WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly changing situations

  1. A Situational Change Typology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart-Kotze, Robin

    1972-01-01

    The trainer or internal change agent in a firm undergoing an organizational development program may be instrumental in designing the implementation of a change strategy. Proposes a situational change typology which may be of use as a training instrument. (Author)

  2. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables between and within Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauthmann, John F; Sherman, Ryne A

    2015-01-01

    When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1) What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels)? (2) Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies) could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3) How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment)? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks.

  3. Situation Change: Stability and Change of Situation Variables Between and Within Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Rauthmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When, how, and why situations flow into one another is important for understanding dynamic personality processes, but the topic of situation change has traditionally been a thorny issue in personality/social psychology. We explore conceptual and methodological issues in research on situation change: (1 What is situation change, which variables could we measure, and how can situation change be methodologically captured and analyzed (at between- and within-person levels? (2 Which person-situation transaction mechanisms (situation management strategies could entail stability and change of situations in daily life? (3 How do single or repeated instances of situation change impact short-, middle-, and long-term outcomes (e.g., intra- and interpersonal adjustment? Besides laying out a research program for situation change, we present preliminary data from participants who wore mini-video cameras recording their situations so that they could be rated later in the lab. We demonstrate rater consensus on when situations change, mean-level changes of situation characteristics across situations, similarity of situation characteristics across adjacent situations, and inter-individual differences in intra-individual situation change in change networks.

  4. Applying Bayesian belief networks in rapid response situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, William L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deborah, Leishman, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Eeckhout, Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The authors have developed an enhanced Bayesian analysis tool called the Integrated Knowledge Engine (IKE) for monitoring and surveillance. The enhancements are suited for Rapid Response Situations where decisions must be made based on uncertain and incomplete evidence from many diverse and heterogeneous sources. The enhancements extend the probabilistic results of the traditional Bayesian analysis by (1) better quantifying uncertainty arising from model parameter uncertainty and uncertain evidence, (2) optimizing the collection of evidence to reach conclusions more quickly, and (3) allowing the analyst to determine the influence of the remaining evidence that cannot be obtained in the time allowed. These extended features give the analyst and decision maker a better comprehension of the adequacy of the acquired evidence and hence the quality of the hurried decisions. They also describe two example systems where the above features are highlighted.

  5. Rapid situation assessments of alcohol and substance use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To describe the current situation with respect to substance use and related harms among commercial vehicle drivers, and to identify a range of interventions that could be feasibly implemented to minimise harms related to substance use. Study design: Observational and group interviews. Setting: Four different ...

  6. New procedure for declaring changes in family and personal situation

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    On taking up their appointment, Members of the Personnel (employed and associated) are required to provide official documents as evidence of their family situation. Any subsequent change in their personal situation, or that of their family members, must be declared in writing to the Organization within 30 calendar days.   As part of their efforts to simplify procedures, the Administrative Processes Section (DG-RPC-PA) and the HR and GS Departments have produced a new EDH form entitled “Change of family and personal situation", which must be used to declare the following changes: birth or adoption of a child; marriage; divorce; entry into a civil partnership officially registered in a Member State; dissolution of such a partnership; change of name; change of nationality or new nationality.   Members of the Personnel must create the form themselves and provide the information required for the type of declaration concerned, indicating, if applicable, any benefit...

  7. Learning and Propensity for Changing the Job Situation during Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate individuals' learning and propensity for changing their job situation during downsizing in a company. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was carried out in an industrial company that had undergone major downsizing to adapt to changes in production. Approximately 100 employees retrained at…

  8. Rapid SAR and GPS Measurements and Models for Hazard Science and Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Yun, S. H.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Liu, Z.; Moore, A. W.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.; Webb, F.; Linick, J.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Polet, J.; Manipon, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) project for Natural Hazards is focused on rapidly generating higher level geodetic imaging products and placing them in the hands of the solid earth science and local, national, and international natural hazard communities by providing science product generation, exploration, and delivery capabilities at an operational level. Space-based geodetic measurement techniques such as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), SAR-based change detection, and image pixel tracking have recently become critical additions to our toolset for understanding and mapping the damage caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and floods. Analyses of these data sets are still largely handcrafted following each event and are not generated rapidly and reliably enough for response to natural disasters or for timely analysis of large data sets. The ARIA project, a joint venture co-sponsored by California Institute of Technology (Caltech) and by NASA through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), has been capturing the knowledge applied to these responses and building it into an automated infrastructure to generate imaging products in near real-time that can improve situational awareness for disaster response. In addition, the ARIA project is developing the capabilities to provide automated imaging and analysis capabilities necessary to keep up with the imminent increase in raw data from geodetic imaging missions planned for launch by NASA, as well as international space agencies. We will present the progress we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from Sentinel 1a/b as well as continuous GPS stations. Since the beginning of our project, our team has imaged events and generated response products for events around the world. These response products have enabled many conversations with those in the disaster response community

  9. Situational and Personal Influence on Attitude Change Following Ethnic Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yehuda; Garti, Chana

    1977-01-01

    Examines the validity of the effects of intergroup contact research on ethnic attitudes carried out in the United States. Attempts to demonstrate that a given contact situation may have different effects for the groups involved in terms of change of attitude towards each other by testing adolescent Israeli females participating in a summer camp.…

  10. The rapid response team nurse's role in end-of-life discussions during critical situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouley, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Rapid response teams have been in existence in hospitals over the past decade. This team call may offer life-saving interventions that save lives but, in some cases, may prolong the dying process. There are times in which the rapid response team nurse and the intensive care nurses need to have an understanding of the families' perception of what is occurring and manage this situation through communication, empathy, and information sharing. The nurse must be involved during discussions surrounding end-of-life decisions. The nurse also has a role in supporting the family through this difficult time of making a decision to withhold life-supporting measures.

  11. REMINDER : Changes in family situation are to be declared promptly

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    All changes in the family situation of members of the personnel (employed or associated) have to be declared without delay and in writing to the Organization.   Among the changes that shall be notified within 30 calendar days of their occurrence, the most frequent ones are: • marriage; • divorce; • entering into a partnership officially registered in a Member State; • dissolution of such a partnership; • death of the spouse or partner; and • birth or death of a child. For more information, in particular on how to declare any of the above changes, please see the CERN Admin e-guide. In addition, any change to the health insurance situation, the income or retirement pension of the spouse or partner of any staff member or fellow also has to be declared to the Organization in writing within 30 calendar days of its occurrence. Such changes shall be declared using the EDH “CHIS Declaration of health insurance situation spouse/partner&...

  12. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  13. Social transmission of avoidance behavior under situational change in learned and unlearned rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Masuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats receive information from other conspecifics by observation or other types of social interaction. Such social interaction may contribute to the effective adaptation to changes of environment such as situational switching. Learning to avoid dangerous places or objects rapidly occurs with even a single conditioning session, and the conditioned memory tends to be sustained over long periods. The avoidance is important for adaptation, but the details of the conditions under which the social transmission of avoidance is formed are unknown. We demonstrate that the previous experience of avoidance learning is important for the formation of behaviors for social transmission of avoidance and that the experienced rats adapt to a change of situation determined by the presence or absence of aversive stimuli. We systematically investigated social influence on avoidance behavior using a passive avoidance test in a light/dark two-compartment apparatus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rats were divided into two groups, one receiving foot shocks and another with no aversive experience in a dark compartment. Experienced and inexperienced rats were further divided into subjects and partners. In Experiment 1, each subject experienced (1 interaction with an experienced partner, (2 interaction with an inexperienced partner, or (3 no interaction. In Experiment 2, each subject experienced interaction with a partner that received a shock. The entering latency to a light compartment was measured. The avoidance behavior of experienced rats was inhibited by interaction with inexperienced or experienced partners in a safely-changed situation. The avoidance of experienced rats was reinstated in a dangerously-changed situation by interaction with shocked rats. In contrast, the inexperienced rats were not affected by any social circumstances. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that transmitted information among rats can be updated under a

  14. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Changes in Situation Models Modulate Processes of Event Perception in Audiovisual Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Markus; Meitz, Tino G. K.; Papenmeier, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Humans understand text and film by mentally representing their contents in situation models. These describe situations using dimensions like time, location, protagonist, and action. Changes in 1 or more dimensions (e.g., a new character enters the scene) cause discontinuities in the story line and are often perceived as boundaries between 2…

  16. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  17. Rapid climate change: lessons from the recent geological past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Lowe, John; Wolff, Eric; Srokosz, Meric

    2011-12-01

    Rapid, or abrupt, climate change is regarded as a change in the climate system to a new state following the crossing of a threshold. It generally occurs at a rate exceeding that of the change in the underlying cause. Episodes of rapid climate change abound in the recent geological past (defined here as the interval between the last glacial maximum, dated to approximately 20,000 years ago, and the present). Rapid climate changes are known to have occurred over time periods equal to or even less than a human lifespan: moreover, their effects on the global system are sufficiently large to have had significant societal impacts. The potential for similar events to occur in the future provides an important impetus for investigating the nature and causes of rapid climate change. This paper provides a brief overview of rapid climate change and an introduction to this special issue, which presents results generated by the palaeoclimatic component of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's rapid climate change programme, called RAPID. The papers in the special issue employ palaeoclimatic proxy data-sets obtained from marine, ice core and terrestrial archives to reconstruct rapid climate change during the last glacial cycle, its subsequent termination and the ensuing Holocene interglacial; some papers also report new attempts to match the palaeoclimate data to hypothesised causes through numerical modelling. The results confirm the importance of freshwater forcing in triggering changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and the close links between MOC and rapid climate change. While advancing our understanding of these linkages, the RAPID research has highlighted the need for further research in order to elucidate more specific details of the mechanisms involved.

  18. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  19. Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.

    2008-01-01

    recently been used to investigate small-scale core flow(3,4), but no advantage has yet been taken of the improved temporal resolution, partly because the filtering effect of the electrically conducting mantle was assumed to mask short-period magnetic variations(5). Here we show that changes in the magnetic...

  20. Social psychiatry in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. J. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.

  1. Reducing crime through physical modification: Evaluating the use of situational crime prevention strategies in a rapid transit environment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Courtney

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention and crime prevention through environmental design are strategies that reduce criminal opportunities through modification of the physical environment. Although limited, evidence suggests that these strategies are successful at reducing crime that occurs in transit environments. The rapid transit system in Vancouver, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for evaluation of situational prevention strategies as both control and experimental groups are availa...

  2. Rethinking species’ ability to cope with rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Levinsky, Irina; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is assumed to be exceptional because of its unprecedented velocity. However, new geophysical research suggests that dramatic climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene occurred extremely rapid, over just a few years. These abrupt climatic changes may have been even faster...... species' ability to cope with climate change, and that lessons must be learned for modelling future impacts of climate change on species....

  3. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Carl Folke; Nick Abel; William C. Clark; Per Olsson; D. Mark Stafford Smith; Brian Walker; Oran R. Young; Fikret Berkes; Reinette Biggs; J. Morgan Grove; Rosamond L. Naylor; Evelyn Pinkerton; Will Steffen; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses...

  4. Managing in the rapidly changing context of higher education: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher education is one of the most rapidly changing sectors of our society. Besides the rate of change in the sector there are also, as seen from the continuous media coverage, a number of universities and technikons in some form of financial or leadership crisis. Over the past years one of the main reasons given for these ...

  5. Changes in Stress Perception and Coping during Adolescence: The Role of Situational and Personal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the interplay between developmental changes in stress and coping during early and late adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, stress perception and coping styles of 200 adolescents in 7 different stressful situations were investigated. Multilevel piecewise latent growth curve models showed that stress perception…

  6. Frame-based guide to situated decision-making on climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Wardekker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306644398; van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes a frame-based approach to situated-decision-making on climate change. Building on the multidisciplinary literature on the relationship between frames and decision-making, it argues that decision-makers may gain from making frames more explicit and using them for

  7. Teachers' Stories of Children Coping with Family Situations and Family Changes: A Hong Kong Hybrid Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk-Fong, Pattie Yuk Yee

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines teachers' stories of children's coping with changing family situations such as divorce or family separation which can induce discontinuities in their lives. Using the case of Hong Kong, a place where "East meets West" in cultures and family relationships, this paper argues for the use of the concept of hybridities in…

  8. The Role of mPOS System in Process Change and Strategy Change: A Situated Change Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Chin Lin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to revisit the relationship among information technology (IT, Process, and Strategy. We focus on the impact of mobile Point of Sales (mPOS on changing of operational processes in the restaurant industry. This study investigates the changing of IT strategy and service strategy. The research model was developed based on the literature (strategic alignment model and situated change perspective and inputs from the restaurant industry and IT experts. The data of this study are collected from observation and face-to-face interviews with both business and IT personnel from 10 restaurants in Taiwan. The findings of this study provide a comprehensive view about the ways processes change once restaurants implements mPOS. We also figure out the impact of this change on IT strategy and service strategy. This study’s results shed new light on IT implementation. Researchers need to look at IT in different ways and suggest suitable solutions for practitioners.

  9. Changing population structure and commuting situation in Tokyo Megalopolis: a municipality-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, R; Umezaki, M

    1993-06-01

    Census data was analyzed for 20 municipalities along the Tohoku Line in Tokyo Megalopolis to elucidate the changes in the population structure and the commuting situation in the last two decades. The major findings were: (1) the changing pattern of population structure markedly varied among the municipalities, and (2) the long-distance commuting workers have increased particularly among those 50 km or more from central Tokyo.

  10. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  11. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3− states and B(E3) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI1,∗. , SWATI GARG2 and ASHOK KUMAR JAIN2. 1Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Banasthali 304 022, India. 2Department of Physics, IIT Roorkee, ...

  12. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Wang; Deshan Tang; Melissa Pilgrim; Jinan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quanti...

  13. Geoengineering and the Risk of Rapid Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A. J.; Matthews, D.

    2008-12-01

    Many scientists have proposed that geoengineering could be used to artificially cool the planet as a means of reducing CO2-induced climate warming. However, several recent studies have shown some of the potential risks of geoengineering, including negative impacts on stratospheric ozone, the hydrologic cycle and the possibility of rapid climate change in the case of abrupt failure, or rapid decommissioning of geoengineering technology. In this study, we have emulated a geoengineering scenario in the MAGICC climate model, by counteracting the radiative forcing from greenhouse gases. We have used a hypothetical scenario of business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions, in which geoengineering is implemented at the year 2020, and is removed abruptly after 40 years. By varying the climate sensitivity of the MAGICC model, and using previously published estimates of climate sensitivity likelihoods, we are able to derive a probabilistic prediction of the rate of temperature change following the removal of geoengineering. In a simulation without geoengineering (considering only the A1B AIM emissions scenario) the maximum annual rate of temperature change (in the highest climate sensitivity simulation) was 0.5° C per decade. In the geoengineering simulations the maximum annual rate of temperature change, occurring in the year after geoengineering was stopped, varied from 0.22° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 0.5° C to nearly 8° C per decade for a climate sensitivity of 10° C. The most likely maximum rate of change (corresponding to a climate sensitivity of 2.5° C) was just over 5° C per decade. There is a 99.8 percent probability that the rate of temperature change following the stoppage of geoengineering in this scenario would exceed 3° C per decade. This risk of rapid climate change associated with the use of planetary-scale geoengineering is highly relevant to discussion of climate policies aimed at avoiding "dangerous anthropogenic interference" in the

  14. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss...... intervention along with plasma measurements of fasting glucose, HbA1c, and potassium. For assessment of cardiac repolarization changes, T-wave Morphology Combination Score (MCS) and ECG intervals: RR, PR, QT, QTcF (Fridericia-corrected QT-interval), and QRS duration were derived. The participants lost......A1c (pMonitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  15. Monitoring of rapid land cover changes in eastern Japan using Terra/MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, I.; Hara, K.; Park, J.; Asanuma, I.; Tomita, M.; Hasegawa, D.; Short, K.; Fujihara, M.,

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation and land cover in Japan are rapidly changing. Abandoned farmland in 2010, for example, was 396,000 ha, or triple that of 1985. Efficient monitoring of changes in land cover is vital to both conservation of biodiversity and sustainable regional development. The Ministry of Environment is currently producing 1/25,000 scale vegetation maps for all of Japan, but the work is not yet completed. Traditional research is time consuming, and has difficulty coping with the rapid nature of change in the modern world. In this situation, classification of various scale remotely sensed data can be of premier use for efficient and timely monitoring of changes in vegetation.. In this research Terra/MODIS data is utilized to classify land cover in all of eastern Japan. Emphasis is placed on the Tohoku area, where large scale and rapid changes in vegetation have occurred in the aftermath of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011. Large sections of coastal forest and agricultural lands, for example, were directly damaged by the earthquake or inundated by subsequent tsunami. Agricultural land was also abandoned due to radioactive contamination from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident. The classification results are interpreted within the framework of a Landscape Transformation Sere model developed by Hara et al (2010), which presents a multi-staged pattern for tracking vegetation changes under successively heavy levels of human interference. The results of the research will be useful for balancing conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems with the needs for regional redevelopment.

  16. Changing the image of a conflict situation while training school students in mediation skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I. Leonov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. This paper analyzes students’ changing perceptions of conflict after training them in mediation skills. The theoretical basis of this paper is an ontological approach of studying conflict, in which the image of the conflict situation determines the specific behavior. This allowed for the development a training program aimed at changing conceptual structures. The processes of constructing conceptual structures are understood not only as explanatory models that are used for the construction of the outer world in social cognition but also as a manifestation of the internal picture of the world and an inducement to control this world as well as certain actions in the conflict. Our training program was designed by considering ontological mechanisms of conflict behavior regulation. Consequently, the most important result of the program efficiency assessment is the change in participants’ image of the conflict situation. Objective. This study aims to change the images of the conflict situation in school students learning the basics of mediation. Design. This study involved 360 students (grades 7-9; average age of 14 years and 8 months. During the preparatory stage, we tried to identify the characteristics of a conflict situation in 360 school children using the association experiment, which used the word “conflict” as a stimulus. To study the structure of the conflict situation image, we used Kelly’s repertory. The method of the training program regarding the basics of mediation was based on communication techniques used to resolve complex issues, including the involvement of students, a free personal statement, problem discussion and a joint search for solutions. Results. We recorded significant changes in all of the structural components of the conflict situation image before and after training, as well as in their interrelated underlying categorization. One of the results of the program was an increase in the variability of

  17. [Effect of changing into slippers on the pollution situation in the nuclear medicine management district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Makoto; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Akiyama, Masayuki; Takase, Tadashi; Kato, Kyoichi; Nitta, Masaru; Nakazawa, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Changing into slippers when entering the nuclear medicine management district prevented pollution expansion. Accidents involving patients falling occurred in university facilities. It was thought that changing slippers was the cause. The pollution situation was measured in three facilities by using the smear method and the direct technique to examine the effect of changing slippers. The current state was measured. After pollution prevention guidance was continuously done, pollution expansion was measured; three weeks of measurements were compared. Pollution was detected in the first period of weeks at a frequency of 19 times. For the latter period, it was detected 6 times. Half the pollution was in the restroom. Pollution was reduced by doing pollution prevention guidance for the restroom. Patients' falls occur even if they change slippers. Falling accidents can be decreased.

  18. Rapid climate change and society: assessing responses and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Simon; Petts, Judith; Hobson, Kersty

    2005-12-01

    Assessing the social risks associated with climate change requires an understanding of how humans will respond because it affects how well societies will adapt. In the case of rapid or dangerous climate change, of particular interest is the potential for these responses to cross thresholds beyond which they become maladaptive. To explore the possibility of such thresholds, a series of climate change scenarios were presented to U.K. participants whose subjective responses were recorded via interviews and surveyed using Q methodology. The results indicate an initially adaptive response to climate warming followed by a shift to maladaptation as the magnitude of change increases. Beyond this threshold, trust in collective action and institutions was diminished, negatively impacting adaptive capacity. Climate cooling invoked a qualitatively different response, although this may be a product of individuals being primed for warming because it has dominated public discourse. The climate change scenarios used in this research are severe by climatological standards. In reality, the observed responses might occur at a lower rate of change. Whatever the case, analysis of subjectivity has revealed potential for maladaptive human responses, constituting a dangerous or rapid climate threshold within the social sphere.

  19. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  20. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  1. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P<.05 but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed.

  2. Metacognitive monitoring and control in visual change detection: Implications for situation awareness and cognitive control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken I McAnally

    Full Text Available Metacognitive monitoring and control of situation awareness (SA are important for a range of safety-critical roles (e.g., air traffic control, military command and control. We examined the factors affecting these processes using a visual change detection task that included representative tactical displays. SA was assessed by asking novice observers to detect changes to a tactical display. Metacognitive monitoring was assessed by asking observers to estimate the probability that they would correctly detect a change, either after study of the display and before the change (judgement of learning; JOL or after the change and detection response (judgement of performance; JOP. In Experiment 1, observers failed to detect some changes to the display, indicating imperfect SA, but JOPs were reasonably well calibrated to objective performance. Experiment 2 examined JOLs and JOPs in two task contexts: with study-time limits imposed by the task or with self-pacing to meet specified performance targets. JOPs were well calibrated in both conditions as were JOLs for high performance targets. In summary, observers had limited SA, but good insight about their performance and learning for high performance targets and allocated study time appropriately.

  3. RAPID CHANGES IN SOCIETY, TECHNOLOGY ,ECONOMY AND PUBLIC SERVICE INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirthendu Bagchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Current paper has the purpose to analyze the statement by Drucker (1985 that rapid changes in today’s society, technology, and economy in general are simultaneously a great threat to public-service institutions and even greater opportunity. The statement by Drucker will be analyzed  particularly with context of post offices that what are they going through these days or have gone through. Finally, some recommendations will be made for USPS based on the findings of the analysis..

  4. An Examination of Changes in Emotion Co-Regulation among Mother and Child Dyads during the Strange Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuqing; Leu, Szu-Yun; Barnard, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Elaine A.; Spieker, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied state-space grid analysis to describe how preschooler-mother dyads co-regulate emotion in the Strange Situation. Second-to-second mother and child affect during pre-separation play (baseline) and the final reunion (post perturbation) episodes of the Strange Situation were coded for 80 dyads. Change in emotion…

  5. Let's dance--feel better! Mood changes following dancing in different situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajenkowski, Marcin; Jankowski, Konrad S; Kołata, Daria

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined mood changes following dancing. Previous works suggested that contextual factors may influence affective states; it has been shown that changes in mood following competition differ from those following recreational exercise. The study has been conducted in Warsaw, Poland. Mood was assessed before and after dance activity in three groups of ballroom dancers: recreational (n = 32) and competitive (n = 38) dancers doing ordinary training and competitive dancers taking part in a dance competition (n = 35). We observed a moderately positive change in recreational dancers doing ordinary training; they reported higher energetic arousal (EA) and hedonic tone (HT) and lower tense arousal (TA) after dance activity. In comparison dancers taking part in a competition were higher on TA before dancing and felt less pleasure after dancing than recreational and competitive dancers doing ordinary training; HT, TA and EA moderately decreased during competition. In general, the current study suggests that dance can elicit changes in mood; however, situational context has to be taken into consideration when explaining the influence of dance on mood.

  6. Global situational awareness and early warning of high-consequence climate change.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Carr, Martin J.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2009-08-01

    Global monitoring systems that have high spatial and temporal resolution, with long observational baselines, are needed to provide situational awareness of the Earth's climate system. Continuous monitoring is required for early warning of high-consequence climate change and to help anticipate and minimize the threat. Global climate has changed abruptly in the past and will almost certainly do so again, even in the absence of anthropogenic interference. It is possible that the Earth's climate could change dramatically and suddenly within a few years. An unexpected loss of climate stability would be equivalent to the failure of an engineered system on a grand scale, and would affect billions of people by causing agricultural, economic, and environmental collapses that would cascade throughout the world. The probability of such an abrupt change happening in the near future may be small, but it is nonzero. Because the consequences would be catastrophic, we argue that the problem should be treated with science-informed engineering conservatism, which focuses on various ways a system can fail and emphasizes inspection and early detection. Such an approach will require high-fidelity continuous global monitoring, informed by scientific modeling.

  7. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A

    2013-05-16

    Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of

  8. Rapid treatment-induced brain changes in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-03-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray, two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation.

  9. Rapid Treatment-Induced Brain Changes in Pediatric CRPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2014-01-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex-and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray (PAG), two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation. PMID:25515312

  10. Mobile work: Ergonomics in a rapidly changing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.

  11. Effects of rapid changes in temperature on two estuarine crustaceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, D.T.; Capizzi, T.P.; Margrey, S.L.; Wakefield, W.W.

    1981-01-01

    Weight specific oxygen consumption (Q/sub O/sub 2// patterns of the amphipod, Gammarus sp. (acclimated to 5/sup 0/, 15/sup 0/ and 25/sup 0/ C) and of juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus (15/sup 0/ and 25/sup 0/ C) were used to evaluate the potential effect of exposure to rapid temperature changes simulating once-through power plant pumped entrainment. Amphipods at all acclimation temperatures and blue crabs at 15/sup 0/ C responded to the temperature changes by increasing Q/sub O/sub 2// above pre-exposure levels after the thermal increase and then returning to pre-exposure levels. The response was judged to be a normal physiological compensation response, not a thermal stress response, as suggested by some investigators. Significant differences were found among seasonal Q/sub O/sub 2// patterns in both species; Q/sub O/sub 2// increased with increasing acclimation temperature. However, no seasonal stress effects were found as a result of exposure to the temperature changes. This implies that the effects of ..delta..T's up to 10(/sup 0/C) from power plants of this design should have no significant impact on these organisms.

  12. Rapid genomic DNA changes in allotetraploid fish hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Ye, L H; Liu, Q Z; Peng, L Y; Liu, W; Yi, X G; Wang, Y D; Xiao, J; Xu, K; Hu, F Z; Ren, L; Tao, M; Zhang, C; Liu, Y; Hong, Y H; Liu, S J

    2015-06-01

    Rapid genomic change has been demonstrated in several allopolyploid plant systems; however, few studies focused on animals. We addressed this issue using an allotetraploid lineage (4nAT) of freshwater fish originally derived from the interspecific hybridization of red crucian carp (Carassius auratus red var., ♀, 2n=100) × common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., ♂, 2n=100). We constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from allotetraploid hybrids in the 20th generation (F20) and sequenced 14 BAC clones representing a total of 592.126 kb, identified 11 functional genes and estimated the guanine-cytosine content (37.10%) and the proportion of repetitive elements (17.46%). The analysis of intron evolution using nine orthologous genes across a number of selected fish species detected a gain of 39 introns and a loss of 30 introns in the 4nAT lineage. A comparative study based on seven functional genes among 4nAT, diploid F1 hybrids (2nF1) (first generation of hybrids) and their original parents revealed that both hybrid types (2nF1 and 4nAT) not only inherited genomic DNA from their parents, but also demonstrated rapid genomic DNA changes (homoeologous recombination, parental DNA fragments loss and formation of novel genes). However, 4nAT presented more genomic variations compared with their parents than 2nF1. Interestingly, novel gene fragments were found for the iqca1 gene in both hybrid types. This study provided a preliminary genomic characterization of allotetraploid F20 hybrids and revealed evolutionary and functional genomic significance of allopolyploid animals.

  13. Pheromones-based sexual selection in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Jessica; Jones, Therésa M

    2017-12-01

    Insects utilise chemical cues for a range of different purposes and the complexity and degree of specificity of these signals is arguably unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Chemical signals are particularly important for insect reproduction and the selective pressures driving their evolution and maintenance have been the subject of previous reviews. However, the world in which chemical cues evolved and are maintained is changing at an unprecedented rate. How (or indeed whether) chemical signals used in sexual selection will respond is largely unknown. Here, we explore how recent increases in urbanisation and associated anthropogenic impacts may affect how chemical signals are produced and perceived. We focus on four anthropomorphic influences which have the potential to interact with pheromone-mediated sexual selection processes; climatic temperature shifts, exposure to chemical pollutants, the presence of artificial light at night and nutrient availability. Our aim is to provide a broad overview of key areas where the rapidly changing environment of the future might specifically affect pheromones utilised in sexual selection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  15. Evaluation of immediate soft tissue changes after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Beom Kim

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immediate soft tissue changes following rapid maxillary expansion (RME in growing patients, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients (10 male, 13 female treated by RME were selected. Patients were scanned using CBCT prior to placement of the rapid maxillary expander (T0, then immediately following full activation of the appliance (T1. Defined landmarks were then located on the pre- and post-treatment orientated images. Change in landmark position from pre- to post-treatment was then measured. In addition to landmarks, 10 direct measures were made to determine distance change without regard to direction to measure soft tissue change of the lips. RESULTS: Significant transverse expansion was measured on most soft tissue landmark locations. All the measures made showed significant change in the lip position with a lengthening of the vertical dimension of the upper lip, and a generalized decrease of anterior-posterior thickness of both the upper and lower lips. CONCLUSIONS: Significant changes in the soft tissue do occur with RME treatment. There is a transverse widening of the midface, and a thinning of the lips.OBJETIVO: avaliar as mudanças imediatas no tecido mole após a expansão rápida da maxila (ERM em pacientes em fase de crescimento, usando tomografia computadorizada de feixe cônico (TCFC. MÉTODOS: vinte e três pacientes (10 do sexo masculino e 13 do feminino tratados com ERM foram selecionados. Os pacientes foram escaneados por TCFC antes da implantação do expansor maxilar (T0 e imediatamente após a completa ativação do aparelho (T1. Pontos cefalométricos definidos foram localizados nas imagens pré- e pós-tratamento. As mudanças de posição desses pontos do pré- para o pós-tratamento foram, então, analisadas. Adicionalmente aos pontos, 10 medições diretas foram realizadas para determinar a mudança nas distâncias - independentemente da direção - nos

  16. Water Resources Compound Systems: A Macro Approach to Analysing Water Resource Issues under Changing Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water resource crises are an increasing threat to human survival and development. To reveal the nature of water resource issues under changing situations, the water resources system needs to be studied from a macro and systematic perspective. This report develops a water resources system into a water resources compound system that is constantly evolving under the combined action of the development, resistant, and coordination mechanisms. Additionally, the water quotient is defined as a quantitative representation of the sustainable development state of the water resources compound system. Four cities in China, Beijing, Fuzhou, Urumqi, and Lhasa, were selected as the study areas. The differences in the three types of mechanisms and the water quotient of the water resources compound system of each city in 2013 were compared. The results indicate that the different subsystems that comprise the compound system of a given area have different development mechanisms and resistant mechanisms. There are clear differences in the mechanisms and the water quotients for the water resources compound systems of different regions. Pertinent measures should be taken into account during integrated water resource management to improve the sustainable development status of regional water resources compound systems.

  17. Intraoperative "Kounis syndrome" that improved electrocardiography changes and hemodynamic situation afteradministering nitroglycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria O. Sánchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old female without cardiovascular risk factors, was going to be operated to repair the rotator cuff. Induction and interscalene brachial plexus block were uneventful, but after her placement for surgery the patient started with severe bronchospasm, hypotension, cutaneous allergic reaction and ST elevation on the electrocardiogram. An anaphylactic shock was suspected and treated but until the perfusion of nitroglycerina was started no electrocardiographic changes resolved. After necessary diagnostic test the final diagnosis was variant I of Kounis syndrome due to cefazolin and rocuronium. Ephinephrine is the cornerstone of treatment for anaphylaxis but should we use it if the anaphylactic reaction is also accompanied by myocardial ischemia? The answer is that we should not use it because myocardial ischemia in this syndrome is caused by vasospasm, so it would be more useful drugs such as nitroglycerin. But what if we do not know if it is a Kounis syndrome or not? In this article we report our experience that maybe could help you in a similar situation.

  18. Human relations with soil are changing rapidly: SSSA's new Work Group on Soil Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humanity has rapidly become Earth’s chief agent of soil change, and geologists have named the epoch in which we live the Anthropocene, due to the global scale of human impact on the environment, including soil. In response to the increasing influence of humans on soil processes, the disciplines of ...

  19. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Age-related changes in decision making: comparing informed and noninformed situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A.C.K.; Jansen, B.R.J.; Bredman, J.C.; Huizenga, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Advantageous decision making progressively develops into early adulthood, most specifically in complex and motivationally salient decision situations in which direct feedback on gains and losses is provided (Figner & Weber, 2011). However, the factors that underlie this developmental improvement in

  1. Land slide disaster in eastern Uganda: rapid assessment of water, sanitation and hygiene situation in Bulucheke camp, Bududa district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn M; Ediau, Michael; Orach, Christopher G; Musenero, Monica; Bazeyo, William

    2011-05-14

    .658-7.748). Of the 90% respondents who indicated that they always washed hands after latrine use, 76% said they used water and soap. Observations showed that water and soap were inconsistently available at the hand washing facilities. This situation influenced people's sanitation and hygiene behaviours. Nearly half (48%) indicated that at least a member of their household had fallen sick at least once since arrival at the camp. There was inadequate access to safe water in the camp. Pit-latrines were inadequate, poorly maintained and not user-friendly for most people. Responsible authorities should design means of increasing and sustaining access to safe water, increase sanitation facilities and continuously educate the public on the need to observe good hygiene practices.

  2. Optical Defocus Rapidly Changes Choroidal Thickness in Schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyang Wang

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to examine the short-term choroidal response to optical defocus in schoolchildren. Myopic schoolchildren aged 8-16 were randomly allocated to control group (CG, myopic defocus group (MDG and hyperopic defocus group (HDG (n = 17 per group. Children in MDG and HDG received additional +3D and -3D lenses, respectively, to their full corrections on the right eyes. Full correction was given to their left eyes, and on both eyes in the CG. Axial length (AXL and subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFChT were then measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Children wore their group-specific correction for 2 hours after which any existing optical defocus was removed, and subjects wore full corrections for another 2 hours. Both the AXL and SFChT were recorded hourly for 4 hours. The mean refraction of all subjects was -3.41 ± 0.37D (± SEM. SFChT thinned when exposed to hyperopic defocus for 2 hours but less thinning was observed in response to myopic defocus compared to the control group (p < 0.05, two-way ANOVA. Removal of optical defocus significantly decreased SFChT in the MDG and significantly increased SFChT in the HDG after 1 and 2 hours (mean percentage change at 2-hour; control vs. hyperopic defocus vs. myopic defocus; -0.33 ± 0.59% vs. 3.04 ± 0.60% vs. -1.34 ± 0.74%, p < 0.01. Our results showed short-term exposure to myopic defocus induced relative choroidal thickening while hyperopic defocus led to choroidal thinning in children. This rapid and reversible choroidal response may be an important clinical parameter in gauging retinal response to optical defocus in human myopia.

  3. Hydrothermal iron flux variability following rapid sea level changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Middleton, Jennifer L; Langmuir, Charles H; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; McManus, Jerry F; Mitrovica, Jerry X

    2016-01-01

    .... Mir sediments reveal sixfold to eightfold increases in hydrothermal iron and copper deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by a rapid decline during the sea level rise associated with deglaciation...

  4. Women in Physics in a Rapidly Changing China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An

    2008-03-01

    Despite the upheavals of the 20th century, physics managed to survive quite well in China, where the first woman president of the American Physical Society was born and bred. During the 1950s as a result of policies that emphasized science and engineering, declared equal rights and equal pay for men and women, and assigned jobs to college graduates irrespective of sex, the number of women in physics increased rapidly, many of whom made notable achievements. Since China's opening up over the last thirty years tremendous changes have taken place, and women now face new opportunities as well as challenges in all aspects of society. Whereas physics used to be regarded as the most elite of the sciences, new fields such as computer science, biotechnology and business are now competing for the best students. Compared with other countries the statistics are not bad; in schools and many physics departments the ratio of women teachers may be 30% or higher, but the numbers drop drastically with rank. Moreover, in some research institutions the ratio of female physicists is actually declining, due to retirement of the older generation and fewer successors. Compulsory retirement for women at an earlier age than for men is also a new factor. Conversely, in recent years the ratio of female graduate students enrolling in physics has increased, even reaching 40% in some universities. However, the reasons for this do not bode well: men are not performing so well as women in entrance exams, while the latter are facing increasing discrimination in employment so they have to seek higher degree qualifications. With the further development of China's economy there will be abundant demand for qualified personnel including women with a physics background. It is imperative to actively support the upcoming generation of women physicists and not lose them in the leaky pipeline. The Chinese Physical Society has taken certain positive steps, such as the recent establishment of the Xie Xi

  5. SELECTION OF EFFECTIVE MODELS OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION IN A CHANGING FINANCIAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Иванович МЕНЕЙЛЮК

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the methods of selecting effective models of construction projects of residential buildings and recommendations for its use. The technique is based on the construction of the models in the program Microsoft Project and analysis using the program COMPEX. Methods can be used not only for building projects. It is especially effective in a variable financial situation.

  6. Age-Related Changes in Decision Making: Comparing Informed and Noninformed Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Jansen, Brenda R. J.; Bredman, Joren C.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    Advantageous decision making progressively develops into early adulthood, most specifically in complex and motivationally salient decision situations in which direct feedback on gains and losses is provided (Figner & Weber, 2011). However, the factors that underlie this developmental improvement in decision making are still not well understood.…

  7. Employment Situation and Life Changes for People with Disabilities: Evidence from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    In this study we attempt to bring attention to the situation of people with disabilities in the developing world by focusing on the labor market of Nepal. Utilizing a unique dataset collected from people with hearing, physical, and visual impairments through questionnaire-based interview methods, we compare across employment based on type of…

  8. SAFETY PROBLEMS IN THE CASPIAN REGION IN THE CONTEXT OF CHANGE OF THE GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Abdullayev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to research of geopolitical processes in Caspian region and to questions of regional security. In article is analyzed the influence on a situation in the region of the western countries. The questions connected with deliveries of hydrocarbonic resources from the countries of the Middle East are considered.

  9. Rapid method to estimate temperature changes in electronics elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborskii G. A., Savel’eva O. S., Shikhireva Yu. V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal behavior of electronic equipment is the determining factor for performing rapid assessment of the effectiveness of design and operation of the equipment. The assessment method proposed in this article consists in fixation of an infrared video stream from the surface of the device and converting it into a visible flow by means of a thermal imager, splitting it into component colors and their further processing using parabolic transformation. The result of the transformation is the number used as a rapid criterion for estimation of distribution stability of heat in the equipment.

  10. A rapid mitochondrial toxicity assay utilizing rapidly changing cell energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuki, Yosuke; Araki, Tetsuro; Nakazono, Osamu; Tsurui, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is a major cause of safety-related drug-marketing withdrawals. Several drugs have been reported to disrupt mitochondrial function, resulting in hepatotoxicity. The development of a simple and effective in vitro assay to identify the potential for mitochondrial toxicity is thus desired to minimize the risk of causing hepatotoxicity and subsequent drug withdrawal. An in vitro test method called the "glucose-galactose" assay is often used in drug development but requires prior-culture of cells over several passages for mitochondrial adaptation, thereby restricting use of the assay. Here, we report a rapid version of this method with the same predictability as the original method. We found that replacing the glucose in the medium with galactose resulted in HepG2 cells immediately shifting their energy metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation due to drastic energy starvation; in addition, the intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by mitotoxicants when glucose in the medium was replaced with galactose. Using our proposed rapid method, mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells can be evaluated by drug exposure for one hour without a pre-culture step. This rapid assay for mitochondrial toxicity may be more suitable for high-throughput screening than the original method at an early stage of drug development.

  11. Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    health and survival have improved but at the expense of mental health. The incidence of tuberculosis and the infant mortality rate have decreased because of improved socioeconomic conditions and health care. Mental health has deteriorated parallel to the rapid modernization of Greenlandic society...

  12. Assessment of changes in smile after rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Morales Cobra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated changes in the smile characteristics of patients with maxillary constriction submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME. METHODS: The sample consisted of 81 extraoral photographs of maximum smile of 27 patients with mean age of 10 years, before expansion and 3 and 6 months after fixation of the expanding screw. The photographs were analyzed on the software Cef X 2001, with achievement of the following measurements: Transverse smile area, buccal corridors, exposure of maxillary incisors, gingival exposure of maxillary incisors, smile height, upper and lower lip thickness, smile symmetry and smile arch. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: RME promoted statistically significant increase in the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors; maintenance of right and left side smile symmetry and of the lack of parallelism between the curvature of the maxillary incisal edges and lower lip border. CONCLUSIONS: RME was beneficial for the smile esthetics with the increase of the transverse smile dimension and exposure of maxillary central and lateral incisors.INTRODUÇÃO: esse estudo avaliou as alterações das características do sorriso de pacientes com atresia maxilar submetidos à expansão rápida da maxila (ERM. MÉTODOS: a amostra consistiu de 81 fotografias extrabucais do sorriso máximo de 27 pacientes, com idade média de 10 anos, antes da expansão e aos três e seis meses após a fixação do parafuso expansor. As análises das fotografias foram realizadas por meio do programa Cef X 2001, e as seguintes medidas foram analisadas: dimensão transversal do sorriso, corredores bucais, quantidade de exposição dos incisivos superiores, exposição gengival dos incisivos superiores, altura do sorriso, espessuras dos lábios superior e inferior, simetria e arco do sorriso. As alterações no sorriso durante

  13. Changes of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters in situational insomnia under brotizolam and triazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, M G; Parrino, L; Boselli, M; Dell'Orso, S; Moroni, M; Spaggiari, M C

    1995-08-01

    The standardized scoring criteria of sleep can serve as a rough tool for monitoring the effects of psychoactive compounds, both in normal sleepers and in insomniac patients. More sensitive information on the impact of perturbing factors and drugs during sleep is supplied by the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters. In particular, CAP rate, which measures the amount of arousal instability during NREM sleep, has been proved of high reliability in a variety of clinical and pharmacological settings. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of brotizolam (Br) 0.25 mg and triazolam (Tr) 0.25 mg on both conventional and CAP parameters in a model of situational insomnia of intermediate severity. Six middle-aged healthy subjects (three males and three females, aged 40-55 years) with no complaints about sleep, underwent a polysomnographic investigation according to a double-blind crossover design: placebo without noise (night 1), placebo with noise (night 2), brotizolam or triazolam without noise (nights 3 and 5), brotizolam or triazolam with noise (nights 4 and 6). The unperturbed nights consisted of standard recording conditions in a sound-protected sleep laboratory, whereas situational insomnia was accomplished by means of continuous white noise at 55 dBA delivered throughout the night. Subjects received medication orally at bedtime. An interval of at least 48 h was secured between consecutive recordings in the same individual. Compared to baseline conditions, situational insomnia was characterized by a shorter amount of total sleep (-40 min) and by an extension of intrasleep awakenings (+62 min).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T V

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may....... On the other hand, if started too late there is a chance that data may be lost because the technology has already been introduced into the daily clinics and physicians may be unwilling to recruit patients. Or the opposite, that the technique may have been rejected without a proper trial. In this situation...... it has been suggested to perform a so called tracker trial. In such trials protocols are more flexible without prefixed sample size and will require repeated interim analyses. Often, it will be relevant to supplement the clinical trials with data from large clinical databases - in particular when long...

  15. Acting as a Change Agent in Supporting Sustainable Agriculture: How to Cope with New Professional Situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerf, M.; Guillot, M. N.; Olry, P.

    2011-01-01

    How do change agents deal with the diversity of farmers' attitudes towards the future of agriculture? How do they themselves cope with change and understand their role as change agents? We chose a comprehensive, action-training approach to answer such questions and worked with agents belonging to two different extension networks. The agents…

  16. Policy options to respond to rapid climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Marinova, N.A.; Bakker, S.; Tilburg, van X.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme

  17. Changes in Sensory Evoked Responses Coincide with Rapid Improvement in Speech Identification Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alain, Claude; Campeanu, Sandra; Tremblay, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual learning is sometimes characterized by rapid improvements in performance within the first hour of training (fast perceptual learning), which may be accompanied by changes in sensory and/or response pathways. Here, we report rapid physiological changes in the human auditory system that coincide with learning during a 1-hour test session…

  18. A snapshot in time: Beliefs and practices of a pre-service mathematics teacher through the lens of changing contexts and situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Webb

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For the last decade research on teachers’ beliefs has made a distinction between mathematics teachers’ professed and attributed beliefs  (practice  and studies have either found some or no correlation between the two. In this paper we  investigate the beliefs and practices of a novice teacher and conclude that inconsistency between beliefs and practices may be an observer’s perspective that is not necessarily shared by the teacher, and that the view that there is a possible disjuncture does not do justice to the complexity of the practitioner’s tasks nor to the rapidly changing contexts and situations that may occur within a single lesson.

  19. Changes in leadership appraisal as a function of the stress of a simulated panic situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A L

    1976-12-01

    Research by Mintz and Kelley, Condry, Dahke, and Hill left unresolved the question of what level of personal threat leads to group incoordination of "panic behavior." The present study set out to resolve this issue and to explore the additional relationship between leadership and behavior in the panic situation. The dependent variables were Likert-type questionnaire items designed to investigate the level of responsibility attributed to a leader by members of a group as a function of four variables: (a) two levels of stress (threat of shock or of small monetary loss); (b) two levels of leadership authority (elected or appointed); (c) two conditions of leadership ("me-last" or "me-first"); and (d) group success or failure. The specific questions were adapted from earlier pilot work by Sulzer and Sisti. One hundred and forty-four males were run in this 2 X 2 X 2 X 2 factorial design with a nonfactorial control group. The task setting, which required subjects to retrieve their wooden cones through the same hole, was designed to be analogous to the kind of situation that would occur in a theater fire where only one narrow exit existed. The results support the contention of Kelley that group incoordination (panic) increases under personal threat. Additional results were: (a) Leaders facilitated achieving the goal of safe exit; (b) elected leaders were given more responsibility and were seen as more competent than appointed leaders, but only when the stress is comparatively low, as otherwise the difference in evaluation narrows and reverses; and (c) success or failure seems to have had little effect on the leader's evaluation by the group.

  20. Changes in nasal volume of patients undergoing rapid maxillary expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Muniz, Renata Da Fonseca Lacerda E; Mario Cappellette Jr.; Daniela Carlini

    2008-01-01

    Os efeitos da disjunção maxilar na resistência nasal e fluxo aéreo têm sido amplamente discutidos na literatura, com controvérsias. Suas indicações esqueléticas e dentárias parecem estar bem claras. Porém, aquelas puramente rinológicas não são justificadas, porque nem sempre resultados positivos são encontrados. Este estudo teve por finalidade avaliar a repercussão da disjunção maxilar ortopédica no aspecto respiratório e rinológico dos pacientes submetidos a esse procedimento.Rapid maxillary...

  1. Rapid response to climate change in a marginal sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Josey, S A; Borghini, M; Aracri, S; Sparnocchia, S

    2017-06-22

    The Mediterranean Sea is a mid-latitude marginal sea, particularly responsive to climate change as reported by recent studies. The Sicily Channel is a choke point separating the sea in two main basins, the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Western Mediterranean Sea. Here, we report and analyse a long-term record (1993-2016) of the thermohaline properties of the Intermediate Water that crosses the Sicily Channel, showing increasing temperature and salinity trends much stronger than those observed at intermediate depths in the global ocean. We investigate the causes of the observed trends and in particular determine the role of a changing climate over the Eastern Mediterranean, where the Intermediate Water is formed. The long-term Sicily record reveals how fast the response to climate change can be in a marginal sea like the Mediterranean Sea compared to the global ocean, and demonstrates the essential role of long time series in the ocean.

  2. Rapid millennial-scale vegetation changes in the tropical Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrego, D.H.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Rama-Corredor, O.; Martrat, B.; Grimalt, J.O.; Thompson, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compare eight pollen records reflecting climatic and environmental change from the tropical Andes. Our analysis focuses on the last 50 ka, with particular emphasis on the Pleistocene to Holocene transition. We explore ecological grouping and downcore ordination results as two approaches for

  3. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  5. Changing Family Structure and Situation of Women with The Republic of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGE ZAFER, Ayşenur

    2013-01-01

    Turkish society and family structure has undergone a significant change with the foundation of the republic. Generally, structure of the family was traditional, patriarchal and extended during the Ottoman period. Also women were isolated from the social, political and economic field. One of the most important institutions, that Atatürk reforms aimed to change, was family institution. Formation of the woman designed by Atatürk, had created the drivi...

  6. Dynamic changes at the rapidly advancing Yahtse Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, William J.; Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Willis, Michael J.; Pritchard, Matthew E.

    2017-03-01

    Since 1990, Yahtse Glacier in southern Alaska has advanced at an average rate of ˜100 m/yr despite of a negative mass balance, widespread thinning in its accumulation area, and a low accumulation-area ratio. To better understand the interannual and seasonal changes at Yahtse and the processes driving these changes, we construct velocity and ice surface elevation time series spanning the years 1985-2014 and 2000-2014, respectively, using satellite optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. In terms of seasonal changes, we find contrasting dynamics above and below a steep (up to 18% slope) icefall located approximately 6 km from the terminus. Above the icefall, speeds peak in May and reach minima in October synchronous with the development of a calving embayment at the terminus. This may be caused by an efficient, channelized subglacial drainage system that focuses subglacial discharge into a plume, resulting in a local increase in calving and submarine melting. However, velocities near the terminus are fastest in the winter, following terminus retreat, possibly off of a terminal moraine resulting in decreased backstress. Between 1996-2014 the terminus decelerated by ˜40% at an average rate of ˜0.4 m/day/yr , transitioned from tensile to compressive longitudinal strain rates, and dynamically thickened at rates of 1-6 m/yr , which we hypothesize is in response to the development and advance of a terminal moraine. The described interannual changes decay significantly upstream of the icefall, indicating that the icefall may inhibit the upstream transmission of stress perturbations. We suggest that diminished stress transmission across the icefall could allow Yahtse’s upper basin to remain in a state of mass drawdown despite of moraine-enabled terminus advance. Our work highlights the importance of glacier geometry in controlling tidewater glacier re-advance, particularly in a climate favoring increasing equilibrium line altitudes.

  7. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Moeller, Andrew H.; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Pusey, Anne E.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Ochman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversificatio...

  8. Rapid isotopic changes in groundwater, upper Rio Guanajuato catchment, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Alejandra; Durazo, Jaime [Departamento de recursos naturales, Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Kralisch, Stefanie [Posgrado en Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-01-15

    Significant changes in the isotopic composition of groundwater in the upper catchment of Rio Guanajuato, Mexico, were detected in two independent sets of samplers for 3 % of the 1600 high-production wells in the area. Sampling was done in December 1998 (53 samples), and in July - August 2003 (41 samples). Average deuterium concentration did not change between 1998 and 2003 but the average oxygen-18 concentration suggested a generalized dilution from deep water from infiltrated local precipitation. This regional change occurred within 56 months, indicating a highly dynamic hydrogeologic system. Fast replenishment of aquifer storage, or non sustainable over-pumping of old aquifer reserves, are possible explanations. [Spanish] Cambios isotopicos significativos en el agua subterranea de la cuenca alta del Rio Guanajuato, Mexico, fueron detectados en dos conjuntos independientes de muestras que incluyeron al 3% de los 1600 pozos de alta produccion del area. Los muestreos se realizaron en diciembre de 1998 (53 muestras) y en julio - agosto del 2003 (41 muestras). La concentracion promedio del deuterio no cambio entre 1998 y 2003, pero la del oxigeno-18 sugiere una dilucion generalizada del agua profunda por infiltracion de la precipitacion local. Este cambio regional ocurrio dentro de 56 meses, indicando un sistema hidrogeologico muy dinamico. La rapida recuperacion del almacenamiento acuifero o el bombeo insostenible de reservas acuiferas viejas son explicaciones posibles.

  9. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Simulation of rapid ecological change in Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.; Chalupnicki, Marc; Dittman, Dawn E.; Watkins, James M.

    2017-01-01

    Lower trophic level processes are integral to proper functioning of large aquatic ecosystems and have been disturbed in Lake Ontario by various stressors including exotic species. The invasion of benthic habitats by dreissenid mussels has led to systemic changes and native faunal declines. Size-dependent physiological rates, spatial differences and connectivity, competition, and differential population dynamics among invertebrate groups contributed to the change and system complexity. We developed a spatially explicit, individual-based mechanistic model of the benthic ecosystem in Lake Ontario, with coupling to the pelagic system, to examine ecosystem dynamics and effects of dreissenid mussel invasion and native fauna losses. Benthic organisms were represented by functional groups; filter-feeders (i.e., dreissenid mussels), surface deposit-feeders (e.g., native amphipod Diporeia spp.), and deposit-feeders (e.g., oligochaetes and other burrowers). The model was stable, represented ecological structure and function effectively, and reproduced observed effects of the mussel invasion. Two hypotheses for causes of Diporeia loss, competition or disease-like mortality, were tested. Simple competition for food did not explain observed declines in native surface deposit-feeders during the filter-feeder invasion. However, the elevated mortality scenario supports a disease-like cause for loss of the native amphipod, with population changes in various lake areas and altered benthic biomass transfers. Stabilization of mussel populations and possible recovery of the native, surface-deposit feeding amphipod were predicted. Although further research is required on forcing functions, model parameters, and natural conditions, the model provides a valuable tool to help managers understand the benthic system and plan for response to future disruptions.

  11. Women's Human Rights Education Trainers in Turkey: Situated Empowerment for Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Felisa L.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents evidence of the links between human rights education and social change by analyzing the long-term effects on 88 trainers engaged in a non-formal adult training program sponsored by a women's human rights group in Turkey, Women for Women's Human Rights--New Ways. In this article, I show the transformative impacts of carrying…

  12. A Study of Superintendents' Change Leadership Styles Using the Situational Leadership Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireh, Maduakolam; Bailey, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Examines relationships among Ohio superintendents' leadership styles, style adaptability, and certain district characteristics identified as change oriented. Survey data from 611 superintendents showed that only district expenditure per student was significantly and positively related to leadership-style adaptability. Years of administrative…

  13. Child-feeding habits in a situation of social change: the case of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igun, U A

    1982-01-01

    Based on interview of 250 mainly non-literate low income group mothers who use a childcare and antenatal clinic in Maiduguri, the study sought to know the pattern of child-feeding that is emerging in Maiduguri, a rapidly urbanizing centre, and sought to identify factors responsible for the emergence of the pattern. The study found that the pattern emerging is characterized by a tendency to combine traditional and methods learnt as a result of contact with bearers of western industrial culture. The most important factors seen to be implicated in the development of this pattern is mass media advertisement and the example of elite mothers whose visibly displayed adoption of bottle-feeding elevates it to the status of a fashion in the eyes of the lower income, illiterate or less western educated mothers who then follow uncritically. It is suggested that more be done by the medical profession to counter this trend in the state, than its present apparent resigned acceptance.

  14. [Depressive disorder following personnel change--its clinical features, situational factors antecedent to recovery and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunugi, H

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that occupational personnel change is one of the life events which frequently precipitates the onset of depressive disorder. This study examines the demographic, social and clinical features of unipolar depressives whose onsets were precipitated by recent occupational personnel changes. These index patients are compared with those whose onsets were precipitated by other life events. Information was obtained retrospectively by the patients' medical records, and diagnoses were made according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria. Of 130 patients with unipolar depression (58 males and 72 females), 18 had onsets precipitated by occupational personnel changes. Of these 18 cases, 17 were male and only one was female. Therefore, personnel change can be said to be a major precipitating factor for Japanese men. This clear sex difference is considered to be due to the difference between men's and women's attitudes toward their jobs. This distinction is not found in European countries. The comparisons between the male index patients and the others of the same sex revealed that the former had the following demographic and social features; a narrower age distribution averaging in the early 40s (p depressive illness, the index patients were all categorized as endogenous unipolar depression in contrast to neurotic depression. These findings suggest that unipolar depressives whose onsets were precipitated by occupational personnel changes have uniform demographic and social features and subtype of depressive illness. Therefore, they can be delineated as a clinical subgroup. The index patients had a higher rate of attempted suicide (29%) than the other patients (p depressive symptoms remained for a long period in patients with protracted courses of treatment. However, many such patients completely remitted soon after they returned to their former position (or moved to a desired position).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  15. Managing marine disease emergencies in an era of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groner, Maya L; Maynard, Jeffrey; Breyta, Rachel; Carnegie, Ryan B; Dobson, Andy; Friedman, Carolyn S; Froelich, Brett; Garren, Melissa; Gulland, Frances M D; Heron, Scott F; Noble, Rachel T; Revie, Crawford W; Shields, Jeffrey D; Vanderstichel, Raphaël; Weil, Ernesto; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Harvell, C Drew

    2016-03-05

    Infectious marine diseases can decimate populations and are increasing among some taxa due to global change and our increasing reliance on marine environments. Marine diseases become emergencies when significant ecological, economic or social impacts occur. We can prepare for and manage these emergencies through improved surveillance, and the development and iterative refinement of approaches to mitigate disease and its impacts. Improving surveillance requires fast, accurate diagnoses, forecasting disease risk and real-time monitoring of disease-promoting environmental conditions. Diversifying impact mitigation involves increasing host resilience to disease, reducing pathogen abundance and managing environmental factors that facilitate disease. Disease surveillance and mitigation can be adaptive if informed by research advances and catalysed by communication among observers, researchers and decision-makers using information-sharing platforms. Recent increases in the awareness of the threats posed by marine diseases may lead to policy frameworks that facilitate the responses and management that marine disease emergencies require. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  17. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2014-11-18

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

  18. Complex interactions in Lake Michigan’s rapidly changing ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Bunnell, David B.; Carrick, Hunter J.; Hook, Tomas O.

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, Lake Michigan’s food web has been in a constant state of transition from reductions in nutrient loading and proliferation of invasive species at multiple trophic levels. In particular, there has been concern about impacts from the invasive predatory cercopagids (Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi) and expanding dreissenid mussel and round goby populations. This special issue brings together papers that explore the status of the Lake Michigan food web and the factors responsible for these changes, and suggests research paths that must be taken for understanding and predicting system behavior. This introductory paper describes the special issue origin, presents an overview of the papers, and draws overarching conclusions from the papers.

  19. Intraoperative "Kounis syndrome" that improved electrocardiography changes and hemodynamic situation afteradministering nitroglycerine

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez,Victoria O.; Roca, Luisa C.; Moreno, Angel del P.

    2014-01-01

    A 58-year-old female without cardiovascular risk factors, was going to be operated to repair the rotator cuff. Induction and interscalene brachial plexus block were uneventful, but after her placement for surgery the patient started with severe bronchospasm, hypotension, cutaneous allergic reaction and ST elevation on the electrocardiogram. An anaphylactic shock was suspected and treated but until the perfusion of nitroglycerina was started no electrocardiographic changes resolved. After nece...

  20. Rapid maxillary expansion treatment could produce long-term dental arch changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin

    2005-01-01

    : Data Sources: Medline, Medline In-Process, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), PUBMED, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched. Search terms were rapid palatal expansion or rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and tooth or dental changes. Reference

  1. Effect of Attitudinal, Situational and Demographic Factors on Annoyance Due to Environmental Vibration and Noise from Construction of a Light Rapid Transit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-McSweeney, Daniel; Woodcock, James; Waddington, David; Peris, Eulalia; Koziel, Zbigniew; Moorhouse, Andy; Redel-Macías, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine what non-exposure factors influence the relationship between vibration and noise exposure from the construction of a Light Rapid Transit (LRT) system and the annoyance of nearby residents. Noise and vibration from construction sites are known to annoy residents, with annoyance increasing as a function of the magnitude of the vibration and noise. There is not a strong correlation between exposure and levels of annoyance suggesting that factors not directly related to the exposure may have an influence. A range of attitudinal, situational and demographic factors are investigated with the aim of understanding the wide variation in annoyance for a given vibration exposure. A face-to-face survey of residents (n = 350) near three sites of LRT construction was conducted, and responses were compared to semi-empirical estimates of the internal vibration within the buildings. It was found that annoyance responses due to vibration were strongly influenced by two attitudinal variables, concern about property damage and sensitivity to vibration. Age, ownership of the property and the visibility of the construction site were also important factors. Gender, time at home and expectation of future levels of vibration had much less influence. Due to the measurement methods used, it was not possible to separate out the effects of noise and vibration on annoyance; as such, this paper focusses on annoyance due to vibration exposure. This work concludes that for the most cost-effective reduction of the impact of construction vibration and noise on the annoyance felt by a community, policies should consider attitudinal factors. PMID:27983662

  2. Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Mumby, P. J.; Hooten, A. J.; Steneck, R. S.; Greenfield, P.; Gomez, E.; Harvell, C. D.; Sale, P. F.; Edwards, A. J.; Caldeira, K.; Knowlton, N.; Eakin, C. M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Muthiga, N.; Bradbury, R. H.; Dubi, A.; Hatziolos, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2°C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people. As the International Year of the Reef 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of coral-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided.

  3. Ethnobiology 5: Interdisciplinarity in an Era of Rapid Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wolverton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobiology 5 stems from Eugene Hunn’s four phases of the history of ethnobiology and focuses on the relevance of ethnobiological research in the context of environmental and cultural change.  It refers to a contemporary phase of the field’s historical development.  In this paper, I argue that ethnobiology is preadapted to be a scholarly umbrella for a number of disciplines that concern human-environment interactions, suggesting that one goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to bridge traditional academic boundaries in order to broaden the community of ethnobiologists. Another goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to capitalize on and communicate the relevance of ethnobiological scholarship for solving problems related to contemporary environmental and cultural crises.  Indeed, ethnobiology is not a subfield of any traditional discipline and by the nature of its name bridges humanities, social science, and science.  Ethnobiology has always been interdisciplinary in terms of its subject matter, yet its community of scholars is relatively small compared to mission-driven disciplines, such as conservation biology.  Venues for publication and presentation of ethnobiological research, as well as how ethnobiologists portray their research, are critical to growing ethnobiology.

  4. A situational analysis of training for behaviour change counselling for primary care providers, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelra Malan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors (smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are a major contributor to primary care morbidity and the burden of disease. The need for healthcare-provider training in evidence-based lifestyle interventions has been acknowledged by the National Department of Health. However, local studies suggest that counselling on lifestyle modification from healthcare providers is inadequate and this may, in part, be attributable to a lack of training.Aim: This study aimed to assess the current training courses for primary healthcare providers in the Western Cape.Setting: Stellenbosch University and University of Cape Town.Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with six key informants (trainers of primary care nurses and registrars in family medicine and two focus groups (nine nurses and eight doctors from both Stellenbosch University and the University of Cape Town.Results: Trainers lack confidence in the effectiveness of behaviour change counselling and in current approaches to training. Current training is limited by time constraints and is not integrated throughout the curriculum – there is a focus on theory rather than modelling and practice, as well as a lack of both formative and summative assessment. Implementation of training is limited by a lack of patient education materials, poor continuity of care and record keeping, conflicting lifestyle messages and an unsupportive organisational culture.Conclusion: Revising the approach to current training is necessary in order to improve primary care providers’ behaviour change counselling skills. Primary care facilities need to create a more conducive environment that is supportive of behaviour change counselling.

  5. A situational analysis of training for behaviour change counselling for primary care providers, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mash, Bob; Everett-Murphy, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Non-communicable diseases and associated risk factors (smoking, alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet) are a major contributor to primary care morbidity and the burden of disease. The need for healthcare-provider training in evidence-based lifestyle interventions has been acknowledged by the National Department of Health. However, local studies suggest that counselling on lifestyle modification from healthcare providers is inadequate and this may, in part, be attributable to a lack of training. Aim This study aimed to assess the current training courses for primary healthcare providers in the Western Cape. Setting Stellenbosch University and University of Cape Town. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with six key informants (trainers of primary care nurses and registrars in family medicine) and two focus groups (nine nurses and eight doctors) from both Stellenbosch University and the University of Cape Town. Results Trainers lack confidence in the effectiveness of behaviour change counselling and in current approaches to training. Current training is limited by time constraints and is not integrated throughout the curriculum – there is a focus on theory rather than modelling and practice, as well as a lack of both formative and summative assessment. Implementation of training is limited by a lack of patient education materials, poor continuity of care and record keeping, conflicting lifestyle messages and an unsupportive organisational culture. Conclusion Revising the approach to current training is necessary in order to improve primary care providers’ behaviour change counselling skills. Primary care facilities need to create a more conducive environment that is supportive of behaviour change counselling. PMID:26245589

  6. Rapid response to changing environments during biological invasions: DNA methylation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Li, Shiguo; Ni, Ping; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2017-12-01

    Dissecting complex interactions between species and their environments has long been a research hot spot in the fields of ecology and evolutionary biology. The well-recognized Darwinian evolution has well-explained long-term adaptation scenarios; however, "rapid" processes of biological responses to environmental changes remain largely unexplored, particularly molecular mechanisms such as DNA methylation that have recently been proposed to play crucial roles in rapid environmental adaptation. Invasive species, which have capacities to successfully survive rapidly changing environments during biological invasions, provide great opportunities to study molecular mechanisms of rapid environmental adaptation. Here, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique in an invasive model ascidian, Ciona savignyi, to investigate how species interact with rapidly changing environments at the whole-genome level. We detected quite rapid DNA methylation response: significant changes of DNA methylation frequency and epigenetic differentiation between treatment and control groups occurred only after 1 hr of high-temperature exposure or after 3 hr of low-salinity challenge. In addition, we detected time-dependent hemimethylation changes and increased intragroup epigenetic divergence induced by environmental stresses. Interestingly, we found evidence of DNA methylation resilience, as most stress-induced DNA methylation variation maintained shortly (~48 hr) and quickly returned back to the control levels. Our findings clearly showed that invasive species could rapidly respond to acute environmental changes through DNA methylation modifications, and rapid environmental changes left significant epigenetic signatures at the whole-genome level. All these results provide fundamental background to deeply investigate the contribution of DNA methylation mechanisms to rapid contemporary environmental adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A revolution in Israel: Natural gas discoveries change the energy situation; Une revolution en Israel: des decouvertes de gaz naturel modifient la situation energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meritet, S. [Universite Paris-Dauphine, CGEMP, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-05-15

    Recent discoveries of large sources of gas off the coast are expected to make Israel an energy-independent county and even a possible gas exporter. Even if the new resource estimates are correct, a number of factors still raise doubts about the viability of exports. This paper focuses on the Israel's possible energy policy choices with the natural gas discoveries. After the presentation of the current energy situation, the new energy resources are analysed along with the uncertainties around them and the new regulatory framework. The economic consequences of these new resources are then analyzed in terms of exporting strategies and electricity generation prospects. Even more than other countries, Israel's energy policy is centered on security of supply through diversification of sources and suppliers. (author)

  8. The dynamics in the international commercial changes in globalization terms-Comparison situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Ion Gr. Ionescu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The bigest weight of commercial changing of the country analysis have the manufactured products like: automobiles and industrial utilities, informatic products, ways of transportation,chimical products, thextile and footwear, this have 80% from total exports and 76% from total import. This fact is the consequence of recession of the working divizion , of speciality in industrial product, on branch and sub branch, on the type of products and subansanble of an morale abrasion for the product majority.The products of base have a low ponder in the exports and imports of this countries, they present a commercial balance and pasive for the raw metals and fuel, as the export of alimentary products, this country plais a role very important.So if it’s affected by the period of crisis, the international trade it has an important role in the sustain of economic growth of them. The sustain of this project are convinced that the introduction of the new coin will have positive feedback for the worldwide economy, confronted now with one of the most sedate crisis. And the european economy it will have, only to win from the project and the investitors can drop the unsure marketing from other continents for the investment in a stable region. With all of this the growth ot the european economy can be late, however, makes it doubt the succes of the „euro” project. The International Monetary Fond have seen that the eleven european countries that adopted euro at the 1st of January 2006, a growth of the Intern Brute Porduct (IBP of 2,4% (same as for European Union, 2,6% in spring with 0,4% less then 2005, the growth that classifies as „solid and continuous”.

  9. Integrated Ocean Management as a Strategy to Meet Rapid Climate Change: The Norwegian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addres...

  10. Curioser and Curioser: New Concepts in the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Frances C.

    1999-01-01

    The new "Handbook" assumes that society is changing rapidly and educational administration must change with it. This article critiques chapters on four concepts: ideology, the new consumerism, social capital, and the new institutionalism. Consumerism is pure 19th-century liberalism/individualism; social capital theory and…

  11. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  12. Land cover changes in catchment areas of lakes situated in headwaters of the Tyśmienica River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywna Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the history of land cover changes in the catchment area of lakes situated in the headwaters of the Tyśmienica River. The basis of the study were topographic maps in scale 1:50 000, from 1936 and 2014. We analyzed the quantitative aspect of these changes. The study was conducted in three natural lakes (Rogóźno, Krasne, Łukcze, and in one lake transformed into a storage reservoir (Krzczeń. The technical issues of georeferencing maps in the Geographic Information System (GIS software are addressed first. In the landscape of Łęczna and Włodawa Lake District, to the end of the 19th century wetlands and bushes dominated. The first type of human pressure on this area was agriculture. Another type of pressure was recreation. In the catchment areas of studied lakes increased mainly the area of buildings and forests. Significantly increased also the length of roads and watercourses. Almost completely disappeared bushes and wastelands. In most of the analyzed basins, the area of wetlands and arable lands decreased. The probable cause of the changes in catchment use was decline in the water table, and thus overgrowing of meadows and wetlands.

  13. Rapid changes in the geomagnetic field: from global to regional scales

    OpenAIRE

    Mandea, M.; Olsen, N; Monika Korte; Verbanac, G.; Y. Yahiat

    2008-01-01

    A large part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the molten outer core. Its temporal change, called secular variation, is characterized by occasional rapid changes known as geomagnetic jerks, sudden change in the second time derivative of the magnetic field. For a while, detailed studies of these phenomena suffered from the sparse distribution of geomagnetic observatories over many parts of the Earth. Recent studies on magnetic data provided by magnetic satellites, w...

  14. Dynamic diagnostic relationism: a new diagnostic paradigm for complex rapidly changing clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Decades of large, apparently well-designed clinical trials have failed to generate reproducible results in the investigation of many complex rapidly evolving and changing conditions such as sepsis. One possibility for the failure is that 20th century threshold science may be too simplistic to apply to complex rapidly changing conditions, especially those with unknown times of onset. There is an acute need to reconsider the fundamental validity of the application of simple threshold science in the study of complex rapidly evolving and changing conditions. In this letter, four potential axioms are presented which define a new science which assesses the probability of disease as a function of motion images of all the available clinical data.

  15. Monitoring changes in seismic velocity related to an ongoing rapid inflation event at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.

  16. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category...

  17. Changes in pain catastrophizing predict later changes in fibromyalgia clinical and experimental pain report: cross-lagged panel analyses of dispositional and situational catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Claudia M; McCauley, Lea; Bounds, Sara C; Mathur, Vani A; Conn, Lora; Simango, Mpepera; Edwards, Robert R; Fontaine, Kevin R

    2012-10-25

    Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by wide-spread diffuse pain and sensory abnormalities, is associated with elevated indices of distress and pain-related catastrophizing compared to both pain-free samples and those with chronic pain conditions. Catastrophizing is a pervasive negative mental set, and is a strong predictor of negative pain-related outcomes such as clinical pain intensity, and physical disability. Situational catastrophizing, measured in the context of experimentally-induced pain, is strongly related to enhanced pain sensitivity, a core aspect of the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia. However, little is known regarding the temporal course of the association between catastrophizing and pain-related "outcomes". Most studies involve only static assessments of pain and catastrophizing at a single time point, which provides little insight into the direction of the observed associations. We sought to investigate the temporal relationships between catastrophizing and indices of both clinical pain (substudy 1) and experimentally-induced pain (substudy 2) in a larger randomized controlled longitudinal trial. Fifty-seven patients with FM completed catastrophizing, depression, and pain questionnaires as well as laboratory cold pressor pain testing at baseline, post-intervention and three month follow-up during a lifestyle physical activity study. Cross-lagged panel analyses were used to address these temporal relationships. In substudy 1, analyses revealed that pre-to-post changes in dispositional catastrophizing ratings prospectively accounted for unique variance in subsequent post-to-follow-up changes in clinical pain ratings (p = 0.005), while pre-to-post changes in pain ratings did not account for unique variance in post-to-follow-up changes in catastrophizing ratings. An identical pattern was observed experimentally in substudy 2, with pre-to-post changes in situational catastrophizing ratings prospectively accounting for unique variance in subsequent post

  18. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashist, B. (Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, New York); Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-03-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected.

  19. Rapidly changing mortality profiles in South Africa in its nine provinces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    number from HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined by 2012.[1]. Cardiovascular ... diabetes and renal disease have increased.[1,7] Furthermore ... Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC 4.0. Rapidly changing mortality profiles in South Africa in its nine provinces. Non-communicable disease. HIV/AIDS and TB. Other type 1.

  20. Engaging Chicago residents in climate change action: Results from Rapid Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Jennifer. Hirsch

    2010-01-01

    Addressing climate change requires action at all levels of society, from neighborhood to international levels. Using Rapid Ethnography rooted in Asset Based Community Development theory, we investigated climate-friendly attitudes and behaviors in two Chicago neighborhoods in order to assist the City with implementation of its Climate Action Plan. Our research suggests...

  1. Life without Barriers: Prospects and Changes in the Situation of Children with Disabilities and Lifelong Disabled Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klochko E.Y.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of Russian ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Problem analysis of kind of services for chil- dren with disabilities and lifelong disabled persons is performed using a schema “Alternative living models for a lifelong disabled person in Russia”. The article demonstrates the main content of early intervention programs and the role and place of a multidisciplinary team of program experts. We discuss the main aspects of the problems related to education for disabled children, the features of linkage between social services and social support for children with disabilities and families raising them. Attention is paid to the development and widespread implementation of hospital- substituting technologies. The article presents con- cept of a pilot project of the Foundation for children in difficult life situation to facilitate the social adaptation of disabled persons. Author made a conclusions on increasing authorities’ attention to disable person’s needs, the need for change in the current legislation according to UN Convention, and annexations to federal legislation governing the rights of disabled children and lifelong disabled persons, the need to develop public policies using all available resources and the experience of socially oriented NGOs primarily.

  2. Integrated ocean management as a strategy to meet rapid climate change: the Norwegian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-02-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addresses the Norwegian experience in introducing integrated, ecosystem-based oceans management, emphasizing how climate change, seen as a major long-term driver of change in ecosystems, is addressed in management plans. Understanding the direct effects of climate variability and change on ecosystems and indirect effects on human activities is essential for adaptive planning to be useful in the long-term management of the marine environment.

  3. Situational Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Süttö, Marián

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is focused on field of leadership, particularly situational leadership model by Hersey and Blanchard. Thesis is mostly theoretical framework aimed to offer the possibility for reader to get overview in leadership issues. Theoretical framework of the thesis is focused on leadership definition, the most important leadership theories in the past, and especially to situational leadership approach. The focus of this thesis is to get detailed insight in this model and therefore offer in...

  4. Frightening music triggers rapid changes in brain monoamine receptors: a pilot PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Chen, Qiaozhen; Du, Fenglei; Hu, Yanni; Chao, Fangfang; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong

    2012-10-01

    Frightening music can rapidly arouse emotions in listeners that mimic those from actual life-threatening experiences. However, studies of the underlying mechanism for perceiving danger created by music are limited. We investigated monoamine receptor changes induced by frightening music using (11)C-N-methyl-spiperone ((11)C-NMSP) PET. Ten healthy male volunteers were included, and their psychophysiologic changes were evaluated. Compared with the baseline condition, listening to frightening music caused a significant decrease in (11)C-NMSP in the right and left caudate nuclei, right limbic region, and right paralimbic region; a particularly significant decrease in the right anterior cingulate cortex; but an increase in the right frontal occipital and left temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Transient fright triggers rapid changes in monoamine receptors, which decrease in the limbic and paralimbic regions but increase in the cerebral cortex.

  5. Rapidly assessing changes in bone mineral balance using natural stable calcium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Skulan, Joseph L.; Gordon, Gwyneth W.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Smith, Scott M.; Anbar, Ariel D.

    2012-06-01

    The ability to rapidly detect changes in bone mineral balance (BMB) would be of great value in the early diagnosis and evaluation of therapies for metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and some cancers. However, measurements of BMB are hampered by difficulties with using biochemical markers to quantify the relative rates of bone resorption and formation and the need to wait months to years for altered BMB to produce changes in bone mineral density large enough to resolve by X-ray densitometry. We show here that, in humans, the natural abundances of Ca isotopes in urine change rapidly in response to changes in BMB. In a bed rest experiment, use of high-precision isotope ratio MS allowed the onset of bone loss to be detected in Ca isotope data after about 1 wk, long before bone mineral density has changed enough to be detectable with densitometry. The physiological basis of the relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB is sufficiently understood to allow quantitative translation of changes in Ca isotope abundances to changes in bone mineral density using a simple model. The rate of change of bone mineral density inferred from Ca isotopes is consistent with the rate observed by densitometry in long-term bed rest studies. Ca isotopic analysis provides a powerful way to monitor bone loss, potentially making it possible to diagnose metabolic bone disease and track the impact of treatments more effectively than is currently possible.

  6. Situational variations in ethnic identity across immigration generations: Implications for acculturative change and cross-cultural adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noels, Kimberly A; Clément, Richard

    2015-12-01

    This study examined whether the acculturation of ethnic identity is first evident in more public situations with greater opportunity for intercultural interaction and eventually penetrates more intimate situations. It also investigated whether situational variations in identity are associated with cross-cultural adaptation. First-generation (G1), second-generation (G2) and mixed-parentage second-generation (G2.5) young adult Canadians (n = 137, n = 169, and n = 91, respectively) completed a questionnaire assessing their heritage and Canadian identities across four situational domains (family, friends, university and community), global heritage identity and cross-cultural adaptation. Consistent with the acculturation penetration hypothesis, the results showed Canadian identity was stronger than heritage identity in public domains, but the converse was true in the family domain; moreover, the difference between the identities in the family domain was attenuated in later generations. Situational variability indicated better adaptation for the G1 cohort, but poorer adaptation for the G2.5 cohort. For the G2 cohort, facets of global identity moderated the relation, such that those with a weaker global identity experienced greater difficulties and hassles with greater identity variability but those with a stronger identity did not. These results are interpreted in light of potential interpersonal issues implied by situational variation for each generation cohort. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. Rapid Hip Osteoarthritis Development in a Patient with Anterior Acetabular Cyst with Sagittal Alignment Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Homma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is rare and develops unusual clinical course. Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms of the development of RDC. However the exact mechanism of RDC is still not clear. The difficulty of the study on RDC is attributed to its rareness and the fact that the data before the onset of RDC is normally unavailable. In this report, we presented the patient having the radiographic data before the onset who had rapid osteoarthritis (OA development after contralateral THA, which meets the current criteria of RDC. We thought that the increased posterior tilt of the pelvis after THA reinforced the stress concentration at pre-existed anterior acetabular cyst, thereby the destruction of the cyst was occurred. As a result the rapid OA was developed. We think that there is the case of rapid osteoarthritis developing due to alternating load concentration by posterior pelvic tilt on preexisting anterior acetabular cyst such as our patient among the cases diagnosed as RDC without any identifiable etiology. The recognition of sagittal alignment changes and anterior acetabular cyst may play important role in prediction and prevention of the rapid hip osteoarthritis development similar to RDC.

  8. Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes-Hugo, Martin; Doney, Scott C; Ducklow, Hugh W; Fraser, William; Martinson, Douglas; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Schofield, Oscar

    2009-03-13

    The climate of the western shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) is undergoing a transition from a cold-dry polar-type climate to a warm-humid sub-Antarctic-type climate. Using three decades of satellite and field data, we document that ocean biological productivity, inferred from chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a), has significantly changed along the WAP shelf. Summertime surface Chl a (summer integrated Chl a approximately 63% of annually integrated Chl a) declined by 12% along the WAP over the past 30 years, with the largest decreases equatorward of 63 degrees S and with substantial increases in Chl a occurring farther south. The latitudinal variation in Chl a trends reflects shifting patterns of ice cover, cloud formation, and windiness affecting water-column mixing. Regional changes in phytoplankton coincide with observed changes in krill (Euphausia superba) and penguin populations.

  9. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    everyday lives and the spaces we inhabit. Where email and the telephone have broken down barriers of geography, the relationship of technology with physical locations in people’s lives strengthens. From Occupy to the London riots and the Arab Spring, situated technologies offer new ways through which we......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... a plethora of different means for citizens to engage with planning issues within a plethora of different contexts and situations. The dissertation makes contributions of two kinds. Conceptually, it offers a richer understanding of what is implicated in the design of technologies for situated engagement...

  11. Rapid assessment of large scale vegetation change based on multi-temporal phenological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Danlu; Guan, Yanning; Guo, Shan; Yan, Baoping; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Chunyan; Piao, Yingchao; An, Xudong; Kang, Lihua

    2011-11-01

    Detecting vegetation change is critical for earth system and sustainability science. The existing methods, however, show several limitations, including inevitable selection of imagery acquisition dates, affection from vegetation related noise on temporal trajectory analysis, and assumptions due to vegetation classification model. This paper presents a multitemporal phenological frequency analysis over a relatively short period (MTPFA-SP) methodology to detect vegetation changes. This MTPFA-SP methodology bases on the amplitude components of fast Fourier transforming (FFT) and is implemented with two steps. First, NDVI time series over two periods are transformed with FFT into frequency domain, separately. Second, amplitude components with phenological information from Step 1 are selected for further change comparison. In this methodology, component selection shows physical meanings of natural vegetation process in frequency domain. Comparisons among those selected components help enhance the ability to rapidly detect vegetation changes. To validate this MTPFA-SP methodology, we detect changes between two periods (2001-2005 and 2006-2010) in the eastern Tibet Plateau area and make two kinds of assessments. The first is for a larger scale, including statistic analysis of altitudinal zonality and latitudinal zonality. The second assessment is for rapid detection of vegetation change location. Landsat TM image were employed to validate the result.

  12. Rapid climate changes in the tropical Atlantic region during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughen, Konrad A.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Peterson, Larry C.; Trumbore, Susan

    1996-03-01

    THE climate system is capable of changing abruptly from one stable mode to another1-3. Rapid climate oscillations-in particular the Younger Dryas cold period during the last deglaciation-have long been recognized from records throughout the North Atlantic region4-14, and the distribution of these records at mostly high latitudes suggests that the changes were caused by rapid reorganizations of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation6,8,10,15. But events far from the North Atlantic region that are synchronous with the Younger Dryas16-19 raise the possibility that a more global forcing mechanism was responsible20. Here we present high-resolution records of laminated sediments of the last deglaciation from the Cariaco basin (tropical Atlantic Ocean) which show many abrupt sub-decade to century-scale oscillations in surface-ocean biological productivity that are synchronous with climate changes at high latitudes. We attribute these productivity variations to changes in or duration of up-welling rate (and hence nutrient supply) caused by changes in trade-wind strength, which is in turn influenced by the thermo-haline circulation through its effect on sea surface temperature6,21. Abrupt climate changes in the tropical Atlantic during the last deglaciation are thus consistent with a North Atlantic circulation forcing mechanism.

  13. Changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion in oral breathing children

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Hilda; Alarcón, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the changes in nasal air flow and school grades after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathing children with maxillary constriction. Material and Methods: Forty-four oral breathing children (mean age 10.57 y) underwent orthodontic RME with a Hyrax screw. Forty-four age-matched children (mean age 10.64 y) with nasal physiological breathing and adequate transverse maxillary dimensions served as the control group. The maxillary widths, nasal air flow assessed via p...

  14. Environmental impacts of rapid water level changes; Miljoekonsekvenser av raske vannstandsendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Bakken, Tor Haakon; Bogen, Jim; Boensnes, Truls Erik; Elster, Margrethe; Harby, Atle; Kutznetsova, Yulia; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Sauterleute, Julian; Stickler, Morten; Sundt, Haakon; Tjomsland, Torulv; Ugedal, Ola

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge of the environmental impacts of power driving and rapid water level changes and describes possible mitigation measures. The report assesses the environmental effects of possible increased power installation in Mauranger and Tonstad power plants, based on existing data and knowledge. At Straumsmo plants in Barduelva there are collected some physical data and the environmental impact of existing power driving is considered. (eb)

  15. Evaluation of rapid volume changes of substrate-adherent cells by conventional microscopy 3D imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreault, F; Grygorczyk, R

    2004-09-01

    Precise measurement of rapid volume changes of substrate-adherent cells is essential to understand many aspects of cell physiology, yet techniques to evaluate volume changes with sufficient precision and high temporal resolution are limited. Here, we describe a novel imaging method that surveys the rapid morphology modifications of living, substrate-adherent cells based on phase-contrast, digital video microscopy. Cells grown on a glass substrate are mounted in a custom-designed, side-viewing chamber and subjected to hypotonic swelling. Side-view images of the rapidly swelling cell, and at the end of the assay, an image of the same cell viewed from a perpendicular direction through the substrate, are acquired. Based on these images, off-line reconstruction of 3D cell morphology is performed, which precisely measures cell volume, height and surface at different points during cell volume changes. Volume evaluations are comparable to those obtained by confocal laser scanning microscopy (DeltaVolume microscopy without the need for cell staining or intense illumination to monitor cell volume make this system a promising new tool to investigate the fundamentals of cell volume physiology.

  16. Situated communication:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    the power of mainstream images of "indian-ness" through a representation of Kumeyaay culture as living in the present San Diego county area of the U.S.  This case demonstrates the connection between ideology about Native Americans and the online responses which assert Kumeyaay identity as situated...

  17. Deep situationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejskova, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    as a Slovak national with immigration experi- ence, a nominal outsider to both the country of research, Germany, and its immigrant subjects, the post-Soviet Russian-speaking migrants. Focusing on the production of time-spaces of proximity as a deeply situational process, I stress in particular the un...

  18. Situational analysis of dental caries and existing oral health care of children and adolescents in Hubei Province, People's Republic of China: implications for change.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Yee, R.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Holmgren, C.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: (1) To evaluate trends in dental caries of children and adolescents of Hubei Province and Wuhan Municipality over the last two decades. (2) To conduct a situational analysis of existing oral health care and to recommend changes to improve this care for children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An

  19. Rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1 induced by balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno

    2016-06-01

    Training-induced changes in cortical structure can be observed non-invasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While macroscopic changes were found mainly after weeks to several months of training in humans, imaging of motor cortical networks in animals revealed rapid microstructural alterations after a few hours of training. We used MRI to test the hypothesis of immediate and specific training-induced alterations in motor cortical gray matter in humans. We found localized increases in motor cortical thickness after 1h of practice in a complex balancing task. These changes were specific to motor cortical effector representations primarily responsible for balance control in our task (lower limb and trunk) and these effects could be confirmed in a replication study. Cortical thickness changes (i) linearly increased across the training session, (ii) occurred independent of alterations in resting cerebral blood flow and (iii) were not triggered by repetitive use of the lower limbs. Our findings show that motor learning triggers rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rapid changes in brain structure predict improvements induced by perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Kanai, Ryota; Bahrami, Bahador; Muggleton, Neil G; Rees, Geraint; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Practice-dependent changes in brain structure can occur in task relevant brain regions as a result of extensive training in complex motor tasks and long-term cognitive training but little is known about the impact of visual perceptual learning on brain structure. Here we studied the effect of five days of visual perceptual learning in a motion-color conjunction search task using anatomical MRI. We found rapid changes in gray matter volume in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, an area sensitive to coherently moving stimuli, that predicted the degree to which an individual's performance improved with training. Furthermore, behavioral improvements were also predicted by volumetric changes in an extended white matter region underlying the visual cortex. These findings point towards quick and efficient plastic neural mechanisms that enable the visual brain to deal effectively with changing environmental demands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid emergence of climate change in environmental drivers of marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Stephanie A.; Beaulieu, Claudie; Ilyina, Tatiana; John, Jasmin G.; Long, Matthew; Séférian, Roland; Tjiputra, Jerry; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is expected to modify ecological responses in the ocean, with the potential for important effects on the ecosystem services provided to humankind. Here we address the question of how rapidly multiple drivers of marine ecosystem change develop in the future ocean. By analysing an ensemble of models we find that, within the next 15 years, the climate change-driven trends in multiple ecosystem drivers emerge from the background of natural variability in 55% of the ocean and propagate rapidly to encompass 86% of the ocean by 2050 under a `business-as-usual' scenario. However, we also demonstrate that the exposure of marine ecosystems to climate change-induced stress can be drastically reduced via climate mitigation measures; with mitigation, the proportion of ocean susceptible to multiple drivers within the next 15 years is reduced to 34%. Mitigation slows the pace at which multiple drivers emerge, allowing an additional 20 years for adaptation in marine ecological and socio-economic systems alike.

  2. Situation Songs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolar-Borsky, Agnes; Holck, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the various therapeutic intentions behind the use of one particular improvisation method applied in pediatric music therapy, called the situation song (from the German term “Situationslied”- Plahl & Koch-Temming, 2008, p. 180). According to Plahl & Koch...... the therapeutic relationship; to enhance experience and development in the fields of emotion, behavior, expression and social skills; to express messages in language and to give structure to the child. The overall aim behind the use of situation songs is to offer essential experiences to the child in order...... to support his or her development. This study attempts to give an impulse to more international exchange of clinical terms applied in music therapy. The study was submitted as the first author’s master thesis in Music Therapy at the Aalborg University in Denmark. The second author supervised the process...

  3. Rapid Detection of Land Cover Changes Using Crowdsourced Geographic Information: A Case Study of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Meng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change (LCC detection is a significant component of sustainability research including ecological economics and climate change. Due to the rapid variability of natural environment, effective LCC detection is required to capture sufficient change-related information. Although such information has been available through remotely sensed images, the complicated image processing and classification make it time consuming and labour intensive. In contrast, the freely available crowdsourced geographic information (CGI contains easily interpreted textual information, and thus has the potential to be applied for capturing effective change-related information. Therefore, this paper presents and evaluates a method using CGI for rapid LCC detection. As a case study, Beijing is chosen as the study area, and CGI is applied to monitor LCC information. As one kind of CGI which is generated from commercial Internet maps, points of interest (POIs with detailed textual information are utilised to detect land cover in 2016. Those POIs are first classified into land cover nomenclature based on their textual information. Then, a kernel density approach is proposed to effectively generate land cover regions in 2016. Finally, with GlobeLand30 in 2010 as baseline map, LCC is detected using the post-classification method in the period of 2010–2016 in Beijing. The result shows that an accuracy of 89.20% is achieved with land cover regions generated by POIs, indicating that POIs are reliable for rapid LCC detection. Additionally, an LCC detection comparison is proposed between remotely sensed images and CGI, revealing the advantages of POIs in terms of LCC efficiency. However, due to the uneven distribution, remotely sensed images are still required in areas with few POIs.

  4. Development of Middle Stone Age innovation linked to rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Simon, Margit H; Hall, Ian R; Barker, Stephen; Stringer, Chris; Zahn, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    The development of modernity in early human populations has been linked to pulsed phases of technological and behavioural innovation within the Middle Stone Age of South Africa. However, the trigger for these intermittent pulses of technological innovation is an enigma. Here we show that, contrary to some previous studies, the occurrence of innovation was tightly linked to abrupt climate change. Major innovational pulses occurred at times when South African climate changed rapidly towards more humid conditions, while northern sub-Saharan Africa experienced widespread droughts, as the Northern Hemisphere entered phases of extreme cooling. These millennial-scale teleconnections resulted from the bipolar seesaw behaviour of the Atlantic Ocean related to changes in the ocean circulation. These conditions led to humid pulses in South Africa and potentially to the creation of favourable environmental conditions. This strongly implies that innovational pulses of early modern human behaviour were climatically influenced and linked to the adoption of refugia.

  5. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  6. Rapid Holocene coastal change revealed by high-resolution micropaleontological analysis, Pamlico Sound, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, Pre C.; Culver, S.J.; Mallinson, D.J.; Farrell, K.M.; Corbett, D.R.; Horton, B.P.; Hillier, C.; Riggs, S.R.; Snyder, S.W.; Buzas, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Foraminiferal analyses of 404 contiguous samples, supported by diatom, lithologic, geochronologic and seismic data, reveal both rapid and gradual Holocene paleoenvironmental changes in an 8.21-m vibracore taken from southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina. Data record initial flooding of a latest Pleistocene river drainage and the formation of an estuary 9000. yr ago. Estuarine conditions were punctuated by two intervals of marine influence from approximately 4100 to 3700 and 1150 to 500. cal. yr BP. Foraminiferal assemblages in the muddy sand facies that accumulated during these intervals contain many well-preserved benthic foraminiferal species, which occur today in open marine settings as deep as the mid shelf, and significant numbers of well-preserved planktonic foraminifera, some typical of Gulf Stream waters. We postulate that these marine-influenced units resulted from temporary destruction of the southern Outer Banks barrier islands by hurricanes. The second increase in marine influence is coeval with increased rate of sea-level rise and a peak in Atlantic tropical cyclone activity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. This high-resolution analysis demonstrates the range of environmental variability and the rapidity of coastal change that can result from the interplay of changing climate, sea level and geomorphology in an estuarine setting. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  7. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, L I; Shashoua, V E; Yoon, M G

    1981-03-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain.

  8. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Basu, Niladri; Bustamante, Paco; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Hopkins, William A.; Kidd, Karen A.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.

  9. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-03-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with (3H)-, the other with (14C)proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain.

  10. Rapid transgenerational acclimation of a tropical reef fish to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, J. M.; Munday, P. L.; McCormick, M. I.; Pitcher, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the capacity of species to acclimate and adapt to expected temperature increases is critical for making predictions about the biological impacts of global warming, yet it is one of the least certain aspects of climate change science. Tropical species are considered to be especially sensitive to climate change because they live close to their thermal maximum and exhibit limited capacity for acclimation. Here, we demonstrate that a tropical reef fish is highly sensitive to small increases in water temperature, but can rapidly acclimate over multiple generations. Acute exposure to elevated temperatures (+1.5°C and +3.0°C) predicted to occur this century caused a 15% and 30% respective decrease in individual's maximum ability to perform aerobic activities such as swimming or foraging, known as aerobic scope. However, complete compensation in aerobic scope occurred when both parents and offspring were reared throughout their lives at elevated temperature. Such acclimation could reduce the impact of warming temperatures and allow populations to persist across their current range. This study reveals the importance of transgenerational acclimation as a mechanism for coping with rapid climate change and highlights that single generation studies risk underestimating the potential of species to cope.

  11. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-01-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals’ responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work. PMID:25567979

  12. Comparing records to understand past rapid climate change: An INTIMATE database update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Rebecca; Bronk Ramsey, Christopher; Staff, Richard A.; Albert, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    Integrating multi-proxy records from ice, terrestrial and marine records enhances the understanding of the temporal and spatial variation of past rapid climatic changes globally. By handling these records on their own individual timescales and linking them through known chronological relationships (e.g. tephra, 10Be and 14C), regional comparisons can be made for these past climatic events. Furthermore, the use of time-transfer functions enables the chronological uncertainties between different archives to be quantified. The chronological database devised by the working group 1 (WG1) of INTIMATE, exclusively uses this methodology to provide a means to visualise and compare palaeoclimate records. Development of this database is ongoing, with numerous additional records being added to the database with a particular focus on European archives spanning the Late Glacial period. Here we present a new phase of data collection. Through selected cases study sites across Europe, we aim to illustrate the database as a novel tool in understanding spatial and temporal variations in rapid climatic change. Preliminary results allow questions such as time transgression and regional expressions of rapid climate change to be investigated. The development of this database will continue through additional input of raw climate proxy data, linking to other relevant databases (e.g. Fossil Pollen Database) and providing output data that can be analysed in the statistical programming language of R. A major goal of this work to is not only provide a detailed database, but allow researchers to integrate their own climate proxy data with that on the database.

  13. Neurogenomics and the role of a large mutational target on rapid behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Craig E; Kulathinal, Rob J

    2016-11-08

    Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage. However, unlike other rapidly evolving functional systems such as sperm-egg interactions and immune defense, the genetic basis of rapid behavioral change remains elusive. Here we propose that the rapid divergence and widespread novelty of innate and adaptive behavior is primarily a function of its genomic architecture. Specifically, we hypothesize that the broad diversity of behavioral phenotypes present at micro- and macroevolutionary scales is promoted by a disproportionately large mutational target of neurogenic genes. We present evidence that these large neuro-behavioral targets are significant and ubiquitous in animal genomes and suggest that behavior's novelty and rapid emergence are driven by a number of factors including more selection on a larger pool of variants, a greater role of phenotypic plasticity, and/or unique molecular features present in large genes. We briefly discuss the origins of these large neurogenic genes, as they relate to the remarkable diversity of metazoan behaviors, and highlight key consequences on both behavioral traits and neurogenic disease across, respectively, evolutionary and ontogenetic time scales. Current approaches to studying the genetic mechanisms underlying rapid phenotypic change primarily focus on identifying signatures of Darwinian selection in protein-coding regions. In contrast

  14. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Rod

    2013-01-01

    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.

  15. Experiences of Families Transmitting Values in a Rapidly Changing Society: Implications for Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyil, Yudum; Prouty, Anne; Blanchard, Amy; Lyness, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Intergenerational value transmission affects parent-child relationships and necessitates constant negotiation in families. Families with adolescents from rapidly changing societies face unique challenges in balancing the traditional collectivistic family values that promote harmony with emerging values that promote autonomy. Using modern Turkey as an example of such a culture, the authors examine the transmission process in families that hold more traditional and collectivistic values than their adolescent children. Special consideration is given to generational and cultural differences in the autonomy and relatedness dimensions. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  16. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Su; Olafsrud, Solveig Mjelstad; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Saatcioglu, Fahri

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common integrative medicine (IM) modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P) compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  17. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Qu

    Full Text Available One of the most common integrative medicine (IM modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  18. Changes in head posture after rapid maxillary expansion in patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurchieva-Chuchkova G

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nasopharyngeal obstruction is an important etiologic factor in the development of an extreme vertical growth facial pattern, and insufficient transversal growth of the maxilla. The treatment outcomes associated with rapid maxillary expansion in the literature are mainly discussed in terms of changes in dentofacial morphology, without special reference to changes in the pharyngeal airway, the position of the mandible, hyoid bone and the tongue. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME, on changes in head posture and airway dimension. Materials and methods: The cephalometric evaluation was conducted on thirty lateral cephalograms of patients with nasopharyngeal obstruction (mean age 9.11 years; standard deviation (SD ± 2.0; range 8-14 years treated with appliance for rapid maxillary expansion. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 1 study group comprised of 15 patients treated with RME immediately after the first visit; 2 a control group comprised of 15 subjects monitored for approximately 12 months prior to commencing therapy, who became untreated controls. Lateral cephalograms, taken in the natural head position, were obtained at the first visit and 6 months later for all subjects. Six angular measurements were measured to describe craniocervical angulation, and five linear measurements were measured to describe airway dimension. Results: The investigated group treated with RME shows a statistically significant decrease in craniocervical angulation, especially at the angle of interaction between palatal plane and the tangent odontoid processus (4.07 degrees, for PP/OPT angle and angle interaction between palatal plane and the tangent of cervical vertebra (4.95 degrees for PP/CVT angle. Airway dimension in the treated group increased, especially at the levels PNS-ad1 (2.52 mm, ve-pve (2.97 mm, and uv-puv (2.88 mm. No significant changes were observed in the control group

  19. Changes of pulp-chamber dimensions 1 year after rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves, Matheus; Mattos, Cláudia Trindade; Souza, Margareth Maria Gomes de; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of orthopedic forces on maxillary first molars' and maxillary central incisors' pulp chambers in children having rapid maxillary expansion as the only intervention compared with children having no orthodontic intervention by using cone-beam computed tomography images. In this prospective controlled clinical study, we evaluated 60 maxillary first molars and 60 maxillary central incisors from 30 children (18 boys, 12 girls) in the mixed dentition and during the pubertal growth period. The treated group had rapid maxillary expansion with the Haas expander, followed by 6 months of retention and 6 months of follow-up out of retention; the control group had no intervention during the study. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken initially and 1 year after the rapid maxillary expansion active phase. Initially, a 3-dimensional scrolling in all pulp chambers of the evaluated teeth was performed with Dolphin Imaging software (version 11.0; Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif) to describe the incidence of pulp-chamber calcifications. The dimensions of the pulp chambers of the molars and incisors were also investigated. Cross-sectional and longitudinal slices were used for each molar (coronal and axial slices) and incisor (sagittal and axial slices). The area (mm(2)) was obtained from 3 slices of each kind (6 measurements for each tooth). The results suggest that rapid maxillary expansion did not induce new pulp-chamber calcification. Also, it did not interfere in normal pulp-chamber dimension changes of the anchorage molars. The pulp chamber of the central incisors can be expected to be minimally wider 1 year after the therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological Pleiotropy Suppresses the Dynamic Feedback Generated by a Rapidly Changing Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, John P

    2017-05-01

    Population dynamics may carry a signature of an ecology-evolution-ecology feedback, known as eco-evolutionary dynamics, when functionally important traits change. Given current theory, the absence of a feedback from a trait with strong links to species interactions should not occur. In a previous study with the Didinium-Paramecium predator-prey system, however, rapid and large-magnitude changes in predator cell volume occurred without any noticeable effect on the population dynamics. Here I resolve this theory-data conflict by showing that ecological pleiotropy-when a trait has more than one functional effect on an ecological process-suppresses shifts in dynamics that would arise, given the links between cell volume and the species interaction. Whether eco-evolutionary dynamics arise, therefore, depends not just on the ecology-evolution feedback but on the net effect that a trait has on different parts of the underlying interaction.

  1. Rapid directional change degrades GPS distance measurement validity during intermittent intensity running.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan C Rawstorn

    Full Text Available Use of the Global Positioning System (GPS for quantifying athletic performance is common in many team sports. The effect of running velocity on measurement validity is well established, but the influence of rapid directional change is not well understood in team sport applications. This effect was systematically evaluated using multidirectional and curvilinear adaptations of a validated soccer simulation protocol that maintained identical velocity profiles. Team sport athletes completed 90 min trials of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle-running Test movement pattern on curvilinear, and multidirectional shuttle running tracks while wearing a 5 Hz (with interpolated 15 Hz output GPS device. Reference total distance (13 200 m was systematically over- and underestimated during curvilinear (2.61±0.80% and shuttle (-3.17±2.46% trials, respectively. Within-epoch measurement uncertainty dispersion was widest during the shuttle trial, particularly during the jog and run phases. Relative measurement reliability was excellent during both trials (Curvilinear r = 1.00, slope = 1.03, ICC = 1.00; Shuttle r = 0.99, slope = 0.97, ICC = 0.99. Absolute measurement reliability was superior during the curvilinear trial (Curvilinear SEM = 0 m, CV = 2.16%, LOA ± 223 m; Shuttle SEM = 119 m, CV = 2.44%, LOA ± 453 m. Rapid directional change degrades the accuracy and absolute reliability of GPS distance measurement, and caution is recommended when using GPS to quantify rapid multidirectional movement patterns.

  2. MRI evaluation of body composition changes in wrestlers undergoing rapid weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukidome, T; Shirai, K; Kubo, J; Matsushima, Y; Yanagisawa, O; Homma, T; Aizawa, K

    2008-10-01

    Changes in body composition of college wrestlers undergoing rapid weight reduction were evaluated over time using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study evaluated 12 wrestlers (male, 18-22 years of age) who participated in Japan's 2005 intercollegiate wrestling tournament. For this study, MRI (of the right femoral region and the trunk), as well as measurements of body weight, body fat percentage and body water content, were performed 1 month and 1 week prior to the weigh-in, on the day of the weigh-in, on the day of the match (after the match), and 1 week after the weigh-in. A survey of food and fluid intake was also conducted. Several variables were significantly lower on the day of the weigh-in than one month prior: body weight (pfat (pmuscle, and trunk fat; quadriceps muscle; lower subcutaneous; and food intake (pweight reduction reduced the wrestlers' cross-sectional areas of muscle and fat tissues, which tended to recover through rehydration after the weigh-in. These results suggest that rapid weight reduction of wrestlers induced changes in different regions of the body.

  3. Streamlining the Change-Over Protocol for the RPA Mission Intelligence Coordinator by way of Situation Awareness Oriented Design and Discrete Event Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    CO to achieve operational situation awareness, were identified and explored . These EEIs were then traced in two fashions – chronologically, in that...4. Proposed Change-over Process Arena Model Mission Data {Textual Report) Geo- spacial Data {Graphic Display) ~’- Organization . --.... Flight...generated report or visual display, as found in the mission data report, geo- spacial display or RPA system data display. These EEIs are often nuanced

  4. Driving performance changes of middle-aged experienced taxi drivers due to distraction tasks during unexpected situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Choi, Jin-Seung; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Hong, Sang-Pyo; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Tack, Gye-Rae; Kim, Boseong; Min, Ung-Chan; Lim, Dae-Woon; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of distraction taskssuch as sending a text message with a cellphone and searching navigation with car navigation system-on the driving performance of 29 highly experienced taxi drivers in their 50s. All participants were instructed to drive using a driving simulator for 2 min. while maintaining a constant distance from the vehicle in front and a constant speed. Participants drove without any distractions for the first minute. For an additional minute, they performed Driving Only or performed a task while driving (Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation). An unexpected situation, in which the participant had to stop abruptly due to a sudden stop of the preceding vehicle, occurred during this period. Driving performance during the unexpected situation was evaluated by car control variables, medial-lateral coefficient of variation and brake time, and by motion variables such as the jerk-cost function. Compared to Driving Only, jerk-cost function, medial-lateral coefficient of variation, and brake time increased during Driving + Sending Text Message or Driving + Searching Navigation.

  5. Contextual Development: Situating the Social Change Model of Leadership Development within a Broader Reality of Comprehensive Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten-Andrews, Jeanie

    2016-01-01

    The social change model has proven an effective and widely utilized model assisting college students in leadership development toward positive social change. However, while this particular model gives much needed attention to the process of development leading to social change, it fails to acknowledge the external factors which significantly…

  6. People On The Move: Some Thoughts On Human Dispersal In Relation To Rapid Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W.

    It is still generally assumed that the default situation for past humans must have been to be sedentary. That is to say, given a chance people would have settled in one area (with a good supply of resources) and established clearly-defined territories. Such concepts presuppose that much of human existence was conducted in climatic conditions sim- ilar to the relatively stable ones seen in the Holocene. What effects do rapid climatic fluctuations have upon environmental carrying capacity, and thus upon human mobil- ity and exploitation patterns? Such an approach could be called 'non-analogue', as it does not seek to impose [current] Holocene patterns upon the Pleistocene, in the same way that 'non-analogue' animal and plant communities are now routinely described for the same period. If one adopts non-analogue perspectives, perhaps one could also argue that in many cases mobility was the rule and not the exception. Turning the conventional wisdom around, we can ask why people should remain in an area. What are the characteristics of that area which could have encouraged people to become less mobile? I do not argue that all groups were mobile: some cannot have been, and not every member of other groups would have been equally mobile (differentiation on grounds of age and sex). In addition, mobility patterns must also have varied over time, although we should not necessarily expect a discernible linear trend either towards or away from greater mobility, because such behaviour operates within a climatic and environmental framework as well as a socio-economic one. If climate oscillated rapidly, it is feasible to suggest that such fluctuations affected environmental stability and thus carrying capacity. The resource species present and their availability would therefore affect the possibilities for human mobility. When discussing the possibilities for human dispersal into new regions, we essentially have a choice between two competing models: the Wave of Advance (sensu

  7. Wildlife health in a rapidly changing North: focus on avian disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Pearce, John M.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-related environmental changes have increasingly been linked to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. The Arctic is facing a major ecological transition that is expected to substantially affect animal and human health. Changes in phenology or environmental conditions that result from climate warming may promote novel species assemblages as host and pathogen ranges expand to previously unoccupied areas. Recent evidence from the Arctic and subarctic suggests an increase in the spread and prevalence of some wildlife diseases, but baseline data necessary to detect and verify such changes are still lacking. Wild birds are undergoing rapid shifts in distribution and have been implicated in the spread of wildlife and zoonotic diseases. Here, we review evidence of current and projected changes in the abundance and distribution of avian diseases and outline strategies for future research. We discuss relevant climatic and environmental factors, emerging host–pathogen contact zones, the relationship between host condition and immune function, and potential wildlife and human health outcomes in northern regions.

  8. Bird mercury concentrations change rapidly as chicks age: Toxicological risk is highest at hatching and fledging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Toxicological risk of methylmercury exposure to juvenile birds is complex due to the highly transient nature of mercury concentrations as chicks age. We examined total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, muscle, and feathers of 111 Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri), 69 black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and 43 American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) chicks as they aged from hatching through postfledging at wetlands that had either low or high mercury contamination in San Francisco Bay, California. For each waterbird species, internal tissue, and wetland, total mercury and methylmercury concentrations changed rapidly as chicks aged and exhibited a quadratic, U-shaped pattern from hatching through postfledging. Mercury concentrations were highest immediately after hatching, due to maternally deposited mercury in eggs, then rapidly declined as chicks aged and diluted their mercury body burden through growth in size and mercury depuration into growing feathers. Mercury concentrations then increased during fledging when mass gain and feather growth slowed, while chicks continued to acquire dietary mercury. In contrast to mercury in internal tissues, mercury concentrations in chick feathers were highly variable and declined linearly with age. For 58 recaptured Forster's tern chicks, the proportional change in blood mercury concentration was negatively related to the proportional change in body mass, but not to the amount of feathers or wing length. Thus, mercury concentrations declined more in chicks that gained more mass between sampling events. The U-shaped pattern of mercury concentrations from hatching to fledging indicates that juvenile birds may be at highest risk to methylmercury toxicity shortly after hatching when maternally deposited mercury concentrations are still high and again after fledging when opportunities for mass dilution and mercury excretion into feathers are limited.

  9. Rapid Changes in Cortical and Subcortical Brain Regions after Early Bilateral Enucleation in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga O Kozanian

    Full Text Available Functional sensory and motor areas in the developing mammalian neocortex are formed through a complex interaction of cortically intrinsic mechanisms, such as gene expression, and cortically extrinsic mechanisms such as those mediated by thalamic input from the senses. Both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms are believed to be involved in cortical patterning and the establishment of areal boundaries in early development; however, the nature of the interaction between intrinsic and extrinsic processes is not well understood. In a previous study, we used a perinatal bilateral enucleation mouse model to test some aspects of this interaction by reweighting sensory input to the developing cortex. Visual deprivation at birth resulted in a shift of intraneocortical connections (INCs that aligned with ectopic ephrin A5 expression in the same location ten days later at postnatal day (P 10. A prevailing question remained: Does visual deprivation first induce a change in gene expression, followed by a shift in INCs, or vice versa? In the present study, we address this question by investigating the neuroanatomy and patterns of gene expression in post-natal day (P 1 and 4 mice following bilateral enucleation at birth. Our results demonstrate a rapid reduction in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN size and ephrin A5 gene expression 24-hours post-enucleation, with more profound effects apparent at P4. The reduced nuclear size and diminished gene expression mirrors subtle changes in ephrin A5 expression evident in P1 and P4 enucleated neocortex, 11 and 8 days prior to natural eye opening, respectively. Somatosensory and visual INCs were indistinguishable between P1 and P4 mice bilaterally enucleated at birth, indicating that perinatal bilateral enucleation initiates a rapid change in gene expression (within one day followed by an alteration of sensory INCs later on (second postnatal week. With these results, we gain a deeper understanding of how gene

  10. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.; Wardell-Johnson, G.W.; Yates, C.J.; Keppel, G.; Baran, I.; Franklin, S.E.; Hopper, S.D.; Niel, Van K.P.; Mucina, L.; Byrne, M.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs) provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic

  11. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  12. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  13. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dentoskeletal changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Zeliha Muge; Akin, Mehmet; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ileri, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the changes in arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) and to compare the measurements between the crossbite and the noncrossbite sides with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From our clinic archives, we selected the CBCT records of 30 patients with unilateral skeletal crossbite (13 boys, 14.2 ± 1.3 years old; 17 girls, 13.8 ± 1.3 years old) who underwent ARME treatment. A modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance including an occlusal locking mechanism was used in all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME treatment and after a 3-month retention period. Fourteen angular and 80 linear measurements were taken for the maxilla and the mandible. Frontally clipped CBCT images were used for the evaluation. Paired sample and independent sample t tests were used for statistical comparisons. Comparisons of the before-treatment and after-retention measurements showed that the arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth increased significantly on the crossbite side of the maxilla and on the noncrossbite side of the mandible (P ARME treatment, the crossbite side of the maxilla and the noncrossbite side of the mandible were more affected than were the opposite sides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Rapid change in the ciprofloxacin resistance pattern among Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Nuuk, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk Rolskov, Anne; Bjorn-Mortensen, Karen; Mulvad, Gert

    2015-01-01

    ProbeTec). Monitoring of GC antibiotic susceptibility by culture was introduced in Nuuk in 2012. Until 2014, no cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant GC strains were reported. In this paper, we report the finding of ciprofloxacin-resistant GC and describe the most recent incidence of GC infections...... (9%) were positive, respectively. From January to August, 6 (15%) cultures from Nuuk were ciprofloxacin resistant while in September and October, 26 (59%) were ciprofloxacin resistant (presistance. GC incidence in Nuuk...... was 3,017 per 100,000 inhabitants per year, compared to 2,491 per 100,000 inhabitants per year in the rest of Greenland. CONCLUSION: Within a short period, a rapid and dramatic change in ciprofloxacin susceptibility among GC strains isolated in Nuuk was documented and recommendation for first line...

  15. Tracking Change in rapid and eXtreme Development: A Challenge to SCM-tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    2001-01-01

    Software configuration management (SCM) has proved to be an invaluable part of developing and maintaining high quality software. The benefits are not for free however: SCM tool operations often divert your attention from your development task, sometimes you have to endure a long waiting time while...... the tool does its job, change descriptions must be memorised until your next check-in, etc. This kind of overhead and disruption does not fit well with fast-paced development processes like rapid prototyping, explorative programming, and eXtreme Programming that favour creativity, speed, and communication...... more that managerial rigour. In the cost/benefit equation the balance may tip in favour of not using any SCM tool or only using a fraction of its potential. We think SCM has something to offer such projects, and present some proposals that may allow SCM tools to better suit the characteristics of fast...

  16. Comparison between rapid and mixed maxillary expansion through an assessment of arch changes on dental casts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassia, Vincenzo; d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Femiano, Felice; Favero, Lorenzo; Perillo, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective observational study was to compare upper and lower dental changes in patients treated with Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) and Mixed Maxillary Expansion (MME), assessed by dental cast analysis. Treatment groups consisted of 42 patients: the RME group (n = 21) consisted of 13 female and 8 male subjects with the mean age of 8.8 years ± 1.37 at T0 and 9.6 years ± 1.45 at T1; the MME group (n = 21) consisted of 12 female and 9 male patients with a mean age of 8.9 years ± 2.34 at T0 and 10.5 years ± 2.08 at T1. The upper and lower arch analysis was performed on four dental bilateral landmarks, on upper and lower casts; also upper and lower arch depths were measured. The groups were compared using independent sample t-test to estimate dental changes in upper and lower arches. Before expansion treatment (T0), the groups were similar for all examined variables (p>0.05). In both RME and MME group, significant increments in all the variables for maxillary and mandibular arch widths were observed after treatment. No significant differences in maxillary and mandibular arch depths were observed at the end of treatment in both groups. An evaluation of the changes after RME and MME (T1) showed statistically significant differences in mandibular arch depth (plip bumper effects" observed in the MME protocol.

  17. Morphologic changes of the palate after rapid maxillary expansion: a 3-dimensional computed tomography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatouros, Andriana; Goonewardene, Mithran S

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to estimate the area change of the palate after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in the early mixed dentition stage by using a 3-dimensional (3D) helical computed tomography (CT) scanning technique. In addition, linear changes in the maxillary arch were evaluated. The treated sample consisted of 43 children (mean age, 9 years 1 month) treated with a bonded RME appliance. The untreated control group consisted of 7 children (mean age, 9 years 3 months). Pretreatment and posttreatment dental casts were evaluated by using 3D helical CT scanning procedures. The Student t test was used to compare the linear, area, and angular differences between the treatment times. RME produced clinically significant increases in interdental widths across the canines, the deciduous first molars, and the permanent first molars in the maxillary arch. Significant increases in cross-sectional area were observed across the permanent first molars (15.3 mm(2)). There was marked variability in the buccal tipping of the permanent first molars. Three-dimensional helical CT scanning is an accurate and cost-effective method of assessing dental cast morphologic changes. It can also provide fast and accurate data acquisition and subsequent analysis.

  18. New insights from coral growth band studies in an era of rapid environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, Janice M.; Cooper, Timothy F.

    2011-10-01

    The rapid formation of calcium carbonate coral skeletons (calcification) fuelled by the coral-algal symbiosis is the backbone of tropical coral reef ecosystems. However, the efficacy of calcification is measurably influenced by the sea's physico-chemical environment, which is changing rapidly. Warming oceans have already led to increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching, and ocean acidification has a demonstrable potential to cause reduced rates of calcification. There is now general agreement that ocean warming and acidification are attributable to human activities increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the large part of the extra carbon dioxide (the main greenhouse gas) that is absorbed by oceans. Certain massive corals provide historical perspectives on calcification through the presence of dateable annual density banding patterns. Each band is a page in an environmental archive that reveals past responses of growth (linear extension, skeletal density and calcification rate) and provides a basis for prediction of future of coral growth. A second major line of research focuses on the measurement of various geochemical tracers incorporated into the growth bands, allowing the reconstruction of past marine climate conditions (i.e. palaeoclimatology). Here, we focus on the structural properties of the annual density bands themselves (viz. density; linear extension), exploring their utility in providing both perspectives on the past and pointers to the future of calcification on coral reefs. We conclude that these types of coral growth records, though relatively neglected in recent years compared to the geochemical studies, remain immensely valuable aids to unravelling the consequences of anthropogenic climate change on coral reefs. Moreover, an understanding of coral growth processes is an essential pre-requisite for proper interpretation of studies of geochemical tracers in corals.

  19. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Takemi; Gomi, Hiroaki; Kashino, Makio

    2010-11-08

    There has been plentiful evidence of kinesthetically induced rapid compensation for unanticipated perturbation in speech articulatory movements. However, the role of auditory information in stabilizing articulation has been little studied except for the control of voice fundamental frequency, voice amplitude and vowel formant frequencies. Although the influence of auditory information on the articulatory control process is evident in unintended speech errors caused by delayed auditory feedback, the direct and immediate effect of auditory alteration on the movements of articulators has not been clarified. This work examined whether temporal changes in the auditory feedback of bilabial plosives immediately affects the subsequent lip movement. We conducted experiments with an auditory feedback alteration system that enabled us to replace or block speech sounds in real time. Participants were asked to produce the syllable /pa/ repeatedly at a constant rate. During the repetition, normal auditory feedback was interrupted, and one of three pre-recorded syllables /pa/, /Φa/, or /pi/, spoken by the same participant, was presented once at a different timing from the anticipated production onset, while no feedback was presented for subsequent repetitions. Comparisons of the labial distance trajectories under altered and normal feedback conditions indicated that the movement quickened during the short period immediately after the alteration onset, when /pa/ was presented 50 ms before the expected timing. Such change was not significant under other feedback conditions we tested. The earlier articulation rapidly induced by the progressive auditory input suggests that a compensatory mechanism helps to maintain a constant speech rate by detecting errors between the internally predicted and actually provided auditory information associated with self movement. The timing- and context-dependent effects of feedback alteration suggest that the sensory error detection works in a

  20. Rapid change in articulatory lip movement induced by preceding auditory feedback during production of bilabial plosives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takemi Mochida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been plentiful evidence of kinesthetically induced rapid compensation for unanticipated perturbation in speech articulatory movements. However, the role of auditory information in stabilizing articulation has been little studied except for the control of voice fundamental frequency, voice amplitude and vowel formant frequencies. Although the influence of auditory information on the articulatory control process is evident in unintended speech errors caused by delayed auditory feedback, the direct and immediate effect of auditory alteration on the movements of articulators has not been clarified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This work examined whether temporal changes in the auditory feedback of bilabial plosives immediately affects the subsequent lip movement. We conducted experiments with an auditory feedback alteration system that enabled us to replace or block speech sounds in real time. Participants were asked to produce the syllable /pa/ repeatedly at a constant rate. During the repetition, normal auditory feedback was interrupted, and one of three pre-recorded syllables /pa/, /Φa/, or /pi/, spoken by the same participant, was presented once at a different timing from the anticipated production onset, while no feedback was presented for subsequent repetitions. Comparisons of the labial distance trajectories under altered and normal feedback conditions indicated that the movement quickened during the short period immediately after the alteration onset, when /pa/ was presented 50 ms before the expected timing. Such change was not significant under other feedback conditions we tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The earlier articulation rapidly induced by the progressive auditory input suggests that a compensatory mechanism helps to maintain a constant speech rate by detecting errors between the internally predicted and actually provided auditory information associated with self movement. The timing- and context

  1. Interannual Change Detection of Mediterranean Seagrasses Using RapidEye Image Time Series

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    Dimosthenis Traganos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent research studies have highlighted the decrease in the coverage of Mediterranean seagrasses due to mainly anthropogenic activities. The lack of data on the distribution of these significant aquatic plants complicates the quantification of their decreasing tendency. While Mediterranean seagrasses are declining, satellite remote sensing technology is growing at an unprecedented pace, resulting in a wealth of spaceborne image time series. Here, we exploit recent advances in high spatial resolution sensors and machine learning to study Mediterranean seagrasses. We process a multispectral RapidEye time series between 2011 and 2016 to detect interannual seagrass dynamics in 888 submerged hectares of the Thermaikos Gulf, NW Aegean Sea, Greece (eastern Mediterranean Sea. We assess the extent change of two Mediterranean seagrass species, the dominant Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, following atmospheric and analytical water column correction, as well as machine learning classification, using Random Forests, of the RapidEye time series. Prior corrections are necessary to untangle the initially weak signal of the submerged seagrass habitats from satellite imagery. The central results of this study show that P. oceanica seagrass area has declined by 4.1%, with a trend of −11.2 ha/yr, while C. nodosa seagrass area has increased by 17.7% with a trend of +18 ha/yr throughout the 5-year study period. Trends of change in spatial distribution of seagrasses in the Thermaikos Gulf site are in line with reported trends in the Mediterranean. Our presented methodology could be a time- and cost-effective method toward the quantitative ecological assessment of seagrass dynamics elsewhere in the future. From small meadows to whole coastlines, knowledge of aquatic plant dynamics could resolve decline or growth trends and accurately highlight key units for future restoration, management, and conservation.

  2. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) changes in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankford, D Alan; Proctor, Charles D; Richard, Robert

    2005-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common condition in morbidly obese patients, with the reported prevalence ranging from 12-78%. There is increasing recognition of the need to diagnose and treat/manage OSA both preoperatively and postoperatively. Nasal CPAP is the preferred treatment of OSA; however, weight loss is associated with a reduction in required pressures. We evaluated the CPAP pressure requirements in a group of patients undergoing rapid weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. 15 patients who had been diagnosed with OSA before surgery were retrospectively evaluated. All patients had demonstrated compliance on home CPAP therapy, were minimally 3 months post-surgery and had follow-up reports that their CPAP was less effective. We obtained data on age, sex, weight, BMI, and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI). Optimal CPAP pressure was obtained initially through attended in-laboratory complex polysomnography. Follow-up CPAP pressure was obtained using an auto-titrating PAP device at home. These data were used to evaluate the pressure changes that accompanied weight loss. This group of patients had lost an average of 44.5 +/- 19.4 kg. Four patients had achieved their goal weight. Their starting CPAP pressures averaged 11 +/- 3.0 cm H2O, with a range of 7-18 cm H2O. Follow-up CPAP pressures averaged 9 +/- 2.7 cm H2O, with a range of 4-12 cm H2O, representing an overall reduction of 18%. The subgroup of patients who had achieved goal weight had a pressure reduction of 22% (9 +/- 2.0 to 7 +/- 1.0 cm H2O). CPAP pressure requirements change considerably in bariatric surgery patients undergoing rapid weight loss. Auto-titrating PAP devices have promise for facilitating the management of CPAP therapy during this time. Consideration should also be given to the use of autotitrating PAP units as the treatment of choice in these patients.

  3. Student movement in Chile, situated learning and digital activism. Commitment, social change and technological uses in teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Peña

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From the student movement emerged in Chile in 2011, the article reflects on the school as a learning space of audiovisual digital technologies and how this process can impact on the political communication dimension of a social movement. To do this, it is described and analyzed the case of a school where formal education in languages and digital technologies is overlapping with the use of applications and resources of the social web and so-called "social media" (youtube, blogs, social networks by high school students who become student leaders. Data are generated through key informant interviews and a selection of videos created for the students and uploaded to the Internet. The content of the interviews is approached from the concept of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991 and videos from the concept of video activism (Askanius, 2013; Mateos & Rajas, 2014. The results show that concrete use of digital tools obtained in formal educational spaces in a context of mobilization processes, generates new experiences of non-formal learning, which allow both students and teachers to reflect on their communicative practices and improve them. They also show an uncritical use of digital tools, which is a wake-up call on the need to incorporate privacy and self-care topics in internet within the contents to be developed by the school as space for digital learning.

  4. An invasive species induces rapid adaptive change in a native predator: cane toads and black snakes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Ben L; Shine, Richard

    2006-06-22

    Rapid environmental change due to human activities has increased rates of extinction, but some species may be able to adapt rapidly enough to deal with such changes. Our studies of feeding behaviour and physiological resistance to toxins reveal surprisingly rapid adaptive responses in Australian black snakes (Pseudechis porphyriacus) following the invasion of a lethally toxic prey item, the cane toad (Bufo marinus). Snakes from toad-exposed localities showed increased resistance to toad toxin and a decreased preference for toads as prey. Separate laboratory experiments suggest that these changes are not attributable to learning (we were unable to teach naive snakes to avoid toxic prey) or to acquired resistance (repeated sub-lethal doses did not enhance resistance). These results strongly suggest that black snake behaviour and physiology have evolved in response to the presence of toads, and have done so rapidly. Toads were brought to Australia in 1935, so these evolved responses have occurred in fewer than 23 snake generations.

  5. Change in Psychological, Physiological, and Situational Factors in Adults After Treatment of Chronic Cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Cynthia L; Crawford, Sybil L; Bova, Carol; Irwin, Richard S

    2017-09-01

    We hypothesized that addressing anxiety and depressive mood disorders will improve chronic cough severity and cough quality of life (CQOL). Major tenets of the theory of unpleasant symptoms were examined in a longitudinal observational study of consecutive adults with cough of > 8 weeks' duration treated in our cough clinic. At baseline and 3 and 6 months, subjects completed 3 Punum Ladders rating cough severity, the CQOL Questionnaire, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales-21, and the Duke Functional Social Support Questionnaire. Cross-sectional baseline and longitudinal regression analyses were conducted. Eighty subjects (55 women) with a mean age of 58.5 ± 11.1 years and a cough duration of 86.0 ± 123.7 months were enrolled. At baseline, worse cough severity was significantly associated with less education and worse ability to speak bothered by cough and the urge to cough. Worse CQOL was significantly associated with worse depression symptoms, urinary incontinence, and ability to speak; use of self-prescribed remedies; and younger age. Significant improvements in depression and stress symptoms occurred at 3 and 6 months. Anxiety symptoms improved, particularly in the first 3 months. Improvement in cough severity was significantly associated with less education, male sex, and improvement in ability to speak and urge to cough. Improvement in CQOL was significantly associated with improvement in urinary incontinence, urge to cough, anxiety symptoms, and use of self-prescribed remedies. Using the theory of unpleasant symptoms, we have come to appreciate that managing psychological, physiological, and situational factors in addition to focusing on identifying the cause of cough is important to maximize improvement in CQOL. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J

    2017-10-30

    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Late Quaternary Biosiliceous Laminated Marine Sediments From Antarctica: Seasonality During a Period of Rapid Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, J.; Stickley, C. E.; Maddison, E. J.; Leventer, A.; Brachfeld, S.; Domack, E. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Manley, P. L.; McClennen, C.

    2004-12-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet plays a key role in global oceanic and atmosphere systems. One of the most dynamic regions of the continent is the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) where ecological and cryospheric systems respond rapidly to climate change, such as the last deglaciation ( ˜12-13 kyr BP). Here, deglacial laminated diatom-rich marine sediments are well known, e.g., Palmer Deep (64° S 64° W; ODP Hole 1098A) comprising a distinctive 3 m thick sequence of deglacial `couplet' laminations. The East Antarctic margin (EAM), however, has received less attention than the West Antarctic margin (WAM) in palaeoceanographic studies yet its role in deep ocean circulation and, therefore, the global ocean system is significant. Recent sediment cores recovered from EAM sites during NSF Polar Programs-funded cruise NBP0101 in February and March 2001 (e.g. Mertz Drift \\{66° S 143° E\\}, Svenner Channel \\{69° S 77° E\\} in Prydz Bay, Nielsen Basin \\{67° S 66° E\\} and Iceberg Alley \\{67° S 63° E\\}), reveal that a similar sedimentary facies was deposited along the EAM, in similar geomorphological settings to Palmer Deep, during the same timeframe. These rich sediment archives reveal clues about circum-Antarctic palaeoceanographic change during the last deglaciation, a time of both high silica flux and rapid climate change. Microfabrics and diatom assemblages from scanning electron microscope backscattered and secondary electron imagery analysis of coeval deglacial varves from Palmer Deep (WAM), Mertz-Ninnis Trough and Iceberg Alley (EAM) are presented and compared. The varves from these localities are characterised by laminae to thin beds of orange-brown diatom ooze up to ˜8cm thick alternating with blue-grey diatom-bearing terrigenous sediments up to ˜4cm thick. The orange-brown oozes are dominated by resting spores and vegetative valves of Hyalochaete Chaetoceros spp., resulting from spring sedimentation associated with stratified surface waters promoting exceptionally

  8. The Impact of Rapid Climate Change on Prehistoric Societies during the Holocene in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Weninger

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the impact of Rapid Climate Change (RCC on prehistoric communities in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Early and Middle Holocene. Our focus is on the social implications of the four major climate cold anomalies that have recently been identified as key time-windows for global RCC (Mayewski et al. 2004. These cooling anomalies are well-dated, with Greenland ice-core resolution, due to synchronicity between warm/cold foraminifera ratios in Mediterranean core LC21 as a proxy for surface water temperature, and Greenland GISP2 non sea-salt (nss [K+] ions as a proxy for the intensification of the Siberian High and for polar air outbreaks in the northeast Mediterranean (Rohling et al. 2002. Building on these synchronisms, the GISP2 agemodel supplies the following precise time-intervals for archaeological RCC research: (i 8.6–8.0 ka, (ii 6.0–5.2 ka, (iii 4.2–4.0 ka and (iv 3.1–2.9 ka calBP. For each of these RCC time intervals, based on detailed 14C-based chronological studies, we investigate contemporaneous cultural developments. From our studies it follows that RCC-related climatic deterioration is a major factor underlying social change, although always at work within a wide spectrum of social, cultural, economic and religious factors.

  9. Rethinking climate change adaptation and place through a situated pathways framework: A case study from the Big Hole Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Murphy; Laurie Yung; Carina Wyborn; Daniel R. Williams

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically examines the temporal and spatial dynamics of adaptation in climate change science and explores how dynamic notions of 'place' elucidate novel ways of understanding community vulnerability and adaptation. Using data gathered from a narrative scenario-building process carried out among communities of the Big Hole Valley in Montana, the...

  10. Assessment of the Impact of the Changes in the Situation of the World Markets on the Regional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya Valeryevna Yekimova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the issues of the influence of world economy on the development of regional processes. The nature of the dependence of the modern domestic economy on the trends of the world raw material markets is considered. The heterogeneity of the regional processes to the changes of the world environment indicators is revealed. The channels of the influence of the world market trends changes on the regional processes are investigated. The analysis of the world economy indicators has allowed to create a system of basic indicators whose change reflects the tendencies of the world economy. The offered methodological approach to the assessment of the reaction of the regional processes to the changes in the world market trends is based on the economic cycle concept. The methodological tools include the maps of the time shifts allowing to define the time lag of the retardation of the reaction of certain regional processes to the changes in world economy; the model of the evaluation of the influence of the world economy indicators on the regional process, based on the correlation analysis; the differential matrix of the reactions of regional processes to the changes in world market trends, which enables to group them according to the reaction speed and its value. The authors present the fundamental recommendations for the regional processes management based on the world market dynamics analysis. The approbation of the methodological tools was carried out in the terms of the “Consumer prices level changes” and covered the regional process across 83 regions of Russia. They were classified by the speed and the value of the reaction of the consumer prices level to the changes of world market trends. The research has determined the factors and time limits for necessary involvement of regional authorities into the regulation of the consumer prices level. The selection of the implemented method of the direct and indirect regulation of the

  11. Rapid change in drift of the Australian plate records collision with Ontong Java plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knesel, Kurt M; Cohen, Benjamin E; Vasconcelos, Paulo M; Thiede, David S

    2008-08-07

    The subduction of oceanic plateaux, which contain extraordinarily thick basaltic crust and are the marine counterparts of continental flood-basalt provinces, is an important factor in many current models of plate motion and provides a potential mechanism for triggering plate reorganization. To evaluate such models, it is essential to decipher the history of the collision between the largest and thickest of the world's oceanic plateaux, the Ontong Java plateau, and the Australian plate, but this has been hindered by poor constraints for the arrival of the plateau at the Melanesian trench. Here we present (40)Ar-(39)Ar geochronological data on hotspot volcanoes in eastern Australian that reveal a strong link between collision of the Greenland-sized Ontong Java plateau with the Melanesian arc and motion of the Australian plate. The new ages define a short-lived period of reduced northward plate motion between 26 and 23 Myr ago, coincident with an eastward offset in the contemporaneous tracks of seamount chains in the Tasman Sea east of Australia. These features record a brief westward deflection of the Australian plate as the plateau entered and choked the Melanesian trench 26 Myr ago. From 23 Myr ago, Australia returned to a rapid northerly trajectory at roughly the same time that southwest-directed subduction began along the Trobriand trough. The timing and brevity of this collisional event correlate well with offsets in hotspot seamount tracks on the Pacific plate, including the archetypal Hawaiian chain, and thus provide strong evidence that immense oceanic plateaux, like the Ontong Java, can contribute to initiating rapid change in plate boundaries and motions on a global scale.

  12. Subchondral Bone Plate Changes More Rapidly than Trabecular Bone in Osteoarthritis

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    Zaitunnatakhin Zamli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common joint disorder, characterised by focal loss of cartilage and increased subchondral bone remodelling at early OA stages of the disease. We have investigated the temporal and the spatial relationship between bone remodelling in subchondral bone plate (Sbp and trabecular bone (Tb in Dunkin Hartley (DH, develop OA early and the Bristol Strain 2 (BS2, control which develop OA late guinea pigs. Right tibias were dissected from six male animals of each strain, at 10, 16, 24 and 30 weeks of age. Micro-computed tomography was used to quantify the growth plate thickness (GpTh, subchondral bone plate thickness (SbpTh and trabecular bone thickness (TbTh, and bone mineral density (BMD in both Sbp and Tb. The rate of change was calculated for 10–16 weeks, 16–24 weeks and 24–30 weeks. The rate of changes in Sbp and Tb thickness at the earliest time interval (10–16 weeks were significantly greater in DH guinea pigs than in the growth-matched control strain (BS2. The magnitude of these differences was greater in the medial side than the lateral side (DH: 22.7 and 14.75 µm/week, BS2: 5.63 and 6.67 µm/week, respectively. Similarly, changes in the BMD at the earliest time interval was greater in the DH strain than the BS2, again more pronounced in the disease prone medial compartment (DH: 0.0698 and 0.0372 g/cm3/week, BS2: 0.00457 and 0.00772 g/cm3/week, respectively. These changes observed preceded microscopic and cellular signs of disease as previously reported. The rapid early changes in SbpTh, TbTh, Sbp BMD and Tb BMD in the disease prone DH guinea pigs compared with the BS2 control strain suggest a link to early OA pathology. This is corroborated by the greater relative changes in subchondral bone in the medial compared with the lateral compartment.

  13. Mo(ve)ment methodology – Researching conflictual meanings, double-binds and change in extreme life situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2015-01-01

    The social practice theoretical moment-movement methodology explores significant moments in depth, such as moments of frustration, anger, engagement and (be)longing. The moments are conceptualized as part of broader conflictual struggles and processes (movements), which include both continuity...... and change in conduct of life. This moment-movement methodology is developed in close collaboration with a former biker-gang member - involved as a research apprentice. Together we are developing the methodology, while researching concrete processes of change from biker gang member towards becoming...... a legitimate member of academia. We apply various methods such as audio/video logs conducted while still affected by the moment, interviews, biographical documentaries, e-mails and SMS as part of our continual collaboration around various (academic) projects. Theoretical differences, similarities and tensions...

  14. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

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    Todd C Atwood

    Full Text Available In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB, the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den, but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities.

  15. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  16. Evidence for rapid climate change in the Mesozoic-Palaeogene greenhouse world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyns, Hugh C

    2003-09-15

    The best-documented example of rapid climate change that characterized the so-called 'greenhouse world' took place at the time of the Palaeocene-Eocene boundary: introduction of isotopically light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, accompanied by global warming of 5-8 degrees C across a range of latitudes, took place over a few thousand years. Dissociation, release and oxidation of gas hydrates from continental-margin sites and the consequent rapid global warming from the input of greenhouses gases are generally credited with causing the abrupt negative excursions in carbon- and oxygen-isotope ratios. The isotopic anomalies, as recorded in foraminifera, propagated downwards from the shallowest levels of the ocean, implying that considerable quantities of methane survived upward transit through the water column to oxidize in the atmosphere. In the Mesozoic Era, a number of similar events have been recognized, of which those at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, in the early Toarcian (Jurassic) and in the early Aptian (Cretaceous) currently carry the best documentation for dramatic rises in temperature. In these three examples, and in other less well-documented cases, the lack of a definitive time-scale for the intervals in question hinders calculation of the rate of environmental change. However, comparison with the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) suggests that these older examples could have been similarly rapid. In both the early Toarcian and early Aptian cases, the negative carbon-isotope excursion precedes global excess carbon burial across a range of marine environments, a phenomenon that defines these intervals as oceanic anoxic events (OAEs). Osmium-isotope ratios ((187)Os/(188)Os) for both the early Toarcian OAE and the PETM show an excursion to more radiogenic values, demonstrating an increase in weathering and erosion of continental crust consonant with elevated temperatures. The more highly buffered strontium-isotope system ((87)Sr/(86)Sr

  17. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

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    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  18. Dental arch changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion: A retrospective model analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor M D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse deficiency of the maxilla is a common clinical problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Transverse maxillary deficiency, isolated or associated with other dentofacial deformities, results in esthetic and functional impairment giving rise to several clinical manifestations such as asymmetrical facial growth, positional and functional mandibular deviations, altered dentofacial esthetics, adverse periodontal responses, unstable dental tipping, and other functional problems. Orthopedic maxillary expansion is the preferred treatment approach to increase the maxillary transverse dimension in young patients by splitting of the mid palatal suture. This orthopedic procedure has lately been subject of renewed interest in orthodontic treatment mechanics because of its potential for increasing arch perimeter to alleviate crowding in the maxillary arch without adversely affecting facial profile. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to establish a correlation between transverse expansion and changes in the arch perimeter, arch width and arch length. Methods: For this purpose, 10 subjects (five males, five females were selected who had been treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME using hyrax rapid palatal expander followed by fixed mechanotherapy (PEA. Pretreatment (T1, postexpansion (T2, and posttreatment (T3 dental models were compared for dental changes brought about by RME treatment and its stability at the end of fixed mechanotherapy. After model measurements were made, the changes between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were compared to assess the effects of RME on dental arch measurements. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are compared by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test. Arch perimeter changes are correlated with changes in arch widths at the canine, premolar and molar

  19. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len; Buwen Dong

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August, JJA) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This ...

  20. Ecological risk assessment based on IHA-RVA in the lower Xiaolangdi reservoir under changed hydrological situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Tao; Ma, Pan-pan; Kan, Yan-bin; Huang, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    Ecological risk assessment of river is an important content for protection and improvement of ecological environment. In this paper, taking Xiaolangdi reservoir for example, ecological risk assessments are studied based on the 1956-1997 and 2002-2008 dairy runoff data as the pre and post of construction of Xiaolangdi reservoir. Considering pre and post hydrological regime of construction of Xiaolangdi, ecological risk assessment index systems of downstream are established based on Index of Hydrologic Alteration-Range of Variability Approach method (IHA-RVA), which considering characters of flow, time, frequency, delay and change rate. Then ecological risk fuzzy comprehensive evaluation assessment model downstream is established based on risk index and RVA method. The results show that after the construction of Xiaolangdi reservoir, ecological risk occurred in the downstream of Yellow River for changed hydrological indexes, such as monthly average flow, frequency and duration of extreme annual flow and so on, which probably destroy the whole ecosystems of the river. For example, ecological risk downstream of Xiaolangdi reservoir upgrade to level two in 2008. Research results make reference values and scientific basis both in ecological risk assessment and management of reservoir after construction.

  1. Situational theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D J; Smith, S R; Warnock, J T

    1989-11-01

    The situational theory of leadership and the LEAD instruments for determining leadership style are explained, and the application of the situational leadership theory to the process of planning for and implementing organizational change is described. Early studies of leadership style identified two basic leadership styles: the task-oriented autocratic style and the relationship-oriented democratic style. Subsequent research found that most leaders exhibited one of four combinations of task and relationship behaviors. The situational leadership theory holds that the difference between the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used. The task maturity of the individual or group being led must also be accounted for; follower readiness is defined in terms of the capacity to set high but attainable goals, willingness or ability to accept responsibility, and possession of the necessary education or experience for a specific task. A person's leadership style, range, and adaptability can be determined from the LEADSelf and LEADOther questionnaires. By applying the principles of the situational leadership theory and adapting their managerial styles to specific tasks and levels of follower maturity, the authors were successful in implementing 24-hour pharmacokinetic dosing services provided by staff pharmacists with little previous experience in clinical services. The situational leadership model enables a leader to identify a task, set goals, determine the task maturity of the individual or group, select an appropriate leadership style, and modify the style as change occurs. Pharmacy managers can use this model when implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  2. A multiple-proxy approach to understanding rapid Holocene climate change in Southeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, S. H.; Bradley, R. S.; Balascio, N. L.; de Wet, G.

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of the Arctic to climate change has made it an excellent workshop for paleoclimatological research. Although there have been previous studies concerning climate variability carried out in the Arctic, there remains a critical dearth of knowledge due the limited number of high-resolution Holocene climate-proxy records available from this region. This gap skews our understanding of observed and predicted climate change, and fuels uncertainty both in the realms of science and policy. This study takes a comprehensive approach to tracking Holocene climate variability in the vicinity of Tasiilaq, Southeast Greenland using a ~5.6 m sediment core from Lower Sermilik Lake. An age-depth model for the core has been established using 8 radiocarbon dates, the oldest of which was taken at 4 m down core and has been been dated to approximately 6.2 kyr BP. The bottom meter of the core below the final radiocarbon date contains a transition from cobbles and coarse sand to organic-rich laminations, indicating the termination of direct glacial influence and therefore likely marking the end of the last glacial period in this region. The remainder of the core is similarly organic-rich, with light-to-dark brown laminations ranging from 0.5 -1 cm in thickness and riddled with turbidites. Using this core in tandem with findings from an on-site assessment of the geomorphic history of the locale we attempt to assess and infer the rapid climatic shifts associated with the Holocene on a sub-centennial scale. Such changes include the termination of the last glacial period, the Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum, the Neoglacial Period, the Medieval Climatic Optimum, and the Little Ice Age. A multiple proxy approach including magnetic susceptibility, bulk organic geochemistry, elemental profiles acquired by XRF scanning, grain-size, and spectral data will be used to characterize the sediment and infer paleoclimate conditions. Additionally, percent biogenic silica by weight has been

  3. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in the Rapidly Changing Economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfeng; Benjamin, Emelia J; MacMahon, Stephen

    2016-06-14

    With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental changes. The latter have predisposed to increasing cardiovascular risk factors and the CVD pandemic. Rising CVD rates have had a major economic impact, which has challenged the healthcare system and the whole society. With recognition of the importance of health, initial political steps and national actions have been taken to address the CVD epidemic. Looking to the future, we recommend that 4 priorities should be taken: pursue multisectorial government and nongovernment strategies targeting the underlying causes of CVD (the whole-of-government and whole-of-society policy); give priority to prevention; reform the healthcare system to fit the nature of noncommunicable diseases; and conduct research for evidence-based, low-cost, simple, sustainable, and scalable interventions. By pursuing the 4 priorities, the pandemic of CVD and other major noncommunicable diseases in China will be reversed and the global sustainable development goal achieved. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Dental and skeletal changes following surgically assisted rapid maxillary anterior-posterior expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Ting; Lo, Lun-Jou; Liou, Eric J W; Huang, Chiung Shing

    2008-01-01

    Lengthening the maxillary dental arch as a treatment approach for patients with maxillary deficiency and dental crowding is seldom reported. The purpose of this study was to assess dental and skeletal changes in the maxilla in the correction of maxillary deficiency associated with a retruded maxillary arch using a surgically assisted rapid maxillary anterior-posterior expansion appliance. Predistraction and postraction lateral cephalometric and periapical radiographs and maxillary dental casts of six young adolescents (four boys, two girls, mean age 11 years, 2 months) were examined. These patients received a maxillary anterior segmental osteotomy and distraction osteogenesis with an anteroposteriorly oriented Hyrax expansion appliance based on the biological principles of bone distraction. The retruded dental arch and dental crowding were successfully corrected. Significant forward movement of the point anterior nasal spine, point A, central incisors and first premolars was noted. The maxillary dental arch depth increased an average of 4.2 mm while the arch width remained unchanged. In total, 11.5 mm of dental space was created in the maxillary arch which was sufficient to resolve dental crowding. New bone formation along the distraction site was observed three months after distraction. The use of maxillary anterior segmental osteotomy combined with a Hyrax expansion distraction appliance was effective in arch lengthening and creation of dental space. An overcorrection in this interdental distraction osteogenesis could be a good treatment option for children with maxillary deficiency combined with crowded maxillary dentition.

  6. Rapid changes in genetic architecture of behavioural syndromes following colonization of a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Green, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Harris, S; Pettersson, L B; Svensson, E I

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural syndromes, that is correlated behaviours, may be a result from adaptive correlational selection, but in a new environmental setting, the trait correlation might act as an evolutionary constraint. However, knowledge about the quantitative genetic basis of behavioural syndromes, and the stability and evolvability of genetic correlations under different ecological conditions, is limited. We investigated the quantitative genetic basis of correlated behaviours in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. In some Swedish lakes, A. aquaticus has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes, presumably due to habitat-specific selection from predation. Using a common garden approach and animal model analyses, we estimated quantitative genetic parameters for behavioural traits and compared the genetic architecture between the ecotypes. We report that the genetic covariance structure of the behavioural traits has been altered in the novel ecotype, demonstrating divergence in behavioural correlations. Thus, our study confirms that genetic correlations behind behaviours can change rapidly in response to novel selective environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. Rapid morphological oscillation of mitochondrion-rich cell in estuarine mudskipper following salinity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Yokota, S; Ando, M

    2000-05-01

    Morphological changes in the chloride cells or mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells in the skin under the pectoral fin of the estuarine mudskipper (Periophthalmus modestus) were examined in relation to intertidal salinity oscillation in river mouth. MR cells were distinguished between those in contact with the water (cells labeled with both mitochondrial probe DASPEI and Concanavalin-A, an apical surface marker of MR cells) and those that are not (DASPEI-positive only). After transfer of the fish from seawater to freshwater, no difference in the total MR cell density was observed, but the subpopulation of MR cells that are Concanavalin-A-positive decreased dramatically within 30 min. After 6 hr in freshwater, the fish were returned to seawater; the number of Con-A-positive MR cells increased to the initial levels rapidly. Thus, in seawater, mudskippers seem to open the apical crypts of the MR cells to secrete salt; in freshwater, they close the crypt of the MR cells tentatively, and tolerate hypotonicity until the rising tide. This unique response of chloride cells may also be seen in gills of other estuarine species.

  8. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  9. Volumetric upper airway changes after rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Lloyd M; Dalci, Oyku; Darendeliler, M Ali; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Papadopoulou, Alexandra K

    2017-10-01

    Although Rapid Maxillary Expansion (RME) has been used for over a century, its effect on upper airways has not yet adequately been assessed in an evidence-based manner. To investigate the volumetric changes in the upper airway spaces following RME in growing subjects by means of acoustic rhinometry, three-dimensional radiography and digital photogrammetry. Literature search of electronic databases and additional manual searches up to February 2016. Randomized clinical trials, prospective or retrospective controlled clinical trials and cohort clinical studies of at least eight patients, where the RME appliance was left in place for retention, and a maximum follow-up of 8 months post-expansion. After duplicate data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias, the mean differences and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) of upper airway volume changes were calculated with random-effects meta-analyses, followed by subgroup analyses, meta-regressions, and sensitivity analyses. Twenty studies were eligible for qualitative synthesis, of which 17 (3 controlled clinical studies and 14 cohort studies) were used in quantitative analysis. As far as total airway volume is concerned patients treated with RME showed a significant increase post-expansion (5 studies; increase from baseline: 1218.3mm3; 95 per cent CI: 702.0 to 1734.6mm3), which did not seem to considerably diminish after the retention period (11 studies; increase from baseline: 1143.9mm3; 95 per cent CI: 696.9 to 1590.9mm3). However, the overall quality of evidence was judged as very low, due to methodological limitations of the included studies, absence of untreated control groups, and inconsistency among studies. RME seems to be associated with an increase in the nasal cavity volume in the short and in the long term. However, additional well-conducted prospective controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm the present findings. None. Australian Society of Orthodontics Foundation for Research and

  10. Stakeholder perspectives on triage in wildlife monitoring in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C Wheeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring activities provide a core contribution to wildlife conservation in the Arctic. Effective monitoring which allows changes in population status to be detected early, provides opportunities to mitigate pressures driving declines. Monitoring triage involves decisions about how and where to prioritise activities in species and ecosystem based monitoring. In particular, monitoring triage examines whether to divert resources away from species where there is high likelihood of extinction in the near-future in favour of species where monitoring activities may produce greater conservation benefits. As a place facing both rapid change with a high likelihood of population extinctions, and serious logistic and financial challenges for field data acquisition, the Arctic provides a good context in which to examine attitudes toward triage in monitoring.For effective decision-making to emerge from monitoring, multiple stakeholders must be involved in defining aims and priorities. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in arctic wildlife monitoring (either contributing to observation and recording of wildlife, using information from wildlife observation and recording, or using wildlife as a resource to elicit their perspectives on triage in wildlife monitoring in the Arctic.The majority (56% of our 23 participants were predominantly in opposition to triage, 26% were in support of triage and 17% were undecided. Representatives of Indigenous organisations were more likely to be opposed to triage than scientists and those involved in decision-making showed greatest support for triage amongst the scientist participants. Responses to the concept of triage included that: 1 The species-focussed approach associated with triage did not match their more systems-based view (5 participants, 2 Important information is generated through monitoring threatened species which advances understanding of the drivers of change, responses and ecosystem

  11. Health Effects of Environmental Exposures, Occupational Hazards and Climate Change in Ethiopia: Synthesis of Situational Analysis, Needs Assessment and the Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhane, Kiros; Kumie, Abera; Samet, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diseases caused by environmental and occupational health hazards and the effects of global climate change are of growing concerns in Ethiopia. However, no adequate information seems to be available on the current situation. This means there is a critical gap in research, policy framework and implementation in the country. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize evidence from a systematic situational analysis and needs assessment to help establish a hub for research and training on three major themes and their related policy frameworks: air pollution and health, occupational health and safety and climate change and health. The methods used in this work include a systematic review of secondary data from peer-reviewed literature, thesis reports from academia, government and national statistical reports. Limited primary data based on key informant interviews held with major stakeholders were also used as sources of data. Exposures to high levels of indoor and outdoor air pollutants were found to be major sources of public health challenges. Lack of occupational safety and health due to agricultural activities and exposure to industries was found to be substantial. Worse is the growing fear that climate change will pose increasingly significant multidimensional challenges to the environment and public health. Across all three areas of focus, there was a paucity of information on local scientific evidence. There is also very limited trained skilled manpower and physical infrastructure to monitor the environment and enforce regulatory guidelines. Research, policy frameworks and regulatory mechanisms were among the cross-cutting issues that needed urgent attention. Critical gaps were observed in research and training across the three themes. Also, there is a limitation in implementing the link between policy and related regulations in the environment and health.

  12. Diverse multi-decadal changes in streamflow within a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Jeremy E.; Hill, T. Chee; Milligan, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on streamflow depends on a variety of factors (e.g., climate, initial land cover, inter-basin transfers, water withdrawals, wastewater effluent, etc.). The purpose of this study is to examine trends in streamflow from 1986 to 2015 in a range of watersheds within the rapidly urbanizing Atlanta, GA metropolitan area. This study compares eight watersheds over three decades, while minimizing the influence of inter-annual precipitation variability. Population and land-cover data were used to analyze changes over approximately twenty years within the watersheds. Precipitation totals for the watersheds were estimated using precipitation totals at nearby weather stations. Multiple streamflow variables, such as annual streamflow, frequencies of high-flow days (HFDs), flashiness, and precipitation-adjusted streamflow, for the eight streams were calculated using daily streamflow data. Variables were tested for significant trends from 1986 to 2015 and significant differences between 1986-2000 and 2001-2015. Flashiness increased for all streams without municipal water withdrawals, and the four watersheds with the largest increase in developed land had significant increases in flashiness. Significant positive trends in precipitation-adjusted mean annual streamflow and HFDs occurred for the two watersheds (Big Creek and Suwanee Creek) that experienced the largest increases in development, and these were the only watersheds that went from majority forest land in 1986 to majority developed land in 2015. With a disproportionate increase in HFD occurrence during summer, Big Creek and Suwannee Creek also had a reduction in intra-annual variability of HFD occurrence. Watersheds that were already substantially developed at the beginning of the period and did not have wastewater discharge had declining streamflow. The most urbanized watershed (Peachtree Creek) had a significant decrease in streamflow, and a possible cause of the decrease was increasing

  13. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS Shapes the Processing of Rapidly Changing Auditory Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S. Rufener

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural oscillations in the gamma range are the dominant rhythmic activation pattern in the human auditory cortex. These gamma oscillations are functionally relevant for the processing of rapidly changing acoustic information in both speech and non-speech sounds. Accordingly, there is a tight link between the temporal resolution ability of the auditory system and inherent neural gamma oscillations. Transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS has been demonstrated to specifically increase gamma oscillation in the human auditory cortex. However, neither the physiological mechanisms of tRNS nor the behavioral consequences of this intervention are completely understood. In the present study we stimulated the human auditory cortex bilaterally with tRNS while EEG was continuously measured. Modulations in the participants’ temporal and spectral resolution ability were investigated by means of a gap detection task and a pitch discrimination task. Compared to sham, auditory tRNS increased the detection rate for near-threshold stimuli in the temporal domain only, while no such effect was present for the discrimination of spectral features. Behavioral findings were paralleled by reduced peak latencies of the P50 and N1 component of the auditory event-related potentials (ERP indicating an impact on early sensory processing. The facilitating effect of tRNS was limited to the processing of near-threshold stimuli while stimuli clearly below and above the individual perception threshold were not affected by tRNS. This non-linear relationship between the signal-to-noise level of the presented stimuli and the effect of stimulation further qualifies stochastic resonance (SR as the underlying mechanism of tRNS on auditory processing. Our results demonstrate a tRNS related improvement in acoustic perception of time critical auditory information and, thus, provide further indices that auditory tRNS can amplify the resonance frequency of the auditory system.

  14. Traps as treats: a traditional sticky rice snack persisting in rapidly changing Asian kitchens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwallier, Rachel; de Boer, Hugo J; Visser, Natasja; van Vugt, Rogier R; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2015-03-24

    An accessory to modern developing economies includes a shift from traditional, laborious lifestyles and cuisine to more sedentary careers, recreation and convenience-based foodstuffs. Similar changes in the developed western world have led to harmful health consequences. Minimization of this effect in current transitional cultures could be met by placing value on the maintenance of heritage-rich food. Vitally important to this is the preservation and dissemination of knowledge of these traditional foods. Here, we investigate the history and functionality of a traditional rice snack cooked in Nepenthes pitchers, one of the most iconic and recognizable plants in the rapidly growing economic environment of Southeast Asia. Social media was combined with traditional ethnobotanical surveys to conduct investigations throughout Malaysian Borneo. Interviews were conducted with 25 market customers, vendors and participants from various ethnical groups with an in-depth knowledge of glutinous rice cooked in pitcher plants. The acidity of pitcher fluid was measured during experimental cooking to analyze possible chemical avenues that might contribute to rice stickiness. Participants identifying the snack were almost all (96%) from indigenous Bidayuh or Kadazandusun tribal decent. They prepare glutinous rice inside pitcher traps for tradition, vessel functionality and because they thought it added fragrance and taste to the rice. The pH and chemical activity of traps analyzed suggest there is no corresponding effect on rice consistency. Harvest of pitchers does not appear to decrease the number of plants in local populations. The tradition of cooking glutinous rice snacks in pitcher plants, or peruik kera in Malay, likely carries from a time when cooking vessels were more limited, and persists only faintly in tribal culture today because of value placed on maintaining cultural heritage. Social media proved a valuable tool in our research for locating research areas and in

  15. Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scardia, Giancarlo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.

    2014-11-01

    We report a palaeomagnetic investigation of the last full geomagnetic field reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition, as preserved in a continuous sequence of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Apennines of Central Italy. The palaeomagnetic record provides the most direct evidence for the tempo of transitional field behaviour yet obtained for the M-B transition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephra layers bracketing the M-B transition provides high-accuracy age constraints and indicates a mean sediment accumulation rate of about 0.2 mm yr-1 during the transition. Two relative palaeointensity (RPI) minima are present in the M-B transition. During the terminus of the upper RPI minimum, a directional change of about 180 ° occurred at an extremely fast rate, estimated to be less than 2 ° per year, with no intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) documented during the transit from the southern to northern hemisphere. Thus, the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron as represented by the palaeomagnetic directions and VGPs developed in a time interval comparable to the duration of an average human life, which is an order of magnitude more rapid than suggested by current models. The reported investigation therefore provides high-resolution integrated palaeomagnetic and radioisotopic data that document the fine details of the anatomy and tempo of the M-B transition in Central Italy that in turn are crucial for a better understanding of Earth's magnetic field, and for the development of more sophisticated models that are able to describe its global structure and behaviour.

  16. Rapid Changes in CB1 Receptor Availability in Cannabis Dependent Males after Abstinence from Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Cortes-Briones, Jose A; Ranganathan, Mohini; Thurnauer, Halle; Creatura, Gina; Surti, Toral; Planeta, Beata; Neumeister, Alexander; Pittman, Brian; Normandin, Marc; Kapinos, Michael; Ropchan, Jim; Huang, Yiyun; Carson, Richard E; Skosnik, Patrick D

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use of cannabis, the increasing legalization of "medical" cannabis, the increasing potency of cannabis and the growing recreational use of synthetic cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) full agonists underscores the importance of elucidating the effects of cannabinoids on the CB1R system. Exposure to cannabinoids is known to result in CB1R downregulation. However, the precise time course of changes in CB1R availability in cannabis dependent subjects (CDs) following short and intermediate term abstinence has not been determined. Using High Resolution Research Tomography (HRRT) and [(11)C]OMAR, CB1R availability as indexed by the volume of distribution (VT) [(11)C]OMAR was measured in male CDs (n=11) and matched healthy controls (HCs) (n=19). CDs were scanned at baseline (while they were neither intoxicated nor in withdrawal), and after 2 days and 28 days of monitored abstinence. HCs were scanned at baseline and a subset (n=4) was rescanned 28 days later. Compared to HCs, [(11)C]OMAR VT was 15% lower in CDs (effect size Cohen's d=-1.11) at baseline in almost all brain regions. However, these group differences in CB1R availability were no longer evident after just 2 days of monitored abstinence from cannabis. There was a robust negative correlation between CB1R availability and withdrawal symptoms after 2 days of abstinence. Finally, there were no significant group differences in CB1R availability in CDs after 28 days of abstinence. Cannabis dependence is associated with CB1R downregulation, which begins to reverse surprisingly rapidly upon termination of cannabis use and may continue to increase over time.

  17. Competition for cognitive resources during rapid serial processing: changes across childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eHeim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to direct cognitive resources to target objects despite distraction by competing information plays an important role for the development of mental aptitudes and skills. We examined developmental changes of this ability in a cross-sectional design, using the attentional blink (AB paradigm. The AB is a pronounced impairment of T2 report, which occurs when a first (T1 and second target (T2 embedded in a rapid stimulus sequence are separated by at least one distractor and occur within 500 ms of each other. Two groups of children (6 to 7 year-olds and 10 to 11 year-olds; ns = 21 and 24, respectively were asked to identify green targets in two AB tasks: one using non-linguistic symbols and the other letters or words. The temporal distance or stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA between T1 and T2 varied between no intervening distractor (Lag 1, 116-ms SOA and up to 7 intervening distractors (Lag 8, 928-ms SOA. In the symbol task, younger children linearly increased T2 identification with increasing lag. Older children, however, displayed a hook-shaped pattern as typically seen in adults, with lowest identification reports in T2 symbols at the critical blink interval (Lag 2, 232-ms SOA, and a slight performance gain for the Lag-1 condition. In the verbal task, the older group again exhibited a prominent drop in T2 identification at Lag 2, whereas the younger group showed a more alleviated and temporally diffuse AB impairment. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that the control of attention allocation and/or working memory consolidation of targets among distractors represents a cognitive skill that emerges during primary school age.

  18. Dual-energy synchrotron X ray measurements of rapid soil density and water content changes in swelling soils during infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Patricia; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; DiCarlo, David A.; Bauters, Tim W. J.; Darnault, Christophe J. G.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Parlange, J.-Yves; Baveye, Philippe

    1998-11-01

    Understanding soil swelling is hampered by the difficulty of simultaneously measuring water content and bulk density. A number of studies have used dual-energy gamma rays to investigate soil swelling. The long counting time of this technique makes it impracticable for studying the rapid changes in moisture content and soil swelling shortly after infiltration is initiated. In this paper, we use the dual-energy synchrotron X ray to measure, for the first time, the water content and bulk density changes during the fast, initial phase of the swelling process. Ponded infiltration experiments were performed with two soils: a bentonite-sand mixture and a vertisol. Swelling curves and hydraulic diffusivity were determined. Deformation was very rapid immediately after water application and then became progressively slower. The hydraulic diffusivity decreased with time, which can partially explain the very rapid decrease in infiltration rates observed in the field.

  19. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  20. Post-mortem changes in the concentration of lactic acid, phosphates and pH in the muscles of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) according to the perimortal situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mačanga, Ján; Koréneková, Beáta; Nagy, Jozef; Marcinčák, Slavomir; Popelka, Peter; Kožárová, Ivona; Korének, Marián

    2011-08-01

    In this study changes in the concentrations of lactate, phosphates, and pH values of water extracts of muscles of transported and hunted rabbits during ripening were determined. Concentrations of lactate were higher in the muscles of hunted rabbits. The highest differences were obtained 24h after kill/hunt. Concentrations of lactate in the muscles of hunted rabbits were decreasing, while in the muscles of transported rabbits we observed it to increase in the 7th day and then decrease in the 14th day. Higher concentrations of phosphates were found in the muscles of transported wild rabbits. During the ripening process concentrations of phosphates were decreasing in muscles of both groups. Muscles of hunted rabbits had lower pH values during the whole ripening process. Our research showed that concentrations of lactate, phosphates and pH value post-mortem depended on the perimortal situations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Collaborative and situated learning on the web ? how can teacher education theoretically and practically respond to changing demands and roles of teachers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Bjerg

    2006-01-01

    and scaffolded learning (Wood, Bruner & Ross, 1976; Bruner, 1985; Bruner 1996; Kaye, 1992; Meyer, 1993; Sorensen, 1999) and ?learning in communities of practice? have deeply inspired and to a certain degree become a sort of theoretical and practical framework in Denmark with respect to development of web based...... materials and web based learning platforms (Agertoft 2003; Bang & Dalsgaard, 2005). In the paper some aspects of the partly global and the particular Danish development will be investigated at a theoretical and practical level in order to indicate tendencies for changing roles and demands of teachers...... in a modern world. Furthermore, some of the concepts of Lave and Wenger's situated learning theories will be described as well as a case study of Internet based second language learning in a ?virtual community of practice? will be presented. At the end of the paper the relevance of the theoretical concepts...

  2. MR Diffusion Tensor Imaging Detects Rapid Microstructural Changes in Amygdala and Hippocampus Following Fear Conditioning in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Abby Y.; Li, Qi; Zhou, Iris Y.; Ma, Samantha J.; Tong, Gehua; McAlonan, Grainne M.; Wu, Ed X.

    2013-01-01

    Background Following fear conditioning (FC), ex vivo evidence suggests that early dynamics of cellular and molecular plasticity in amygdala and hippocampal circuits mediate responses to fear. Such altered dynamics in fear circuits are thought to be etiologically related to anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Consistent with this, neuroimaging studies of individuals with established PTSD in the months after trauma have revealed changes in brain regions responsible for processing fear. However, whether early changes in fear circuits can be captured in vivo is not known. Methods We hypothesized that in vivo magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) would be sensitive to rapid microstructural changes elicited by FC in an experimental mouse PTSD model. We employed a repeated measures paired design to compare in vivo DTI measurements before, one hour after, and one day after FC-exposed mice (n = 18). Results Using voxel-wise repeated measures analysis, fractional anisotropy (FA) significantly increased then decreased in amygdala, decreased then increased in hippocampus, and was increasing in cingulum and adjacent gray matter one hour and one day post-FC respectively. These findings demonstrate that DTI is sensitive to early changes in brain microstructure following FC, and that FC elicits distinct, rapid in vivo responses in amygdala and hippocampus. Conclusions Our results indicate that DTI can detect rapid microstructural changes in brain regions known to mediate fear conditioning in vivo. DTI indices could be explored as a translational tool to capture potential early biological changes in individuals at risk for developing PTSD. PMID:23382811

  3. Description of the national situation of cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; Ronco, Guglielmo; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    This report up-dates information on the national situation of cervical cancer screening in the member states of the European Union. There is yet high diversity in the status of cervical screening, and rapid changes expected to occur in the situation in many countries. It is important to underline...

  4. Rapid land cover map updates using change detection and robust random forest classifiers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM) system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted...

  5. Tropical rodents change rapidly germinating seeds into long-term food supplies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2006-01-01

    Seed-hoarding vertebrates may survive yearly periods of food scarcity by storing seeds during the preceding fruiting season. It is poorly understood why rodents creating long-term reserves, especially those in the tropics, incorporate seeds from plant species that germinate rapidly and hence seem

  6. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    only partially compatible with the geochemical and hydrodynamic calculations for the CT3 aquifer. This leads to many questions about the representativeness of instrumentation (in spite of dense observations), the heterogeneity of the landscape (perhaps even stronger than supposed, complementarities and differences between methods, etc.). Similarly, the diversity and evolution of human behaviours facing new situations (population growth, environmental changes) are essential elements to take into account, not always easily accessible to hydrologists.

  7. Assessing surface albedo change and its induced radiation budget under rapid urbanization with Landsat and GLASS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Pohl, Christine; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; van Genderen, John

    2016-02-01

    Radiative forcing (RF) induced by land use (mainly surface albedo) change is still not well understood in climate change science, especially the effects of changes in urban albedo due to rapid urbanization on the urban radiation budget. In this study, a modified RF derivation approach based on Landsat images was used to quantify changes in the solar radiation budget induced by variations in surface albedo in Beijing from 2001 to 2009. Field radiation records from a Beijing meteorological station were used to identify changes in RF at the local level. There has been rapid urban expansion over the last decade, with the urban land area increasing at about 3.3 % annually from 2001 to 2009. This has modified three-dimensional urban surface properties, resulting in lower albedo due to complex building configurations of urban centers and higher albedo on flat surfaces of suburban areas and cropland. There was greater solar radiation (6.93 × 108 W) in the urban center in 2009 than in 2001. However, large cropland and urban fringe areas caused less solar radiation absorption. RF increased with distance from the urban center (less than 14 km) and with greater urbanization, with the greatest value being 0.41 W/m2. The solar radiation budget in urban areas was believed to be mainly influenced by urban structural changes in the horizontal and vertical directions. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that cumulative urbanization impacts on the natural radiation budget could evolve into an important driver of local climate change.

  8. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...... experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response.......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...

  9. Striving to Reduce Vulnerability:Lessons from the Poor Community Livelihoodsin the Jakarta Bay Facing High Risk of Rapid Urbanization and Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, D.; Delinom, R. M.; Abdurachim, A. Y.; Dalimunthe, S.; Haba, J.; Pawitan, H.

    2014-12-01

    This paper discusses water-food issues in relation to how livelihoods of the poor community in Jakarta Bayarein high risk ofrapid urbanization and climate changes. As a part of the capital city of Indonesia, this area has experienced rapid increase in populationand extensive developments causing significant increase in the built up area. This city is unable to keep with demand on sewers, water and solid waste management, leading to settlement with concentrated slum pockets areas and widespread of flooding. The community is mostly poor people of productive group, live with urban pressure in fragile home and livelihoods.The situation becomes much worse due to the impact of climate change with flooding as the greatest climate and disaster risk. With lack of basic services, coastal water inundation (BanjirRob)commonly occursand floods the community housing areaswithout patternanymore. The community has lack of fresh and clean water sources and facedeconomic problem, particularly significant reduction of fishing activities. Coastal reclamation and water pollution from nearby industries are blamed as the main reason for these problems. Strategies therefore have to be developed, especially increasing community awareness and preparedness, and poverty alleviation, to sustain their livelihoods in this high risk urban area.

  10. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins. ...

  11. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter?s Eight Steps of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Terrie R.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. Results This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter?s Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small...

  12. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins. ...... species assemblage in responses to recent climate change. Even among the most mobile species and without anthropogenic barriers to dispersal, these pollinators have been unable to extend their ranges as fast as required to keep pace with climate change....

  13. Molar changes with cervical headgear alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori Farret, Marcel; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S; Pereira Araújo, Vanessa; Deon Rizzatto, Susana Maria; Macedo de Menezes, Luciane; Lima Grossi, Marcio

    2008-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the distal movement of the maxillary first permanent molars when cervical headgear is used alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion. The sample was composed of 36 subjects (aged 9 to 13 years), treated in the Faculty of Dentistry, Pontifícia Universidade Cat;aaolica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The individuals were in good health and in their pubertal growth period. All had Class II division 1 malocclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (22 subjects), Class II, with a normal transverse maxilla treated with cervical traction headgear (HG) 400 g 12 h/d, and group 2 (14 subjects), Class II maxillary transverse deficiency treated with rapid maxillary expansion plus cervical traction headgear (RME + HG). An additional group 3 (17 subjects) served as a control group and included individuals with the same characteristics. All subjects had two lateral cephalograms: initial (T1) and progress (T2), taken 6 months later. Differences between T1 and T2 were compared with the Student's t-test, and three groups were compared by the analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparison test. Results showed greater distal tipping and greater distal movement of the first permanent molars in group 1 (HG) than in group 2 (RME + HG), P .05). The hypothesis was rejected. Cervical traction headgear alone produced greater distal movement effects in maxillary first permanent molars when compared with rapid maxillary expansion associated with cervical headgear.

  14. Influence of Unusual Climatic Conditions on the Rapid Rising of Water Level of the Palcacocha Lake and Its Connection with the Emergency Situation in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilca, Oscar

    2017-04-01

    Influence of Unusual Climatic Conditions on the Rapid Rising of Water Level of the Palcacocha Lake and Its Connection with the Emergency Situation in the Cordillera Blanca, Perú. Oscar Vilca, Ricardo Durán, Cesar Portocarrero and Benjamín Morales National Institute for Research on Glaciers and Mountain Ecosystems - INAIGEM The climate alterations in 2016 have led to important issues within the Cordillera Blanca. These unusual climate events were evidenced by the rising temperature and the dropping relative humidity between December 2015 and January 2016 this was mainly influenced by the Niño phenomenon (ENSO), as well as subsequent events, like the one that occurred in november 2016, which had no presence of the ENSO, but was more severe, and has had direct influence on accelerated glacier fusion, this resulted the sudden growth of the water flow of the glacier basins of the Cordillera Blanca. Palcacocha was declared a dangerous lake due to its historical growth records. Currently, a partial monitoring to the water level of this lake is performed, and records are registered on a daily basis, with a methodology that includes analysis, quality control and the elaboration of a daily time line of the lake levels (december 2015 - december 2016). Subsequently, by using an area-volume curve, the levels are converted into volume, which can finally be inferred as water flows of net contribution to the lake. The accelerated increase of the level of the lake corresponds to the water flow contributed by glacier fusion, as that period (November 2016) did not record precipitation. The record observed has shown maximum thrust sheets of 22 mm (06/11/216) and 30mm (27/11/2016). This sudden increase of water flows in all the sub-basins with glaciers has caused concern and alarmed the population since the general perception in november pointed to a "drought", the most critical case being, the one that occurred in Jancapampa, where the river flows reached historic maximum levels

  15. Rapid analysis of time series data to identify changes in electricity consumption patterns in UK secondary schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Graeme; Fleming, Paul; Ferreira, Vasco [Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester, LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Harris, Peter [Cheriton Technology Management Ltd., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology for energy professionals to identify potential electricity saving opportunities in buildings from the analysis of half-hourly electricity consumption data. The technique recommended in UK government good practice guidance for use with monthly gas data has been applied to half-hourly electricity data from 37 secondary schools. The technique monitors consumption over time, identifying any changes in patterns and quantifying their effects. It has the advantage of being both high resolution and quick to employ. The analysis produces results that allow energy professionals to rapidly detect changes in electricity consumption. (author)

  16. Automatic change detection in RapidEye data using the combined MAD and kernel MAF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hecheltjen, Antje; Thonfeld, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The IR-MAD components show changes for a large part of the entire subset. Especially phenological changes in the agricultural fields surrounding the open pit are predominant. As opposed to this, kMAF components focus more on changes in the open-cast mine (and changes due to the two clouds...... and their shadows, not visible in the zoom). Ground data were available from bucket-wheel excavators on the extraction side (to the northwest in the open pit) in terms of elevation data for both dates. No ground data were available for changes due to backfill (southeastern part of the open pit) or changes due...... to mining machines other than the bucket-wheels....

  17. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

    2010-09-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

  18. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrie R Wheeler; Kristi L Holmes

    2017-01-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information...

  19. Molar changes with cervical headgear alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori; Lima, Eduardo Martinelli Santayana de; Araújo, Vanessa Pereira de; Rizzatto, Susana Maria Deon; Menezes, Luciane Macedo de; Grossi, Márcio Lima

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the distal movement of the maxillary first permanent molars when cervical headgear is used alone or in combination with rapid maxillary expansion. Materials and Methods: The sample was composed of 36 subjects (aged 9 to 13 years), treated in the Faculty of Dentistry, Pontifícia Universidade Católica, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The individuals were in good health and in their pubertal growth period. All had Class II division 1 ma...

  20. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  1. Short-term stream water temperature observations permit rapid assessment of potential climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Catalina Segura; Shelby Gull Laird; Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Maria Sandercock; Johnny Boggs; James M. Vose

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of potential climate change impacts on stream water temperature (Ts) across large scales remains challenging for resource managers because energy exchange processes between the atmosphere and the stream environment are complex and uncertain, and few long-term datasets are available to evaluate changes over time. In this study, we...

  2. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi, E-mail: xuzhe6249@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 110, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares.

  3. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R; Holmes, Kristi L

    2017-07-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today's academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions.

  4. Microstructure Formation and Resistivity Change in CuCr during Rapid Solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Hauf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the surface-near microstructure after a current interruption of CuCr contact materials in a vacuum interrupter is characterized by a fast heating and subsequently rapid solidification process. In the present article, we reveal and analyse the formation of two distinct microstructural regions that result from the heat, which is generated and dissipated during interruption. In the topmost region, local and global texture, as well as the resulting microstructure, indicate that both Cu and Cr were melted during rapid heating and solidification whereas in the region underneath, only Cu was melted and elongated Cu-grains solidified with the <001>-direction perpendicularly aligned to the surface. By analysing the lattice parameter of the Cu solid solution, a supersaturation of the solid solution with about 2.25 at % Cr was found independent if Cu was melted solely or together with the Cr. The according reduction of electrical conductivity in the topmost region subsequent to current interruption and the resulting heat distribution are discussed based on these experimental results.

  5. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    In the Nordic countries, there is a century-old tradition of dwellings that can be adapted, rebuilt and recycled regardless of time and place. Functionalism broke with this tradition and created the function-determined dwelling, which was planned on the basis of functional analyses and analyses...... of the average family's lifestyle. These dwellings were ground-breaking when they were built, but today are clearly a product of their time. The reaction to functionalism and the postwar mass production gave rise to flexible dwelling with countless possibilities for room division. The housing of this period has...... for living. The suitable condition consists of the dwelling's ability for physical displacement, spatial changes that can suit changing life styles. The situational condition is the not defined, the unfinished and the transitory, which continuously challenges the imagination and calls for the experiment. Our...

  6. Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between media exposure and risk behavior among youth is established at a population level, the specific psychological and social mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of media on youth remain poorly understood. This study reports on an investigation of the impact of the introduction of television to a rural community in Western Fiji on adolescent ethnic Fijian girls in a setting of rapid social and economic change. Narrative data were collected from 30 purposively selected ethnic Fijian secondary school girls via semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were conducted in 1998, 3 years after television was first broadcast to this region of Fiji. Narrative data were analyzed for content relating to response to television and mechanisms that mediate self and body image in Fijian adolescents. Data in this sample suggest that media imagery is used in both creative and destructive ways by adolescent Fijian girls to navigate opportunities and conflicts posed by the rapidly changing social environment. Study respondents indicated their explicit modeling of the perceived positive attributes of characters presented in television dramas, but also the beginnings of weight and body shape preoccupation, purging behavior to control weight, and body disparagement. Response to television appeared to be shaped by a desire for competitive social positioning during a period of rapid social transition. Understanding vulnerability to images and values imported with media will be critical to preventing disordered eating and, potentially, other youth risk behaviors in this population, as well as other populations at risk.

  7. Understanding the rapid summer warming and changes in temperature extremes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan T.; Shaffrey, Len

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of observations indicates that there was a rapid increase in summer (June-August) mean surface air temperature (SAT) since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Accompanying this rapid warming are significant increases in summer mean daily maximum temperature, daily minimum temperature, annual hottest day temperature and warmest night temperature, and an increase in frequency of summer days and tropical nights, while the change in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) is small. This study focuses on understanding causes of the rapid summer warming and associated temperature extreme changes. A set of experiments using the atmospheric component of the state-of-the-art HadGEM3 global climate model have been carried out to quantify relative roles of changes in sea surface temperature (SST)/sea ice extent (SIE), anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs), and anthropogenic aerosols (AAer). Results indicate that the model forced by changes in all forcings reproduces many of the observed changes since the mid-1990s over Western Europe. Changes in SST/SIE explain 62.2 ± 13.0 % of the area averaged seasonal mean warming signal over Western Europe, with the remaining 37.8 ± 13.6 % of the warming explained by the direct impact of changes in GHGs and AAer. Results further indicate that the direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe, mainly through aerosol-radiation interaction with additional contributions from aerosol-cloud interaction and coupled atmosphere-land surface feedbacks, is a key factor for increases in annual hottest day temperature and in frequency of summer days. It explains 45.5 ± 17.6 % and 40.9 ± 18.4 % of area averaged signals for these temperature extremes. The direct impact of the reduction of AAer precursor emissions over Europe acts to increase DTR locally, but the change in DTR is countered by the direct impact of GHGs forcing. In the next few decades, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise and AAer precursor

  8. A Study of User's Acceptance on Situational Mashups in Situational Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angus F. M.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Liaw, Shu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Situational awareness and mashups are two key factors influencing the success of situational language teaching. However, traditional situational language teaching cannot smoothly conduct relevant learning activities in changing learning context. This study developed a situational mashups system for detecting users' context and proposed a research…

  9. Rapid land-use change and its impacts on tropical biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurance, William F.

    Rates of forest conversion are extremely high in most tropical regions and these changes are known to have important impacts on biotas and ecosystems. I summarize available information on responses of wildlife and plant communities to habitat fragmentation, selective logging, surface fires, and hunting, which are four of the most widespread types of tropical land-use change. These changes alter forest ecosystems in complex ways and have varying impacts on different animal and plant species. In most human-dominated landscapes, forests are subjected to not one change but to two or more simultaneous alterations, the effects of which can be particularly destructive to tropical biotas. I illustrate this concept by describing the synergistic interactions between habitat fragmentation and surface fires, and between logging, fires, and hunting.

  10. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  11. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Terrestrial Intactness and Potential For Change (HUC5)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows current and near-term terrestrial intactness, as well as long term potential for development and climate change. These datasets are the results of a...

  12. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Mohan, Nikhil; Fullmer, Matthew S.; Makkay, Andrea M.; Wheeler, Ryan; Ventosa, Antonio; Naor, Adit; Gogarten, J. Peter; Papke, R. Thane

    2014-01-01

    Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well-documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500 bp) identified many closely and more distantly related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) haplotypes indicates that accumulation of genomic variation is rapid: faster than the rate of third codon substitutions. PMID:24782838

  13. Evidence from phylogenetic and genome fingerprinting analyses suggests rapidly changing variation in Halorubrum and Haloarcula populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil eRam Mohan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Halobacteria require high NaCl concentrations for growth and are the dominant inhabitants of hypersaline environments above 15% NaCl. They are well documented to be highly recombinogenic, both in frequency and in the range of exchange partners. In this study, we examine the genetic and genomic variation of cultured, naturally co-occurring environmental populations of Halobacteria. Sequence data from multiple loci (~2500bp identified closely related strains belonging to the genera Halorubrum and Haloarcula. Genome fingerprinting using a random priming PCR amplification method to analyze these isolates revealed diverse banding patterns within and across each of the genera and surprisingly even for isolates that are identical at the nucleotide level for five protein coding sequenced loci. This variance in genome structure even between identical multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA haplotypes suggests that accumulation of variation is rapid, perhaps occurring every generation.

  14. Methodology for benzodiazepine receptor binding assays at physiological temperature. Rapid change in equilibrium with falling temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, R.M.

    1986-12-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors of rat cerebellum were assayed with (/sup 3/H)-labeled flunitrazepam at 37/sup 0/C, and assays were terminated by filtration in a cold room according to one of three protocols: keeping each sample at 37 degrees C until ready for filtration, taking the batch of samples (30) into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 1-30, and taking the batch of 30 samples into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 30-1. the results for each protocol were substantially different from each other, indicating that rapid disruption of equilibrium occurred as the samples cooled in the cold room while waiting to be filtered. Positive or negative cooperativity of binding was apparent, and misleading effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the affinity of diazepam were observed, unless each sample was kept at 37/sup 0/C until just prior to filtration.

  15. Rapid spread of complex change: a case study in inpatient palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipski Marta I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on positive findings from a randomized controlled trial, Kaiser Permanente's national executive leadership group set an expectation that all Kaiser Permanente and partner hospitals would implement a consultative model of interdisciplinary, inpatient-based palliative care (IPC. Within one year, the number of IPC consultations program-wide increased almost tenfold from baseline, and the number of teams nearly doubled. We report here results from a qualitative evaluation of the IPC initiative after a year of implementation; our purpose was to understand factors supporting or impeding the rapid and consistent spread of a complex program. Methods Quality improvement study using a case study design and qualitative analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 36 national, regional, and local leaders. Results Compelling evidence of impacts on patient satisfaction and quality of care generated 'pull' among adopters, expressed as a remarkably high degree of conviction about the value of the model. Broad leadership agreement gave rise to sponsorship and support that permeated the organization. A robust social network promoted knowledge exchange and built on an existing network with a strong interest in palliative care. Resource constraints, pre-existing programs of a different model, and ambiguous accountability for implementation impeded spread. Conclusions A complex, hospital-based, interdisciplinary intervention in a large health care organization spread rapidly due to a synergy between organizational 'push' strategies and grassroots-level pull. The combination of push and pull may be especially important when the organizational context or the practice to be spread is complex.

  16. Multimodal imaging documentation of rapid evolution of retinal changes in handheld laser-induced maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhrami-Gavazi, Elona; Lee, Winston; Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; Kayserman, Larisa; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Freund, K Bailey

    2015-01-01

    To use multimodal imaging to document the relatively rapid clinical evolution of handheld laser-induced maculopathy (HLIM). To demonstrate that inadvertent ocular injury can result from devices mislabeled with respect to their power specifications. The clinical course of a 17-year-old male who sustained self-inflicted, central macular damage from a 20-25 s direct stare at a red-spectrum, handheld laser pointer ordered from an internet retailer is provided. Retrospective review of multimodal imaging that includes fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, MultiColor reflectance, eye-tracked spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), fundus autofluorescence, and microperimetry is used to describe the evolving clinical manifestations of HLIM in the first 3 months. Curvilinear bands of dense hyperreflectivity extending from the outer retina and following the Henle fibers were seen on SD-OCT immediately after injury. This characteristic appearance had largely resolved by 2 weeks. There was significant non-uniformity in the morphological characteristics of HLIM lesions between autofluorescence and reflectance images. The pattern of lesion evolution was also significantly different between imaging modalities. Analysis of the laser device showed its wavelength to be correctly listed, but the power was found to be 102.5-105 mW, as opposed to the laser -induced maculopathy, this finding can undergo rapid resolution in the span of several days. In the absence of this finding, other multimodal imaging clues and a careful history may aid in recognizing this diagnosis. A greater awareness regarding inaccurate labeling on some of these devices could help reduce the frequency of this preventable entity.

  17. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  18. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter’s Eight Steps of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R.; Holmes, Kristi L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. Results This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter’s Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Conclusions Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today’s academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions. PMID:28670217

  19. Implications of rapid environmental change for polar bear behavior and sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the Arctic sea ice has functioned as a structural barrier that has limited the nature and extent of interactions between humans and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). However, declining sea ice extent, brought about by global climate change, is increasing the potential for human-polar bear interactions. Loss of sea ice habitat is driving changes to both human and polar bear behavior—it is facilitating increases in human activities (e.g., offshore oil and gas exploration and extraction, trans-Arctic shipping, recreation), while also causing the displacement of bears from preferred foraging habitat (i.e., sea ice over biologically productive shallow) to land in some portions of their range. The end result of these changes is that polar bears are spending greater amounts of time in close proximity to people. Coexistence between humans and polar bears will require imposing mechanisms to manage further development, as well as mitigation strategies that reduce the burden to local communities.

  20. Unbounded boundaries and shifting baselines: Estuaries and coastal seas in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S.; Spencer, K. L.; Schuttelaars, H. M.; Millward, G. E.; Elliott, M.

    2017-11-01

    This Special Issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science presents contributions from ECSA 55; an international symposium organised by the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and Elsevier on the broad theme of estuaries and coastal seas in times of intense change. The objectives of the SI are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the impacts of global change on estuaries and coastal seas through learning lessons from the past, discussing the current and forecasting for the future. It is highlighted here that establishing impacts and assigning cause to the many pressures of global change is and will continue to be a formidable challenge in estuaries and coastal seas, due in part to: (1) their complexity and unbounded nature; (2) difficulties distinguishing between human-induced changes and natural variations and; (3) multiple pressures and effects. The contributing authors have explored a number of these issues over a range of disciplines. The complexity and connectivity of estuaries and coastal seas have been investigated through studies of physicochemical and ecological components, whilst the human imprint on the environment has been identified through a series of predictive, contemporary, historical and palaeo approaches. The impact of human activities has been shown to occur over a range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring the development of integrated management approaches. These 30 articles provide an important contribution to our understanding and assessment of the impacts of global change. The authors highlight methods for essential management/mitigation of the consequences of global change and provide a set of directions, ideas and observations for future work. These include the need to consider: (1) the cumulative, synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple pressures; (2) the importance of unbounded boundaries and connectivity across the aquatic continuum; (3) the value of combining cross-disciplinary palaeo, contemporary and

  1. A rapid change in the low energy cut-off of Scorpius X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, W. E.; Cordova, F.; Garmire, G. P.

    1974-01-01

    Sco X-1 was observed on June 10, 1972 near 04 hr 33 min U.T. simultaneously in the optical (B) the soft X-ray (0.1 to 2.4 keV) and the X-ray (1.5 to 20 keV) bands of the spectrum. It is believed that a change of short duration in the absorbing medium associated with Sco X-1 was observed. The medium attenuating the low energy X-ray flux from Sco X-1 has apparently changed by more than 40% on a time scale of less than 45 sec.

  2. Rapid change of atmosphere on the Hadean Earth: Beyond Habitable Trinity on a tightrope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, T.; Maruyama, S.

    2014-12-01

    Surface environment of Hadean Earth is a key to bear life on the Earth. All of previous works assumed that high pCO2 has been decreased to a few bars in the first a few hundreds millions of years (e.g., Zhanle et al., 2011). However, this process is not easy because of material and process barriers as shown below. Four barriers are present. First, the ultra-acidic pH (<0.1) of 4.4Ga ocean prevented the precipitation of carbonates at mid-oceanic ridge through water-rock interaction after the birth of primordial ocean driven by plate tectonics or pseudo-plate tectonics system. To overcome this barrier, primordial (anorthosite + KREEP) continents must have been above sea-level to increase pH rapidly through hydrological process. Second, major cap rocks on the Hadean oceanic crust must have been komatiite with minor basaltic rocks to precipitate carbonates through water-rock interaction and transport them into mantle through subduction at higher than the intermediate P/T geotherm on the Benioff plane. If not, carbonate minerals are all decarbonated at shallower depths than the Moho plane. Komatiite production depends on mantle potential temperature which must have been rapidly decreased to yield only Fe-enriched MORB by 3.8Ga. Third, the primordial continents composed of anorthosite with subordinate amounts of KREEP basalts must have been annihilated by 4.0Ga to alter pH to be possible to precipitate carbonates by hydrothermal process. The value of pCO2 must have been decreased down to a few bars from c.a. 50 bars at TSI (total surface irradiance) = 75% under the restricted time limit. If failed, the Earth must have been Venus state which is impossible to bear life on the planet. Fourth is the role of tectonic erosion to destroy and transport the primordial continent of anorthosite into deep mantle by subduction. Anorthosite + KREEP was the mother's milk grow life on the Earth, but disappeared by 4.0Ga or even earlier, but alternatively granites were formed and

  3. Rapid evolution of phenology during range expansion with recent climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lustenhouwer, N.; Wilschut, R.A.; Williams, J.L.; van der Putten, W.H.; Levine, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species’ current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species’ ability to shift their range with climate change may

  4. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and

  5. Extended Services in Schools: Developing Resources to Prepare Student Teachers for a Rapidly Changing Working Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sue; Smith, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The role of schools in providing extended services to their communities continues to undergo change and development. This has raised issues regarding the training of student teachers who are increasingly likely to take up appointments in schools offering extended services. This research project investigated the development of resources to prepare…

  6. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies...

  7. Challenge and Response, Strategies for Survival in a Rapidly Changing Forest Products Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Schuler; Craig Adair; Paul Winistorfer

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. has long been the world's largest market for wood and wood products, fueled by its demand for wood-frame housing. But forest product markets are changing, both in terns of where the products originate (domestically or abroad),and what products are being produced and consumed.

  8. Role of Western Hemisphere Warm Pool in Rapid Climate Changes over the Western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kug, Jong-Seong; Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il

    2017-04-01

    Oceanic states over the western North Pacific (WNP), which is surrounded by heavily populated countries, are closely tied to the lives of the people in East Asia in regards to both climate and socioeconomics. As global warming continues, remarkable increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface height (SSH) have been observed in the WNP in recent decades. Here, we show that the SST increase in the western hemisphere warm pool (WHWP), which is the second largest warm pool on the globe, has contributed considerably to the rapid surface warming and sea level rise in the WNP via its remote teleconnection along the Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). State-of-the-art climate models strongly support the role of the WHWP not only on interannual time sales but also in long-term climate projections. We expect that understanding the processes initiated by the WHWP-SST could permit better forecasts of western North Pacific climate and the further development of the socioeconomics of East Asia.

  9. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius G T Schut

    Full Text Available Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR. However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR data and Red Green and Blue (RGB imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region. Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa = 0.8 and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R(2 of 0.8-0.9 allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented

  10. A rapid review examining purchasing changes resulting from fiscal measures targeted at high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katharine E; Ells, Louisa J; McGowan, Victoria J; Machaira, Theodora; Targett, Victoria C; Allen, Rachel E; Tedstone, Alison E

    2017-12-15

    To aim of the review was to examine the most recent (2010 onwards) research evidence on the health and behavioural impacts, in adults and children, of fiscal strategies that target high sugar foods and sugar-sweetened drinks (SSDs). A pragmatic rapid review was undertaken using a systematic search strategy. The review was part of a programme of work to support policy development in relation to high sugar food and SSDs. A total of 11 primary research publications were included, describing evidence from France (n = 1), the Netherlands (n = 3), and the United States of America (n = 7), assessed through a variety of study designs, with the majority in adult populations (n = 10). The evidence reviewed focused on consumer behaviour outcomes and suggested that fiscal strategies can influence purchases of high sugar products. Although the majority of studies (n = 10), including three field studies, demonstrated that an increase in the price of high sugar foods and SSDs resulted in a decrease in purchases, eight studies were conducted in a laboratory or virtual setting which may not reflect real-life situations.Findings from this review support evidence from the broader literature that suggests that fiscal measures can be effective in influencing the purchasing of high sugar foods and SSDs.

  11. Rapid geochemical changes at Mawrth Vallis as observed through the mineralogical record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    The thick and widespread phyllosilicate outcrops observed in the Mawrth Vallis region indicate that abundant water was present here during the Noachian period. Factors shaping the formation and alteration of the observed phyllosilicates include aqueous processes, chemistry, and perhaps biology. The expansive phyllosilicate outcrops at Mawrth Vallis exhibit a consistent general trend of Al-phyllosilicates and amorphous Al/Si species at the top of the clay profile and Fe/Mg-phyllosilicates on the bottom. This implies either a change in water chemistry, a change in material being altered, or an alteration profile where the upper clays were leached and altered more significantly than those below. Localized variations in Al/Si-rich species [1,2] indicate pockets of acidic and neutral environments, likely formed through changes in the geochemical environment over a geologically short time period at the end of the Noachian. A change in iron in the phyllosilicate units is also observed such that an Fe2+-bearing unit is frequently observed between the Fe3+- and Mg-rich phyllosilicates below and the Al/Si-rich materials above [2]. Changes in oxidation state are often indicative of biogeochemical activity on Earth. CRISM spectra are shown in Figure 1 across a transect from an Al/Si-rich region to an Fe2+-bearing region to an Fe3+/Mg-phyllosilicate region. Phyllosilicate-bearing rocks may have been an ideal place on Mars for pre-biotic chemistry and possibly the development of life as well. Phyllosilicates, especially smectites, can serve as reaction surfaces that bind molecules and catalyze chemical reactions. Experiments have shown excellent survival of microbes in clay environments under extreme Mars-like temperature and humidity conditions. If microbes were present on Mars, the ancient Fe-smectite-bearing rocks could have been a favorable environment for them to evolve and possibly thrive. The Mawrth Vallis phyllosilicate outcrops are colored by changes in phyllosilicate

  12. DEBATING ABOUT SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen CÎRSTEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyzed the cirumstances of every day life which requires the need to adapt the leadership style. Leadership needs a lot of abilities and skills, including the capability to communicate. The paper deals with leader’s need of changing the style of leading as organizational circumstances change. The process is efficient only when the leaders and the followers have the right climate. The importance of this process is reflected in the productivity of the organization. As the economic climate changes the leadership style needs to be changed and also the style of communication throughout the leader coaches, coordinates, evaluates and supervises. Leadership is about organizing a group of people to achieve a goal. The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others. This paper describes the styles of leadership which the leaders must use and switch when is needed in comparison with what leadership is about.

  13. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes associated with bonded rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Dogra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate skeletal changes in maxilla and its surrounding structures, changes in the maxillary dentition and maxillary alveolar bone changes produced by bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (6 males and 4 females with age range 12 to 15 years treated with bonded RME. CBCT scans were performed at T1 (pretreatment and at T2 (immediately after expansion to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes. Results: RME treatment increased the overall skeletal parameters such as interorbital, zygomatic, nasal, and maxillary widths. Significant increases in buccal maxillary width was observed at first premolar, second premolar, and first molar level. There was a significant increase in arch width both on the palatal side and on the buccal side. Significant tipping of right and left maxillary first molars was seen. There were significant reductions in buccal bone plate thickness and increase in palatal bone plate thickness. Conclusions: Total expansion achieved with RME was a combination of dental, skeletal and alveolar bone changes. At the first molar level, 28.45% orthopedic, 16.03% alveolar bone bending, and 55.5% orthodontic changes were observed.

  14. Rapid language-related plasticity: microstructural changes in the cortex after a short session of new word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Shir; Friedmann, Naama; Assaf, Yaniv

    2017-04-01

    Human brain imaging revealed that the brain can undergo structural plasticity following new learning experiences. Most magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uncovered morphometric alternation in cortical density after the long-term training of weeks to months. A recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study has found changes in diffusion indices after 2 h of training, primarily in the hippocampus. However, whether a short learning experience can induce microstructural changes in the neocortex is still unclear. Here, we used diffusion MRI, a method sensitive to tissue microstructure, to study cortical plasticity. To attain cortical involvement, we used a short language task (under 1 h) of introducing new lexical items (flower names) to the lexicon. We have found significant changes in diffusivity in cortical regions involved in language and reading (inferior frontal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, and inferior parietal lobule). In addition, the difference in the values of diffusivity correlated with the lexical learning rate in the task. Moreover, significant changes were found in white matter tracts near the cortex, and the extent of change correlated with behavioral measures of lexical learning rate. These findings provide first evidence of short-term cortical plasticity in the human brain after a short language learning task. It seems that short training of less than an hour of high cognitive demand can induce microstructural changes in the cortex, suggesting a rapid time scale of neuroplasticity and providing additional evidence of the power of MRI to investigate the temporal and spatial progressions of this process.

  15. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  16. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    Force field adaptation of locomotor muscle activity is one way of studying the ability of the motor control networks in the brain and spinal cord to adapt in a flexible way to changes in the environment. Here, we investigate whether the corticospinal tract is involved in this adaptation. We...... measured changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before, during, and after subjects adapted to a force field applied to the ankle joint during treadmill walking. When the force field assisted dorsiflexion during...... the swing phase of the step cycle, subjects adapted by decreasing TA EMG activity. In contrast, when the force field resisted dorsiflexion, they increased TA EMG activity. After the force field was removed, normal EMG activity gradually returned over the next 5 min of walking. TA MEPs elicited in the early...

  17. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M; Cullen, Darron A; Anstey, Michael L; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  18. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M.; Cullen, Darron A.; Anstey, Michael L.; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R.; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  19. Rapid change of multiplicity fluctuations in system size dependence at SPS energies arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Recent preliminary results on multiplicity fluctuations in p+p, Be+Be and Ar+Sc collisions from the NA61/SHINE collaboration are presented. The scaled variance of charged hadron multiplicity changes little when going from p+p to Be+Be collisions and drops dramatically from Be+Be to Ar+Sc interactions. The centrality selection procedure and the influence of volume fluctuations are discussed. Comparisons with the EPOS event generator are shown.

  20. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Bruyn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ. This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  1. Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Jacobs, D. [International Energy Transition (IET), Boston, MA (United States); Rickerson, W. [Meister Consultants Group, Boston, MA (United States); Healey, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.

  2. Experimental studies of instantaneous color constancy: dynamic color matching under rapid changes of illuminant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbur, John L.; de Cunha, Darryl; Williams, Cristyn B.; Plant, Gordon

    2002-06-01

    We have extended the experiments of McCann et al., (1976) by incorporating the Mondrian stimulus into a dynamic colour matching (DCM) technique that allows the subject to match accurately the colour of any test patch under sequential changes of illuminant. We have also studied how scattered light affects the measured instantaneous colour constancy (ICC) index. The results show that correction for forward light scatter in the eye can increase significantly the measured ICC index. The changes in the perceived colour of a central test stimulus as a result of surround illuminant changes was investigated in a number of successful binocular and dichoptic experiments. The contribution made by distant patches to ICC was found to be small with the immediate surround (i.e., less than 2 degree(s) separation) contributing over 50% of the constancy effect. A number of subjects with partial loss of ability to see and discriminate colours caused by damage to ventromedial pre-striate visual cortex were also investigated. In order to establish the site of ICC mechanisms, the dynamic colour matching technique was modified to make it suitable for studies in patients with unilateral damage to the primary visual cortex.

  3. Somatosensory Space Abridged: Rapid Change in Tactile Localization Using a Motion Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizova-Cajic, Tatjana; Taylor, Janet L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Organization of tactile input into somatotopic maps enables us to localize stimuli on the skin. Temporal relationships between stimuli are important in maintaining the maps and influence perceived locations of discrete stimuli. This points to the spatiotemporal stimulation sequences experienced as motion as a potential powerful organizing principle for spatial maps. We ask whether continuity of the motion determines perceived location of areas in the motion path using a novel tactile stimulus designed to ‘convince’ the brain that a patch of skin does not exist by rapidly skipping over it. Method Two brushes, fixed 9 cm apart, moved back and forth along the forearm (at 14.5 cm s−1), crossing a 10-cm long ‘occluder’, which prevented skin stimulation in the middle of the motion path. Crucially, only one brush contacted the skin at any one time, and the occluder was traversed almost instantaneously. Participants pointed with the other arm towards the felt location of the brush when it was briefly halted during repetitive motion, and also reported where they felt they had been brushed. Results Participants did not report the 10-cm gap in stimulation – the motion path was perceptually completed. Pointing results showed that brush path was ‘abridged’: locations immediately on either side of the occluder, as well as location at the ends of the brush path, were perceived to be >3 cm closer to each other than in the control condition (F(1,9) = 7.19; p = .025 and F(1,9) = 6.02, p = .037 respectively). This bias increased with prolonged stimulation. Conclusions An illusion of completion induced by our Abridging stimulus is accompanied by gross mislocalization, suggesting that motion determines perceived locations. The effect reveals the operation of Gestalt principles in touch and suggests the existence of dynamic maps that quickly adjust to the current input pattern. PMID:24603595

  4. Pleistocene climate change promoted rapid diversification of aquatic invertebrates in Southeast Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawlitschek Oliver

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pleistocene Ice Ages were the most recent geohistorical event of major global impact, but their consequences for most parts of the Southern hemisphere remain poorly known. We investigate a radiation of ten species of Sternopriscus, the most species-rich genus of epigean Australian diving beetles. These species are distinct based on genital morphology but cannot be distinguished readily by mtDNA and nDNA because of genotype sharing caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Their genetic similarity suggests a Pleistocene origin. Results We use a dataset of 3858 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to reconstruct a phylogeny of Sternopriscus using gene and species trees. Diversification analyses support the finding of a recent rapid speciation event with estimated speciation rates of up to 2.40 species per MY, which is considerably higher than the proposed average rate of 0.16 species per MY for insects. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling and analyze data on habitat preferences to test for niche divergence between species of the recent Sternopriscus radiation. These analyses show that the species can be characterized by a set of ecological variables referring to habitat, climate and altitude. Conclusions Our results suggest that the repeated isolation of populations in glacial refugia might have led to divergent ecological adaptations and the fixation of morphological traits supporting reproductive isolation and therefore may have promoted speciation. The recent Sternopriscus radiation fulfills many characteristics of a species flock and would be the first described example of an aquatic insect species flock. We argue that the species of this group may represent a stage in speciation past the species flock condition because of their mostly broad and often non-overlapping ranges and preferences for different habitat types.

  5. Pleistocene climate change promoted rapid diversification of aquatic invertebrates in Southeast Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlitschek, Oliver; Hendrich, Lars; Espeland, Marianne; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Genner, Martin J; Balke, Michael

    2012-08-09

    The Pleistocene Ice Ages were the most recent geohistorical event of major global impact, but their consequences for most parts of the Southern hemisphere remain poorly known. We investigate a radiation of ten species of Sternopriscus, the most species-rich genus of epigean Australian diving beetles. These species are distinct based on genital morphology but cannot be distinguished readily by mtDNA and nDNA because of genotype sharing caused by incomplete lineage sorting. Their genetic similarity suggests a Pleistocene origin. We use a dataset of 3858 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to reconstruct a phylogeny of Sternopriscus using gene and species trees. Diversification analyses support the finding of a recent rapid speciation event with estimated speciation rates of up to 2.40 species per MY, which is considerably higher than the proposed average rate of 0.16 species per MY for insects. Additionally, we use ecological niche modeling and analyze data on habitat preferences to test for niche divergence between species of the recent Sternopriscus radiation. These analyses show that the species can be characterized by a set of ecological variables referring to habitat, climate and altitude. Our results suggest that the repeated isolation of populations in glacial refugia might have led to divergent ecological adaptations and the fixation of morphological traits supporting reproductive isolation and therefore may have promoted speciation. The recent Sternopriscus radiation fulfills many characteristics of a species flock and would be the first described example of an aquatic insect species flock. We argue that the species of this group may represent a stage in speciation past the species flock condition because of their mostly broad and often non-overlapping ranges and preferences for different habitat types.

  6. Changes in pharyngeal aerobic microflora in oral breathers after palatal rapid expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripa Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate in oral breathing children the qualitative and quantitative effects on aerobic and facultatively anaerobic oropharyngeal microflora of respiratory function improved by rapid palatal expansion (RPE. Methods In an open clinical trial, we studied 50 oral breathers, aged 8 to 14 years and suffering from both maxillary constriction and posterior cross-bite. At baseline, patients were examined by a single otorhinolaryngologist (ENT, confirming nasal obstruction in all subjects by posterior rhino-manometric test. Patients were evaluated three times by oropharyngeal swabs:1 at baseline (T = 0; 2 after palatal spreading out (T = 1; and 3 at the end of RPE treatment (T = 2. With regard to the microbiological aspect, the most common and potentially pathogenic oral microrganisms (i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus spp, Branhamella catarrhalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans were specifically detected in proper culture plates, isolated colonies were identified by means of biochemical tests and counted by calibrated loop. The data were analyzed by means of the following tests: Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and Wilcoxon's test. Results After the use of RME there was a statistically significant decrease of Staphylococcus aureus stock at CFU/mLat T1(P = 0.0005; Z = -3,455 by Wilcoxon Rank test and T2 (P Conclusion Our data suggest that RPE therapy in oral breathers may strongly reduce the pathogenic aerobic and facultatively anaerobic microflora in the oral pharynx after a normalization of the upper airways function, and may reduce the risk of respiratory infections.

  7. About Stressful Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... situation for you right now? It can help to write down your thoughts. For example: My family just ... you feel, given your situation. It can help to write down your feelings, too. For example: I feel ...

  8. Agoraphobia: A Situational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Austin; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Agoraphobia patients answered a questionnaire describing anxiety-producing situations. Home environment was associated with supportive company. Situations requiring patients to venture out alone were most anxiety-producing. The overriding importance of a significant other suggests treatment implications. (JAC)

  9. Coastal regime shifts: rapid responses of coastal wetlands to changes in mangrove cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Weaver, Carolyn; Charles, Sean P; Whitt, Ashley; Dastidar, Sayantani; D'Odorico, Paolo; Fuentes, Jose D; Kominoski, John S; Armitage, Anna R; Pennings, Steven C

    2017-03-01

    Global changes are causing broad-scale shifts in vegetation communities worldwide, including coastal habitats where the borders between mangroves and salt marsh are in flux. Coastal habitats provide numerous ecosystem services of high economic value, but the consequences of variation in mangrove cover are poorly known. We experimentally manipulated mangrove cover in large plots to test a set of linked hypotheses regarding the effects of changes in mangrove cover. We found that changes in mangrove cover had strong effects on microclimate, plant community, sediment accretion, soil organic content, and bird abundance within 2 yr. At higher mangrove cover, wind speed declined and light interception by vegetation increased. Air and soil temperatures had hump-shaped relationships with mangrove cover. The cover of salt marsh plants decreased at higher mangrove cover. Wrack cover, the distance that wrack was distributed from the water's edge, and sediment accretion decreased at higher mangrove cover. Soil organic content increased with mangrove cover. Wading bird abundance decreased at higher mangrove cover. Many of these relationships were non-linear, with the greatest effects when mangrove cover varied from zero to intermediate values, and lesser effects when mangrove cover varied from intermediate to high values. Temporal and spatial variation in measured variables often peaked at intermediate mangrove cover, with ecological consequences that are largely unexplored. Because different processes varied in different ways with mangrove cover, the "optimum" cover of mangroves from a societal point of view will depend on which ecosystem services are most desired. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  10. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Riedner, Brady A.; Smith, Richard F.; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18–65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson’s coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor. PMID:26901503

  11. Rapidly increasing collimation and magnetic field changes of a protostellar H2O maser outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surcis, G.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Goddi, C.; Torrelles, J. M.; Cantó, J.; Curiel, S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, J.-S.

    2014-05-01

    Context. W75N(B) is a massive star-forming region that contains three radio continuum sources (VLA 1, VLA 2, and VLA 3), which are thought to be three massive young stellar objects at three different evolutionary stages. VLA 1 is the most evolved and VLA 2 the least evolved source. The 22 GHz H2O masers associated with VLA 1 and VLA 2 have been mapped at several epochs over eight years. While the H2O masers in VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along a radio jet, those in VLA 2 are distributed around an expanding shell. Furthermore, H2O maser polarimetric measurements revealed magnetic fields aligned with the two structures. Aims: Using new polarimetric observations of H2O masers, we aim to confirm the elliptical expansion of the shell-like structure around VLA 2 and, at the same time, to determine if the magnetic fields around the two sources have changed. Methods: The NRAO Very Long Baseline Array was used to measure the linear polarization and the Zeeman-splitting of the 22 GHz H2O masers towards the massive star-forming region W75N(B). Results: The H2O maser distribution around VLA 1 is unchanged from that previously observed. We made an elliptical fit of the H2O masers around VLA 2. We find that the shell-like structure is still expanding along the direction parallel to the thermal radio jet of VLA 1. While the magnetic field around VLA 1 has not changed in the past ~7 years, the magnetic field around VLA 2 has changed its orientation according to the new direction of the major-axis of the shell-like structure and it is now aligned with the magnetic field in VLA 1. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Rapid microbiome changes in freshly deposited cow feces under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin eWong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although development of next generation sequencing (NGS has substantially improved our understanding of the microbial ecology of animal feces, previous studies have mostly focused on freshly excreted feces. There is still limited understanding of the aging process dynamics of fecal microbiomes in intact cowpats exposed to natural environments. Fresh cowpats were sampled at multiple time points for 57 days under field conditions; half the samples were exposed to sunlight (unshaded while the other half was protected from sunlight (shaded. The 16SRNA hypervariable region 4 was amplified from each sample and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq Platform. While Clostridia, Bacteroidia and Sphingobacteria were dominant classes of bacteria in fresh cowpats, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli were the dominant classes by the end of the study, indicating a general shift from anaerobic to aerobic bacterial populations. This change was most likely influenced by the shift from cattle gut (anaerobic to pasture ground (aerobic. Reduced moisture in cowpats may also contribute to the community shift since air can penetrate the dryer cowpat more easily. Twelve genera consisting pathogenic bacteria were detected, with Mycobacterium, Bacillus, and Clostridium being the most abundant; their combined abundance accounts for 90% of the total pathogenic genera. Taxonomic richness and diversity increased throughout the study for most samples, which could be due to bacteria regrowth and colonization of bacteria from the environment. In contrast to the high taxonomic diversity, the changes of PICRUSt inferred function profile were minimal for all cowpats throughout the study, which suggest that core functions predicted by PICRUSt may be too conserved to distinguish differences between aerobe and anaerobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that cowpat exposure to air and sunlight can cause drastic microbiome

  13. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E; Riedner, Brady A; Smith, Richard F; Tononi, Giulio; Davidson, Richard J; Benca, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel) electroencephalography (EEG) during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  14. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Sprecher

    Full Text Available Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel electroencephalography (EEG during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  15. Rapid Small-Signal Stability Assessment and Enhancement Following Changes in Topology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saric, AT; Stankovic, AM

    2015-05-01

    The paper proposes a scalable and tractable algorithm for dynamic topology optimization of power systems involving changes in branch on/off status, while respecting small-signal stability (SSS) constraints. A procedure for fast updates of the system matrices (in descriptor form) and without additional full matrix inversions is proposed. To additionally reduce the computation time, only critical eigenvalues (right-most or those in a specified damping ratio and frequency range) are calculated. A quadratic optimization approach is proposed for optimized generation re-dispatch to satisfy SSS constraints. The approach is applied to two (medium- and large-scale) real-world test power systems.

  16. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Coe, Kirsten K.; Sparks, Jed P.; Housman, David C.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, but we know little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many drylands, the Colorado Plateau in southwestern United States is predicted to experience elevated temperatures and alterations to the timing and amount of annual precipitation. We used a factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to show that altered precipitation resulted in pronounced mortality of the widespread moss Syntrichia caninervis. Increased frequency of 1.2 mm summer rainfall events reduced moss cover from ~25% of total surface cover to fertility. Mosses are important members in many dryland ecosystems and the community changes observed here reveal how subtle modifications to climate can affect ecosystem structure and function on unexpectedly short timescales. Moreover, mortality resulted from increased precipitation through smaller, more frequent events, underscoring the importance of precipitation event size and timing, and highlighting our inadequate understanding of relationships between climate and ecosystem function in drylands.

  17. The Boltysh crater record of rapid vegetation change during the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, D. W.; Daly, R.; Gilmour, I.; Gilmour, M.; Kelley, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of a cored borehole drilled through the sedimentary fill of the 24km wide Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine has yielded a unique, high resolution record spanning gymnosperm - angiosperm - fern communities are replaced by precipitation limited (winterwet) plant communities within the negative CIE. Winterwet plant communities dominate the negative CIE, but are replaced within the isotope recovery stage by warm temperate floras. These in turn give way to cooler temperate floras in the post positive CIE section of the uppermost crater fill. The distribution of temperate taxa about the negative CIE represents the broadest scale of oscillatory variation in the palynofloras. Shorter frequency oscillations are evident from diversity and botanical group distributions reflecting changes in moisture availability over several thousand years. Detailed analysis of variability within one of these oscillations records plant community cyclicity across the inception of the negative CIE. This short term cyclicity provides evidence that the replacement of warm termperate by winterwet floras occurred in a stepwise manner at the negative CIE suggesting cumulative atmospheric forcing. At <1mm scale, lamination within the negative CIE showed no obvious lithological or colour differences, and are not seasonal couplets. However, palynofloral analysis of laminations from within the negative CIE has yielded evidence of annual variation identifying the potential for recoding changes in 'paleoweather' across a major hyperthermal event. [1] Jolley, D. W. et al. (2010) Geology 38, 835-838.

  18. Inspection times, the change task, and the rapid-response selection task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M J; Newton, E J

    2001-11-01

    Three experiments are reported, which are based upon the Wason four-card selection task inspection time paradigm, in which subjects solve computer-presented trials while using a mouse to indicate the card currently under consideration. Evans (1996) had shown that selected cards were inspected for longer than non-selected cards, and this was taken as support for the existence of pre-conscious heuristic processes that direct attention towards relevant aspects of a problem. However, Roberts (1998b) suggested that this inspection time effect is artefactual, due to task format induced biases. Experiment 1 utilized a "change" task: Cards were presented either as selected or not selected, and subjects changed these where necessary. This demonstrated an association between card selection and inspection time independently of one between the act of response and inspection time. Experiment 2 utilized a standard selection task, but subjects either responded within 2 s of each card presentation, or made selections with no time pressure. The curtailment of thinking time increased matching behaviour--more cards matching the terms in the rules were selected--and was replicated in Experiment 3 using a within-subjects design. Overall, the data support Evans' heuristic-analytic framework albeit with some caveats.

  19. The role of the Asian winter monsoon in the rapid propagation of abrupt climate changes during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guoqiang; Sun, Qing; Zhu, Qingzeng; Shan, Yabing; Shang, Wenyu; Ling, Yuan; Su, Youliang; Xie, Manman; Wang, Xishen; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution temperature records spanning the last deglaciation from low latitudes are scarce; however, they are important for understanding the rapid propagation of abrupt climate events throughout the Northern Hemisphere and the tropics. Here, we present a branched GDGTs-based temperature reconstruction from the sediments of Maar Lake Huguangyan in tropical China. The record reveals that the mean temperature during the Oldest Dryas was 17.8 °C, which was followed by a two-step increase of 2-3 °C to the Bølling-Allerød, a decrease to 19.8 °C during the Younger Dryas, and a rapid warming at the onset of the Holocene. The Oldest Dryas was about 2 °C warmer than the Younger Dryas. The reconstructed temperature was weighted towards the wintertime since the lake is monomictic and the mixing process in winter supplies nutrients from the lake bottom to the entire water column, greatly promoting biological productivity. In addition, the winter-biased temperature changes observed in the study are more distinctive than the summer-biased temperature records from extra-tropical regions of East Asia. This implies that the temperature decreases during abrupt climatic events were mainly a winter phenomenon. Within the limits of the dating uncertainties, the broadly similar pattern of winter-weighted temperature change observed in both tropical Lake Huguangyan and in Greenland ice cores indicates the occurrence of tightly-coupled interactions between high latitude ice sheets and land areas in the tropics. We suggest that the winter monsoon (especially cold surges) could play an important role in the rapid transmission of the temperature signal from the Arctic to the tropics.

  20. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  1. Rapid realist review of the evidence: achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff. Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific intervention (GetREAL). Rapid realist review methodology was used to generate and prioritize programme theories. ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature searches were performed in September 2014-March 2015 with no date restrictions. Stakeholders suggested further documents. GetREAL project documentation was consulted. Programme theory development took place iteratively with literature identification. Stakeholders validated and prioritized emerging programme theories and the prioritized theories were refined using literature case studies. Fifty-one relevant documents fed into 49 programme theories articulating seven mechanisms for lasting change. Prioritized mechanisms were: staff receptiveness to change; and staff feeling encouraged, motivated and supported by colleagues and management to change. Seven programme theories were prioritized and refined using data from four case studies. Lasting change can be facilitated by collaborative action planning, regular collaborative meetings, appointing a change agent, explicit management endorsement and prioritization and modifying organizational structures. Conversely, a challenging organizational climate, or a prevalence of 'change fatigue', may block change. Pre-intervention exploration may help identify any potential barriers to embedding recovery in the organizational culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rapid environmental change over the past decade revealed by isotopic analysis of the California mussel in the northeast Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Pfister

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic input of fossil fuel carbon into the atmosphere results in increased carbon dioxide (CO(2 into the oceans, a process that lowers seawater pH, decreases alkalinity and can inhibit the production of shell material. Corrosive water has recently been documented in the northeast Pacific, along with a rapid decline in seawater pH over the past decade. A lack of instrumentation prior to the 1990s means that we have no indication whether these carbon cycle changes have precedence or are a response to recent anthropogenic CO(2 inputs. We analyzed stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ(13C, δ(18O of decade-old California mussel shells (Mytilus californianus in the context of an instrumental seawater record of the same length. We further compared modern shells to shells from 1000 to 1340 years BP and from the 1960s to the present and show declines in the δ(13C of modern shells that have no historical precedent. Our finding of decline in another shelled mollusk (limpet and our extensive environmental data show that these δ(13C declines are unexplained by changes to the coastal food web, upwelling regime, or local circulation. Our observed decline in shell δ(13C parallels other signs of rapid changes to the nearshore carbon cycle in the Pacific, including a decline in pH that is an order of magnitude greater than predicted by an equilibrium response to rising atmospheric CO(2, the presence of low pH water throughout the region, and a record of a similarly steep decline in δ(13C in algae in the Gulf of Alaska. These unprecedented changes and the lack of a clear causal variable underscores the need for better quantifying carbon dynamics in nearshore environments.

  3. The impacts of climate change on poverty in 2030, and the potential from rapid, inclusive and climate-informed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.

    2016-12-01

    There is a consensus on the fact that poor people are more vulnerable to climate change than the rest of the population, but, until recently, few quantified estimates had been proposed and few frameworks existed to design policies for addressing the issue. In this paper, we analyze the impacts of climate change on poverty using micro-simulation approaches. We start from household surveys that describe the current distribution of income and occupations, we project these households into the future and we look at the impacts of climate change on people's income. To project households into the future, we explore a large range of assumptions on future demographic changes (including on education), technological changes, and socio-economic trends (including redistribution policies). This approach allows us to identify the main combination of factors that lead to fast poverty reduction, and the ones that lead to high climate change impacts on the poor. Identifying these factors is critical for designing efficient policies to protect the poorest from climate change impacts and making economic growth more inclusive. Conclusions are twofold. First, by 2030 climate change can have a large impact on poverty, with between 3 and 122 million more people in poverty, but climate change remains a secondary driver of poverty trends within this time horizon. Climate change impacts do not only affect the poorest: in 2030, the bottom 40 percent lose more than 4 percent of income in many countries. The regional hotspots are Sub-Saharan Africa and - to a lesser extent - India and the rest of South Asia. The most important channel through which climate change increases poverty is through agricultural income and food prices. Second, by 2030 and in the absence of surprises on climate impacts, inclusive climate-informed development can prevent most of (but not all) the impacts on poverty. In a scenario with rapid, inclusive and climate-proof development, climate change impact on poverty is

  4. Situational analysis of dental caries and existing oral health care of children and adolescents in Hubei Province, People's Republic of China: implications for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; van Palenstein Helderman, Wim; Yee, Robert; Bian, Zhuan; Fan, Mingwen; Holmgren, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    (1) To evaluate trends in dental caries of children and adolescents of Hubei Province and Wuhan Municipality over the last two decades. (2) To conduct a situational analysis of existing oral health care and to recommend changes to improve this care for children. An analysis was performed on data from national oral health surveys carried out in China at the provincial level, and data on 12-year-old children of Wuhan Municipality. A review of the literature was conducted on available and utilised oral health care facilities by children. In 1983, the mean decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) of 12-year-olds in Hubei Province was 1.0, and in 1995 it was 0.6. The studies in Wuhan Municipality in 1993-1995 among 12-year-olds reported DMFT values ranging from 0.7-1.5, however different methods of caries assessment were performed in the various studies making comparisons difficult. The caries prevalence and the mean dmft score of 5-year-old children in 1995 in Hubei Province were 69% and 3.6, respectively. The percentage of untreated caries for all age groups in Hubei Province was very high. Analysis of epidemiological information over the last two decades does not provide any conclusive evidence supporting either an increasing or decreasing trend of dental caries in the child and adolescent population of Hubei Province and Wuhan Municipality. There is, however, a clear need to prevent the incidence of dental caries from increasing and to provide care to address the treatment needs of pre-school and school-age children. The promotion of twice-daily tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste at maternal and child health care centres, and the establishment of daily tooth brushing with pea-size amounts of fluoride toothpaste in the pre-school and primary school setting are recommended preventive strategies. Establishment of school-based oral health promotion should be accompanied with the provision of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) sealants and ART restorations which

  5. A humidity shock leads to rapid, temperature dependent changes in coffee leaf physiology and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioune, El-Hadji; McCarthy, James; Gallagher, Thomas; Osborne, Bruce

    2017-03-01

    Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of above-normal atmospheric water deficits contemporaneous with periods of high temperatures. Here we explore alterations in physiology and gene expression in leaves of Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Froehner caused by a sharp drop in relative humidity (RH) at three different temperatures. Both stomatal conductance (gs) and CO2 assimilation (A) measurements showed that gs and A values fell quickly at all temperatures after the transfer to low RH.  However, leaf relative water content measurements indicated that leaves nonetheless experienced substantial water losses, implying that stomatal closure and/or resupply of water was not fast enough to stop excessive evaporative losses.  At 27 and 35 °C, upper leaves showed significant decreases in Fv/Fm compared with lower leaves, suggesting a stronger impact on photosystem II for upper leaves, while at 42 °C, both upper and lower leaves were equally affected. Quantitative gene expression analysis of transcription factors associated with conventional dehydration stress, and genes involved with abscisic acid signalling, such as CcNCED3, indicated temperature-dependent, transcriptional changes during the Humidity Shock ('HuS') treatments.  No expression was seen at 27 °C for the heat-shock gene CcHSP90-7, but it was strongly induced during the 42 °C 'HuS' treatment. Consistent with a proposal that important cellular damage occurred during the 42 °C 'HuS' treatment, two genes implicated in senescence were induced by this treatment. Overall, the data show that C. canephora plants subjected to a sharp drop in RH exhibit major, temperature-dependent alterations in leaf physiology and important changes in the expression of genes associated with abiotic stress and senescence. The results presented suggest that more detailed studies on the combined effects of low RH and high temperature are warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  6. Post-bleaching coral community change on southern Maldivian reefs: is there potential for rapid recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Morgan, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Given the severity of the 2016 global bleaching event, there are major questions about how quickly reef communities will recover. Here, we explore the ecological and physical structural changes that occurred across five atoll interior reefs in the southern Maldives using data collected at 6 and 12 months post-bleaching. Following initial severe coral mortality, further minor coral mortality had occurred by 12 months post-bleaching, and coral cover is now low (individuals m-2), well below those measured 9-12 months following the 1998 bleaching event, and below recovery thresholds identified on other Indian Ocean reefs. Our findings suggest that the physical structure of these reefs will need to decline further before effective recruitment and recovery can begin.

  7. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  8. Quantifying past and present connectivity illuminates a rapidly changing landscape for the African elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W; Wasser, Samuel K; Keim, Jonah L; Mutayoba, Benezeth M; Brashares, Justin S

    2013-03-01

    There is widespread concern about impacts of land-use change on connectivity among animal and plant populations, but those impacts are difficult to quantify. Moreover, lack of knowledge regarding ecosystems before fragmentation may obscure appropriate conservation targets. We use occurrence and population genetic data to contrast connectivity for a long-lived mega-herbivore over historical and contemporary time frames. We test whether (i) historical gene flow is predicted by persistent landscape features rather than human settlement, (ii) contemporary connectivity is most affected by human settlement and (iii) recent gene flow estimates show the effects of both factors. We used 16 microsatellite loci to estimate historical and recent gene flow among African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations in seven protected areas in Tanzania, East Africa. We used historical gene flow (FST and G'ST ) to test and optimize models of historical landscape resistance to movement. We inferred contemporary landscape resistance from elephant resource selection, assessed via walking surveys across ~15 400 km(2) of protected and unprotected lands. We used assignment-based recent gene flow estimates to optimize and test the contemporary resistance model, and to test a combined historical and contemporary model. We detected striking changes in connectivity. Historical connectivity among elephant populations was strongly influenced by slope but not human settlement, whereas contemporary connectivity was influenced most by human settlement. Recent gene flow was strongly influenced by slope but was also correlated with contemporary resistance. Inferences across multiple timescales can better inform conservation efforts on large and complex landscapes, while mitigating the fundamental problem of shifting baselines in conservation. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  10. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  11. Ecoregional-scale monitoring within conservation areas, in a rapidly changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecological systems can prove invaluable for resource management and conservation. Such monitoring can: (1) detect instances of long-term trend (either improvement or deterioration) in monitored resources, thus providing an early-warning indication of system change to resource managers; (2) inform management decisions and help assess the effects of management actions, as well as anthropogenic and natural disturbances; and (3) provide the grist for supplemental research on mechanisms of system dynamics and cause-effect relationships (Fancy et al., 2009). Such monitoring additionally provides a snapshot of the status of monitored resources during each sampling cycle, and helps assess whether legal standards and regulations are being met. Until the last 1-2 decades, tracking and understanding changes in condition of natural resources across broad spatial extents have been infrequently attempted. Several factors, however, are facilitating the achievement of such broad-scale investigation and monitoring. These include increasing awareness of the importance of landscape context, greater prevalence of regional and global environmental stressors, and the rise of landscape-scale programs designed to manage and monitor biological systems. Such programs include the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program (Moser et al., 2008), Canada's National Forest Inventory, the 3Q Programme for monitoring agricultural landscapes of Norway (Dramstad et al., 2002), and the emerging (US) Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (USDOI Secretarial Order 3289, 2009; Anonymous, 2011). This Special Section explores the underlying design considerations, as well as many pragmatic aspects associated with program implementation and interpretation of results from broad-scale monitoring systems, particularly within the constraints of high-latitude contexts (e.g., low road density, short field season, dramatic fluctuations in temperature). Although Alaska is

  12. Sex Differences in Knee Flexion Angle During a Rapid Change of Direction While Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Christopher L; Gray, Aaron M; Brown, David; Smith, Brian A

    2015-12-01

    Females experience greater overall rates of athletic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males. The specific mechanisms of the predisposition remain unclear. Modeling of knee kinematics has shown that the more extended the knee joint, the greater the strain on the ACL. The authors hypothesized that female athletes would have a lesser degree of knee flexion than male athletes at initial ground contact while performing change-of-direction cutting maneuvers. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty female and 20 male high school soccer athletes with at least 1 year of experience were recruited for the study. Athletes were excluded if they had a history of any major lower limb injury or current knee pain causing a reduction in training and/or competition. Reflective markers were attached at the greater trochanter of the femur, the lateral epicondyle of the knee, and the lateral malleolus of the ankle to enable motion capture. Each athlete performed 6 change-of-direction maneuvers in random order in front of 2 cameras. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine differences between the sexes from the motion data captured; P angles between male and female participants at the 90° and 135° cutting angles. At 90°, males and females showed initial contact knee flexion angles (mean ± SD) of 39.0° ± 6.8° and 29.3° ± 6.2°, respectively (P angles of 56.4° ± 6.9° and 49.7° ± 7.0°, respectively (P = .0036). At 135°, males and females showed mean initial contact knee flexion angles of 36.8° ± 7.9° and 29.7° ± 7.8°, respectively (P = .0053), and mean maximum flexion angles of 60.7° ± 8.1° and 51.6° ± 9.4°, respectively (P = .0017). The research conducted is intended to foster an awareness of injury disposition in female athletes and guide future endeavors to develop, test, and implement a proactive approach in lowering female noncontact athletic ACL injury rates. This project adds to the literature as wider side-cut maneuvers (≥90°) were

  13. Rapid Sampling of Escherichia coli After Changing Oxygen Conditions Reveals Transcriptional Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wulffen, Joachim; Ulmer, Andreas; Jäger, Günter; Sawodny, Oliver; Feuer, Ronny

    2017-02-28

    Escherichia coli is able to shift between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism by adapting its gene expression, e.g., of metabolic genes, to the new environment. The dynamics of gene expression that result from environmental shifts are limited, amongst others, by the time needed for regulation and transcription elongation. In this study, we examined gene expression dynamics after an anaerobic-to-aerobic shift on a short time scale (0.5, 1, 2, 5, and 10 min) by RNA sequencing with emphasis on delay times and transcriptional elongation rates (TER). Transient expression patterns and timing of differential expression, characterized by delay and elongation, were identified as key features of the dataset. Gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed early upregulation of respiratory and iron-related gene sets. We inferred specific TERs of 89 operons with a mean TER of 42.0 nt/s and mean delay time of 22.4 s. TERs correlate with sequence features, such as codon bias, whereas delay times correlate with the involvement of regulators. The presented data illustrate that at very short times after a shift in oxygenation, extensional changes of the transcriptome, such as temporary responses, can be observed. Besides regulation, TERs contribute to the dynamics of gene expression.

  14. Light, time, and the physiology of biotic response to rapid climate change in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, William E; Holzapfel, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    Examination of temperate and polar regions of Earth shows that the nonbiological world is exquisitely sensitive to the direct effects of temperature, whereas the biological world is largely organized by light. Herein, we discuss the use of day length by animals at physiological and genetic levels, beginning with a comparative experimental study that shows the preeminent role of light in determining fitness in seasonal environments. Typically, at seasonally appropriate times, light initiates a cascade of physiological events mediating the input and interpretation of day length to the output of specific hormones that ultimately determine whether animals prepare to develop, reproduce, hibernate, enter dormancy, or migrate. The mechanisms that form the basis of seasonal time keeping and their adjustment during climate change are reviewed at the physiological and genetic levels. Future avenues for research are proposed that span basic questions from how animals transition from dependency on tropical cues to temperate cues during range expansions, to more applied questions of species survival and conservation biology during periods of climatic stress.

  15. Extensive transcriptome analysis correlates the plasticity of Entamoeba histolytica pathogenesis to rapid phenotype changes depending on the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christian; Koutero, Mikael; Dillies, Marie-Agnes; Varet, Hugo; Lopez-Camarillo, Cesar; Coppée, Jean Yves; Hon, Chung-Chau; Guillén, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Amoebiasis is a human infectious disease due to the amoeba parasite Entamoeba histolytica. The disease appears in only 20% of the infections. Diversity in phenotypes may occur within the same infectious strain in the gut; for instance, parasites can be commensal (in the intestinal lumen) or pathogenic (inside the tissue). The degree of pathogenesis of clinical isolates varies greatly. These findings raise the hypothesis that genetic derivation may account for amoebic diverse phenotypes. The main goal of this study was to analyse gene expression changes of a single virulent amoebic strain in different environmental contexts where it exhibit different degrees of virulence, namely isolated from humans and maintained through animal liver passages, in contact with the human colon and short or prolonged in vitro culture. The study reveals major transcriptome changes in virulent parasites upon contact with human colon explants, including genes related to sugar metabolism, cytoskeleton rearrangement, stress responses and DNA repair. Furthermore, in long-term cultured parasites, drastic changes in gene expression for proteins with functions for proteasome and tRNA activities were found. Globally we conclude that rapid changes in gene expression rather than genetic derivation can sustain the invasive phenotype of a single virulent isolate of E. histolytica. PMID:27767091

  16. Evidence that implicit assumptions of 'no evolution' of disease vectors in changing environments can be violated on a rapid timescale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egizi, Andrea; Fefferman, Nina H; Fonseca, Dina M

    2015-04-05

    Projected impacts of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics must consider many variables relevant to hosts, vectors and pathogens, including how altered environmental characteristics might affect the spatial distributions of vector species. However, many predictive models for vector distributions consider their habitat requirements to be fixed over relevant time-scales, when they may actually be capable of rapid evolutionary change and even adaptation. We examine the genetic signature of a spatial expansion by an invasive vector into locations with novel temperature conditions compared to its native range as a proxy for how existing vector populations may respond to temporally changing habitat. Specifically, we compare invasions into different climate ranges and characterize the importance of selection from the invaded habitat. We demonstrate that vector species can exhibit evolutionary responses (altered allelic frequencies) to a temperature gradient in as little as 7-10 years even in the presence of high gene flow, and further, that this response varies depending on the strength of selection. We interpret these findings in the context of climate change predictions for vector populations and emphasize the importance of incorporating vector evolution into models of future vector-borne disease dynamics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. What and how should we teach so as to prepare the next generation of hydrologists for a rapidly changing world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    In principle, we can learn from history and from historical data how a hydrological system behaved in the past. But what can we learn about new situations? Can we predict with confidence how our natural systems will function under changing boundary conditions? If the answer to this question is negative, then how can we prepare future generation to deal with these issues? I think that we have to focus on understanding physical processes at scales where they demonstrate organised behaviour, or - to put it in other words - at scales were patterns emerge. In recent years we have seen how the reductionist approach is incapable of predicting uncertain situations. Instead, we will have to focus on recognising dominant behaviour and on modelling this behaviour in the simplest terms possible. This brings us to the question how we can identify and conceptualise dominant and secondary behaviour in connection to a changing environment and subject to changed forcing. What does this mean for education? I think we have to teach basic physics and basic physical principles and processes at plot scale, but also at the scale of hill slopes, watersheds and river basins. This has to be strongly intertwined with field work. Only in the field can students recognise the processes and the thresholds that need to be passed for certain processes to become active. Next, students should learn how to conceptualise the hydrological world within a rejectionist framework of hypothesis testing; how to develop and use diagnostics to test hypothesis; and, more importantly, how to develop and use creativity to generate new hypotheses, in dialogue with the experimentalist and field hydrologist. Finally there are issues related to process. Learning should consist largely of learning by doing: literature studies, field work, experiments, colloquia, exercises, presentations, paper writing, discussion groups. Lecturing should not be more than 50% of the contact time and should be interactive and meant to

  18. Rapid changes in the light/dark cycle disrupt memory of conditioned fear in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn H Loh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of physiology and behavior including cognitive processes. Components of neural circuits involved in learning and memory, e.g., the amygdala and the hippocampus, exhibit circadian rhythms in gene expression and signaling pathways. The functional significance of these rhythms is still not understood. In the present study, we sought to determine the impact of transiently disrupting the circadian system by shifting the light/dark (LD cycle. Such "jet lag" treatments alter daily rhythms of gene expression that underlie circadian oscillations as well as disrupt the synchrony between the multiple oscillators found within the body. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected adult male C57Bl/6 mice to a contextual fear conditioning protocol either before or after acute phase shifts of the LD cycle. As part of this study, we examined the impact of phase advances and phase delays, and the effects of different magnitudes of phase shifts. Under all conditions tested, we found that recall of fear conditioned behavior was specifically affected by the jet lag. We found that phase shifts potentiated the stress-evoked corticosterone response without altering baseline levels of this hormone. The jet lag treatment did not result in overall sleep deprivation, but altered the temporal distribution of sleep. Finally, we found that prior experience of jet lag helps to compensate for the reduced recall due to acute phase shifts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute changes to the LD cycle affect the recall of fear-conditioned behavior. This suggests that a synchronized circadian system may be broadly important for normal cognition and that the consolidation of memories may be particularly sensitive to disruptions of circadian timing.

  19. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, avian nest predation, and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic consequences of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) have been widely documented for many populations. The mechanisms underlying such patterns, however, are rarely investigated and yet are critical to understand for effective conservation and management.

  20. Rapid quantitative assessment of land patterns change and erupted volumes by spaceborne SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, N.; Bianchi, M.; Cigna, F.; di Muro, A.; Fortunato, G.; Sedze, M.; Ferrucci, F.

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar observations do not apply frequently to the quantitative mapping of lava flows and of eruptive patterns, as multispectral mid-to-high spatial/temporal resolution observations are naturally best suited for high-temperature contouring and eruptive rate assessment. However, in case of urgent need for quantitative geographical information, high-spatial and high-temporal resolution SAR data may become essential or unique in providing timely information support to officials in charge of volcano emergencies. This was the case of the early weeks of the 2011-2012 Nyiamulagira eruption (DR Congo), whose fast and large lava flow developed in an area off-limited by the ongoing military unrest, and persistent cloud cover spoiled the ground view to electro-optical high-resolution payloads. A combination of two automated techniques - one non-interferometric and one interferometric - on very-high resolution X-band images acquired during less-than-weekly revisits by the Cosmo SkyMED constellation, allowed locating the eruption site, highlighting the inherent landscape modifications, mapping the progression of the ~22 km lava flow, and carrying out volume estimates by precise DEM subtractions. The interferometric technique is based on the application of the PS-InSAR derived SqueeSAR procedure (Ferretti et al., IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.,49-9, 3460-3470; 2011) to series of Cosmo-SkyMED tandem pairs for obtaining high-precision/high-resolution DEMs anywhere-anytime within a limited time framework. Validation against a recent LiDAR DEM of the summit areas of Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island) returned a typical accuracy of 0.4m × 2.3m in one-orbit geometry. The non-interferometric technique exploits amplitude and coherence changes to single out, map and measure newly appeared volcanic features of significant dimensions. The overall observation-and-processing strategy was developed in the framework and under the specifications of project EVOSS (European

  1. The Language Situation in Macao

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xi

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial societies, forces associated with globalization operate along with local geopolitical changes. The complex and multifaceted interactions between local, national, and global forces may take different sociolinguistic shapes in postcolonial societies. This study provides an overview of the language situation in Macao. The Portuguese…

  2. Toxicant induced changes on delayed fluorescence decay kinetics of cyanobacteria and green algae: a rapid and sensitive biotest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Leunert

    Full Text Available Algal tests have developed into routine tools for testing toxicity of pollutants in aquatic environments. Meanwhile, in addition to algal growth rates, an increasing number of fluorescence based methods are used for rapid and sensitive toxicity measures. The present study stresses the suitability of delayed fluorescence (DF as a promising parameter for biotests. DF is based on the recombination fluorescence at the reaction centre of photosystem II, which is emitted only by photosynthetically active cells. We analyzed the effects of three chemicals (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU, 3,5 Dichlorophenol (3,5 DCP and copper on the shape of the DF decay kinetics for potential use in phytoplankton toxicity tests. The short incubation tests were done with four phytoplankton species, with special emphasis on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. All species exhibited a high sensitivity to DCMU, but cyanobacteria were more affected by copper and less by 3,5 DCP than the tested green algae. Analyses of changes in the DF decay curve in response to the added chemicals indicated the feasibility of the DF decay approach as a rapid and sensitive testing tool.

  3. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression During the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117) completed eight sessions of BA-TE that included two phases of treatment: (a) behavioral activation (BA) in which some activities involved situational exp...

  4. Situational method engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson-Sellers, Brian; Ågerfalk, Pär J; Rossi, Matti

    2014-01-01

    While previously available methodologies for software ? like those published in the early days of object technology ? claimed to be appropriate for every conceivable project, situational method engineering (SME) acknowledges that most projects typically have individual characteristics and situations. Thus, finding the most effective methodology for a particular project needs specific tailoring to that situation. Such a tailored software development methodology needs to take into account all the bits and pieces needed for an organization to develop software, including the software process, the

  5. Cranfield situation awareness scale :

    OpenAIRE

    Dennehy, K.

    1997-01-01

    Training to enhance situation awareness depends upon having satisfactory quantitative methods for measuring situation awareness. Until the development of the Cranfield-SAS, there was no direct subjective rating scale to measure the situation awareness of student (ab initio) civil pilots (see appendix 4 for an overview of the measurement guidelines for an overview of the measurement guidelines for scale development). The development of the scale was part requirement for a Ph.D. at Cranfield Un...

  6. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, M D; Matthews, M A

    1992-12-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of -0.20 and -0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with -0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes.

  7. Rapid Changes in Cell Wall Yielding of Elongating Begonia argenteo-guttata L. Leaves in Response to Changes in Plant Water Status 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpe, Marcelo D.; Matthews, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Elongation and epidermal cell turgor (P) of Begonia argenteoguttata L. leaves were simultaneously measured to determine the wall-yielding behavior of growing leaf cells in response to changes in plant water status. Rapid changes in plant water status were imposed by irrigating the rooting media with solutions of −0.20 and −0.30 MPa mannitol. These treatments caused decreases in P of 0.09 and 0.17 MPa, respectively. The decreases in P were complete within 10 min, and P did not change thereafter. Following treatments, leaf elongation was nil for periods of 25 to 38 min. Subsequently, elongation recovered to steady rates that were 45 or 75% lower than in the well-watered controls. Leaves of plants that were pretreated with −0.30 MPa of mannitol and rewatered showed an increase in P of 0.19 MPa, which was complete within 15 min; P did not change thereafter. Rewatering caused a several-fold increase in leaf elongation rates, which subsequently declined while P was increasing, to reach steady rates similar to that of the controls. Several estimates of elastic deformation indicated that most of the elongation responses to altered P were due to changes in irreversible deformation. The results showed that the initial effects of changes in P on leaf elongation were partially compensated for by changes in the cell wall-yielding properties. We conclude that linear relationships between P and adjusted growth rates are not necessarily indicative of constant wall-yielding properties. Instead, these relationships may reflect the effect of P on wall-loosening processes. PMID:16653208

  8. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J

    2011-01-01

    Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix...... associated with cell walls, rather than toward structural cell wall components such as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Substrate constituents are also known to be sequentially degraded in different sections of the fungus garden. To test the plasticity in the extracellular expression of fungus-garden enzymes......, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking...

  9. Rapid identification of molecular changes in tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) upon ageing using leaf spray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Depanjan; Srimany, Amitava; Pradeep, T

    2012-10-07

    Tulsi or Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is a medicinally important plant. Ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) are among its major constituents which account for many medicinal activities of the plant. In the present work, we deployed a new ambient ionization method, leaf spray ionization, for rapid detection of UA, OA and their oxidation products from tulsi leaves. Tandem electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been performed on tulsi leaf extracts in methanol to establish the identity of the compounds. We probed changes occurring in the relative amounts of the parent compounds (UA and OA) with their oxidized products and the latter show an increasing trend upon ageing. The findings are verified by ESI-MS analysis of tulsi leaf extracts, which shows the same trend proving the reliability of the leaf spray method.

  10. Habitat and indigenous gut microbes contribute to the plasticity of gut microbiome in oriental river prawn during rapid environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Chen

    Full Text Available Growing evidence points out that the capacity of organisms to acclimate or adapt to new habitat conditions basically depends on their phenomic plasticity attributes, of which their gut commensal microbiota might be an essential impact factor. Especially in aquatic organisms, which are in direct and continual contact with the aquatic environment, the complex and dynamic microbiota have significant effects on health and development. However, an understanding of the relative contribution of internal sorting (host genetic and colonization (environmental processes is still unclear. To understand how microbial communities differ in response to rapid environmental change, we surveyed and studied the environmental and gut microbiota of native and habitat-exchanged shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponense using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform. Corresponding with microbial diversity of their living water areas, the divergence in gut microbes of lake-to-river shrimp (CK increased, while that of river-to-lake shrimp (KC decreased. Importantly, among the candidate environment specific gut microbes in habitat-exchanged shrimp, over half of reads were associated with the indigenous bacteria in native shrimp gut, yet more candidates presented in CK may reflect the complexity of new environment. Our results suggest that shrimp gut microbiota has high plasticity when its host faces environmental changes, even over short timescales. Further, the changes in external environment might influence the gut microbiome not just by providing environment-associated microbes directly, but also by interfering with the composition of indigenous gut bacteria indirectly.

  11. Dynamic changes in single unit activity and γ oscillations in a thalamocortical circuit during rapid instrumental learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiu Yu

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and mediodorsal thalamus (MD together form a thalamocortical circuit that has been implicated in the learning and production of goal-directed actions. In this study we measured neural activity in both regions simultaneously, as rats learned to press a lever to earn food rewards. In both MD and mPFC, instrumental learning was accompanied by dramatic changes in the firing patterns of the neurons, in particular the rapid emergence of single-unit neural activity reflecting the completion of the action and reward delivery. In addition, we observed distinct patterns of changes in the oscillatory LFP response in MD and mPFC. With learning, there was a significant increase in theta band oscillations (6-10 Hz in the MD, but not in the mPFC. By contrast, gamma band oscillations (40-55 Hz increased in the mPFC, but not in the MD. Coherence between these two regions also changed with learning: gamma coherence in relation to reward delivery increased, whereas theta coherence did not. Together these results suggest that, as rats learned the instrumental contingency between action and outcome, the emergence of task related neural activity is accompanied by enhanced functional interaction between MD and mPFC in response to the reward feedback.

  12. Multiple reciprocal adaptations and rapid genetic change upon experimental coevolution of an animal host and its microbial parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Rebecca D; Makus, Carsten; Hasert, Barbara; Michiels, Nico K; Schulenburg, Hinrich

    2010-04-20

    The coevolution between hosts and parasites is predicted to have complex evolutionary consequences for both antagonists, often within short time periods. To date, conclusive experimental support for the predictions is available mainly for microbial host systems, but for only a few multicellular host taxa. We here introduce a model system of experimental coevolution that consists of the multicellular nematode host Caenorhabditis elegans and the microbial parasite Bacillus thuringiensis. We demonstrate that 48 host generations of experimental coevolution under controlled laboratory conditions led to multiple changes in both parasite and host. These changes included increases in the traits of direct relevance to the interaction such as parasite virulence (i.e., host killing rate) and host resistance (i.e., the ability to survive pathogens). Importantly, our results provide evidence of reciprocal effects for several other central predictions of the coevolutionary dynamics, including (i) possible adaptation costs (i.e., reductions in traits related to the reproductive rate, measured in the absence of the antagonist), (ii) rapid genetic changes, and (iii) an overall increase in genetic diversity across time. Possible underlying mechanisms for the genetic effects were found to include increased rates of genetic exchange in the parasite and elevated mutation rates in the host. Taken together, our data provide comprehensive experimental evidence of the consequences of host-parasite coevolution, and thus emphasize the pace and complexity of reciprocal adaptations associated with these antagonistic interactions.

  13. Ecological ethics in captivity: balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Ethical obligations to animals in conservation research and management are manifold and often conflicting. Animal welfare concerns often clash with the ethical imperative to understand and conserve a population or ecosystem through research and management intervention. The accelerating pace and impact of global environmental change, especially climate change, complicates our understanding of these obligations. One example is the blurring of the distinction between ex situ (zoo- and aquarium-based) conservation and in situ (field-based) approaches as zoos and aquariums become more active in field conservation work and as researchers and managers consider more intensive interventions in wild populations and ecosystems to meet key conservation goals. These shifts, in turn, have consequences for our traditional understanding of the ethics of wildlife research and management, including our relative weighting of animal welfare and conservation commitments across rapidly evolving ex situ and in situ contexts. Although this changing landscape in many ways supports the increased use of captive wildlife in conservation-relevant research, it raises significant ethical concerns about human intervention in populations and ecosystems, including the proper role of zoos and aquariums as centers for animal research and conservation in the coming decades. Working through these concerns requires a pragmatic approach to ethical analysis, one that is able to make trade-offs among the many goods at stake (e.g., animal welfare, species viability, and ecological integrity) as we strive to protect species from further decline and extinction in this century.

  14. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  15. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  16. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Malizia

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1 y(-1 and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2 ha(-1 y(-1. Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species, rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively. However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  17. Three-dimensional analysis of maxillary changes associated with facemask and rapid maxillary expansion compared with bone anchored maxillary protraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Claudia Toyama; Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Nguyen, Tung T; De Clerck, Hugo J; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A

    2013-11-01

    Our objectives in this study were to evaluate in 3 dimensions the growth and treatment effects on the midface and the maxillary dentition produced by facemask therapy in association with rapid maxillary expansion (RME/FM) compared with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusion were treated with either RME/FM (n = 21) or BAMP (n = 25). Three-dimensional models generated from cone-beam computed tomographic scans, taken before and after approximately 1 year of treatment, were registered on the anterior cranial base and measured using color-coded maps and semitransparent overlays. The skeletal changes in the maxilla and the right and left zygomas were on average 2.6 mm in the RME/FM group and 3.7 mm in the BAMP group; these were different statistically. Seven RME/FM patients and 4 BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical displacement of the maxilla. The dental changes at the maxillary incisors were on average 3.2 mm in the RME/FM group and 4.3 mm in the BAMP group. Ten RME/FM patients had greater dental compensations than skeletal changes. This 3-dimensional study shows that orthopedic changes can be obtained with both RME/FM and BAMP treatments, with protraction of the maxilla and the zygomas. Approximately half of the RME/FM patients had greater dental than skeletal changes, and a third of the RME/FM compared with 17% of the BAMP patients had a predominantly vertical maxillary displacement. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid changes in magma storage beneath the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes inferred from time-dependent seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Gordeev, Evgeniy I.; Dobretsov, Nikolay L.; Vernikovsky, Valery A.; Senyukov, Sergey; Jakovlev, Andrey; Jaxybulatov, Kayrly

    2013-08-01

    We present the results of time-dependent local earthquake tomography for the Kluchevskoy group of volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia. We consider the time period from 1999 to 2009, which covers several stages of activity of Kluchevskoy and Bezymianny volcanoes. The results are supported by synthetic tests that recover a common 3D model based on data corresponding to different time windows. Throughout the period, we observe a robust feature below 25 km depth with anomalously high Vp/Vs values (up to 2.2). We interpret this feature as a channel bringing deep mantle materials with high fluid and melt content to the bottom of the crust. This mantle channel directly or indirectly determines the activity of all volcanoes of the Kluchevskoy group. In the crust, we model complex structure that varies over time. During the pre-eruptive period, we detected two levels of potential magma storage: one in the middle crust at 10-12 km depth and one close to the surface just below Kluchevskoy volcano. In 2005, a year of powerful eruptions of Kluchevskoy and Besymiyanny volcanoes, we observe a general increase in Vp/Vs throughout the crust. In the relaxation period following the eruption, the Vp/Vs values are generally low, and no strong anomalous zones in the crust are observed. We propose that very rapid variations in Vp/Vs are most likely due to abrupt changes in the stress and deformation states, which cause fracturing and the active transport of fluids. These fluids drive more fracturing in a positive feedback system that ultimately leads to eruption. We envision the magma reservoirs beneath the Kluchevskoy group as sponge-structured volumes that may quickly change the content of the molten phases as fluids pulse rapidly through the system.

  19. A Situational Maintenance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance.......An overview of trend in maintenance management and presentation of a situational model and an analytical tools for identification of managerial efforts in maintenance....

  20. CN Jet Morphology and the Very Rapidly Changing Rotation Period of Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, David G.; Eisner, Nora; Knight, Matthew M.; Thirouin, Audrey

    2017-10-01

    In the first half of 2017, Comet 41P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak had its best apparition since its first discovery in 1858, remaining within 0.15 AU of Earth for three weeks and within 0.20 AU over a two month interval. These circumstances allowed us to study its coma morphology in search of possible jets, whose appearance and motion as a function of time would yield the rotation period and, with appropriate modeling, the pole orientation of the nucleus and source location(s). Imaging was obtained on a total of 45 nights between February 16 and July 2, using Lowell Observatory's 4.3-m Discovery Channel Telescope, the Hall 1.1-m telescope, and the robotic 0.8-m telescope. All narrowband CN images exhibit either one or two gas jets, and on most nights both jets appear as partial spirals with a clockwise rotation. Only a slow evolution of the jet morphology took place from mid-March to early June, presumably due to viewing geometry changes coupled with seasonal changes. Our coverage in late March was sufficient to rule out aliases of the rotation period, and further revealed a rapidly increasing period from about 24 hr to about 27 hr at the end of the month (Knight et al. 2017, CBET 4377). This rate of increase is roughly consistent with the solution of 19.9 hr found by Farnham et al. (2017, CBET 4375) in early March. Images from April 15 to May 4 yield an accelerating change in periods, passing 48 hr approximately on April 28. This is the fastest rate of change ever measured for a comet nucleus. These and other results, including those from Monte Carlo jet modeling just begun by us, will be presented.These studies were supported by NASA Planetary Astronomy grant NNX14AG81G and the Marcus Cometary Research Fund.

  1. Niche tracking and rapid establishment of distributional equilibrium in the house sparrow show potential responsiveness of species to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available The ability of species to respond to novel future climates is determined in part by their physiological capacity to tolerate climate change and the degree to which they have reached and continue to maintain distributional equilibrium with the environment. While broad-scale correlative climatic measurements of a species' niche are often described as estimating the fundamental niche, it is unclear how well these occupied portions actually approximate the fundamental niche per se, versus the fundamental niche that exists in environmental space, and what fitness values bounding the niche are necessary to maintain distributional equilibrium. Here, we investigate these questions by comparing physiological and correlative estimates of the thermal niche in the introduced North American house sparrow (Passer domesticus. Our results indicate that occupied portions of the fundamental niche derived from temperature correlations closely approximate the centroid of the existing fundamental niche calculated on a fitness threshold of 50% population mortality. Using these niche measures, a 75-year time series analysis (1930-2004 further shows that: (i existing fundamental and occupied niche centroids did not undergo directional change, (ii interannual changes in the two niche centroids were correlated, (iii temperatures in North America moved through niche space in a net centripetal fashion, and consequently, (iv most areas throughout the range of the house sparrow tracked the existing fundamental niche centroid with respect to at least one temperature gradient. Following introduction to a new continent, the house sparrow rapidly tracked its thermal niche and established continent-wide distributional equilibrium with respect to major temperature gradients. These dynamics were mediated in large part by the species' broad thermal physiological tolerances, high dispersal potential, competitive advantage in human-dominated landscapes, and climatically induced

  2. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  3. Assessing Operational Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin

    In spite of the high level of automation commonly applied to today’s engineering system, humans’ skill and knowledge still plays a central role in the systems’ daily operation, critical decision making, and accident management. The complexity of the engineered system poses great challenge for human...... operators to perceive and understand the operational situation. The research domain of situation awareness approaches the operational challenges from the human cognition perspective while the presented thesis aims at supporting situation assessment from the system perspective. The thesis has reviewed...... different perspectives on situation awareness in the human factor studies and uses the knowledge reflectively for system representation and analysis. The human cognitive activities during complex plant operation and how they perceive a situation and what kind of knowledge has to be established in the human...

  4. Asian river fishes in the Anthropocene: threats and conservation challenges in an era of rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, D

    2011-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the environmental changes that have influenced, or will influence, fishes and fisheries in the Yangtze and Mekong Rivers. These two rivers have been chosen because they differ markedly in the type and intensity of prevailing threats. The Mekong is relatively pristine, whereas the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze is the world's largest dam representing the apotheosis of environmental alteration of Asian rivers thus far. Moreover, it is situated at the foot of a planned cascade of at least 12 new dams on the upper Yangtze. Anthropogenic effects of dams and pollution of Yangtze fishes will be exacerbated by plans to divert water northwards along three transfer routes, in part to supplement the flow of the Yellow River. Adaptation to climate change will undoubtedly stimulate more dam construction and flow regulation, potentially causing perfect storm conditions for fishes in the Yangtze. China has already built dams along the upper course of the Mekong, and there are plans for as many as 11 mainstream dams in People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Cambodia in the lower Mekong Basin. If built, they could have profound consequences for biodiversity, fisheries and human livelihoods, and such concerns have stalled dam construction. Potential effects of dams proposed for other rivers (such as Nujiang-Salween) are also cause for concern. Conservation or restoration measures to sustain some semblance of the rich fish biodiversity of Asian rivers can be identified, but their implementation may prove problematic in a context of increasing Anthropocene alteration of these ecosystems. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Carsharing situation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carsharing is becoming very popular in the western world as an effective method to contain rising prices of fuel and vehicles. It was brought about as a possible solution to the changing condition of growing economies and population where there is an increased need for travel but there is also a need for expense economizing. Due to its role in reducing fuel consumption, controlling pollution and traffic congestion, there is an increased usage of carsharing services as an alternative transportation option in big cities. Today, worldwide several different carsharing methods are being used. This paper examines the current situation of carsharing in the world and two initiatives for starting carsharing programs in Croatia. The main goal of this paper is to define what carsharing is, how successful it is in the world and if there is potential for it in Croatia. The most developed carsharing regions in the world are Western Europe and North America. In the last several years Asia, Australia and South America have started carsharing projects and have the biggest growth in members and vehicles. Carsharing is still not recognized in Croatia. There were a few initiatives for starting the program but they failed. In order to determine the possibility and potential of carsharing in Croatia it is necessary to conduct further market research.

  6. Short-term evaluation of tegumentary changes of the nose in oral breathers undergoing rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreddine, Fauze Ramez; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo; Cappellette, Mario

    2017-06-26

    Rapid maxillary expansion is an orthodontic and orthopedic procedure that can change the form and function of the nose. The soft tissue of the nose and its changes can influence the esthetics and the stability of the results obtained by this procedure. The objective of this study was to assess the changes in nose dimensions after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in oral breathers with maxillary atresia, using a reliable and reproducible methodology through computed tomography. A total of 30 mouth-breathing patients with maxillary atresia were analyzed and divided into a treatment group who underwent RME (20 patients, 10 of which were male and 10 female, with a MA of 8.9 years and a SD of 2.16, ranging from 6.5 to 12.5 years) and a Control Group (10 patients, 5 of which were male and 5 female, with a MA of 9.2 years, SD of 2.17, ranging from 6.11 to 13.7 years). In the treatment group, multislice computed tomography scans were obtained at the start of the treatment (T1) and 3 months after expansion (T2). The patients of the control group were submitted to the same exams at the same intervals of time. Four variables related to soft tissue structures of the nose were analyzed (alar base width, alar width, height of soft tissue of the nose and length of soft tissue of the nose), and the outcomes between T1 and T2 were compared using Osirix MD software. In the TG, the soft tissues of the nose exhibited significant increases in all variables studied (p0.05). In the treatment group, mean alar base width increased by 4.87% (p=0.004), mean alar width increased by 4.04% (p=0.004), mean height of the soft tissues of the nose increased by 4.84% (p=0.003) and mean length of the soft tissues of the nose increased by 4.29% (p=0.012). In short-term, RME provided a statistically significant increase in the dimensions of the soft tissues of the nose. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All

  7. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  8. Immediate periodontal bone plate changes induced by rapid maxillary expansion in the early mixed dentition: CT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Gamba Garib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at evaluating buccal and lingual bone plate changes caused by rapid maxillary expansion (RME in the mixed dentition by means of computed tomography (CT. METHODS: The sample comprised spiral CT exams taken from 22 mixed dentition patients from 6 to 9 years of age (mean age of 8.1 years presenting constricted maxillary arch treated with Haas-type expanders. Patients were submitted to spiral CT scan before expansion and after the screw activation period with a 30-day interval between T1 and T2. Multiplanar reconstruction was used to measure buccal and lingual bone plate thickness and buccal bone crest level of maxillary posterior deciduous and permanent teeth. Changes induced by expansion were evaluated using paired t test (p < 0.05. RESULTS: Thickness of buccal and lingual bone plates of posterior teeth remained unchanged during the expansion period, except for deciduous second molars which showed a slight reduction in bone thickness at the distal region of its buccal aspect. Buccal bone dehiscences were not observed in the supporting teeth after expansion. CONCLUSION: RME performed in mixed dentition did not produce immediate undesirable effects on periodontal bone tissues.

  9. Hydrogen-induced changes in the crystalline structure and mechanical properties of a Zn-Al eutectoid alloy rapidly solidified

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval Jimenez, Alberto; Iturbe Garcia, Jose Luis [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: alberto.sandoval@inin.gob.mx; asandovalj@correo.unam.mx; Negrete Sanchez, Jesus [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Torres Villasenor, Gabriel [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-15

    Ribbon fractions of a zinc-aluminum eutectoid (Zn40.8Al%at.) alloy, obtained by rapid solidification using melt spinning technique, were submitted to a thermo-hydrogenation process by periods of 1, 6, 18, 24, 30, and 48 hours, to 200 degrees Celsius and 20 atmospheres. Thermo-hydrogenated samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hydrogen-induced changes were produced, such as microstructure refining, development of crystalline defects, microhardness changes and modification of stable crystalline structures to {alpha}R meta-stable phase at room temperature. [Spanish] Fracciones de tiras de una aleacion eutectoide de zinc-aluminio (Zn40.8Al%at.), obtenidas mediante solidificacion rapida usando la tecnica de melt spinning, se sometieron a un proceso de termohidrogenacion por periodos de 1, 6, 18, 24, 30 y 48 horas, a 200 grados centigrados y 20 atmosferas. Las muestras termohidrogenadas se analizaron por microscopia electronica de transmision (MET). Se produjeron cambios inducidos por hidrogeno, tales como la refinacion de la microestructura, el desarrollo de defectos cristalinos, cambios de microdureza y modificacion de las estructuras cristalinas estables a fase metaestable {alpha}R a temperatura ambiente.

  10. Rapid Cultural Change: A Case Study of Polyandry Marriage System among the Gurung Community from Upper Mustang, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juddha Bahadur Gurung

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is multi ethnic, multi lingual and multi cultural country. In Upper Mustang polyandry is practiced by Loba communities. However, the condition of polyandry is dying out at present. The young are not in favor of this system. Socio-economic, political, seasonal migration, tourism and developmental factors have played crucial role in this regards. From conservation perspective polyandry played crucial role to manage local resources and in population dynamics in the past. This paper is based on field survey carried out in two different time periods (1998 and 2008 in order to compare or understand changing pattern of polyandry. In last couple of years, polyandry system has changed very rapidly in Loba communities of Upper Mustang. Rising community awareness, multiple economic opportunities, improve communication, foreign employment, modern education, open tourism, road access and other visual and in visual forces has lead society from close to open and more wider side or increase the horizon of young generation. Polyandry system is directly affected. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8480 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 75-106

  11. Rapid Shifts in Soil and Forest Floor Microbial Communities with Changes in Vegetation during Secondary Tropical Forest Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.; Marin-Spiotta, E.; Balser, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    anaerobic gram-negative bacteria (c19:0) in the wet season, which suggests the presence of anaerobic microsites in these very clayey Oxisols. Enzymatic activity did not differ with succession but was highest in the dry season. We expect this may be due to decreased turnover of enzymes with low soil moisture. Interannual sampling has revealed a very rapid microbial response to changes in aboveground cover. Within a year following woody biomass encroachment, we detected a shift in the soil microbial community from a pasture-associated community to an early secondary forest community in one of our replicate pasture sites. This very rapid response in the belowground microbial community structure to changes in vegetation has not been strongly documented in the literature. This data supports a direct link between aboveground and belowground biotic community structures and highlights the importance of long-term repeated sampling of microbial communities in dynamic ecosystems. Our findings have implications for predicting rapid ecological responses to land-cover change.

  12. Rapid Change without Transformation: The Dominance of a National Policy Paradigm over International Influences on ECEC Development in Ireland 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Toby; O'Donoghue-Hynes, Bernie; Hayes, Nóirín

    2013-01-01

    The rapidity of change in Irish early childhood policy over the last 20 years is clear to observers (OECD Thematic Review of Early Childhood Education and Care Policy in Ireland. "Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development," Paris, 2004). What may be debated is how significant the changes are. In this paper, we analyse…

  13. Holocene fluvial geochronologies, global databases and hydrological proxies: rethinking people-river interactions and rapid climate change impacts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    The assumption of the constancy of climate over time periods of around a century, which was the basis of much engineering and hydrological forward planning until recently, is now widely felt to be unsatisfactory. This re-evaluation has been prompted by a number of important empirical, interdisciplinary and technological advances in fluvial science research over the last decade that is increasingly being carried out in a global framework. Some of the more important developments have included: 1. wider application of high precision sediment-based dating techniques (e.g. OSL) to a greater range of fluvial environments; 2. worldwide database compilation and statistical analysis of 14C dated Holocene fluvial units, enabling the identification of climatic and anthropogenic environmental signals in fluvial sedimentary sequences; and 3. new earth surface observation (e.g. LIDAR) and sediment core analysis (e.g. ITRAX core scanner) techniques that are providing event-scale reconstructions of fluvial environments. Drawing on recent geoarchaeological research in the lower Nile valley, 14C database analysis and comparison of Holocene fluvial records in Europe and New Zealand, and a new 3700-year continuous flood record from the UK reconstructed from fine-grained floodplain sediments, the impact of rapid climate change on riverine societies resulting from monsoon, thermohaline circulation, ENSO and NAO variability is critically reviewed. These studies show that establishing causal relationships between river dynamics and cultural/demographic change is not a straightforward task and identifying possible natural environmental triggers of societal change is especially problematic. A solution may be to stress the inseparable nature of environmental and cultural influences, and view the physical environment as a delimiter of possible action rather than as a prescriptive agency.

  14. Educational disparities in the metabolic syndrome in a rapidly changing society--the case of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Bo Youl; Shin, Young-Jeon

    2005-12-01

    Most of the evidence about socioeconomic inequalities in the metabolic syndrome comes from Western industrialized societies. The aim of this study is to examine how the inequalities appear and what could explain them in Korea, a rapidly changing society. We analysed the nationwide survey data of 1998 and 2001 with a sample of 4630 men and 5896 women (> or = 25 years). The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts based on the historical context: born before 1946, 1946-53, 1954-62, and since 1963. Socioeconomic position was defined by education level: high school graduation or above as the more educated group, and below that as the less educated one. The syndrome was defined according to ATP III criteria using abdominal obesity for Asians. The covariates included family history of diabetes, smoking, drinking, daily physical activity, regular exercise, suicidal ideation, weight change, and carbohydrates intake. The associations were examined by stratified logistic regression models across cohorts and gender. Less-educated women had higher prevalence with widening gaps across successive cohorts; the age-adjusted odds ratios of the less-educated group were 1.22 (0.86-1.71), 1.41 (1.01-1.97), 2.50 (1.87-3.35), and 2.64 (1.69-4.14). They hardly changed after covariate adjustment, and remained significant with considerable attenuation after controlling body mass index. However, educational disparities were not observed in men. We could observe the complex pattern of disparities in the metabolic syndrome across cohorts and gender. An equity-sensitive health promotion programme to prevent further spread of social inequalities may have beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and its components in Korea.

  15. The dynamic feedbacks between channel changes in the Colorado River Basin and the rapid invasion of Tamarisk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, R.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The resiliency and sensitivity of western rivers to future climate change may be partly anticipated by the response of these rivers to past perturbations in stream flow and sediment supply. Predictions of earlier spring runoff and reduced peak flows of snowmelt-dominated streams mimic hydrologic changes caused by the closure and operation of large dams built within the past century. In the Colorado River Basin, channels have narrowed between 5 and 26% following large dam construction, but the correlation between flow reduction and channel narrowing is confounded by changes in bank strength caused by the rapid spread of the non-native riparian shrub, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Thus, predictions of future changes in channel form and analysis of past changes related to dams must distinguish between channel narrowing caused by direct changes in flow, and caused by the indirect effects wherein changes in flow regime allow expansion of non-native riparian vegetation that in turn leads to accelerated channel narrowing. Our research evaluates the geomorphic controls on tamarisk colonization, the role of tamarisk in accelerating the narrowing process, and the dynamic feedbacks between channel changes on western rivers and the invasion of non-native riparian species. The transformation of formerly active bars and channel margins into stable inset floodplain surfaces is the dominant process by which these channels have narrowed, as determined by detailed alluvial stratigraphy and dendrogeomorphology. We recreated the 3-dimensional bar surface present at the time of tamarisk establishment by excavating an extensive network of trenches. In doing this, we evaluated the hydraulic environment within which tamarisk established. We also characterized the hydrodynamic roughness of aging tamarisk stands from ground-based LiDAR scans to evaluate the role of tamarisk in the promotion of floodplain formation. Our study sites are representative of the predominant geomorphic organization of

  16. Terrestrial Plant Biomarkers Preserved in Cariaco Basin Sediments: Records of Abrupt Tropical Vegetation Response to Rapid Climate Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughen, K. A.; Eglinton, T. I.; Makou, M.; Xu, L.; Sylva, S.

    2004-12-01

    Organic-rich sediments from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, preserve high concentrations of biomarkers for reconstruction of terrestrial environmental conditions. Molecular-level investigations of organic compounds provide a valuable tool for extracting terrestrial signals from these annually laminated marine sediments. Differences in hydrogen isotopic fractionation between C16-18 and C24-30 n-alkanoic acids suggest a marine source for the shorter chain lengths and a terrestrial source for the longer chains. Records of carbon and hydrogen isotopes, as well as average carbon chain length (ACL), from long-chain n-alkanoic acids parallel millennial-scale changes in vegetation and climate between the late Glacial and Preboreal periods, 15,000 to 10,000 years ago. Data from all terrestrial chain lengths were combined to produce single δ D and δ 13C indices through deglaciation, exhibiting enrichment during the late Glacial and Younger Dryas and depletion during the Bolling-Allerod and Preboreal periods. δ D reflects the hydrogen isotopic composition of environmental water used for plant growth, combined with evaporative enrichment within leaf spaces, and as such may act as a proxy for local aridity. Leaf wax δ 13C, which is a proxy for C3 versus C4 metabolic pathways, indicates that C3 plants predominated in the Cariaco watershed during warm/wet Bolling-Allerod and Holocene periods, and C4 plant biomass proliferated during cool/dry Glacial and Younger Dryas intervals. Coupled carbon and hydrogen isotopic measurements together clearly distinguish deglacial climatic periods as wetter with C3 vegetation versus drier with C4 vegetation. High resolution biomarker records reveal the rapidity of vegetation changes in northern South America during the last deglaciation. The leaf wax data reveal that local vegetation biomass, although not necessarily entire assemblages, shifted between arid grassland and wetter forest taxa on timescales of decades. Comparison of ACL

  17. Rapid compositional change and significant loss of plant species diversity among Triassic-Jurassic palynofloras in East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Kürschner, Wolfram; McElwain, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J; 200Ma) transition coincides with the eruption of massive flood basalts associated with the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. This is thought to have lead to a fourfold increase in palaeoatmospheric carbon dioxide, a consequent rise in global temperatures of between 3 and 6 degrees Celsius, and a rise in atmospheric pollutants such as sulphur dioxide. Recent work has employed either plant macrofossils (mostly leaves) or sporomorphs (pollen and spores) to reconstruct the response of terrestrial vegetation to this episode of major environmental change. Investigations of the macrofossil record at Astartekloft in East Greenland indicate a rapid loss of plant diversity in the Late Rhaetian, culminating in an 80% species turnover at the Tr-J boundary interval. However, evidence for such catastrophic diversity loss is conspicuously absent from the sporomorph record. This fossil group indicates that the Tr-J boundary interval in central and northwest Europe is characterized by compositional change and a transient shift from gymnosperm forests to fern-dominated vegetation. In order to address this uncertainty regarding Tr-J vegetation change according to macrofossils versus sporomorphs, we present an analysis of sporomorph diversity and compositional change across the Tr-J at Astartekloft, East Greenland. Sporomorph diversity was estimated using individual and sample-based rarefaction techniques, and compositional differences between sporomorph samples were assessed using non-metric multidimensional scaling. These analyses reveal that sporomorph assemblages from the Tr-J boundary interval at Astartekloft are between 23 and 27% less taxonomically diverse than other Triassic assemblages, and that this interval is characterized by a dramatic shift in the composition of the standing vegetation. These results are statistically significant and are also unrelated to changes in the environment of deposition. These results indicate that the magnitude of

  18. Monitoring of two rapidly changing glacier tongues in the Swiss Alps by new drone data and historical documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Samuel U.; Jörg, Philip C.; Gärtner-Roer, Isabelle; Rastner, Philipp; Ruff, Alexander; Steiner, Daniel; Vieli, Andreas; Zumbühl, Heinz J.

    2015-04-01

    Glaciers are considered among the most sensitive indicators of climate change. One of the most visually compelling examples of recent climate change is the retreat of glaciers in mountain regions, and knowledge about the past evolution of glacier fluctuations has been proven to be crucial for studying past decadal to century-scale climate variability. In this presentation, we evaluate the potential of a light fixed-wing UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle; drone) designed for surveying and remote sensing purposes, for monitoring glacier changes. We focus on the frontal zones of two well-known glaciers in the Swiss Alps: Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher in the Bernese Oberland, and Findelengletscher near Zermatt, Valais. We used a professional mapping drone (eBee by senseFly) to cover both frontal areas of the glaciers in the summer/autumn of 2014. We used a Canon IXUS 125HS RGB camera on-board the drone to collect overlapping nadir images for both study sites. For Unterer Grindelwaldgletscher (Findelengletscher), 187 (421) images were taken for a surveyed area of 3.2 km2 (2.9 km2) resulting in digital surface models and orthophotos with a very high spatial resolution of 0.16 m (0.11 m). The high number of images collected per area resulted in accurate elevation models and no detectable systematic horizontal shifts. Analysis of these images reveal in great detail the typical processes and features known for down-wasting and rapidly disintegrating Alpine glacier tongues: formation of (pro-)glacial lakes, dead ice, thermokarst phenomena, collapse of lateral moraines, and a complex interplay between many of those processes. Typically glacio-fluvial, gravitational, and periglacial processes occur in close vicinity and on different temporal scales (continuous, sporadic). We compare both glacier landscapes and address the important processes identified to be responsible for the glacier change at both sites. Finally, to set the observed geomorphological processes and the rapid

  19. Geohazards and myths: ancient memories of rapid coastal change in the Asia-Pacific region and their value to future adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid coastal change is common in the Asia-Pacific region yet an understanding of its causes, recurrence times, and impacts is not always clear through the use of conventional geological methods. It is suggested that myths (traditional [oral] tales) are underutilized sources of information about coastal change in this region. This is illustrated by consideration of myths likely to recall (early) Holocene sea-level rise, particularly along the coasts of India and Australia, as well as myths recalling rapid episodic coastal emergence and submergence, the latter including the disappearance of entire landmasses (islands). Two examples of how details in such myths can inform geological understanding of coastal change are given. The first argues that myths recalling the rapid flooding of coastal cities/lowlands are likely to represent memories of extreme wave events superimposed on a rising (postglacial) sea level. The second suggests that many myths about landmass/island disappearance fail to report the occurrence of rapid (coseismic and aseismic) subsidence even though they provide inferential evidence that this occurred. Few such myths are known to the author from many parts of Asia yet it is likely they exist and could, as elsewhere in the world, help illuminate the understanding of the nature and chronology of rapid coastal change. The challenges involved in helping communities in the Asia-Pacific region adapt to future coastal changes might be partly overcome by the use of appropriate myths to demonstrate precedents and engender local participation in adaptation strategies.

  20. Situational major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M; Klerman, G L; Andreasen, N C; Clayton, P J; Keller, M B

    1985-11-01

    Fifty-seven patients with situational major depression diagnosed by the Research Diagnostic Criteria were compared with 72 subjects with nonsituational major depression on demographic, clinical, and psychosocial variables. The situational patients tended to be younger and had fewer prior episodes of depression and fewer hospitalizations. No differences were found in categories of life events, in overall clinical picture, in social supports, or in family history.

  1. Use of a Nutrition Behavior Change Counseling Tool: Lessons from a Rapid Qualitative Assessment in Eastern Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid M Weiss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Agency for International Development Feed the Future Mawa Project—led by Catholic Relief Services—aims to improve food and economic security for farming households in Zambia’s Eastern Province. Mawa employs social and behavior change strategies with households and communities to improve nutrition and reduce stunting among children under two (CU2. To support these strategies, sub-partner University Research Co., LLC employed a participatory process to develop a series of 35 action cards, each illustrating one project-promoted behavior, that are used at household and community group levels. Caregivers of CU2 are given a full set of action cards to promote household dialogue and support for the promoted behaviors. As a final step in the action card tool development process, a qualitative rapid assessment was conducted one month after implementation to investigate preliminary ways action cards were being used and if the methods of using the cards had the potential to impact behavior change. The research team conducted nine key informant interviews and four focus group discussions with Mawa staff and administered 41 qualitative interview questionnaires with project participants in the Chipata and Lundazi districts. Although not based on a representative sampling frame, the assessment produced valuable results for program improvement purposes. It also provided a feedback mechanism for community-based staff and project participants, a crucial step in the participatory tool development process. The assessment found that Mawa staff at every level use action cards combined with at least one other SBC tool for each nutrition intervention. Our results suggest Mawa staff and project participants share a common understanding of the cards’ purpose. Each group noted that the cards provide a visual cue for action and reinforce previous Mawa nutrition messages. Intended uses confirmed by the assessment include encouraging household cooperation

  2. Ancestral genetic diversity associated with the rapid spread of stress-tolerant coral symbionts in response to Holocene climate change

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2016-04-05

    Coral communities in the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) withstand unusually high salinity levels and regular summer temperature maxima of up to ∼35 °C that kill conspecifics elsewhere. Due to the recent formation of the PAG and its subsequent shift to a hot climate, these corals have had only <6, 000 y to adapt to these extreme conditions and can therefore inform on how coral reefs may respond to global warming. One key to coral survival in the world\\'s warmest reefs are symbioses with a newly discovered alga, Symbiodinium thermophilum. Currently, it is unknown whether this symbiont originated elsewhere or emerged from unexpectedly fast evolution catalyzed by the extreme environment. Analyzing genetic diversity of symbiotic algae across >5, 000 km of the PAG, the Gulf of Oman, and the Red Sea coastline, we show that S. thermophilum is a member of a highly diverse, ancient group of symbionts cryptically distributed outside the PAG. We argue that the adjustment to temperature extremes by PAG corals was facilitated by the positive selection of preadapted symbionts. Our findings suggest that maintaining the largest possible pool of potentially stress-tolerant genotypes by protecting existing biodiversity is crucial to promote rapid adaptation to present-day climate change, not only for coral reefs, but for ecosystems in general.

  3. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, Carolina; Alves, Matheus; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Nojima, Matilde C G; Nojima, Lincoln I

    2014-01-01

    To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1), at the end of the active expansion phase (T2) and after a retention period of 6 months (T3). The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR) and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite). Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  4. Changes in skeletal and dental relationship in Class II Division I malocclusion after rapid maxillary expansion: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Baratieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess skeletal and dental changes immediately after rapid maxillary expansion (RME in Class II Division 1 malocclusion patients and after a retention period, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT imaging. METHODS: Seventeen children with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion and maxillary skeletal transverse deficiency underwent RME following the Haas protocol. CBCT were taken before treatment (T1, at the end of the active expansion phase (T2 and after a retention period of 6 months (T3. The scanned images were measured anteroposteriorly (SNA, SNB, ANB, overjet and MR and vertically (N-ANS, ANS-Me, N-Me and overbite. RESULTS: Significant differences were identified immediately after RME as the maxilla moved forward, the mandible moved downward, overjet increased and overbite decreased. During the retention period, the maxilla relapsed backwards and the mandible was displaced forward, leaving patients with an overall increase in anterior facial height. CONCLUSION: RME treatment allowed more anterior than inferior positioning of the mandible during the retention period, thus significantly improving Class II dental relationship in 75% of the patients evaluated.

  5. Potential Rapid Effects on Soil Organic Matter Characteristics and Chemistry Following a Change in Dominant Litter Inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S. E.; Filley, T.; Conyers, G.; Stott, D.; McCormick, M.; Whigham, D.; Taylor, D.

    2006-12-01

    Changes in vegetation structure are expected in forests globally under predicted future climate scenarios. Shifts in type or quantity of litter inputs, which will be associated with changes in plant community, may influence soil organic matter (SOM) characteristics. We altered litter inputs in a mixed-deciduous forest at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center beginning in May 2004: litter removal, leaf amendment, and wood amendment plots were established in three old (120-150 y) and three young (50-70 y) forests. Plots were amended with wood and leaves collected locally from the dominant tree species, tulip poplar (Lirodendron tulipifera). 0-5 cm A horizon soil was collected in November 2005, 18 months after initial treatment, and physically fractionated first by dispersal in HMP and size separation (53 μm) to remove silts and clays then the >53 μm fraction by density (1.4 g cm-3) in SPT to separate the organic debris (light fraction, LF) from the mineral material. Soil with the greatest amount of C present within the LF came from the wood amendment treatment (35.2 ± 0.1%), followed by the leaf amendment (27.7 ± 0.0%) and the litter removal (24.5 ± 0.0%) treatments. In a pattern opposite of the other treatments, leaf amended soil from the old sites had less C within LF than the young. Potentially, a priming effect from the leaf addition at the old sites resulted in increased decomposition of soil LF. While at the young sites, invasive earthworms potentially provided a rapid, direct mode for incorporation of fresh leaf inputs into LF. Preliminary data indicate differences in lignin and cutin/suberin decay rates during litter decomposition between old and young sites. An investigation into the biopolymer composition of LF will determine whether altering litter inputs will ultimately influence SOM dynamics at both the old and young forest sites.

  6. Heterogeneous glacial lake changes and links of lake expansions to the rapid thinning of adjacent glacier termini in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunqiao; Sheng, Yongwei; Wang, Jida; Ke, Linghong; Madson, Austin; Nie, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Glacier mass loss in the Himalayas has far-reaching implications for the alteration of regional hydrologic regimes, an increased risk of glacial lake outburst, downstream water resource abundance, and contributions to sea level rise. However, the mass losses of Himalayan glaciers are not well understood towing to the scarcity of observations and the heterogeneous responses of Himalayan glaciers to climate change and local factors (e.g., glacier surge, interacting with proglacial lakes). In particular, there is a lack of understanding on the unique interactions between moraine-dammed glacial lakes and their effects on debris cover on valley glacier termini. In this study, we examined the temporal evolution of 151 large glacial lakes across the Himalayas and then classified these glacial lakes into three categories: proglacial lakes in contact with full or partial debris-covered glaciers (debris-contact lakes), ice cliff-contact lakes, and non-glacier-contact lakes. The results show that debris-contact lakes experienced a dramatic areal increase of 36.5% over the years 2000 to 2014, while the latter two categories of lakes remained generally stable. The majority of lake expansions occurred at the glacier front without marked lake level rises. This suggests that the rapid expansion of these debris-contact lakes can be largely attributed to the thinning of debris-covered ice as caused by the melting of glacial fronts and the subsequent glacial retreat. We reconstructed the height variations of glacier fronts in contact with 57 different proglacial lakes during the years 2000 to 2014. These reconstructed surface elevation changes of debris-covered, lake-contact glacier fronts reveal significant thinning trends with considerable lowering rates that range from 1.0 to 9.7 m/y. Our study reveals that a substantial average ice thinning of 3.9 m/y occurred at the glacier fronts that are in contact with glacial lakes.

  7. Simple changes within dietary subgroups can rapidly improve the nutrient adequacy of the diet of French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Eric O; Holmes, Bridget A; Huneau, Jean François; Mariotti, François

    2014-06-01

    Identifying the dietary changes with the greatest potential for improving diet quality is critical to designing efficient nutrition communication campaigns. Our objective was to simulate the effects of different types of dietary substitutions to improve diet quality at the individual level. Starting from the observed diets of 1330 adults participating in the national French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé), we simulated the effects of 3 different types of food and beverage substitutions with graded implementation difficulty for the consumer in a stepwise dietary counseling model based on the improvement in the PANDiet index, which measures diet quality in terms of nutrient adequacy. In scenario 1, substitutions of a food or beverage for its "lighter" version resulted in a modest improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +3.3 ± 0.1) and a decrease in energy intake (Δ = -114 ± 2 kcal/d). In scenario 2, substitutions of a food or beverage within the same food subgroup resulted in a marked improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +26.4 ± 0.2) with no significant change in energy intake. In this second scenario, the improvement in nutrient adequacy was due to substitutions in many subgroups, with no single subgroup contributing >8% to the increase in the PANDiet score. In scenario 3, substitutions of a food or beverage within the same food group resulted in the greatest improvement in the PANDiet score (Δ = +31.8 ± 0.2) but with an increase in energy intake (Δ = +204 ± 9 kcal/d). In this third scenario, the improvement in nutrient adequacy was largely due to substitutions of fish for meat and processed meat (∼30% of the increase in the PANDiet score). This study shows that a strategy based on simple substitutions within food subgroups is effective in rapidly improving the nutritional adequacy of the diet of French adults and could be used in public health nutrition actions. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  9. Rapid hydrological changes during the Holocene revealed by stable isotope records of lacustrine carbonates from Lake Igelsjön, southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Dan; Björck, Svante; Buchardt, Bjørn; Israelson, Carsten; Thomsen, Charlotte T.

    2003-02-01

    A Holocene sediment sequence from Lake Igelsjön, south central Sweden, was studied by stable oxygen- and carbon-isotope analyses of different carbonate components. The deposit, which covers the time-span from ca 11,500 cal BP to the present, was laid down in a small, kettle-hole lake, the hydrological balance of which is presently dominated by groundwater flow. Isotopic records obtained on bulk carbonates originating mainly from summer-produced, calcitic algal encrustations exhibit several rapid shifts of more than 2‰, likely reflecting pronounced hydrological variations. Corresponding isotopic data obtained on calcitic gastropod opercula from parts of the profile show subdued responses to major climatic shifts, probably related to an extended calcification season. The isotopic records were complemented by studies of modern isotope hydrology, and our interpretations are based on a simplistic climate-hydrology model in which variations in groundwater generation within the lake catchment produce changes in groundwater level and related adjustments of lake level and surface/volume ratio of the basin during the ice-free season. Assumed periods of decreased lake volume in a relatively dry climate (low lake level) are characterised by enrichment in 18O and 13C resulting from increased evaporation/inflow ratio and atmospheric equilibration, respectively. In clear contrast to this situation, intervals of more humid climatic conditions give rise to increased lake volume (high lake level), possibly surface over flow, and relatively depleted isotopic ratios. Relatively humid conditions, which may correlate to a wide-spread cooling event recorded by various proxies across the North Atlantic region, are indicated by distinct isotopic shifts at ca 8300 and 8000 cal BP, bracketing a period of 18O-depletion. The period between ca 8000 and 4000 cal BP was characterised by relatively dry and stable climatic conditions, whereas the subsequent part of the Holocene experienced a

  10. Planning as situated design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    and situated, too. In this presentation it will be argued that the investigation of systematic planning as conflictual cooperation will help us see that situated activity is not only based on the present conditions, but also relates them to events spread out in time and space, thereby opening up for another......It is common to associate situated activity with concrete, craftlike or manual activity here and now and to reserve theoretical and abstract thinking for activities like theoretical experimentation and systematic planning. Much work has gone into demonstrating that these activities are concrete...... understanding of theoretical thinking. Some material from the empirical research project developed with Klaus Nielsen on the design and engineering of a house will be presented. On this basis a conception of planning will be unfolded. It will be understood differently from the way it is understood...

  11. Personalizing situation awareness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Linn Marks [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Roman, Jorge R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mane, Ketan K [RENCI

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  12. Rapid detection of methylation change at H19 in human imprinting disorders using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojdacz, Tomasz K; Dobrovic, Alexander; Algar, Elizabeth M

    2008-10-01

    Beckwith Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) and Russell Silver syndrome (RS) are growth disorders with opposing epimutations affecting the H19/IGF2 imprinting center at 11p15.5. Overgrowth and tumor risk in BWS is caused by aberrant expression of the paternally expressed, imprinted IGF2 gene, occurring as a consequence of mosaic hypermethylation within the imprinting center, or to mosaic paternal uniparental disomy (UPD). RS is characterized by severe intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). A subset of RS cases were recently shown to have mosaic hypomethylation within the H19/IGF2 imprinting center, predicted to silence paternally expressed IGF2 in early development. Molecular diagnosis for BWS and RS involves methylation analysis of the H19 locus, enabling discrimination of allelic methylation patterns. In this study, methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRM) was used to analyze methylation within the intergenic region of the H19 locus. A total of 36 samples comprising normal control (11), BWS (19), and RS (six) DNA were analyzed in a blinded study and scored as hypermethylated, normal, or hypomethylated. Results were compared with those derived by methylation-sensitive Southern blotting using the restriction enzymes Rsa I and Hpa II. A total of 100% concordance was obtained for the Southern blotting and MS-HRM scores. A total of three samples with paternal duplication affecting the H19/IGF2 region were scored as equivocal by both methods; however, 33 out of 36 (92%) the samples were unambiguously scored as being hypermethylated, hypomethylated, or normally methylated using MS-HRM. We conclude that MS-HRM is a rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive method for screening mosaic methylation changes at the H19 locus in BWS and RS.

  13. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dávila Guillermo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fabaceae (legumes is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean 1. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome.

  14. Rapid evolutionary change of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) plastome, and the genomic diversification of legume chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xianwu; Castillo-Ramírez, Santiago; González, Víctor; Bustos, Patricia; Luís Fernández-Vázquez, José; Santamaría, Rosa Isela; Arellano, Jesús; Cevallos, Miguel A; Dávila, Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    Background Fabaceae (legumes) is one of the largest families of flowering plants, and some members are important crops. In contrast to what we know about their great diversity or economic importance, our knowledge at the genomic level of chloroplast genomes (cpDNAs or plastomes) for these crops is limited. Results We sequenced the complete genome of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Negro Jamapa) chloroplast. The plastome of P. vulgaris is a 150,285 bp circular molecule. It has gene content similar to that of other legume plastomes, but contains two pseudogenes, rpl33 and rps16. A distinct inversion occurred at the junction points of trnH-GUG/rpl14 and rps19/rps8, as in adzuki bean [1]. These two pseudogenes and the inversion were confirmed in 10 varieties representing the two domestication centers of the bean. Genomic comparative analysis indicated that inversions generally occur in legume plastomes and the magnitude and localization of insertions/deletions (indels) also vary. The analysis of repeat sequences demonstrated that patterns and sequences of tandem repeats had an important impact on sequence diversification between legume plastomes and tandem repeats did not belong to dispersed repeats. Interestingly, P. vulgaris plastome had higher evolutionary rates of change on both genomic and gene levels than G. max, which could be the consequence of pressure from both mutation and natural selection. Conclusion Legume chloroplast genomes are widely diversified in gene content, gene order, indel structure, abundance and localization of repetitive sequences, intracellular sequence exchange and evolutionary rates. The P. vulgaris plastome is a rapidly evolving genome. PMID:17623083

  15. Environmental variability drives rapid and dramatic changes in nutrient limitation of tropical macroalgae with different ecological strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausing, Rachel J.; Fong, Peggy

    2016-06-01

    Nitrogen (N) or phosphorus (P) limits primary productivity in nearly every ecosystem worldwide, yet how limitation changes over time, particularly in connection to variation in environmental drivers, remains understudied. We evaluated temporal and species-specific variability in the relative importance of N and P limitation among tropical macroalgae in two-factor experiments conducted twice after rains and twice after dry conditions to explore potential linkages to environmental drivers. We studied three common macroalgal species with varying ecological strategies: a fast-growing opportunist, Dictyota bartayresiana; and two calcifying species likely to be slower growing, Galaxaura fasciculata and Padina boryana. On the scale of days to weeks, nutrient responses ranged among and within species from no limitation to increases in growth by 20 and 40 % over controls in 3 d with N and P addition, respectively. After light rain or dry conditions, Dictyota grew rapidly (up to ~60 % in 3 d) with little indication of nutrient limitation, while Padina and Galaxaura shifted between N, P, or no limitation. All species grew slowly or lost mass after a large storm, presumably due to unfavorable conditions on the reef prior to the experiment that limited nutrient uptake. Padina and Galaxaura both became nutrient limited 3 d post-storm, while Dictyota did not. These results suggest that differing capabilities for nutrient uptake and storage dictate the influence of nutrient history and thus drive nutrient responses and, in doing so, may allow species with differing ecological strategies to coexist in a fluctuating environment. Moreover, the great variability in species' responses indicates that patterns of nutrient limitation are more complex than previously recognized, and generalizations about N versus P limitation of a given system may not convey the inherent complexity in governing conditions and processes.

  16. Situations of dwelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen; Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2006-01-01

    values and needs in differnet situations, lifestyles and stages. The study is based on information from users in new housing schemes in and around Copenhagen - 'open building' dwellings that reveal a variety of approaches to these problems? The analysis of the dwellings show that the architecture...... of the 'open dwelling' is dependent on three basic conditions: the static condition, the suitable condition and the situational condition. Each condition has its own powerful way of articulation. Our aim is to translate the observations of the projects in concepts and models that are applicable in new projects....

  17. Forecasting the Development of the Tourism Industry in the Regions of Russia in Light of Global Climate Change and Environmental Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evreinov, O. B.; Maksimova, E. M.; Bakanova, A. A.; Yakovleva, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting the development of the tourism industry is a strategic planning for periods ranging from 20 to 50 years. Basis for the development of tourism in the region is the presence of the necessary infrastructure - roads, communications, accommodation facilities and hospitality. Thus, all investments in the tourism industry are very long-term. Current approaches to long-term planning in tourism based on the most efficient use of the region's resources - natural, cultural, etc. But what will happen to these resources in 20-30 years? Global warming and climate change, a change in environmental conditions - all this gives the real impact today. Summer 2010 in Moscow and in the whole of Europe, warm snowless winters in St. Petersburg, monthly temperature records, permafrost thawing in Siberia - all this can affect the characteristics of the tourist regions in the future. In the presentation, the authors have tried to reflect the basic principles of strategic planning with regard to global and regional changes and to show the possible impact of such changes on Tourism industry in specific regions of Russia for the next 30-50 years.

  18. Leadership: Dispositional and Situational. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    block number) For over four decades, leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics... leadership research has examined the issue of whether internal dispositions ( traits ), situational characteristics (contexts), or some combination of...Situational 3 Leadership : Dispositional and Situational The person-situation debate has been a key issue in several areas of psychology and management

  19. Rapid response to intensive treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder: A randomized controlled trial of a CBT intervention to facilitate early behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Danielle E; McFarlane, Traci L; Dionne, Michelle M; David, Lauren; Olmsted, Marion P

    2017-09-01

    Rapid response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for eating disorders (i.e., rapid and substantial change to key eating disorder behaviors in the initial weeks of treatment) robustly predicts good outcome at end-of-treatment and in follow up. The objective of this study was to determine whether rapid response to day hospital (DH) eating disorder treatment could be facilitated using a brief adjunctive CBT intervention focused on early change. 44 women (average age 27.3 [8.4]; 75% White, 6.3% Black, 6.9% Asian) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 4-session adjunctive interventions: CBT focused on early change, or motivational interviewing (MI). DH was administered as usual. Outcomes included binge/purge frequency, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were used. The CBT group had a higher rate of rapid response (95.7%) compared to MI (71.4%; p = .04, V = .33). Those who received CBT also had fewer binge/purge episodes (p = .02) in the first 4 weeks of DH. By end-of-DH, CBT participants made greater improvements on overvaluation of weight and shape (p = .008), and emotion regulation (ps .05). The results of this study demonstrate that rapid response can be clinically facilitated using a CBT intervention that explicitly encourages early change. This provides the foundation for future research investigating whether enhancing rates of rapid response using such an intervention results in improved longer term outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Learning through Situated Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Eriksén, Sara; Wessels, Bridgette

    2014-01-01

    Specific, situated participatory design (PD) practices have always been at the heart of Participatory Design research. The role of the very situatedness and specificity of PD practice for theory-building within PD research is, however, seldom discussed explicitly. In this article, we explore why...

  1. Dealing with Problematic Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to outline a holistic answer to the following question: How to deal with problematic situations? A framework of a modern approach, a new meta-discipline, based on knowledge and experience from several other disciplines will be presented. We are focusing in those...

  2. Challenging Fieldwork Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Thomas; Østergaard Steenfeldt, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    Researching two different work settings, police work and hospice care, the authors experienced a strange sense of discomfort in their bodies during their fieldwork when investigating professional training and work situations, especially in encounters with citizens and patients. In some of those...

  3. Rapid responses of mesophyll conductance to changes of CO2 concentration, temperature and irradiance are affected by N supplements in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongliang; Liu, Xi; Liu, Limin; Douthe, Cyril; Li, Yong; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis in C3 plants is significantly limited by mesophyll conductance (gm ), which can vary with leaf anatomical traits and nitrogen (N) supplements. Several studies have investigated the response of gm to N supplements; however, none examined the implications of N supplements on the response of gm to rapid environmental changes. Here we investigated the effect of N supplement on gm and the response of gm to change of CO2 , temperature and irradiance in rice. High N supplement (HN) increased mesophyll cell wall surface area and chloroplast surface area exposed to intercellular airspace per leaf area, and reduced cell wall thickness. These changes resulted in increased gm . The gm of leaves with HN was more sensitive to changes in CO2 concentration, temperature and irradiance. The difference in leaf structural features between low N supplement and HN indicates that a rapid change in gm is related to the regulation of diffusion through biological membranes rather than leaf structural features. These results will contribute to an understanding of the determinants of gm response to rapid changes in environmental factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rapid Changes of mRNA-binding Protein Levels following Glucose and 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine Stimulation of Insulinoma INS-1 Cells *S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, Christin; Czupalla, Cornelia; Winter, Christof; Pursche, Theresia; Knoch, Klaus-Peter; Schroeder, Michael; Hoflack, Bernard; Solimena, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Glucose and cAMP-inducing agents such as 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) rapidly change the expression profile of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells mostly through post-transcriptional mechanisms. A thorough analysis of these changes, however, has not yet been performed. By combining two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified 165 spots, corresponding to 78 proteins, whose levels significantly change after stimulation of the β-cell model INS-1 cells with 25 mm glucose + 1 mm IBMX for 2 h. Changes in the expression of selected proteins were verified by one- and two-dimensional immunoblotting. Most of the identified proteins are novel targets of rapid regulation in β-cells. The transcription inhibitor actinomycin D failed to block changes in two-thirds of the spots, supporting their post-transcriptional regulation. More spots changed in response to IBMX than to glucose alone conceivably because of phosphorylation. Fourteen mRNA- binding proteins responded to stimulation, thus representing the most prominent class of rapidly regulated proteins. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the mRNA 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of 22 regulated proteins contain potential binding sites for polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1, which promotes mRNA stability and translation in stimulated β-cells. Overall our findings support the idea that mRNA-binding proteins play a major role in rapid adaptive changes in insulin-producing cells following their stimulation with glucose and cAMP-elevating agents. PMID:18854578

  5. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. ASAT will create an Advanced Situation...

  6. Situating beyond the social

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine Bønnelykke

    2016-01-01

    it is applied to contemporary Danish nursing education are introduced. One issue that has arisen is the analytical requirement for an educational program to be a homogeneous, singular, and social phenomenon thereby discounting the varied and different sites and materialities found within nursing education......Situated learning serves as an analytical framework for learning in a community of practice and has been widely used to understand the learning process that is entailed in becoming a nurse. Yet in this paper, the difficulties encountered with the original notion of situated learning once...... framework. I suggest the notion of multi-configured learning, which captures the heterogeneity and materiality encountered during ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish nursing school....

  7. Situated Formative Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukassen, Niels Bech; Wahl, Christian; Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    This study addresses the conceptual challenge of providing students with good quality feedback to enhance student learning in an online community of practice (COP). The aim of the study is to identify feedback mechanisms in a virtual learning environment (VLE) and to create a full formative...... feedback episode (FFE) through an online dialogue. The paper argues that dialogue is crucial for student learning and that feedback is not only something the teacher gives to the student. Viewing good quality feedback as social, situated, formative, emphasis is put on the establishment of dialogue. We...... refer to this type of feedback as, Situated Formative Feedback (SFF). As a basis for exploring, identifying and discussing relevant aspects of SFF the paper analyses qualitative data from a Moodle dialogue. Data are embedded in the qualitative analytic program Nvivo and are analysed with a system...

  8. Steps towards a situational ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, P J

    1978-08-01

    The Australian Royal Commission on Human Relationships summarized the problems of adolescents and family planning by declaring there is a level of teenage sexual activity that cannot be ignored. Young single people have a low rate of effective contraception. Teenagers suffer a very high proportion of unwanted pregnancies and abortions. Placing the ethical questions in a contemporary social context enables society to face the issues in a practical, realistic fashion. Historically preserved traditions, like the taboo against premarital sex, are and will continue to be important in the bonding of families, individuals, and societies. A situational ethic applies to changes in the social fabric and addresses them. Society has changed from rural to urban, from agrarian to technological, from literacy to mass media, from superstitious knowledge of reproduction to scientific methods of birth control. The realities of change should be faced with a sense of ethics that is grounded in tradition and adjusted to the needs of the actual situation which is that too many teenagers have too many unwanted pregnancies. They can be helped.

  9. Den retoriske situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Barnholdt

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen, som er skrevet på baggrund af et oplæg, som jeg holdt på  Årsmødet for Sektionen for Gymnasium og HF i Helsingør, oktober 2009, plæderer for anvendelsen af Lloyd F. Bitzers teori om den retoriske situation i retorikundervisningen i gymnasiet. I artiklen benytter jeg Bitzers teori som en...

  10. “Facoltà d’Amarsi”: when young people try to change the situation. Youth project as a tool for health communication and STD prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Massini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Since its discovery, AIDS has been a major pandemic infection. Nowadays, despite high levels of awareness, HIV infection is still one of the most complex phenomenon in our society and people, especially young people, don’t apply changes to reduce sexual risk behaviour to bring about prevention of HIV and AIDS. Condom use, particularly consistent use, is suboptimal in our communities. In our country, for Family Planning Worldwide 2008, just 38,3% of young people reported to use condoms. Monogamy and harmonious relationships play a positive role in young people and reduce their risk of HIV infection and such aspects of relationship contexts could form a significant part of the progressive strategies required for HIV-prevention interventions to be successful. Many prevention campaigns have been realized and in particular they try to explain the risk connected to HIV and give information about how to prevent infection and the infection’s course. The next generation of HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions should move beyond basic sex education and condom use / availability. Successful interventions must optimize strategies that support HIV risk reduction behaviours. Despite extensive behavioural research, current strategies have not resulted.

    Methods: In this article we explain why the old campaign didn’t work and why youth initiatives could be a possible answer to a prevention needs. We choose the method of peer education and scientific contents using transverse knowledge from expert of medicine, psychology and media science to face off at the needs of efficacy and reliability. 

    Results: The final sample is made by 271 students, 102 males, 164 females. 91,5% declare that had already sexual relations, instead 5,19% never had one. 38,% of sample affirm to use habitually condoms, 20,3% sometimes, 18,8% never used condoms

  11. Life-cycle assessment of a Waste-to-Energy plant in central Norway: Current situation and effects of changes in waste fraction composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausselet, Carine; Cherubini, Francesco; Del Alamo Serrano, Gonzalo; Becidan, Michael; Strømman, Anders Hammer

    2016-12-01

    Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants constitute one of the most common waste management options to deal with municipal solid waste. WtE plants have the dual objective to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and simultaneously to produce useful energy (heat and/or power). Energy from WtE is gaining steadily increasing importance in the energy mix of several countries. Norway is no exception, as energy recovered from waste currently represents the main energy source of the Norwegian district heating system. Life-cycle assessments (LCA) of WtE systems in a Norwegian context are quasi-nonexistent, and this study assesses the environmental performance of a WtE plant located in central Norway by combining detailed LCA methodology with primary data from plant operations. Mass transfer coefficients and leaching coefficients are used to trace emissions over the various life-cycle stages from waste logistics to final disposal of the ashes. We consider different fractions of input waste (current waste mix, insertion of 10% car fluff, 5% clinical waste and 10% and 50% wood waste), and find a total contribution to Climate Change Impact Potential ranging from 265 to 637gCO2eq/kg of waste and 25 to 61gCO2eq/MJ of heat. The key drivers of the environmental performances of the WtE system being assessed are the carbon biogenic fraction and the lower heating value of the incoming waste, the direct emissions at the WtE plant, the leaching of the heavy metals at the landfill sites and to a lesser extent the use of consumables. We benchmark the environmental performances of our WtE systems against those of fossil energy systems, and we find better performance for the majority of environmental impact categories, including Climate Change Impact Potential, although some trade-offs exist (e.g. higher impacts on Human Toxicity Potential than natural gas, but lower than coal). Also, the insertion of challenging new waste fractions is demonstrated to be an option both to cope with the excess

  12. Anticipatory Processing, Maladaptive Attentional Focus, and Postevent Processing for Interactional and Performance Situations: Treatment Response and Relationships With Symptom Change for Individuals With Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Quincy J J; Gregory, Bree; McLellan, Lauren F; Kangas, Maria; Abbott, Maree J; Carpenter, Leigh; McEvoy, Peter M; Peters, Lorna; Rapee, Ronald M

    2017-09-01

    Anticipatory processing, maladaptive attentional focus, and postevent processing are key cognitive constructs implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The current study examined how treatment for SAD concurrently affects these three cognitive maintaining processes and how these processes are associated with each other as well as with symptom change from pre- to posttreatment. The sample consisted of 116 participants with SAD receiving group cognitive behavioral therapy. All three cognitive maintaining processes were measured relative to a speech task and again relative to a conversation task. Across both tasks, the three cognitive process variables demonstrated decreases from pre- to posttreatment. Within the same task, a slower rate of decrease in a specific cognitive process variable from pre- to posttreatment was predicted from higher pretreatment levels of either one or both of the other cognitive process variables. Additionally, higher levels of pretreatment conversation-related anticipatory processing and maladaptive attentional focus predicted a slower rate of decrease in social anxiety symptoms from pre- to posttreatment. Results are consistent with cognitive models of SAD and have important implications for enhancing existing treatments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Equivalence of biomechanical changes induced by rapid and standard corneal cross-linking, using riboflavin and ultraviolet radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Silvia; Oeftiger, Lydia; Mrochen, Michael

    2011-11-25

    Ultraviolet (UV) corneal cross-linking is an accepted method for treating corneal ecstatic disorders. The authors evaluated whether a rapid treatment protocol (higher intensity and shorter irradiation time) could achieve the same increase in corneal stiffness as the currently used standard protocol. Stress-strain measurements were performed on porcine corneal strips. The corneas (n = 72) were cut into three strips, each randomly receiving a different treatment: rapid (10 mW/cm(2), 9 minutes), standard (3 mW/cm(2), 30 minutes), or no (control, 0 mW/cm(2)) irradiation. After irradiation, the Young's modulus of each strip was determined. The results of the stress-strain measurements were analyzed statistically. Statistical analysis showed that, after irradiation, the median value of Young's modulus from both active treatment groups (rapid, 3.83 N/mm(2); standard, 3.88 N/mm(2)) was significantly higher (P cross-linking treatment can be regarded as equivalent to the standard procedure in terms of increase in corneal stiffness. The new rapid protocol shortens the treatment duration by more than two thirds, from 30 to 9 minutes. The safety of the higher intensities must be addressed in further clinical studies.

  14. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  15. Transcriptome profiles of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) reveal rapid changes in undamaged, systemic sink leaves after simulated feeding by forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Ryan N; Ralph, Steven G; Mansfield, Shawn D; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2010-11-01

    • Poplar has been established as a model tree system for genomic research of the response to biotic stresses. This study describes a series of induced transcriptome changes and the associated physiological characterization of local and systemic responses in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) after simulated herbivory. • Responses were measured in local source (LSo), systemic source (SSo), and systemic sink (SSi) leaves following application of forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) oral secretions to mechanically wounded leaves. • Transcriptome analyses identified spatially and temporally dynamic, distinct patterns of local and systemic gene expression in LSo, SSo and SSi leaves. Galactinol synthase was strongly and rapidly upregulated in SSi leaves. Genome analyses and full-length cDNA cloning established an inventory of poplar galactinol synthases. Induced changes of galactinol and raffinose oligosaccharides were detected by anion-exchange high-pressure liquid chromatography. • The LSo leaves showed a rapid and strong transcriptome response compared with a weaker and slower response in adjacent SSo leaves. Surprisingly, the transcriptome response in distant, juvenile SSi leaves was faster and stronger than that observed in SSo leaves. Systemic transcriptome changes of SSi leaves have signatures of rapid change of metabolism and signaling, followed by later induction of defense genes. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  16. rapid situation assessments of alcohol and substance use among

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... relatively cheap and widely consumed by these commercial drivers, passengers and Motor Park operatives. Distilled can beer, bottled beer, distilled spirits were consumed in bars or at nearby street stalls. In addition locally produced palm wine is popular. Locally produced commercial spirits 'ogogoro' and.

  17. Emerging Zika Virus Infection: A Rapidly Evolving Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordi, Licia; Avsic-Zupanc, Tatjana; Lalle, Eleonora; Vairo, Francesco; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus, firstly identified in Uganda and responsible for sporadic human cases in Africa and Asia until recently, when large outbreak occurred in Pacific Ocean and the Americas. Since the main vectors during its spread outside of Africa have been Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, which are widely distributed all over the world, there is urgent need for a coordinated response for prevention and spread of ZIKV epidemics.Despite clinical manifestation of Zika virus infection are usually mild and self limiting, there are reports suggesting, during the recent epidemic, an association of ZIKV infection with severe consequences, including fetal/newborn microcephaly, due to vertical in utero transmission, autoimmune-neurological presentations including cranial nerve dysfunction, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults. The primary mode of transmission of Zika virus between humans is through the bite of an infected female mosquito of the Aedes genus, but also sexual and blood transfusion transmission may occur. Moreover, a case of non-sexual spread from one person to another has been described, indicating that we still have more to learn about Zika transmission.Biological basis for pathogenetic effects are under investigation. Laboratory diagnosis is challenging since, so far, there are no "gold standard" diagnostic tools, and the low and short viremia in the acute phase, and together with the high cross-reactivity among the members of flavivirus genus are the most challenging aspects to be overcome.

  18. Framework for Rapid Situational Awareness in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Press. Lustig, M., & Koester, J. (2010). Intercultural competence : Interpersonal communication across cultures (6th edition). Boston, MA: Allyn...counterparts while identifying and countering threats, intercultural competence has been a military priority for some time. As reflected in Army field manuals...and DoD strategic documents, intercultural competence is now seen as critical at every level of military operations (Blascovich & Hartel, 2008

  19. Situation awareness of active distribution network: roadmap, technologies, and bottlenecks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Jin; Wan, Can; Song, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of local generation and demand response, the active distribution network (ADN), which aggregates and manages miscellaneous distributed resources, has moved from theory to practice. Secure and optimal operations now require an advanced situation awareness (SA) system so...... in the project of developing an SA system as the basic component of a practical active distribution management system (ADMS) deployed in Beijing, China, is presented. This paper reviews the ADN’s development roadmap by illustrating the changes that are made in elements, topology, structure, and control scheme....... Taking into consideration these hardware changes, a systematic framework is proposed for the main components and the functional hierarchy of an SA system for the ADN. The SA system’s implementation bottlenecks are also presented, including, but not limited to issues in big data platform, distribution...

  20. Action Based Object Separation with Situated Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Christoph

    2007-01-01

    Visual scene analysis can be augmented by proper manipulative actions like changing perspective or interacting with elements of the environment. They reveal some of the non-obvious (e.g. non-visual or visually ambiguous) intrinsic qualities of the scene's setting. A framing for actions is formalizable using situation semantics notification. This supports a non-classic view of perception: the perception of the situation is the action taken to inspect it, or is at least inseparably connected to...

  1. Characterization of rapid climate changes through isotope analyses of ice and entrapped air in the NEEM ice core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillevic, Myriam

    Greenland ice core have revealed the occurrence of rapid climatic instabilities during the last glacial period, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, while marine cores from the North Atlantic have evidenced layers of ice rafted debris deposited by icebergs melt, caused by the collapse...... of Northern hemisphere ice sheets, known as Heinrich events. The imprint of DO and Heinrich events is also recorded at mid to low latitudes in different archives of the northern hemisphere. A detailed multi-proxy study of the sequence of these rapid instabilities is essential for understanding the climate...... mechanisms at play. Recent analytical developments have made possible to measure new paleoclimate proxies in Greenland ice cores. In this thesis we first contribute to these analytical developments by measuring the new innovative parameter 17O-excess at LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climatet de l...

  2. The rapid climate change-caused dichotomy on subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan: Reduction in habitat diversity and increase in species diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Ren

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yunnan's biodiversity is under considerable pressure and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in this area have become increasingly fragmented through agriculture, logging, planting of economic plants, mining activities and changing environment. The aims of the study are to investigate climate change-induced changes of subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Yunnan and identify areas of current species richness centers for conservation preparation. Stacked species distribution models were created to generate ensemble forecasting of species distributions, alpha diversity and beta diversity for Yunnan's subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in both current and future climate scenarios. Under stacked species distribution models in rapid climate changes scenarios, changes of water-energy dynamics may possibly reduce beta diversity and increase alpha diversity. This point provides insight for future conservation of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan, highlighting the need to fully consider the problem of vegetation homogenization caused by transformation of water-energy dynamics.

  3. The Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty in 2030 and the Potential from Rapid, Inclusive, and Climate-Informed Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hallegatte, Stephane; Rozenberg, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on poverty depend on the magnitude of climate change, but also on demographic and socioeconomic trends. An analysis of hundreds of baseline scenarios for future economic development in the absence of climate change in 92 countries shows that the drivers of poverty eradication differ across countries. Two representative scenarios are selected from these hundred...

  4. Environmental impacts of rapid changes in water level; Milj#Latin Small Letter O With Stroke#konsekvenser av raske vannstandsendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harby, Atle [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway); Arnekleiv, Jo [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Bogen, Jim [NVE, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    Flexible operation and peak regulation of hydropower plants (hydropeaking) leads to rapid changes in water levels and water discharge. Due to an increasing share of intermittent energy sources as wind and solar energy in Norway and Europe, we expect to see more flexible operation and increased use of hydropeaking in Norwegian hydropower plants. Environmental impacts will vary depending on local conditions and hydro operations. Some of the environmental impacts of hydropeaking and rapid changes in water level and discharge are well known, where stranding of fish has been most studied, both nationally and internationally. However, there are large knowledge gaps, and there are very few studies of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and fjords downstream of peaking hydropower plants. This report summarizes the knowledge status and presents results from three Norwegian studies with different physical conditions and hydro operations. Not all previous studies have given clear and unambiguous results, but generally we can summarize as follows: Peaking hydropower plants discharging into rivers have considerable higher potential to cause negative effects on physical and biological conditions compared to hydropower plants discharging into reservoirs, lakes and fjords. If it is technically possible to implement slow changes in hydropower production, it will reduce the negative effects on the entire ecosystem. Reducing the rate of change in water level to less than 13 cm per hour gives a significantly reduced risk for stranding of salmonid fish. As far as we know there are not similarly definite guidelines for increasing water level, or for other fish species than salmonids. Fish are more vulnerable to rapid changes in water level during winter than other seasons in Norway due to the fact that low water temperatures directly and indirectly lead to lower mobility in fish. Hydropeaking and flexible operation not leading to significant changes in wetted area will generally not have greater

  5. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  6. Dynamic and rapid changes in the transcriptome and epigenome during germination and in developing rice (Oryza sativa) coleoptiles under anoxia and re-oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narsai, Reena; Secco, David; Schultz, Matthew D; Ecker, Joseph R; Lister, Ryan; Whelan, James

    2017-02-01

    Detailed molecular profiling of Oryza sativa (rice) was carried out to uncover the features that are essential for germination and early seedling growth under anoxic conditions. Temporal analysis of the transcriptome and methylome from germination to young seedlings under aerobic and anaerobic conditions revealed 82% similarity in the transcriptome and no differences in the epigenome up to 24 h. Following germination, significant changes in the transcriptome and DNA methylation were observed between 4-day aerobically and anaerobically grown coleoptiles. A link between the epigenomic state and cell division versus cell elongation is suggested, as no differences in DNA methylation were observed between 24-h aerobically and anaerobically germinating embryos, when there is little cell division. After that, epigenetic changes appear to correlate with differences between cell elongation (anaerobic conditions) versus cell division (aerobic conditions) in the coleoptiles. Re-oxygenation of 3-day anaerobically grown seedlings resulted in rapid transcriptomic changes in DNA methylation in these coleoptiles. Unlike the transcriptome, changes in DNA methylation upon re-oxygenation did not reflect those seen in aerobic coleoptiles, but instead, reverted to a pattern similar to dry seeds. Reversion to the 'dry seed' state of DNA methylation upon re-oxygenation may act to 'reset the clock' for the rapid molecular changes and cell division that result upon re-oxygenation. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the productions of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces. Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become...

  8. Management Re-situated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The purpose of this paper is to examine ways to situate management within philosophy, that is, ways to analyze the philosophical assumptions in management history, theory and practice. Since Burrell and Morgan suggested the idea that “all theories of organization are based upon philosophy...... of science“ (Burrell & Morgan, 1979:1), philosophical reflections in terms of a series of “isms” informed by different schools or paradigms (such as positivism, structuralism, phenomenology, critical theory, and so on and so forth) have been a central part of management studies. Thus, today, it has become...... common sense to categorize different approaches to management according to their assumptions of ontology, epistemology and methodology. My paper will argue first (1) that, although sometimes very abstract and obtuse writing that seems to owe more to competition among academics than to illumination...

  9. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    and combine theories from several fields. Aspects of sound art studies, performance studies and contemporary art studies are presented in order to theoretically explore the very diverse dimensions of the two sound art pieces: Visual, auditory, performative, social, spatial and durational dimensions become......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...

  10. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics and athleticogenomics: a brief look at a rapidly changing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2008-09-01

    Since Hugh Montgomery discovered the first of what are now nearly 200 "fitness genes", together with rapid advances in human gene therapy, there is now a real prospect of the use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and suggests a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport.

  11. Sizing Up the Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Hailstorm damage to the Space Shuttle's External Tank inspired a NASA innovation with extensive photography applications. In order to measure the defects caused by the storm, Kennedy Space Center used telephoto lenses to zoom in on the tank and view the damage clearly. However, since there was no reference object in the image, the engineers could not determine the scale of the damage. In photographic situations similar to this, an object, such as a ruler, is placed within the field of view. This allows a person to look at a photograph and have a visual indication of the scale of the objects in it. In the External Tank situation, however, this procedure was not possible. As a solution, Kennedy developed the Scaling and Measurement Device for Photographic Images, which provides a non-intrusive means of adding a scale to a photograph. In addition to meeting Kennedy's needs, scaling images is extremely important in crime and accident scene investigations, oil and chemical tank monitoring, and aerial photography. The innovation consists of a tool that attaches directly to a camera or charge coupled device using a standard screw. Two lasers fitted to the device provide parallel beams that are set 1 inch apart. These lasers enable the device to project a pattern into the field of view. When a photograph is taken, the image of the laser pattern appears, along with the image of the object under investigation, allowing the viewer quantifiable information as to the size of the object. The laser beams are accurate to approximately 200 feet. Windows-based software was developed to work with the scaling device tool. The software provides further techniques to measure objects in photographs and digital images. By using the software, any object in the image can be measured diagonally, vertically, and horizontally. The device and its software enable the user to determine two-dimensional measurements within a photograph.

  12. The response of southern California ecosystems to Younger Dryas-like rapid climate change: Comparison of glacial terminations 1 and 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, L. E.; Hendy, I. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Younger Dryas is a well-known rapid climatic cooling that interrupted the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 1-2 deglacial warming of Termination 1. This cool event has been associated with ice sheet readvance, meridional overturning, circulation changes, and southward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. In Southern California, the Younger Dryas has been associated with cooler SST, low marine productivity, a well-ventilated oxygen minimum zone, and a wetter climate. Similar rapid cooling events have been found at other terminations including Termination 5 at the MIS 11-12 deglaciation (~425 Ka) identified by ice rafting events in the North Atlantic. Here we present new pollen census data from a unique suite of cores taken from the sub-oxic sediments of Santa Barbara Basin (MV0508-15JC, MV0805-20JC, MV0508-33JC, 29JC and 21JC). These short cores, collected on a truncated anticline within SBB, provide the opportunity to examine the response of southern California terrestrial and marine ecosystems to rapid climate change during the MIS 11-12 deglaciation (Termination 5), which is identified by a bioturbated interval within a sequence of laminated sediments. During Termination 1, changes in Southern California precipitation are reflected in pollen- based reconstructions Southern California vegetation. The high precipitation of glacial montane-coniferous assemblages of pine (Pinus) and Juniper (Juniperus/Calocedrus) transitions into interglacial drought, as expresssed by arid oak (Quercus)/chaparral vegetation. The Younger Dryas interrupts the transition as a high-amplitude pulse in pine associated with increased Gramineae (grass). Termination 5 differs, as the high precipitation of glacial montane-coniferous assemblages do not transition into arid oak/chaparral vegetation. However, a Younger Dryas-like rapid climate event was associated with increased pine and grass.

  13. Rapid changes in key ruminal microbial populations during the induction of and recovery from diet-induced milk fat depression in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, D E; Preston, S H; Risser, J M; Harvatine, K J

    2015-08-14

    The ruminant provides a powerful model for understanding the temporal dynamics of gastrointestinal microbial communities. Diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD) in the dairy cow is caused by rumen-derived bioactive fatty acids, and is commonly attributed to the changes in the microbial population. The aim of the present study was to determine the changes occurring in nine ruminal bacterial taxa with well-characterised functions, and abundance of total fungi, ciliate protozoa and bacteria during the induction of and recovery from MFD. Interactions between treatment and time were observed for ten of the twelve populations. The total number of both fungi and ciliate protozoa decreased rapidly (days 4 and 8, respectively) by more than 90% during the induction period and increased during the recovery period. The abundance of Streptococcus bovis (amylolytic) peaked at 350% of control levels on day 4 of induction and rapidly decreased during the recovery period. The abundance of Prevotella bryantii (amylolytic) decreased by 66% from day 8 to 20 of the induction period and increased to the control levels on day 12 of the recovery period. The abundance of Megasphaera elsdenii and Selenomonas ruminantium (lactate-utilising bacteria) increased progressively until day 12 of induction (>170%) and decreased during the recovery period. The abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes (fibrolytic) decreased by 97% on day 4 of induction and increased progressively to an equal extent during the recovery period, although smaller changes were observed for other fibrolytic bacteria. The abundance of the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens/Pseudobutyrivibrio group decreased progressively during the induction period and increased during the recovery period, whereas the abundance of Butyrivibrio hungatei was not affected by treatment. Responsive taxa were modified rapidly, with the majority of changes occurring within 8 d and their time course was similar to the time course of the induction of MFD

  14. Post-migration dietary changes among african refugees in Geneva: a rapid assessment study to inform nutritional interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruseman, Maaike; Barandereka, Nelly-Ange; Hudelson, Patricia; Stalder, Hans

    2005-01-01

    To conduct an assessment of perceived dietary changes and problems by African asylum seekers, in order to develop appropriate nutritional education interventions. A cross-sectional qualitative study among a convenience sample. Analysis compared and contrasted reported dietary changes and migration-related difficulties. Nineteen interviews were analysed. After migration, main dietary changes were the decrease in different fruits and vegetables consumed weekly from 10 to 2 and 17 to 10 respectively. The number of respondents drinking sweetened beverages more than 3 times a week increased from 3 to 18. Reasons for changes were related to prices, taste, choice and accessibility. These dietary changes may have serious health consequences. Future remedial interventions based on suggestions of the respondents could easily be implemented.

  15. The Chemical Deposition Method for the Decoration of Palladium Particles on Carbon Nanofibers with Rapid Conductivity Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoik Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Palladium (Pd metal is well-known for hydrogen sensing material due to its high sensitivity and selectivity toward hydrogen, and is able to detect hydrogen at near room temperature. In this work, palladium-doped carbon nanofibers (Pd/CNFs were successfully produced in a facile manner via electrospinning. Well-organized and uniformly distributed Pd was observed in microscopic images of the resultant nanofibers. Hydrogen causes an increment in the volume of Pd due to the ability of hydrogen atoms to occupy the octahedral interstitial positions within its face centered cubic lattice structure, resulting in the resistance transition of Pd/CNFs. The resistance variation was around 400%, and it responded rapidly within 1 min, even in 5% hydrogen atmosphere conditions at room temperature. This fibrous hybrid material platform will open a new and practical route and stimulate further researches on the development of hydrogen sensing materials with rapid response, even to low concentrations of hydrogen in an atmosphere.

  16. Biology of three Malacostraca (Decapoda) in a Mediterranean lagoon with particular emphasis on the effect of rapid environmental changes on the activity (catchability) of the species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivelli, A. J.

    1982-12-01

    The activity of three Malacostraca (Decapoda), Crangon crangon, Carcinus aestuarii and Paleamon squilla, was studied following rapid environmental changes in a Mediterranean lagoon linked temporarily with the sea. Nekton was sampled every 2-3 days using fixed fyke nets. A canonical analysis and a stepwise multiple regression were computed to determine which factor(s) can predict or account for the catch of these three decapods. In spite of rapid environmental changes no exceptional mortality was observed in each of the three species. Temperature is the environmental factor with major impact on the activity of C. crangon. Activity of P. squilla is controlled by water depth. At a depth of less than 20 cm two factors, salinity and phase of the moon, have a significant influence on the activity of this species. At depths deeper than 20 cm the activity is inhibited. There is only a weak relationship between the catch of C. aestuarii and salinity. Additional data on the life cycle of these species are given. The limitations of a monthly sampling period are discussed and the need for more short-term, consecutive sampling periods is stressed in order to understand the dynamics of systems with rapid environmental fluctuations.

  17. Postural correlates of viewing painful situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eLelard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emotional context may play a crucial role in movement production. According to simulation theories, emotional states affect motor systems. The aim of this study was to compare postural responses assessed by posturography and electromyography when subjects were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or a non-painful situation.Methods: Twenty-nine subjects (22.3 ± 3.7 years participated in this study. While standing quietly on a posturographic platform, they were instructed to imagine themselves in a painful or non-painful situation. Displacement of the centre of pressure (COP, leg muscle electromyographic activity, heart rate, and electrodermal activity were assessed in response to painful and non-painful situations.Results:The anteroposterior path was shorter (p<0.05 when subjects imagined themselves in a painful situation (M = 148.0 ± 33.4 mm compared to a non-painful situation (158.2 ± 38.7 mm. Higher Tibialis Anterior (TA activity (RMS-TA = 3.38 ± 1.95 % vs 3.24 ± 1.85 %; p < 0.001 and higher variability of Soleus (SO activity (variation coefficient of RMS-SO = 13.5 ± 16.2 % vs M = 9.0% ± 7.2 %; p<0.05 were also observed in painful compared to non-painful situations. No significant changes were observed for other physiological data Conclusion: This study demonstrates that simulation of painful situations induces changes in postural control and leg muscle activation compared to non-painful situations, as increased stiffness was demonstrated in response to aversive pictures in accordance with previous results.

  18. Black Carbon and Kerosene Lighting: An Opportunity for Rapid Action on Climate Change and Clean Energy for Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Arne [Humboldt State Univ., MN (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center; Bond, Tami C. [Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lam, Nicholoas L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Sciences; Hultman, Nathan [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Replacing inefficient kerosene lighting with electric lighting or other clean alternatives can rapidly achieve development and energy access goals, save money and reduce climate warming. Many of the 250 million households that lack reliable access to electricity rely on inefficient and dangerous simple wick lamps and other kerosene-fueled light sources, using 4 to 25 billion liters of kerosene annually to meet basic lighting needs. Kerosene costs can be a significant household expense and subsidies are expensive. New information on kerosene lamp emissions reveals that their climate impacts are substantial. Eliminating current annual black carbon emissions would provide a climate benefit equivalent to 5 gigatons of carbon dioxide reductions over the next 20 years. Robust and low-cost technologies for supplanting simple wick and other kerosene-fueled lamps exist and are easily distributed and scalable. Improving household lighting offers a low-cost opportunity to improve development, cool the climate and reduce costs.

  19. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership ...

  20. Solutions for Hot Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    From the company that brought the world an integral heating and cooling food service system after originally developing it for NASA's Apollo Program, comes yet another orbital offshoot: a product that can be as thin as paper and as strong as steel. Nextel Ceramic Textiles and Composites from 3M Company offer space-age protection and innovative solutions for hot situations, ranging from NASA to NASCAR. With superior thermal protection, Nextel fabrics, tape, and sleevings outperform other high temperature textiles such as aramids, carbon, glass, and quartz, permitting engineers and manufacturers to handle applications up to 2,500 F (1,371 C). The stiffness and strength of Nextel Continuous Ceramic Fibers make them a great match for improving the rigidity of aluminum in metal matrix composites. Moreover, the fibers demonstrate low shrinkage at operating temperatures, which allow for the manufacturing of a dimensionally stable product. These novel fibers also offer excellent chemical resistance, low thermal conductivity, thermal shock resistance, low porosity, and unique electrical properties.

  1. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  2. Changes in concentrations of cortisol and melatonin in plasma, expression of synaptophysin, and ultrastructural properties of pinealocytes in goat kids in situations of stress due to early weaning: the effect of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, E; Franco, A; Garcia, A; Masot, A J

    2010-06-01

    To analyse the changes in some histo-physiological parameters of the pineal gland of goat kids in situations of stress due to early weaning, and the effect of exogenous treatment with melatonin. Twenty-four 6-day-old Verata goat kids were used; 12 suckled their dams throughout the study (non-weaned groups), and the other 12 were removed from their dams and fed a milk replacer (weaned groups). Six goat kids in each group were treated with melatonin, and the other six with double-distilled pyrogen-free water (Day 0). On Days 28-29, blood samples were collected at 0600, 1000, 1400, 1800, 2200, 0200 and 0600 hours, to determine concentrations of cortisol and melatonin in plasma. On Days 29 and 30, six animals per group (three at 1400 and three at 0200 hours, respectively) were subject to euthanasia and the weight of their pineal glands determined. The structural immunocytochemistry, morphometric analysis, ultrastructural analysis and immunotransmission electron microscopy of the pineal glands were established. Concentrations of cortisol in plasma were significantly higher in weaned than in non-weaned goat kids (pmelatonin reduced the concentrations in weaned kids (pmelatonin in plasma showed a similar pattern in the four groups, with peak values at 0200 and troughs at 1400 hours. Mean concentrations of melatonin in plasma in weaned goat kids were significantly lower than those in the other groups (pmelatonin, the weight and volume of the pineal gland, and number of pinealocytes, were significantly lower when compared with those from non-weaned kids (pmelatonin significantly increased these parameters in weaned kids. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment with melatonin in goat kids in situations of stress due to premature weaning could play an important role in the improvement of histo-physiological function of the pineal gland.

  3. A Dynamic Optimization Method of Indoor Fire Evacuation Route Based on Real-time Situation Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yulin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available How to provide safe and effective evacuation routes is an important safeguard to correctly guide evacuation and reduce the casualties during the fire situation rapidly evolving in complex indoor environment. The traditional static path finding method is difficult to adjust the path adaptively according to the changing fire situation, which lead to the evacuation decision-making blindness and hysteresis. This paper proposes a dynamic method which can dynamically optimize the indoor evacuation routes based on the real-time situation awareness. According to the real-time perception of fire situation parameters and the changing indoor environment information, the evacuation route is optimized dynamically. The integrated representation of multisource indoor fire monitoring sensor observations oriented fire emergency evacuation is presented at first, real-time fire threat situation information inside building is then extracted from the observation data of multi-source sensors, which is used to constrain the dynamical optimization of the topology of the evacuation route. Finally, the simulation experiments prove that this method can improve the accuracy and efficiency of indoor evacuation routing.

  4. DEBATING ABOUT SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen CÎRSTEA; Dumitru Constantinescu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed the cirumstances of every day life which requires the need to adapt the leadership style. Leadership needs a lot of abilities and skills, including the capability to communicate. The paper deals with leader’s need of changing the style of leading as organizational circumstances change. The process is efficient only when the leaders and the followers have the right climate. The importance of this process is reflected in the productivity of the organization. As the eco...

  5. The impact of the 8.2 ka rapid climate change event on the vegetation and lake ecosystem of the South Carpathian Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona PÁL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Our research is based on pollen-based reconstruction of vegetation composition changes in the Shouthern Carpathians in response to rapid climate changes during the Early Holocene. We demonstrated vegetation response in the northern slope of Retezat Mountains focusing on Lake Brazi. Retezat has a particular importance because of its location and different climatic effects that prevail. Our aim was to examine the vegetation response due to climatic oscillations, which occurred during the Early Holocene. We paid particular attention to the climate change occurring 8200 years ago. We used pollen analysis for the Holocene section of the sediment of Lake Brazi. We investigated the sediment section which covers the so called climatic oscillation at higher resolution.

  6. Rapid changes in the seasonal sea level cycle along the US Gulf coast from the late 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Thomas; Calafat, Francisco M.; Luther, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal variations of the seasonal sea level harmonics throughout the 20th and early 21st century along the United States Gulf coast are investigated. A significant amplification of the annual sea level cycle from the 1990s onward is found, with both lower winter and higher summer sea levels in the eastern Gulf. Ancillary data are used to build a set of multiple regression models to explore the mechanisms driving the decadal variability and recent increase in the annual cycle. The results suggest that changes in the air surface temperature toward warmer summers and colder winters and changes in mean sea level pressure explain most of the amplitude increase. The changes in the seasonal sea level cycle are shown to have almost doubled the risk of hurricane induced flooding associated with sea level rise since the 1990s for the eastern and north-eastern Gulf of Mexico coastlines.

  7. METHODOLOGICAL ELEMENTS OF SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana KOVALCHUK

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation of theoretical and methodological principles of situational analysis. The necessity of situational analysis is proved in modern conditions. The notion “situational analysis” is determined. We have concluded that situational analysis is a continuous system study which purpose is to identify dangerous situation signs, to evaluate comprehensively such signs influenced by a system of objective and subjective factors, to search for motivated targeted actions used to eliminate adverse effects of the exposure of the system to the situation now and in the future and to develop the managerial actions needed to bring the system back to norm. It is developed a methodological approach to the situational analysis, its goal is substantiated, proved the expediency of diagnostic, evaluative and searching functions in the process of situational analysis. The basic methodological elements of the situational analysis are grounded. The substantiation of the principal methodological elements of system analysis will enable the analyst to develop adaptive methods able to take into account the peculiar features of a unique object which is a situation that has emerged in a complex system, to diagnose such situation and subject it to system and in-depth analysis, to identify risks opportunities, to make timely management decisions as required by a particular period.

  8. Preparing for Emergency Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asproth, Viveca; Amcoff Nyström, Christina

    2010-11-01

    Disaster relief can be seen as a dynamic multi actor process with actors both joining and leaving the relief work during the help and rescue phase after the disaster has occurred. Actors may be governmental agencies, non profit voluntary organisations or spontaneous helpers comprised of individual citizens or temporal groups of citizens. Hence, they will vary widely in agility, competence, resources, and endurance. To prepare for for disasters a net based Agora with simulation of emergency situations for mutual preparation, training, and organisational learning is suggested. Such an Agora will ensure future security by: -Rising awareness and preparedness of potential disaster responders by help of the components and resources in the netAgora environment; -Improving cooperation and coordination between responders; -Improving competence and performance of organisations involved in security issues; -Bridging cultural differences between responders from different organizations and different backgrounds. The developed models are intended to reflect intelligent anticipatory systems for human operator anticipation of future consequences. As a way to catch what should be included in this netbased Agora and to join the split pictures that is present, Team Syntegrity could be a helpful tool. The purpose of Team Syntegrity is to stimulate collaboration and incite cross fertilization and creativity. The difference between syntegration and other group work is that the participants are evenly and uniquely distributed and will collectively have the means, the knowledge, the experience, the perspectives, and the expertise, to deal with the topic. In this paper the possibilities with using Team Syntegrity in preparation for the development of a netbased Agora is discussed. We have identified that Team Syntegrity could be useful in the steps User Integration, Designing the netAgora environment, developing Test Scenarios, and assessment of netAgora environment.

  9. Using Visual Analytics to Maintain Situation Awareness in Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Poon, Sarah S.; Aldering, Gregory S.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Quimby, Robert

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel collaborative visual analytics application for cognitively overloaded users in the astrophysics domain. The system was developed for scientists needing to analyze heterogeneous, complex data under time pressure, and then make predictions and time-critical decisions rapidly and correctly under a constant influx of changing data. The Sunfall Data Taking system utilizes severalnovel visualization and analysis techniques to enable a team of geographically distributed domain specialists to effectively and remotely maneuver a custom-built instrument under challenging operational conditions. Sunfall Data Taking has been in use for over eighteen months by a major international astrophysics collaboration (the largest data volume supernova search currently in operation), and has substantially improved the operational efficiency of its users. We describe the system design process by an interdisciplinary team, the system architecture, and the results of an informal usability evaluation of the production system by domain experts in the context of Endsley?s three levels of situation awareness.

  10. Rapid response of leaf photosynthesis in two fern species Pteridium aquilinum and Thelypteris dentata to changes in CO2 measured by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Keisuke; Kodama, Naomi; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Hanba, Yuko T

    2015-09-01

    We investigated stomatal conductance (g(s)) and mesophyll conductance (g(m)) in response to atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] in two primitive land plants, the fern species Pteridium aquilinum and Thelypteris dentata, using the concurrent measurement of leaf gas exchange and carbon isotope discrimination. [CO2] was initially decreased from 400 to 200 μmol mol(-1), and then increased from 200 to 700 μmol mol(-1), and finally decreased from 700 to 400 μmol mol(-1). Analysis by tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) revealed a rapid and continuous response in g m within a few minutes. In most cases, both ferns showed rapid and significant responses of g m to changes in [CO2]. The largest changes (quote % decrease) were obtained when [CO2] was decreased from 400 to 200 μmol mol(-1). This is in contrast to angiosperms where an increase in g(m) is commonly observed at low [CO2]. Similarly, fern species observed little or no response of g(s) to changes in [CO2] whereas, a concomitant decline of g(m) and g(s) with [CO2] is often reported in angiosperms. Together, these results suggest that regulation of g(m) to [CO2] may differ between angiosperms and ferns.

  11. Forest loss maps from regional satellite monitoring systematically underestimate deforestation in two rapidly changing parts of the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milodowski, D. T.; Mitchard, E. T. A.; Williams, M.

    2017-09-01

    Accurate, consistent reporting of changing forest area, stratified by forest type, is required for all countries under their commitments to the Paris Agreement (UNFCCC 2015 Adoption of the Paris Agreement (Paris: UNFCCC)). Such change reporting may directly impact on payments through comparisons to national Reference (Emissions) Levels under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) framework. The emergence of global, satellite-based forest monitoring systems, including Global Forest Watch (GFW) and FORMA, have great potential in aiding this endeavour. However, the accuracy of these systems has been questioned and their uncertainties are poorly constrained, both in terms of the spatial extent of forest loss and timing of change. Here, using annual time series of 5 m optical imagery at two sites in the Brazilian Amazon, we demonstrate that GFW more accurately detects forest loss than the coarser-resolution FORMA or Brazil’s national-level PRODES product, though all underestimate the rate of loss. We conclude GFW provides robust indicators of forest loss, at least for larger-scale forest change, but under-predicts losses driven by small-scale disturbances (< 2 ha), even though these are much larger than its minimum mapping unit (0.09 ha).

  12. Rapid atmospheric CO2 changes associated with the 8,200-years-B.P. cooling event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Aaby, B.; Visscher, H.

    2002-01-01

    By applying the inverse relation between numbers of leaf stomata and atmospheric CO2 concentration, stomatal frequency analysis of fossil birch leaves from lake deposits in Denmark reveals a century-scale CO2 change during the prominent Holocene cooling event that occurred in the North Atlantic

  13. Using housing growth to estimate habitat change: detecting Ovenbird response in a rapidly growing New England State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lepczyk; Aaron Wunnicke; Volker C. Radeloff; Curtis H. Flather; Anna M. Pidgeon; Roger B. Hammer

    2013-01-01

    Numerous measures of human influence on the environment exist, but one that is of particular importance is houses as they can impact the environment from species through the landscape level. Furthermore, because the addition of houses represents an important component of landscape change, housing information could be used to assess ecological responses (e.g., decline...

  14. Rapid changes in transcription profiles of the Plasmodium yoelii yir multigene family in clonal populations: lack of epigenetic memory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Cunningham

    Full Text Available The pir multigene family, found in the genomes of Plasmodium vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species, encode variant antigens that could be targets of the immune response. Individual parasites of the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii, selected by micromanipulation, transcribe only 1 to 3 different pir (yir suggesting tight transcriptional control at the level of individual cells. Using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that despite this very restricted transcription in a single cell, many yir genes are transcribed throughout the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle. The timing and level of transcription differs between genes, with some being more highly transcribed in ring and trophozoite stages, whereas others are more highly transcribed in schizonts. Infection of immunodeficient mice with single infected erythrocytes results in populations of parasites each with transcriptional profiles different from that of the parent parasite population and from each other. This drift away from the original 'set' of transcribed genes does not appear to follow a preset pattern and "epigenetic memory" of the yir transcribed in the parent parasite can be rapidly lost. Thus, regulation of pir gene transcription may be different from that of the well-characterised multigene family, var, of Plasmodium falciparum.

  15. Rapid changes in transcription profiles of the Plasmodium yoelii yir multigene family in clonal populations: lack of epigenetic memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Deirdre; Fonager, Jannik; Jarra, William; Carret, Celine; Preiser, Peter; Langhorne, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The pir multigene family, found in the genomes of Plasmodium vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species, encode variant antigens that could be targets of the immune response. Individual parasites of the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii, selected by micromanipulation, transcribe only 1 to 3 different pir (yir) suggesting tight transcriptional control at the level of individual cells. Using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that despite this very restricted transcription in a single cell, many yir genes are transcribed throughout the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle. The timing and level of transcription differs between genes, with some being more highly transcribed in ring and trophozoite stages, whereas others are more highly transcribed in schizonts. Infection of immunodeficient mice with single infected erythrocytes results in populations of parasites each with transcriptional profiles different from that of the parent parasite population and from each other. This drift away from the original 'set' of transcribed genes does not appear to follow a preset pattern and "epigenetic memory" of the yir transcribed in the parent parasite can be rapidly lost. Thus, regulation of pir gene transcription may be different from that of the well-characterised multigene family, var, of Plasmodium falciparum.

  16. The nutrition transition in amazonia: rapid economic change and its impact on growth and development in Ribeirinhos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperata, Barbara A; Spence, Jennifer E; Da-Gloria, Pedro; Hubbe, Mark

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this longitudinal study was to assess the impact of economic change and increased market integration on subsistence strategies, living conditions, growth, and nutritional status of Ribeirinhos living in the rural Amazon, Brazil. Data on weight, height, skinfolds, and circumferences, as well as data on economic strategies and living conditions were collected from 469 individuals in 2002 and 429 in 2009. Of these, 204 individuals were measured on both occasions. Independent and paired t-tests were used to identify changes in nutritional status over time in the larger sample and smaller, longitudinal subsample, respectively. Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the relationship between changes in economic/living conditions and nutritional status in the longitudinal subsample. Results indicate modest improvements in linear growth (HAZ) and among male children the observed increase was related to enrollment in the Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, Bolsa Família (P = 0.03). In terms of short-term measures of nutritional status, we found a significant increase in ZTSF and a reduction in ZUMA in most age/sex groups. Among subadults, there was a negative relationship between ZUMA and access to electricity (P = 0.01) and positive relationship between ZUMA and the sale of the açaí fruit (P = 0.04). Significant changes in weight and BMI (P economic strategies and lifestyle, changes in nutritional status were modest which may be explained by increased food insecurity documented during this early stage of transition. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. [Postural control depends on testing situation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbanski, Stephan; Schmidtbleicher, Ditmar

    2010-09-01

    Most often postural control is evaluated in posturography, i. e. in a static testing condition. The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations and differences between posturography and dynamic testing situations to get information about the informative value of static testing situations on dynamic conditions. 40 healthy subjects participated in this study (m=23; w=17; age: 23.8±2.9 years; height: 177.0±8.5 cm; weight: 71.5±10.5 kg). Subjects were tested on their ability to maintain postural stability on a force platform (posturography, static condition) and on a movable and instable plate (dynamic condition). Furthermore, we analyzed balance correcting responses to a standardised disturbance of postural stability. EMG-activity was recorded of the following muscles: m. tibialis anterior, m. gastrocnemius lateralis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, and m. erector spinae. Pearson's Correlations were used to examine the relationship between postural control in static and in dynamic testing situations. Student's t-tests were used to examine differences in several parameters between static and dynamic testing situations. Comparisons of postural control in static and in dynamic conditions lead to marginal correlations between performances in these test situations (r=-0.02 to r=0.45). Moreover, EMGactivity showed changes concerning quantitative parameters and coordination patterns. Regarding correlations and analyses of EMG-activity we hypothesised different postural control strategies depending on each testing situation. Therefore, postural control seems not to be a generalizable ability. These data suggest that there is doubt on the use of posturography in static condition to predict performance in dynamic situations that could induce falls in elderly people or injuries in athletes. It appears comprehensible that dynamic testing situations are more suitable.

  18. Adapting a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for forecasting the number of coronary artery revascularisation procedures in an era of rapidly changing technology and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, Haider R; Knuiman, Matthew; Hobbs, Michael

    2008-06-25

    Treatments for coronary heart disease (CHD) have evolved rapidly over the last 15 years with considerable change in the number and effectiveness of both medical and surgical treatments. This period has seen the rapid development and uptake of statin drugs and coronary artery revascularization procedures (CARPs) that include Coronary Artery Bypass Graft procedures (CABGs) and Percutaneous Coronary Interventions (PCIs). It is difficult in an era of such rapid change to accurately forecast requirements for treatment services such as CARPs. In a previous paper we have described and outlined the use of a Markov Monte Carlo simulation model for analyzing and predicting the requirements for CARPs for the population of Western Australia (Mannan et al, 2007). In this paper, we expand on the use of this model for forecasting CARPs in Western Australia with a focus on the lack of adequate performance of the (standard) model for forecasting CARPs in a period during the mid 1990s when there were considerable changes to CARP technology and implementation policy and an exploration and demonstration of how the standard model may be adapted to achieve better performance. Selected key CARP event model probabilities are modified based on information relating to changes in the effectiveness of CARPs from clinical trial evidence and an awareness of trends in policy and practice of CARPs. These modified model probabilities and the ones obtained by standard methods are used as inputs in our Markov simulation model. The projected numbers of CARPs in the population of Western Australia over 1995-99 only improve marginally when modifications to model probabilities are made to incorporate an increase in effectiveness of PCI procedures. However, the projected numbers improve substantially when, in addition, further modifications are incorporated that relate to the increased probability of a PCI procedure and the reduced probability of a CABG procedure stemming from changed CARP preference

  19. Temperature relations of aerial and aquatic physiological performance in a mid-intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma: adaptation to rapid changes in thermal stress during emersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiongwei; Wang, Tifeng; Ye, Ziwen; Han, Guodong; Dong, Yunwei

    2015-01-01

    The physiological performance of a mid-intertidal limpet Cellana toreuma was determined to study the physiological adaptation of intertidal animals to rapid changes and extreme temperatures during emersion. The relationship between the Arrhenius breakpoint temperature (ABT) and in situ operative body temperature was studied to predict the possible impact of climate change on the species. The temperature coefficient (Q10) of emersed animals was higher than that of submersed animals and the ratio of aerial: aquatic heart rate rose with increasing temperature. The ABTs of submersed and emersed animals were 30.2 and 34.2°C, respectively. The heart rate and levels of molecular biomarkers (hsps, ampkα, ampkβ and sirt1 mRNA) were determined in 48 h simulated semi-diurnal tides. There were no obvious changes of heart rate and gene expression during the transition between emersion and submersion at room temperature, although expressions of hsp70 and hsp90 were induced significantly after thermal stress. These results indicate that C. toreuma can effectively utilize atmospheric oxygen, and the higher Q10 and ABT of emersed animals are adaptations to the rapid change and extreme thermal stress during emersion. However, the in situ operative body temperature frequently exceeds the aerial ABT of C. toreuma, indicating the occurrence of large-scale mortality of C. toreuma in summer, and this species should be sensitive to increasing temperature in the scenario of climate change. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Age-associated changes in monocyte and innate immune activation markers occur more rapidly in HIV infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Genevieve E; Gouillou, Maelenn; Hearps, Anna C; Angelovich, Thomas A; Cheng, Allen C; Lynch, Fiona; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Paukovics, Geza; Palmer, Clovis S; Novak, Richard M; Jaworowski, Anthony; Landay, Alan L; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with immune dysfunction and the related development of conditions with an inflammatory pathogenesis. Some of these immune changes are also observed in HIV infection, but the interaction between immune changes with aging and HIV infection are unknown. Whilst sex differences in innate immunity are recognized, little research into innate immune aging has been performed on women. This cross-sectional study of HIV positive and negative women used whole blood flow cytometric analysis to characterize monocyte and CD8(+) T cell subsets. Plasma markers of innate immune activation were measured using standard ELISA-based assays. HIV positive women exhibited elevated plasma levels of the innate immune activation markers CXCL10 (pinnate immune aging biomarkers sCD163 and the proportion of CD16(+) monocytes were equivalent to those observed in HIV negative women aged 14.5 and 10.6 years older, respectively. CXCL10 increased with age at an accelerated rate in HIV positive women (p = 0.002) suggesting a synergistic effect between HIV and aging on innate immune activation. Multivariable modeling indicated that age-related increases in innate immune biomarkers CXCL10 and sCD163 are independent of senescent changes in CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Quantifying the impact of HIV on immune aging reveals that HIV infection in women confers the equivalent of a 10-14 year increase in the levels of innate immune aging markers. These changes may contribute to the increased risk of inflammatory age-related diseases in HIV positive women.

  1. Rapid realist review of the evidence : achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff.\\ud \\ud Background: Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific ...

  2. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sieber, Anika [Geography Department, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany); Prishchepov, Alexander [Leibniz Institute of Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern Europe (IAMO), Department of Structural Development of Farms and Rural Areas, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Lambin, Eric F [Earth and Life Institute, Universite catholique de Louvain, place L. Pasteur 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Radeloff, Volker C, E-mail: patrick.hostert@geo.hu-berlin.de [Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1630 Linden Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1598 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  3. Rapid land use change after socio-economic disturbances: the collapse of the Soviet Union versus Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostert, Patrick; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Sieber, Anika; Lambin, Eric F.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2011-10-01

    Land use change is a principal force and inherent element of global environmental change, threatening biodiversity, natural ecosystems, and their services. However, our ability to anticipate future land use change is severely limited by a lack of understanding of how major socio-economic disturbances (e.g., wars, revolutions, policy changes, and economic crises) affect land use. Here we explored to what extent socio-economic disturbances can shift land use systems onto a different trajectory, and whether this can result in less intensive land use. Our results show that the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 caused a major reorganization in land use systems. The effects of this socio-economic disturbance were at least as drastic as those of the nuclear disaster in the Chernobyl region in 1986. While the magnitudes of land abandonment were similar in Ukraine and Belarus in the case of the nuclear disaster (28% and 36% of previously farmed land, respectively), the rates of land abandonment after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Ukraine were twice as high as those in Belarus. This highlights that national policies and institutions play an important role in mediating effects of socio-economic disturbances. The socio-economic disturbance that we studied caused major hardship for local populations, yet also presents opportunities for conservation, as natural ecosystems are recovering on large areas of former farmland. Our results illustrate the potential of socio-economic disturbances to revert land use intensification and the important role institutions and policies play in determining land use systems' resilience against such socio-economic disturbances.

  4. Association between perceived neighborhood environment and health of middle-aged women living in rapidly changing urban Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagdarsuren, Tserendulam; Nakamura, Keiko; McCay, Layla

    2017-05-31

    This study was conducted in rapidly urbanizing Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, to examine patterns of perceived neighborhood quality by residents and the associations between these patterns and self-reported general and mental health in middle-aged women. A questionnaire survey was administered to 960 women aged 40-60 years. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics, subjects' perception of their neighborhood environment, general health status, and mental health as measured using a 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) were reported. A total of 830 women completed the questionnaire. Subjects reporting their general health as very good or good accounted for 80.3% and those with a GHQ12 ≥16, which reflects psychological distress or severe distress, accounted for 16.1%. A principal component analysis of the perceptions of neighborhood environment by the residents identified six qualities: physical environment, designed environment, neighborhood community, public safety, natural environment, and citizen services. The perception of better-quality citizen services in the neighborhood was associated with better self-reported general health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.330, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.093-1.618), and the perception of better-quality public safety was associated with less psychological distress (OR = 0.718, 95% CI 0.589-0.876); these associations were independent of education, income, occupation, type of residential area, and number of years living in the current khoroo. The perception of the quality of a neighborhood environment can affect the self-reported general and mental health of residents, even after accounting for the type of residential area and individual socio-economic status. Developing high-quality neighborhoods is an essential component of good planning to promote population health in urban environments.

  5. Behavioral and physiological changes during benthic-pelagic transition in the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo: potential for rapid bloom formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Tobin

    Full Text Available Many species of harmful algae transition between a motile, vegetative stage in the water column and a non-motile, resting stage in the sediments. Physiological and behavioral traits expressed during benthic-pelagic transition potentially regulate the timing, location and persistence of blooms. The roles of key physiological and behavioral traits involved in resting cell emergence and bloom formation were examined in two geographically distinct strains of the harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Physiological measures of cell viability, division and population growth, and cell fatty acid content were made using flow cytometry and gas chromatography - mass spectrometry techniques as cells transitioned between the benthic resting stage and the vegetative pelagic stage. Video-based tracking was used to quantify cell-level swimming behaviors. Data show increased temperature and light triggered rapid emergence from the resting stage and initiated cell swimming. Algal strains varied in important physiological and behavioral traits, including survivorship during life-stage transitions, population growth rates and swimming velocities. Collectively, these traits function as "population growth strategies" that can influence bloom formation. Many resting cells regained the up-swimming capacity necessary to cross an environmentally relevant halocline and the ability to aggregate in near-surface waters within hours after vegetative growth supporting conditions were restored. Using a heuristic model, we illustrate how strain-specific population growth strategies can govern the timescales over which H. akashiwo blooms form. Our findings highlight the need for identification and quantification of strain-specific physiological and behavioral traits to improve mechanistic understanding of bloom formation and successful bloom prediction.

  6. Cytomorphometric changes in the dorsal raphe neurons after rapid eye movement sleep deprivation are mediated by noradrenalin in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Sudipta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study was carried out to investigate the effect of rapid eye movement sleep (REMS deprivation (REMSD on the cytomorphology of the dorsal raphe (DR neurons and to evaluate the possible role of REMSD-induced increased noradrenalin (NA in mediating such effects. Methods Rats were REMS deprived by the flowerpot method; free moving normal home cage rats, large platform and post REMS-deprived recovered rats were used as controls. Further, to evaluate if the effects were induced by NA, separate sets of experimental rats were treated (i.p. with α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (PRZ. Histomorphometric analysis of DR neurons in stained brain sections were performed in experimental and control rats; neurons in inferior colliculus (IC served as anatomical control. Results The mean size of DR neurons was larger in REMSD group compared to controls, whereas, neurons in the recovered group of rats did not significantly differ than those in the control animals. Further, mean cell size in the post-REMSD PRZ-treated animals was comparable to those in the control groups. IC neurons were not affected by REMSD. Conclusions REMS loss has been reported to impair several physiological, behavioral and cellular processes. The mean size of the DR neurons was larger in the REMS deprived group of rats than those in the control groups; however, in the REMS deprived and prazosin treated rats the size was comparable to the normal rats. These results showed that REMSD induced increase in DR neuronal size was mediated by NA acting on α1-adrenoceptor. The findings suggest that the sizes of DR neurons are sensitive to REMSD, which if not compensated could lead to neurodegeneration and associated disorders including memory loss and Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Changes in Underlying Determinants Explain Rapid Increases in Child Linear Growth in Alive & Thrive Study Areas between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Headey, Derek; Frongillo, Edward A; Tran, Lan Mai; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-03-01

    nutritional change in intervention and comparison areas. Improvements in underlying determinants explained rapid improvements in HAZs between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

  8. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high......Geographic distribution: VHSV can be divided into 4 genotypes and at least 8 subtypes and there is a close linkage between genotypes, geographic range and affected fish species. VHS is still only reported from the Northern hemisphere- and while countries like Denmark, Norway and England have freed...... themselves for VHS, several countries are still struggling with the disease. An update on the recent VHS outbreaks in rainbow trout in Iran, in olive flounder in Korea, in wrasse in Scotland, in turbot in Turkey, in a number of fish species in the great lakes in USA and Canada, and a general overview...

  9. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high......Geographic distribution: VHSV can be divided into 4 genotypes and at least 8 subtypes and there is a close linkage between genotypes, geographic range and affected fish species. VHS is still only reported from the Northern hemisphere- and while countries like Denmark, Norway and England have freed...... themselves for VHS, several countries are still struggling with the disease. An update on the recent VHS outbreaks in rainbow trout in Iran, in olive flounder in Korea, in wrasse in Scotland, in turbot in Turkey, in a number of fish species in the great lakes in USA and Canada, and a general overview...

  10. Situated Learning Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer

    2007-01-01

    learn through our participation in communities of practice. In this view, learning entails both personal and social transformation. In late modernity the concept of qualification has been replaced by the concept of competence pointing to several changes in our view of work, education and labour. One...... of them is an extension of the demands in working life. Now it is not enough that you are skilled, you must also have the right attitude and personality and therefore education and development project not only facilitates development of skills and knowledge but also tries to work on participants' opinions...... change along the maybe colliding institutional and the personal trajectory of participation? These are the central questions addressed in this symposium. IDENTITY WORK IN INSTITUTIONS OF ADULT EDUCATION Some of the effects of globalization are outsourcing of low-skilled jobs to low-paid countries...

  11. Carsharing situation in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-01-01

    Carsharing is becoming very popular in the western world as an effective method to contain rising prices of fuel and vehicles. It was brought about as a possible solution to the changing condition of growing economies and population where there is an increased need for travel but there is also a need for expense economizing. Due to its role in reducing fuel consumption, controlling pollution and traffic congestion, there is an increased usage of carsharing services as an alternative transport...

  12. Wired Widgets: Agile Visualization for Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschefske, K.; Witmer, J.

    2012-09-01

    Continued advancement in sensors and analysis techniques have resulted in a wealth of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) data, made available via tools and Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) such as those in the Joint Space Operations Center Mission Systems (JMS) environment. Current visualization software cannot quickly adapt to rapidly changing missions and data, preventing operators and analysts from performing their jobs effectively. The value of this wealth of SSA data is not fully realized, as the operators' existing software is not built with the flexibility to consume new or changing sources of data or to rapidly customize their visualization as the mission evolves. While tools like the JMS user-defined operational picture (UDOP) have begun to fill this gap, this paper presents a further evolution, leveraging Web 2.0 technologies for maximum agility. We demonstrate a flexible Web widget framework with inter-widget data sharing, publish-subscribe eventing, and an API providing the basis for consumption of new data sources and adaptable visualization. Wired Widgets offers cross-portal widgets along with a widget communication framework and development toolkit for rapid new widget development, giving operators the ability to answer relevant questions as the mission evolves. Wired Widgets has been applied in a number of dynamic mission domains including disaster response, combat operations, and noncombatant evacuation scenarios. The variety of applications demonstrate that Wired Widgets provides a flexible, data driven solution for visualization in changing environments. In this paper, we show how, deployed in the Ozone Widget Framework portal environment, Wired Widgets can provide an agile, web-based visualization to support the SSA mission. Furthermore, we discuss how the tenets of agile visualization can generally be applied to the SSA problem space to provide operators flexibility, potentially informing future acquisition and system development.

  13. Snow-vegetation interactions across the tundra-taiga interface: stabilising feedbacks or drivers of rapid environmental change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, R.

    2012-04-01

    Mountain Birch, Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii, forest in the Abisko area, Swedish Lapland, becomes increasingly patchy towards the tree limit. Where these patches occur mature individuals give way to dwarf shrub tundra in the space of a few meters. Further north, or uphill, of this patchy region the landscape is void of mature trees. Whilst broadly accepted that treeline position is correlated with a particular air temperature, temperature alone cannot explain the observed patchiness of the forest, as it varies little on this scale. Winter snow regime is likely to be an important controlling factor of the position of forest-patch edges. Snow cover protects delicate seedlings from blowing snow and ice particles, as well as providing insulation from freeze-thaw cycles capable of damaging fine roots, however, too great a depth of snow is likely to shorten the growing season to a point where seedlings cannot maintain a positive carbon balance. An insulating layer of snow also ensures that soils stay warmer through the winter months, therefore soil processes continue for longer, resulting in enhanced nutrient availability during the spring, compared to soils experiencing a thin layer of snow cover. Soil moisture, soil disturbance and vegetation cover may also be important controlling factors and these may depend to some extent upon winter snow regimen. Trees are able to trap wind-blown snow by decreasing local wind speed. Presence of trees will result in areas experiencing greater snow cover than a tree-free landscape. Once trees establish they may be able to modify the local environment, in terms of snow depth, creating further areas suitable for forest establishment. This is likely to be particularly true of areas downwind of existing tree patches. Where a sudden change is observed it is likely that a 'switch' is operating, allowing a sudden future change to occur if the system is perturbed. Investigating processes that control the switch between forest and

  14. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Management Question J4: Where are aquatic/riparian areas with potential to change from climate change?

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows naturalized flow change for April-July for 3 periods: 1951-1965 (historic), 2016-2030, and 2046-2060 simulated by the Bureau of Reclamation across 112...

  15. Food deprivation causes rapid changes in the abundance and glucidic composition of the cutaneous mucous cells of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeira-Dabarca, A; Álvarez, M; Molist, P

    2014-10-01

    Cutaneous mucus is the first physical and chemical barrier of fish. This slime layer is secreted by mucous cells located in the epidermis and is mainly composed of glycoproteins that have their origin in the diet. Therefore, food deprivation can potentially change the abundance and glucidic nature of skin mucous cells, thus changing the mucus properties. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Changes in the number and glucidic nature of epidermal mucus cells were analysed using standard techniques. The outcome of this study shows that food deprivation caused a rapid decrease in the density of epidermal mucous cells in Atlantic salmon. Lectin histochemistry revealed a change in the presence and stainability of some sugar residues in the mucous cells of unfed fish compared with fed fish. Given that the primary reason for mucus secretion in fish is for protection against infections, we speculate that the changes in the mucus properties caused by nutritional stress may affect their disease resistance. This fact is particularly important for fish that spend a period of time deprived of food, either as a part of their natural life cycle, or as part of farming practices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. How to lead complex situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Pingel

    2013-01-01

    The military leader is experiencing increasingly more complex situations, whether it is as leader in a foreign combat environment or in the home-based public administration. Complex situations like these call for a special set of managerial responses and a special way of leading organisations....... The proposition of this article is that the methods that drive innovative processes, strengthening the creative culture, are necessary to manage complex situations in military contexts....

  17. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. Data Sources: CINAHL (1982–2002), MEDLINE (1990–2001), SPORT Discus (1949–2002), ERIC (1966–2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. Data Synthesis: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. Conclusions/Recommendations: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession. PMID:12937555

  18. Athletic Training Clinical Instructors as Situational Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Linda Platt

    2002-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present Situational Leadership as a model that can be implemented by clinical instructors during clinical education. Effective leadership occurs when the leadership style is matched with the observed followers' characteristics. Effective leaders anticipate and assess change and adapt quickly and grow with the change, all while leading followers to do the same. As athletic training students' levels of readiness change, clinical instructors also need to transform their leadership styles and strategies to match the students' ever-changing observed needs in different situations. DATA SOURCES: CINAHL (1982-2002), MEDLINE (1990-2001), SPORT Discus (1949-2002), ERIC (1966-2002), and Internet Web sites were searched. Search terms included leadership, situational leadership, clinical instructors and leadership, teachers as leaders, and clinical education. DATA SYNTHESIS: Situational Leadership is presented as a leadership model to be used by clinical instructors while teaching and supervising athletic training students in the clinical setting. This model can be implemented to improve the clinical-education process. Situational leaders, eg, clinical instructors, must have the flexibility and range of skills to vary their leadership styles to match the challenges that occur while teaching athletic training students. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS: This leadership style causes the leader to carry a substantial responsibility to lead while giving power away. Communication is one of the most important leadership skills to develop to become an effective leader. It is imperative for the future of the profession that certified athletic trainers continue to develop effective leadership skills to address the changing times in education and expectations of the athletic training profession.

  19. Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Situation Awareness Technologies (ASAT) will facilitate exploration of the moon surface, and other planetary bodies. This powerful technology will also find...

  20. Stress situations in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, M; Baylard, J F

    1994-01-01

    Several studies indicate that stress is inherently present in dental practice. The present study was conducted to help identify the factors underlying this stress and the relative contribution of each factor. A questionnaire presented participating dentists with 52 potentially-stressful situations related to dental practice. Respondents were asked to rate each situation on a five-point scale, using a range of responses that varied from "not stressful" to "exceedingly stressful," and "I don't know" to "not applicable." The present data are based on the ratings given by the 1,332 dentists practicing in Québec who answered the questionnaire (52 per cent). Ten situations received a mean score of greater than 3.0, and were therefore considered as above average stress-producing situations. The majority of these situations could be classified as being related either to dental procedures and office organization or to interpersonal relationships involving patients and/or office personnel. It was found that the older age groups showed significantly less stress for six of the 10 most stressful situations. This study has indicated the specific situations that most frequently lead to stress in dentists. The precise identification of these situations could lead to reduced stress through the elimination of its vague and insidious character. Furthermore, an understanding of the most common stress-causing situations allows the practitioner to take preventive measures to eliminate its damaging effects in the dental practice.

  1. Situational Awareness and Logistics Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Volpe's Situational Awareness and Logistics Division researches, develops, implements, and analyzes advanced systems to protect, enhance, and ensure resilienceof the...

  2. Conspiracy theories as part of history: The role of societal crisis situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Douglas, Karen M

    2017-07-01

    In the present contribution, we examine the link between societal crisis situations and belief in conspiracy theories. Contrary to common assumptions, belief in conspiracy theories has been prevalent throughout human history. We first illustrate historical incidents suggesting that societal crisis situations-defined as impactful and rapid societal change that calls established power structures, norms of conduct, or even the existence of specific people or groups into question-have stimulated belief in conspiracy theories. We then review the psychological literature to explain why this is the case. Evidence suggests that the aversive feelings that people experience when in crisis-fear, uncertainty, and the feeling of being out of control-stimulate a motivation to make sense of the situation, increasing the likelihood of perceiving conspiracies in social situations. We then explain that after being formed, conspiracy theories can become historical narratives that may spread through cultural transmission. We conclude that conspiracy theories originate particularly in crisis situations and may form the basis for how people subsequently remember and mentally represent a historical event.

  3. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  4. Diverse mechanisms for photoprotection in photosynthesis. Dynamic regulation of photosystem II excitation in response to rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Allen; Schaven, Kristin; Bruce, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) of photosynthesis catalyzes one of the most challenging reactions in nature, the light driven oxidation of water and release of molecular oxygen. PSII couples the sequential four step oxidation of water and two step reduction of plastoquinone to single photon photochemistry with charge accumulation centers on both its electron donor and acceptor sides. Photon capture, excitation energy transfer, and trapping occur on a much faster time scale than the subsequent electron transfer and charge accumulation steps. A balance between excitation of PSII and the use of the absorbed energy to drive electron transport is essential. If the absorption of light energy increases and/or the sink capacity for photosynthetically derived electrons decreases, potentially deleterious side reactions may occur, including the production of reactive oxygen species. In response, a myriad of fast (second to minutes timescale) and reversible photoprotective mechanisms are observed to regulate PSII excitation when the environment changes more quickly than can be acclimated to by gene expression. This review compares the diverse photoprotective mechanisms that are used to dissipate (quench) PSII excitation within the antenna systems of higher land plants, green algae, diatoms, and cyanobacteria. The molecular bases of how PSII excitation pressure is sensed by the antenna system and how the antenna then reconfigures itself from a light harvesting to an energy dissipative mode are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    the purpose to do science and not to participate in polemics or litigations. For this reason, ESO has until now been silent in these matters, but we have now become obliged to make our opinion known". The ESO representative also made it clear, that "ESO does not question the rights of the claimants to recur to the Chilean Tribunals which must decide on the matter of ownership, and that ESO cannot be party to this lawsuit". He added that "ESO fully trusts that the Chilean Government will do whatever is necessary to defend the immunity of ESO". THE CURRENT SITUATION During the past few days, declarations from high officials at the Chilean Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been made which clearly confirm ESO's immunity of jurisdiction from Chilean Courts. The same opinion has been ventured by Chilean experts in international law, quoted in various Chilean newspapers. On Friday, February 17, the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose M. Insulza, made a similar, very eloquent statement. ESO welcomes these articulate expressions that support its official position and trusts that the current situation will be speedily resolved by the competent Chilean authorities, so that the construction work at Paranal will not be stopped. During the past three decades, ESO's presence in Chile has been characterised by good relations to all sides. The development of astronomy in Chile during the past decades has reached such a level that it will now benefit from a new quality of cooperation. In addition to its past and numerous services to Chilean astronomy, ESO has recently considered to establish a "guaranteed" observing time for astronomers from this country, both at La Silla and the future VLT observatory on Paranal. With a proposed 10 percent quota for the VLT, Chilean astronomers will in fact have free access to the equivalent of 40 percent of one 8.2-metre telescope; the associated, not insignificant cost is entirely carried by ESO. ESO has also considered to incorporate

  6. Evidence that implicit assumptions of ‘no evolution’ of disease vectors in changing environments can be violated on a rapid timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egizi, Andrea; Fefferman, Nina H.; Fonseca, Dina M.

    2015-01-01

    Projected impacts of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics must consider many variables relevant to hosts, vectors and pathogens, including how altered environmental characteristics might affect the spatial distributions of vector species. However, many predictive models for vector distributions consider their habitat requirements to be fixed over relevant time-scales, when they may actually be capable of rapid evolutionary change and even adaptation. We examine the genetic signature of a spatial expansion by an invasive vector into locations with novel temperature conditions compared to its native range as a proxy for how existing vector populations may respond to temporally changing habitat. Specifically, we compare invasions into different climate ranges and characterize the importance of selection from the invaded habitat. We demonstrate that vector species can exhibit evolutionary responses (altered allelic frequencies) to a temperature gradient in as little as 7–10 years even in the presence of high gene flow, and further, that this response varies depending on the strength of selection. We interpret these findings in the context of climate change predictions for vector populations and emphasize the importance of incorporating vector evolution into models of future vector-borne disease dynamics. PMID:25688024

  7. The Relation of Rapid Changes in Obesity Measures to Lipid Profile - Insights from a Nationwide Metabolic Health Survey in 444 Polish Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Bernhard M.; Jóźwiak, Jacek; Nelson, Christopher P.; Lukas, Witold; Mastej, Mirosław; Windak, Adam; Tomasik, Tomasz; Grzeszczak, Władysław; Tykarski, Andrzej; Gąsowski, Jerzy; Ślęzak-Prochazka, Izabella; Ślęzak, Andrzej; Charchar, Fadi J.; Sattar, Naveed; Thompson, John R.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Tomaszewski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of fast changes in obesity indices on other measures of metabolic health is poorly defined in the general population. Using the Polish accession to the European Union as a model of political and social transformation we examined how an expected rapid increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference relates to changes in lipid profile, both at the population and personal level. Methods Through primary care centres in 444 Polish cities, two cross-sectional nationwide population-based surveys (LIPIDOGRAM 2004 and LIPIDOGRAM 2006) examined 15,404 and 15,453 adult individuals in 2004 and 2006, respectively. A separate prospective sample of 1,840 individuals recruited in 2004 had a follow-up in 2006 (LIPIDOGRAM PLUS). Results Two years after Polish accession to European Union, mean population BMI and waist circumference increased by 0.6% and 0.9%, respectively. This tracked with a 7.6% drop in HDL-cholesterol and a 2.1% increase in triglycerides (all prelation of BMI to the magnitude of change in both lipid fractions was comparable to that of waist circumference. Conclusions Moderate changes in obesity measures tracked with a significant deterioration in measures of pro-atherogenic dyslipidaemia at both personal and population level. These associations were predominantly driven by factors not measureable directly through either BMI or waist circumference. PMID:24497983

  8. Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes to Rapidly Assess Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using a Bed Rest Model to Induce Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Skulan, J. L.; Gordon, G. E.; Smith, Scott M.; Romaniello, S. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic bone diseases like osteoporosis result from the disruption of normal bone mineral balance (BMB) resulting in bone loss. During spaceflight astronauts lose substantial bone. Bed rest provides an analog to simulate some of the effects of spaceflight; including bone and calcium loss and provides the opportunity to evaluate new methods to monitor BMB in healthy individuals undergoing environmentally induced-bone loss. Previous research showed that natural variations in the Ca isotope ratio occur because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue (Skulan et al, 2007). Using a bed rest model, we demonstrate that the Ca isotope ratio of urine shifts in a direction consistent with bone loss after just 7 days of bed rest, long before detectable changes in bone mineral density (BMD) occur. The Ca isotope variations tracks changes observed in urinary N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. The established relationship between Ca isotopes and BMB can be used to quantitatively translate the changes in the Ca isotope ratio to changes in BMD using a simple mathematical model. This model predicts that subjects lost 0.25 0.07% ( SD) of their bone mass from day 7 to day 30 of bed rest. Given the rapid signal observed using Ca isotope measurements and the potential to quantitatively assess bone loss; this technique is well suited to study the short-term dynamics of bone metabolism.

  9. Rapid change with depth in megabenthic structure-forming communities of the Makapu'u deep-sea coral bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dustin J.; Baco, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Seamounts are largely unexplored undersea mountains rising abruptly from the ocean floor, which can support an increased abundance and diversity of organisms. Deep-sea corals are important benthic structure-formers on current-swept hard substrates in these habitats. While depth is emerging as a factor structuring the fauna of seamounts on a large spatial scale, most work addressing deep-sea coral and seamount community structure has not considered the role of small-scale variation in species distributions. Video from six ROV dives over a depth range of ~320-530 m were analyzed to assess the diversity and density of benthic megafaunal invertebrates across the Makapu'u deep-sea coral bed, offshore of Oahu, Hawaii. At the same time, the physical environment along the dive track was surveyed to relate biotic patterns with abiotic variables including depth, aspect, rugosity, substrate, slope and relief to test the factors structuring community assemblages. Despite the narrow range examined, depth was found to be the strongest structuring gradient, and six unique macrobenthic communities were found, with a 93% faunal dissimilarity over the depth surveyed. Relief, rugosity and slope were also factors in the final model. Alcyonacean octocorals were the dominant macrofaunal invertebrates at all but the deepest depth zone. The commercially harvested precious coral C. secundum was the dominant species at depths 370-470 m, with a distribution that is on average deeper than similar areas. This may be artificial due to the past harvesting of this species on the shallower portion of its range. Primnoid octocorals were the most abundant octocoral family overall. This work yields new insight on the spatial ecology of seamounts, pointing out that community changes can occur over narrow depth ranges and that communities can be structured by small-scale physiography.

  10. Cold stress causes rapid but differential changes in properties of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of camelina and rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sung; Oh, Jung-Min; Luan, Sheng; Carlson, John E; Ahn, Sung-Ju

    2013-06-15

    Camelina (Camelina sativa) and rapeseed (Brassica napus) are well-established oil-seed crops with great promise also for biofuels. Both are cold-tolerant, and camelina is regarded to be especially appropriate for production on marginal lands. We examined physiological and biochemical alterations in both species during cold stress treatment for 3 days and subsequent recovery at the temperature of 25°C for 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, and 24h, with particular emphasis on the post-translational regulation of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (EC3.6.3.14). The activity and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase, as well as 14-3-3 proteins, increased after 3 days of cold stress in both species but recovery under normal conditions proceeded differently. The increase in H(+)-ATPase activity was the most dramatic in camelina roots after recovery for 2h at 25°C, followed by decay to background levels within 24h. In rapeseed, the change in H(+)-ATPase activity during the recovery period was less pronounced. Furthermore, H(+)-pumping increased in both species after 15min recovery, but to twice the level in camelina roots compared to rapeseed. Protein gel blot analysis with phospho-threonine anti-bodies showed that an increase in phosphorylation levels paralleled the increase in H(+)-transport rate. Thus our results suggest that cold stress and recovery in camelina and rapeseed are associated with PM H(+)-fluxes that may be regulated by specific translational and post-translational modifications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Life history diversity of Snake River finespotted cutthroat trout: managing for persistence in a rapidly changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homel, Kristen M.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    climate change and disturbance from invasive species.

  12. Gene expression in blood changes rapidly in neutrophils and monocytes after ischemic stroke in humans: a microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Xu, Huichun; Du, XinLi; Lit, Lisa; Walker, Wynn; Lu, Aigang; Ran, Ruiqiong; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Reilly, Melinda; Pancioli, Art; Khoury, Jane C; Sauerbeck, Laura R; Carrozzella, Janice A; Spilker, Judith; Clark, Joseph; Wagner, Kenneth R; Jauch, Edward C; Chang, Dongwoo J; Verro, Piero; Broderick, Joseph P; Sharp, Frank R

    2006-08-01

    Ischemic brain and peripheral white blood cells release cytokines, chemokines and other molecules that activate the peripheral white blood cells after stroke. To assess gene expression in these peripheral white blood cells, whole blood was examined using oligonucleotide microarrays in 15 patients at 2.4+/-0.5, 5 and 24 h after onset of ischemic stroke and compared with control blood samples. The 2.4-h blood samples were drawn before patients were treated either with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) alone or with tPA plus Eptifibatide (the Combination approach to Lysis utilizing Eptifibatide And Recombinant tPA trial). Most genes induced in whole blood at 2 to 3 h were also induced at 5 and 24 h. Separate studies showed that the genes induced at 2 to 24 h after stroke were expressed mainly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and to a lesser degree by monocytes. These genes included: matrix metalloproteinase 9; S100 calcium-binding proteins P, A12 and A9; coagulation factor V; arginase I; carbonic anhydrase IV; lymphocyte antigen 96 (cluster of differentiation (CD)96); monocarboxylic acid transporter (6); ets-2 (erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2); homeobox gene Hox 1.11; cytoskeleton-associated protein 4; N-formylpeptide receptor; ribonuclease-2; N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase; BCL6; glycogen phosphorylase. The fold change of these genes varied from 1.6 to 6.8 and these 18 genes correctly classified 10/15 patients at 2.4 h, 13/15 patients at 5 h and 15/15 patients at 24 h after stroke. These data provide insights into the inflammatory responses after stroke in humans, and should be helpful in diagnosis, understanding etiology and pathogenesis, and guiding acute treatment and development of new treatments for stroke.

  13. Male and Female Sexual Dysfunction in a Rapidly Changing Cultural Environment: Addressing Gender Equality versus Equivalence in the Bedroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Marianne; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-04-01

    The socio-sexual climate in Western cultures is changing at an astounding rate. Never before have societal expectations about gender roles shifted so radically, transforming our understanding of what it means to be a sexual man or woman today. We have observed that confusion regarding masculine and feminine roles within long-term committed relationships can represent challenges for the treatment of sexual dysfunction. Despite the relevance to sexual medicine, sexual medicine specialists have largely avoided this controversial topic. To review the current literature relating to heterosexual gender roles and sexual intimacy, to offer perspective and context on this issue, and to propose an approach to the man, woman, or couple based in evolutionary theory that we have found useful in our extensive clinical experiences. We reviewed the English-language peer-reviewed literature, primarily from 2000 through 2015, that addressed the impact of heterosexual gender role expression on sexual intimacy in long-term committed relationships. Main outcomes include a review of the applicable literature and an assessment of the literature's relevance for patients and practitioners of sexual medicine. An alternative context for understanding heterosexual gender expression grounded in evolutionary theory is provided, as is a new treatment perspective based on our work as a sex therapist and an urologist. The impact of gender expression on sexual experience might be impossible to ascertain fully because it is difficult to quantify in research, independently and especially in combination. Furthermore, existing research is fraught with challenges and inadequacies. Although we acknowledge and affirm the critical importance of gender equality, modern conceptualizations of gender in the literature ignore pertinent evolutionary adaptations and might be minimally applicable to sexual medicine patients. More research is needed. We propose that equality of genders does not necessarily mean

  14. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  15. How The Rapid Climatic Variability of The Last Ice Age Affected Neandertal Extinction and Cultural Changes During The Upper Palaeolithic

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, F.; Sanchez Goñi, M.-F.; Vanhaeren, M.; Grousset, F.; Valladas, H.

    We present a synthesis of the results obtained in the framework of a multidisciplinary research project funded by the ECLIPSE CNRS program the objectif of which is to explore possible relationships between cultural and climatic changes during the OIS 1- 3. With this goal in mind, a comprehensive database including European Palaeolithic sites location and C14 conventional and AMS dates was created and correlated to climatic variations as established by continental and marine proxies. This database in- cludes the C14 dates from living sites and painted caves as well as palaeoclimatic data (isotopes, pollen, foraminifers, alkenones, Ice Rafted Detritus) from IMAGES marine cores and, in particular, from two cores retrieved off the Iberian margin. Correlation of archeological and climatic data for the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition indicates that at a global scale, climate was not the driving force determining the colonisation of Europe by Anatomically Modern Humans. At a regional scale, however, climate might have conditionned the timing of this colonisation and of neandertal extinction, particularly in the mediterranean area. We also found that a clear and previously unde- tected synchronism exists between the beginning of each Heinrich events (4 to1) and the developpment of Upper Palaeolithic cultures (Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean and Magdalenian respectively). Cave art also seems affected by the climatic variabil- ity. We discovered that a major gap in cave art production corresponding to the period between 22.7 and 19.4 ky 14C BP (26 and 23.3 cal ky BP) is contemporary with the Heinrich 2 climatic deterioration.

  16. Spatiotemporal changes in both asset value and GDP associated with seismic exposure in China in the context of rapid economic growth from 1990 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jidong; Wang, Cailin; He, Xin; Wang, Xu; Li, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Accurate exposure estimation is essential for seismic risk assessment. Recent rapid urbanization and economic growth in China have led to massive spatiotemporal changes in both the asset value and GDP exposed to seismic hazards. Using available GDP data, the asset value dataset produced by Wu et al (2014a) and spatial disaggregation technology, gridded maps of GDP and asset value are overlaid with the latest seismic map to investigate spatiotemporal changes in economic exposure in the most seismically hazardous areas (MSHAs) in China in 1990, 2000 and 2010. We found that 15.4% of China’s asset value and 14.1% of China’s GDP were located in MSHAs in 2010, and the asset value and GDP exposed to MSHAs reached 15.9 trillion CNY and 6.2 trillion CNY, respectively, with average annual rates of increase of 14.4% and 11.3% over the two decades. The evidence of increased exposure provides valuable information regarding whom or what risk managers should give the most attention based on the economic exposure changes in earthquake-prone areas of China. Notably, the North China seismic belt, which is associated with the largest economic exposure to earthquakes and a rapidly increasing rate of economic exposure compared to those in other seismic belts, and the Qinghai-Tibet seismic belt, which has the highest earthquake occurrence, are two seismic belts of interest. A more detailed study is required to determine the relationship between increased economic exposure and earthquake disaster losses combined with hazard level and vulnerability.

  17. The renewable energies and raw materials in France. Situation and perspectives of development within the framework of the fight against the climatic change; Les energies et matieres premieres renouvelable en France. Situation et perspectives de developpement dans le cadre de la lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The ADEME proposes to evaluate the situation of the renewable energies utilization in France. The three types of utilizations are analyzed: heat, electric power and fuels. The renewable products in substitution to the petrochemistry are also considered. Two chapters are devoted to the perspectives development and the international context is discussed. (A.L.B.)

  18. Crafting the change: the role of job crafting and regulatory focus in adaptation to organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrou, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Organizations change rapidly nowadays. However, little is known about successful ways in which employees can adapt to the new situation that arises throughout organizational change. The present dissertation addressed job crafting as a proactive employee strategy in order to deal with and

  19. Evaluating the effect of land use land cover change in a rapidly urbanizing semi-arid watershed on estuarine freshwater inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, D.; Smith, P.; Popescu, S.

    2006-12-01

    Estuarine freshwater inflows along with their associated nutrient and metal delivery are influenced by the land use/land cover (LULC) and water management practices in the contributing watershed. This study evaluates the effect of rapid urbanization in the San Antonio River Watershed on the amount of freshwater inflow reaching the San Antonio-Guadalupe estuary on the Gulf Coast of Texas. Remotely sensed data from satellite imagery provided a source of reliable data for land use classification and land cover change analysis; while long time series of the geophysical signals of stream flow and precipitation provided the data needed to assess change in flow in the watershed. LULC was determined using LANDSAT (5 TM and 7 ETM) satellite images over 20 years (1985-2003). The LANDSAT images were classified using an ENVI. ISODATA classification scheme. Changes were quantified in terms of the urban expansion that had occurred in past 20 years using an urban index. Streamflow was analyzed using 20 years (1985-2004) of average daily discharge obtained from the USGS gauging station (08188500) closest to the headwaters of the estuary. Baseflow and storm flow were partitioned from total flow using a universally used baseflow separation technique. Precipitation data was obtained from an NCDC station in the watershed. Preliminary results indicate that the most significant change in land use over the 20 year period was an increase in the total amount of impervious area in the watershed. This increase in impervious area was accompanied by an increase in both total streamflow and in baseflow over the same period. The investigation did not show a significant change in total annual precipitation from 1990 to 2004. This suggests that the increase in streamflow was more influenced by LULC than climate change. One explanation for the increase in baseflow may be an increase in return flows resulting from an increase in the total number of wastewater treatment plants in the watershed.

  20. Integration of New Observation Techniques, Remote Sensing, and High Resolution Modelling for Improved Quantification of Rapid Environmental Change at a Canadian Arctic Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P.; Toure, A.; Baltzer, J. L.; Sonnentag, O.; Berg, A. A.; Derksen, C.; Walker, B.; Wilcox, E.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-decade observations at a research watershed in the western Canadian Arctic has demonstrated rapid environmental change, but has also shown that our quantification of, and understanding of, these changes is greatly limited by both the large errors involved in many observation data sets and the limitations of standard models to operate at the extremely high resolution required. This paper will outline an expanding research program being developed at the Trail Valley Creek research watershed south of Tuktoyaktuk, NWT with the gaol to overcome these limitations. Although this watershed has existing high quality observations, the following example will illustrate the challenges faced in understanding the ongoing changes. As might be expected, the climate at this location is dramatically warming, but it is also drying, and the active layer is deepening, shrub patches are both infilling and expanding, the end of winter snow cover is expanding in shrub patches and possibly decreasing in slope drifts, and snowmelt rate is changing. However, the resulting decrease in streamflow and delayed melt runoff, is unexpected and hard to explain. Although we can postulate why these changes are occurring, the observations at this site, among the best in the Canadian Arctic, are not sufficient to allow us to fully explain the ongoing changes. Our experience at Trail Valley Creek suggests that in order to improve our understanding and predictive ability, we need enhanced field observations and models. This paper will outline how we are developing such a program at Trail Valley Creek with field observations across a range of scales (a network of cosmic ray sensors, eddy covariance measurements, and sap flow sensors for example); enhanced remote sensing using lidar, optical and radar methods from Unmanned Aerial Systems, aircraft and satellites; and high resolution, physics based, snow, permafrost and hydrologic models.

  1. Rapid Change in Residual Renal Function Decline Is Associated with Lower Survival and Worse Residual Renal Function Preservation in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Susie L; Joshi, Priyanka; Kaplan, Mark; Lefkovitz, Judy; Poenariu, Andreea; Dworkin, Lance D; Michaud, Dominique S

    2017-01-01

    The survival advantage observed among peritoneal dialysis patients early on after dialysis initiation has been largely attributed to residual renal function (RRF) preservation due to higher baseline residual function and fewer comorbidities. We hypothesize that a rapid decline in RRF is associated with higher risk of anuria and mortality. In a retrospective cohort study of 581 subjects on peritoneal dialysis with longitudinal prevalent data, we assessed whether RRF change over time, in addition to baseline RRF, increased risk of mortality and anuria using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis to control for known risk factors. Rapid RRF decline (≥ 0.09 decline) over a 12-month period was associated with a 2.6-fold increase in the risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66 - 4.07, compared with anuria (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.24 - 3.42). Each quartile of increasing severity of RRF decline over a 12-month period increased risk incrementally for death (2 nd quartile: HR 3.04, CI 1.26 - 7.34; 3 rd quartile: HR 4.01, CI 1.71 - 9.83; 4 th quartile HR 5.78, CI 2.10 - 15.9) and generally for anuria (quartiles with HR 5.72 - 7.21). The escalating risk of mortality and anuria was greater for those with diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, rapid decline in RRF over a 12-month period increased the risk of mortality and likewise anuria, beyond previously established risk factors for mortality and anuria. The impact on mortality and RRF preservation was particularly severe for those with diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  2. Measurement of Rapid Amiloride-Dependent pH Changes at the Cell Surface Using a Proton-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Daniel; Fine, Michael; Tabata, Miyuki; Goda, Tatsuro; Miyahara, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for the rapid measurement of pH fluxes at close proximity to the surface of the plasma membrane in mammalian cells using an ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). In conjuction with an efficient continuous superfusion system, the ISFET sensor was capable of recording rapid changes in pH at the cells’ surface induced by intervals of ammonia loading and unloading, even when using highly buffered solutions. Furthermore, the system was able to isolate physiologically relevant signals by not only detecting the transients caused by ammonia loading and unloading, but display steady-state signals as would be expected by a proton transport-mediated influence on the extracellular proton-gradient. Proof of concept was demonstrated through the use of 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), a small molecule inhibitor of sodium/hydrogen exchangers (NHE). As the primary transporter responsible for proton balance during cellular regulation of pH, non-electrogenic NHE transport is notoriously difficult to detect with traditional methods. Using the NHE positive cell lines, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and NHE3-reconstituted mouse skin fibroblasts (MSF), the sensor exhibited a significant response to EIPA inhibition, whereas NHE-deficient MSF cells were unaffected by application of the inhibitor. PMID:27043644

  3. Emergency situations; Les situations d'urgence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  4. Competitive Processes in Cross-Situational Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-situational word learning, like any statistical learning problem, involves tracking the regularities in the environment. But the information that learners pick up from these regularities is dependent on their learning mechanism. This paper investigates the role of one type of mechanism in statistical word learning: competition. Competitive mechanisms would allow learners to find the signal in noisy input, and would help to explain the speed with which learners succeed in statistical learning tasks. Because cross-situational word learning provides information at multiple scales – both within and across trials/situations –learners could implement competition at either or both of these scales. A series of four experiments demonstrate that cross-situational learning involves competition at both levels of scale, and that these mechanisms interact to support rapid learning. The impact of both of these mechanisms is then considered from the perspective of a process-level understanding of cross-situational learning. PMID:23607610

  5. [Cost-effectiveness evaluation on comprehensive control measures carrying out in schistosomiasis endemic areas with regard to different layers of administrative villages stratified by infection situation of human and domestic animals. II Correlation analysis of costs and inputs with changes of schistosomiasis endemic situation in inner embankment of marshland and lake regions from 2006 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, He-hua; Yu, Qing; Zhang, Xia; Cao, Chun-li; Li, Shi-zhu; Zhu, Hong

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the correlations between inputs and costs and endemic situation of schistosomiasis in inner embankment, so as tb provide the references for the strategy optimization of schistosomiasis control. Jiangling County was selected as the study field. The correlatibn and regression analyses were applied to analyze the endemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013. The methods of two-stages least squares and path analysis were applied to analyze the impacts between costs and inputs and endemic situation of schistosomiasis. The adjusted infection rate of population, number of bovines and Oncomelania hupensis snail areas reduced by 77.42%, 76.34% and 19.43%, respectively in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013. The correlations between the infection rate of snails and the population positive rates of blood and fecal exams, and the infection rate of bovines were significant (all P costs and the population positive rate of fecal exams and the infection rates of bovines and snails (all P costs and the population positive rate by blood exams (P > 0.05). The inputs at county level had an impact on the population positive rate of blood exams; the costs of comprehensive treatment had an impact on the population positive rate of fecal exams; the costs of human labor and measures for exams and treatments had an impact on the infeiction rate of bovines; the inputs at national level and the costs of measures for exams and treatments had an impact on the infection rate of snails (all P costs of schistosomiasis control were related to the epidemic situation of schistosomiasis in Jiangling County from 2006 to 2013; therefore, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive surveillance system as substitute for the current indexes on schistosomiasis control.

  6. Sea-ice information co-management: Planning for sustainable multiple uses of ice-covered seas in a rapidly changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Lovecraft, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    A thinner, less extensive and more mobile summer sea-ice cover is a major element and driver of Arctic Ocean change. Declining summer sea ice presents Arctic stakeholders with substantial challenges and opportunities from the perspective of sustainable ocean use and derivation of sea-ice or ecosystem services. Sea-ice use by people and wildlife as well as its role as a major environmental hazard focuses the interests and concerns of indigenous hunters and Arctic coastal communities, resource managers and the maritime industry. In particular, rapid sea-ice change and intensifying offshore industrial activities have raised fundamental questions as to how best to plan for and manage multiple and increasingly overlapping ocean and sea ice uses. The western North American Arctic - a region that has seen some of the greatest changes in ice and ocean conditions in the past three decades anywhere in the North - is the focus of our study. Specifically, we examine the important role that relevant and actionable sea-ice information can play in allowing stakeholders to evaluate risks and reconcile overlapping and potentially competing interests. Our work in coastal Alaska suggests that important prerequisites to address such challenges are common values, complementary bodies of expertise (e.g., local or indigenous knowledge, engineering expertise, environmental science) and a forum for the implementation and evaluation of a sea-ice data and information framework. Alongside the International Polar Year 2007-08 and an associated boost in Arctic Ocean observation programs and platforms, there has been a movement towards new governance bodies that have these qualities and can play a central role in guiding the design and optimization of Arctic observing systems. To help further the development of such forums an evaluation of the density and spatial distribution of institutions, i.e., rule sets that govern ocean use, as well as the use of scenario planning and analysis can serve as

  7. Predictive Situational Awareness Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Situational Awareness is the key element of performing safe and effective operations, and the space vehicle operations carried out by NASA is by no means an...

  8. Situational Prevention of Organised Crimes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bullock, KA; Clarke, R.(Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States of America); Tilley, N

    2010-01-01

    Situational crime prevention is the art and science of reducing opportunities for crime. Despite accumulating evidence of its value in reducing many different kinds of crime - such as burglary, fraud, robbery, car theft, child sexual abuse and even terrorism - little has previously been published about its role in reducing organised crimes. This collection of case studies, by a distinguished international group of researchers, fills this gap by documenting the application of a situational pre...

  9. MEDIA INFLUENCE ON OPERATIVE SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail M. Ardavov

    2016-01-01

    The problems regarding the influence of the media on various aspects of society are viewed in the article. Historical facts of the media influence on large groups of people are given. Concerning the discussed problem views on the concept of operative situation are set out. Analysis of factors affecting the operative situation is given. Based on the analysis of publications devoted to the problem of the media influence on the processes in society, a generalization of areas of their impact on t...

  10. Rapid change of AM fungal community in a rain-fed wheat field with short-term plastic film mulching practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjun; Mao, Lin; He, Xinhua; Cheng, Gang; Ma, Xiaojun; An, Lizhe; Feng, Huyuan

    2012-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PFM) is a widely used agricultural practice in the temperate semi-arid Loess Plateau of China. However, how beneficial soil microbes, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in particular, respond to the PFM practice is not known. Here, a field experiment was performed to study the effects of a 3-month short-term PFM practice on AM fungi in plots planted with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi-2) in the Loess Plateau. AM colonization, spore density, wheat spike weight, and grain phosphorus (P) content were significantly increased in the PFM treatments, and these changes were mainly attributable to changes in soil properties such as available P and soil moisture. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly higher in PFM soils, but levels of AM fungal-related glomalin were similar between treatments. A total of nine AM fungal phylotypes were detected in root samples based on AM fungal SSU rDNA analyses, with six and five phylotypes in PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. Although AM fungal phylotype richness was not statistically different between treatments, the community compositions were different, with four and three specific phylotypes in the PFM and no-PFM plots, respectively. A significant and rapid change in AM fungal, wheat, and soil variables following PFM suggested that the functioning of the AM symbiosis had been changed in the wheat field under PFM. Future studies are needed to investigate whether PFM applied over a longer term has a similar effect on the AM fungal community and their functioning in an agricultural ecosystem.

  11. On thin ice/in hot water: Rapid drawdown of Wordie Ice Shelf glaciers in the decades after collapse in response to a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, C. C.; Gardner, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 50 years, several Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves have retreated or collapsed completely. One such collapse was the Wordie Ice Shelf (WIS), located in Marguerite Bay, which began to disintegrate around 1989. We use several observational datasets to show that the glaciers that used to maintain WIS have experienced a surprising acceleration in flow ( 500m/yr) that began 2008, nearly 20 years after the onset of WIS collapse. During the same period, airborne altimetry from NASA Operation IceBridge shows the glaciers experienced a drawdown at their calving fronts between 4 and 9 m/yr, a near-doubling in rate of elevation change from the 1990's and early-2000's. The time lag between WIS collapse and rapid glacier drawdown suggests that these recent changes are unrelated to loss of buttressing. We identify possible links to changes in ocean conditions using in-situ Palmer Station Long-Term Ecological Research (PAL LTER) ocean CTD-gridded observations (Martinson et al., 2008) taken along the continental shelf on the west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) since 1993. We use ECCO2 simulations and atmospheric reanalysis data to characterize changes in atmospheric forcing. We also measure changes in ice shelf area using historic archives and Landsat imagery for 50 glacier systems along the WAP from 1945 to present. Surface structural changes in the WIS system, e.g., melt ponds, sea/fast ice presence, and crevasse density/orientation, are also examined. We conclude that recent changes in WIS tributaries likely resulted from a significant increase in upwelling of warm, salty Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) due to enhanced wind forcing following coincident global atmospheric oscillation events, namely a positive Southern Annular Mode and a moderate La Nina event. This enabled enhanced incursions of UCDW into Marguerite Bay between 2008-2014, in part due to the deep Marguerite Trough that connects the bay to the continental shelf break, along which the southern boundary

  12. Situational Strategies for Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L.; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J.

    2015-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control isn’t always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies—which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud— may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective, namely that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. The supreme art of war is to subdue the enemy without fighting.—Sun Tzu, The Art of War PMID:26817725

  13. Situational Strategies for Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, Angela L; Gendler, Tamar Szabó; Gross, James J

    2016-01-01

    Exercising self-control is often difficult, whether declining a drink in order to drive home safely, passing on the chocolate cake to stay on a diet, or ignoring text messages to finish reading an important paper. But enacting self-control is not always difficult, particularly when it takes the form of proactively choosing or changing situations in ways that weaken undesirable impulses or potentiate desirable ones. Examples of situational self-control include the partygoer who chooses a seat far from where drinks are being poured, the dieter who asks the waiter not to bring around the dessert cart, and the student who goes to the library without a cell phone. Using the process model of self-control, we argue that the full range of self-control strategies can be organized by considering the timeline of the developing tempting impulse. Because impulses tend to grow stronger over time, situational self-control strategies-which can nip a tempting impulse in the bud-may be especially effective in preventing undesirable action. Ironically, we may underappreciate situational self-control for the same reason it is so effective-namely, that by manipulating our circumstances to advantage, we are often able to minimize the in-the-moment experience of intrapsychic struggle typically associated with exercising self-control. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Impact assessment of human diet changes with rapid urbanization on regional nitrogen and phosphorus flows--a case study of the megacity Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; Zou, Chunjing; Wang, Qinxue; Hayashi, Yoshitsugu; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2014-02-01

    Regional material flows are strongly influenced by human diets. To diagnose and prevent environmental problems that threaten urban sustainability, the impact of human diet changes with rapid urbanization on the regional nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) flows were quantitatively evaluated. A survey of day-to-day activities was conducted of 450 individuals surveyed (adults over 18 years old) in three representative areas (the central district, the new district, and the suburban/rural areas) of Shanghai, a megacity which has attracted worldwide attention. The lifestyle (eating habits, domestic sanitation, drainage facilities, etc.) pattern was determined and the potential N and P loads from human diets on the environment were calculated. The daily potential nitrogen and phosphorus loads from human diets was 19.36 g-N, 1.80 g-P in the central district, 16.48 g-N, 1.52 g-P in the new district, and 13.04 g-N, 1.20 g-P in the suburban/rural areas of Shanghai. Respondents in all three areas, especially those in the suburban/rural areas reported a preference for increasing the intake of animal-derived as well as processed foods, which means that the potential N and P load from human diets to the environment will increase further. In addition, most respondents consider industrial wastewater discharge as the main cause of eutrophication of waterbodies, though in recent years water pollution caused by domestic wastewater has increased rapidly, but this has received much less attention. Environment-friendly eating habits and improvements in the environmental awareness will be required.

  15. Recruitment of faster motor units is associated with greater rates of fascicle strain and rapid changes in muscl