yip, Sarah W; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Chen, Chao; Yan, Chao-Gan; Liu, Lu; Liu, Ben; Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-11-18

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has become an increasing mental health problem worldwide. Decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) has been found in substance use and is thought to play an important role in the development of substance addiction. However, rsFC between the VTA and NAcc in a non-substance addiction, such as IGD, has not been assessed previously. The current study aimed to investigate: (1) if individuals with IGD exhibit alterations in VTA-NAcc functional connectivity; and (2) whether VTA-NAcc functional connectivity is associated with subjective Internet craving. Thirty-five male participants with IGD and 24 healthy control (HC) individuals participated in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regions of interest (left NAcc, right NAcc and VTA) were selected based on the literature and were defined by placing spheres centered on Talairach Daemon coordinates. In comparison with HCs, individuals with IGD had significantly decreased rsFC between the VTA and right NAcc. Resting-state functional connectivity strength between the VTA and right NAcc was negatively correlated with self-reported subjective craving for the Internet. These results suggest possible neural functional similarities between individuals with IGD and individuals with substance addictions.

  6. A microcontroller platform for the rapid prototyping of functional electrical stimulation-based gait neuroprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzio de Melo, Paulo; da Silva, Miguel Tavares; Martins, Jorge; Newman, Dava

    2015-05-01

    Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been used over the last decades as a method to rehabilitate lost motor functions of individuals with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and post-stroke hemiparesis. Within this field, researchers in need of developing FES-based control solutions for specific disabilities often have to choose between either the acquisition and integration of high-performance industry-level systems, which are rather expensive and hardly portable, or develop custom-made portable solutions, which despite their lower cost, usually require expert-level electronic skills. Here, a flexible low-cost microcontroller-based platform for rapid prototyping of FES neuroprostheses is presented, designed for reduced execution complexity, development time, and production cost. For this reason, the Arduino open-source microcontroller platform was used, together with off-the-shelf components whenever possible. The developed system enables the rapid deployment of portable FES-based gait neuroprostheses, being flexible enough to allow simple open-loop strategies but also more complex closed-loop solutions. The system is based on a modular architecture that allows the development of optimized solutions depending on the desired FES applications, even though the design and testing of the platform were focused toward drop foot correction. The flexibility of the system was demonstrated using two algorithms targeting drop foot condition within different experimental setups. Successful bench testing of the device in healthy subjects demonstrated these neuroprosthesis platform capabilities to correct drop foot. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. GroEL1, a heat shock protein 60 of Chlamydia pneumoniae, impairs neovascularization by decreasing endothelial progenitor cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available The number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are sensitive to hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking in humans, which are also associated with the development of atherosclerosis. GroEL1 from Chlamydia pneumoniae has been found in atherosclerotic lesions and is related to atherosclerotic pathogenesis. However, the actual effects of GroEL1 on EPC function are unclear. In this study, we investigate the EPC function in GroEL1-administered hind limb-ischemic C57BL/B6 and C57BL/10ScNJ (a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 mutation mice and human EPCs. In mice, laser Doppler imaging, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the degree of neo-vasculogenesis, circulating level of EPCs, and expression of CD34, vWF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS in vessels. Blood flow in the ischemic limb was significantly impaired in C57BL/B6 but not C57BL/10ScNJ mice treated with GroEL1. Circulating EPCs were also decreased after GroEL1 administration in C57BL/B6 mice. Additionally, GroEL1 inhibited the expression of CD34 and eNOS in C57BL/B6 ischemic muscle. In vitro, GroEL1 impaired the capacity of differentiation, mobilization, tube formation, and migration of EPCs. GroEL1 increased senescence, which was mediated by caspases, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signaling in EPCs. Furthermore, GroEL1 decreased integrin and E-selectin expression and induced inflammatory responses in EPCs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that TLR4 and impaired NO-related mechanisms could contribute to the reduced number and functional activity of EPCs in the presence of GroEL1 from C. pneumoniae.

  8. Rapid finite-fault inversions in Southern California using Cybershake Green's functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Polet, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a system for rapid finite fault inversion for intermediate and large Southern California earthquakes using local, regional and teleseismic seismic waveforms as well as geodetic data. For modeling the local seismic data, we use 3D Green's functions from the Cybershake project, which were made available to us courtesy of the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC). The use of 3D Green's functions allows us to extend the inversion to higher frequency waveform data and smaller magnitude earthquakes, in addition to achieving improved solutions in general. The ultimate aim of this work is to develop the ability to provide high quality finite fault models within a few hours after any damaging earthquake in Southern California, so that they may be used as input to various post-earthquake assessment tools such as ShakeMap, as well as by the scientific community and other interested parties. Additionally, a systematic determination of finite fault models has value as a resource for scientific studies on detailed earthquake processes, such as rupture dynamics and scaling relations. We are using an established least-squares finite fault inversion method that has been applied extensively both on large as well as smaller regional earthquakes, in conjunction with the 3D Green's functions, where available, as well as 1D Green's functions for areas for which the Cybershake library has not yet been developed. We are carrying out validation and calibration of this system using significant earthquakes that have occurred in the region over the last two decades, spanning a range of locations and magnitudes (5.4 and higher).

  9. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for children with functional abdominal pain and their parents decreases pain and other symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; Walker, Lynn S; Romano, Joan M; Christie, Dennis L; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M; Feld, Andrew D; Ballard, Sheri A; Welsh, Ericka M; Jeffery, Robert W; Young, Melissa; Coffey, Melissa J; Whitehead, William E

    2010-04-01

    Unexplained abdominal pain in children has been shown to be related to parental responses to symptoms. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to improve outcomes in idiopathic childhood abdominal pain by altering parental responses to pain and children's ways of coping and thinking about their symptoms. Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions-a three-session intervention of cognitive-behavioral treatment targeting parents' responses to their children's pain complaints and children's coping responses, or a three-session educational intervention that controlled for time and attention. Parents and children were assessed at pretreatment, and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months post-treatment. Outcome measures were child and parent reports of child pain levels, function, and adjustment. Process measures included parental protective responses to children's symptom reports and child coping methods. Children in the cognitive-behavioral condition showed greater baseline to follow-up decreases in pain and gastrointestinal symptom severity (as reported by parents) than children in the comparison condition (time x treatment interaction, Pparents in the cognitive-behavioral condition reported greater decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms compared with parents in the comparison condition (time x treatment interaction, Pparental responses and increasing child coping skills is effective in reducing children's pain and symptom levels compared with an educational control condition.

  10. Bridging the gap: axonal fusion drives rapid functional recovery of the nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Teoh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Injuries to the central or peripheral nervous system frequently cause long-term disabilities because damaged neurons are unable to efficiently self-repair. This inherent deficiency necessitates the need for new treatment options aimed at restoring lost function to patients. Compared to humans, a number of species possess far greater regenerative capabilities, and can therefore provide important insights into how our own nervous systems can be repaired. In particular, several invertebrate species have been shown to rapidly initiate regeneration post-injury, allowing separated axon segments to re-join. This process, known as axonal fusion, represents a highly efficient repair mechanism as a regrowing axon needs to only bridge the site of damage and fuse with its separated counterpart in order to re-establish its original structure. Our recent findings in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have expanded the promise of axonal fusion by demonstrating that it can restore complete function to damaged neurons. Moreover, we revealed the importance of injury-induced changes in the composition of the axonal membrane for mediating axonal fusion, and discovered that the level of axonal fusion can be enhanced by promoting a neuron's intrinsic growth potential. A complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling axonal fusion may permit similar approaches to be applied in a clinical setting.

  11. Arterial Injury and Endothelial Repair: Rapid Recovery of Function after Mechanical Injury in Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Tilling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Previous studies suggest a protracted course of recovery after mechanical endothelial injury; confounders may include degree of injury and concomitant endothelial dysfunction. We sought to define the time course of endothelial function recovery using flow-mediated dilation (FMD, after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR and mechanical injury in patients and healthy volunteers. The contribution of circulating CD133+/CD34+/VEGFR2+ “endothelial progenitor” (EPC or repair cells to endothelial repair was also examined. Methods. 28 healthy volunteers aged 18–35 years underwent transient forearm ischaemia induced by cuff inflation around the proximal biceps and radial artery mechanical injury induced by inserting a wire through a cannula. A more severe mechanical injury was induced using an arterial sheath and catheter inserted into the radial artery of 18 patients undergoing angiography. Results. IR and mechanical injury produced immediate impairment of FMD (from 6.5 ± 1.2% to 2.9 ± 2.2% and from 7.4 ± 2.3% to 1.5 ± 1.6% for IR and injury, resp., each P<0.001 but recovered within 6 hours and 2 days, respectively. FMD took up to 4 months to recover in patients. Circulating EPC did not change significantly during the injury/recovery period in all subjects. Conclusions. Recovery of endothelial function after IR and mechanical injury is rapid and not associated with a change in circulating EPC.

  12. Rapid membrane permeabilization and inhibition of vital functions of gram-negative bacteria by bactenecins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerlavaj, B; Romeo, D; Gennaro, R

    1990-11-01

    Bactenecins are a class of arginine-rich antibacterial peptides of bovine neutrophil granules. Two bactenecins with approximate molecular weights of 5,000 and 7,000 designated Bac5 and Bac7, respectively, exert in vitro a potent bactericidal activity toward several gram-negative bacteria (R. Gennaro, B. Skerlavaj, and D. Romeo, Infect. Immun. 57:3142-3146, 1989). We have now found that this activity shows an inverse relationship to the ionic strength of the medium and is inhibited by divalent cations and greatly potentiated by lactoferrin. Under conditions supporting marked bactericidal activity, the two peptides cause a rapid increase in the permeability of both the outer and inner membranes of Escherichia coli, as shown by unmasking of periplasmic beta-lactamase and of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase. In addition, the two bactenecins inhibit the respiration of E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae but not of Bac5- and Bac7-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, they induce a drop in ATP content in E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhimurium and a marked decrease in the rates of transport and incorporation of [3H]leucine and [3H]uridine into E. coli protein and RNA, respectively. In general, all these effects become evident within 1 to 2 min and reach their maximal expression within about 5 min. Overall, these data strongly suggest that the decrease in bacterial viability is causally related to the increase in membrane permeability and the subsequent fall in respiration-linked proton motive force, with the attendant loss of cellular metabolites and macromolecular biosynthesis ability.

  13. Childhood tuberculosis is associated with decreased abundance of T cell gene transcripts and impaired T cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Hemingway

    Full Text Available The WHO estimates around a million children contract tuberculosis (TB annually with over 80 000 deaths from dissemination of infection outside of the lungs. The insidious onset and association with skin test anergy suggests failure of the immune system to both recognise and respond to infection. To understand the immune mechanisms, we studied genome-wide whole blood RNA expression in children with TB meningitis (TBM. Findings were validated in a second cohort of children with TBM and pulmonary TB (PTB, and functional T-cell responses studied in a third cohort of children with TBM, other extrapulmonary TB (EPTB and PTB. The predominant RNA transcriptional response in children with TBM was decreased abundance of multiple genes, with 140/204 (68% of all differentially regulated genes showing reduced abundance compared to healthy controls. Findings were validated in a second cohort with concordance of the direction of differential expression in both TBM (r2 = 0.78 p = 2x10-16 and PTB patients (r2 = 0.71 p = 2x10-16 when compared to a second group of healthy controls. Although the direction of expression of these significant genes was similar in the PTB patients, the magnitude of differential transcript abundance was less in PTB than in TBM. The majority of genes were involved in activation of leucocytes (p = 2.67E-11 and T-cell receptor signalling (p = 6.56E-07. Less abundant gene expression in immune cells was associated with a functional defect in T-cell proliferation that recovered after full TB treatment (p<0.0003. Multiple genes involved in T-cell activation show decreased abundance in children with acute TB, who also have impaired functional T-cell responses. Our data suggest that childhood TB is associated with an acquired immune defect, potentially resulting in failure to contain the pathogen. Elucidation of the mechanism causing the immune paresis may identify new treatment and prevention strategies.

  14. Decreased prefrontal lobe interhemispheric functional connectivity in adolescents with internet gaming disorder: a primary study using resting-state FMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Wang

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that people with Internet gaming disorder (IGD have structural and functional abnormalities in specific brain areas and connections. However, little is known about the alterations of the interhemispheric resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC in participants with IGD. In the present study, we used a newly developed voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC method to investigate the interhemispheric rsFC of the whole brain in participants with IGD.We compared interhemispheric rsFC between 17 participants with IGD and 24 healthy controls, group-matched on age, gender, and education status. All participants were provided written informed consent. Resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired for all participants. The rsFC between bilateral homotopic voxels was calculated. Regions showing abnormal VMHC in IGD participants were adopted as regions of interest for correlation analyses.Compared to healthy controls, IGD participants showed decreased VMHC between the left and right superior frontal gyrus (orbital part, inferior frontal gyrus (orbital part, middle frontal gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. Further analyses showed Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-related VMHC in superior frontal gyrus (orbital part and CIAS (r = -0.55, p = 0.02, uncorrected.Our findings implicate the important role of altered interhemispheric rsFC in the bilateral prefrontal lobe in the neuropathological mechanism of IGD, and provide further supportive evidence for the reclassification of IGD as a behavioral addiction.

  15. Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C.

    2014-10-01

    The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)

  16. Rapid adjustment of bird community compositions to local climatic variations and its functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaüzère, Pierre; Jiguet, Frédéric; Devictor, Vincent

    2015-09-01

    The local spatial congruence between climate changes and community changes has rarely been studied over large areas. We proposed one of the first comprehensive frameworks tracking local changes in community composition related to climate changes. First, we investigated whether and how 12 years of changes in the local composition of bird communities were related to local climate variations. Then, we tested the consequences of this climate-induced adjustment of communities on Grinnellian (habitat-related) and Eltonian (function-related) homogenization. A standardized protocol monitoring spatial and temporal trends of birds over France from 2001 to 2012 was used. For each plot and each year, we used the spring temperature and the spring precipitations and calculated three indices reflecting the thermal niche, the habitat specialization, and the functional originality of the species within a community. We then used a moving-window approach to estimate the spatial distribution of the temporal trends in each of these indices and their congruency with local climatic variations. Temperature fluctuations and community dynamics were found to be highly variable in space, but their variations were finely congruent. More interestingly, the community adjustment to temperature variations was nonmonotonous. Instead, unexplained fluctuations in community composition were observed up to a certain threshold of climate change intensity, above which a change in community composition was observed. This shift corresponded to a significant decrease in the relative abundance of habitat specialists and functionally original species within communities, regardless of the direction of temperature change. The investigation of variations in climate and community responses appears to be a central step toward a better understanding of climate change effects on biodiversity. Our results suggest a fine-scale and short-term adjustment of community composition to temperature changes. Moreover

  17. Rapid Discovery and Functional Characterization of Terpene Synthases from Four Endophytic Xylariaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Wu

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous plant endosymbionts that establish complex and poorly understood relationships with their host organisms. Many endophytic fungi are known to produce a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs with potential energy applications, which have been described as "mycodiesel". Many of these mycodiesel hydrocarbons are terpenes, a chemically diverse class of compounds produced by many plants, fungi, and bacteria. Due to their high energy densities, terpenes, such as pinene and bisabolene, are actively being investigated as potential "drop-in" biofuels for replacing diesel and aviation fuel. In this study, we rapidly discovered and characterized 26 terpene synthases (TPSs derived from four endophytic fungi known to produce mycodiesel hydrocarbons. The TPS genes were expressed in an E. coli strain harboring a heterologous mevalonate pathway designed to enhance terpene production, and their product profiles were determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME and GC-MS. Out of the 26 TPS's profiled, 12 TPS's were functional, with the majority of them exhibiting both monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthase activity.

  18. Design and fabrication of magnetically functionalized flexible micropillar arrays for rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, BingPu; Xu, Wei; Syed, Ahad; Chau, Yeungyeung; Chen, Longqing; Chew, Basil; Yassine, Omar; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Gao, Yibo; Zhang, Jingxian; Xiao, Xiao; Kosel, Jü rgen; Zhang, Xixiang; Yao, Zhaohui; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    Magnetically functionalized PDMS-based micropillar arrays have been successfully designed, fabricated and implanted for controllable microfluidic mixing. The arrangement of PDMS micropillar arrays inside the microchannel can be flexibly controlled by an external magnetic field. As a consequence, the flow fields inside the microchannel can be regulated at will via magnetic activation conveniently. When a microchannel is implanted with such micropillar arrays, two microstreams can be mixed easily and controllably upon the simple application of an on/off magnetic signal. Mixing efficiencies based on micropillar arrays with different densities were investigated and compared. It was found that micropillar arrays with higher density (i.e. smaller pillar pitch) would render better mixing performance. Our microfluidic system is capable of generating highly reproducible results within many cycles of mixing/non-mixing conversion. We believe that the simple mixing-triggering method together with rapid and controllable mixing control will be extraordinarily valuable for various biological or chemical applications in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  19. Design and fabrication of magnetically functionalized flexible micropillar arrays for rapid and controllable microfluidic mixing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, BingPu

    2015-03-25

    Magnetically functionalized PDMS-based micropillar arrays have been successfully designed, fabricated and implanted for controllable microfluidic mixing. The arrangement of PDMS micropillar arrays inside the microchannel can be flexibly controlled by an external magnetic field. As a consequence, the flow fields inside the microchannel can be regulated at will via magnetic activation conveniently. When a microchannel is implanted with such micropillar arrays, two microstreams can be mixed easily and controllably upon the simple application of an on/off magnetic signal. Mixing efficiencies based on micropillar arrays with different densities were investigated and compared. It was found that micropillar arrays with higher density (i.e. smaller pillar pitch) would render better mixing performance. Our microfluidic system is capable of generating highly reproducible results within many cycles of mixing/non-mixing conversion. We believe that the simple mixing-triggering method together with rapid and controllable mixing control will be extraordinarily valuable for various biological or chemical applications in the future. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  20. Current Smoking Dose-Dependently Associated with Decreased β-Cell Function in Chinese Men without Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between chronic smoking and insulin resistance and β-cell function in Chinese men without diabetes. A total of 1,568 participants were recruited by multistage sampling. Using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA, geometric means of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and β-cell function (HOMA-β with 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by general linear model. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% CI were estimated to evaluate the associations between smoking status and insulin resistance and β-cell deficiency under a logistic regression model. Current smokers had higher levels of 2 h glucose (6.66 versus 6.48 mmol/L for oral glucose tolerance test and lower levels of fasting insulin (5.68 versus 6.03 mU/L than never smokers. The adjusted means for HOMA-β (% were 54.86 in current smokers and 58.81 in never smokers (P=0.0257. Current smoking was associated with β-cell deficiency (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.01–1.64 compared to never smoking. The β-cell function gradually decreased with increasing smoking intensity (Ptrend=0.0026, and the differences were statistically significant when the pack-year of smoking was 20 or above. No association was observed between smoking status and HOMA-IR. Our study suggested that chronic smoking may dose-dependently suppress insulin secretion in Chinese men.

  1. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony; White, J. Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Quercetin cannot be detected intracellularly despite killing MDA-MB-231 cells. ► Quercetin forms a heterodimer through oxidation in media with serum. ► The quercetin heterodimer does not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. ► Ascorbic acid stabilizes quercetin increasing cell death in quercetin treated cells. ► Quercetin, and not a modified form, is responsible for apoptosis and cell death. -- Abstract: Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin’s ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death.

  2. Rapid dimerization of quercetin through an oxidative mechanism in the presence of serum albumin decreases its ability to induce cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Anh; Bortolazzo, Anthony [Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192-0100 (United States); White, J. Brandon, E-mail: Brandon.White@sjsu.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192-0100 (United States)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin cannot be detected intracellularly despite killing MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin forms a heterodimer through oxidation in media with serum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quercetin heterodimer does not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascorbic acid stabilizes quercetin increasing cell death in quercetin treated cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quercetin, and not a modified form, is responsible for apoptosis and cell death. -- Abstract: Quercetin is a member of the flavonoid family and has been previously shown to have a variety of anti-cancer activities. We and others have reported anti-proliferation, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis of cancer cells after treatment with quercetin. Quercetin has also been shown to undergo oxidation. However, it is unclear if quercetin or one of its oxidized forms is responsible for cell death. Here we report that quercetin rapidly oxidized in cell culture media to form a dimer. The quercetin dimer is identical to a dimer that is naturally produced by onions. The quercetin dimer and quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside are unable to cross the cell membrane and do not kill MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, supplementing the media with ascorbic acid increases quercetin's ability to induce cell death probably by reduction oxidative dimerization. Our results suggest that an unmodified quercetin is the compound that elicits cell death.

  3. Rapid decrease of circulating tumor DNA predicted the treatment effect of nivolumab in a lung cancer patient within only 5 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Iijima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 77-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a 1-month history of low back pain and was diagnosed as having stage IV EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma. After treatment with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor and cytotoxic chemotherapy, nivolumab was started as fourth-line therapy. Remarkable regression of the primary tumor was observed, suggesting high anti-tumor activity of nivolumab. We retrospectively investigated the change in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA variant allele fractions in serial plasma samples before and after the nivolumab therapy. Targeted sequencing analysis showed tumor-derived TP53R249S and EGFRL858R mutations detectable in plasma, and the timing of decrease was only 5 days, much earlier than the appearance of radiological changes. Overall, these results suggest that ctDNA might reflect tumor burden and might be a surrogate marker of the therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint therapy.

  4. Stomatal closure of Pelargonium × hortorum in response to soil water deficit is associated with decreased leaf water potential only under rapid soil drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard K A; McAinsh, Martin; Dodd, Ian C

    2016-01-01

    Soil water deficits applied at different rates and for different durations can decrease both stomatal conductance (gs ) and leaf water potential (Ψleaf ). Understanding the physiological mechanisms regulating these responses is important in sustainable irrigation scheduling. Glasshouse-grown, containerized Pelargonium × hortorum BullsEye plants were irrigated either daily at various fractions of plant evapotranspiration (100, 75 and 50% ET) for 20 days or irrigation was withheld for 4 days. Xylem sap was collected and gs and Ψleaf were measured on days 15 and 20, and on days 16-19 for the respective treatments. Xylem sap pH and NO3 (-) and Ca(2+) concentrations did not differ between irrigation treatments. Xylem abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations ([ABA]xyl ) increased within 24 h of irrigation being withheld whilst gs and Ψleaf decreased. Supplying irrigation at a fraction of daily ET produced a similar relationship between [ABA]xyl and gs , but did not change Ψleaf . Treatment differences occurred independently of whether Ψleaf was measured in whole leaves with a pressure chamber, or in the lamina with a thermocouple psychrometer. Plants that were irrigated daily showed lower [ABA]xyl than plants from which irrigation was withheld, even at comparable soil moisture content. This implies that regular re-watering attenuates ABA signaling due to maintenance of soil moisture in the upper soil levels. Crucially, detached leaves supplied with synthetic ABA showed a similar relationship between [ABA]xyl and gs as intact plants, suggesting that stomatal closure of P. hortorum in response to soil water deficit is primarily an ABA-induced response, independent of changes in Ψleaf . © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Rapidly restoring biological soil crusts and ecosystem functions in a severely disturbed desert ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiquoine, Lindsay P; Abella, Scott R; Bowker, Matthew A

    2016-06-01

    Restoring biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in degraded drylands can contribute to recovery of ecosystem functions that have global implications, including erosion resistance and nutrient cycling. To examine techniques for restoring biocrusts, we conducted a replicated, factorial experiment on recently abandoned road surfaces by applying biocrust inoculation (salvaged and stored dry for two years), salvaged topsoil, an abiotic soil amendment (wood shavings), and planting of a dominant perennial shrub (Ambrosia dumosa). Eighteen months after treatments, we measured biocrust abundance and species composition, soil chlorophyll a content and fertility, and soil resistance to erosion. Biocrust addition significantly accelerated biocrust recovery on disturbed soils, including increasing lichen and moss cover and cyanobacteria colonization. Compared to undisturbed controls, inoculated plots had similar lichen and moss composition, recovered 43% of total cyanobacteria density, had similar soil chlorophyll content, and exhibited recovery of soil fertility and soil stability. Inoculation was the only treatment that generated lichen and moss cover. Topsoil application resulted in partial recovery of the cyanobacteria community and soil properties. Compared to untreated disturbed plots, topsoil application without inoculum increased cyanobacteria density by 186% and moderately improved soil chlorophyll and ammonium content and soil stability. Topsoil application produced 22% and 51% of the cyanobacteria density g⁻¹ soil compared to undisturbed and inoculated plots, respectively. Plots not treated with either topsoil or inoculum had significantly lower cyanobacteria density, soil chlorophyll and ammonium concentrations, and significantly higher soil nitrate concentration. Wood shavings and Ambrosia had no influence on biocrust lichen and moss species recovery but did affect cyanobacteria composition and soil fertility. Inoculation of severely disturbed soil with native

  6. Rapid tooling for functional prototyping of metal mold processes. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharia, T.; Ludtka, G.M.; Bjerke, M.A.; Gray, W.H.

    1997-12-01

    The overall scope of this endeavor was to develop an integrated computer system, running on a network of heterogeneous computers, that would allow the rapid development of tool designs, and then use process models to determine whether the initial tooling would have characteristics which produce the prototype parts. The major thrust of this program for ORNL was the definition of the requirements for the development of the integrated die design system with the functional purpose to link part design, tool design, and component fabrication through a seamless software environment. The principal product would be a system control program that would coordinate the various application programs and implement the data transfer so that any networked workstation would be useable. The overall system control architecture was to be required to easily facilitate any changes, upgrades, or replacements of the model from either the manufacturing end or the design criteria standpoint. The initial design of such a program is described in the section labeled ``Control Program Design``. A critical aspect of this research was the design of the system flow chart showing the exact system components and the data to be transferred. All of the major system components would have been configured to ensure data file compatibility and transferability across the Internet. The intent was to use commercially available packages to model the various manufacturing processes for creating the die and die inserts in addition to modeling the processes for which these parts were to be used. In order to meet all of these requirements, investigative research was conducted to determine the system flow features and software components within the various organizations contributing to this project. This research is summarized.

  7. Essential Function of Dicer in Resolving DNA Damage in the Rapidly Dividing Cells of the Developing and Malignant Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Swahari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of genomic integrity is critical during neurodevelopment, particularly in rapidly dividing cerebellar granule neuronal precursors that experience constitutive replication-associated DNA damage. As Dicer was recently recognized to have an unexpected function in the DNA damage response, we examined whether Dicer was important for preserving genomic integrity in the developing brain. We report that deletion of Dicer in the developing mouse cerebellum resulted in the accumulation of DNA damage leading to cerebellar progenitor degeneration, which was rescued with p53 deficiency; deletion of DGCR8 also resulted in similar DNA damage and cerebellar degeneration. Dicer deficiency also resulted in DNA damage and death in other rapidly dividing cells including embryonic stem cells and the malignant cerebellar progenitors in a mouse model of medulloblastoma. Together, these results identify an essential function of Dicer in resolving the spontaneous DNA damage that occurs during the rapid proliferation of developmental progenitors and malignant cells.

  8. Decreased cortical activation in response to a motion stimulus in anisometropic amblyopic eyes using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, Gabrielle R; Liu, Grant T; Miki, Atsushi; Francis, Ellie; Dobre, M-C; Modestino, Edward J; Aleman, David O; Haselgrove, John C

    2006-12-01

    Motion perception abnormalities and extrastriate abnormalities have been suggested in amblyopia. Functional MRI (fMRI) and motion stimuli were used to study whether interocular differences in activation are detectable in motion-sensitive cortical areas in patients with anisometropic amblyopia. We performed fMRI at 1.5 T 4 control subjects (20/20 OU), 1 with monocular suppression (20/25), and 2 with anisometropic amblyopia (20/60, 20/800). Monocular suppression was thought to be form fruste of amblyopia. The experimental stimulus consisted of expanding and contracting concentric rings, whereas the control condition consisted of stationary concentric rings. Activation was determined by contrasting the 2 conditions for each eye. Significant fMRI activation and comparable right and left eye activation was found in V3a and V5 in all control subjects (Average z-values in L vs R contrast 0.42, 0.43) and in the subject with monocular suppression (z = 0.19). The anisometropes exhibited decreased extrastriate activation in their amblyopic eyes compared with the fellow eyes (zs = 2.12, 2.76). Our data suggest motion-sensitive cortical structures may be less active when anisometropic amblyopic eyes are stimulated with moving rings. These results support the hypothesis that extrastriate cortex is affected in anisometropic amblyopia. Although suggestive of a magnocellular defect, the exact mechanism is unclear.

  9. A Convenient In Vivo Model Using Small Interfering RNA Silencing to Rapidly Assess Skeletal Gene Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    Full Text Available It is difficult to study bone in vitro because it contains various cell types that engage in cross-talk. Bone biologically links various organs, and it has thus become increasingly evident that skeletal physiology must be studied in an integrative manner in an intact animal. We developed a model using local intraosseous small interfering RNA (siRNA injection to rapidly assess the effects of a target gene on the local skeletal environment. In this model, 160-g male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 1-2 weeks. The left tibia received intraosseous injection of a parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (Pth1r or insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (Igf-1r siRNA transfection complex loaded in poloxamer 407 hydrogel, and the right tibia received the same volume of control siRNA. All the tibias received an intraosseous injection of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (1-34 (rhPTH (1-34 or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Calcein green and alizarin red were injected 6 and 2 days before euthanasia, respectively. IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were detected via RT-PCR assays and immunohistochemistry. Bone mineral density (BMD, microstructure, mineral apposition rates (MARs, and strength were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, micro-CT, histology and biomechanical tests. The RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that IGF-1R and PTH1R expression levels were dramatically diminished in the siRNA-treated left tibias compared to the right tibias (both p<0.05. Using poloxamer 407 hydrogel as a controlled-release system prolonged the silencing effect of a single dose of siRNA; the mRNA expression levels of IGF-1R were lower at two weeks than at one week (p<0.01. The BMD, bone microstructure parameters, MAR and bone strength were significantly decreased in the left tibias compared to the right tibias (all p<0.05. This simple and convenient local intraosseous siRNA injection model achieved gene silencing with very small quantities of

  10. Acoustic transfer function of cavity and its application to rapid evaluation of sound field at low frequency band

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Gang; CHEN Hualing; HU Xuanli; HUANG Xieqing

    2001-01-01

    A new method to obtain numerical solution of Acoustic Transfer Function (ATF) by BEM is presented. For a simply supported panel backed by a rectangular cavity at low frequency band (0-200 Hz), the frequency property of ATF is analyzed. The relation between the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field and the discretization schemes of the vibrational panel is discussed. The result shows that the method to obtain ATF and the rapid evaluation of sound field using the ATF is suitable to low frequency band. If an appropriate discretization scheme is choosed based on the frequency involved and the effort to obtain ATF, the accuracy of the rapid evaluation of sound field is acceptable.

  11. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D

    2015-03-31

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  12. Catalyst functionalized buffer sorbent pebbles for rapid separation of carbon dioxide from gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.

    2013-03-12

    A method for separating CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures uses a slurried media impregnated with buffer compounds and coating the solid media with a catalyst or enzyme that promotes the transformation of CO.sub.2 to carbonic acid. Buffer sorbent pebbles with a catalyst or enzyme coating are provided for rapid separation of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures.

  13. Assessment of Arteriovenous Shunt Pathway Function and Hypervolemia for Hemodialysis Patients by Using Integrated Rapid Screening System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ling Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the hemodialysis patients received body weight measurement by themselves, vital sign checking by nursing staffs before dialysis. Whenever, the arteriovenous routes with problems doubted, the patients needed to be referred to surgeon for vascular echography checking and then to be corrected. How to integrate these three tasks in one time is a very important issue. The project proposes to combine our previous study of audio-phono angiographic technology in detecting vascular stenosis with rapid screening system to evaluate dialysis patients’ arteriovenous routes function and their status of excess body fluids: inspecting and integrating the blood pressure, body weight, and fistula function work into a rapid screening system, and using the quantization of fistula phono angiography pitch to achieve assessing arteriovenous routes. Future hoping is developed a complete integrated intelligence system by combining the arteriovenous fistula signal processing with feature extraction with wireless sensor network technology.

  14. Self-care essential extras: an integration of holistic nursing, functional medicine, and health coaching to promote therapeutic lifestyle change and decrease chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scattergood, Donna M

    2010-01-01

    The Essential Vitality Program blends holistic nursing, functional medicine, and health coaching to promote lifestyle changes that modify risk factors of costly chronic disease. Karl is a client who experienced enhanced vitality, decreased chronic pain and medications use, and improved meaningful functioning, by partnering with a holistic nurse coach.

  15. Functional Activation during the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task in a Middle Aged Cohort: An fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, Chris; Johnston, Patrick; Hughes, Matthew; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, a serial discrimination task where task performance believed to reflect sustained attention capabilities, is widely used in behavioural research and increasingly in neuroimaging studies. To date, functional neuroimaging research into the RVIP has been undertaken using block analyses, reflecting the sustained processing involved in the task, but not necessarily the transient processes associated with individual trial performance. Furthermore...

  16. Amperometric biosensor based on a single antibody of dual function for rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Gersson; Rey, Alba; Rivera, Camilo; Iregui, Carlos; Orozco, Jahir

    2017-01-15

    Pathogenic bacteria are responsible for several diseases in humans and in a variety of hosts. Detection of pathogenic bacteria is imperative to avoid and/or fight their potential harmful effects. This work reports on the first amperometric biosensor for the rapid detection of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae). The biosensor relies on a single biotinylated antibody that immobilizes the bacteria on a screen-printed carbon electrode while is further linked to a streptavidin-conjugated HRP reporter. The biotinylated antibody provides selectivity to the biosensor whereas serves as an anchoring point to the reporter for further amplification of the electrochemical signal. The resultant immunosensor is simple, responds rapidly, and allows for the selective and highly sensitive quantification of S. agalactiae cells in a concentration range of 10 1 -10 7 CFUml -1 , with a detection limit of 10CFUml -1 . The approach not only enables a rapid detection and quantification of S. agalactiae in environmental samples but also opens up new opportunities for the simple fabrication of electrochemical immunosensors for different target pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ketamine alters behavior and decreases BDNF levels in the rat brain as a function of time after drug administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane B. Fraga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate behavioral changes and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF levels in rats subjected to ketamine administration (25 mg/kg for 7 days. Method: Behavioral evaluation was undertaken at 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Results: We observed hyperlocomotion 1 hour after the last injection and a decrease in locomotion after 6 hours. Immobility time was decreased and climbing time was increased 6 hours after the last injection. BDNF levels were decreased in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala when rats were killed 6 hours after the last injection, compared to the saline group and to rats killed 1 hour after the last injection. BDNF levels in the striatum were decreased in rats killed 6 hours after the last ketamine injection, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus were decreased in the groups that were killed 1 and 6 hours after the last injection. Conclusion: These results suggest that the effects of ketamine on behavior and BDNF levels are related to the time at which they were evaluated after administration of the drug.

  18. Decreased serum hepcidin, inflammation, and improved functional iron status six-months post-restrictive bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess adiposity is associated with low-grade inflammation and decreased iron status. Iron depletion (ID) in obesity is thought to be mediated by an inflammation-induced increase in the body’s main regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin. Elevated hepcidin can result in ID as it prevents the release...

  19. Effect of tributyltin (TBT) on ATP levels in human natural killer (NK) cells: relationship to TBT-induced decreases in NK function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudimah, Fred D; Odman-Ghazi, Sabah O; Hatcher, Frank; Whalen, Margaret M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role that tributyltin (TBT)-induced decreases in ATP levels may play in TBT-induced decreases in the tumor lysing (lytic) function of natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells are a subset of lymphocytes that act as an initial immune defense against tumor cells and virally infected cells. TBT is an environmental contaminant that has been detected in human blood, which has been shown to interfere with ATP synthesis. Previous studies have shown that TBT is able to decrease very significantly the lytic function of NK cells. In this study NK cells were exposed to various concentrations of TBT and to two other compounds that interfere with ATP synthesis (rotenone a complex I inhibitor and oligomycin an ATP synthase inhibitor) for various lengths of time before determining the levels of ATP and lytic function. Exposures of NK cells to 10, 25, 50 and 100 nm TBT did not significantly reduce ATP levels after 24 h. However, these same exposures caused significant decreases in cytotoxic function. Studies of brief 1 h exposures to a range of TBT, rotenone and oligomycin concentrations followed by 24 h, 48 h and 6 day periods in compound-free media prior to assaying for ATP levels or cytotoxic function showed that each of the compounds caused persistent decreases in ATP levels and lytic function of NK cells. Exposures to 0.05-5 microm rotenone or oligomycin for 1 h reduced ATP levels by 20-25% but did not have any measurable effect on the ability of NK cells to lyse tumor cells. ATP levels were also decreased by about 20-25% after 24 h or 48 h exposures to rotenone or oligomycin (0.5 microm ), and the lytic function was decreased by about 50%. The results suggest that TBT-induced decreases in ATP levels were not responsible for the loss of cytotoxic function seen at 1 h and 24 h. However, TBT-induced decreases of NK-ATP levels may be at least in part responsible for losses of NK-cytotoxic function seen after 48 h and 6 day exposures

  20. Multi-function ring magnet power supply for rapid-cycling synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    Ring magnet power supply (RMPS) circuits that produce a wide range of magnet current waveshapes for rapid-cycling synchrotrons (RCS) are described. The shapes range from long flat-tops separated by a biased dual frequency cosine wave to those having a flat-bottom (injection), followed by a lower frequency cosine half wave (acceleration), a flat-top (extraction), and a higher frequency cosine half wave (magnet reset). Applications of these circuits for proposed synchrotrons are outlined. Solid-state switching circuits and the results of proof-of-concept tests are shown. 8 refs., 12 figs

  1. Negative BOLD signal changes in ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex are associated with perfusion decreases and behavioral evidence for functional inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Katharina; Blankenburg, Felix; Kupers, Ron

    2012-01-01

    that the negative BOLD signal is associated with functional inhibition. Electrical stimulation of the median nerve at 7Hz evoked robust negative BOLD signals in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) ipsilateral to stimulation, and positive BOLD signals in contralateral SI. The negative BOLD signal in ipsilateral SI......) at the ipsilateral finger during concomitant stimulation of the contralateral median nerve increased significantly, suggesting augmented functional inhibition. Since the CPT in the ipsilateral hallux did not significantly change in response to median nerve stimulation, it is more likely that the CPT......-increase for the finger is due to functional inhibition (Kastrup et al., 2008) than to changes in selective attention. In conclusion, our data provide evidence that stimulus-induced reductions in relative rCBF may underlie the negative BOLD signal, which in turn may reflect increments in functional inhibition....

  2. Renal parenchyma thickness: a rapid estimation of renal function on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplon, Daniel M.; Lasser, Michael S.; Sigman, Mark; Haleblian, George E.; Pareek, Gyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the relationship between renal parenchyma thickness (RPT) on computed tomography and renal function on nuclear renography in chronically obstructed renal units (ORUs) and to define a minimal thickness ratio associated with adequate function. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients undergoing both nuclear renography and CT during a six-month period between 2004 and 2006 were included. All patients that had a diagnosis of unilateral obstruction were included for analysis. RPT was measured in the following manner: The parenchyma thickness at three discrete levels of each kidney was measured using calipers on a CT workstation. The mean of these three measurements was defined as RPT. The renal parenchyma thickness ratio of the ORUs and non-obstructed renal unit (NORUs) was calculated and this was compared to the observed function on Mag-3 lasix Renogram. Results: A total of 28 patients were evaluated. Mean parenchyma thickness was 1.82 cm and 2.25 cm in the ORUs and NORUs, respectively. The mean relative renal function of ORUs was 39%. Linear regression analysis comparing renogram function to RPT ratio revealed a correlation coefficient of 0.48 (p * RPT ratio. A thickness ratio of 0.68 correlated with 20% renal function. Conclusion: RPT on computed tomography appears to be a powerful predictor of relative renal function in ORUs. Assessment of RPT is a useful and readily available clinical tool for surgical decision making (renal salvage therapy versus nephrectomy) in patients with ORUs. (author)

  3. Study on application of green's function method in thermal stress rapid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guihe; Duan Yuangang; Xu Xiao; Chen Rong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a quick and accuracy thermal stress calculation method, the Green's Function Method, which is a combination of finite element method and numerical algorithm method. Thermal stress calculation of Safe Injection Nozzle of Reactor Coolant Line of PWR plant is performed with Green's function method for heatup and cooldown thermal transients as a demonstration example, and the result is compared with finite element method to verify the rationality and accuracy of this method. The advantage and disadvantage of the Green's function method and the finite element method are also compared. (authors)

  4. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  5. Amendment damages the function of continuous flooding in decreasing Cd and Pb uptake by rice in acid paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xinxin; Li, Hongying; Zhang, Ligan; Chai, Rushan; Tu, Renfeng; Gao, Hongjian

    2018-01-01

    Combinations of remediation technologies are needed to solve the problem of soil contamination in paddy rice, due to multiple potential toxic elements (PTEs). Two potential mitigation methods, water management and in-situ remediation by soil amendment, have been widely used in treatment of PTE-polluted paddy soil. However, the interactive relationship between soil amendment and water management, and its influence on the accumulation of PTEs in rice are poorly understood. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to examine the effects of phosphate amendment on Cd and Pb availability in soil and their influence on Cd and Pb uptake into rice, on Fe and P availability in soil, and on the alteration of Fe amount and compartment on root surface among different water management strategies. Results indicated that Cd and Pb content in the shoot and grain were significantly affected by the different water management strategies in nonamended soils, and followed the order: wetting irrigation > conventional irrigation > continuous flooding. The application of phosphate amendment significantly decreased the variations of Cd and Pb absorption in shoot and grain of rice among different water treatments. The reasons may be attributed to the enhancement of P availability and the decrease of Fe availability in soil, and the decreased variations of Fe 2+ /Fe 3+ content in root coating after the application of phosphate amendment. These results suggested that the simultaneous use of phosphate amendment and continuous flooding to immobilize Cd and Pb, especially in acid paddy soils, should be avoided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid and low-invasive functional brain mapping by realtime visualization of high gamma activity for awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, K; Ogawa, H; Kapeller, C; Prueckl, R; Guger, C

    2014-01-01

    For neurosurgery with an awake craniotomy, the critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by electrocortical stimulation (ECS). High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram (ECoG) is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used realtime HGA mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Three patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. After the craniotomy, we recorded ECoG activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated realtime HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared to ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. The investigation times of HGA mapping was significantly shorter than that of ECS mapping. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI, however, did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate functional mapping.

  7. Fabrication of functional superhydrophobic engineering materials via an extremely rapid and simple route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Yu, Shen; Li, Jing; Guo, Zhiguang

    2015-04-18

    As important and irreplaceable engineering materials, metals are widely used in our daily life. Therefore, fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on metal materials is of great significance, and applicable methods for industrial production are in urgent need. In this work, we provide a rapid and easy route for fabricating superhydrophobic films on metal materials through simple displacement deposition. This method includes two simple steps with each step being as short as one second. The obtained superhydrophobic surfaces are homogeneous and easy to repair. A miniature boat and a miniature box were used to test the buoyancy-increasing and oil absorption properties, respectively. This method is feasible for massive production of superhydrophobic metal materials applied to water transportation and oil spill clean-up areas.

  8. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande [H.K.E.S' s College of Pharmacy (India); Mahesh, Bedre D. [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India); Basavaraja, S. [Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Veeco-India Nanotechnology Laboratory (India); Balaji, S. D. [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India); Manjunath, S. Y. [Sri Krupa, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science (India); Venkataraman, A., E-mail: raman_chem@rediffmail.com [Gulbarga University, Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Material Science (India)

    2011-05-15

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 {+-} 5 nm from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV-vis (UV-vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  9. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande; Mahesh, Bedre D.; Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S. D.; Manjunath, S. Y.; Venkataraman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 ± 5 nm from guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV–vis (UV–vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  10. Microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of stable bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles from guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Deshpande; Mahesh, Bedre D.; Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S. D.; Manjunath, S. Y.; Venkataraman, A.

    2011-05-01

    Our research interest centers on microwave-assisted rapid extracellular synthesis of bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles of 26 ± 5 nm from guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract with control over dimension and composition. The reaction occurs very rapidly as the formation of spherical nanoparticles almost completed within 90 s. The probable pathway of the biosynthesis is suggested. Appearance, crystalline nature, size and shape of nanoparticles are understood by UV-vis (UV-vis spectroscopy), FTIR (fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) techniques. Microwave-assisted route is selected for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles to carry out the reaction fast, suppress the enzymatic action and to keep the process environmentally clean and green.

  11. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Ravona Springer, Ramit; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (levels may have an impact on cognitive function.

  12. An experimental evaluation of a new designed apparatus (NDA) for the rapid measurement of impaired motor function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, M; Sedighi Moghadam, B; Torkmandi, H

    2015-08-15

    Assessment of the ability of rat to balance by rotarod apparatus (ROTA) is frequently used as a measure of impaired motor system function. Most of these methods have some disadvantages, such as failing to sense motor coordination rather than endurance and as the sensitivity of the method is low, more animals are needed to obtain statistically significant results. We have designed and tested a new designed apparatus (NDA) to measure motor system function in rats. Our system consists of a glass box containing 4 beams which placed with 1cm distance between them, two electrical motors for rotating the beams, and a camera to record the movements of the rats. The RPM of the beams is adjustable digitally between 0 and 50 rounds per minute. We evaluated experimentally the capability of the NDA for the rapid measurement of impaired motor function in rats. Also we demonstrated that the sensitivity of the NDA increases by faster rotation speeds and may be more sensitive than ROTA for evaluating of impaired motor system function. Compared to a previous version of this task, our NDA provides a more efficient method to test rodents for studies of motor system function after impaired motor nervous system. In summary, our NDA will allow high efficient monitoring of rat motor system function and may be more sensitive than ROTA for evaluating of impaired motor system function in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fertilization decreases species diversity but increases functional diversity: A three-year experiment in a Tibetan alpine meadow

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Niu, K.; Choler, P.; de Bello, Francesco; Mirotchnick, N.; Du, G.; Sun, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 182, Spec. Iss. (2014), s. 106-112 ISSN 0167-8809 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : functional traits * productivity * trait divergence Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.402, year: 2014

  14. Concomitant functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome decrease health-related quality of life in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Durk R.; van Herwaarden, Margot A.; Baron, Astrid; Smout, André J. P. M.; Samsom, Melvin

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have reported an overlap between gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of FD and IBS in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and the effect on

  15. Experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease results in decreased hepatic uptake transporter expression and function in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Craig D.; Lickteig, Andrew J.; Augustine, Lisa M.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Besselsen, David G.; Erickson, Robert P.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of diagnoses ranging from simple fatty liver (SFL), to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to determine the effect of moderate and severe NAFLD on hepatic transporter expression and function in vivo. Rats were fed a

  16. Paeoniflorin improves cardiac function and decreases adverse postinfarction left ventricular remodeling in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen H

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hengwen Chen,* Yan Dong,* Xuanhui He, Jun Li, Jie Wang Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Paeoniflorin (PF is the active component of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. or Paeonia veitchii Lynch. This study was, therefore, aimed to evaluate the improvement and mechanism of the PF on ventricular remodeling in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Materials and methods: In this study, AMI model was established by ligating the anterior descending coronary artery in Wistar rats. After 4 weeks gavage of PF, the apparent signs and the left ventricle weight index of Wistar rats were observed. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography. Changes in cardiac morphology were observed by pathologic examination, and apoptosis was observed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 interleukin-10 (IL-10 and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot method were applied to detect Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. Results: Compared with the model control, the survival conditions of rats in all treatment groups were generally improved after PF treatment. LVEF was significantly increased, and both left ventricular end-diastolic inner diameter and left ventricular end-systolic inner diameter were significantly reduced. Moreover, pathologic examination showed that the myocardium degeneration of the rats treated with PF was decreased, including neater arrangement, more complete myofilament, more uniform gap and less interstitial collagen fibers. Furthermore, the mitochondrial structure of cardiomyocytes was significantly improved. The ultrastructure was clear, and the arrangement of myofilament was more regular. Also, the expression of

  17. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  18. Nanodisc-Tm: Rapid functional assessment of nanodisc reconstituted membrane proteins by CPM assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Yashwanth; Jaakola, Veli-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Membrane proteins are generally unstable in detergents. Therefore, biochemical and biophysical studies of membrane proteins in lipidic environments provides a near native-like environment suitable for membrane proteins. However, manipulation of proteins embedded in lipid bilayer has remained difficult. Methods such as nanodiscs and lipid cubic phase have been developed for easy manipulation of membrane proteins and have yielded significant insights into membrane proteins. Traditionally functional reconstitution of receptors in nanodiscs has been studied with radioligands. We present a simple and faster method for studying the functionality of reconstituted membrane proteins for routine characterization of protein batches after initial optimization of suitable conditions using radioligands. The benefits of the method are •Faster and generic method to assess functional reconstitution of membrane proteins.•Adaptable in high throughput format (≥96 well format).•Stability measurement in near-native lipid environment and lipid dependent melting temperatures.

  19. Rapid and minimum invasive functional brain mapping by real-time visualization of high gamma activity during awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kyousuke; Kapeller, Christoph; Hiroshima, Satoru; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping during an awake craniotomy. The critical issue is to set aside enough time to identify eloquent cortices by ECS. High gamma activity (HGA) ranging between 80 and 120 Hz on electrocorticogram is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing. In this report, we used real-time HGA mapping and functional neuronavigation integrated with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for rapid and reliable identification of motor and language functions. Four patients with intra-axial tumors in their dominant hemisphere underwent preoperative fMRI and lesion resection with an awake craniotomy. All patients showed significant fMRI activation evoked by motor and language tasks. During the craniotomy, we recorded electrocorticogram activity by placing subdural grids directly on the exposed brain surface. Each patient performed motor and language tasks and demonstrated real-time HGA dynamics in hand motor areas and parts of the inferior frontal gyrus. Sensitivity and specificity of HGA mapping were 100% compared with ECS mapping in the frontal lobe, which suggested HGA mapping precisely indicated eloquent cortices. We found different HGA dynamics of language tasks in frontal and temporal regions. Specificities of the motor and language-fMRI did not reach 85%. The results of HGA mapping was mostly consistent with those of ECS mapping, although fMRI tended to overestimate functional areas. This novel technique enables rapid and accurate identification of motor and frontal language areas. Furthermore, real-time HGA mapping sheds light on underlying physiological mechanisms related to human brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid gut growth but persistent delay in digestive function in the postnatal period of preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik; Thymann, Thomas; Andersen, Anders Daniel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preterm infants often tolerate full enteral nutrition few weeks after birth but it is not known how this is related to gut maturation. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that intestinal structure and digestive function are similar in preterm and term individuals at 3-4 weeks after...... to term pigs. CONCLUSION: Intestinal structure shows a remarkable growth adaptation in the first week after preterm birth, especially with enteral nutrition, while some digestive functions remain immature until at least 3-4 weeks. It is important to identify feeding regimens that stimulate intestinal...

  1. Impact of body mass decrease of patients with metabolic syndrome on cardiovascular risk factors and reproductive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga Borisovna Kalinkina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The obesity pandemia linked metabolic syndrome (MS connected with it acquires not only medical, but also increasing social importance. This state has unfavorable action on human organism and is the serious diseases risk factor. Special importance MS available in the women of childbearing age. There are described some literature data about the special features of MS pathogenesis in women and the possibilities of its correction with sibutramine and by the combined medication Reduxin® (sibutramine + cellulose microcrystalline. Our own data of the experience of treatment by the Reduxin® 53 women in reproductive age with MS are cited, opsomenorrhea and with a formation of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Patients took the medication during 12 weeks. Mean body weight loss was 13% and 27 patients had weight loss more than 5% at the end the period of observation. Circle of waist was also the decreased on the average on 6±2 cm. 43 women had a normalization of rhythm, duration and intensity of menstrual hemorrhages. Remaining patients it was required the designation of gestagen in the cyclic regime. An improvement of the blood lipid profile was detect: the average value of atherogenic index triglycerides/ high density lipoproteins cholesterol was improved to 35,8%. The maximum decrease of the cardiovascular disease risk factors was marked in the patients, who had weight loss more than 10%.

  2. A rapid and efficient method to study the function of crop plant transporters in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for humans. Fe deficiency disease is wide-spread and has lead to extensive studies on the mechanisms of Fe uptake and storage, especially in staple food crops such as rice. However, studies of functionally related genes in rice and other crops are often time a...

  3. Regioselective Wacker Oxidation of Internal Alkenes: Rapid Access to Functionalized Ketones Facilitated by Cross-Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill

    2013-07-26

    Wacka wacka: The title reaction makes use of a wide range of directing groups (DG) to enable the highly regioselective oxidation of alkenes, and occurs predictably at the distal position. Both E and Z alkenes afford valuable functionalized ketones and cross-metathesis was shown to facilitate the preparation of the starting materials. BQ=benzoquinone.

  4. Regioselective Wacker Oxidation of Internal Alkenes: Rapid Access to Functionalized Ketones Facilitated by Cross-Metathesis

    KAUST Repository

    Morandi, Bill; Wickens, Zachary K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Wacka wacka: The title reaction makes use of a wide range of directing groups (DG) to enable the highly regioselective oxidation of alkenes, and occurs predictably at the distal position. Both E and Z alkenes afford valuable functionalized ketones and cross-metathesis was shown to facilitate the preparation of the starting materials. BQ=benzoquinone.

  5. Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels, within the Normal Range, are Associated with Decreased Processing Speed in High Functioning Young Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Raizes, Meytal; Elkana, Odelia; Franko, Motty; Springer, Ramit Ravona; Segev, Shlomo; Beeri, Michal Schnaider

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of plasma glucose levels within the normal range with processing speed in high functioning young elderly, free of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A sample of 41 participants (mean age = 64.7, SD = 10; glucose 94.5 mg/dL, SD = 9.3), were examined with a computerized cognitive battery. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that higher plasma glucose levels, albeit within the normal range (

  6. Obesity and overweight associated with increased carotid diameter and decreased arterial function in young otherwise healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Fahs, Christopher A; Smith, Denise; Horn, Gavin P; Agiovlasitis, Stomatis; Rossow, Lindy; Jae, Sae Y; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease, stroke, increased mortality and vascular remodeling. Although increased arterial diameter is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and obesity, it is unknown whether lumen enlargement is accompanied by unfavorable vascular changes in young and otherwise healthy obese individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare carotid and brachial artery diameter, blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function in young, apparently healthy, normal-weight, overweight, and obese male subjects. One hundred sixty-five male subjects (27.39±0.59 years) were divided into 3 groups (normal weight, overweight, and obese) according to body mass index. Subjects underwent cardiovascular measurements to determine arterial diameter, function, and stiffness. After adjusting for age, the obese group had significantly greater brachial, carotid, and aortic pressures, brachial pulse wave velocity, carotid intima media thickness, and carotid arterial diameter compared with both the overweight and normal-weight groups. Obesity is associated with a much worse arterial profile, as an increased carotid lumen size was accompanied by higher blood pressure, greater arterial stiffness, and greater carotid intima media thickness in obese compared with overweight or normal-weight individuals. These data suggest that although obesity may be a factor in arterial remodeling, such remodeling is also accompanied by other hemodynamic and arterial changes consistent with reduced arterial function and increased cardiovascular risk.

  7. The differential shape of the Z to ee cross-section as a function of Z rapidity

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Jason Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Before the LHC discovers new physics and new particles, the detectors needed to undergo commissioning. The detection and measurement of Standard Model processes was one way to validate the detector response. Some benefits of the validation procedure were accurate predictions of signals and backgrounds. The rapidity shape of the Z boson was used as a probe into the Probability Distribution Functions of the proton. This thesis discusses the differential Z cross-section measurement with 36 pb$^{−1}$ of integrated luminosity acquired at the LHC on the CMS detector in 2010 at a center of mass of 7 TeV.

  8. Functional MRI of the pharynx in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with rapid 2-D flash sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.; Guenther, E.; Gauger, J.; Nitz, W.; Kastenbauer, E.; Reiser, M.

    1996-01-01

    Functional imaging of the pharynx used to be the domain of cineradiography, CT and ultrafast CT. The development of modern MRI techniques led to new access to functional disorders of the pharynx. The aim of this study was to implement a new MRI technique to examine oropharyngeal obstructive mechanisms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients suffering from OSA and 6 healthy volunteers were examined on a 1.5 T whole-body imager ('Vision', Siemens, Erlangen Medical Engineering, Germany) using a circular polarized head coil. Imaging was performed with 2D flash sequences in midsagittal and axial planes. Patients and volunteers were asked to breathe normally through the nose and to simulate snoring and the Mueller maneuver during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Prior to MRI, all patients underwent an ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, functional fiberoptic nasopharyngoscopy and polysomnography. A temporal resolution of 6 images/s and an in-plane resolution of 2.67x1.8 mm were achieved. The mobility of the tongue, soft palate and pharyngeal surface could be clearly delineated. The MRI findings correlated well with the clinical examinations. We propose ultrafast MRI as a reliable and non-invasive method of evaluating pharyngeal obstruction and their levels. (orig.) [de

  9. Study on the relation of brain functional connectivity to movement disorders and cognitive impairment in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-ju ZHANG

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relation between abnormal functional connectivity of substantia nigra and impairment of movement and cognition in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD. Methods A total of 22 subjects, including 14 patients with RBD and 8 sex, age, education-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study according to international diagnostic criteria. Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Ⅲ (UPDRS Ⅲ and Hoehn-Yahr Stage were used to evaluate motor function. Digit Ordering Test - Attention (DOT - A, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT, Stroop Color-Word Test (SCWT, Trail Making Test (TMT, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCFT, Clock Drawing Test (CDT, Boston Naming Test (BNT and Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT were used to evaluate cognitive function. The functional connectivity from left and right substantia nigra to brain region were examined. Results There were no statistical differences of UPDRSⅢ and Hoehn?Yahr Stage between 2 groups (P > 0.05, for all. In comparison with control group, SDMT (P = 0.001, ROCFT-copy (P = 0.013 and AVLT-N2 (P = 0.032 were significantly lower, while TMT-B test was significantly higher (P =0.005 in RBD group. Compared with control group, the functional connectivity of right substantia nigra to left precentral gyrus (P < 0.005 and right angular gyrus (P < 0.005 were all decreased in RBD group. Conclusions The results suggest that cognitive impairment occurs earlier than movement disorders in RBD, and there are abnormal functional connectivity from right substantia nigra to left precentral gyrus and right angular gyrus, proving that abnormal functional connectivity is the base of behavior disorders in RBD. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.09.005

  10. Isolated pulmonary regurgitation causes decreased right ventricular longitudinal function and compensatory increased septal pumping in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopic, S; Stephensen, S S; Heiberg, E

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Longitudinal ventricular contraction is a parameter of cardiac performance with predictive power. Right ventricular (RV) longitudinal function is impaired in patients with free pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following corrective surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). It remains unclear whether...... received a stent in the pulmonary valve orifice, inducing PR. After 2-3 months, animals were subjected to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A subset of animals (n = 6) then underwent percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with follow-up 1 month later. Longitudinal, lateral and septal...

  11. Rapid dynamic MR imaging of the heart in the evaluation of valvular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utz, J.A.; Herfkens, R.J.; Heinsimer, J.; Glover, G.H.; Pelc, N.J.; Shimakawa, A.

    1986-01-01

    Dynamic MR images were obtained utilizing a repetition time of 21 msec, a 30-degree flip angle, and 12-msec gradient refocused echoes. Images were ECG-triggered and constructed at 16 images per cardiac cycle. To assess the sensitivity of dynamic MR imaging of valvular regurgitation, 17 patients were so examined and results were compared with results of echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Mitral and tricuspid valves were well visualized in all patients. Regurgitation was demonstrated in 14 cases as an area of decreased signal extending from the valve into the regurgitant chamber, corresponding in time to ventricular systole for mitral and tricuspid regurgitation and diastole for aortic insufficiency. There were no false-negative MR imaging studies

  12. Graphene Functionalized with Arginine Decreases the Development of Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor in a Gene-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sawosz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies revealed that graphene had anticancer properties in experiments in vitro with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cells and in tumors cultured in vivo. We hypothesized that the addition of arginine or proline to graphene solutions might counteract graphene agglomeration and increase the activity of graphene. Experiments were performed in vitro with GBM U87 cells and in vivo with GBM tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes. The measurements included cell morphology, mortality, viability, tumor morphology, histology, and gene expression. The cells and tumors were treated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO and rGO functionalized with arginine (rGO + Arg or proline (rGO + Pro. The results confirmed the anticancer effect of graphene on GBM cells and tumor tissue. After functionalization with amino acids, nanoparticles were distributed more specifically, and the flakes of graphene were less agglomerated. The molecule of rGO + Arg did not increase the expression of TP53 in comparison to rGO, but did not increase the expression of MDM2 or the MDM2/TP53 ratio in the tumor, suggesting that arginine may block MDM2 expression. The expression of NQO1, known to be a strong protector of p53 protein in tumor tissue, was greatly increased. The results indicate that the complex of rGO + Arg has potential in GBM therapy.

  13. Graphene Functionalized with Arginine Decreases the Development of Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor in a Gene-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawosz, Ewa; Jaworski, Sławomir; Kutwin, Marta; Vadalasetty, Krishna Prasad; Grodzik, Marta; Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Kurantowicz, Natalia; Strojny, Barbara; Hotowy, Anna; Lipińska, Ludwika; Jagiełło, Joanna; Chwalibog, André

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that graphene had anticancer properties in experiments in vitro with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells and in tumors cultured in vivo. We hypothesized that the addition of arginine or proline to graphene solutions might counteract graphene agglomeration and increase the activity of graphene. Experiments were performed in vitro with GBM U87 cells and in vivo with GBM tumors cultured on chicken embryo chorioallantoic membranes. The measurements included cell morphology, mortality, viability, tumor morphology, histology, and gene expression. The cells and tumors were treated with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and rGO functionalized with arginine (rGO + Arg) or proline (rGO + Pro). The results confirmed the anticancer effect of graphene on GBM cells and tumor tissue. After functionalization with amino acids, nanoparticles were distributed more specifically, and the flakes of graphene were less agglomerated. The molecule of rGO + Arg did not increase the expression of TP53 in comparison to rGO, but did not increase the expression of MDM2 or the MDM2/TP53 ratio in the tumor, suggesting that arginine may block MDM2 expression. The expression of NQO1, known to be a strong protector of p53 protein in tumor tissue, was greatly increased. The results indicate that the complex of rGO + Arg has potential in GBM therapy. PMID:26512645

  14. Expiratory CT in cigarette smokers: correlation between areas of decreased lung attenuation, pulmonary function tests and smoking history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verschakelen, J.A.; Scheinbaum, K.; Bogaert, J.; Baert, A.L. [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Demedts, M.; Lacquet, L.L. [Department of Pneumology, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette-smoke-related bronchial disease and air trapping as assessed by expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Thirty healthy subjects (11 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers for > 2 years, 12 current smokers; age range 35-55 years) with a smoking history between 0 and 28.5 pack-years underwent pulmonary function tests (PFT) and HRCT in inspiration and expiration in supine and prone position. The extent of air trapping was scored in ventral and dorsal aspects of the upper, middle and lower lung portions. In 24 subjects (7 non-smokers, 7 ex-smokers, 10 current smokers) areas of focal air trapping were found, and were present significantly more often in dependent lung portions (p < 0.05) compared with non-dependent portions. No significant differences were found between apical and basal lung zones. Scores of focal air trapping were not significantly different between smokers and ex-smokers, but were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in non-smokers and showed a significant (p < 0.0005) correlation with pack-years. The degree of air trapping was also associated with several lung function tests, especially RV, DLCO, FRC, FEV1 and FEV1/VC. Air trapping is seen in smokers with normal PFT and correlates with the severity of the smoking history, independently of current smoking status. (orig.) (orig.) With 4 figs., 4 tabs., 59 refs.

  15. Levetiracetam is associated with decrease in subclinical epileptiform discharges and improved cognitive functions in pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minjian; Jiang, Li; Tang, Xiaoju

    2017-01-01

    Subclinical epileptiform discharges (SEDs) are common in pediatric patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the effect of antiepileptic drugs on SEDs in ASD remains inconclusive. This physician-blinded, prospective, randomized controlled trial investigated an association between the anticonvulsant drug levetiracetam and SEDs in children with ASD. A total of 70 children with ASD (4-6 years) and SEDs identified by electroencephalogram were randomly divided into two equal groups to receive either levetiracetam and educational training (treatment group) or educational training only (control). At baseline and after 6 months treatment, the following scales were used to assess each individual's behavioral and cognitive functions: the Chinese version of the Psychoeducational Profile - third edition (PEP-3), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), and Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC). A 24-hour electroencephalogram was recorded on admission (baseline) and at follow-up. The degree of satisfaction of each patient was also evaluated. Relative to baseline, at the 6-month follow-up, the PEP-3, CARS, and ABC scores were significantly improved in both the treatment and control groups. At the 6-month follow-up, the PEP-3 scores of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control, whereas the CARS and ABC scores were significantly lower, and the rate of electroencephalographic normalization was significantly higher in the treatment group. Levetiracetam appears to be effective for controlling SEDs in pediatric patients with ASD and was also associated with improved behavioral and cognitive functions.

  16. Curcumin restores mitochondrial functions and decreases lipid peroxidation in liver and kidneys of diabetic db/db mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G Soto-Urquieta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrosative and oxidative stress play a key role in obesity and diabetes-related mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective was to investigate the effect of curcumin treatment on state 3 and 4 oxygen consumption, nitric oxide (NO synthesis, ATPase activity and lipid oxidation in mitochondria isolated from liver and kidneys of diabetic db/db mice. RESULTS: Hyperglycaemia increased oxygen consumption and decreased NO synthesis in liver mitochondria isolated from diabetic mice relative to the control mice. In kidney mitochondria, hyperglycaemia increased state 3 oxygen consumption and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS levels in diabetic mice relative to control mice. Interestingly, treating db/db mice with curcumin improved or restored these parameters to normal levels; also curcumin increased liver mitochondrial ATPase activity in db/db mice relative to untreated db/db mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that hyperglycaemia modifies oxygen consumption rate, NO synthesis and increases TBARS levels in mitochondria from the liver and kidneys of diabetic mice, whereas curcumin may have a protective role against these alterations.

  17. Rewiring yeast acetate metabolism through MPC1 loss of function leads to mitochondrial damage and decreases chronological lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Orlandi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During growth on fermentable substrates, such as glucose, pyruvate, which is the end-product of glycolysis, can be used to generate acetyl-CoA in the cytosol via acetaldehyde and acetate, or in mitochondria by direct oxidative decarboxylation. In the latter case, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC is responsible for pyruvate transport into mitochondrial matrix space. During chronological aging, yeast cells which lack the major structural subunit Mpc1 display a reduced lifespan accompanied by an age-dependent loss of autophagy. Here, we show that the impairment of pyruvate import into mitochondria linked to Mpc1 loss is compensated by a flux redirection of TCA cycle intermediates through the malic enzyme-dependent alternative route. In such a way, the TCA cycle operates in a “branched” fashion to generate pyruvate and is depleted of intermediates. Mutant cells cope with this depletion by increasing the activity of glyoxylate cycle and of the pathway which provides the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA. Moreover, cellular respiration decreases and ROS accumulate in the mitochondria which, in turn, undergo severe damage. These acquired traits in concert with the reduced autophagy restrict cell survival of the mpc1∆ mutant during chronological aging. Conversely, the activation of the carnitine shuttle by supplying acetyl-CoA to the mitochondria is sufficient to abrogate the short-lived phenotype of the mutant.

  18. Plastic Trash goes Biohybrid"-Rapid and Selective Functionalization of Inert Plastic Surfaces with Biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Stefan M; Kambhampati, Dev; Stengel, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    The covalent functionalization of "inert" polymers such as polypropylene with biomolecules for biocompatible or biosensor surfaces is challenging. Here we present a powerful approach to covalently modify "inert" macromolecular surfaces with biomacromolecules reusing old plastic material. A special...... emphasis was placed on easily accessible materials and a process which is easy, fast, efficient, cheap, and reliable. "Plastic trash" (lids from Eppendorf® pipet tip containers) was used as a polymer substrate to demonstrate the use/reuse of commercial packing material to covalently modify this material...

  19. Feasibility of repetitive lung function measurements by raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression during methacholine challenge in young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, L.; Bisgaard, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of lung function measurements by the raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RVRTC) technique during bronchial methacholine challenge in young infants. METHOD: Four hundred two healthy infants were tested at 1 month of age....... The mean acceptability rating among parents was 8 on a scale from 1 to 10, with 13% rating test, with the actual lung function testing accounting for half the time. CONCLUSION: This very comprehensive experience with standardized measurements of lung...... was successfully measured in 87% by transcutaneous oxygen pressure. No serious adverse events were observed during testing or after discharge from the clinic. The methacholine dose range was appropriate as PD could be determined in the majority of infants. FEV(0.5) values in 21% of infants dropped > 40% during...

  20. A Rapid and Efficient Method for Purifying High Quality Total RNA from Peaches (Prunus persica for Functional Genomics Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEE MEISEL

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus persica has been proposed as a genomic model for deciduous trees and the Rosaceae family. Optimized protocols for RNA isolation are necessary to further advance studies in this model species such that functional genomics analyses may be performed. Here we present an optimized protocol to rapidly and efficiently purify high quality total RNA from peach fruits (Prunus persica. Isolating high-quality RNA from fruit tissue is often difficult due to large quantities of polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds that accumulate in this tissue and co-purify with the RNA. Here we demonstrate that a modified version of the method used to isolate RNA from pine trees and the woody plant Cinnamomun tenuipilum is ideal for isolating high quality RNA from the fruits of Prunus persica. This RNA may be used for many functional genomic based experiments such as RT-PCR and the construction of large-insert cDNA libraries.

  1. Functional genomics in zebrafish permits rapid characterization of novel platelet membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Marie N; Salles, Isabelle I; Cvejic, Ana; Watkins, Nicholas A; Walker, Adam; Garner, Stephen F; Jones, Chris I; Macaulay, Iain C; Steward, Michael; Zwaginga, Jaap-Jan; Bray, Sarah L; Dudbridge, Frank; de Bono, Bernard; Goodall, Alison H; Deckmyn, Hans; Stemple, Derek L; Ouwehand, Willem H

    2009-05-07

    In this study, we demonstrate the suitability of the vertebrate Danio rerio (zebrafish) for functional screening of novel platelet genes in vivo by reverse genetics. Comparative transcript analysis of platelets and their precursor cell, the megakaryocyte, together with nucleated blood cell elements, endothelial cells, and erythroblasts, identified novel platelet membrane proteins with hitherto unknown roles in thrombus formation. We determined the phenotype induced by antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO)-based knockdown of 5 of these genes in a laser-induced arterial thrombosis model. To validate the model, the genes for platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb and the coagulation protein factor VIII were targeted. MO-injected fish showed normal thrombus initiation but severely impaired thrombus growth, consistent with the mouse knockout phenotypes, and concomitant knockdown of both resulted in spontaneous bleeding. Knockdown of 4 of the 5 novel platelet proteins altered arterial thrombosis, as demonstrated by modified kinetics of thrombus initiation and/or development. We identified a putative role for BAMBI and LRRC32 in promotion and DCBLD2 and ESAM in inhibition of thrombus formation. We conclude that phenotypic analysis of MO-injected zebrafish is a fast and powerful method for initial screening of novel platelet proteins for function in thrombosis.

  2. The Sequences of 1504 Mutants in the Model Rice Variety Kitaake Facilitate Rapid Functional Genomic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guotian; Jain, Rashmi; Chern, Mawsheng; Pham, Nikki T; Martin, Joel A; Wei, Tong; Schackwitz, Wendy S; Lipzen, Anna M; Duong, Phat Q; Jones, Kyle C; Jiang, Liangrong; Ruan, Deling; Bauer, Diane; Peng, Yi; Barry, Kerrie W; Schmutz, Jeremy; Ronald, Pamela C

    2017-06-01

    The availability of a whole-genome sequenced mutant population and the cataloging of mutations of each line at a single-nucleotide resolution facilitate functional genomic analysis. To this end, we generated and sequenced a fast-neutron-induced mutant population in the model rice cultivar Kitaake ( Oryza sativa ssp japonica ), which completes its life cycle in 9 weeks. We sequenced 1504 mutant lines at 45-fold coverage and identified 91,513 mutations affecting 32,307 genes, i.e., 58% of all rice genes. We detected an average of 61 mutations per line. Mutation types include single-base substitutions, deletions, insertions, inversions, translocations, and tandem duplications. We observed a high proportion of loss-of-function mutations. We identified an inversion affecting a single gene as the causative mutation for the short-grain phenotype in one mutant line. This result reveals the usefulness of the resource for efficient, cost-effective identification of genes conferring specific phenotypes. To facilitate public access to this genetic resource, we established an open access database called KitBase that provides access to sequence data and seed stocks. This population complements other available mutant collections and gene-editing technologies. This work demonstrates how inexpensive next-generation sequencing can be applied to generate a high-density catalog of mutations. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Multi-color autofluorescence and scattering spectroscopy provides rapid assessment of kidney function following ischemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Rajesh N.; Pivetti, Chris D.; Ramsamooj, Rajendra; Troppmann, Christoph; Demos, Stavros G.

    2018-02-01

    A major source of kidneys for transplant comes from deceased donors whose tissues have suffered an unknown amount of warm ischemia prior to retrieval, with no quantitative means to assess function before transplant. Toward addressing this need, non-contact monitoring of optical signatures in rat kidneys was performed in vivo during ischemia and reperfusion. Kidney autofluorescence images were captured under ultraviolet illumination (355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm) in order to provide information on related metabolic and non-metabolic response. In addition, light scattering images under 355 nm, 325 nm, and 266 nm, 500 nm illumination were monitored to report on changes in kidney optical properties giving rise to the observed autofluorescence signals during these processes. During reperfusion, various signal ratios were generated from the recorded signals and then parametrized. Time-dependent parameters derived from the ratio of autofluorescence under 355 nm excitation to that under 266 nm excitation, as well as from 500 nm scattered signal, were found capable of discriminating dysfunctional kidneys from those that were functional (p Kidney dysfunction was confirmed by subsequent survival study and histology following autopsy up to a week later. Physiologic changes potentially giving rise to the observed signals, including those in cellular metabolism, vascular response, tissue microstructure, and microenvironment chemistry, are discussed.

  4. P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are independently associated with rapid renal function decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC) and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC). Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9%) reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms) (log-rank P = 0.004) and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms) (log-rank Pfunction decline.

  5. Arsenic trioxide decreases the amount and inhibits the function of regulatory T cells, which may contribute to its efficacy in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Li, Xiaoxia; Quan, Lina; Yao, Jiying; Mu, Guannan; Guo, Jingjie; Wang, Yitong

    2018-03-01

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) exhibits substantial clinical efficacy in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Here, we investigated whether ATO exerts its efficacy by affecting regulatory T (Treg) cells. We determined whether ATO treatment influenced the amount and function of purified Treg cells. We also examined the effect of ATO treatment on Treg cells from APL patients. ATO treatment induced apoptosis in purified Treg cells and dampened the inhibition of effector T (Teff) cells proliferation and the secretion of cytokine by Treg cells. Treg cell levels in the peripheral blood and serum IL-10 levels were dramatically decreased in APL patients after single ATO treatment. In summary, our results show that ATO decreases the amount and inhibits the function of Treg cells, thereby enhancing Teff cell function and overall anti-tumor immunity.

  6. Cultured bovine granulosa cells rapidly lose important features of their identity and functionality but partially recover under long-term culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenuganti, Vengala Rao; Vanselow, Jens

    2017-05-01

    Cell culture models are essential for the detailed study of molecular processes. We analyze the dynamics of changes in a culture model of bovine granulosa cells. The cells were cultured for up to 8 days and analyzed for steroid production and gene expression. According to the expression of the marker genes CDH1, CDH2 and VIM, the cells maintained their mesenchymal character throughout the time of culture. In contrast, the levels of functionally important transcripts and of estradiol and progesterone production were rapidly down-regulated but showed a substantial up-regulation from day 4. FOXL2, a marker for granulosa cell identity, was also rapidly down-regulated after plating but completely recovered towards the end of culture. In contrast, expression of the Sertoli cell marker SOX9 and the lesion/inflammation marker PTGS2 increased during the first 2 days after plating but gradually decreased later on. We conclude that only long-term culture conditions (>4 days) allow the cells to recover from plating stress and to re-acquire characteristic granulosa cell features.

  7. Rapid Generation of Human Genetic Loss-of-Function iPSC Lines by Simultaneous Reprogramming and Gene Editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Tidball

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Specifically ablating genes in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs allows for studies of gene function as well as disease mechanisms in disorders caused by loss-of-function (LOF mutations. While techniques exist for engineering such lines, we have developed and rigorously validated a method of simultaneous iPSC reprogramming while generating CRISPR/Cas9-dependent insertions/deletions (indels. This approach allows for the efficient and rapid formation of genetic LOF human disease cell models with isogenic controls. The rate of mutagenized lines was strikingly consistent across experiments targeting four different human epileptic encephalopathy genes and a metabolic enzyme-encoding gene, and was more efficient and consistent than using CRISPR gene editing of established iPSC lines. The ability of our streamlined method to reproducibly generate heterozygous and homozygous LOF iPSC lines with passage-matched isogenic controls in a single step provides for the rapid development of LOF disease models with ideal control lines, even in the absence of patient tissue.

  8. Rapid and Objective Assessment of Neural Function in Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Transient Visual Evoked Potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paige M Siper

    Full Text Available There is a critical need to identify biomarkers and objective outcome measures that can be used to understand underlying neural mechanisms in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs offer a noninvasive technique to evaluate the functional integrity of neural mechanisms, specifically visual pathways, while probing for disease pathophysiology.Transient VEPs (tVEPs were obtained from 96 unmedicated children, including 37 children with ASD, 36 typically developing (TD children, and 23 unaffected siblings (SIBS. A conventional contrast-reversing checkerboard condition was compared to a novel short-duration condition, which was developed to enable objective data collection from severely affected populations who are often excluded from electroencephalographic (EEG studies.Children with ASD showed significantly smaller amplitudes compared to TD children at two of the earliest critical VEP components, P60-N75 and N75-P100. SIBS showed intermediate responses relative to ASD and TD groups. There were no group differences in response latency. Frequency band analyses indicated significantly weaker responses for the ASD group in bands encompassing gamma-wave activity. Ninety-two percent of children with ASD were able to complete the short-duration condition compared to 68% for the standard condition.The current study establishes the utility of a short-duration tVEP test for use in children at varying levels of functioning and describes neural abnormalities in children with idiopathic ASD. Implications for excitatory/inhibitory balance as well as the potential application of VEP for use in clinical trials are discussed.

  9. Levels of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy despite increased insulin resistance, beta-cell function and triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, A; Maciulewski, R; Siewko, K; Popławska-Kita, A; Lipińska, D; Kozłowska, G; Górska, M; Szelachowska, M

    2016-12-01

    Evidence in support of an association between betatrophin and insulin resistance (IR) is mounting, with studies demonstrating that betatrophin is elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity and gestational diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of betatrophin in IR and physiological proliferation of beta cells during pregnancy in healthy women. Eighty healthy pregnant women were examined at each trimester [T1 (first), T2 (second), T3 (third)], with a subgroup (n=45) that was also examined at 3 months postpartum (3MPP). The controls comprised 30 non-pregnant healthy women (HW) of reproductive age. Also measured were levels of betatrophin (ELISA), glucose (enzymatic method with hexokinase), insulin (IRMA), C-peptide (EASIA) and HbA 1c (HPLC), while HOMA-IR and HOMA-β scores were calculated. Betatrophin concentration was highest at T1, and differed significantly from T2 and T3 (1.84 [Q 1 =1.16, Q 3 =2.67]ng/mL vs 1.46 [Q 1 =0.96, Q 3 =2.21]ng/mL; Pindex scores increased during gestation, peaking at T3 (2.3 [Q 1 =1.66, Q 3 =2.72] and 227.7 [Q 1 =185.49, Q 3 =326.31], respectively) and returning to levels similar to those of HW at 3MPP (1.53 [Q 1 =1.12, Q 3 =2.41] and 88.86 [Q 1 =62.73, Q 3 =130.45] vs 1.35 [Q 1 =1.02, Q 3 =1.62] and 92.5 [Q 1 =74.20, Q 3 =111.47], respectively). Concentrations of betatrophin decrease during pregnancy, suggesting that the hormone does not play a significant role in the expansion of beta-cell mass and IR during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons : the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D; Smith, Colette J; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the

  11. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, David A.; Ryom, Lene; Ross, Michael; Kirk, Ole; Reiss, Peter; Morlat, Philippe; Moranne, Olivier; Fux, Christoph A.; Mocroft, Amanda; Sabin, Caroline; Lundgren, Jens D.; Smith, Colette J.; Powderly, B.; Shortman, N.; Moecklinghoff, C.; Reilly, G.; Franquet, X.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C. A.; Kamara, D.; Smith, C.; Phillips, A.; Mocroft, A.; Tverland, J.; Mansfeld, M.; Nielsen, J.; Raben, D.; Lundgren, J. D.; Brandt, R. Salbøl; Rickenbach, M.; Fanti, I.; Krum, E.; Hillebregt, M.; Geffard, S.; Sundström, A.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; Godfried, M. H.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W. R.

    2014-01-01

    No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the Data

  12. Development of a definition for Rapid Progression (RP) of renal function in HIV-positive persons: the D:A:D study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamara, D.A.; Ryom, L.; Ross, M.; Kirk, O.; Reiss, P.; Morlat, P.; Moranne, O.; Fux, C.A.; Mocroft, A.; Sabin, C.; Lundgren, J.D.; Smith, C.J.; Koopmans †, P.P.; Keuter, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Hofstede, H.J.M. ter; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Warris, A.; Crevel, R. van; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No consensus exists on how to define abnormally rapid deterioration in renal function (Rapid Progression, RP). We developed an operational definition of RP in HIV-positive persons with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (using Cockcroft Gault) in the

  13. Bio-inspired citrate functionalized apatite coating on rapid prototyped titanium scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Peng [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Lu, Fang [School of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Wenjun [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Wang, Di [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhu, Xiaojing [Department of Prosthodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guang Dong Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Tan, Guoxin, E-mail: tanguoxin@126.com [Institute of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaolan [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Zhang, Yu; Li, Lihua [General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA, Guangzhou 510010 (China); Ning, Chengyun, E-mail: imcyning@scut.edu.cn [National engineering research center for tissue restoration and reconstruction, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Designed and reproducible porous titanium scaffolds were produced. • Hydrophilic nanoporous film was built on scaffold. • Apatite coating was deposited on scaffold under the modulation of citrate ions. • Citrate ions could affect CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation in apatite coatings. - Abstract: Scaffold functionalized with appropriate osteogenic coatings can significantly improve implant-bone response. In this study, with designed model and optimized manufacture parameters, reproducible and precise titanium scaffolds were produced. Reconstructed three-dimensional image and sectional structure of the scaffold were examined by micro-computed tomography and relative software. Alkali treatment was carried out on these manufactured porous scaffolds to produce nanoporous hydrophilic film. After 6 days deposition in simulated body fluid (SBF) containing sodium citrate (SC-SBF), plate-like amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) coating was deposited on scaffold surface. Ultrasonication tests qualitatively indicated an enhanced adhesion force of apatite coatings deposited in SC-SBF compared to that deposited in SBF. And the effect of citrate ions on the CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} incorporation rate in apatite coating was quantitatively examined by bending vibration of CO{sub 3}{sup 2−} at ∼874 cm{sup −1}. Results indicated the highest carbonate content was obtained at the citrate ion concentration of 6 × 10{sup −5} mol/L in SC-SBF. These three-dimensional porous titanium-apatite hybrid scaffolds are expected to find application in bone tissue regeneration.

  14. A Rapid Culture Technique Produces Functional Dendritic-Like Cells from Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Most anti-cancer immunotherapeutic strategies involving dendritic cells (DC as vaccines rely upon the adoptive transfer of DC loaded with exogenous tumour-peptides. This study utilized human acute myeloid leukemia (AML cells as progenitors from which functional dendritic-like antigen presenting cells (DLC were generated, that constitutively express tumour antigens for recognition by CD8+ T cells. DLC were generated from AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3 using rapid culture techniques and appropriate cytokines. DLC were evaluated for their cell-surface phenotype, antigen uptake and ability to stimulate allogeneic responder cell proliferation, and production of IFN-γ; compared with DC derived from normal human PBMC donors. KG-1 and MUTZ-3 DLC increased expression of CD80, CD83, CD86, and HLA-DR, and MUTZ-3 DLC downregulated CD14 and expressed CD1a. Importantly, both KG-1 and MUTZ-3-derived DLC promoted proliferation of allogeneic responder cells more efficiently than unmodified cells; neither cells incorporated FITC-labeled dextran, but both stimulated IFN-γ production from responding allogeneic CD8+ T cells. Control DC produced from PBMC using the FastDC culture also expressed high levels of critical cell surface ligands and demonstrated good APC function. This paper indicates that functional DLC can be cultured from the AML cell lines KG-1 and MUTZ-3, and FastDC culture generates functional KG-1 DLC.

  15. Rapid DNA Synthesis During Early Drosophila Embryogenesis Is Sensitive to Maternal Humpty Dumpty Protein Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesly, Shera; Bandura, Jennifer L; Calvi, Brian R

    2017-11-01

    Problems with DNA replication cause cancer and developmental malformations. It is not fully understood how DNA replication is coordinated with development and perturbed in disease. We had previously identified the Drosophila gene humpty dumpty ( hd ), and showed that null alleles cause incomplete DNA replication, tissue undergrowth, and lethality. Animals homozygous for the missense allele, hd 272-9 , were viable, but adult females had impaired amplification of eggshell protein genes in the ovary, resulting in the maternal effects of thin eggshells and embryonic lethality. Here, we show that expression of an hd transgene in somatic cells of the ovary rescues amplification and eggshell synthesis but not embryo viability. The germline of these mothers remain mutant for the hd 272-9 allele, resulting in reduced maternal Hd protein and embryonic arrest during mitosis of the first few S/M nuclear cleavage cycles with chromosome instability and chromosome bridges. Epistasis analysis of hd with the rereplication mutation plutonium indicates that the chromosome bridges of hd embryos are the result of a failed attempt to segregate incompletely replicated sister chromatids. This study reveals that maternally encoded Humpty dumpty protein is essential for DNA replication and genome integrity during the little-understood embryonic S/M cycles. Moreover, the two hd 272-9 maternal-effect phenotypes suggest that ovarian gene amplification and embryonic cleavage are two time periods in development that are particularly sensitive to mild deficits in DNA replication function. This last observation has broader relevance for interpreting why mild mutations in the human ortholog of humpty dumpty and other DNA replication genes cause tissue-specific malformations of microcephalic dwarfisms. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Correlation function distributions in rapidity for pairs of π mesons in K-p interactions at 32 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumazhnov, V.A.; Babintsev, V.V.; Bogolyubskij, M.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    The inclusive and semiinclusiVe distributions of correlation functions in K - p-interactions at 32 GeV/c are presented as functions of rapidity. The positive short range correlations among rapidities of two charged pions reach maximUm in fragmentation ranges of incoming hadrons. The correlations become central and increase with rising of transverse momentum. Maximum values of correlations in the π + π - and π - π - systems oc in the region of negative and positive values of rasidity

  17. Assessing renal function with a rapid, handy, point-of-care whole blood creatinine meter before using contrast materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Satoru; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Masukawa, Ai; Ueno, Eiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the reliability of a rapid, handy, point-of-care whole blood creatinine meter (PCM) in patients who were scheduled to undergo contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among patients scheduled to undergo contrast-enhanced CT or MRI examinations, 113 patients who did not have creatinine data from the prescribed intervals before the examination day (in principle, 90 days for scheduled outpatients and 7 days for inpatients and urgent patients) were included. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the creatinine values measured with the PCM and those from central laboratory measurements (LAB). The two eGFR values were compared statistically with the paired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the Bland-Altman analysis. The mean eGFR measured with the PCM was slightly higher than the LAB value (81.2±24.6 vs. 70.2±19.7 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , P 2 ; limits of agreement were -22.4 to +44.4 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ) showed a moderate agreement with some degree of dispersion. The PCM can rapidly assess renal function using a small amount of blood almost equally to that of determined in the laboratory, which may help reduce the risk of contrast material-induced complications. (author)

  18. Structural Changes in Stx1 Engineering Monoclonal Antibody Improves Its Functionality as Diagnostic Tool for a Rapid Latex Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stx1 toxin is one of the AB5 toxins of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC responsible for foodborne intoxication during outbreaks. The single-chain variable fragment (scFv is the most common recombinant antibody format; it consists of both variable chains connected by a peptide linker with conserved specificity and affinity for antigen. The drawbacks of scFv production in bacteria are the heterologous expression, conformation and stability of the molecule, which could change the affinity for the antigen. In this work, we obtained a stable and functional scFv-Stx1 in bacteria, starting from IgG produced by hybridoma cells. After structural modifications, i.e., change in protein orientation, vector and linker, its solubility for expression in bacteria was increased as well as the affinity for its antigen, demonstrated by a scFv dissociation constant (KD of 2.26 × 10−7 M. Also, it was able to recognize purified Stx1 and cross-reacted with Stx2 toxin by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and detected 88% of Stx1-producing strains using a rapid latex agglutination test. Thus, the scFv fragment obtained in the present work is a bacteria-produced tool for use in a rapid diagnosis test, providing an alternative for STEC diagnosis.

  19. Aptamer-Based Dual-Functional Probe for Rapid and Specific Counting and Imaging of MCF-7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Yin, Xiao; Xu, Chi; Hu, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Development of multimodal detection technologies for accurate diagnosis of cancer at early stages is in great demand. In this work, we report a novel approach using an aptamer-based dual-functional probe for rapid, sensitive, and specific counting and visualization of MCF-7 cells by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and fluorescence imaging. The probe consists of a recognition unit of aptamer to catch cancer cells specifically, a fluorescent dye (FAM) moiety for fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based "off-on" fluorescence imaging as well as gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) tag for both ICP-MS quantification and fluorescence quenching. Due to the signal amplification effect and low spectral interference of Au NPs in ICP-MS, an excellent linearity and sensitivity were achieved. Accordingly, a limit of detection of 81 MCF-7 cells and a relative standard deviation of 5.6% (800 cells, n = 7) were obtained. The dynamic linear range was 2 × 10 2 to 1.2 × 10 4 cells, and the recoveries in human whole blood were in the range of 98-110%. Overall, the established method provides quantitative and visualized information on MCF-7 cells with a simple and rapid process and paves the way for a promising strategy for biomedical research and clinical diagnostics.

  20. A rapid pathway toward a superb gene delivery system: programming structural and functional diversity into a supramolecular nanoparticle library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Liu, Kan; Chen, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Yujie; Wang, Shutao; Lin, Wei-Yu; Guo, Feng; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Chen, Yi-Chun; Ohashi, Minori; Wang, Mingwei; Garcia, Mitch André; Zhao, Xing-Zhong; Shen, Clifton K-F; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2010-10-26

    Nanoparticles are regarded as promising transfection reagents for effective and safe delivery of nucleic acids into a specific type of cells or tissues providing an alternative manipulation/therapy strategy to viral gene delivery. However, the current process of searching novel delivery materials is limited due to conventional low-throughput and time-consuming multistep synthetic approaches. Additionally, conventional approaches are frequently accompanied with unpredictability and continual optimization refinements, impeding flexible generation of material diversity creating a major obstacle to achieving high transfection performance. Here we have demonstrated a rapid developmental pathway toward highly efficient gene delivery systems by leveraging the powers of a supramolecular synthetic approach and a custom-designed digital microreactor. Using the digital microreactor, broad structural/functional diversity can be programmed into a library of DNA-encapsulated supramolecular nanoparticles (DNA⊂SNPs) by systematically altering the mixing ratios of molecular building blocks and a DNA plasmid. In vitro transfection studies with DNA⊂SNPs library identified the DNA⊂SNPs with the highest gene transfection efficiency, which can be attributed to cooperative effects of structures and surface chemistry of DNA⊂SNPs. We envision such a rapid developmental pathway can be adopted for generating nanoparticle-based vectors for delivery of a variety of loads.

  1. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  2. Potential reversal of a phase shift: the rapid decrease in the cover of the invasive green macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa Forsskål on coral reefs in Kāne`ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimson, J.; Conklin, E.

    2008-12-01

    The native green macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa dominated most of the reef slope habitat in Kāne‘ohe Bay, Hawai‘i for 40 years prior to 2006 and had displaced corals from the habitats they created. This has been one of the most oft-cited examples of a phase shift occurring on a coral reef. After decades of relatively constant, high abundance of the alga, percent cover declined dramatically throughout the bay between February and June 2006. The sudden decrease in cover of this alga appears to be the result of an unusually protracted cloudy, rainy period in March 2006, which may have reduced irradiance and caused the alga to lose weight. Corals and red macroalgae living at the same depths and in some of the same habitats were apparently not affected by this 42-day period of rain and overcast skies. Competition between corals and D. cavernosa for space on reef slopes has been virtually eliminated by the death of this alga, but the unstable rubble formations, which remain in much of the area formerly covered by D. cavernosa may not be conducive to rapid increase in cover by the remaining corals or to establishment by coral recruits. Two years later, there was still no recovery of D. cavernosa. This represents a rare example of decline in macroalgal dominance on a reef and a partial reversal, possibly only temporary, of a phase shift.

  3. Nephrotic range proteinuria as a strong risk factor for rapid renal function decline during pre-dialysis phase in type 2 diabetic patients with severely impaired renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Yuichiro; Doi, Yohei; Osaki, Keisuke; Sugioka, Sayaka; Koshikawa, Masao; Sugawara, Akira

    2015-12-01

    Proteinuria is an established risk factor for progression of renal disease, including diabetic nephropathy. The predictive power of proteinuria, especially nephrotic range proteinuria, for progressive renal deterioration has been well demonstrated in diabetic patients with normal to relatively preserved renal function. However, little is known about the relationship between severity of proteinuria and renal outcome in pre-dialysis diabetic patients with severely impaired renal function. 125 incident dialysis patients with type 2 diabetes were identified. This study was aimed at retrospectively evaluating the impact of nephrotic range proteinuria (urinary protein-creatinine ratio above 3.5 g/gCr) on renal function decline during the 3 months just prior to dialysis initiation. In total, 103 patients (82.4 %) had nephrotic range proteinuria. The median rate of decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in this study population was 0.98 (interquartile range 0.51-1.46) ml/min/1.73 m(2) per month. Compared to patients without nephrotic range proteinuria, patients with nephrotic range proteinuria showed significantly faster renal function decline (0.46 [0.24-1.25] versus 1.07 [0.64-1.54] ml/min/1.73 m(2) per month; p = 0.007). After adjusting for gender, age, systolic blood pressure, serum albumin, calcium-phosphorus product, hemoglobin A1c, and use of an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker, patients with nephrotic range proteinuria showed a 3.89-fold (95 % CI 1.08-14.5) increased risk for rapid renal function decline defined as a decline in eGFR ≥0.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) per month. Nephrotic range proteinuria is the predominant renal risk factor in type 2 diabetic patients with severely impaired renal function receiving pre-dialysis care.

  4. Accumulation of MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease is associated with decreased cognitive function. A study in first-ever lacunar stroke and hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein eHuijts

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background – White matter lesions (WMLs, asymptomatic lacunar infarcts, brain microbleeds (BMBs and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS have been identified as silent lesions due to cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD. All these markers have been individually linked to cognitive functioning, but are also strongly correlated with each other. The combined effect of these markers on cognitive function has never been studied and would possibly provide more useful information on the effect on cognitive function. Methods – Brain MRI and extensive neuropsychological assessment were performed in 189 patients at risk for cSVD (112 hypertensive patients and 77 first-ever lacunar stroke patients. We rated the presence of any asymptomatic lacunar infarct, extensive WMLs, any deep BMB, and moderate to extensive EPVS in the basal ganglia. The presence of each marker was summed to an ordinal score between 0 and 4. Associations with domains of cognitive function (memory, executive function, information processing speed and overall cognition were analyzed with correlation analyses. Results – Correlation analyses revealed significant associations between accumulating cSVD burden and decreased performance on all cognitive domains (all p≤.001. Results remained significant for information processing speed (r=-.181, p=.013 and overall cognition (r=-.178, p=.017, after correction for age and sex. Testing of trend using linear regression analyses revealed the same results. Discussion – We tested a new approach to capture total brain damage resulting from cSVD and found that accumulation of MRI burden of cSVD is associated with decreased performance on tests of information processing speed and overall cognition, implying that accumulating brain damage is accompanied by worse cognitive functioning.

  5. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity is associated with decreased expression and function of the large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiril L Hristov

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from a variety of neurological diseases such as spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis often develop neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO, which currently lacks a universally effective therapy. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NDO is associated with changes in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM large conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BK channel expression and function. DSM tissue samples from 33 patients were obtained during open bladder surgeries. NDO patients were clinically characterized preoperatively with pressure-flow urodynamics demonstrating detrusor overactivity, in the setting of a clinically relevant neurological condition. Control patients did not have overactive bladder and did not have a clinically relevant neurological disease. We conducted quantitative polymerase chain reactions (qPCR, perforated patch-clamp electrophysiology on freshly-isolated DSM cells, and functional studies on DSM contractility. qPCR experiments revealed that DSM samples from NDO patients showed decreased BK channel mRNA expression in comparison to controls. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated reduced whole cell and transient BK currents (TBKCs in freshly-isolated DSM cells from NDO patients. Functional studies on DSM contractility showed that spontaneous phasic contractions had a decreased sensitivity to iberiotoxin, a selective BK channel inhibitor, in DSM strips isolated from NDO patients. These results reveal the novel finding that NDO is associated with decreased DSM BK channel expression and function leading to increased DSM excitability and contractility. BK channel openers or BK channel gene transfer could be an alternative strategy to control NDO. Future clinical trials are needed to evaluate the value of BK channel opening drugs or gene therapies for NDO treatment and to identify any possible adverse effects.

  6. l-Theanine and caffeine improve target-specific attention to visual stimuli by decreasing mind wandering: a human functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahathuduwa, Chanaka N; Dhanasekara, Chathurika S; Chin, Shao-Hua; Davis, Tyler; Weerasinghe, Vajira S; Dassanayake, Tharaka L; Binks, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Oral intake of l-theanine and caffeine supplements is known to be associated with faster stimulus discrimination, possibly via improving attention to stimuli. We hypothesized that l-theanine and caffeine may be bringing about this beneficial effect by increasing attention-related neural resource allocation to target stimuli and decreasing deviation of neural resources to distractors. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test this hypothesis. Solutions of 200mg of l-theanine, 160mg of caffeine, their combination, or the vehicle (distilled water; placebo) were administered in a randomized 4-way crossover design to 9 healthy adult men. Sixty minutes after administration, a 20-minute fMRI scan was performed while the subjects performed a visual color stimulus discrimination task. l-Theanine and l-theanine-caffeine combination resulted in faster responses to targets compared with placebo (∆=27.8milliseconds, P=.018 and ∆=26.7milliseconds, P=.037, respectively). l-Theanine was associated with decreased fMRI responses to distractor stimuli in brain regions that regulate visual attention, suggesting that l-theanine may be decreasing neural resource allocation to process distractors, thus allowing to attend to targets more efficiently. l-Theanine-caffeine combination was associated with decreased fMRI responses to target stimuli as compared with distractors in several brain regions that typically show increased activation during mind wandering. Factorial analysis suggested that l-theanine and caffeine seem to have a synergistic action in decreasing mind wandering. Therefore, our hypothesis is that l-theanine and caffeine may be decreasing deviation of attention to distractors (including mind wandering); thus, enhancing attention to target stimuli was confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanical and Permeability Characteristics of Latex-Modified Pre-Packed Pavement Repair Concrete as a Function of the Rapid-Set Binder Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woong Han

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the strength and durability characteristics of latex-polymer-modified, pre-packed pavement repair concrete (LMPPRC with a rapid-set binder. The rapid-set binder was a mixture of rapid-set cement and silica sand, where the fluidity was controlled using a latex polymer. The resulting mix exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa and a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h of curing (i.e., the traffic opening term for emergency repairs of pavement. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was varied through 0.40, 0.33, 0.29, and 0.25. Mechanical characterization revealed that the mechanical performance, permeability, and impact resistance increased as the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder decreased. The mixture exhibited a compressive strength of ¥21 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.29. The mixture exhibited a flexural strength of ¥3.5 MPa after 4 h when the ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material was ¤0.33. The permeability resistance to chloride ions satisfied 2000 C after 7 days of curing for all ratios. The ratio of latex polymer to rapid-set binder material that satisfied all conditions for emergency pavement repair was ¤0.29.

  8. Assessment of a virtual functional prototyping process for the rapid manufacture of passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Elisa S; Hitch, Lester; Wallace, Kevin; Moore, Richard; Stanhope, Steven J

    2013-10-01

    Passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthosis (PD-AFO) bending stiffness is a key functional characteristic for achieving enhanced gait function. However, current orthosis customization methods inhibit objective premanufacture tuning of the PD-AFO bending stiffness, making optimization of orthosis function challenging. We have developed a novel virtual functional prototyping (VFP) process, which harnesses the strengths of computer aided design (CAD) model parameterization and finite element analysis, to quantitatively tune and predict the functional characteristics of a PD-AFO, which is rapidly manufactured via fused deposition modeling (FDM). The purpose of this study was to assess the VFP process for PD-AFO bending stiffness. A PD-AFO CAD model was customized for a healthy subject and tuned to four bending stiffness values via VFP. Two sets of each tuned model were fabricated via FDM using medical-grade polycarbonate (PC-ISO). Dimensional accuracy of the fabricated orthoses was excellent (average 0.51 ± 0.39 mm). Manufacturing precision ranged from 0.0 to 0.74 Nm/deg (average 0.30 ± 0.36 Nm/deg). Bending stiffness prediction accuracy was within 1 Nm/deg using the manufacturer provided PC-ISO elastic modulus (average 0.48 ± 0.35 Nm/deg). Using an experimentally derived PC-ISO elastic modulus improved the optimized bending stiffness prediction accuracy (average 0.29 ± 0.57 Nm/deg). Robustness of the derived modulus was tested by carrying out the VFP process for a disparate subject, tuning the PD-AFO model to five bending stiffness values. For this disparate subject, bending stiffness prediction accuracy was strong (average 0.20 ± 0.14 Nm/deg). Overall, the VFP process had excellent dimensional accuracy, good manufacturing precision, and strong prediction accuracy with the derived modulus. Implementing VFP as part of our PD-AFO customization and manufacturing framework, which also includes fit customization, provides a novel and powerful method to

  9. Young Athletes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction With Single-Leg Landing Asymmetries at the Time of Return to Sport Demonstrate Decreased Knee Function 2 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithurburn, Matthew P; Paterno, Mark V; Ford, Kevin R; Hewett, Timothy E; Schmitt, Laura C

    2017-09-01

    Previous work shows that young athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) demonstrate single-leg (SL) landing movement asymmetries at the time of return to sport (RTS); however, the effect of movement asymmetries on longitudinal knee-related function after ACLR has not been examined. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of SL drop-landing movement symmetry at the time of RTS on knee-related function 2 years later in young athletes after ACLR. The first hypothesis was that young athletes who demonstrated SL drop-landing asymmetries at RTS would demonstrate decreased knee function 2 years later compared with those who demonstrated symmetric SL drop-landing mechanics. The second hypothesis was that SL drop-landing movement symmetry at RTS would be associated with knee functional recovery 2 years later. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This study included 48 young athletes who had undergone ACLR and were assessed at the time of RTS (77% female; mean [±SD] age at RTS, 17.6 ± 2.6 years) and followed for 2 years after RTS. Three sagittal-plane landing variables of interest were calculated using 3-dimensional motion analysis during an SL drop-landing task at the time of RTS: knee flexion excursion, peak internal knee extension moment, and peak trunk flexion. The limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated for each landing variable using the following: LSI = (involved/uninvolved) × 100%. The LSI was used to divide the cohort into symmetric (SYM) and asymmetric (ASYM) groups for each landing variable: knee flexion excursion (SYM: LSI ≥ 90% [n = 23]; ASYM: LSI 115% [n = 19]). At 2 years after RTS, knee-related function was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective knee form, and performance on SL hop tests. Functional recovery was defined based on literature cutoffs for knee-related functional measures. Differences in 2-year

  10. Rapid biochemical functionalization of technical surfaces by means of a photobleaching-based maskless projection lithography process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbaur, Ansgar; Waterkotte, Björn; Leuthold, Juerg; Schmitz, Katja; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2013-03-01

    MEMS/MOEMS based systems are increasingly applied in the biological and biomedical context, e.g. in form of biosensors or substrates for monitoring biological responses such as cell migration. For such applications, technical surfaces have to be provided with suitable biochemical functionalization. Typical functionalization procedures include wet-chemical techniques based on self-assembled monolayers of thiols on gold or silanes on glass. These processes create binary patterns and are often of limited use if spatially constrained non-binary patterns like surface bound biochemical gradients have to be provided. In order to create gradients or patterns, methods such as direct spotting or dip pen nanolithography can be used. Here, gradients can be emulated by varying the spot density or the concentration of the solutions employed. However, these methods are serial in nature and are thus of limited use if large surface areas have to be patterned. We present a technique to generate gradients of biochemical function by a photobleaching-based process allowing fast large-scale patterning. The process is based on photobleaching resulting in light-induced coupling of a fluorescently tagged biomolecule to a technical surface by concerted bleaching of the fluorophore. We custom designed a maskless projection lithography system based on a digital mirror device that allows the rapid creation of 8-bit grayscale protein patterns on any technical surface from digital data (e.g. bitmap files). We demonstrate how this process can be used to obtain patterns of several cm2 lateral size at micrometer resolution within minutes.

  11. Decreased cerebellar-orbitofrontal connectivity correlates with stuttering severity: Whole-brain functional and structural connectivity associations with persistent developmental stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Richard Sitek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex. Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and orbitofrontal cortex may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers.

  12. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Kevin R; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S; Perkell, Joseph S; Guenther, Frank H; Ghosh, Satrajit S

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers.

  13. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Kevin R.; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers. PMID:27199712

  14. Novel immune-modulator identified by a rapid, functional screen of the parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of new sequencing technologies and informatic methods for identifying genes has made establishing gene product function a critical rate limiting step in progressing the molecular sciences. We present a method to functionally mine genomes for useful activities in vivo, using an unusual property of a member of the poxvirus family to demonstrate this screening approach. Results The genome of Parapoxvirus ovis (Orf virus was sequenced, annotated, and then used to PCR-amplify its open-reading-frames. Employing a cloning-independent protocol, a viral expression-library was rapidly built and arrayed into sub-library pools. These were directly delivered into mice as expressible cassettes and assayed for an immune-modulating activity associated with parapoxvirus infection. The product of the B2L gene, a homolog of vaccinia F13L, was identified as the factor eliciting immune cell accumulation at sites of skin inoculation. Administration of purified B2 protein also elicited immune cell accumulation activity, and additionally was found to serve as an adjuvant for antigen-specific responses. Co-delivery of the B2L gene with an influenza gene-vaccine significantly improved protection in mice. Furthermore, delivery of the B2L expression construct, without antigen, non-specifically reduced tumor growth in murine models of cancer. Conclusion A streamlined, functional approach to genome-wide screening of a biological activity in vivo is presented. Its application to screening in mice for an immune activity elicited by the pathogen genome of Parapoxvirus ovis yielded a novel immunomodulator. In this inverted discovery method, it was possible to identify the adjuvant responsible for a function of interest prior to a mechanistic study of the adjuvant. The non-specific immune activity of this modulator, B2, is similar to that associated with administration of inactivated particles to a host or to a live viral infection. Administration

  15. Impaired progenitor cell function in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers results in decreased thymic output and low CD4 counts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S. D.; Jeppesen, D. L.; Kolte, L.

    2001-01-01

    and fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOCs). Lower naive CD4 counts (459.3 +/- 68.9 vs 1128.9 +/- 146.8 cells/microL, P mothers were found (frequency of CD4(+) cells with TRECs was 3.6% +/- 0.7% compared with 14.3% +/- 2.2% in controls, P ...). In combination with lower red blood cell counts in infants of HIV-positive mothers, this finding suggested impairment of progenitor cell function. Indeed, progenitors from infants of HIV-positive mothers had decreased cloning efficiency (15.7% +/- 2.6% vs 55.8% +/- 15.9%, P =.009) and seemed to generate fewer T...... cells in FTOCs. In conclusion, lower numbers of naive CD4(+) cells and reduced thymic output in HIV-negative infants of HIV-positive mothers may be due to impaired progenitor cell function....

  16. Open label smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with decreased glutamate levels and functional changes in anterior cingulate cortex: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriah Dawn Wheelock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and functional changes within the cognitive control network.Methods: We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in the dACC and functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task before and after smoking cessation with varenicline in 11 healthy smokers (open label design. Using the dACC as a seed region, we evaluated functional connectivity changes using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. Results: We observed a significant decrease in dACC glutamate + glutamine (Glx/Cr levels as well as significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD decreases in the rostral ACC/medial orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These BOLD changes are suggestive of alterations in default mode network (DMN function and are further supported by the results of the PPI analysis that revealed changes in connectivity between the dACC and regions of the DMN. Baseline measures of nicotine dependence and craving positively correlated with baseline Glx/Cr levels.Conclusions: These results suggest possible mechanisms of action for varenicline such as reduction in Glx levels in dACC and shifts in BOLD activities between large scale brain networks. They also suggest a role for ACC Glx in the modulation of behavior. Due to the preliminary nature of this study (lack of control group and small sample size, future studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  17. Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper W James

    2009-01-01

    data support a tight and biomechanically defined link between structure and the functional ecology of fish skulls, and indicate that certain mechanisms for transmitting motion through their jaw linkages may require particular anatomical configurations, a conclusion that contravenes the concept of "many-to-one mapping" for fish jaw mechanics. Damselfish trophic evolution is characterized by rapid and repeated shifts between a small number of eco-morphological states, an evolutionary pattern that we describe as reticulate adaptive radiation.

  18. Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W James; Westneat, Mark W

    2009-01-30

    between structure and the functional ecology of fish skulls, and indicate that certain mechanisms for transmitting motion through their jaw linkages may require particular anatomical configurations, a conclusion that contravenes the concept of "many-to-one mapping" for fish jaw mechanics. Damselfish trophic evolution is characterized by rapid and repeated shifts between a small number of eco-morphological states, an evolutionary pattern that we describe as reticulate adaptive radiation.

  19. AN INTRODUCTION TO RAPID CASTING: DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTIGATION OF PROCESS CHAINS FOR SAND CASTING OF FUNCTIONAL PROTOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dimitrov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the results obtained from studies on different Rapid Tooling process chains in order to improve the design and manufacture of foundry equipment that is used for sand casting of prototypes in final material. These prototypes are intended for functional and pre-production tests of vehicles. The Three Dimensional Printing process is used as core technology. Subsequently, while considering aspects such as time, cost, quality (accuracy and surface roughness, and tool life, a framework is presented for the evaluation and selection of the most suitable process chain in accordance with specific requirements. This research builds on an in-depth characterisation of the accuracy and repeatability of a 3D printing process.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel bespreek die resultate wat verkry is tydens studies op verskillende Snel-Gereedskapvervaardigingproseskettings wat ondersoek is teneinde die ontwerp en vervaardiging van sandgietgereedskap, om prototipes in finale materiaal te vervaardig, te verbeter. Die prototipes is bestem vir gebruik in funksionele- en voorproduksietoetse van voertuie. Die sogenaamde Driedimensionele Drukproses (3DP is as kerntegnologie aangewend. Gevolglik, na oorweging van aspekte soos tyd, koste, kwaliteit (akkuraatheid en oppervlakafwerking, en gereedskapleeftyd, is ’n raamwerk ontwikkel vir die evaluering en seleksie van die mees geskikte prosesketting met inagname van spesifieke vereistes. Hierdie navorsing bou op ’n diepgaande karakterisering van die akkuraatheids- en herhaalbaarheidsvermoë van ’n 3D drukproses.

  20. Law-making functions of the Chinese courts:Judicial activism in a country of rapid social changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenguang

    2006-01-01

    The judicial production of law and the legislative production of law make a striking distinction between the two legal traditions.Despite of these differences,judges in both legal traditions in adjudicating cases have a common task,which is the application of legal rules to the facts of cases pending for judgments.The tension between the certainty and the "discretion" is universal for any legal system and,to a certain extent,it poses a hard dilemma for the rhetoric of rule of law.In the transitional countries such as China where rapid social changes and transformations take place,the judiciary and judges can not escape from taking more active roles in interpreting or even law making process.It arouses much controversy,particularly in continental legal traditions,for the judiciary is deemed to perform a mechanical role in adjudicating cases.This article intends to analyze the needs for judicial law.making function in China and its reasons.It reveals that judicial interpretation constitutes an important source of law despite its ambiguous legislative position.The article argues that judicial activism is inevitable against the transitional nature of current Chinese society.

  1. Flow cytometry-assisted rapid isolation of recombinant Plasmodium berghei parasites exemplified by functional analysis of aquaglyceroporin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenthirapalan, Sanketha; Waters, Andrew P.; Matuschewski, Kai; Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The most critical bottleneck in the generation of recombinant Plasmodium berghei parasites is the mandatory in vivo cloning step following successful genetic manipulation. This study describes a new technique for rapid selection of recombinant P. berghei parasites. The method is based on flow cytometry to isolate isogenic parasite lines and represents a major advance for the field, in that it will speed the generation of recombinant parasites as well as cut down on animal use significantly. High expression of GFP during blood infection, a prerequisite for robust separation of transgenic lines by flow cytometry, was achieved. Isogenic recombinant parasite populations were isolated even in the presence of a 100-fold excess of wild-type (WT) parasites. Aquaglyceroporin (AQP) loss-of-function mutants and parasites expressing a tagged AQP were generated to validate this approach. aqp− parasites grow normally within the WT phenotypic range during blood infection of NMRI mice. Similarly, colonization of the insect vector and establishment of an infection after mosquito transmission were unaffected, indicating that AQP is dispensable for life cycle progression in vivo under physiological conditions, refuting its use as a suitable drug target. Tagged AQP localized to perinuclear structures and not the parasite plasma membrane. We suggest that flow-cytometric isolation of isogenic parasites overcomes the major roadblock towards a genome-scale repository of mutant and transgenic malaria parasite lines. PMID:23137753

  2. Functional paper-based SERS substrate for rapid and sensitive detection of Sudan dyes in herbal medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mianmian; Li, Pan; Zhu, Qingxia; Wu, Meiran; Li, Hao; Lu, Feng

    2018-05-01

    There has been an increasing demand for rapid and sensitive techniques for the identification of Sudan compounds that emerged as the most often illegally added fat-soluble dyes in herbal medicine. In this report, we have designed and fabricated a functionalized filter paper consisting of gold nanorods (GNRs) and mono-6-thio-cyclodextrin (HS-β-CD) as a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrate, in which the GNR provides sufficient SERS enhancement, and the HS-β-CD with strong chemical affinity toward GNR provides the inclusion compound to capture hydrophobic molecules. Moreover, the CD-GNR were uniformly assembled on filter paper cellulose through the electrostatic adsorption and hydrogen bond, so that the CD-GNR paper-based SERS substrate (CD-GNR-paper) demonstrated higher sensitivity for the determination of Sudan III (0.1 μM) and Sudan IV (0.5 μM) than GNRs paper-based SERS substrate (GNR-paper), with high stability after the storage in the open air for 90 days. Importantly, CD-GNR-paper can effectively collect the Sudan dyes from illegally adulterated onto samples of Resina Draconis with a simple operation, further open up new exciting opportunity for SERS detection of more compounds illegally added with high sensitivity and fast signal responses.

  3. Rapid estimation of split renal function in kidney donors using software developed for computed tomographic renal volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Fumi; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Morita, Ken; Muto, Natalia S.; Okamoto, Syozou; Omatsu, Tokuhiko; Oyama, Noriko; Terae, Satoshi; Kanegae, Kakuko; Nonomura, Katsuya; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the speed and precision of split renal volume (SRV) measurement, which is the ratio of unilateral renal volume to bilateral renal volume, using a newly developed software for computed tomographic (CT) volumetry and to investigate the usefulness of SRV for the estimation of split renal function (SRF) in kidney donors. Method: Both dynamic CT and renal scintigraphy in 28 adult potential living renal donors were the subjects of this study. We calculated SRV using the newly developed volumetric software built into a PACS viewer (n-SRV), and compared it with SRV calculated using a conventional workstation, ZIOSOFT (z-SRV). The correlation with split renal function (SRF) using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was also investigated. Results: The time required for volumetry of bilateral kidneys with the newly developed software (16.7 ± 3.9 s) was significantly shorter than that of the workstation (102.6 ± 38.9 s, p < 0.0001). The results of n-SRV (49.7 ± 4.0%) were highly consistent with those of z-SRV (49.9 ± 3.6%), with a mean discrepancy of 0.12 ± 0.84%. The SRF also agreed well with the n-SRV, with a mean discrepancy of 0.25 ± 1.65%. The dominant side determined by SRF and n-SRV showed agreement in 26 of 28 cases (92.9%). Conclusion: The newly developed software for CT volumetry was more rapid than the conventional workstation volumetry and just as accurate, and was suggested to be useful for the estimation of SRF and thus the dominant side in kidney donors.

  4. Rapid estimation of split renal function in kidney donors using software developed for computed tomographic renal volumetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Fumi, E-mail: fumikato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Morita, Ken, E-mail: kenordic@carrot.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Muto, Natalia S., E-mail: nataliamuto@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Okamoto, Syozou, E-mail: shozo@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Omatsu, Tokuhiko, E-mail: omatoku@nirs.go.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Oyama, Noriko, E-mail: ZAT04404@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Terae, Satoshi, E-mail: saterae@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Kanegae, Kakuko, E-mail: IZW00143@nifty.ne.jp [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Nonomura, Katsuya, E-mail: k-nonno@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Urology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, 060-8638 (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki, E-mail: shirato@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, N15, W7, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the speed and precision of split renal volume (SRV) measurement, which is the ratio of unilateral renal volume to bilateral renal volume, using a newly developed software for computed tomographic (CT) volumetry and to investigate the usefulness of SRV for the estimation of split renal function (SRF) in kidney donors. Method: Both dynamic CT and renal scintigraphy in 28 adult potential living renal donors were the subjects of this study. We calculated SRV using the newly developed volumetric software built into a PACS viewer (n-SRV), and compared it with SRV calculated using a conventional workstation, ZIOSOFT (z-SRV). The correlation with split renal function (SRF) using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was also investigated. Results: The time required for volumetry of bilateral kidneys with the newly developed software (16.7 {+-} 3.9 s) was significantly shorter than that of the workstation (102.6 {+-} 38.9 s, p < 0.0001). The results of n-SRV (49.7 {+-} 4.0%) were highly consistent with those of z-SRV (49.9 {+-} 3.6%), with a mean discrepancy of 0.12 {+-} 0.84%. The SRF also agreed well with the n-SRV, with a mean discrepancy of 0.25 {+-} 1.65%. The dominant side determined by SRF and n-SRV showed agreement in 26 of 28 cases (92.9%). Conclusion: The newly developed software for CT volumetry was more rapid than the conventional workstation volumetry and just as accurate, and was suggested to be useful for the estimation of SRF and thus the dominant side in kidney donors.

  5. Functional Activation during the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task in a Middle Aged Cohort: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Chris; Johnston, Patrick; Hughes, Matthew; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, a serial discrimination task where task performance believed to reflect sustained attention capabilities, is widely used in behavioural research and increasingly in neuroimaging studies. To date, functional neuroimaging research into the RVIP has been undertaken using block analyses, reflecting the sustained processing involved in the task, but not necessarily the transient processes associated with individual trial performance. Furthermore, this research has been limited to young cohorts. This study assessed the behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) outcomes of the RVIP task using both block and event-related analyses in a healthy middle aged cohort (mean age = 53.56 years, n = 16). The results show that the version of the RVIP used here is sensitive to changes in attentional demand processes with participants achieving a 43% accuracy hit rate in the experimental task compared with 96% accuracy in the control task. As shown by previous research, the block analysis revealed an increase in activation in a network of frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar regions. The event related analysis showed a similar network of activation, seemingly omitting regions involved in the processing of the task (as shown in the block analysis), such as occipital areas and the thalamus, providing an indication of a network of regions involved in correct trial performance. Frontal (superior and inferior frontal gryi), parietal (precuenus, inferior parietal lobe) and cerebellar regions were shown to be active in both the block and event-related analyses, suggesting their importance in sustained attention/vigilance. These networks and the differences between them are discussed in detail, as well as implications for future research in middle aged cohorts.

  6. Functional Activation during the Rapid Visual Information Processing Task in a Middle Aged Cohort: An fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Neale

    Full Text Available The Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP task, a serial discrimination task where task performance believed to reflect sustained attention capabilities, is widely used in behavioural research and increasingly in neuroimaging studies. To date, functional neuroimaging research into the RVIP has been undertaken using block analyses, reflecting the sustained processing involved in the task, but not necessarily the transient processes associated with individual trial performance. Furthermore, this research has been limited to young cohorts. This study assessed the behavioural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI outcomes of the RVIP task using both block and event-related analyses in a healthy middle aged cohort (mean age = 53.56 years, n = 16. The results show that the version of the RVIP used here is sensitive to changes in attentional demand processes with participants achieving a 43% accuracy hit rate in the experimental task compared with 96% accuracy in the control task. As shown by previous research, the block analysis revealed an increase in activation in a network of frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar regions. The event related analysis showed a similar network of activation, seemingly omitting regions involved in the processing of the task (as shown in the block analysis, such as occipital areas and the thalamus, providing an indication of a network of regions involved in correct trial performance. Frontal (superior and inferior frontal gryi, parietal (precuenus, inferior parietal lobe and cerebellar regions were shown to be active in both the block and event-related analyses, suggesting their importance in sustained attention/vigilance. These networks and the differences between them are discussed in detail, as well as implications for future research in middle aged cohorts.

  7. Oxygen With Cold Bubble Humidification Is No Better Than Dry Oxygen in Preventing Mucus Dehydration, Decreased Mucociliary Clearance, and Decline in Pulmonary Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Michelle Lisidati; Athanazio, Rodrigo; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Carreirão-Neto, Waldir; Saldiva, Paulo Hilario Nascimento; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Rubin, Bruce K; Nakagawa, Naomi Kondo

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of long-term nasal low-flow oxygen (NLFO) on mucus and symptoms and how this variable is affected by dry or cold humidified gas. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dry-NLFO and cold bubble humidified-NLFO on nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC), mucus properties, inflammation, and symptoms in subjects with chronic hypoxemia requiring long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy. Eighteen subjects (mean age, 68 years; 7 male; 66% with COPD) initiating NLFO were randomized to receive dry-NLFO (n = 10) or humidified-NLFO (n = 8). Subjects were assessed at baseline, 12 h, 7 days, 30 days, 12 months, and 24 months by measuring nasal MCC using the saccharin transit test, mucus contact angle (surface tension), inflammation (cells and cytokine concentration in nasal lavage), and symptoms according to the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-20. Nasal MCC decreased significantly (40% longer saccharin transit times) and similarly in both groups over the study period. There was a significant association between impaired nasal MCC and decline in lung function. Nasal lavage revealed an increased proportion of macrophages, interleukin-8, and epidermal growth factor concentrations with decreased interleukin-10 during the study. No changes in the proportion of ciliated cells or contact angle were observed. Coughing and sleep symptoms decreased similarly in both groups. There were no outcome differences comparing dry vs cold bubble humidified NLFO. In subjects receiving chronic NLFO, cold bubble humidification does not adequately humidify inspired oxygen to prevent deterioration of MCC, mucus hydration, and pulmonary function. The unheated bubble humidification performed no better than no humidification. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02515786; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Victoria L; Pasion, Khristine A; Moran, Ann Marie; Zaninello, Roberta; Ortu, Maria Francesca; Fresu, Giovanni; Piras, Daniela Antonella; Argiolas, Giuseppe; Troffa, Chiara; Glorioso, Valeria; Masala, Wanda; Glorioso, Nicola; Ruiz-Opazo, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T) insertion(ins)/deletion(del) polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T) in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93]) accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02) and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046). The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03) than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na-reabsorption in the

  9. A functional 12T-insertion polymorphism in the ATP1A1 promoter confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension in a male Sardinian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L Herrera

    Full Text Available Identification of susceptibility genes for essential hypertension in humans has been a challenge due to its multifactorial pathogenesis complicated by gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, developmental programing and sex specific differences. These concurrent features make identification of causal hypertension susceptibility genes with a single approach difficult, thus requiring multiple lines of evidence involving genetic, biochemical and biological experimentation to establish causal functional mutations. Here we report experimental evidence encompassing genetic, biochemical and in vivo modeling that altogether support ATP1A1 as a hypertension susceptibility gene in males in Sardinia, Italy. ATP1A1 encodes the α1Na,K-ATPase isoform, the sole sodium pump in vascular endothelial and renal tubular epithelial cells. DNA-sequencing detected a 12-nucleotide long thymidine (12T insertion(ins/deletion(del polymorphism within a poly-T sequence (38T vs 26T in the ATP1A1 5'-regulatory region associated with hypertension in a male Sardinian population. The 12T-insertion allele confers decreased susceptibility to hypertension (P = 0.035; OR = 0.50 [0.28-0.93] accounting for 12.1 mmHg decrease in systolic BP (P = 0.02 and 6.6 mmHg in diastolic BP (P = 0.046. The ATP1A1 promoter containing the 12T-insertion exhibited decreased transcriptional activity in in vitro reporter-assay systems, indicating decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression with the 12T-insertion, compared with the 12T-deletion ATP1A1 promoter. To test the effects of decreased α1Na,K-ATPase expression on blood pressure, we measured blood pressure by radiotelemetry in three month-old, highly inbred heterozygous knockout ATP1A1+/- male mice with resultant 58% reduction in ATP1A1 protein levels. Male ATP1A1+/- mice showed significantly lower blood pressure (P < 0.03 than age-matched male wild-type littermate controls. Concordantly, lower ATP1A1 expression is expected to lower Na

  10. Thymic irradiation inhibits the rapid recovery of TH1 but not TH2-like functions of CD4+ T cells after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.; Adkins, B.; Strober, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four to six weeks after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), there is a selective deficit in the CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-2, proliferate in the MLR, and induce GVHD (Th1-like functions). A similar deficit in CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-4 and help antibody responses (Th2-like functions) is not observed. In the present study, shielding of the thymus with lead during TLI increased the Th1-like functions of CD4+ cells. Mice without thymus shields showed a marked selective reduction in the medullary stromal cells identified with the monoclonal antibody, MD1, and the severe reduction was prevented with thymus shields. Thus, shielding the thymus prevents the depletion of thymic medullary stromal cells and allows for a rapid recovery of Th1-like functions in the mouse spleen after TLI. Th2-like functions recover rapidly after TLI whether or not the thymus is irradiated

  11. Comparative analysis of function and interaction of transcription factors in nematodes: Extensive conservation of orthology coupled to rapid sequence evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rama S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the morphological diversity in eukaryotes results from differential regulation of gene expression in which transcription factors (TFs play a central role. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an established model organism for the study of the roles of TFs in controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of gene expression. Using the fully sequenced genomes of three Caenorhabditid nematode species as well as genome information from additional more distantly related organisms (fruit fly, mouse, and human we sought to identify orthologous TFs and characterized their patterns of evolution. Results We identified 988 TF genes in C. elegans, and inferred corresponding sets in C. briggsae and C. remanei, containing 995 and 1093 TF genes, respectively. Analysis of the three gene sets revealed 652 3-way reciprocal 'best hit' orthologs (nematode TF set, approximately half of which are zinc finger (ZF-C2H2 and ZF-C4/NHR types and HOX family members. Examination of the TF genes in C. elegans and C. briggsae identified the presence of significant tandem clustering on chromosome V, the majority of which belong to ZF-C4/NHR family. We also found evidence for lineage-specific duplications and rapid evolution of many of the TF genes in the two species. A search of the TFs conserved among nematodes in Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed 150 reciprocal orthologs, many of which are associated with important biological processes and human diseases. Finally, a comparison of the sequence, gene interactions and function indicates that nematode TFs conserved across phyla exhibit significantly more interactions and are enriched in genes with annotated mutant phenotypes compared to those that lack orthologs in other species. Conclusion Our study represents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of TFs across three nematode species and other organisms. The findings indicate substantial conservation of transcription

  12. Functional Durability of a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Sensor for the Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Liquids from Poultry Packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olsen, Eric

    2000-01-01

    .... A rapid, sensitive (350 +/- 150 cells ml/cm) quartz crystal microbalance biosensor, layered with heat-treated anti-Salmonella-phospholipid monolayers by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, has been evaluated by immersion testing in chicken exudate...

  13. [Curcumin improves learning and memory function through decreasing hippocampal TNF-α and iNOS levels after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhenwei; Yue, Shuangzhu

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of curcumin on learning and memory function of rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the possible mechanism. A total of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: Sham group, SAH group and curcumin (Cur) therapy group. Experimental SAH rat models were established by injecting autologous blood into the cisterna magna. Neurological deficits of rats were examined at different time points. Spatial learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze test. The hippocampal tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by ELISA. RESULTS Experimental SAH rat models were established successfully. Neurological scores of the SAH rats were significantly lower than those of the sham group. Curcumin therapy obviously improved the neurological deficits of rats compared with the SAH rats. Morris water maze test showed that SAH caused significant cognitive impairment with longer escape latency compared with the sham group. After treatment with curcumin for 4 weeks, the escape latency decreased significantly. The levels of TNF-α and iNOS in the curcumin-treated group were significantly lower than those of the SAH group. SAH can cause learning and memory impairment in rats. Curcumin can recover learning and memory function through down-regulating hippocampal TNF-α and iNOS levels.

  14. Gain-of-function R225W mutation in human AMPKgamma(3 causing increased glycogen and decreased triglyceride in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila R Costford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK is a heterotrimeric enzyme that is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to mammals and functions to maintain cellular and whole body energy homeostasis. Studies in experimental animals demonstrate that activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle protects against insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and obesity. The regulatory gamma(3 subunit of AMPK is expressed exclusively in skeletal muscle; however, its importance in controlling overall AMPK activity is unknown. While evidence is emerging that gamma subunit mutations interfere specifically with AMP activation, there remains some controversy regarding the impact of gamma subunit mutations. Here we report the first gain-of-function mutation in the muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3 subunit in humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sequenced the exons and splice junctions of the AMPK gamma(3 gene (PRKAG3 in 761 obese and 759 lean individuals, identifying 87 sequence variants including a novel R225W mutation in subjects from two unrelated families. The gamma(3 R225W mutation is homologous in location to the gamma(2R302Q mutation in patients with Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome and to the gamma(3R225Q mutation originally linked to an increase in muscle glycogen content in purebred Hampshire Rendement Napole (RN- pigs. We demonstrate in differentiated muscle satellite cells obtained from the vastus lateralis of R225W carriers that the mutation is associated with an approximate doubling of both basal and AMP-activated AMPK activities. Moreover, subjects bearing the R225W mutation exhibit a approximately 90% increase of skeletal muscle glycogen content and a approximately 30% decrease in intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified for the first time a mutation in the skeletal muscle-specific regulatory gamma(3 subunit of AMPK in humans. The gamma(3R225W mutation has significant functional effects as demonstrated by increases in basal and AMP

  15. CLA does not impair endothelial function and decreases body weight as compared with safflower oil in overweight and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Fielitz, Kerstin; Laue, Christiane; Winkler, Petra; Rubin, Diana; Helwig, Ulf; Giller, Katrin; Kammann, Julia; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Bub, Achim; Bell, Doris; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) showed a wide range of beneficial biological effects with relevance for cardiovascular health in animal models and humans. Most human studies used olive oil as a reference. This study assessed the effect of CLA as compared with safflower oil on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese men. Heated safflower oil and olive oil were given for additional descriptive control. Eighty-five overweight men (aged 45-68 years, body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive 4.5 g/d of the CLA isomeric mixture, safflower oil, heated safflower oil, or olive oil in a 4-week double-blind study. Endothelial function was assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) index determination in the fasting and postprandial state (i.e., 4 hours after consumption of a fat- and sucrose-rich meal). CLA as compared with safflower oil consumption did not impair fasting or postprandial PAT index but decreased body weight. CLA as compared with safflower oil did not change total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; insulin sensitivity indices; C-reactive protein; soluble adhesion molecules; oxidized LDL; lipoprotein a (Lp[a]); paraoxonase; or platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, but significantly reduced arylesterase activity and increased concentrations of the F(2)-isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F (PGF)(2α). CLA did not impair endothelial function. Other parameters associated with metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress were not changed or were slightly improved. Results suggest that CLA does not increase cardiovascular risk. Increased F(2)-isoprostane concentrations in this context may not indicate increased oxidative stress.

  16. Cocaine addiction is associated with abnormal prefrontal function, increased striatal connectivity and sensitivity to monetary incentives, and decreased connectivity outside the human reward circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, Lucía; Cámara, Estela; Sampedro, Frederic; Pérez de Los Cobos, José; Batlle, Francesca; Fabregas, Josep Maria; Sales, Joan Artur; Cervantes, Mercè; Ferrer, Xavier; Lazcano, Gerardo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2017-05-01

    Cocaine addiction has been associated with increased sensitivity of the human reward circuit to drug-related stimuli. However, the capacity of non-drug incentives to engage this network is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the functional sensitivity to monetary incentives and the structural integrity of the human reward circuit in abstinent cocaine-dependent (CD) patients and their matched controls. We assessed the BOLD response to monetary gains and losses in 30 CD patients and 30 healthy controls performing a lottery task in a magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We measured brain gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry and white matter microstructure using voxel-based fractional anisotropy (FA). Functional data showed that, after monetary incentives, CD patients exhibited higher activation in the ventral striatum than controls. Furthermore, we observed an inverted BOLD response pattern in the prefrontal cortex, with activity being highest after unexpected high gains and lowest after losses. Patients showed increased GMV in the caudate and the orbitofrontal cortex, increased white matter FA in the orbito-striatal pathway but decreased FA in antero-posterior association bundles. Abnormal activation in the prefrontal cortex correlated with GMV and FA increases in the orbitofrontal cortex. While functional abnormalities in the ventral striatum were inversely correlated with abstinence duration, structural alterations were not. In conclusion, results suggest abnormal incentive processing in CD patients with high salience for rewards and punishments in subcortical structures but diminished prefrontal control after adverse outcomes. They further suggest that hypertrophy and hyper-connectivity within the reward circuit, to the expense of connectivity outside this network, characterize cocaine addiction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. A rapid compression technique for 4-D functional MRI images using data rearrangement and modified binary array techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma Vetri Selvi, G; Nadarajan, R

    2015-12-01

    Compression techniques are vital for efficient storage and fast transfer of medical image data. The existing compression techniques take significant amount of time for performing encoding and decoding and hence the purpose of compression is not fully satisfied. In this paper a rapid 4-D lossy compression method constructed using data rearrangement, wavelet-based contourlet transformation and a modified binary array technique has been proposed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) images. In the proposed method, the image slices of fMRI data are rearranged so that the redundant slices form a sequence. The image sequence is then divided into slices and transformed using wavelet-based contourlet transform (WBCT). In WBCT, the high frequency sub-band obtained from wavelet transform is further decomposed into multiple directional sub-bands by directional filter bank to obtain more directional information. The relationship between the coefficients has been changed in WBCT as it has more directions. The differences in parent–child relationships are handled by a repositioning algorithm. The repositioned coefficients are then subjected to quantization. The quantized coefficients are further compressed by modified binary array technique where the most frequently occurring value of a sequence is coded only once. The proposed method has been experimented with fMRI images the results indicated that the processing time of the proposed method is less compared to existing wavelet-based set partitioning in hierarchical trees and set partitioning embedded block coder (SPECK) compression schemes [1]. The proposed method could also yield a better compression performance compared to wavelet-based SPECK coder. The objective results showed that the proposed method could gain good compression ratio in maintaining a peak signal noise ratio value of above 70 for all the experimented sequences. The SSIM value is equal to 1 and the value of CC is greater than 0.9 for all

  18. Loss of Cdk5 function in the nucleus accumbens decreases wheel running and may mediate age‐related declines in voluntary physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruegsegger, Gregory N.; Toedebusch, Ryan G.; Childs, Thomas E.; Grigsby, Kolter B.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physical inactivity, which drastically increases with advancing age, is associated with numerous chronic diseases.The nucleus accumbens (the pleasure and reward ‘hub’ in the brain) influences wheel running behaviour in rodents.RNA‐sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics analysis led us to hypothesize a potential relationship between the regulation of dendritic spine density, the molecules involved in synaptic transmission, and age‐related reductions in wheel running. Upon completion of follow‐up studies, we developed the working model that synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is central to age‐related changes in voluntary running.Testing this hypothesis, inhibition of Cdk5 (comprising a molecule central to the processes described above) in the nucleus accumbens reduced wheel running.The results of the present study show that reductions in synaptic transmission and Cdk5 function are related to decreases in voluntary running behaviour and provide guidance for understanding the neural mechanisms that underlie age‐dependent reductions in the motivation to be physically active. Abstract Increases in age are often associated with reduced levels of physical activity, which, in turn, associates with the development of numerous chronic diseases. We aimed to assess molecular differences in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) (a specific brain nucleus postulated to influence rewarding behaviour) with respect to wheel running and sedentary female Wistar rats at 8 and 14 weeks of age. RNA‐sequencing was used to interrogate transcriptomic changes between 8‐ and 14‐week‐old wheel running rats, and select transcripts were later analysed by quantitative RT‐PCR in age‐matched sedentary rats. Voluntary wheel running was greatest at 8 weeks and had significantly decreased by 12 weeks. From 619 differentially expressed mRNAs, bioinformatics suggested that cAMP‐mediated signalling, dopamine‐ and cAMP‐regulated neuronal phosphoprotein of 32

  19. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  20. Improved functionality, health related quality of life and decreased burden of disease in patients with ADHD treated with OROS® MPH: is treatment response different between children and adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rettig Klaus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare clinical and health-related quality of life (HRQoL outcomes between children and adolescents with ADHD treated with OROS® MPH, using data from two large similarly-designed multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-arm, non-interventional studies. Methods Pooled analysis (42603ATT4037, 42603 - ATT - 4001 including patients (6 to 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of ADHD. Patients were treated with OROS® MPH for 12 weeks; ADHD symptoms, functioning, HRQoL, safety and tolerability parameters were assessed. Results 822 patients (583 children [6-12 years], 239 adolescents [13-18 years] were included in the pooled analysis. Mean daily OROS® MPH starting doses in the child and adolescent subgroups were 29.0 ± 11.7 and 37.6 ± 15.6 mg, respectively (p ® MPH in 76.9%, 86.0% and 79.3% of children, adolescents and the total population, respectively, at study end (p = 0.029 between-age subgroups. 195 of 822 patients (23.7% experienced at least one treatment-emergent adverse event; most commonly reported AEs in the total group (≥4% were insomnia (7.2%, anorexia (4.3% and involuntary muscle contractions (4.1%. No clinically relevant changes in body weight or vital signs were observed. Conclusions Clinically relevant differences between children and adolescents with ADHD are present. Adolescents appeared to have a lower health related quality of life and functioning compared to children at baseline, however, they were able to reach comparable ratings at endpoint for most items. Similarly, burden of disease decreased in patients and their carers. OROS MPH was generally safe and well tolerated.

  1. A Functional Thinking Approach to the Design of Future Transportation Systems: Taxis as a Proxy for Personal Rapid Transit in South Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Bae, Hyun Hye

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, personal rapid transit (PRT) has been viewed as one of the most promising ways to provide sustainable, economical, and convenient transportation while reducing reliance on personal automobiles. However, despite concerted efforts around the world, the promise of PRT has yet...... to be realized. This work demonstrates that different physical means, such as the Korean taxi system, can be used to perform the same highest-level functional requirement, satisfy the same constraints, and provide many of the benefits that are expected of a city-scale personal rapid transit system. Thus, Korean...... taxis can be used as an alternative embodiment of personal rapid transit and can serve as a test bed to support PRT-related design, research, and development. The paper then explores the transportation patterns and characteristics of cities in South Korea and the United States in order to determine...

  2. Electron Resonance Decay into a Biological Function: Decrease in Viability of E. coli Transformed by Plasmid DNA Irradiated with 0.5-18 eV Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouass Sahbani, S; Cloutier, P; Bass, A D; Hunting, D J; Sanche, L

    2015-10-01

    Transient negative ions (TNIs) are ubiquitous in electron-molecule scattering at low electron impact energies (0-20 eV) and are particularly effective in damaging large biomolecules. Because ionizing radiation generates mostly 0-20 eV electrons, TNIs are expected to play important roles in cell mutagenesis and death during radiotherapeutic cancer treatment, although this hypothesis has never been directly verified. Here, we measure the efficiency of transforming E. coli bacteria by inserting into the cells, pGEM-3ZfL(-) plasmid DNA that confers resistance to the antibiotic ampicillin. Before transformation, plasmids are irradiated with electrons of specific energies between 0.5 and 18 eV. The loss of transformation efficiency plotted as a function of irradiation energy reveals TNIs at 5.5 and 9.5 eV, corresponding to similar states observed in the yields of DNA double strand breaks. We show that TNIs are detectable in the electron-energy dependence of a biological process and can decrease cell viability.

  3. Rapid production of human liver scaffolds for functional tissue engineering by high shear stress oscillation-decellularization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazza, G. (Giuseppe); Al-Akkad, W. (Walid); Telese, A. (Andrea); Longato, L. (Lisa); Urbani, L. (Luca); Robinson, B. (Benjamin); Hall, A. (Andrew); Kong, K. (Kenny); Frenguelli, L. (Luca); Marrone, G. (Giusi); Willacy, O. (Oliver); Shaeri, M. (Mohsen); A.J. Burns (Alan); Malago, M. (Massimo); Gilbertson, J. (Janet); Rendell, N. (Nigel); Moore, K. (Kevin); Hughes, D. (David); Notingher, I. (Ioan); Jell, G. (Gavin); Del Rio Hernandez, A. (Armando); P. de Coppi (Paolo); Rombouts, K. (Krista); Pinzani, M. (Massimo)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe development of human liver scaffolds retaining their 3-dimensional structure and extra-cellular matrix (ECM) composition is essential for the advancement of liver tissue engineering. We report the design and validation of a new methodology for the rapid and accurate production of

  4. The loss-of-function disease-mutation G301R in the Na+/K+-ATPase α2 isoform decreases lesion volume and improves functional outcome after acute spinal cord injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Ditte Gry; Isaksen, Toke Jost; Lund, Minna Christiansen; Dursun, Safinaz; Wirenfeldt, Martin; Jørgensen, Louise Helskov; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke

    2017-09-08

    The Na + /K + -ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps important for maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane that serve to support multiple cellular functions, such as membrane potentials, regulation of cellular volume and pH, and co-transport of signaling transmitters in all animal cells. The α 2 Na + /K + -ATPase subunit isoform is predominantly expressed in astrocytes, which us the sharp Na + -gradient maintained by the sodium pump necessary for astroglial metabolism. Prolonged ischemia induces an elevation of [Na + ] i , decreased ATP levels and intracellular pH owing to anaerobic metabolism and lactate accumulation. During ischemia, Na + /K + -ATPase-related functions will naturally increase the energy demand of the Na + /K + -ATPase ion pump. However, the role of the α 2 Na + /K + -ATPase in contusion injury to the spinal cord remains unknown. We used mice heterozygous mice for the loss-of-function disease-mutation G301R in the Atp1a2 gene (α 2 +/G301R ) to study the effect of reduced α 2 Na + /K + -ATPase expression in a moderate contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) model. We found that α 2 +/G301R mice display significantly improved functional recovery and decreased lesion volume compared to littermate controls (α 2 +/+ ) 7 days after SCI. The protein level of the α 1 isoform was significantly increased, in contrast to the α 3 isoform that significantly decreased 3 days after SCI in both α 2 +/G301R and α 2 +/+ mice. The level of the α 2 isoform was significantly decreased in α 2 +/G301R mice both under naïve conditions and 3 days after SCI compared to α 2 +/+ mice. We found no differences in astroglial aquaporin 4 levels and no changes in the expression of chemokines (CCL2, CCL5 and CXCL1) and cytokines (TNF, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-5) between genotypes, just as no apparent differences were observed in location and activation of CD45 and F4/80 positive microglia and infiltrating leukocytes. Our proof of concept study

  5. Decreased Renal Function Is Associated with Elevated CHA2DS2VASC and R2CHADS2 Scores in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation Patients Presenting with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindhyal, Mohinder; Vindhyal, Shravani R; Haneke, Travis; Ndunda, Paul M; Eid, Freidy; Kallail, K James

    2017-12-11

    Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, affects approximately 2.3 million patients in the United States, costing around $26 billion. Atrial fibrillation is associated with a two- to seven-fold increased risk of stroke, one of the most serious complications. Chronic kidney disease affects approximately 13% of the US population and has been associated with higher rates of AF than the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), the risk of stroke increases as the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) decreases, especially in CKD stages three and four. Several risks stratification scores such as CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke), CHA2DS2VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age, diabetes mellitus, stroke, vascular disease, age, sex), and R2CHADS2 (renal failure, congestive heart failure, age, diabetes, stroke) scores are used for stroke risk assessment in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). This study investigates the association between renal functions and risk stratification scoring systems in patients with non-valvular AF presenting with stroke. Methods Using the convenience sampling method, 171 subjects were selected from the eligible population (n = 386). A Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the association between the GFR and each of the CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. In addition, a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated to determine the association between the CHA2DS2VASc and R2CHADS2 scores. Results The selected population represented 44.3% of the eligible subjects. Of these, 88% were Caucasian, 60% were female, and the mean age was 78 years. The mean CHA2DS2VASc score was six (range 2-9). The mean eGFR was 69.77 (range 6-108). Both the mode and the median CHA2DS2VASc score was four (range 2-8). A weak, but significant, negative correlation was found between renal

  6. Selective logging: do rates of forest turnover in stems, species composition and functional traits decrease with time since disturbance? - A 45 year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L; Jiménez, Iván; Oberle, Brad; Chapman, Colin A; Zanne, Amy E

    2015-12-01

    Selective logging, the targeted harvesting of timber trees in a single cutting cycle, is globally rising in extent and intensity. Short-term impacts of selective logging on tropical forests have been widely investigated, but long-term effects on temporal dynamics of forest structure and composition are largely unknown. Understanding these long-term dynamics will help determine whether tropical forests are resilient to selective logging and inform choices between competing demands of anthropogenic use versus conservation of tropical forests. Forest dynamics can be studied within the framework of succession theory, which predicts that temporal turnover rates should decline with time since disturbance. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda over 45 years following selective logging. We estimated turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits (wood density and diameter at breast height), using observations from four censuses in 1989, 1999, 2006, and 2013, of stems ≥ 10 cm diameter within 17 unlogged and 9 logged 200 × 10 m vegetation plots. We used null models to account for interdependencies among turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits. We tested predictions that turnover rates should be higher and decrease with increasing time since the selective logging event in logged forest, but should be less temporally variable in unlogged forest. Overall, we found higher turnover rates in logged forest for all three attributes, but turnover rates did not decline through time in logged forest and was not less temporally variable in unlogged forest. These results indicate that successional models that assume recovery to pre-disturbance conditions are inadequate for predicting the effects of selective logging on the dynamics of the tropical forest in Kibale. Selective logging resulted in persistently higher turnover rates, which may compromise the carbon storage capacity

  7. Selective logging: do rates of forest turnover in stems, species composition and functional traits decrease with time since disturbance? – A 45 year perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L.; Jiménez, Iván; Oberle, Brad; Chapman, Colin A.; Zanne, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging, the targeted harvesting of timber trees in a single cutting cycle, is globally rising in extent and intensity. Short-term impacts of selective logging on tropical forests have been widely investigated, but long-term effects on temporal dynamics of forest structure and composition are largely unknown. Understanding these long-term dynamics will help determine whether tropical forests are resilient to selective logging and inform choices between competing demands of anthropogenic use versus conservation of tropical forests. Forest dynamics can be studied within the framework of succession theory, which predicts that temporal turnover rates should decline with time since disturbance. Here, we investigated the temporal dynamics of a tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda over 45 years following selective logging. We estimated turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits (wood density and diameter at breast height), using observations from four censuses in 1989, 1999, 2006, and 2013, of stems ≥ 10 cm diameter within 17 unlogged and 9 logged 200 × 10 m vegetation plots. We used null models to account for interdependencies among turnover rates in stems, species composition, and functional traits. We tested predictions that turnover rates should be higher and decrease with increasing time since the selective logging event in logged forest, but should be less temporally variable in unlogged forest. Overall, we found higher turnover rates in logged forest for all three attributes, but turnover rates did not decline through time in logged forest and was not less temporally variable in unlogged forest. These results indicate that successional models that assume recovery to pre-disturbance conditions are inadequate for predicting the effects of selective logging on the dynamics of the tropical forest in Kibale. Selective logging resulted in persistently higher turnover rates, which may compromise the carbon storage capacity

  8. Prehospital rapid sequence intubation improves functional outcome for patients with severe traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Stephen A; Nguyen, Vina; Cameron, Peter; Masci, Kevin; Fitzgerald, Mark; Cooper, David J; Walker, Tony; Std, B Paramed; Myles, Paul; Murray, Lynne; David; Taylor; Smith, Karen; Patrick, Ian; Edington, John; Bacon, Andrew; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Judson, Rodney

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether paramedic rapid sequence intubation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) improves neurologic outcomes at 6 months compared with intubation in the hospital. Severe TBI is associated with a high rate of mortality and long-term morbidity. Comatose patients with TBI routinely undergo endo-tracheal intubation to protect the airway, prevent hypoxia, and control ventilation. In many places, paramedics perform intubation prior to hospital arrival. However, it is unknown whether this approach improves outcomes. In a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned adults with severe TBI in an urban setting to either prehospital rapid sequence intubation by paramedics or transport to a hospital emergency department for intubation by physicians. The primary outcome measure was the median extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSe) score at 6 months. Secondary end-points were favorable versus unfavorable outcome at 6 months, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and survival to hospital discharge. A total of 312 patients with severe TBI were randomly assigned to paramedic rapid sequence intubation or hospital intubation. The success rate for paramedic intubation was 97%. At 6 months, the median GOSe score was 5 (interquartile range, 1-6) in patients intubated by paramedics compared with 3 (interquartile range, 1-6) in the patients intubated at hospital (P = 0.28).The proportion of patients with favorable outcome (GOSe, 5-8) was 80 of 157 patients (51%) in the paramedic intubation group compared with 56 of 142 patients (39%) in the hospital intubation group (risk ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.64; P = 0.046). There were no differences in intensive care or hospital length of stay, or in survival to hospital discharge. In adults with severe TBI, prehospital rapid sequence intubation by paramedics increases the rate of favorable neurologic outcome at 6 months compared with intubation in the hospital.

  9. HDR- and LDR-interstitial irradiation (IRT) in rat spinal cord: the effect of decreasing the dose rate and the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, L.A.M.; Plas, M. van der; Hanssen, A.E.J.; Kogel, A.J. van der

    1996-01-01

    Introduction: Detailed knowledge of radiobiological parameters of the different tissues involved are warranted before HDR- and recently PDR-brachytherapy can be successfully introduced in clinical practice as an alternative to LDR- brachytherapy. The purpose of this study is to determine the α/β ratio and half time of repair of rat spinal cord during continuous irradiation at different dose rates and to investigate the impact of a rapid dose fall off over the spinal cord thickness. Material and methods: Two parallel catheters are inserted on each side of the vertebral bodies from the level of Th 10 to L 4 . These catheters were afterloaded with two 192 Ir- wires of 4 cm length each (activity 1- 10 mCi/cm) or connected to the HDR-microSelectron. Serial experiments have been carried out to obtain complete dose response curves at 5 different dose rates, resp. 0.5, 0.9, 1.6, 2.6 and 120 Gy/h. Paralysis of the hindlegs after 5-6 months and histopathological examination of the spinal cord of each animal are used as experimental endpoints. Dose-volume histograms of each irradiated rat have been analysed to evaluate the correlation between dose distribution and biological response and the histopathological damage seen. Results: The distribution of the histological damage was a good reflection of the rapid dose fall-off over the spinal cord, with white matter necrosis or demyelination predominantly seen in the dorsal tracts of the spinal cord or dorsal roots. With each reduction of the dose rate, spinal cord tolerance was significantly increased, with a maximum dose rate factor of 4.3 if the dose rate was reduced from 120 Gy/h to 0.53 Gy/h. Estimates of the repair parameters using different types of analysis revealed an α/β ratio of 2.44 Gy and a (mono- exponential) half time of repair (=t (1(2)) ) of 1.43 hours; for the maximum of 150 % of the prescribed dose these values were 3.67 Gy and 1.43 hours respectively. Conclusions: Spinal cord radiation tolerance is

  10. Bold-functional MRI study of the abnormal cortex and the relationship between the inpairment of vision and the decreased activation of the visual cortex in anisometropic amblyopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Li Chuanming; Zhou Yang; Xie Bing; Yu Qiongwu; Wang Hui; Qiu Mingguo; Weng Xuchu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To assess the activation changes on Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19 in anisometropic amblyopia and compare the features of the cortex activations before and after refractive correction on amblyopic eyes. Methods: Bold-fMRI technique on 1.5 T Simens Sonata MRI and the blocks designation mode was used. The visual stimulation task was a black and white checkerboard with frequencies of 1 cycle/degree and 8 Hz. The baseline stimulus is a white cross-line at the center of the screen with black background. No other light or influence was allowed in the scanning room. The distance between the eyes and screen was 0.6 m. The experimental group included 10 anisometropic amblyopes. TSE and EPI sequence were used for the anatomical and functional data acquisitions. For experimental group, the activation areas of the visual cortex on both eyes were consequently measured before and after refractive correction. All data were analyzed online with t-test and offline with AFNI software. The threshold value was set to 0.001. During data processing, motion correction and three-dimensional smooth were used in all data. The time-signal intensity curves and the functional images were obtained. After Talairach coordinated the function images of every one, the activation areas were measured in Brodmann areas 17, 18 and 19. The SPSS 12.0 software was used for statistic analysis. The difference of the cortical activations of amblyopic eyes before and after refractive correction was analyzed. The cortical activations of amblyopic eyes and the fellow eyes after refractive correction were compared. The visual acuity of the amblyopia eyes was measured. And the correlation between the lesion of cortical activation and visual acuity was analyzed. Results: It was found that the cortex was activated obviously in the calcarine cortex around, occipital lobe, LGN and temporal lobe. The activation areas of amblyopic eyes was (3.7±0.4) x 10 4 voxels, and (4.1±0.5 ) x 10 4 voxets after corrected

  11. Detection of tPA-Induced Hyperfibrinolysis in Whole Blood by RapidTEG, KaolinTEG, and Functional FibrinogenTEG in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Sørensen, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    hyperfibrinolysis, as compared to standard KaolinTEG, is unknown. To investigate this, the ability of RapidTEG, KaolinTEG, and functional fibrinogenTEG (FFTEG) to detect tPA-induced (tissue plasminogen activator) lysis in whole blood from healthy individuals was investigated. Our hypothesis was that the initial...... powerful clot formation in the RapidTEG assay would reduce the sensitivity as compared to the normally used KaolinTEG assay. We also evaluated the FFTEG assay. Methods: In vitro comparison of the sensitivity of RapidTEG, KaolinTEG, and FFTEG to 1.8 nmol/L tPA in citrated whole blood (299 ± 23 ng/mL plasma......) induced hyperfibrinolysis in 10 healthy individuals and duplicate titration of the tPA whole blood (WB) concentration from 0.09 to 7.2 nmol/L (14-1144 ng/mL plasma) in 1 healthy donor. Results: At 1.8 nmol/L tPA, KaolinTEG, RapidTEG, and FFTEG all detected fibrinolysis but with different sensitivities...

  12. The type 2 diabetes risk allele of TMEM154-rs6813195 associates with decreased beta cell function in a study of 6,486 Danes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Neergaard Harder

    Full Text Available A trans-ethnic meta-analysis of type 2 diabetes genome-wide association studies has identified seven novel susceptibility variants in or near TMEM154, SSR1/RREB1, FAF1, POU5F1/TCF19, LPP, ARL15 and ABCB9/MPHOSPH9. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between these novel risk variants and type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic traits in a Danish population-based study with measurements of plasma glucose and serum insulin after an oral glucose tolerance test in order to elaborate on the physiological impact of the variants.Case-control analyses were performed in up to 5,777 patients with type 2 diabetes and 7,956 individuals with normal fasting glucose levels. Quantitative trait analyses were performed in up to 5,744 Inter99 participants naïve to glucose-lowering medication. Significant associations between TMEM154-rs6813195 and the beta cell measures insulinogenic index and disposition index and between FAF1-rs17106184 and 2-hour serum insulin levels were selected for further investigation in additional Danish studies and results were combined in meta-analyses including up to 6,486 Danes.We confirmed associations with type 2 diabetes for five of the seven SNPs (TMEM154-rs6813195, FAF1-rs17106184, POU5F1/TCF19-rs3130501, ARL15-rs702634 and ABCB9/MPHOSPH9-rs4275659. The type 2 diabetes risk C-allele of TMEM154-rs6813195 associated with decreased disposition index (n=5,181, β=-0.042, p=0.012 and insulinogenic index (n=5,181, β=-0.032, p=0.043 in Inter99 and these associations remained significant in meta-analyses including four additional Danish studies (disposition index n=6,486, β=-0.042, p=0.0044; and insulinogenic index n=6,486, β=-0.037, p=0.0094. The type 2 diabetes risk G-allele of FAF1-rs17106184 associated with increased levels of 2-hour serum insulin (n=5,547, β=0.055, p=0.017 in Inter99 and also when combining effects with three additional Danish studies (n=6,260, β=0.062, p=0.0040.Studies of type 2 diabetes intermediary

  13. Xenografts in zebrafish embryos as a rapid functional assay for breast cancer stem-like cell identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguiara, Arrate; Holgado, Olaia; Beloqui, Izaskun; Abalde, Leire; Sanchez, Yolanda; Callol, Carles; Martin, Angel G

    2011-11-01

    The cancer stem cell is defined by its capacity to self-renew, the potential to differentiate into all cells of the tumor and the ability to proliferate and drive the expansion of the tumor. Thus, targeting these cells may provide novel anti-cancer treatment strategies. Breast cancer stem cells have been isolated according to surface marker expression, ability to efflux fluorescent dyes, increased activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase or the capacity to form spheres in non-adherent culture conditions. In order to test novel drugs directed towards modulating self-renewal of cancer stem cells, rapid, easy and inexpensive assays must be developed. Using 2 days-post-fertilization (dpf) zebrafish embryos as transplant recipients, we show that cells grown in mammospheres from breast carcinoma cell lines migrate to the tail of the embryo and form masses with a significantly higher frequency than parental monolayer populations. When stem-like self-renewal was targeted in the parental population by the use of the dietary supplement curcumin, cell migration and mass formation were reduced, indicating that these effects were associated with stem-like cell content. This is a proof of principle report that proposes a rapid and inexpensive assay to target in vivo cancer stem-like cells, which may be used to unravel basic cancer stem cell biology and for drug screening.

  14. Social interactions elicit rapid shifts in functional connectivity in the social decision-making network of zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C; Almeida, Olinda; Lopes, João S; Oliveira, Rui F

    2015-10-07

    According to the social decision-making (SDM) network hypothesis, SDM is encoded in a network of forebrain and midbrain structures in a distributed and dynamic fashion, such that the expression of a given social behaviour is better reflected by the overall profile of activation across the different loci rather than by the activity of a single node. This proposal has the implicit assumption that SDM relies on integration across brain regions, rather than on regional specialization. Here we tested the occurrence of functional localization and of functional connectivity in the SDM network. For this purpose we used zebrafish to map different social behaviour states into patterns of neuronal activity, as indicated by the expression of the immediate early genes c-fos and egr-1, across the SDM network. The results did not support functional localization, as some loci had similar patterns of activity associated with different social behaviour states, and showed socially driven changes in functional connectivity. Thus, this study provides functional support to the SDM network hypothesis and suggests that the neural context in which a given node of the network is operating (i.e. the state of its interconnected areas) is central to its functional relevance. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. The loss-of-function disease-mutation G301R in the Na+/K+-ATPase α2 isoform decreases lesion volume and improves functional outcome after acute spinal cord injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellman, Ditte; Isaksen, Toke Jost; Lund, Minna

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases are transmembrane ion pumps important for maintenance of ion gradients across the plasma membrane that serve to support multiple cellular functions, such as membrane potentials, regulation of cellular volume and pH, and co-transport of signaling transmitters...... lesion volume compared to littermate controls (α 2(+/+) ) 7 days after SCI. The protein level of the α1 isoform was significantly increased, in contrast to the α3 isoform that significantly decreased 3 days after SCI in both α 2(+/G301R) and α 2(+/+) mice. The level of the α2 isoform was significantly...... as no apparent differences were observed in location and activation of CD45 and F4/80 positive microglia and infiltrating leukocytes. CONCLUSION: Our proof of concept study demonstrates that reduced expression of the α2 isoform in the spinal cord is protective following SCI. Importantly, the BMS and lesion...

  16. Dung beetle community and functions along a habitat-disturbance gradient in the Amazon: a rapid assessment of ecological functions associated to biodiversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F Braga

    Full Text Available Although there is increasing interest in the effects of habitat disturbance on community attributes and the potential consequences for ecosystem functioning, objective approaches linking biodiversity loss to functional loss are uncommon. The objectives of this study were to implement simultaneous assessment of community attributes (richness, abundance and biomass, each calculated for total-beetle assemblages as well as small- and large-beetle assemblages and three ecological functions of dung beetles (dung removal, soil perturbation and secondary seed dispersal, to compare the effects of habitat disturbance on both sets of response variables, and their relations. We studied dung beetle community attributes and functions in five land-use systems representing a disturbance gradient in the Brazilian Amazon: primary forest, secondary forest, agroforestry, agriculture and pasture. All response variables were affected negatively by the intensification of habitat disturbance regimes, but community attributes and ecological functions did not follow the same pattern of decline. A hierarchical partitioning analysis showed that, although all community attributes had a significant effect on the three ecological functions (except the abundance of small beetles on all three ecological functions and the biomass of small beetles on secondary dispersal of large seed mimics, species richness and abundance of large beetles were the community attributes with the highest explanatory value. Our results show the importance of measuring ecological function empirically instead of deducing it from community metrics.

  17. Rapid decline in 51Cr-EDTA measured renal function during the first weeks following lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, M.; Iversen, M.; Steffensen, I.

    2009-01-01

    We previously described a 54% decline in renal function at 6 months after lung transplantation (LTx). We hypothesized that this decline is a very early event following LTx. Thirty-one consecutive patients (16 females/15 males), mean age 49 (+/-13) years, with emphysema, cystic fibrosis/bronchiect......We previously described a 54% decline in renal function at 6 months after lung transplantation (LTx). We hypothesized that this decline is a very early event following LTx. Thirty-one consecutive patients (16 females/15 males), mean age 49 (+/-13) years, with emphysema, cystic fibrosis....../bronchiectasis or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were included in an analysis of renal function before and after LTx. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured using the (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid plasma clearance single injection technique (mGFR) at baseline before transplantation and at 1, 2, 3 and 12...

  18. Application of a mapping function technique to the design of damped detuned structures and rapid calculation of their wakefields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.M.; Miller, R.H.

    1998-08-01

    In order to reduce the dipole wake encountered by the first few bunches accelerated in a multi-bunch NLC scenario the DDS (damped detuned structure) was redesigned such that a much improved Gaussian fall-off occurs in the initial wake-function. From the 9 parameterized model of DDS1 the authors use a mapping function to allow DDS 3 and 4 to be modeled and hence avoid additional and prohibitively time consuming MAFIA runs. The equivalent circuit parameters and geometrical parameters are treated as functions of the synchronous frequency and are readily mapped onto the new synchronous frequencies. The new geometrical parameters form a family where each is associated with the iris diameter

  19. Individualized dosimetry-based activity reduction of {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC prevents severe and rapid kidney function deterioration from peptide receptor radionuclide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnebeek, Sofie van; Baete, Kristof; Vanbilloen, Bert; Terwinghe, Christelle; Mortelmans, Luc [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Koole, Michel [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Clement, Paul M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Medical Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Haustermans, Karin [University Hospitals Leuven, Radiation Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Cutsem, Eric van; Verslype, Chris [KU Leuven, Department of Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); University Hospitals Leuven, Division of Digestive Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Verbruggen, Alfons [KU Leuven, Laboratory for Radiopharmacy, Leuven (Belgium); Bogaerts, Kris [KU Leuven, Division of Public Health and Primary Care (I-Biostat), Leuven (Belgium); Deroose, Christophe M. [University Hospitals Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium); KU Leuven, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); UZ Leuven, Nuclear Medicine, Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-06-15

    Assessment of kidney function evolution after {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with capped activity administration based on a 37-Gy threshold of biological effective dose (BED) to the kidney. In a prospective phase II study, patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumours were evaluated for therapy using 185 MBq {sup 111}In-pentetreotide with amino acid coinfusion. Planar whole-body images were acquired at four time-points after injection and kidney volumes were measured using CT/MRI. BED to the kidneys was estimated using an extended BED formula and biexponential renal clearance. Based on published BED dose-toxicity relationships, we allowed a maximal kidney BED of 37 Gy; if the calculated BED exceeded 37 Gy, treatment activity was reduced accordingly. Kidney function was assessed at baseline and at 18 months, predominantly using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA. The rate of renal function decline was expressed as annual glomerular filtration rate loss (aGFRL). Only 22 of 50 patients reached the 18-months time-point, with most missing patients having died due to disease progression. In the 22 patients who reached 18 months, no rapid kidney function deterioration was observed over the 18 months, aGFRL >33 % was not seen, and only three patients showed an increase of one toxicity grade and one patient an increase of two grades. No significant correlations between kidney volume (p = 0.35), baseline GFR (p = 0.18), risk factors for renal function loss (p = 0.74) and aGFRL were observed. Among the 28 patients who did not reach 18 months, one developed grade 4 kidney toxicity at 15 months after PRRT. Prospective dosimetry using a 37 Gy BED as the threshold for kidney toxicity is a good guide for {sup 90}Y-DOTATOC PRRT and is associated with a low risk of rapid renal function deterioration and evolution to severe nephrotoxicity. (orig.)

  20. Providing a diet deficient in valine but with excess leucine results in a rapid decrease in feed intake and modifies the postprandial plasma amino acid and α-keto acid concentrations in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloaguen, M; Le Floc'h, N; Corrent, E; Primot, Y; van Milgen, J

    2012-09-01

    Indispensable AA are involved in the control of feed intake. When a diet deficient in Val is offered to pigs, feed intake is typically reduced. This effect is aggravated when dietary Leu is supplied in excess of the requirement. If an unbalanced supply of branched-chain AA (BCAA) is harmful, an anorectic response may serve as a mechanism to prevent this situation. We verified this hypothesis by measuring the voluntary feed intake of a balanced diet offered during the 30-min period 1 h after ingestion of a test meal deficient or not in Val (Val- and Val+) with an excess of Leu. Twelve and four 6-wk-old crossbred female pigs were used in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Prior ingestion of the Val- test meal resulted in a 14% reduction in feed intake compared with that observed after ingestion of the Val+ test meal (P = 0.06) in Exp. 1, indicating that the signal to reduce feed intake occurred within 1 h. It is possible that the plasma concentration of the limiting AA serves as a signal for the dietary AA deficiency. We therefore determined the postprandial plasma concentrations of BCAA and their α-keto acids after ingestion of Val- and Val+ in 4 pigs in Exp. 2. After ingestion of the Val- diet, plasma concentrations of Val and its keto acid were reduced compared with values observed after ingestion of the Val+ diet. The peak concentration occurred earlier after ingestion of the Val- diet compared with that of the Val+ diet. Although the plasma concentration increased after the meal, it declined rapidly in pigs offered Val-, and the Val concentration 4 h after ingestion of the meal was even less than that observed in the fasted state. In conclusion, it appears that the pig is able to detect a deficient supply of Val within 1 h after ingestion. The plasma concentration of Val or its concentration relative to the other BCAA during the postprandial period may act as a signal indicating the AA deficiency.

  1. Impaired barrier function in patients with house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis is accompanied by decreased occludin and zonula occludens-1 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steelant, Brecht; Farré, Ricard; Wawrzyniak, Paulina; Belmans, Jochen; Dekimpe, Emily; Vanheel, Hanne; van Gerven, Laura; Kortekaas Krohn, Inge; Bullens, Dominique M. A.; Ceuppens, Jan L.; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Seys, Sven F.; Hellings, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Tight junction (TJ) defects have recently been associated with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis. The expression, function, and regulation of nasal epithelial TJs remain unknown in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). We investigated the expression, function, and regulation of TJs in the nasal

  2. Herpes simplex virus type 2 induces rapid cell death and functional impairment of murine dendritic cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, CA; Fernandez, M; Herc, K; Bosnjak, L; Miranda-Saksena, M; Boadle, RA; Cunningham, A

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critical for stimulation of naive T cells. Little is known about the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection on DC structure or function or if the observed effects of HSV-1 on human DC are reproduced in murine DC. Here, we demonstrate that by 12 h

  3. A Rapid Method to Score Stream Reaches Based on the Overall Performance of Their Main Ecological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, David K.; Parkyn, Stephanie; Quinn, John; Collier, Kevin; Hatton, Chris; Joy, Michael K.; Maxted, John; Moore, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    A method was developed to score the ecological condition of first- to third-order stream reaches in the Auckland region of New Zealand based on the performance of their key ecological functions. Such a method is required by consultants and resource managers to quantify the reduction in ecological condition of a modified stream reach relative to its unmodified state. This is a fundamental precursor for the determination of fair environmental compensation for achieving no-net-loss in overall stream ecological value. Field testing and subsequent use of the method indicated that it provides a useful measure of ecological condition related to the performance of stream ecological functions. It is relatively simple to apply compared to a full ecological study, is quick to use, and allows identification of the degree of impairment of each of the key ecological functions. The scoring system was designed so that future improvements in the measurement of stream functions can be incorporated into it. Although the methodology was specifically designed for Auckland streams, the principles can be readily adapted to other regions and stream types.

  4. Rapid functional and sequence differentiation of a tandemly repeated species-specific multigene family in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Bryan D.; Sanz, Pablo Librado; Yeh, Shu-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Gene clusters of recently duplicated genes are hotbeds for evolutionary change. However, our understanding of how mutational mechanisms and evolutionary forces shape the structural and functional evolution of these clusters is hindered by the high sequence identity among the copies, which typical...

  5. Identification of Variant-Specific Functions of PIK3CA by Rapid Phenotyping of Rare Mutations | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale sequencing efforts are uncovering the complexity of cancer genomes, which are composed of causal "driver" mutations that promote tumor progression along with many more pathologically neutral "passenger" events. The majority of mutations, both in known cancer drivers and uncharacterized genes, are generally of low occurrence, highlighting the need to functionally annotate the long tail of infrequent mutations present in heterogeneous cancers.

  6. Specific, sensitive, precise, and rapid functional chromogenic assay of activated first complement component (C1) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkvad, S; Jespersen, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1990-01-01

    We present a new functional assay for the first complement component (C1) in plasma, based on its activation by inhibition of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) when monospecific antiserum to C1-inh is added to the plasma. After maximal activation, we can determine the concentration of activated ...

  7. Rapid Tooling for Functional Prototype of Metal Mold Processes Final Report CRADA No. TC-1032-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heestand, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jaskolski, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-16

    Production inserts for die-casting were generally fabricated from materials with sufficient strength and· good wear properties at casting temperatures for long life. Frequently tool steels were used and machining was done with a combination of. conventional and Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) with some handwork, an expensive and time consuming process, partilly for prototype work. We proposed electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) as a process for rapid fabrication of dies. Metals, ranging from low melting point to refractory metals (Ta, Mo, etc.), would be evaporated and deposited at high rates (-2mm/hr.). Alloys could be easily evaporated and deposited if their constituent vapor pressures were similar and with more difficulty if they were not. Of course, layering of different materials was possible if required for a specific application. For example, a hard surface layer followed by a tough steel and backed by a high thermal conductivity (possibly cooled) copper layer could be fabricated. Electron-beam deposits exhibited 100% density and lull strength when deposited at a substrate (mandrel) temperature that was a substantial fraction of the deposited material's melting point. There were several materials that could have the required high temperature properties and ease of fabrication required for such a mandrel. We had successfully used graphite, machined from free formed objects with a replicator, to produce aluminum-bronze test molds. There were several parting layer materials of interest, but the ideal material depended upon the specific application.

  8. Functional graphene-gold nano-composite fabricated electrochemical biosensor for direct and rapid detection of bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Daodong; Gu, Yuanyuan; Lan, Hangzhen; Sun, Yangying; Gao, Huiju

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the graphene with excellent dispersity is prepared successfully by introducing gold nanoparticle to separate the individual sheets. Various techniques are adopted to characterize the prepared graphene and graphene-gold nanoparticle composite materials. This fabricated new composite material is used as the support material to construct a novel tyrosinase based biosensor for detection of bisphenol A (BPA). The electrochemical performances of the proposed new enzyme biosensor were investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) method. The proposed biosensor exhibited excellent performance for BPA determination with a wide linear range (2.5×10(-3)-3.0 μM), a highly reproducible response (RSD of 2.7%), low interferences and long-term stability. And more importantly, the calculated detection limit of the proposed biosensor was as low as 1 nM. Compared with other detection methods, this graphene-gold nanoparticle composite based tyrosinase biosensor is proved to be a promising and reliable tool for rapid detection of BPA for on-site analysis of emergency BPA related pollution affairs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower leptin/adiponectin ratio and risk of rapid lung function decline in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Masaru; Makita, Hironi; Östling, Jörgen

    2014-01-01

    , and single ELISAs were used to confirm the results. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Higher plasma adiponectin levels and a lower leptin/adiponectin ratio at enrollment were significantly associated with an annual decline in FEV1 even after controlling for age, sex, height, and body mass index in the Hokkaido...... COPD cohort study (P = 0.003, P = 0.004, respectively). A lower plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio was also significantly associated with an annual decline in FEV1 in subjects with airflow limitation in the CBQ study (P = 0.014), the patients of which had largely different clinical characteristics...... compared with the Hokkaido COPD cohort study. There were no significant associations between lung function decline and adipokine levels in subjects without airflow limitation. CONCLUSIONS: A lower leptin/adiponectin ratio was associated with lung function decline in patients with COPD in two independent...

  10. Form and function of damselfish skulls: rapid and repeated evolution into a limited number of trophic niches

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, W James; Westneat, Mark W

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Damselfishes (Perciformes, Pomacentridae) are a major component of coral reef communities, and the functional diversity of their trophic anatomy is an important constituent of the ecological morphology of these systems. Using shape analyses, biomechanical modelling, and phylogenetically based comparative methods, we examined the anatomy of damselfish feeding among all genera and trophic groups. Coordinate based shape analyses of anatomical landmarks were used to describe p...

  11. A rapid method for landscape assessment of carbon storage and ecosystem function in moss and lichen ground layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Jovan; Robert J. Smith; Juan C. Benavides; Michael Amacher; Bruce McCune

    2015-01-01

    Mat-forming ‘‘ground layers’’ of mosses and lichens often have functional impacts disproportionate to their biomass, and are responsible for sequestering one-third of the world’s terrestrial carbon as they regulate water tables, cool soils and inhibit microbial decomposition. Without reliable assessment tools, the potential effects of climate and land use changes on...

  12. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio, E-mail: julio.bastos@upc.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muñoz, Jose, E-mail: josemaria.munoz@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Stenbock-Fermor, Anja, E-mail: stenbock@dwi.rwth-aachen.de [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Muñoz, Maria, E-mail: Maria.Munoz@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Muraviev, Dmitri N., E-mail: Dimitri.Muraviev@uab.es [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Céspedes, Francisco, E-mail: francisco.cespedes@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Tsarkova, Larisa A., E-mail: tsarkova@dwi.rwth-aachen.de [DWI – Leibniz-Institut für Interaktive Materialien, Aachen 52056 (Germany); Baeza, Mireia, E-mail: MariaDelMar.Baeza@uab.cat [Department of Chemistry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanodiamond functionalization with CdS quantum dots. • Approach for carbon nanotube detection in water samples. • Simple functionalization of thin polymeric nanolayers with quantum dots. - Abstract: Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  13. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Jose; Stenbock-Fermor, Anja; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Céspedes, Francisco; Tsarkova, Larisa A.; Baeza, Mireia

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanodiamond functionalization with CdS quantum dots. • Approach for carbon nanotube detection in water samples. • Simple functionalization of thin polymeric nanolayers with quantum dots. - Abstract: Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  14. The impact of decreases in air temperature and increases in ozone on markers of endothelial function in individuals having type-2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies have reported an association between air pollution and endothelial dysfunction, especially in individuals having diabetes. However, very few studies have examined the impact of air temperature on endothelial function. The objective of this analysis was to investig...

  15. Impaired left ventricular systolic function and increased brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity are independently associated with rapid renal function progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chang, Jer-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2011-09-01

    Heart failure and increased arterial stiffness are associated with declining renal function. Few studies have evaluated the association between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) and renal function progression. The aim of this study was to assess whether LVEFfunction was estimated by eGFR slope. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were compared and analyzed. After a multivariate analysis, serum hematocrit was positively associated with eGFR slope, and diabetes mellitus, baPWV (P=0.031) and LVEFfunction decline and progression to the renal end point.

  16. Validity of estimated prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy from primary care electronic health records compared with national survey and registry data in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Masao; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Mansfield, Kathryn E; Casula, Anna; Caskey, Fergus J; Aitken, Grant; Fraser, Simon D S; Roderick, Paul J; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2017-04-01

    Anonymous primary care records are an important resource for observational studies. However, their external validity is unknown in identifying the prevalence of decreased kidney function and renal replacement therapy (RRT). We thus compared the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) with a nationally representative survey and national registry. Among all people ≥25 years of age registered in the CPRD for ≥1 year on 31 March 2014, we identified patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) primary care data have good external validity for the prevalence of decreased kidney function and RRT. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.

  17. Rapid and clean amine functionalization of carbon nanotubes in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor for biosensor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodadadei, Fatemeh; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Soltanieh, Mansour; Hosseinalipour, Mohammad; Mortazavi, Yadollah

    2014-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were amine-functionalized using the process of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma treatment. The scanning electron microscope micrographs and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy clearly demonstrated that the carbon skeleton structure of the plasma-treated MWCNTs was preserved and amine groups were coupled to MWCNTs during this process. The amine-functionalized MWCNTs were then fixed on glassy carbon (GC) electrode and glucose oxidase (GO X ) as a model enzyme was immobilized on the modified GC electrode. Direct electron transfer between the redox active center of the immobilized GO X and the plasma-treated MWCNTs was investigated through cyclic voltammetry. The well-defined, quasi-reversible redox peaks of the immobilized GO X revealed that GO X retained its activity such that it could specifically catalyze the oxidation of glucose with great efficiency. The obtained enzyme electrode was used for glucose biosensing with the linear range from 17 to 646 μM and sensitivity of 12.3 μA/mM cm 2 . Based on the signal to noise ratio of 3, the detection limit was estimated to be 9 μM. The Michaelis–Menten constant for immobilized GO X was as low as 480 μM

  18. Higher protein intake is not associated with decreased kidney function in pre-diabetic older adults following a one-year intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith; Andersen, Jens Rikardt; Ritz, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic...... intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults....

  19. COX-2 inhibition improves immunotherapy and is associated with decreased numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mesothelioma. Celecoxib influences MDSC function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, Joris D; Lambers, Margaretha EH; Nimwegen, Menno van; Hendriks, Rudi W; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Aerts, Joachim GJV; Hegmans, Joost PJJ

    2010-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous population of immature cells that accumulates in tumour-bearing hosts. These cells are induced by tumour-derived factors (e.g. prostaglandins) and have a critical role in immune suppression. MDSC suppress T and NK cell function via increased expression of arginase I and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Immune suppression by MDSC was found to be one of the main factors for immunotherapy insufficiency. Here we investigate if the in vivo immunoregulatory function of MDSC can be reversed by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis by specific COX-2 inhibition focussing on ROS production by MDSC subtypes. In addition, we determined if dietary celecoxib treatment leads to refinement of immunotherapeutic strategies. MDSC numbers and function were analysed during tumour progression in a murine model for mesothelioma. Mice were inoculated with mesothelioma tumour cells and treated with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib, either as single agent or in combination with dendritic cell-based immunotherapy. We found that large numbers of infiltrating MDSC co-localise with COX-2 expression in those areas where tumour growth takes place. Celecoxib reduced prostaglandin E2 levels in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of tumour-bearing mice with dietary celecoxib prevented the local and systemic expansion of all MDSC subtypes. The function of MDSC was impaired as was noticed by reduced levels of ROS and NO and reversal of T cell tolerance; resulting in refinement of immunotherapy. We conclude that celecoxib is a powerful tool to improve dendritic cell-based immunotherapy and is associated with a reduction in the numbers and suppressive function of MDSC. These data suggest that immunotherapy approaches benefit from simultaneously blocking cyclooxygenase-2 activity

  20. Inhibition of exportin-1 function results in rapid cell cycle-associated DNA damage in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Russell T; Marcus, Joshua M; Orth, James D

    2017-06-13

    Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) are small molecules in development as anti-cancer agents. The first-in-class SINE, selinexor, is in clinical trials for blood and solid cancers. Selinexor forms a covalent bond with exportin-1 at cysteine-528, and blocks its ability to export cargos. Previous work has shown strong cell cycle effects and drug-induced cell death across many different cancer-derived cell lines. Here, we report strong cell cycle-associated DNA double-stranded break formation upon the treatment of cancer cells with SINE. In multiple cell models, selinexor treatment results in the formation of clustered DNA damage foci in 30-40% of cells within 8 hours that is dependent upon cysteine-528. DNA damage strongly correlates with G1/S-phase and decreased DNA replication. Live cell microscopy reveals an association between DNA damage and cell fate. Cells that form damage in G1-phase more often die or arrest, while those damaged in S/G2-phase frequently progress to cell division. Up to half of all treated cells form damage foci, and most cells that die after being damaged, were damaged in G1-phase. By comparison, non-transformed cell lines show strong cell cycle effects but little DNA damage and less death than cancer cells. Significant drug combination effects occur when selinexor is paired with different classes of agents that either cause DNA damage or that diminish DNA damage repair. These data present a novel effect of exportin-1 inhibition and provide a strong rationale for multiple combination treatments of selinexor with agents that are currently in use for the treatment of different solid cancers.

  1. A simple and rapid creatinine sensing via DLS selectivity, using calix[4]arene thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariya, Pinkesh G; Pandya, Alok; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K

    2016-01-15

    A new, simple, ultra-sensitive and selective approach has been reported for the "on spot" colorimetric detection of creatinine based on calix[4]arene functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with excellent discrimination in the presence of other biomolecules. The lower detection limit of the method is 2.16nM. The gold nanoparticles and p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene were synthesized by microwave assisted method. Specifically, in our study, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) which is a powerful method for the determination of small changes in particle size, improved selectivity and sensitivity of the creatinine detection system over colorimetric method. The nanoassembly is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), DLS, UV-vis and ESI-MS spectroscopy, which demonstrates the binding affinity due its ability of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction between -NH group of creatinine and pSDSC4. It exhibits fast response time (creatinine and has long shelf-life (>5 weeks). The developed pSDSC4-AuNPs based creatinine biosensor will be established as simple, reliable and accurate tool for the determination of creatinine in human urine samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid synthesis of maleimide functionalized fluorine-18 labeled prosthetic group using "radio-fluorination on the Sep-Pak" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuli, Falguni; Zhang, Xiang; Jagoda, Elaine M; Choyke, Peter L; Swenson, Rolf E

    2018-03-25

    Following our recently published fluorine-18 labeling method, "Radio-fluorination on the Sep-Pak", we have successfully synthesized 6-[ 18 F]fluoronicotinaldehyde by passing a solution (1:4 acetonitrile: t-butanol) of its quaternary ammonium salt precursor, 6-(N,N,N-trimethylamino)nicotinaldehyde trifluoromethanesulfonate (2), through a fluorine-18 containing anion exchange cartridge (PS-HCO 3 ). Over 80% radiochemical conversion was observed using 10 mg of precursor within 1 minute. The [ 18 F]fluoronicotinaldehyde ([ 18 F]5) was then conjugated with 1-(6-(aminooxy)hexyl)-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione to prepare the fluorine-18 labeled maleimide functionalized prosthetic group, 6-[ 18 F]fluoronicotinaldehyde O-(6-(2,5-dioxo-2,5-dihydro-1H-pyrrol-1-yl)hexyl) oxime, 6-[ 18 F]FPyMHO ([ 18 F]6). The current Sep-Pak method not only improves the overall radiochemical yield (50 ± 9%, decay-corrected, n = 9) but also significantly reduces the synthesis time (from 60-90 minutes to 30 minutes) when compared with literature methods for the synthesis of similar prosthetic groups. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Intermatrix Synthesis as a rapid, inexpensive and reproducible methodology for the in situ functionalization of nanostructured surfaces with quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos-Arrieta, Julio; Muñoz, Jose; Stenbock-Fermor, Anja; Muñoz, Maria; Muraviev, Dmitri N.; Céspedes, Francisco; Tsarkova, Larisa A.; Baeza, Mireia

    2016-04-01

    Intermatrix Synthesis (IMS) technique has proven to be a valid methodology for the in situ incorporation of quantum dots (QDs) in a wide range of nanostructured surfaces for the preparation of advanced hybrid-nanomaterials. In this sense, this communication reports the recent advances in the application of IMS for the synthesis of CdS-QDs with favourable distribution on sulfonated polyetherether ketone (SPEEK) membrane thin films (TFs), multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nanodiamonds (NDs). The synthetic route takes advantage of the ion exchange functionality of the reactive surfaces for the loading of the QDs precursor and consequent QDs appearance by precipitation. The benefits of such modified nanomaterials were studied using CdS-QDs@MWCNTs hybrid-nanomaterials. CdS-QDs@MWCNTs has been used as conducting filler for the preparation of electrochemical nanocomposite sensors, which present electrocatalytic properties. Finally, the optical properties of the QDs contained on MWCNTs could allow a new procedure for the analytical detection of nanostructured carbon allotropes in water.

  4. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Sitek, Kevin R.; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had st...

  5. Decreased cerebellar-orbitofrontal connectivity correlates with stuttering severity: Whole-brain functional and structural connectivity associations with persistent developmental stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Richard Sitek; Kevin Richard Sitek; Shanqing eCai; Shanqing eCai; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Deryk Scott Beal; Joseph S Perkell; Joseph S Perkell; Frank eGuenther; Satrajit S Ghosh; Satrajit S Ghosh

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here, we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had ...

  6. Early Ambulation Decreases Length of Hospital Stay, Perioperative Complications and Improves Functional Outcomes in Elderly Patients Undergoing Surgery for Correction of Adult Degenerative Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adogwa, Owoicho; Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Fialkoff, Jared; Cheng, Joseph; Karikari, Isaac O; Bagley, Carlos

    2017-09-15

    Ambispective cohort review. To examine the effects of early mobilization on patient outcomes, complications profile, and 30-day readmission rates. Prolonged immobilization after surgery can result in functional decline and an increased risk of hospital-associated complications. We conducted an ambispective study of 125 elderly patients (>65 years) undergoing elective spinal surgery for correction of adult degenerative scoliosis. We identified all unplanned readmissions within 30 days of discharge. Unplanned readmissions were defined to have occurred as a result of either a surgical or a nonsurgical complication. "Days of immobility" was defined as the number of days until a patient moved out of bed beyond a chair. Patients in the top and bottom quartiles were dichotomized into "early ambulators" and "late ambulators", respectively. Early ambulators were ambulatory within 24 hours of surgery, whereas late ambulators were ambulatory at a minimum of 48 hours after surgery. Complication rates, duration of hospital stay, and 30-day readmission rates were compared between early ambulators and late ambulators. Baseline characteristics were similar between both cohorts. Compared with patients with a longer duration of immobility (i.e., late ambulators), the prevalence of at least one perioperative complication was significantly lower in the early ambulators cohort (30% vs. 54%, P = 0.06). The length of inhospital stay was 34% shorter in the early ambulators cohort (5.33 days vs. 8.11 days, P = 0.01). Functional independence was superior in the early ambulators cohort, with the majority of patients discharged directly home after surgery compared with late ambulators (71.2% vs. 22.0%, P = 0.01). Early ambulation after surgery significantly reduces the incidence of perioperative complications, shortens duration of inhospital stay, and contributes to improved perioperative functional status in elderly patients. Even a delay of 24 hours to ambulation is

  7. Higher Protein Intake Is Not Associated with Decreased Kidney Function in Pre-Diabetic Older Adults Following a One-Year Intervention—A Preview Sub-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grith Møller

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about detrimental renal effects of a high-protein intake have been raised due to an induced glomerular hyperfiltration, since this may accelerate the progression of kidney disease. The aim of this sub-study was to assess the effect of a higher intake of protein on kidney function in pre-diabetic men and women, aged 55 years and older. Analyses were based on baseline and one-year data in a sub-group of 310 participants included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World. Protein intake was estimated from four-day dietary records and 24-hour urinary urea excretion. We used linear regression to assess the association between protein intake after one year of intervention and kidney function markers: creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, urinary urea/creatinine ratio (UCR, serum creatinine, and serum urea before and after adjustments for potential confounders. A higher protein intake was associated with a significant increase in UCR (p = 0.03 and serum urea (p = 0.05 after one year. There were no associations between increased protein intake and creatinine clearance, eGFR, ACR, or serum creatinine. We found no indication of impaired kidney function after one year with a higher protein intake in pre-diabetic older adults.

  8. Decreased Serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 Molar Ratio is Associated with Executive Function Behaviors in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Wang, Pin; Han, Jing; Xia, Wenqing; Cai, Rongrong; Sun, Haixia; Sun, Jie; Wang, Shaohua

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, through insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway, is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the association of serum IGF-1 and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 levels with cognition status and to determine whether IGF-1 rs972936 polymorphism is associated with T2DM with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of 150 T2DM patients, 75 satisfying the MCI diagnostic criteria and 75 exhibiting healthy cognition, were enrolled in this study. The cognitive function of the subjects was extensively assessed. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were measured through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio was calculated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IGF-1-(rs972936) gene were analyzed. Serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio in MCI patients was significantly lower than that in the control group (p = 0.003). Significant negative correlations were found between IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio and Trail Making Test A and B (TMT-A and TMT-B) scores (p = 0.003; p function. Further multiple step-wise regression analysis revealed that the TMT-A or TMT-B score was significantly associated only with serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio (p = 0.016; p IGF-1 rs972936 polymorphism between MCI and control groups. A low serum IGF-1/IGFBP-3 molar ratio is associated with the pathogenesis of MCI, particularly executive function in T2DM populations. Further investigation with a large population size should be conducted to confirm this observed association.

  9. Decreased Pulmonary Function in School Children in Western Japan after Exposures to Asian Desert Dusts and Its Association with Interleukin-8

    OpenAIRE

    Masanari Watanabe; Hisashi Noma; Jun Kurai; Hiroyuki Sano; Rumiko Saito; Satoshi Abe; Yutaka Kimura; Setsuya Aiba; Mitsuo Oshimura; Akira Yamasaki; Eiji Shimizu

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS) on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimul...

  10. Clopidogrel (Plavix®), a P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, inhibits bone cell function in vitro and decreases trabecular bone in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Susanne; Brandao-Burch, Andrea; Patel, Jessal J

    2012-01-01

    Clopidogrel (Plavix®), a selective P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, is widely prescribed to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke and acts via the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Accumulating evidence now suggests that extracellular nucleotides, signalling through P2 receptors, play...... a significant role in bone, modulating both osteoblast and osteoclast function. In this study, we investigated the effects of clopidogrel treatment on (1) bone cell formation, differentiation and activity in vitro; and, (2) trabecular and cortical bone parameters in vivo. P2Y(12) receptor expression...

  11. Decreased Pulmonary Function in School Children in Western Japan after Exposures to Asian Desert Dusts and Its Association with Interleukin-8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by airborne particles collected on ADS days. Seven ADS days were identified: April 23 and 24, 2012; March 8 to 10, 2013; and March 19 and 20, 2013. Changes in PEF after ADS exposure were −8.17 L/min (95% confidence interval, −11.40 to −4.93 in 2012 and −1.17 L/min (−4.07 to 1.74 in 2013, and there was a significant difference between 2012 and 2013. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was significantly higher in 2012 at 10.6±2.9-fold compared to 3.7±0.4 in March 8 to 10, 2013, and 2.3±0.2 in March 19 and 20, 2013. The influence of ADS events on pulmonary function of children differs with each ADS event and may be related to interleukin-8 production.

  12. Decreased Pulmonary Function in School Children in Western Japan after Exposures to Asian Desert Dusts and Its Association with Interleukin-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Sano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Rumiko; Kimura, Yutaka; Aiba, Setsuya; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of Asian dust storms (ADS) on pulmonary function of school children and the relationship of this effect with interleukin-8. Morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured daily in 399 children from April to May 2012 and in 384 of these children from March to May 2013. The data were analyzed for an association between ADS events and PEF by linear mixed models. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was assessed in THP-G8 cells stimulated by airborne particles collected on ADS days. Seven ADS days were identified: April 23 and 24, 2012; March 8 to 10, 2013; and March 19 and 20, 2013. Changes in PEF after ADS exposure were −8.17 L/min (95% confidence interval, −11.40 to −4.93) in 2012 and −1.17 L/min (−4.07 to 1.74) in 2013, and there was a significant difference between 2012 and 2013. Interleukin-8 transcriptional activity was significantly higher in 2012 at 10.6 ± 2.9-fold compared to 3.7 ± 0.4 in March 8 to 10, 2013, and 2.3 ± 0.2 in March 19 and 20, 2013. The influence of ADS events on pulmonary function of children differs with each ADS event and may be related to interleukin-8 production. PMID:26060816

  13. Epicardial fat thickness correlates with P-wave duration, left atrial size and decreased left ventricular systolic function in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes-Cardoso, A; Santos-Furtado, M; Grindler, J; Ferreira, L A; Andrade, J L; Santo, M A

    2017-08-01

    Epicardial fat (EF) is increased in obesity and has important interactions with atrial and ventricular myocardium. Most of the evidence in this scenario can be confused by the presence of comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, which are very common in this population. The influence of EF on atrial remodeling and cardiac function demands further investigation on morbidly obese without these comorbidities. We prospectively recruited 20 metabolically healthy morbidly obese and 20 normo-weights controls. The maximum P-wave duration (PWD) was analyzed by 12-lead electrocardiogram. Left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and EF thickness (EFT) were evaluated by two-dimensional echocardiography. The mean of maximum PWD and LAD were significantly larger in the obese group as compared to the control group: 109.55 ± 11.52 ms × 89.38 ± 11.19 ms and 36.12 ± 3.46 mm × 31.45 ± 2.64 mm, (p function. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. APTES Functionalized Iron Oxide-Silver Magnetic Hetero-Nanocomposites for Selective Capture and Rapid Removal of Salmonella enteritidis from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Vu Thi; Dinh, Ngo Xuan; Lan, Hoang; Tam, Le Thi; Huy, Tran Quang; Tuan, Pham Anh; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic nanomaterials, as a promising platform for the fast and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens, have attracted increasing interest from researchers in recent years. In this work, by utilizing a two-step synthetic technique consisting of co-precipitation and subsequent hydrothermal reaction, followed by functionalization steps with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and the antibody against Salmonella enteritidis, antibody-conjugated Fe3O4-Ag@APTES hetero-nanocomposites were successfully prepared. Due to the specific antibody, the developed Fe3O4-Ag@APTES@SE-Ab conjugates are capable of selectively capturing S. enteritidis at a low concentration of about 101 CFU/mL. Moreover, the prepared magnetic conjugates also revealed that the S. enteritidis could be rapidly removed from water solution in 20 min by using an external magnetic field with a removal efficiency obtained of ˜ 91.36%. These results indicated that the Fe3O4-Ag@APTES@SE-Ab conjugates are promising for the rapid selective capture and removal of bacterial pathogens from aqueous environments, and can be used for improving the detection quality of pathogens in water samples using immunosensor-based diagnostic tests.

  15. An acute fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate during treatment with losartan predicts a slower decrease in long-term renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtkamp, Frank A; de Zeeuw, Dick; Thomas, Merlin C

    2011-01-01

    initial fall in eGFR had a significant lower long-term eGFR slope compared to those with a moderate fall or rise. This relationship was independent of other risk markers or change in risk markers for progression of renal disease such as blood pressure and albuminuria. Thus, the greater the acute fall in e......Intervention in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) is associated with slowing the progressive loss of renal function. During initiation of therapy, however, there may be an acute fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We tested whether this initial fall in GFR reflects a renal...... a significantly greater acute fall in estimated (eGFR) during the first 3 months compared to patients assigned to placebo, but a significantly slower long-term mean decline of eGFR thereafter. A large interindividual difference, however, was noticed in the acute eGFR change. When patients were divided...

  16. Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on arm function and decreasing unilateral spatial neglect in subacute stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyun Gyu; Kim, Myoung Kwon

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the functional recovery of stroke patients with unilateral neglect. Randomized controlled experimental study. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Thirty patients with stroke were randomly assigned to two groups: an rTMS group (experimental) and a control group. Stroke patients in the experimental group underwent comprehensive rehabilitation therapy and rTMS. Stroke patients in the control group underwent sham therapy and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Line bisection, Albert, Box and block and Grip strength tests were assessed before and after the four-week therapy period. A significant difference in the post-training gains in Line bisection (16.53 SD 9.78 vs. 3.60 SD 5.02), Albert (14.13 SD 4.92 vs. 3.26 SD 2.01), Box and block (15.06 SD 9.68 vs. 6.93 SD 7.52), and Grip strength tests (3.60 SD 2.66 vs 0.80 SD 1.26) was observed between the experimental group and the control group (P<0.05). In addition, the effect size for gains in the experimental and control groups was very strong in AT, BBT (effect size=2.15, 0.77 respectively). We conclude that rTMS might be effective in improvement in reduction of the unilateral neglect and motor function. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Crocin improved locomotor function and mechanical behavior in the rat model of contused spinal cord injury through decreasing calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Masoume; Bathaie, S Zahra; Tiraihi, Taqi; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Arabkheradmand, Jalil; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2013-12-15

    Various approaches have been offered to alleviate chronic pain resulting from spinal cord injuries (SCIs). Application of herbs and natural products, with potentially lower adverse effects, to cure diseases has been recommended in both traditional and modern medicines. Here, the effect of crocin on chronic pain induced by spinal cord contusion was investigated in an animal model. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups (5 rats in each); three groups were contused at the L1 level. One group was treated with crocin (150mg/kg) two weeks after spinal cord injury; the second group, control, was treated with vehicle only; and the third group was treated with ketoprofen. Two normal groups were also considered with or without crocin treatment. The mechanical behavioral test, the locomotor recovery test and the thermal behavioral test were applied weekly to evaluate the injury and recovery of rats. Significant improvements (plocomotor recovery tests were seen in the rats treated with crocin. Thermal behavioral test did not show any significant changes due to crocin treatment. Plasma concentration of calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) changed from 780.2±2.3 to 1140.3±4.5pg/ml due to SCI and reached 789.1±2.7pg/ml after crocin treatment. These changes were significant at the level of p<0.05. The present study shows the beneficial effects of crocin treatment on chronic pain induced by SCI, through decreasing CGRP as an important mediator of inflammation and pain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Decaffeinated green and black tea polyphenols decrease weight gain and alter microbiome populations and function in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Susanne M; Yang, Jieping; Hsu, Mark; Lee, Ru-Po; Grojean, Emma M; Ly, Austin; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-09-30

    Decaffeinated green tea (GT) and black tea (BT) polyphenols inhibit weight gain in mice fed an obesogenic diet. Since the intestinal microflora is an important contributor to obesity, it was the objective of this study to determine whether the intestinal microflora plays a role in the anti-obesogenic effect of GT and BT. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HF/HS, 32% energy from fat; 25% energy from sucrose) or the same diet supplemented with 0.25% GTP or BTP or a low-fat/high-sucrose (LF/HS, 10.6% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose) diet for 4 weeks. Bacterial composition was assessed by MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. GTP and BTP diets resulted in a decrease of cecum Firmicutes and increase in Bacteroidetes. The relative proportions of Blautia, Bryantella, Collinsella, Lactobacillus, Marvinbryantia, Turicibacter, Barnesiella, and Parabacteroides were significantly correlated with weight loss induced by tea extracts. BTP increased the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio and intestinal formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) analyzed by gas chromatography. Cecum propionic acid content was significantly correlated with the relative proportion of Pseudobutyrivibrio. GTP and BTP induced a significant increase in hepatic 5'adenosylmonophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation by 70 and 289%, respectively (P < 0.05) determined by Western blot. In summary, both BTP and GTP induced weight loss in association with alteration of the microbiota and increased hepatic AMPK phosphorylation. We hypothesize that BTP increased pAMPK through increased intestinal SCFA production, while GTPs increased hepatic AMPK through GTP present in the liver.

  19. Decreased functional connectivity and disrupted neural network in the prefrontal cortex of affective disorders: A resting-state fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huilin; Xu, Jie; Li, Jiangxue; Peng, Hongjun; Cai, Tingting; Li, Xinge; Wu, Shijing; Cao, Wei; He, Sailing

    2017-10-15

    Affective disorders (AD) have been conceptualized as neural network-level diseases. In this study, we utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the spontaneous hemodynamic activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the AD patients with or without medications. 42 optical channels were applied to cover the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which constitute one of the most important affective networks of the brain. We performed resting-state measurements on 28 patients who were diagnosed as having AD and 30 healthy controls (HC). Raw fNIRS data were preprocessed with independent component analysis (ICA) and a band-pass filter to remove artifacts and physiological noise. By systematically analyzing the intra-regional, intrahemispheric, and interhemispheric connectivities based on the spontaneous oscillations of Δ[HbO], our results indicated that patients with AD exhibited significantly reduced intra-regional and symmetrically interhemispheric connectivities in the PFC when compared to HC. More specifically, relative to HC, AD patients showed significantly lower locally functional connectivity in the right IFG, and poor long-distance connectivity between bilateral IFG. In addition, AD patients without medication presented more disrupted cortical organizations in the PFC, and the severity of self-reported symptoms of depression was negatively correlated with the strength of intra-regional and symmetrically interhemispheric connectivity in the PFC. Regarding the measuring technique, fNIRS has restricted measurement depth and spatial resolution. During the study, the subgroups of AD, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar, comorbidity, or non-comorbidity, dosage of psychotropic drugs, as well as different types of pharmacological responses were not distinguished and systematically compared. Furthermore, due to the limitation of the research design, it was still not very clear how

  20. Regulatory changes in presynaptic cholinergic function assessed in rapid autopsy material from patients with Alzheimer disease: Implications for etiology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slotkin, T.A.; Seidler, F.J.; Crain, B.J.; Bell, J.M.; Bissette, G.; Nemeroff, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    Brain regions from patients with or without Alzheimer disease (AD) were obtained within 2 hr of death and examined for indices of presynaptic cholinergic function. Consistent with loss of cholinergic projections, cerebral cortical areas involved in AD exhibited decreased choline acetyltransferase activity. However, remaining nerve terminals in these regions displayed marked up-regulation of synaptosomal high affinity [ 3 H]choline uptake, a result indicative of relative cholinergic hyperactivity. As choline uptake is also rate-limiting in acetylcholine biosynthesis, these findings have implications for both therapy and identification of causes contributing to neuronal death in AD

  1. Long-term exposure to tenofovir continuously decrease renal function in HIV-1-infected patients with low body weight: results from 10 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Tanaka, Noriko; Mizushima, Daisuke; Aoki, Takahiro; Watanabe, Koji; Kinai, Ei; Honda, Haruhito; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Tanuma, Junko; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Teruya, Katsuji; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi

    2014-08-24

    To investigate the effect of long-term tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) use on renal function, especially in patients with low body weight who are vulnerable to TDF nephrotoxicity. A single-center, observational study in Tokyo, Japan. We performed a 10 years cohort study of 792 HIV-1-infected patients. The effect of long-term TDF use on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated on treatment-naive patients who started TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (n = 422) and those who started abacavir-containing antiretroviral therapy as control (n = 370). Three renal endpoints were examined by the logistic regression model: decrement in eGFR of higher than 10 ml/min per 1.73 m relative to the baseline, more than 25% decrement in eGFR, and eGFR lower than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m at least 3 months apart. The loss in eGFR was estimated using linear mixed models for repeated measures. The median weight at baseline was 63 kg. TDF use increased the risk of all three renal outcomes compared with the control group: higher than 10 ml/min per 1.73 m decrement in eGFR [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.45-3.14, P decrement (adjusted OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.50-2.90, P < 0.001), and eGFR lower than 60 ml/min per 1.73 m at least 3 months apart (adjusted OR = 3.9, 95% CI 1.62-9.36, P = 0.002). The cumulative mean loss relative to the control after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years of TDF exposure was -3.8, -3.6, -5.5, -6.6, and -10.3 ml/min per 1.73 m, respectively, indicating that the loss in eGFR increased over time (P < 0.001). In this cohort of patients with low body weight, TDF exposure increased the risk of renal dysfunction. Furthermore, the loss in eGFR relative to the control increased continuously up to 5 years.

  2. Missense mutation Lys18Asn in dystrophin that triggers X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy decreases protein stability, increases protein unfolding, and perturbs protein structure, but does not affect protein function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surinder M Singh

    Full Text Available Genetic mutations in a vital muscle protein dystrophin trigger X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XLDCM. However, disease mechanisms at the fundamental protein level are not understood. Such molecular knowledge is essential for developing therapies for XLDCM. Our main objective is to understand the effect of disease-causing mutations on the structure and function of dystrophin. This study is on a missense mutation K18N. The K18N mutation occurs in the N-terminal actin binding domain (N-ABD. We created and expressed the wild-type (WT N-ABD and its K18N mutant, and purified to homogeneity. Reversible folding experiments demonstrated that both mutant and WT did not aggregate upon refolding. Mutation did not affect the protein's overall secondary structure, as indicated by no changes in circular dichroism of the protein. However, the mutant is thermodynamically less stable than the WT (denaturant melts, and unfolds faster than the WT (stopped-flow kinetics. Despite having global secondary structure similar to that of the WT, mutant showed significant local structural changes at many amino acids when compared with the WT (heteronuclear NMR experiments. These structural changes indicate that the effect of mutation is propagated over long distances in the protein structure. Contrary to these structural and stability changes, the mutant had no significant effect on the actin-binding function as evident from co-sedimentation and depolymerization assays. These results summarize that the K18N mutation decreases thermodynamic stability, accelerates unfolding, perturbs protein structure, but does not affect the function. Therefore, K18N is a stability defect rather than a functional defect. Decrease in stability and increase in unfolding decrease the net population of dystrophin molecules available for function, which might trigger XLDCM. Consistently, XLDCM patients have decreased levels of dystrophin in cardiac muscle.

  3. Amino-Functionalized Luminescent Metal-Organic Framework Test Paper for Rapid and Selective Sensing of SO2 Gas and Its Derivatives by Luminescence Turn-On Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Guo, Lin; Cao, Dapeng

    2018-03-06

    Rapid and selective sensing of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) gas has attracted more and more attention because SO 2 not only causes environmental pollution but also severely affects the health of human beings. Here we report an amino-functionalized luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF) material (i.e., MOF-5-NH 2 ) and further investigate its sensing property for SO 2 gas and its derivatives as a luminescent probe. The results indicate that the MOF-5-NH 2 probe can selectively and sensitively sense SO 2 derivatives (i.e., SO 3 2- ) in real time by a luminescence turn-on effect with a lower detection limit of 0.168 ppm and a response time of less than 15 s. Importantly, the luminescence turn-on phenomenon can be observed by the naked eye. We also assembled MOF-5-NH 2 into a test paper to achieve the aim of portable detection, and the lower-limit concentration of the test paper for sensing SO 2 in real time was found to be about 0.05 ppm. Moreover, MOF-5-NH 2 also shows good anti-interference ability, strong luminescence stability, and reusability, which means that this material is an excellent sensing candidate. The amino functionalization may also provide a modification strategy to design luminescent sensors for other atmospheric pollutants.

  4. Separation of input function for rapid measurement of quantitative CMRO2 and CBF in a single PET scan with a dual tracer administration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudomi, Nobuyuki; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Iida, Hidehiro

    2007-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) images can be quantified using positron emission tomography (PET) by administrating 15 O-labelled water (H 15 2 O) and oxygen ( 15 O 2 ). Conventionally, those images are measured with separate scans for three tracers C 15 O for CBV, H 15 2 O for CBF and 15 O 2 for CMRO 2 , and there are additional waiting times between the scans in order to minimize the influence of the radioactivity from the previous tracers, which results in a relatively long study period. We have proposed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) approach (Kudomi et al 2005), which enabled us to measure CBF, OEF and CMRO 2 rapidly by sequentially administrating H 15 2 O and 15 O 2 within a short time. Because quantitative CBF and CMRO 2 values are sensitive to arterial input function, it is necessary to obtain accurate input function and a drawback of this approach is to require separation of the measured arterial blood time-activity curve (TAC) into pure water and oxygen input functions under the existence of residual radioactivity from the first injected tracer. For this separation, frequent manual sampling was required. The present paper describes two calculation methods: namely a linear and a model-based method, to separate the measured arterial TAC into its water and oxygen components. In order to validate these methods, we first generated a blood TAC for the DARG approach by combining the water and oxygen input functions obtained in a series of PET studies on normal human subjects. The combined data were then separated into water and oxygen components by the present methods. CBF and CMRO 2 were calculated using those separated input functions and tissue TAC. The quantitative accuracy in the CBF and CMRO 2 values by the DARG approach did not exceed the acceptable range, i.e., errors in those values were within 5%, when the area under the curve in the input function of the second tracer

  5. Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins from Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Lewis

    Full Text Available Ciguatera is a circumtropical disease produced by polyether sodium channel toxins (ciguatoxins that enter the marine food chain and accumulate in otherwise edible fish. Ciguatoxins, as well as potent water-soluble polyethers known as maitotoxins, are produced by certain dinoflagellate species in the genus Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. in the Pacific but little is known of the potential of related Caribbean species to produce these toxins.We established a simplified procedure for extracting polyether toxins from Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. based on the ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM. Fractionated extracts from identified Pacific and Caribbean isolates were analysed using a functional bioassay that recorded intracellular calcium changes (Ca2+ in response to sample addition in SH-SY5Y cells. Maitotoxin directly elevated Ca2+i, while low levels of ciguatoxin-like toxins were detected using veratridine to enhance responses.We identified significant maitotoxin production in 11 of 12 isolates analysed, with 6 of 12 producing at least two forms of maitotoxin. In contrast, only 2 Caribbean isolates produced detectable levels of ciguatoxin-like activity despite a detection limit of >30 pM. Significant strain-dependent differences in the levels and types of ciguatoxins and maitotoxins produced by the same Gambierdiscus spp. were also identified.The ability to rapidly identify polyether toxins produced by Gambierdiscus spp. in culture has the potential to distinguish ciguatoxin-producing species prior to large-scale culture and in naturally occurring blooms of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. Our results have implications for the evaluation of ciguatera risk associated with Gambierdiscus and related species.

  6. Rapid Extraction and Identification of Maitotoxin and Ciguatoxin-Like Toxins from Caribbean and Pacific Gambierdiscus Using a New Functional Bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard J; Inserra, Marco; Vetter, Irina; Holland, William C; Hardison, D Ransom; Tester, Patricia A; Litaker, R Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Ciguatera is a circumtropical disease produced by polyether sodium channel toxins (ciguatoxins) that enter the marine food chain and accumulate in otherwise edible fish. Ciguatoxins, as well as potent water-soluble polyethers known as maitotoxins, are produced by certain dinoflagellate species in the genus Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. in the Pacific but little is known of the potential of related Caribbean species to produce these toxins. We established a simplified procedure for extracting polyether toxins from Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. based on the ciguatoxin rapid extraction method (CREM). Fractionated extracts from identified Pacific and Caribbean isolates were analysed using a functional bioassay that recorded intracellular calcium changes (Ca2+) in response to sample addition in SH-SY5Y cells. Maitotoxin directly elevated Ca2+i, while low levels of ciguatoxin-like toxins were detected using veratridine to enhance responses. We identified significant maitotoxin production in 11 of 12 isolates analysed, with 6 of 12 producing at least two forms of maitotoxin. In contrast, only 2 Caribbean isolates produced detectable levels of ciguatoxin-like activity despite a detection limit of >30 pM. Significant strain-dependent differences in the levels and types of ciguatoxins and maitotoxins produced by the same Gambierdiscus spp. were also identified. The ability to rapidly identify polyether toxins produced by Gambierdiscus spp. in culture has the potential to distinguish ciguatoxin-producing species prior to large-scale culture and in naturally occurring blooms of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa spp. Our results have implications for the evaluation of ciguatera risk associated with Gambierdiscus and related species.

  7. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  8. Hyperoxia decreases glycolytic capacity, glycolytic reserve and oxidative phosphorylation in MLE-12 cells and inhibits complex I and II function, but not complex IV in isolated mouse lung mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumuda C Das

    Full Text Available High levels of oxygen (hyperoxia are frequently used in critical care units and in conditions of respiratory insufficiencies in adults, as well as in infants. However, hyperoxia has been implicated in a number of pulmonary disorders including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Hyperoxia increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the mitochondria that could impair the function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We analyzed lung mitochondrial function in hyperoxia using the XF24 analyzer (extracellular flux and optimized the assay for lung epithelial cells and mitochondria isolated from lungs of mice. Our data show that hyperoxia decreases basal oxygen consumption rate (OCR, spare respiratory capacity, maximal respiration and ATP turnover in MLE-12 cells. There was significant decrease in glycolytic capacity and glycolytic reserve in MLE-12 cells exposed to hyperoxia. Using mitochondria isolated from lungs of mice exposed to hyperoxia or normoxia we have shown that hyperoxia decreased the basal, state 3 and state3 μ (respiration in an uncoupled state respirations. Further, using substrate or inhibitor of a specific complex we show that the OCR via complex I and II, but not complex IV was decreased, demonstrating that complexes I and II are specific targets of hyperoxia. Further, the activities of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase, NADH-DH and complex II (succinate dehydrogenase, SDH were decreased in hyperoxia, but the activity of complex IV (cytochrome oxidase, COX remains unchanged. Taken together, our study show that hyperoxia impairs glycolytic and mitochondrial energy metabolism in in tact cells, as well as in lungs of mice by selectively inactivating components of electron transport system.

  9. Rapid colorimetric detection of p53 protein function using DNA-gold nanoconjugates with applications for drug discovery and cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assah, Enock; Goh, Walter; Zheng, Xin Ting; Lim, Ting Xiang; Li, Jun; Lane, David; Ghadessy, Farid; Tan, Yen Nee

    2018-05-05

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in preventing cancer through interaction with DNA response elements (REs) to regulate target gene expression in cells. Due to its significance in cancer biology, relentless efforts have been directed toward understanding p53-DNA interactions for the development of cancer therapeutics and diagnostics. In this paper, we report a rapid, label-free and versatile colorimetric assay to detect wildtype p53 DNA-binding function in complex solutions. The assay design is based on a concept that alters interparticle-distances between RE-AuNPs from a crosslinking effect induced through tetramerization of wildtype p53 protein (p53-WT) upon binding to canonical DNA motifs modified on gold nanoparticles (RE-AuNPs). This leads to a visible solution color change from red to blue, which is quantifiable by the UV- visible absorption spectra with a detection limit of 5 nM. Contrastingly, no color change was observed for the binding-deficient p53 mutants and non-specific proteins due to their inability to crosslink RE-AuNPs. Based on this sensing principle, we further demonstrate its utility for fast detection of drug-induced DNA binding function to cancer-associated Y220C mutant p53 protein using well-established reactivating compounds. By exploiting the dominant-negative property of mutant p53 over p53-WT and interactions with RE-AuNPs, this assay is configurable to detect low numbers of mutant p53 expressing cells in miniscule sample fractions obtained from typical core needle biopsy-sized tissues without signal attrition, alluding to the potential for biopsy sampling in cancer diagnostics or for defining cancer margins. This nanogold enabled colorimetric assay provides a facile yet robust method for studying important parameters influencing p53-DNA interactions with great promises for clinically pertinent applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid evolution and copy number variation of primate RHOXF2, an X-linked homeobox gene involved in male reproduction and possibly brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ao-lei; Wang, Yin-qiu; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Cheng-hong; Wang, Jin-kai; Zhang, Rui; Che, Jun; Su, Bing

    2011-10-12

    Homeobox genes are the key regulators during development, and they are in general highly conserved with only a few reported cases of rapid evolution. RHOXF2 is an X-linked homeobox gene in primates. It is highly expressed in the testicle and may play an important role in spermatogenesis. As male reproductive system is often the target of natural and/or sexual selection during evolution, in this study, we aim to dissect the pattern of molecular evolution of RHOXF2 in primates and its potential functional consequence. We studied sequences and copy number variation of RHOXF2 in humans and 16 nonhuman primate species as well as the expression patterns in human, chimpanzee, white-browed gibbon and rhesus macaque. The gene copy number analysis showed that there had been parallel gene duplications/losses in multiple primate lineages. Our evidence suggests that 11 nonhuman primate species have one RHOXF2 copy, and two copies are present in humans and four Old World monkey species, and at least 6 copies in chimpanzees. Further analysis indicated that the gene duplications in primates had likely been mediated by endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences flanking the gene regions. In striking contrast to non-human primates, humans appear to have homogenized their two RHOXF2 copies by the ERV-mediated non-allelic recombination mechanism. Coding sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested multi-lineage strong positive selection on RHOXF2 during primate evolution, especially during the origins of humans and chimpanzees. All the 8 coding region polymorphic sites in human populations are non-synonymous, implying on-going selection. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that besides the preferential expression in the reproductive system, RHOXF2 is also expressed in the brain. The quantitative data suggests expression pattern divergence among primate species. RHOXF2 is a fast-evolving homeobox gene in primates. The rapid evolution and copy number changes of RHOXF2 had been driven by

  11. Rapid evolution and copy number variation of primate RHOXF2, an X-linked homeobox gene involved in male reproduction and possibly brain function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Rui

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeobox genes are the key regulators during development, and they are in general highly conserved with only a few reported cases of rapid evolution. RHOXF2 is an X-linked homeobox gene in primates. It is highly expressed in the testicle and may play an important role in spermatogenesis. As male reproductive system is often the target of natural and/or sexual selection during evolution, in this study, we aim to dissect the pattern of molecular evolution of RHOXF2 in primates and its potential functional consequence. Results We studied sequences and copy number variation of RHOXF2 in humans and 16 nonhuman primate species as well as the expression patterns in human, chimpanzee, white-browed gibbon and rhesus macaque. The gene copy number analysis showed that there had been parallel gene duplications/losses in multiple primate lineages. Our evidence suggests that 11 nonhuman primate species have one RHOXF2 copy, and two copies are present in humans and four Old World monkey species, and at least 6 copies in chimpanzees. Further analysis indicated that the gene duplications in primates had likely been mediated by endogenous retrovirus (ERV sequences flanking the gene regions. In striking contrast to non-human primates, humans appear to have homogenized their two RHOXF2 copies by the ERV-mediated non-allelic recombination mechanism. Coding sequence and phylogenetic analysis suggested multi-lineage strong positive selection on RHOXF2 during primate evolution, especially during the origins of humans and chimpanzees. All the 8 coding region polymorphic sites in human populations are non-synonymous, implying on-going selection. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that besides the preferential expression in the reproductive system, RHOXF2 is also expressed in the brain. The quantitative data suggests expression pattern divergence among primate species. Conclusions RHOXF2 is a fast-evolving homeobox gene in primates. The rapid

  12. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  13. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  14. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  16. Excitation functions of parameters extracted from three-source (net-)proton rapidity distributions in Au-Au and Pb-Pb collisions over an energy range from AGS to RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Li-Na; Liu, Fu-Hu [Shanxi University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Taiyuan, Shanxi (China); Sun, Yan; Sun, Zhu [Shanxi Datong University, Department of Physics, Datong, Shanxi (China); Lacey, Roy A. [Stony Brook University, Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Experimental results of the rapidity spectra of protons and net-protons (protons minus antiprotons) emitted in gold-gold (Au-Au) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions, measured by a few collaborations at the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS), super proton synchrotron (SPS), and relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), are described by a three-source distribution. The values of the distribution width σ{sub C} and fraction k{sub C} of the central rapidity region, and the distribution width σ{sub F} and rapidity shift Δy of the forward/backward rapidity regions, are then obtained. The excitation function of σ{sub C} increases generally with increase of the center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair √(s{sub NN}). The excitation function of σ{sub F} shows a saturation at √(s{sub NN}) = 8.8 GeV. The excitation function of k{sub C} shows a minimum at √(s{sub NN}) = 8.8 GeV and a saturation at √(s{sub NN}) ∼ 17 GeV. The excitation function of Δy increases linearly with ln(√(s{sub NN})) in the considered energy range. (orig.)

  17. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  18. Decreased resting-state BOLD regional homogeneity and the intrinsic functional connectivity within dorsal striatum is associated with greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making and BMI change at 6-month follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao; Liang, Qianlin; Wu, Guorong; She, Ying; Sui, Nan; Chen, Hong

    2018-04-30

    Increasing animal models as well as brain imaging studies among human suggest an association between substance-related impulsivity in decision-making and decreased function of dorsal striatum. However, the resting-state intrinsic functional organization of dorsal striatum underlying food-choice impulsivity remains unknown. To address this issue, we used resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to measure brain activity among adult females. Subjects underwent the food rating task, during which they rated each food item according to their subjective perception of its taste (from Dislike it very much to Like it very much), its long term effect on health (from very unhealthy to very healthy) and decision strength to eat it (from Strong no to Strong yes). Behaviorally, impulsivity in food-choice was indexed by the decision strength of the palatable high-calorie food rather than of the low-caloric food. Results on rs-fMRI showed that greater impulsivity in food-related decision-making was inversely correlated with spontaneous regional homogeneity in the dorsal striatum (dorsal caudate), as well as the resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the dorsal caudate seed and the rostral putamen. Furthermore, the caudate-putamen rs-FC inversely predicted BMI change at six-month follow-up. These findings may suggest the insensitivity to reward signals in dorsal caudate in decision-making coupled with an imbalance between goal-directed behaviors (modulated by dorsal caudate) and habitual actions (modulated by putamen) underlying impulsivity and future weight gain. In sum, these findings extend our understanding on the neural basis of food-related impulsivity, and provide evidence for the dorsal striatum as one of the landmarks in over eating and weight change. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  20. Rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate during the first weeks following heart transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, M; Andersen, Mads Jønsson; Gustafsson, F

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesized that a decrease in renal function is seen immediately after heart transplantation (HTX) with little recovery over time. Twelve consecutive patients had their glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured using (51)Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) measured GFR (mGFR) before tr...... risk factor for the rapid and sustained decrease in renal function supports the need for more studies on renoprotective strategies immediately after HTX....

  1. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Worsens the Profile of Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Decrease Indexes of Beta-Cell Function Independently of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Women with a Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sokup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with a history of both parental type 2 diabetes (pt2DM and previous gestational diabetes (pGDM represent a group at high risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that pGDM changes cardiometabolic risk markers levels as well as theirs associations with glucose indices in nondiabetic pt2DM women. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, beta-cell function, lipid levels, parameters of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 55 women with pt2DM, 40 with both pt2DM and pGDM 2–24 months postpartum, and 35 controls. Results. Prediabetes was diagnosed more frequently in women with both pt2DM and pGDM in comparison with women with only pt2DM (10 versus 8, P=0.04. The pGDM group had higher LDL-cholesterol, sICAM-1, tPa Ag, fibrinogen, and lower beta-cell function after adjustment for HOMA-IR, in comparison with pt2DM group. In pt2DM group postchallenge glucose correlated independently with hsCRP and in pGDM group fasting glucose with HOMA-IR. Conclusions. pGDM exerts a combined effect on cardiometabolic risk markers in women with pt2DM. In these women higher LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, sICAM-1, tPa Ag levels and decreased beta cell function are associated with pGDM independently of HOMA-IR index value. Fasting glucose is an important cardiometabolic risk marker and is independently associated with HOMA-IR.

  2. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  3. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  4. A slow-releasing form of prostacyclin agonist (ONO1301SR) enhances endogenous secretion of multiple cardiotherapeutic cytokines and improves cardiac function in a rapid-pacing-induced model of canine heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaka, Tomonori; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Fukushima, Satsuki; Saito, Atsuhiro; Shiozaki, Motoko; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Matsuura, Nariaki; Nakatani, Satoshi; Sakai, Yoshiki; Daimon, Takashi; Okita, Yutaka; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2013-08-01

    Cardiac functional deterioration in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is known to be reversed by intramyocardial up-regulation of multiple cardioprotective factors, whereas a prostacyclin analog, ONO1301, has been shown to paracrinally activate interstitial cells to release a variety of protective factors. We here hypothesized that intramyocardial delivery of a slow-releasing form of ONO1301 (ONO1301SR) might activate regional myocardium to up-regulate cardiotherapeutic factors, leading to regional and global functional recovery in DCM. ONO1301 elevated messenger RNA and protein level of hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and stromal-derived factor-1 of normal human dermal fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Intramyocardial delivery of ONO1301SR, which is ONO1301 mixed with polylactic and glycolic acid polymer (PLGA), but not that of PLGA only, yielded significant global functional recovery in a canine rapid pacing-induced DCM model, assessed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization (n = 5 each). Importantly, speckle-tracking echocardiography unveiled significant regional functional recovery in the ONO1301-delivered territory, consistent to significantly increased vascular density, reduced interstitial collagen accumulation, attenuated myocyte hypertrophy, and reversed mitochondrial structure in the corresponding area. Intramyocardial delivery of ONO1301SR, which is a PLGA-coated slow-releasing form of ONO1301, up-regulated multiple cardiotherapeutic factors in the injected territory, leading to region-specific reverse left ventricular remodeling and consequently a global functional recovery in a rapid-pacing-induced canine DCM model, warranting a further preclinical study to optimize this novel drug-delivery system to treat DCM. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  6. Hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry for highly rapid and sensitive analysis of underivatized amino acids in functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guisheng; Pang, Hanqing; Tang, Yuping; Yao, Xin; Mo, Xuan; Zhu, Shaoqing; Guo, Sheng; Qian, Dawei; Qian, Yefei; Su, Shulan; Zhang, Li; Jin, Chun; Qin, Yong; Duan, Jin-ao

    2013-05-01

    This work presented a new analytical methodology based on hydrophilic interaction ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry in multiple-reaction monitoring mode for analysis of 24 underivatized free amino acids (FAAs) in functional foods. The proposed method was first reported and validated by assessing the matrix effects, linearity, limit of detections and limit of quantifications, precision, repeatability, stability and recovery of all target compounds, and it was used to determine the nutritional substances of FAAs in ginkgo seeds and further elucidate the nutritional value of this functional food. The result showed that ginkgo seed turned out to be a good source of FAAs with high levels of several essential FAAs and to have a good nutritional value. Furthermore, the principal component analysis was performed to classify the ginkgo seed samples on the basis of 24 FAAs. As a result, the samples could be mainly clustered into three groups, which were similar to areas classification. Overall, the presented method would be useful for the investigation of amino acids in edible plants and agricultural products.

  7. Rapid extraction and quantitative detection of the herbicide diuron in surface water by a hapten-functionalized carbon nanotubes based electrochemical analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Bhalla, Vijayender; Tuteja, Satish; Kukkar, Manil; Suri, C Raman

    2012-05-21

    A solid phase extraction micro-cartridge containing a non-polar polystyrene absorbent matrix was coupled with an electrochemical immunoassay analyzer (EIA) and used for the ultra-sensitive detection of the phenyl urea herbicide diuron in real samples. The EIA was fabricated by using carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with a hapten molecule (an amine functionalized diuron derivative). Screen printed electrodes (SPE) were modified with these haptenized CNTs and specific in-house generated anti diuron antibodies were used for bio-interface development. The immunodetection was realized in a competitive electrochemical immunoassay format using alkaline phosphatase labeled secondary anti-IgG antibody. The addition of 1-naphthyl phosphate substrate resulted in the production of an electrochemically active product, 1-naphthol, which was monitored by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity and specificity having a dynamic response range of 0.01 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) for diuron with a limit of detection of around 0.1 pg mL(-1) (n = 3) in standard water samples. The micro-cartridge coupled hapten-CNTs modified SPE provided an effective and efficient electrochemical immunoassay for the real-time monitoring of pesticides samples with a very high degree of sensitivity.

  8. Screening for impaired renal function in outpatients before iodinated contrast injection: Comparing the Choyke questionnaire with a rapid point-of-care-test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Too, C.W., E-mail: toochowwei@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Ng, W.Y., E-mail: ng.wai.yoong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Pathology, Singapore General Hospital, 20 College Road, Academia, Singapore 169856 (Singapore); Tan, C.C., E-mail: tan.chin.chong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Mahmood, M.I., E-mail: muhd.illyyas.mahmood@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore); Tay, K.H., E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Road, Singapore 169608 (Singapore)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Iodinated intravenous contrast carries a low risk of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). • Patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} are particularly at risk for CIN. • The Choyke questionnaire is used to screen for impaired renal function in outpatients. • Choyke questionnaire is a good screening tool for eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. • Point of care test (POCT) for serum creatinine can reduce waiting time. - Abstract: Rationale and purpose: To determine the usefulness of the Choyke questionnaire with a creatinine point-of-care test (POCT) to detect impaired renal function amongst outpatients receiving intravenous iodinated contrast in a tertiary centre. Materials and methods: Between July and December 2012, 1361 outpatients had their serum creatinine determined by POCT and answered the Chokye questionnaire just before their examination. Results: Four hundred and eighty (35.2%) patients had at least one ‘Yes’ response. Forty-four patients (3.2%) had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} and 14 patients (1.0%) have eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the Choyke criteria in detecting patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} are respectively: 65.9%, 65.8%, 6.0% and 98.3% and to detect eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}: 92.9%, 65.3%, 2.7% and 99.9%. Only ‘Yes’ responses to ‘Have you ever been told you have renal problems?’ and ‘Do you have diabetes mellitus?’ were statistically significant in predicting eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, with odds ratio 98.7 and 4.4 respectively. Conclusion: The Choyke questionnaire has excellent sensitivity and moderate-to-good specificity in detecting patients with <45 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, below this level it has been shown that risk of contrast induced nephropathy increases significantly, making it an effective screening tool. Also the use of POCT can potentially

  9. Screening for impaired renal function in outpatients before iodinated contrast injection: Comparing the Choyke questionnaire with a rapid point-of-care-test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Too, C.W.; Ng, W.Y.; Tan, C.C.; Mahmood, M.I.; Tay, K.H.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Iodinated intravenous contrast carries a low risk of contrast induced nephropathy (CIN). • Patients with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 are particularly at risk for CIN. • The Choyke questionnaire is used to screen for impaired renal function in outpatients. • Choyke questionnaire is a good screening tool for eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . • Point of care test (POCT) for serum creatinine can reduce waiting time. - Abstract: Rationale and purpose: To determine the usefulness of the Choyke questionnaire with a creatinine point-of-care test (POCT) to detect impaired renal function amongst outpatients receiving intravenous iodinated contrast in a tertiary centre. Materials and methods: Between July and December 2012, 1361 outpatients had their serum creatinine determined by POCT and answered the Chokye questionnaire just before their examination. Results: Four hundred and eighty (35.2%) patients had at least one ‘Yes’ response. Forty-four patients (3.2%) had estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 14 patients (1.0%) have eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the Choyke criteria in detecting patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 are respectively: 65.9%, 65.8%, 6.0% and 98.3% and to detect eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 : 92.9%, 65.3%, 2.7% and 99.9%. Only ‘Yes’ responses to ‘Have you ever been told you have renal problems?’ and ‘Do you have diabetes mellitus?’ were statistically significant in predicting eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , with odds ratio 98.7 and 4.4 respectively. Conclusion: The Choyke questionnaire has excellent sensitivity and moderate-to-good specificity in detecting patients with <45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , below this level it has been shown that risk of contrast induced nephropathy increases significantly, making it an effective screening tool. Also the use of POCT can potentially reduce waiting time

  10. Decreased cerebral blood flow and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease. A multicenter HMPAO-SPECT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Hashikawa, Kazuo; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for evaluating the severity and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Eighty-four AD patients were included. At entry, 99m Tc-HMPAO-SPECT, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mental Function Impairment Scale (MENFIS), and the Raven Colored Progression Matrix (RCPM) were performed for all 84 patients. During the follow-up periods, two individual MMSE evaluations in 34 patients, two MENFIS evaluations in 30 patients, and two RCPM evaluations in 20 patients were performed. Based on the regions of decreased cerebral blood flow demonstrated on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) images of SPECT, the cases were classified as type A (no decrease), type B (decreased blood flow in the parietal or temporal lobe), type C (decreased blood flow in the frontal lobe and parietal or temporal lobe), type Pc (decreased blood flow in posterior cingulate gyrus only), and ''other types''. The types of decreased blood flow, scores on neuropsychological evaluations, and symptom progression were analyzed. The MENFIS, MMSE, and RCPM scores were poorest in type C patients at entry. The degree of decrease of these scores during the follow-up periods was also greatest in type C. The greatest difference between patients with and without rapid progression in SPECT data of the mild AD patients (MMSE score≥24) was in the frontal lobe. Decreased blood flow in the frontal lobe of AD patients is correlated not only with reduced cognitive function at the time of the evaluation but with rapid progression in the subsequent clinical course. (author)

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  13. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Ranky, Richard G; Sivak, Mark L; Patritti, Benjamin L; DiPisa, Joseph; Caddle, Alyssa; Gilhooly, Kara; Govoni, Lauren; Sivak, Seth; Lancia, Michael; Drillio, Robert; Bonato, Paolo

    2011-01-12

    Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait). The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.

  14. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivak Seth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait. The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.

  15. High resolution modelling of the decreasing Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K. S.; Rasmussen, T. A. S.; Blüthgen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has been rapidly decreasing and thinning over the last decade, with minimum ice extent in 2007 and almost as low extent in 2011. This study investigates two aspects of the decreasing ice cover; first the large scale thinning and changing dynamics of the polar sea ice, and...

  16. Tol2 transposon-mediated transgenesis in the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus) - towards understanding gene function and regulatory evolution in an ecological model system for rapid phenotypic diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, Claudius F; Sefton, Maggie M; Liang, Yipeng; Meyer, Axel

    2017-11-23

    The Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) is widely known among evolutionary biologists as a model system for sympatric speciation and adaptive phenotypic divergence within extremely short periods of time (a few hundred generations). The repeated parallel evolution of adaptive phenotypes in this radiation, combined with their near genetic identity, makes them an excellent model for studying phenotypic diversification. While many ecological and evolutionary studies have been performed on Midas cichlids, the molecular basis of specific phenotypes, particularly adaptations, and their underlying coding and cis-regulatory changes have not yet been studied thoroughly. For the first time in any New World cichlid, we use Tol2 transposon-mediated transgenesis in the Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellus). By adapting existing microinjection protocols, we established an effective protocol for transgenesis in Midas cichlids. Embryos were injected with a Tol2 plasmid construct that drives enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expression under the control of the ubiquitin promoter. The transgene was successfully integrated into the germline, driving strong ubiquitous expression of eGFP in the first transgenic Midas cichlid line. Additionally, we show transient expression of two further transgenic constructs, ubiquitin::tdTomato and mitfa::eGFP. Transgenesis in Midas cichlids will facilitate further investigation of the genetic basis of species-specific traits, many of which are adaptations. Transgenesis is a versatile tool not only for studying regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, but also for testing gene function through overexpression of allelic gene variants. As such, it is an important first step in establishing the Midas cichlid as a powerful model for studying adaptive coding and non-coding changes in an ecological and evolutionary context.

  17. Accelerated increase and decrease in subjective age as a function of changes in loneliness and objective social indicators over a four-year period: results from the health and retirement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Palgi, Yuval; Avidor, Sharon; Bodner, Ehud

    2016-07-01

    The study examined the role of changes in loneliness and objective social indicators in the formation of changes in subjective age over a four-year period. The Health and Retirement Study is a US nationally representative study of older adults over 50 and their spouse of any age. We restricted the sample to individuals, 65 years of age and older (n = 2591). An accelerated increase in subjective age was defined as an increase in subjective age over the two waves greater than five years. An accelerated decrease in subjective age was defined as a difference that was lower than three years. These were examined against a change in subjective age in the range of three to five years (i.e., change consistent with the passage of time). For 23.4% of the sample, changes in subjective age were consistent with the passage of time. A total of 38.3% had an accelerated decrease in subjective age, whereas 38.3% had an accelerated increase. A decrease in loneliness over the two waves resulted in an accelerated decrease in subjective age, whereas an increase in depressive symptoms resulted in an accelerated increase in subjective age. Changes in objective social indicators, physical difficulties or medical comorbidity did not predict changes in subjective age. This is one of very few studies that examined changes in subjective age over time. Changes in subjective age represent an important construct that corresponding to other changes in subjective experiences.

  18. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) and Yellow-vented bulbul ( Pycnonotus goiavier ) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  19. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Najihah M. Nor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines. The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such

  20. SCARDEC: a new technique for the rapid determination of seismic moment magnitude, focal mechanism and source time functions for large earthquakes using body-wave deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, M.; Charléty, J.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Delouis, B.; Vergoz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate and fast magnitude determination for large, shallow earthquakes is of key importance for post-seismic response and tsumami alert purposes. When no local real-time data are available, which is today the case for most subduction earthquakes, the first information comes from teleseismic body waves. Standard body-wave methods give accurate magnitudes for earthquakes up to Mw= 7-7.5. For larger earthquakes, the analysis is more complex, because of the non-validity of the point-source approximation and of the interaction between direct and surface-reflected phases. The latter effect acts as a strong high-pass filter, which complicates the magnitude determination. We here propose an automated deconvolutive approach, which does not impose any simplifying assumptions about the rupture process, thus being well adapted to large earthquakes. We first determine the source duration based on the length of the high frequency (1-3 Hz) signal content. The deconvolution of synthetic double-couple point source signals—depending on the four earthquake parameters strike, dip, rake and depth—from the windowed real data body-wave signals (including P, PcP, PP, SH and ScS waves) gives the apparent source time function (STF). We search the optimal combination of these four parameters that respects the physical features of any STF: causality, positivity and stability of the seismic moment at all stations. Once this combination is retrieved, the integration of the STFs gives directly the moment magnitude. We apply this new approach, referred as the SCARDEC method, to most of the major subduction earthquakes in the period 1990-2010. Magnitude differences between the Global Centroid Moment Tensor (CMT) and the SCARDEC method may reach 0.2, but values are found consistent if we take into account that the Global CMT solutions for large, shallow earthquakes suffer from a known trade-off between dip and seismic moment. We show by modelling long-period surface waves of these events that

  1. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M. A.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Oliveira, E. G. de

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in pAu and pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio R pA considering transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities when compared with the already known forward ones, since it is related with the large x kinematical region that is being probed. The rapidity dependence of the nuclear modification ratio in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken x behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio R F 2 =F 2 A /F 2 p . The R pA transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large x nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio R pA is reduced as p T increases, presenting an opposite behavior when compared with the forward one. It implies that the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry information of the nuclear effects at large Bjorken x, as well as that it is useful to investigate the p T dependence of the observables in this kinematical regime

  2. On the rapid melt quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usatyuk, I.I.; Novokhatskij, I.A.; Kaverin, Yu.F.

    1994-01-01

    Specific features of instrumentation of traditionally employed method of melt spinning (rapid quenching), its disadvantages being discussed, were analyzed. The necessity of the method upgrading as applied to the problems of studying fine structure of molten metals and glasses was substantiated. The principle flowsheet of experimental facility for extremely rapid quenching of the melts of metals is described, specificity of its original functional units being considered. The sequence and character of all the principal stages of the method developed were discussed. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  3. Determination of the exposition rapidity in the level 49.90 of the reactor building for the decrease in the water level of the spent fuel pool; Determinacion de la rapidez de exposion en el nivel 49.90 del edificio del reactor por la disminucion en el nivel de agua de la alberca de combustible gastado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijangos D, Z. E.; Herrera H, S. F.; Cruz G, M. A.; Amador C, C., E-mail: zoedelfin@gmail.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Subgerencia de Ingenieria, Km 44.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91476 Laguna Verde, Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The fuel assemblies storage in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-L V) represents a crucial aspect, due to the generated dose by the decay heat of the present radio-nuclides in the assemblies retired of the reactor core, after their useful life. These spent assemblies are located inside the spent fuel pool (SFP), in the level 49.90 m in the Reload Floor of the Reactor building of NPP-L V. This leads to the protection at personnel applying the ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) criteria, fulfilling the established dose criteria by the Regulator Body the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS). Considering the loss scenario of the cooling system of the SFP, in which the SFP water vaporizes, is important to know the water level in which the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled for the personnel. Also, is important for the instrumentation of the SFP, for the useful life of the same instruments. In this work is obtained the exposition rapidity corresponding to different water levels of SFP in the Reload Floor of NPP-L V, to identify the minimum level of water where the limit of effective dose equivalent is fulfilled of 25 rem s to the personnel, established in the Article 48 of the General Regulation of Radiological Safety of CNSNS and the Chapter 50 Section 67 of the 10-Cfr of Nuclear Regulatory Commission in USA. The water level is also identified where the exposition rapidity is of 15 m R/hr, being the value of the set point of the area radiation monitor D21-Re-N003-1, located to 125 cm over the level 49.90 meters of the Reload Floor of NPP-L V. (Author)

  4. Leaf-like dislocation substructures and the decrease of martensitic start temperatures: A new explanation for functional fatigue during thermally induced martensitic transformations in coarse-grained Ni-rich Ti–Ni shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jian; Somsen, Christoph; Simon, Tobias; Ding Xiangdong; Hou Sen; Ren Shuai; Ren Xiaobing; Eggeler, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    During repeatedly imposed thermally induced martensitic transformations in Ti–Ni shape memory alloys, the martensite start temperature M s decreases. This has been rationalized on the basis of a scenario where an increasing dislocation density makes it more and more difficult for martensite to form. However, it is not clear why dislocations which form because they accommodate the growth of martensite during the first cooling cycle should act as obstacles during subsequent transformation cycles. In the present work we use diffraction contrast transmission electron microscopy to monitor the formation of unique leaf-like dislocation substructures which form as the martensite start temperature decreases during thermal cycling. We interpret our microstructural results on the basis of a microstructural scenario where dislocations play different roles with respect to the propagation of a big martensite needle in one transformation cycle and the nucleation and growth of new martensite needles in the following cycles. As a consequence, chestnut-leaf-like dislocation arrays spread out in different crystallographic directions.

  5. RAPID TRANSFER ALIGNMENT USING FEDERATED KALMAN FILTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUDong-qing; QINYong-yuan; PENGRong; LIXin

    2005-01-01

    The dimension number of the centralized Kalman filter (CKF) for the rapid transfer alignment (TA) is as high as 21 if the aircraft wing flexure motion is considered in the rapid TA. The 21-dimensional CKF brings the calculation burden on the computer and the difficulty to meet a high filtering updating rate desired by rapid TA. The federated Kalman filter (FKF) for the rapid TA is proposed to solve the dilemma. The structure and the algorithm of the FKF, which can perform parallel computation and has less calculation burden, are designed.The wing flexure motion is modeled, and then the 12-order velocity matching local filter and the 15-order attitud ematching local filter are devised. Simulation results show that the proposed EKE for the rapid TA almost has the same performance as the CKF. Thus the calculation burden of the proposed FKF for the rapid TA is markedly decreased.

  6. Azimuthal angle correlations at large rapidities. Revisiting density variation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Cientifico-Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2017-11-15

    We discuss the angular correlation present in hadron-hadron collisions at large rapidity difference (anti α{sub S}y{sub 12} >> 1). We find that in the CGC/saturation approach the largest contribution stems from the density variation mechanism. Our principal results are that the odd Fourier harmonics (v{sub 2n+1}) decrease substantially as a function of y{sub 12}, while the even harmonics (v{sub 2n}) increase considerably with the growth of y{sub 12}. (orig.)

  7. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Packard, Chris J

    2011-01-17

    Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid) study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666) recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis) and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father\\'s occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding) and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P < 0.0001) but not number of siblings and leg length. Lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and cognition (Choice Reaction Time, the Stroop test, Auditory Verbal Learning Test) were likewise related to early life conditions (P < 0.001). In multivariate models inclusion of inflammatory variables reduced the impact and independence of early life conditions on lung function and measures of cognitive ability. Including variables of adult socioeconomic status attenuated the early life associations with disease biomarkers. Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father\\'s occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the \\'health divide\\' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  8. Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation in sarcopenic elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Klersy, Catherine; Terracol, Gilles; Talluri, Jacopo; Maugeri, Roberto; Guido, Davide; Faliva, Milena A; Solerte, Bruno S; Fioravanti, Marisa; Lukaski, Henry; Perna, Simone

    2016-03-01

    Interventions to attenuate the adverse effects of age-related loss of skeletal muscle and function include increased physical activity and nutritional supplementation. This study tested the hypothesis that nutritional supplementation with whey protein (22 g), essential amino acids (10.9 g, including 4 g leucine), and vitamin D [2.5 μg (100 IU)] concurrent with regular, controlled physical activity would increase fat-free mass, strength, physical function, and quality of life, and reduce the risk of malnutrition in sarcopenic elderly persons. A total of 130 sarcopenic elderly people (53 men and 77 women; mean age: 80.3 y) participated in a 12-wk randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled supplementation trial. All participants concurrently took part in a controlled physical activity program. We examined body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength with a handgrip dynamometer, and blood biochemical indexes of nutritional and health status, and evaluated global nutritional status, physical function, and quality of life before and after the 12 wk of intervention. Compared with physical activity and placebo, supplementation plus physical activity increased fat-free mass (1.7-kg gain, P nutritional assessment (P = 0.003), and insulin-like growth factor I (P = 0.002), and lowered C-reactive protein (P = 0.038). Supplementation with whey protein, essential amino acids, and vitamin D, in conjunction with age-appropriate exercise, not only boosts fat-free mass and strength but also enhances other aspects that contribute to well-being in sarcopenic elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02402608. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Augmented β-Cell Function and Mass in Glucocorticoid-Treated Rodents Are Associated with Increased Islet Ir-β/AKT/mTOR and Decreased AMPK/ACC and AS160 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André O. P. Protzek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC therapies may adversely cause insulin resistance (IR that lead to a compensatory hyperinsulinemia due to insulin hypersecretion. The increased β-cell function is associated with increased insulin signaling that has the protein kinase B (AKT substrate with 160 kDa (AS160 as an important downstream AKT effector. In muscle, both insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling phosphorylate and inactivate AS160, which favors the glucose transporter (GLUT-4 translocation to plasma membrane. Whether AS160 phosphorylation is modulated in islets from GC-treated subjects is unknown. For this, two animal models, Swiss mice and Wistar rats, were treated with dexamethasone (DEX (1 mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days. DEX treatment induced IR, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia in both species, but glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia only in rats. DEX treatment caused increased insulin secretion in response to glucose and augmented β-cell mass in both species that were associated with increased islet content and increased phosphorylation of the AS160 protein. Protein AKT phosphorylation, but not AMPK phosphorylation, was found significantly enhanced in islets from DEX-treated animals. We conclude that the augmented β-cell function developed in response to the GC-induced IR involves inhibition of the islet AS160 protein activity.

  10. Airplane radiation dose decrease during a strong Forbush decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Kudela, K.; Dachev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, S05001 (2004), s. 1-4 ISSN 1542-7390 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : airplane dose * Forbush decrease * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  11. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  12. Numerology on pion and proton rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugelot, P.C.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudo-rapidity of pion jets which were measured for 50 GeV and 150 GeV incident pions and protons on carbon, copper and lead targets is analysed. The shape of the rapidity distribution for a ''fireball'' which emits particles isotropically in its center of mass is a cosh -2 y distribution. It is possible to unfold all measured distributions into three groups which correspond to a low rapidity originating from the target fragmentation, a middle group which is a function of the center of mass of the projectile and target rapidity and a fast group which is due to the projectile. 11 refs., 8 figs. (author)

  13. Early life socioeconomic adversity is associated in adult life with chronic inflammation, carotid atherosclerosis, poorer lung function and decreased cognitive performance: a cross-sectional, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattar Naveed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic gradients in health persist despite public health campaigns and improvements in healthcare. The Psychosocial and Biological Determinants of Ill-health (pSoBid study was designed to uncover novel biomarkers of chronic disease that may help explain pathways between socioeconomic adversity and poorer physical and mental health. Methods We examined links between indicators of early life adversity, possible intermediary phenotypes, and markers of ill health in adult subjects (n = 666 recruited from affluent and deprived areas. Classical and novel risk factors for chronic disease (lung function and atherosclerosis and for cognitive performance were assessed, and associations sought with early life variables including conditions in the parental home, family size and leg length. Results Associations were observed between father's occupation, childhood home status (owner-occupier; overcrowding and biomarkers of chronic inflammation and endothelial activation in adults (C reactive protein, interleukin 6, intercellular adhesion molecule; P P Conclusions Adverse levels of biomarkers of ill health in adults appear to be influenced by father's occupation and childhood home conditions. Chronic inflammation and endothelial activation may in part act as intermediary phenotypes in this complex relationship. Reducing the 'health divide' requires that these life course determinants are taken into account.

  14. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  15. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  16. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  17. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis reveal a rapid expansion and functional divergence of duplicated genes in the WRKY gene family of cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qiu-Yang; Xia, En-Hua; Liu, Fei-Hu; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2015-02-15

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs), one of the ten largest TF families in higher plants, play important roles in regulating plant development and resistance. To date, little is known about the WRKY TF family in Brassica oleracea. Recently, the completed genome sequence of cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata) allows us to systematically analyze WRKY genes in this species. A total of 148 WRKY genes were characterized and classified into seven subgroups that belong to three major groups. Phylogenetic and synteny analyses revealed that the repertoire of cabbage WRKY genes was derived from a common ancestor shared with Arabidopsis thaliana. The B. oleracea WRKY genes were found to be preferentially retained after the whole-genome triplication (WGT) event in its recent ancestor, suggesting that the WGT event had largely contributed to a rapid expansion of the WRKY gene family in B. oleracea. The analysis of RNA-Seq data from various tissues (i.e., roots, stems, leaves, buds, flowers and siliques) revealed that most of the identified WRKY genes were positively expressed in cabbage, and a large portion of them exhibited patterns of differential and tissue-specific expression, demonstrating that these gene members might play essential roles in plant developmental processes. Comparative analysis of the expression level among duplicated genes showed that gene expression divergence was evidently presented among cabbage WRKY paralogs, indicating functional divergence of these duplicated WRKY genes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  20. Risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannie D. Lochhead

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  1. Magical thinking decreases across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Nadia M; Multhaup, Kristi S

    2017-12-01

    Magical thinking, or illogical causal reasoning such as superstitions, decreases across childhood, but almost no data speak to whether this developmental trajectory continues across the life span. In four experiments, magical thinking decreased across adulthood. This pattern replicated across two judgment domains and could not be explained by age-related differences in tolerance of ambiguity, domain-specific knowledge, or search for meaning. These data complement and extend findings that experience, accumulated over decades, guides older adults' judgments so that they match, or even exceed, young adults' performance. They also counter participants' expectations, and cultural sayings (e.g., "old wives' tales"), that suggest that older adults are especially superstitious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  3. RAPID3 scores and hand outcome measurements in RA patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorolli, Merita; Hundozi-Hysenaj, Hajrije; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rehxepi, Blerta; Grazio, Simeon

    2017-06-01

    The Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) is a patient-reported disease activity measure used to assess physical function, pain, and global health in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) without formal joint counts. Since hand involvement and its decreased function are hallmarks of RA, the aim of our study was to investigate the performance of RAPID3 scores with regard to hand function and to confirm previous findings that the RAPID3 score as a disease activity measure is strongly correlated with the DAS28 score. Sixty-eight consecutive patients with RA (85% female), aged 18-75 years, were included in the study and were recruited during their outpatient visit. Apart from demographic and clinical data, the obtained parameters of interest included RAPID3 scores and assessments of the function of the hand, namely, the signal of functional impairment (SOFI)-hand, grip strength, and pulp-to-palm distance, as well the Health Assessment Questionnaire- Disability Index (HAQ-DI) and DAS28 scores. Pearson's correlation coefficient, Student's t test and linear regression were used in the statistical analysis of the results. The significance was set to p < 0.05. A positive correlation was found between RAPID3 scores and HAQ-DI scores, SOFI-hand scores, and pulp-to-palm distance, and negative correlation was observed between RAPID3 scores and grip strength. The order regarding the strength of correlations between RAPID3 scores and other variables (from the strongest to the weakest) was as follows: HAQ-DI, grip strength, SOFI-hand and pulp-to-palm distance. The hand assessment variables had stronger correlations with RAPID3 scores than with DAS28 scores. Our preliminary study showed that RAPID3 scores were strongly correlated with measurements of the functional ability of the hand, demonstrating that RAPID3 can be used as a measure of disease activity in clinical practice and to characterize hand function. Further studies are needed to confirm this result.

  4. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 allows efficient and complete knock-in of a destabilization domain-tagged essential protein in a human cell line, allowing rapid knockdown of protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Arnold; Won, Sohui T; Pentecost, Mickey; Bartkowski, Wojciech; Lee, Benhur

    2014-01-01

    Although modulation of protein levels is an important tool for study of protein function, it is difficult or impossible to knockdown or knockout genes that are critical for cell growth or viability. For such genes, a conditional knockdown approach would be valuable. The FKBP protein-based destabilization domain (DD)-tagging approach, which confers instability to the tagged protein in the absence of the compound Shield-1, has been shown to provide rapid control of protein levels determined by Shield-1 concentration. Although a strategy to knock-in DD-tagged protein at the endogenous loci has been employed in certain parasite studies, partly due to the relative ease of knock-in as a result of their mostly haploid lifecycles, this strategy has not been demonstrated in diploid or hyperploid mammalian cells due to the relative difficulty of achieving complete knock-in in all alleles. The recent advent of CRISPR/Cas9 homing endonuclease-mediated targeted genome cleavage has been shown to allow highly efficient homologous recombination at the targeted locus. We therefore assessed the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 to achieve complete knock-in to DD-tag the essential gene Treacher Collins-Franceschetti syndrome 1 (TCOF1) in human 293T cells. Using a double antibiotic selection strategy to select clones with at least two knock-in alleles, we obtained numerous complete knock-in clones within three weeks of initial transfection. DD-TCOF1 expression in the knock-in cells was Shield-1 concentration-dependent, and removal of Shield-1 resulted in destabilization of DD-TCOF1 over the course of hours. We further confirmed that the tagged TCOF1 retained the nucleolar localization of the wild-type untagged protein, and that destabilization of DD-TCOF1 resulted in impaired cell growth, as expected for a gene implicated in ribosome biogenesis. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated homologous recombination to completely knock-in a DD tag likely represents a generalizable and efficient strategy to

  6. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  7. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  8. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  9. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  10. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  11. Decreasing Multicollinearity: A Method for Models with Multiplicative Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kent W.; Sasaki, M. S.

    1979-01-01

    A method is proposed for overcoming the problem of multicollinearity in multiple regression equations where multiplicative independent terms are entered. The method is not a ridge regression solution. (JKS)

  12. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  13. Method of decreasing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily attain the power decreasing in a HWLWR type reactor and improve the reactor safety. Method: The method is applied to a nuclear reactor in which the reactor reactivity is controlled by control rods and liquid posions dissolved in moderators. Means for forecasting the control rod operation amount required for the reactor power down and means for removing liquid poisons in the moderators are provided. The control rod operation amount required for the power down is forecast before the power down and the liquid poisons in the moderators are removed. Then, the control rods are inserted into a deep insertion position to reduce the reactor power. This invention can facilitate easy power down, as well as provide effects of improving the controllability in the usual operation and of avoiding abrupt power down which leads to an improved availability. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Giovannini, A.; Ugoccioni, R.

    1995-01-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  15. Clan structure analysis and rapidity gap probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Giovannini, A. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Ugoccioni, R. [Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica Teorica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy)

    1995-03-01

    Clan structure analysis in rapidity intervals is generalized from negative binomial multiplicity distribution to the wide class of compound Poisson distributions. The link of generalized clan structure analysis with correlation functions is also established. These theoretical results are then applied to minimum bias events and evidentiate new interesting features, which can be inspiring and useful in order to discuss data on rapidity gap probability at TEVATRON and HERA. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation rapide du coût d'un investissement: méthode des modules fonctionnels Quick Evaluation of the Cost of an Investment: the Functional Module Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergman J.

    2006-11-01

    'aide d'abaques. Conçue pour être appliquée lors des étapes préliminaires du développement d'un procédé, ou pour l'obtention d'une évaluation rapide, la Méthode des Modules Fonctionnels s'est avérée suffisamment précise pour être aussi utilisée dans l'estimation du coût d'équipements préalablement dimensionnés. The application of statistical multivariate data analysismethods to a wide range of data samples, obtained either directly from private information sources or from a sizing and detailed-estimation software, has led to the development of a new method for the quick evaluation of the cost of an investment. This method is called the Functional Module Method. In the past, several so-called modular design procedures have been proposed. In the present case, however, this is the first attempt known in the field of the use of techniques such as principal-components analysis, principal factor analysis by distance table and multiple linear regression, to develop a modular structure for estimating the cost of an investment. These changes compared to the modular procedure, which has been used to date by the IFP Project Evaluation Department (Manuel d'évaluation économique des procédés, Editions Technip, Paris, 1976, concern the definition and organization of modules capable of being identified in any chemical processing plant. The functional approach in this lcase is based on the unit operating concept of chemical engineering and no longer on a pre-specified equipment basis, for example, so that the so-called functional modules can be created. All that needs to be used is a process flowsheet indicating the principal pieces of equipment; the nature of the products processed; a material balance that is at least overall, and if possible that. is detailed for the essential lines; the mean operating conditions. The results may be obtained either via equations capable of being programmed on a pocket calculator or by using charts, as is described here. The

  17. Decreased Ebola Transmission after Rapid Response to Outbreaks in Remote Areas, Liberia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblade, Kim A; Kateh, Francis; Nagbe, Thomas K; Neatherlin, John C; Pillai, Satish K; Attfield, Kathleen R; Dweh, Emmanuel; Barradas, Danielle T; Williams, Seymour G; Blackley, David J; Kirking, Hannah L; Patel, Monita R; Dea, Monica; Massoudi, Mehran S; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Barskey, Albert E; Zarecki, Shauna L Mettee; Fomba, Moses; Grube, Steven; Belcher, Lisa; Broyles, Laura N; Maxwell, T Nikki; Hagan, Jose E; Yeoman, Kristin; Westercamp, Matthew; Forrester, Joseph; Mott, Joshua; Mahoney, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; DeCock, Kevin M; Nyenswah, Tolbert

    2015-10-01

    We measured the reproduction number before and after interventions were implemented to reduce Ebola transmission in 9 outbreaks in Liberia during 2014. We evaluated risk factors for secondary cases and the association between patient admission to an Ebola treatment unit (ETU) and survival. The reproduction number declined 94% from 1.7 (95% CI 1.1-2.6) to 0.1 (95% CI 0.02-0.6) after interventions began. The risk for secondary infections was 90% lower for patients admitted to an ETU (risk ratio 0.1, 95% CI 0.04-0.3) than for those who died in the community. The case-fatality rate was 68% (95% CI 60-74), and ETU admission was associated with a 50% reduction in death (hazard ratio 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.8). Isolation and treatment of Ebola patients had the dual benefit of interrupting community transmission and improving survival.

  18. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  19. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  1. MAIT cells launch a rapid, robust and distinct hyperinflammatory response to bacterial superantigens and quickly acquire an anergic phenotype that impedes their cognate antimicrobial function: Defining a novel mechanism of superantigen-induced immunopathology and immunosuppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Shaler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Superantigens (SAgs are potent exotoxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. They target a large fraction of T cell pools to set in motion a "cytokine storm" with severe and sometimes life-threatening consequences typically encountered in toxic shock syndrome (TSS. Given the rapidity with which TSS develops, designing timely and truly targeted therapies for this syndrome requires identification of key mediators of the cytokine storm's initial wave. Equally important, early host responses to SAgs can be accompanied or followed by a state of immunosuppression, which in turn jeopardizes the host's ability to combat and clear infections. Unlike in mouse models, the mechanisms underlying SAg-associated immunosuppression in humans are ill-defined. In this work, we have identified a population of innate-like T cells, called mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT cells, as the most powerful source of pro-inflammatory cytokines after exposure to SAgs. We have utilized primary human peripheral blood and hepatic mononuclear cells, mouse MAIT hybridoma lines, HLA-DR4-transgenic mice, MAIThighHLA-DR4+ bone marrow chimeras, and humanized NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull mice to demonstrate for the first time that: i mouse and human MAIT cells are hyperresponsive to SAgs, typified by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB; ii the human MAIT cell response to SEB is rapid and far greater in magnitude than that launched by unfractionated conventional T, invariant natural killer T (iNKT or γδ T cells, and is characterized by production of interferon (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-2, but not IL-17A; iii high-affinity MHC class II interaction with SAgs, but not MHC-related protein 1 (MR1 participation, is required for MAIT cell activation; iv MAIT cell responses to SEB can occur in a T cell receptor (TCR Vβ-specific manner but are largely contributed by IL-12 and IL-18; v as MAIT cells are primed by SAgs, they also begin to

  2. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  3. Rapid iconic erasure without masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijus, Charles Albert; Reeves, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We report on the erasure of the iconic memory of an array of 12 black letters flashed on a continuously- present white field. Erasure is accomplished by replacing the 16 ms letter array (frame 1) with a blank white frame for 16 ms (frame 2). The letter array returns in frame 3, with from one to six letters missing. Report of the missing letters is accurate without the blank white frame but is impoverished with it, as if interposing the blank erases the icon. Erasure occurs without any obvious luminance masking, 'mud splashes', pattern masking (backward, forward, or metacontrast), lateral masking, or masking by object substitution. Erasure is greatly decreased if the blank is presented one frame earlier or later. We speculate that erasure is due to a rapid reset of the icon produced by an informational mis-match.

  4. Age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastiya Indra Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Intractable epileptic adolescents have higher scores for physical functioning and health perception, but lower scores for social stigmatization. Social support has extremely low scores. Increasing age decreases quality of life in adolescents with intractable epilepsy.

  5. Rapidity and energy dependence of the electric charge correlations in A+A collisions from 20A to 158A GeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botje, M.A.J.; van Leeuwen, M.; Mischke, A.

    2007-01-01

    Results from electric charge correlations studied with the Balance Function (BF) method in A+A collisions from 20A to 158A GeV are presented in two different rapidity intervals: In the midrapidity region we observe a decrease of the width of the BF distribution with increasing centrality of the

  6. Rapidity and kT dependence of HBT correlations in Au+Au collisions at 200 GeV with PHOBOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzman, Burt; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    Two-particle correlations of identical charged pion pairs from Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_NN} = 200 GeV were measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. Data for the most central (0-15%) events were analysed with Bertsch-Pratt (BP) and Yano-Koonin-Podgoretskii (YKP) parametrizations using pairs with rapidities of 0.4 < y < 1.3 and transverse momenta 0.1 < kT < 1.4 GeV/c. The Bertsch-Pratt radii decrease as a function of pair transverse momentum. The pair rapidity Yππ roughly scales with the source rapidity YYKP, indicating strong dynamical correlations.

  7. Matrix model of information support of the leadership and functional services of the section of rapid information. Matrichnaya model' informatsionnogo obespecheniya rukovodstva i funktsional'nykh sluzhb razreza operativnoy informatsiey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zevina, V V; Katrichenko, A N

    1978-01-01

    A mathematical description is made of the matrix model for the rapid presenation of information in the automated control system of the production process of the section using the methods of the theory of relationships. The system of rapid control of the open pit is examined (in an informational aspect) as a set of numerous objects, enlarged indicators and conditions of indicators. The sets are described as frameworks, and the zones of the matrix as a framework for a composite of the aforementioned frameworks. Properties of the matrix, formation of zones and periodicity of presentation are described.

  8. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  9. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  10. Hyperglycemia of Diabetic Rats Decreased by a Glucagon Receptor Antagonist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David G.; Ulichny Goebel, Camy; Hruby, Victor J.; Bregman, Marvin D.; Trivedi, Dev

    1982-02-01

    The glucagon analog [l-Nα-trinitrophenylhistidine, 12-homoarginine]-glucagon (THG) was examined for its ability to lower blood glucose concentrations in rats made diabetic with streptozotocin. In vitro, THG is a potent antagonist of glucagon activation of the hepatic adenylate cyclase assay system. Intravenous bolus injections of THG caused rapid decreases (20 to 35 percent) of short duration in blood glucose. Continuous infusion of low concentrations of the inhibitor led to larger sustained decreases in blood glucose (30 to 65 percent). These studies demonstrate that a glucagon receptor antagonist can substantially reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic animals without addition of exogenous insulin.

  11. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  12. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  13. Music decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aggelakas, Angelos; Ioakeimidis, Nikolaos; Xaplanteris, Panagiotis; Terentes-Printzios, Dimitrios; Abdelrasoul, Mahmoud; Lazaros, George; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2015-05-01

    Music has been related to cardiovascular health and used as adjunct therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease. Aortic stiffness and wave reflections are predictors of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the short-term effect of classical and rock music on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Twenty healthy individuals (22.5±2.5 years) were studied on three different occasions and listened to a 30-min music track compilation (classical, rock, or no music for the sham procedure). Both classical and rock music resulted in a decrease of carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) immediately after the end of music listening (all pclassical or rock music in a more sustained way (nadir by 6.0% and 5.8%, respectively, at time zero post-music listening, all pmusic preference was taken into consideration, both classical and rock music had a more potent effect on PWV in classical aficionados (by 0.20 m/s, p=0.003 and 0.13 m/s, p=0.015, respectively), whereas there was no effect in rock aficionados (all p=NS). Regarding wave reflections, classical music led to a more potent response in classical aficionados (AIx decrease by 9.45%), whereas rock led to a more potent response to rock aficionados (by 10.7%, all pMusic, both classical and rock, decreases aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Effect on aortic stiffness lasts for as long as music is listened to, while classical music has a sustained effect on wave reflections. These findings may have important implications, extending the spectrum of lifestyle modifications that can ameliorate arterial function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.

    2004-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  15. Hippocampal volume is decreased in adults with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Gillian E; Mullally, Sinead; Correia, Neuman; O'Mara, Shane M; Gibney, James

    2014-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are important for the adult brain, particularly regions of the hippocampus including the dentate gyrus and CA1 and CA3 regions. The hippocampus is a thyroid hormone receptor-rich region of the brain involved in learning and memory. Consequently, alterations in thyroid hormone levels have been reported to impair hippocampal-associated learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. While these effects have been shown primarily in developing rats, as well as in adult rats, little is known about the effects in adult humans. There are currently no data regarding structural changes in the hippocampus as a result of adult-onset hypothyroidism. We aimed to establish whether hippocampal volume was reduced in patients with untreated adult-onset hypothyroidism compared to age-matched healthy controls. High-resolution magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MPRAGE) scans were performed on 11 untreated hypothyroid adults and 9 age-matched control subjects. Hypothyroidism was diagnosed based on increased levels of thyrotropin (TSH) and reduced levels of free thyroxine (fT4). Volumetric analysis of the right and left hippocampal regions, using functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (FMRIB) integrated registration and segmentation tool (FIRST), demonstrated significant volume reduction in the right hippocampus in the hypothyroid patients relative to the control group. These findings provide preliminary evidence that hypothyroidism results in structural deficits in the adult human brain. Decreases in volume in the right hippocampus were evident in patients with adult-onset overt hypothyroidism, supporting some of the findings in animal models.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid and other fatty acids induce a decrease in pHi in Jurkat T-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Aires, Virginie; Hichami, Aziz; Moutairou, Kabirou; Khan, Naim Akhtar

    2003-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) induced rapid (t1/2=33 s) and dose-dependent decreases in pHi in BCECF-loaded human (Jurkat) T-cells. Addition of 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride, an inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger, prolonged DHA-induced acidification as a function of time, indicating that the exchanger is implicated in pHi recovery.Other fatty acids like oleic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, but not palmitic acid, also induced a fall in pHi in these cells.To assess the role of calcium in t...

  17. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  20. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  1. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  2. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  3. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  4. Dietary fructo-oligosaccharides and inulin decrease resistance of rats to salmonelle: protective role of calcium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggencate, ten S.J.M.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Lettink-Wissink, M.L.G.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.

    2004-01-01

    Background: We have shown recently that rapid fermentable fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) decreased resistance of rats towards salmonella. It is not known whether inulin ( which is fermented more gradually) has similar effects or whether buffering nutrients can counteract the adverse effects of rapid

  5. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  6. Correlates of rapid neuroleptic response in male patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, E C; Faustman, W O; Moses, J A; Lombrozo, L; Csernansky, J G

    1990-08-01

    Correlates of neuroleptic response latency were assessed in 16 male schizophrenic inpatients during 4 weeks of fixed dose (20 mg/day) haloperidol treatment. Rapid responders showed a mean 40% reduction in Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) positive symptom scores by day 10 of treatment. Rapid responders had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations compared to non-rapid responders during week 4 of haloperidol treatment. However, rapid versus non-rapid responders did not differ with respect to demographics, baseline positive or negative BPRS symptom scores, performance on tests of neuropsychological function, or mean plasma haloperidol concentrations.

  7. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  8. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  9. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  11. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  12. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  17. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  18. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  19. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  20. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  1. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  2. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  3. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  4. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  5. Decreased lymphocyte dopamine transporter in romantic lovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Baroni, Stefano; Giannaccini, Gino; Piccinni, Armando; Mucci, Federico; Catena-Dell'Osso, Mario; Rutigliano, Grazia; Massimetti, Gabriele; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-06-01

    The role of dopamine (DA) in romantic love is suggested by different evidence and is supported by the findings of some brain imaging studies. The DA transporter (DAT) is a key structure in regulating the concentration of the neurotransmitter in the synaptic cleft. Given the presence of DAT in blood cells, the present study aimed to explore it in resting lymphocytes of 30 healthy subjects of both sexes in the early stage of romantic love (no longer than 6 months), as compared with 30 subjects involved in a long-lasting relationship. All subjects had no physical or psychiatric illness. The DAT was measured by means of the [3H]-WIN 35,428 binding and the [3H]-DA reuptake to resting lymphocytes membranes. Romantic love was assessed by a specific questionnaire developed by us. The results showed that the subjects in the early phase of romantic love had a global alteration of the lymphocyte DAT involving both a decreased number of proteins (Bmax) and a reduced functionality (Vmax). Taken together, these findings would indicate the presence of increased levels of DA in romantic love that, if paralleled by similar concentrations in the brain, would explain some peculiar features of this human feeling.

  6. Manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents by a rapid prototyping process chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knitter, R.; Bauer, W.; Goehring, D.; Hausselt, J.

    2001-01-01

    Manufacturing of new ceramic components may be improved significantly by the use of rapid prototyping processes especially in the development of miniaturized or micropatterned components. Most known generative ceramic molding processes do not provide a sufficient resolution for the fabrication of microstructured components. In contrast to this, a rapid prototyping process chain that for example, combines micro-stereolithography and low-pressure injection molding, allows the rapid manufacturing of ceramic microcomponents from functional models to preliminary or small-lot series. (orig.)

  7. Rapid clearance of iodine-131 MIBG from the heart and liver of patients with adrenergic dysfunction and pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, M.; Shimabukuro, K.; Miyaji, N.; Shimada, J.; Shirono, K.; Sakata, H.; Yoshimura, H.; Yonekura, R.; Shinohara, S.

    1985-01-01

    Iodine-131 MIBG, a radiolabeled adrenergic neuron-blocking agent, decreased rapidly from the heart and liver of patients with adrenergic dysfunction and pheochromocytoma when compared with eight controls. However, there was no significant difference in the rate of [ 131 I]MIBG decrease in these organs between controls and patients in the intervals subsequent to 4 hr. These findings suggest that adrenergic neuronal uptake of [ 131 I]MIBG in these organs is smaller in the patients than in the controls. Measurements of time-activity relationships of radioiodinated MIBG may be useful for assessment of adrenergic function of these organs and thus of generalized disorders of adrenergic innervation

  8. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  9. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  11. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  12. Decreased cisplatin uptake by resistant L1210 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromas, R.A.; North, J.A.; Burns, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance remains poorly understood compared to other forms of anti-neoplastic drug resistance. In this report radiolabelled cisplatin and rapid separation techniques were used to compare drug uptake by L1210 leukemia cells that are sensitive (K25) or resistant (SCR9) to cisplatin. Uptake of cisplatin by both cell lines was linear without saturation kinetics up to 100 μM. The resistant ZCR9 cells had 36-60% reduced drug uptake as compared to its sensitive parent line, K25. In contrast, there was no difference in the rate of efflux. We conclude that a decreased rate of uptake is one possible mechanism of cellular cisplatin resistance. (Author)

  13. Diminuição da função do músculo levantador da pálpebra superior em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de ptose palpebral involucional e dermatocálase Decrease of upper eyelid levator muscle function after involutional ptosis and dermatochalasis surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Forno

    2008-12-01

    eyes regarding UELMF, MDR1 and ECH. RESULTS: There was a statistical significant difference between the measures of UELMF before and after surgery with excursion decreasing by a mean value of 1.1 mm after the procedure (P0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Upper eyelid levator muscle function decreases after ptosis surgery.

  14. Rapidly Progressive Corticobasal Degeneration Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Herrero Valverde

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corticobasal syndrome (CBS has a heterogeneous clinical presentation with no specific pathologic substratum. Its accurate diagnosis is a challenge for neurologists; in order to establish CBS definitively, postmortem confirmation is required. Some clinical and radiological features can help to distinguish it from other neurodegenerative conditions, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. Clinical Case: A 74-year-old woman presented with language impairment, difficulty in walking and poor attentiveness that had begun 10 days before. Other symptoms, such as asymmetrical extra-pyramidal dysfunction, limb dystonia and ‘alien limb’ phenomena, were established over the next 2 months, with rapid progression. Death occurred 3 months after symptom onset. Laboratory results were normal. Initially, imaging only showed restricted diffusion with bilateral parieto-occipital gyri involvement on DWI-MRI, with unspecific EEG changes. An autopsy was performed. Brain neuropathology confirmed sporadic CJD (sCJD. Conclusions: CBS is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome whose differential diagnosis is extensive. CJD can occasionally present with clinical characteristics resembling CBS. MRI detection of abnormalities in some sequences (FLAIR, DWI, as previously reported, has high diagnostic utility for sCJD diagnosis – especially in early stages – when other tests can still appear normal. Abnormalities on DWI sequencing may not correlate with neuropathological findings, suggesting a functional basis to explain the changes found.

  15. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Modular Rapidly Manufactured SmallSat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilize advanced manufacturing processes to design and fabricate a fully functional prototype flight model, with the goal of demonstrating rapid on-orbit assembly of...

  16. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  17. Rapid nuclear reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.; Beer, G.

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the completion of blocks 3 and 4 in Mochovce were subject to some discussion, the building of a new unit at Jaslovske Bohunice has remained unnoticed. Not even environmentalists objected. And so far the plans to build a new power plant seem to have been approved without any major discussion about whether Slovakia really needs or does not need a new nuclear power unit. Political statements about a possible future shortage of electricity were enough. The plans of private companies to build their own power plants or the possibility of decreasing the use of energy by savings were disregarded. But a clear answer to the question whether this new power unit will generate electricity for export to other countries has not yet been given. But by the end of this year the government wants to decide whether the new power plant which will cost an estimated 100 billion Slovak crowns (3.3 billions EUR) will be built from public funds in tandem with a private investor or fully financed by private capital. The name of the private investor should become known by the end of this year. (authors)

  18. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  19. Decrease of the atmospheric co-rotation with height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrado, M; Pacheco, A F

    2010-01-01

    Considering our atmosphere as a steady viscous gaseous envelope that co-rotates with the Earth, we obtain a solution for the form in which this induced rotational effect decreases as a function of the distances to the centre of the Earth and to the rotation axis.

  20. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [nl

  1. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing