WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly changing environmental

  1. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  2. Planetary Habitability and Rapid Environmental Change: The Biological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Fairen, A.; Irwin, L.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. We have detailed evidence of these dramatic events from Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. Most of these occurrences seem to be triggered by astronomical events such as asteroid impacts or supernova explosions; others are triggered by the planet or moon itself (e.g., supervolcano eruptions). The associated question is always how these events affect the habitability of a planet, particularly the origin and presence of life. Under what conditions would such a drastic event be so catastrophic that it would prohibit the origin of life or be so devastating to existing organisms, that life would not be able to recover and be all but extinguished from a planet? Under what conditions would such an event be positive for the evolution of life, for example spurring life via mass extinctions and associated vacant habitats to the invention of new body plans and higher complexity? Here, we provide insights of what we can learn from the natural history of our own planet, which experienced many environmental disasters and abrupt climate changes, from the impact event that created the Moon to the extinction of the dinosaurs. We apply these insights to other planetary bodies and the question about the presence of life. One example is Mars, which underwent drastic environmental changes at the end of the Noachian period. Assuming that microbial life became established on Mars, could it have survived, perhaps by retreating to environmental niches? Life just starting out would have certainly been more vulnerable to extinction. But how far would it have to have evolved to be more resistant to potential extinction events? Would it have to be global in distribution to survive? Another example is Venus. Should Venus be seen as an example where life, which possibly arose in the first few hundred million years when the planet was still in the habitable zone, would have had no chance to

  3. Ethnobiology 5: Interdisciplinarity in an Era of Rapid Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wolverton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobiology 5 stems from Eugene Hunn’s four phases of the history of ethnobiology and focuses on the relevance of ethnobiological research in the context of environmental and cultural change.  It refers to a contemporary phase of the field’s historical development.  In this paper, I argue that ethnobiology is preadapted to be a scholarly umbrella for a number of disciplines that concern human-environment interactions, suggesting that one goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to bridge traditional academic boundaries in order to broaden the community of ethnobiologists. Another goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to capitalize on and communicate the relevance of ethnobiological scholarship for solving problems related to contemporary environmental and cultural crises.  Indeed, ethnobiology is not a subfield of any traditional discipline and by the nature of its name bridges humanities, social science, and science.  Ethnobiology has always been interdisciplinary in terms of its subject matter, yet its community of scholars is relatively small compared to mission-driven disciplines, such as conservation biology.  Venues for publication and presentation of ethnobiological research, as well as how ethnobiologists portray their research, are critical to growing ethnobiology.

  4. Environmental impacts of rapid water level changes; Miljoekonsekvenser av raske vannstandsendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Bakken, Tor Haakon; Bogen, Jim; Boensnes, Truls Erik; Elster, Margrethe; Harby, Atle; Kutznetsova, Yulia; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Sauterleute, Julian; Stickler, Morten; Sundt, Haakon; Tjomsland, Torulv; Ugedal, Ola

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge of the environmental impacts of power driving and rapid water level changes and describes possible mitigation measures. The report assesses the environmental effects of possible increased power installation in Mauranger and Tonstad power plants, based on existing data and knowledge. At Straumsmo plants in Barduelva there are collected some physical data and the environmental impact of existing power driving is considered. (eb)

  5. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-03-01

    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane', a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia ( n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane' measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management.

  6. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C Atwood

    Full Text Available In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB, the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den, but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities.

  7. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  8. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management. - Graphical abstract: Fig. Threshold models and resilience management for water quality. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Coupling urbanization and water environmental system. • Developing threshold models of the coupled land-water systems. • Nonlinear relations between water quality variables and landscape metrics. • Enhancing resilience management of coastal rapid urbanization. - We develop environmental threshold models and provide their implications on resilience management for a coupled land-water system with rapid urbanization.

  9. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, avian nest predation, and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic consequences of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) have been widely documented for many populations. The mechanisms underlying such patterns, however, are rarely investigated and yet are critical to understand for effective conservation and management.

  11. Implications of rapid environmental change for polar bear behavior and sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the Arctic sea ice has functioned as a structural barrier that has limited the nature and extent of interactions between humans and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). However, declining sea ice extent, brought about by global climate change, is increasing the potential for human-polar bear interactions. Loss of sea ice habitat is driving changes to both human and polar bear behavior—it is facilitating increases in human activities (e.g., offshore oil and gas exploration and extraction, trans-Arctic shipping, recreation), while also causing the displacement of bears from preferred foraging habitat (i.e., sea ice over biologically productive shallow) to land in some portions of their range. The end result of these changes is that polar bears are spending greater amounts of time in close proximity to people. Coexistence between humans and polar bears will require imposing mechanisms to manage further development, as well as mitigation strategies that reduce the burden to local communities.

  12. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  13. Rapid environmental change over the past decade revealed by isotopic analysis of the California mussel in the northeast Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Pfister

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic input of fossil fuel carbon into the atmosphere results in increased carbon dioxide (CO(2 into the oceans, a process that lowers seawater pH, decreases alkalinity and can inhibit the production of shell material. Corrosive water has recently been documented in the northeast Pacific, along with a rapid decline in seawater pH over the past decade. A lack of instrumentation prior to the 1990s means that we have no indication whether these carbon cycle changes have precedence or are a response to recent anthropogenic CO(2 inputs. We analyzed stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ(13C, δ(18O of decade-old California mussel shells (Mytilus californianus in the context of an instrumental seawater record of the same length. We further compared modern shells to shells from 1000 to 1340 years BP and from the 1960s to the present and show declines in the δ(13C of modern shells that have no historical precedent. Our finding of decline in another shelled mollusk (limpet and our extensive environmental data show that these δ(13C declines are unexplained by changes to the coastal food web, upwelling regime, or local circulation. Our observed decline in shell δ(13C parallels other signs of rapid changes to the nearshore carbon cycle in the Pacific, including a decline in pH that is an order of magnitude greater than predicted by an equilibrium response to rising atmospheric CO(2, the presence of low pH water throughout the region, and a record of a similarly steep decline in δ(13C in algae in the Gulf of Alaska. These unprecedented changes and the lack of a clear causal variable underscores the need for better quantifying carbon dynamics in nearshore environments.

  14. Environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    of a changing environment is also addressing social and human issues and concerns, and architectural norms and tools. One of the main themes and questions concerns how we relate the built environment and open urban spaces to water. Water plays an important role in Danish culture, tradition. To many Danes......In low-lying regions like Denmark a rising sea level combined with change in rain and wind patterns now cause problems in several coastal cities where open urban spaces, infrastructure, and houses are flooded. The initiatives taken to prevent damages are mainly technical. But the impact...

  15. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  16. Asian river fishes in the Anthropocene: threats and conservation challenges in an era of rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudgeon, D

    2011-12-01

    This review compares and contrasts the environmental changes that have influenced, or will influence, fishes and fisheries in the Yangtze and Mekong Rivers. These two rivers have been chosen because they differ markedly in the type and intensity of prevailing threats. The Mekong is relatively pristine, whereas the Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze is the world's largest dam representing the apotheosis of environmental alteration of Asian rivers thus far. Moreover, it is situated at the foot of a planned cascade of at least 12 new dams on the upper Yangtze. Anthropogenic effects of dams and pollution of Yangtze fishes will be exacerbated by plans to divert water northwards along three transfer routes, in part to supplement the flow of the Yellow River. Adaptation to climate change will undoubtedly stimulate more dam construction and flow regulation, potentially causing perfect storm conditions for fishes in the Yangtze. China has already built dams along the upper course of the Mekong, and there are plans for as many as 11 mainstream dams in People's Democratic Republic (Laos) and Cambodia in the lower Mekong Basin. If built, they could have profound consequences for biodiversity, fisheries and human livelihoods, and such concerns have stalled dam construction. Potential effects of dams proposed for other rivers (such as Nujiang-Salween) are also cause for concern. Conservation or restoration measures to sustain some semblance of the rich fish biodiversity of Asian rivers can be identified, but their implementation may prove problematic in a context of increasing Anthropocene alteration of these ecosystems. © 2011 The Author. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Environmental impacts of rapid changes in water level; Milj#Latin Small Letter O With Stroke#konsekvenser av raske vannstandsendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harby, Atle [Sintef Energy, Trondheim (Norway); Arnekleiv, Jo [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Bogen, Jim [NVE, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-07-01

    Flexible operation and peak regulation of hydropower plants (hydropeaking) leads to rapid changes in water levels and water discharge. Due to an increasing share of intermittent energy sources as wind and solar energy in Norway and Europe, we expect to see more flexible operation and increased use of hydropeaking in Norwegian hydropower plants. Environmental impacts will vary depending on local conditions and hydro operations. Some of the environmental impacts of hydropeaking and rapid changes in water level and discharge are well known, where stranding of fish has been most studied, both nationally and internationally. However, there are large knowledge gaps, and there are very few studies of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and fjords downstream of peaking hydropower plants. This report summarizes the knowledge status and presents results from three Norwegian studies with different physical conditions and hydro operations. Not all previous studies have given clear and unambiguous results, but generally we can summarize as follows: Peaking hydropower plants discharging into rivers have considerable higher potential to cause negative effects on physical and biological conditions compared to hydropower plants discharging into reservoirs, lakes and fjords. If it is technically possible to implement slow changes in hydropower production, it will reduce the negative effects on the entire ecosystem. Reducing the rate of change in water level to less than 13 cm per hour gives a significantly reduced risk for stranding of salmonid fish. As far as we know there are not similarly definite guidelines for increasing water level, or for other fish species than salmonids. Fish are more vulnerable to rapid changes in water level during winter than other seasons in Norway due to the fact that low water temperatures directly and indirectly lead to lower mobility in fish. Hydropeaking and flexible operation not leading to significant changes in wetted area will generally not have greater

  18. Environmental change in Bushbuckridge

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Erasmus, BFN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available to environmental change, but projecting current trends in the changes that we observe, combined with increased unpredictability of rainfall, threatens to decouple the age-old interdependencies in the this cultural landscape, and present inhabitants with conditions...

  19. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Changing Environmentally Relevant Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudgion, T. J.; Thomas, M. Pugh

    1991-01-01

    Considered is the role of psychology in helping to change those human behaviors which have deleterious environmental effects. The foremost conclusion is that behavioral psychology can offer practical techniques for such change, yet there are indications that enduring behaviors may be better realized through the intrinsic motivation maintained by…

  1. Changes in environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this study the changing process of environmental law is depicted which is marked by the ecological crisis and the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the reform of the ecological licensing and voidance procedures which is in the centre of the discussion about (environmental) law policy as well as on the jurisprudential enforcement of the basic environmental right on life and physical integrity. The volume ends with a study on 'Nuclear Energy, Law and Judiciary Power' - a subject which is of immediate interest and special significance with its far-reaching political consequences for ecology, energy, and economics. (orig.) [de

  2. Environmental law in change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    This study describes the process of change of environmental protection law taking place during an ecological crisis and unter the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Special analyses refer to the reform of the licensing procedures and prodecures of dispute under environmental protection law today being in the focus of juridical discussion. Furthermore they refer to the juridical implementation of the fundamental right of life in an unspoiled and healthy environment. The volume ends with a study on ''Nuclear energy, law and justice'', - a subject being topical and important for its broad political consequences on environment, energy and economy. (orig.) [de

  3. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA

  4. Managing health care organizations in an age of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S; al-Alaiwat, S

    1998-03-01

    Health care managers find their work increasingly difficult, due in part to rapid environmental change that plagues organizational life. Management practices and attitudes that may have been appropriate in previous eras are ineffective today. A study was conducted among managers in the Ministry of Health, State of Bahrain, seeking information about current trends in the macro or external environment that affect the Ministry of Health, as well as internal environmental pressures that may be similar or different. This article provides a clear picture of the context in which managers perform their work and offers recommendations for coping with change in dynamic, complex organizations.

  5. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  6. The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P.; Howat, I. M.; Ahn, Y.; Porter, C.; McFadden, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent expansion of observational capacity from space has revealed dramatic, rapid changes in the Earth’s ice cover. These discoveries have fundamentally altered how scientists view ice-sheet change. Instead of just slow changes in snow accumulation and melting over centuries or millennia, important changes can occur in sudden events lasting only months, weeks, or even a single day. Our understanding of these short time- and space-scale processes, which hold important implications for future global sea level rise, has been impeded by the low temporal and spatial resolution, delayed sensor tasking, incomplete coverage, inaccessibility and/or high cost of data available to investigators. New cross-agency partnerships and data access policies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the resolution of ice sheet observations by an order of magnitude, from timescales of months and distances of 10’s of meters, to days and meters or less. Advances in image processing technology also enable application of currently under-utilized datasets. The infrastructure for systematically gathering, processing, analyzing and distributing these data does not currently exist. Here we present the development of a multi-institutional, multi-platform observatory for rapid ice change with the ultimate objective of helping to elucidate the relevant timescales and processes of ice sheet dynamics and response to climate change. The Rapid Ice Sheet Observatory (RISCO) gathers observations of short time- and space-scale Cryosphere events and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media and general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO focuses on three types of geo-referenced raster (image) data products in a format immediately viewable with commonly available software. These three products are (1) sequences of images

  7. Persistent Environmental Toxicants in Breast Milk and Rapid Infant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Rachel; Lenters, Virissa; Mandal, Siddhartha; Stigum, Hein; Iszatt, Nina; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may confound results. We investigated levels of 26 toxicants in breast milk and their associations with rapid infant growth, a risk factor for later obesity. We used data from the Norwegian HUMIS study, a multi-center cohort of 2,606 mothers and newborns enrolled between 2002 and 2008. Milk samples collected 1 month after delivery from a subset of 789 women oversampled by overweight were analyzed for toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals, and pesticides. Growth was defined as change in weight-for-age z-score between 0 and 6 months among the HUMIS population, and rapid growth was defined as change in z-score above 0.67. We used a Bayesian variable selection method to determine the exposures that most explained variation in the outcome. Identified toxicants were included in logistic and linear regression models to estimate associations with growth, adjusting for maternal age, smoking, education, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, parity, child sex, cumulative breastfeeding, birth weight, gestational age, and preterm status. Of 789 infants, 19.2% displayed rapid growth. The median maternal age was 29.6 years, and the median pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.0 kg/m2, with 45.3% of mothers overweight or obese. Rapid growers were more likely to be firstborn. Hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), and PCB-74 were identified in the variable selection method. An interquartile range (IQR) increase in β-HCH exposure was associated with a lower odds of rapid growth (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42-0.94). Newborns exposed to high levels of β-HCH showed reduced infant growth (β = -0.03, 95% CI -0.05 to -0.01 for IQR increase in breast milk concentration

  8. Rapid Change Detection Algorithm for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, U.; Thunig, H.; Ehlers, M.; Reinartz, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focuses on change detection applications in areas where catastrophic events took place which resulted in rapid destruction especially of manmade objects. Standard methods for automated change detection prove not to be sufficient; therefore a new method was developed and tested. The presented method allows a fast detection and visualization of change in areas of crisis or catastrophes. While often new methods of remote sensing are developed without user oriented aspects, organizations and authorities are not able to use these methods because of absence of remote sensing know how. Therefore a semi-automated procedure was developed. Within a transferable framework, the developed algorithm can be implemented for a set of remote sensing data among different investigation areas. Several case studies are the base for the retrieved results. Within a coarse dividing into statistical parts and the segmentation in meaningful objects, the framework is able to deal with different types of change. By means of an elaborated Temporal Change Index (TCI) only panchromatic datasets are used to extract areas which are destroyed, areas which were not affected and in addition areas where rebuilding has already started.

  9. Environmental changes and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Thomas; Böhmelt, Tobias; Koubi, Vally

    2012-01-01

    This letter reviews the scientific literature on whether and how environmental changes affect the risk of violent conflict. The available evidence from qualitative case studies indicates that environmental stress can contribute to violent conflict in some specific cases. Results from quantitative large-N studies, however, strongly suggest that we should be careful in drawing general conclusions. Those large-N studies that we regard as the most sophisticated ones obtain results that are not robust to alternative model specifications and, thus, have been debated. This suggests that environmental changes may, under specific circumstances, increase the risk of violent conflict, but not necessarily in a systematic way and unconditionally. Hence there is, to date, no scientific consensus on the impact of environmental changes on violent conflict. This letter also highlights the most important challenges for further research on the subject. One of the key issues is that the effects of environmental changes on violent conflict are likely to be contingent on a set of economic and political conditions that determine adaptation capacity. In the authors' view, the most important indirect effects are likely to lead from environmental changes via economic performance and migration to violent conflict. (letter)

  10. Environmental Policy and Technological Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, Adam B.; Newell, Richard G.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between technological change and environmental policy has received increasing attention from scholars and policy makers alike over the past ten years. This is partly because the environmental impacts of social activity are significantly affected by technological change, and partly because environmental policy interventions themselves create new constraints and incentives that affect the process of technological developments. Our central purpose in this article is to provide environmental economists with a useful guide to research on technological change and the analytical tools that can be used to explore further the interaction between technology and the environment. In Part 1 of the article, we provide an overview of analytical frameworks for investigating the economics of technological change, highlighting key issues for the researcher. In Part 2, we turn our attention to theoretical analysis of the effects of environmental policy on technological change, and in Part 3, we focus on issues related to the empirical analysis of technology innovation and diffusion. Finally, we conclude in Part 4 with some additional suggestions for research

  11. Environmental effects of the Big Rapids dam remnant removal, Big Rapids, Michigan, 2000-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Denis F.; Rheaume, Stephen J.; Simpson, J. Alan

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the city of Big Rapids, investigated the environmental effects of removal of a dam-foundation remnant and downstream cofferdam from the Muskegon River in Big Rapids, Mich. The USGS applied a multidiscipline approach, which determined the water quality, sediment character, and stream habitat before and after dam removal. Continuous water-quality data and discrete water-quality samples were collected, the movement of suspended and bed sediment were measured, changes in stream habitat were assessed, and streambed elevations were surveyed. Analyses of water upstream and downstream from the dam showed that the dam-foundation remnant did not affect water quality. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations downstream from the dam remnant were depressed for a short period (days) during the beginning of the dam removal, in part because of that removal effort. Sediment transport from July 2000 through March 2002 was 13,800 cubic yards more at the downstream site than the upstream site. This increase in sediment represents the remobilized sediment upstream from the dam, bank erosion when the impoundment was lowered, and contributions from small tributaries between the sites. Five habitat reaches were monitored before and after dam-remnant removal. The reaches consisted of a reference reach (A), upstream from the effects of the impoundment; the impoundment (B); and three sites below the impoundment where habitat changes were expected (C, D, and E, in downstream order). Stream-habitat assessment reaches varied in their responses to the dam-remnant removal. Reference reach A was not affected. In impoundment reach B, Great Lakes and Environmental Assessment Section (GLEAS) Procedure 51 ratings went from fair to excellent. For the three downstream reaches, reach C underwent slight habitat degradation, but ratings remained good; reach D underwent slight habitat degradation with ratings changing from excellent to good; and, in an area

  12. Rapid methods for measuring radionuclides in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The application of ICP/mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of environmental samples, the use of drum assayers for measuring radionuclides in food and a rapid procedure for the measurement of the transuranic elements and thorium, performed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory are discussed

  13. Macroecology of Environmental Change Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Søgaard

    . The connection of these findings to global warming warrant further investigation, but has the potential to change our perspective of climate change as a destabilizing factor in wildlife communities at large spatial scales. The potential for cold- and warm-adapted species to coexist during climate warming......Human induced changes in the earth system, such as anthropogenic climate change, cause loss of biodiversity that feed back as food, health and environmental challenges for human society. Climate change is one of the main threats to biodiversity and human society due to its global manifestation...... with climate change being proposed as one of the causes. The chapter investigates the evidence for recent increases in tropical precipitation and primary productivity to cause a recovery in migrant populations. It presents novel evidence for two dichotomies in the effect of such “re-greening”. Over yearly time...

  14. Genetic analysis of interacting trophic levels in a stressed pinyon-juniper community: A model for examining community responses to a rapid and recent environmental changes. Final report, May 1, 1994--April 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, P.; Whithmam, T.; Cobb, N.; Gehring, C.

    1998-05-01

    The goals of this project were to examine the genetic component of a pinyon-juniper woodland that had recently experienced a dramatic environmental change. The environmental change was increased temperature and decreased water associated with the volcanic cinder field at Sunset Crater National Monument. In all of these experiments we have used adjacent soil sites as controls for the effects of the stressed locations. We have examined mycorrhizal colonization and diversity in order to understand this important component in community {open_quotes}adaptation{close_quotes} to climate change. We have examined genetic diversity in the pinyon pine populations to determine what level of genetic differentiation has occurred between stressed and nonstressed locations. In addition, we have recently expanded our environmental parameters to include elevated CO{sub 2} on mycorrhizal performance and diversity.

  15. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  16. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchao Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China. Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  17. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  18. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  19. Social psychiatry in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. J. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.

  20. Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.

    2008-01-01

    A large part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the molten outer core(1). As a result of continuous satellite measurements since 1999, the core magnetic field and its recent variations can now be described with a high resolution in space and time(2). These data have...... field occurring over only a few months, indicative of fluid flow at the top of the core, can in fact be resolved. Using nine years of magnetic field data obtained by satellites as well as Earth-based observatories, we determine the temporal changes in the core magnetic field and flow in the core. We...

  1. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing ... has been extensively used to understand various system- .... states. This understanding supports the previous inter- ..... Financial support from the Ministry of Human Resource.

  2. Rapid extraction and assay of uranium from environmental surface samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Christopher A.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Speakman, Robert J.; Olsen, Khris B.; Addleman, Raymond Shane

    2017-10-01

    Extraction methods enabling faster removal and concentration of uranium compounds for improved trace and low-level assay are demonstrated for standard surface sampling material in support of nuclear safeguards efforts, health monitoring, and other nuclear analysis applications. A key problem with the existing surface sampling swipes is the requirement for complete digestion of sample and sampling matrix. This is a time-consuming and labour-intensive process that limits laboratory throughput, elevates costs, and increases background levels. Various extraction methods are explored for their potential to quickly and efficiently remove different chemical forms of uranium from standard surface sampling material. A combination of carbonate and peroxide solutions is shown to give the most rapid and complete form of uranyl compound extraction and dissolution. This rapid extraction process is demonstrated to be compatible with standard inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods for uranium isotopic assay as well as screening techniques such as x-ray fluorescence. The general approach described has application beyond uranium to other analytes of nuclear forensic interest (e.g., rare earth elements and plutonium) as well as heavy metals for environmental and industrial hygiene monitoring.

  3. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  4. Monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.M.; Olivieri, I.; Waller, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread environmental changes including climate change, selective harvesting and landscape alterations now greatly affect selection regimes for most organisms. How animals and plants can adapt to these altered environments via contemporary evolution is thus of strong interest. We discuss how...... for selection and establishing clear links between genetic and environmental change. We then review a few exemplary studies that explore adaptive responses to climate change in Drosophila, selective responses to hunting and fishing, and contemporary evolution in Daphnia using resurrected resting eggs. We...

  5. Environmental management systems and organizational change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2000-01-01

    and environmental management systems. The structure of the organizations has changed, the relationships with external partners have strengthened and the implementation of quality and environmental management systems has trimmed the organizations to manage and develop these areas. The organization analysis is based......The establishment of an environmental management system and its continuous improvements is a process towards a reduction of the companies' and the products' environmental impact. The organizations' ability to change is crucial in order to establish a dynamic environmental management system...... and to achieve continuous environmental improvements. The study of changes gives an insight into how organizations function, as well as their forces and barriers. This article focuses on the organizational changes that two companies have undergone from 1992 up until today in connection with their quality...

  6. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Carl Folke; Nick Abel; William C. Clark; Per Olsson; D. Mark Stafford Smith; Brian Walker; Oran R. Young; Fikret Berkes; Reinette Biggs; J. Morgan Grove; Rosamond L. Naylor; Evelyn Pinkerton; Will Steffen; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses...

  7. Rethinking species’ ability to cope with rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Levinsky, Irina; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is assumed to be exceptional because of its unprecedented velocity. However, new geophysical research suggests that dramatic climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene occurred extremely rapid, over just a few years. These abrupt climatic changes may have been even faster...... than contemporary ones, but relatively few continent-wide extinctions of species have been documented for these periods. This raises questions about the ability of extant species to adapt to ongoing climate change. We propose that the advances in geophysical research challenge current views about...... species' ability to cope with climate change, and that lessons must be learned for modelling future impacts of climate change on species....

  8. Environmental change in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    and choice of indicators, (2) biases, for example, related to selection of study sites, methodological choices, measurement accuracy, perceptions among interlocutors, and selection of temporal and spatial scales of analysis. The analysis of the root causes for different interpretations suggests...... that differences in findings could often be considered as complementary insights rather than mutually exclusive. This will have implications for the ways in which scientific results can be expected to support regional environmental policies and contribute to knowledge production....

  9. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Santos, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship between climate change adaptation and environmental impact assessment, and the degree to which environmental impacts are included in climate change adaptation theory and practice. Our literature review showed that technical, social and economic perspectives on climate change adaptation receive much more attention than the environmental perspective. The scarce interest on the environmental impacts of adaptation may be attributed to (1) an excessive sectoral approach, with dominance of non-environmental perspectives, (2) greater interest in mitigation and direct climate change impacts rather than in adaptation impacts, (3) a tendency to consider adaptation as inherently good, and (4) subjective/preconceived notions on which measures are good or bad, without a comprehensive assessment. Environmental Assessment (EA) has a long established history as an effective tool to include environment into decision-making, although it does not yet guarantee a proper assessment of adaptation, because it is still possible to postpone or even circumvent the processes of assessing the impacts of climate adaptation. Our results suggest that there is a need to address adaptation proactively by including it in EA, to update current policy frameworks, and to demand robust and reliable evaluation of alternatives. Only through the full EA of adaptation measures can we improve our understanding of the primary and secondary impacts of adaptation to global environmental change. - Highlights: • Climate change adaptation may have undesirable environmental impacts. • The impacts of adaptation are yet poorly analysed in the literature. • There is an excessive sectoral approach to adaptation, mainly

  10. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)/Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 13, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, Maria J., E-mail: M.J.FerreiraDosSantos@uu.nl [Department of Innovation, Environmental and Energy Sciences, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3572 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-15

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship between climate change adaptation and environmental impact assessment, and the degree to which environmental impacts are included in climate change adaptation theory and practice. Our literature review showed that technical, social and economic perspectives on climate change adaptation receive much more attention than the environmental perspective. The scarce interest on the environmental impacts of adaptation may be attributed to (1) an excessive sectoral approach, with dominance of non-environmental perspectives, (2) greater interest in mitigation and direct climate change impacts rather than in adaptation impacts, (3) a tendency to consider adaptation as inherently good, and (4) subjective/preconceived notions on which measures are good or bad, without a comprehensive assessment. Environmental Assessment (EA) has a long established history as an effective tool to include environment into decision-making, although it does not yet guarantee a proper assessment of adaptation, because it is still possible to postpone or even circumvent the processes of assessing the impacts of climate adaptation. Our results suggest that there is a need to address adaptation proactively by including it in EA, to update current policy frameworks, and to demand robust and reliable evaluation of alternatives. Only through the full EA of adaptation measures can we improve our understanding of the primary and secondary impacts of adaptation to global environmental change. - Highlights: • Climate change adaptation may have undesirable environmental impacts. • The impacts of adaptation are yet poorly analysed in the literature. • There is an excessive sectoral approach to adaptation, mainly

  11. RESUME 95. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The RESUME95 exercise - Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment, took place in Finland in August 1995. The objectives of the RESUME exercise were to compare different monitoring systems when used under the same conditions as well as to compare results from similar systems with different data analysis and presentation software. Another objective was to acquire some basic knowledge to standardize and cross calibrate the European air-borne gamma-ray surveying capability so that the results from different systems could be directly comparable. The exercise involved 10 airborn monitoring teams, 7 teams with vehicle monitoring systems as well as ground survey teams from 8 countries. Most systems incorporated GPS satellite navigational aids and computers for real time display of the data which was also recorded for post flight analysis. Most of the car- and airborne systems were based on Nal detectors whereas most of the In-situ systems and a few airborne systems were based on HpGe detectors. The exercise took place in an area near Lahti. Three different areas were surveyed. These were 1) An airfield near Vesivehmaa, which was intended as a calibration site. Soil samples had been taken previously and used to establish the 137 Cs activity of the soil as well as the activity of the natural radioactivity elements 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 Tl. 2) An area contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Area II. This area was intended to test the capabilities of the car- and airborne teams for mapping 137 Cs. A number of predefined points in the area were used by In-situ teams. 3) An area with a variety of hidden readioactive sources, Area III. These sources of 60 Co, 137 Cs, 192 Lr and 99 Tc ranged in activity from 0.6 mCi to 15 Ci and was used to test the capability of the different air-borne teams for locating lost radioactive sources. (EG)

  12. Ecophysiology and anthropogenic environmental changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haertel, O

    1971-01-01

    The problems caused by man in relation to environmental pollution are reviewed. Attention is focused on increased air pollution, the major sources of which are industries, automobiles and home heating. Increased use of herbicides, insecticides, and fertilizers pollute the air as well as rivers and the soil. The processes involved in sulfur dioxide attacking plant cells and the sensitivity of lichens to sulfur dioxide are discussed. Along with sulfur dioxide, fluorine compounds, peroxyacetyl nitrate, hydrogen sulfides, nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide are appearing more and more as injurious agents in the air. In addition, every time fossil fuel is burned, carbon dioxide is returned to the atmosphere. Some 10 tons of carbon dioxide are thrown into the air annually through combustion, thereby leading to higher mean temperatures in the troposphere.

  13. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell Gottlieb; Robert Panne; Chris Smerecnik; Gerjo Kok

    2012-01-01

    Background: While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how

  14. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  15. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  16. Environmental change enhances cognitive abilities in fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kotrschal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Flexible or innovative behavior is advantageous, especially when animals are exposed to frequent and unpredictable environmental perturbations. Improved cognitive abilities can help animals to respond quickly and adequately to environmental dynamics, and therefore changing environments may select for higher cognitive abilities. Increased cognitive abilities can be attained, for instance, if environmental change during ontogeny triggers plastic adaptive responses improving the learning capacity of exposed individuals. We tested the learning abilities of fishes in response to experimental variation of environmental quality during ontogeny. Individuals of the cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus that experienced a change in food ration early in life outperformed fish kept on constant rations in a learning task later in life--irrespective of the direction of the implemented change and the mean rations received. This difference in learning abilities between individuals remained constant between juvenile and adult stages of the same fish tested 1 y apart. Neither environmental enrichment nor training through repeated neural stimulation can explain our findings, as the sensory environment was kept constant and resource availability was changed only once. Instead, our results indicate a pathway by which a single change in resource availability early in life permanently enhances the learning abilities of animals. Early perturbations of environmental quality may signal the developing individual that it lives in a changing world, requiring increased cognitive abilities to construct adequate behavioral responses.

  17. RESUME 95. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The RESUME95 exercise - Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment, took place in Finland in August 1995. The objectives of the RESUME exercise were to compare different monitoring systems when used under the same conditions as well as to compare results from similar systems with different data analysis and presentation software. Another objective was to acquire some basic knowledge to standardize and cross calibrate the European air-borne gamma-ray surveying capability so that the results from different systems could be directly comparable. The exercise involved 10 airborn monitoring teams, 7 teams with vehicle monitoring systems as well as ground survey teams from 8 countries. Most systems incorporated GPS satellite navigational aids and computers for real time display of the data which was also recorded for post flight analysis. Most of the car- and airborne systems were based on Nal detectors whereas most of the In-situ systems and a few airborne systems were based on HpGe detectors. The exercise took place in an area near Lahti. Three different areas were surveyed. These were 1) An airfield near Vesivehmaa, which was intended as a calibration site. Soil samples had been taken previously and used to establish the {sup 137}Cs activity of the soil as well as the activity of the natural radioactivity elements {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl. 2) An area contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Area II. This area was intended to test the capabilities of the car- and airborne teams for mapping {sup 137}Cs. A number of predefined points in the area were used by In-situ teams. 3) An area with a variety of hidden readioactive sources, Area III. These sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Lr and {sup 99}Tc ranged in activity from 0.6 mCi to 15 Ci and was used to test the capability of the different air-borne teams for locating lost radioactive sources. (EG).

  18. RESUME 95. Rapid environmental surveying using mobile equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The RESUME95 exercise - Rapid Environmental Surveying Using Mobile Equipment, took place in Finland in August 1995. The objectives of the RESUME exercise were to compare different monitoring systems when used under the same conditions as well as to compare results from similar systems with different data analysis and presentation software. Another objective was to acquire some basic knowledge to standardize and cross calibrate the European air-borne gamma-ray surveying capability so that the results from different systems could be directly comparable. The exercise involved 10 airborn monitoring teams, 7 teams with vehicle monitoring systems as well as ground survey teams from 8 countries. Most systems incorporated GPS satellite navigational aids and computers for real time display of the data which was also recorded for post flight analysis. Most of the car- and airborne systems were based on Nal detectors whereas most of the In-situ systems and a few airborne systems were based on HpGe detectors. The exercise took place in an area near Lahti. Three different areas were surveyed. These were 1) An airfield near Vesivehmaa, which was intended as a calibration site. Soil samples had been taken previously and used to establish the {sup 137}Cs activity of the soil as well as the activity of the natural radioactivity elements {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208}Tl. 2) An area contaminated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, Area II. This area was intended to test the capabilities of the car- and airborne teams for mapping {sup 137}Cs. A number of predefined points in the area were used by In-situ teams. 3) An area with a variety of hidden readioactive sources, Area III. These sources of {sup 60}Co, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 192}Lr and {sup 99}Tc ranged in activity from 0.6 mCi to 15 Ci and was used to test the capability of the different air-borne teams for locating lost radioactive sources. (EG).

  19. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  20. Education for climate changes, environmental health and environmental justice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hens, L.; Stoyanov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The climates changes-health effects-environmental justice nexus is analyzed. The complex issue of climate changes needs to be approached from an interdisciplinary point of view. The nature of the problem necessitates dealing with scientific uncertainty. The health effects caused by climate changes are described and analyzed from a twofold inequalities point of view: health inequalities between rich and poor within countries, and inequalities between northern and southern countries. It is shown thai although the emission of greenhouse gasses is to a large extent caused by the industrialized countries, the effects, including the health effects, will merely impact the South. On the other hand, the southern countries have the highest potential to respond to and offer sustainable energy solutions to counteract climate changes. These inequalities are at the basis to call for environmental justice, of which climate justice is part. This movement calls for diversification of ecologists and their subject of study, more attention for urban ecology, more comprehensive human ecological analyses of complex environmental issues and more participation of stakeholders in the debate and the solution options. The movement advocates a more inclusive ecology targeted to management, sodo-ecological restoration, and comprehensive policies. The fundamental aspects of complexity, inter-disciplinary approaches, uncertainty, and social and natural inequalities should be core issues in environmental health programs. Training on these issues for muitidisciplinary groups of participants necessitates innovative approaches including self-directed, collaborative, and problem oriented learning in which tacit knowledge is important. It is advocated that quality assessments of environmental health programs should take these elements into account. key words: environmental justice, climate changes, sustainable energy solutions

  1. A rapid method for assessing the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglizzo, E F; Frank, F; Bernardos, J; Buschiazzo, D E; Cabo, S

    2006-06-01

    The generation of reliable updated information is critical to support the harmonization of socio-economic and environmental issues in a context of sustainable development. The agro-environmental assessment and management of agricultural systems often relies on indicators that are necessary to make sound decisions. This work aims to provide an approach to (a) assess the environmental performance of commercial farms in the Pampas of Argentina, and (b) propose a methodological framework to calculate environmental indicators that can rapidly be applied to practical farming. 120 commercial farms scattered across the Pampas were analyzed in this study during 2002 and 2003. Eleven basic indicators were identified and calculation methods described. Such indicators were fossil energy (FE) use, FE use efficiency, nitrogen (N) balance, phosphorus (P) balance, N contamination risk, P contamination risk, pesticide contamination risk, soil erosion risk, habitat intervention, changes in soil carbon stock, and balance of greenhouse gases. A model named Agro-Eco-Index was developed on a Microsoft-Excel support to incorporate on-farm collected data and facilitate the calculation of indicators by users. Different procedures were applied to validate the model and present the results to the users. Regression models (based on linear and non-linear models) were used to validate the comparative performance of the study farms across the Pampas. An environmental dashboard was provided to represent in a graphical way the behavior of farms. The method provides a tool to discriminate environmentally friendly farms from those that do not pay enough attention to environmental issues. Our procedure might be useful for implementing an ecological certification system to reward a good environmental behavior in society (e.g., through tax benefits) and generate a commercial advantage (e.g., through the allocation of green labels) for committed farmers.

  2. Environmental impacts of climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez-de-Salamanca, Alvaro; Diaz Sierra, R.; Martin-Aranda, Rosa; Ferreira Dos Santos, M.J.

    Climate change adaptation reduces adverse effects of climate change but may also have undesirable environmental impacts. However, these impacts are yet poorly defined and analysed in the existing literature. To complement this knowledge-gap, we reviewed the literature to unveil the relationship

  3. Reducing the global environmental impacts of rapid infrastructure expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurance, William F.; Peletier-Jellema, Anna; Geenen, Bart; Koster, Harko; Verweij, Pita|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/145431843; Van Dijck, Pitou; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Schleicher, Judith; Van Kuijk, Marijke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834319

    2015-01-01

    Infrastructures, such as roads, mines, and hydroelectric dams, are proliferating explosively. Often, this has serious direct and indirect environmental impacts. We highlight nine issues that should be considered by project proponents to better evaluate and limit the environmental risks of such

  4. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  5. Perceptual classification in a rapidly-changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Summerfield, Christopher; Behrens, Timothy E.; Koechlin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Humans and monkeys can learn to classify perceptual information in a statistically optimal fashion if the functional groupings remain stable over many hundreds of trials, but little is known about categorisation when the environment changes rapidly. Here, we used a combination of computational modelling and functional neuroimaging to understand how humans classify visual stimuli drawn from categories whose mean and variance jumped unpredictably. Models based on optimal learning (Bayesian mode...

  6. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  7. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  8. Changing Social and Environmental Reporting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mia; Riise Johansen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Based on a case study of a large multinational group, this paper addresses the way in which social and environmental reporting (SER) systems were changed and the consequences and controversies associated with this change. Drawing on Power's work on the processes by which things are made auditable...... via underlying systems, we focus on how and why a specific programme with auditability as its ultimate aim changed the basis on which the external social and environmental report was prepared. Our analysis demonstrates that the perceived alignment with the financial report preparation and the explicit...... pursuit of auditability legitimized SER and paved the way for data systems to be changed. The programme borrowed authority from financial accounting technologies not only to make a system change but also to push SER internally, as we suggest that an intraorganizational group used the programme to ensure...

  9. On being a scientist in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1996-02-01

    The practice of biological science has changed dramatically since mid-century, reshaped not only by a rapid series of landmark discoveries, but also by governmental directives, institutional policies, and public attitudes. Until 1964, the major influences were the mentor, who provided direction and indoctrination into the culture of science, and in dentistry, the newly established NIDR, which fueled the research engine with an expanding research and training program. The 1965-74 period witnessed the advent of the Institutional Review Board, an increased social involvement of biological scientists, and a recognition of the need for biological and physical safeguards in the conduct of research. The most turbulent years were 1975-89, when there was a confluence of animal rights activism and regulation, growing concerns with scientific fraud and publication malpractice, and the stresses and strains (and opportunities) resulting from the rapid expansion of the academic-industrial complex. The current period is characterized by rapid pace, high volume, and an increased depth and breadth of knowledge-a major change in scale in the conduct of science. It is an exciting time but one in which ethical issues are multiplying. Attention must be paid.

  10. Rapid Structural Design Change Evaluation with AN Experiment Based FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C.-H.; Trethewey, M. W.

    1998-04-01

    The work in this paper proposes a dynamic structural design model that can be developed in a rapid fashion. The approach endeavours to produce a simplified FEM developed in conjunction with an experimental modal database. The FEM is formulated directly from the geometry and connectivity used in an experimental modal test using beam/frame elements. The model sacrifices fine detail for a rapid development time. The FEM is updated at the element level so the dynamic response replicates the experimental results closely. The physical attributes of the model are retained, making it well suited to evaluate the effect of potential design changes. The capabilities are evaluated in a series of computational and laboratory tests. First, a study is performed with a simulated cantilever beam with a variable mass and stiffness distribution. The modal characteristics serve as the updating target with random noise added to simulate experimental uncertainty. A uniformly distributed FEM is developed and updated. The results show excellent results, all natural frequencies are within 0·001% with MAC values above 0·99. Next, the method is applied to predict the dynamic changes of a hardware portal frame structure for a radical design change. Natural frequency predictions from the original FEM differ by as much as almost 18% with reasonable MAC values. The results predicted from the updated model produce excellent results when compared to the actual hardware changes, the first five modal natural frequency difference is around 5% and the corresponding mode shapes producing MAC values above 0·98.

  11. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Panne, Robert; Smerecnik, Chris

    2012-11-28

    While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change ('Bundling') and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management ('At') or applied by the management ('From'). The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the 'bundling' of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed 'at' an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus 'from' within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change.There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may be bundled and separate suggestions for methods targeting a level

  12. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Gerjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’ and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’ or applied by the management (‘From’. Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual

  13. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  14. Persistent Environmental Toxicants in Breast Milk and Rapid Infant Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Criswell, Rachel; Lenters, Virissa; Mandal, Siddhartha; Stigum, Hein; Iszatt, Nina; Eggesbø, Merete

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Many environmental toxicants are passed to infants in utero and through breast milk. Exposure to toxicants during the perinatal period can alter growth patterns, impairing growth or increasing obesity risk. Previous studies have focused on only a few toxicants at a time, which may

  15. Feframing Climate Change for Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Caitlin; Subramaniam, Prithwi Raj

    2017-04-01

    Repeated warnings by the scientific community on the dire consequences of climate change through global warming to the ecology and sustenance of our planet have not been give appropriate attention by the U.S. public. Research has shown that climate change is responsible for catastrophic weather occurrences--such as floods, tornadoes, hurricanes, and heat waves--resulting in environmental and public health issues. The purpose of this report is to examine factors influencing public views on climate change. Theoretical and political perspectives are examined to unpack opinions held by the public in the U.S. on climate change. The Health Belief Model is used as an example to showcase the efficacy of an individual behavior change program in providing the synergy to understand climate change at the microlevel. The concept of reframing is discussed as a strategy to alter how the public views climate change.

  16. Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autonomous Control, Climate and Environmental Changes Effects on Trypanosomiasis in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. ... African trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease that causes serious economic losses in livestock due to anemia, loss of condition and emaciation. The disease when neglected is lethal and untreated ...

  17. Cosmic rays linked to rapid mid-latitude cloud changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Laken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR flux on Earth's climate is highly uncertain. Using a novel sampling approach based around observing periods of significant cloud changes, a statistically robust relationship is identified between short-term GCR flux changes and the most rapid mid-latitude (60°–30° N/S cloud decreases operating over daily timescales; this signal is verified in surface level air temperature (SLAT reanalysis data. A General Circulation Model (GCM experiment is used to test the causal relationship of the observed cloud changes to the detected SLAT anomalies. Results indicate that the anomalous cloud changes were responsible for producing the observed SLAT changes, implying that if there is a causal relationship between significant decreases in the rate of GCR flux (~0.79 GU, where GU denotes a change of 1% of the 11-year solar cycle amplitude in four days and decreases in cloud cover (~1.9 CU, where CU denotes a change of 1% cloud cover in four days, an increase in SLAT (~0.05 KU, where KU denotes a temperature change of 1 K in four days can be expected. The influence of GCRs is clearly distinguishable from changes in solar irradiance and the interplanetary magnetic field. However, the results of the GCM experiment are found to be somewhat limited by the ability of the model to successfully reproduce observed cloud cover. These results provide perhaps the most compelling evidence presented thus far of a GCR-climate relationship. From this analysis we conclude that a GCR-climate relationship is governed by both short-term GCR changes and internal atmospheric precursor conditions.

  18. Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Andrew; Damon Matthews, H

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted risks associated with the use of climate engineering as a method of stabilizing global temperatures, including the possibility of rapid climate warming in the case of abrupt removal of engineered radiative forcing. In this study, we have used a simple climate model to estimate the likely range of temperature changes associated with implementation and removal of climate engineering. In the absence of climate engineering, maximum annual rates of warming ranged from 0.015 to 0.07 deg. C/year, depending on the model's climate sensitivity. Climate engineering resulted in much higher rates of warming, with the temperature change in the year following the removal of climate engineering ranging from 0.13 to 0.76 deg. C. High rates of temperature change were sustained for two decades following the removal of climate engineering; rates of change of 0.5 (0.3,0.1) deg. C/decade were exceeded over a 20 year period with 15% (75%, 100%) likelihood. Many ecosystems could be negatively affected by these rates of temperature change; our results suggest that climate engineering in the absence of deep emissions cuts could arguably constitute increased risk of dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system under the criteria laid out in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  19. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  20. Environmental impact of climate change in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Raja, I.A.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change results in the increase or decrease in temperature and rainfall. These have significant impact on environment - impinge agricultural crop yields, affect human health, cause changes to forests and other ecosystems, and even impact our energy supply. Climate change is a global phenomenon and its impact can be observed on Pakistan's economy and environment. This paper contains details concerning the climate change and environmental impacts. It takes into account current and projected key vulnerabilities, prospects for adaptation, and the relationships between climate change mitigation and environment. The purpose of the study is to devise national policies and incentive systems combined with national level capacity-building programs to encourage demand-oriented conservation technologies. Recommendations are also made to abate the climate change related issues in country. (author)

  1. Coupling model of energy consumption with changes in environmental utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongming; Jim, C.Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between metropolis energy consumption and environmental utility changes by a proposed Environmental Utility of Energy Consumption (EUEC) model. Based on the dynamic equilibrium of input–output economics theory, it considers three simulation scenarios: fixed-technology, technological-innovation, and green-building effect. It is applied to analyse Hong Kong in 1980–2007. Continual increase in energy consumption with rapid economic growth degraded environmental utility. First, energy consumption at fixed-technology was determined by economic outcome. In 1990, it reached a critical balanced state when energy consumption was 22×10 9 kWh. Before 1990 (x 1 9 kWh), rise in energy consumption improved both economic development and environmental utility. After 1990 (x 1 >22×10 9 kWh), expansion of energy consumption facilitated socio-economic development but suppressed environmental benefits. Second, technological-innovation strongly influenced energy demand and improved environmental benefits. The balanced state remained in 1999 when energy consumption reached 32.33×10 9 kWh. Technological-innovation dampened energy consumption by 12.99%, exceeding the fixed-technology condition. Finally, green buildings reduced energy consumption by an average of 17.5% in 1990–2007. They contributed significantly to energy saving, and buffered temperature fluctuations between external and internal environment. The case investigations verified the efficiency of the EUEC model, which can effectively evaluate the interplay of energy consumption and environmental quality. - Highlights: ► We explore relationships between metropolis energy consumption and environmental utility. ► An Environmental Utility of Energy Consumption (EUEC) model is proposed. ► Technological innovation mitigates energy consumption impacts on environmental quality. ► Technological innovation decreases demand of energy consumption more than fixed technology scenario

  2. Future generations, environmental ethics, and global environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    The elements of a methodology to be employed by the global community to investigate the consequences of global environmental change upon future generations and global ecosystems are outlined in this paper. The methodology is comprised of two major components: A possible future worlds model; and a formal, citizen-oriented process to judge whether the possible future worlds potentially inheritable by future generations meet obligational standards. A broad array of descriptors of future worlds can be encompassed within this framework, including survival of ecosystems and other species and satisfaction of human concerns. The methodology expresses fundamental psychological motivations and human myths journey, renewal, mother earth, and being-in-nature-and incorporates several viewpoints on obligations to future generations-maintaining options, fairness, humility, and the cause of humanity. The methodology overcomes several severe drawbacks of the economic-based methods most commonly used for global environmental policy analysis.

  3. Managing Campus Energy: Compromising between Rapid Needs and Environmental Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambariyanto, Ambariyanto; Utama, Yos J.; Purwanto

    2018-02-01

    The utilization of energy, especially electricity at Diponegoro University campus continues to increase in line with the development of the university. This increase has a direct impact on the increased costs to be paid by the university. Some of the causes of increased utilization of electrical energy is the construction of new buildings to meet the needs, increased learning activities and education, research activities in the laboratory, and various other activities. On the other hand, the increase of energy utilization is considered not good from the environment point of view, especially the utilization of electrical energy coming from non sustainable resources. Efforts to compromise on both are to develop policies in developing environmentally friendly buildings, efficiency in utilization of electrical energy, and development of sustainable energy sources.

  4. Isotope techniques in the study of environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency, among its efforts to promote the wider use of isotope techniques in hydrology and related environmental disciplines, organized an International Symposium on Applications of Isotope Techniques in Studying Past and Current Environmental Changes in the Hydrosphere and the Atmosphere, held in 1993 in Vienna. The broad scientific interest and abundant participation in the symposium, as well as the rapid progress seen in this field since then, encouraged the IAEA to organize a second symposium of this kind. It was held from 14 to 18 April 1997 in Vienna and brought together 177 scientists representing 46 Member States, UNESCO, FAO, WMO, the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). The symposium was structured in five sessions of oral presentations, a poster session and a round table discussion that focused on trends and future requirements in isotope hydrology and on applications in climate and environmental research. The major themes covered by the presentations included the use of isotopic tracers in studies of atmospheric and hydrospheric changes and of the human impact on water and the environment. Special emphasis was placed on isotopic archives of climatic and environmental change. Some contributions addressed new technical approaches

  5. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves

  6. National Institute for Global Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G.C.

    1992-04-01

    This document is the Semi-Annual Report of the National Institute for Global Environmental Change for the reporting period July 1 to December 31, 1991. The report is in two parts. Part I presents the mission of the Institute, examples of progress toward that mission, a brief description of the revised management plan, and the financial report. Part II presents the statements of the Regional Center Directors along with progress reports of the projects written by the researchers themselves.

  7. Rapidly shifting environmental baselines among fishers of the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáenz-Arroyo, Andrea; Roberts, Callum M; Torre, Jorge; Cariño-Olvera, Micheline; Enríquez-Andrade, Roberto R

    2005-01-01

    Shifting environmental baselines are inter-generational changes in perception of the state of the environment. As one generation replaces another, people's perceptions of what is natural change even to the extent that they no longer believe historical anecdotes of past abundance or size of species. Although widely accepted, this phenomenon has yet to be quantitatively tested. Here we survey three generations of fishers from Mexico's Gulf of California (N=108), where fish populations have declined steeply over the last 60 years, to investigate how far and fast their environmental baselines are shifting. Compared to young fishers, old fishers named five times as many species and four times as many fishing sites as once being abundant/productive but now depleted (Kruskal–Wallis tests, both p<0.001) with no evidence of a slowdown in rates of loss experienced by younger compared to older generations (Kruskal–Wallis test, n.s. in both cases). Old fishers caught up to 25 times as many Gulf grouper Mycteroperca jordani as young fishers on their best ever fishing day (regression r2=0.62, p<0.001). Despite times of plentiful large fish still being within living memory, few young fishers appreciated that large species had ever been common or nearshore sites productive. Such rapid shifts in perception of what is natural help explain why society is tolerant of the creeping loss of biodiversity. They imply a large educational hurdle in efforts to reset expectations and targets for conservation. PMID:16191603

  8. Drastic environmental change and its effects on a planetary biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Irwin, Louis N.; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. These changes affect the biosphere and can spur evolution via the mechanism of directional selection leading to the innovation of new processes and forms of life, or alternatively leading to the extinction of certain life forms. Based on the natural history of Earth, the effect on a planet's biosphere depends on three factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Though Earth has undergone various periods of drastic environmental change, life has shown an enormous resiliency and became more diverse and complex as a consequence of these events. Mars and Venus have undergone even larger environmental changes, both from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions, and a hyperthermic greenhouse, respectively. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions. Life in the subsurface or on the surface of Venus seems impossible today, but microorganisms may have adapted to thrive in the lower cloud layer, possibly using a biochemical strategy analogous to Photosystem I and chemoautotrophic sulfur metabolism, and employing cycloocta sulfur for UV protection.

  9. Rapid treatment-induced brain changes in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-03-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray, two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation.

  10. Mobile work: Ergonomics in a rapidly changing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.

  11. Environmental macroeconomics : Environmental policy, business cycles, and directed technical change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Heutel, Garth

    Environmental economics has traditionally fallen in the domain of microeconomics, but approaches from macroeconomics have recently been applied to studying environmental policy. We focus on two macroeconomic tools and their application to environmental economics. First, real-business-cycle models

  12. Collective behaviour, uncertainty and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; O'Brien, Michael J

    2015-11-28

    A central aspect of cultural evolutionary theory concerns how human groups respond to environmental change. Although we are painting with a broad brush, it is fair to say that prior to the twenty-first century, adaptation often happened gradually over multiple human generations, through a combination of individual and social learning, cumulative cultural evolution and demographic shifts. The result was a generally resilient and sustainable population. In the twenty-first century, however, considerable change happens within small portions of a human generation, on a vastly larger range of geographical and population scales and involving a greater degree of horizontal learning. As a way of gauging the complexity of societal response to environmental change in a globalized future, we discuss several theoretical tools for understanding how human groups adapt to uncertainty. We use our analysis to estimate the limits of predictability of future societal change, in the belief that knowing when to hedge bets is better than relying on a false sense of predictability. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Environmental change, phenotypic plasticity, and genetic compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F

    2005-10-01

    When a species encounters novel environmental conditions, some phenotypic characters may develop differently than in the ancestral environment. Most environmental perturbations of development are likely to reduce fitness, and thus selection would usually be expected to favor genetic changes that restore the ancestral phenotype. I propose the term "genetic compensation" to refer to this form of adaptive evolution. Genetic compensation is a subset of genetic accommodation and the reverse of genetic assimilation. When genetic compensation has occurred along a spatial environmental gradient, the mean trait values of populations in different environments may be more similar in the field than when representatives of the same populations are raised in a common environment (i.e., countergradient variation). If compensation is complete, genetic divergence between populations may be cryptic, that is, not detectable in the field. Here I apply the concept of genetic compensation to three examples involving carotenoid-based sexual coloration and then use these and other examples to discuss the concept in a broader context. I show that genetic compensation may lead to a cryptic form of reproductive isolation between populations evolving in different environments, may explain some puzzling cases in which heritable traits exposed to strong directional selection fail to show the expected evolutionary response, and may complicate efforts to monitor populations for signs of environmental deterioration.

  14. Rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, J.

    2011-03-01

    This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development in this work consists of 5 subjects stated as follows: 1) Development and optimization of an SI-anion exchange chromatographic method for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples in combination of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (Paper II); (2) Methodology development and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SI-extraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples (Paper IV); (4) Investigation of the suitability and applicability of 242 Pu as a tracer for rapid neptunium determination using anion exchange chromatography in an SI-network coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper V); (5) Exploration of macro-porous anion exchange chromatography for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium within an SI system (Paper VI). The results demonstrate that the developed methods in this study are reliable and efficient for accurate assays of trace levels of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in different situations including environmental risk monitoring and assessment, emergency preparedness and surveillance of contaminated areas. (Author)

  15. Rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, J.

    2011-03-15

    This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development in this work consists of 5 subjects stated as follows: 1) Development and optimization of an SI-anion exchange chromatographic method for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples in combination of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection (Paper II); (2) Methodology development and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SI-extraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples (Paper IV); (4) Investigation of the suitability and applicability of 242Pu as a tracer for rapid neptunium determination using anion exchange chromatography in an SI-network coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper V); (5) Exploration of macro-porous anion exchange chromatography for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium within an SI system (Paper VI). The results demonstrate that the developed methods in this study are reliable and efficient for accurate assays of trace levels of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in different situations including environmental risk monitoring and assessment, emergency preparedness and surveillance of contaminated areas. (Author)

  16. Human-induced geomorphic change across environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, V.; Molina, A.; Bellin, N.; Christl, M.

    2016-12-01

    Human-induced land cover changes are causing important adverse effects on the ecological services rendered by mountain ecosystems, and the number of case-studies of the impact of humans on soil erosion and sediment yield has mounted rapidly. Anthropogenic disturbance of natural vegetation can profoundly alter the physical, chemical and biological processes within soils. Rapid removal of topsoil during intense farming can result in an imbalance between soil production through chemical weathering and physical soil erosion, with direct implications on nutrient cycling, soil fertility and agricultural production. In this study, we present a conceptual model for assessing human-induced erosion for a wide variety of environmental settings and pose that human-induced geomorphic change cannot be assessed solely based on modern erosion rates as natural or baseline erosion rates can be important in e.g. mountainous terrain. As such, we assess the vulnerability of a given ecosystem to human-induced land cover change by quantifying the change in catchment-wide erosion rates resulting from anthropogenic changes in vegetation cover. Human-induced erosion is here approximated by the ratio of the total specific sediment yield to the natural erosional mass flux, and is dimensionless. The conceptual model is applied to three contrasting environmental settings where data on soil production, physical soil erosion and long-term denudation are available: the tropical Andes, subtropical southern Brazil, and semi-arid Spanish Cordillera. The magnitude of human-induced geomorphic change strongly differs between the three regions. The data suggest that the sensitivity to human-induced erosion is ecosystem dependent, and related to soil erosivity and potential vegetation cover disturbances as a result of human impact. It may therefore be expected that the potential for erosion regulation is larger in well-vegetated ecosystem where strong differences may exist in vegetation cover between

  17. Bioclim Deliverable D1: environmental change analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The BIOCLIM project on modelling sequential Biosphere systems under Climate change for radioactive waste disposal is part of the EURATOM fifth European framework programme. The project was launched in October 2000 for a three-year period. The project aims at providing a scientific basis and practical methodology for assessing the possible long term impacts on the safety of radioactive waste repositories in deep formations due to climate and environmental change. The project brings together a number of representatives from both European radioactive waste management organisations which have national responsibilities for the safe disposal of radioactive waste, either as disposers or regulators, and several highly experienced climate research teams. In particular, BIOCLIM aims to address the important objective of how to represent the development of future biosphere systems by addressing both how to model long-term climate change, the relevant environmental consequences of such changes and the implementation of a sequential approach to such changes. The results from the development of this sophisticated approach will be of great benefit for improving long term radiological impact calculations and the information presented in a safety case. Simulations will be conducted to represent the time series of long-term climate in three European areas within which disposal sites may be established (i.e. Central/Southern Spain, Northeast of France and Central Britain). Two complementary strategies will provide representations of future climate predictions together with associated vegetation patterns using either an analysis of distinct climate states or a continuous climate simulation over at least one glacial-interglacial cycle and possibly for other selected periods over the next 1,000,000 years. These results will be used to derive the characteristics of possible future human environments (i.e. biosphere systems) through which radionuclides, emerging from the repository, may

  18. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  19. Rapid assessment procedures in environmental sanitation research: a case study from the northern border of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Alamo, Urinda; Kendall, Tamil; Brunkard, Joan; Scrimshaw, Susan

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to enhance the quality and sustainability of environmental health programs in Mexico. What socio-cultural factors influenced the adoption or rejection of Clean Water in Homes programs in this population? We applied rapid appraisal procedures (RAP) to evaluate these community-based programs. Qualitative study conducted in communities along Mexico's northern border. We conducted informal dialogues, semi-structured interviews, field notes and observations. Home visits used a checklist to observe: sources of water, handwashing, as well as human waste and garbage disposal patterns. Data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti, which facilitated comparison and illustration of discrepancies, the elaboration of emerging issues and relationships between them. Community members perceived that the Clean Water program was a top-down intervention. Water is perceived as a political issue and a matter of corruption. Inequity also limits solidarity activities involved in environmental sanitation. Migration to the United States of America (US) contributes to community fragmentation, which in turn dilutes communal efforts to improve water and sanitation infrastructure. While targeting women as program "recipients", the Clean Water program did not take gendered spheres of decision-making into account. Community members and authorities discussed the main results in "assemblies", particularly addressing the needs of excluded groups. The oversight of not exploring community members' needs and priorities prior to program implementation resulted in interventions that did not address the structural (economic, infrastructure) and socio-cultural barriers faced by community members to undertake the health-promoting behaviour change, and provoked resentment.

  20. DARPP-32 interaction with adducin may mediate rapid environmental effects on striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Olivia; Giralt, Albert; Gervasi, Nicolas; Marion-Poll, Lucile; Gasmi, Laila; Filhol, Odile; Picciotto, Marina R; Gilligan, Diana; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine

    2015-12-07

    Environmental enrichment has multiple effects on behaviour, including modification of responses to psychostimulant drugs mediated by striatal neurons. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms are not known. Here we show that DARPP-32, a hub signalling protein in striatal neurons, interacts with adducins, which are cytoskeletal proteins that cap actin filaments' fast-growing ends and regulate synaptic stability. DARPP-32 binds to adducin MARCKS domain and this interaction is modulated by DARPP-32 Ser97 phosphorylation. Phospho-Thr75-DARPP-32 facilitates β-adducin Ser713 phosphorylation through inhibition of a cAMP-dependent protein kinase/phosphatase-2A cascade. Caffeine or 24-h exposure to a novel enriched environment increases adducin phosphorylation in WT, but not T75A mutant mice. This cascade is implicated in the effects of brief exposure to novel enriched environment on dendritic spines in nucleus accumbens and cocaine locomotor response. Our results suggest a molecular pathway by which environmental changes may rapidly alter responsiveness of striatal neurons involved in the reward system.

  1. Wildlife health in a rapidly changing North: focus on avian disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Pearce, John M.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-related environmental changes have increasingly been linked to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. The Arctic is facing a major ecological transition that is expected to substantially affect animal and human health. Changes in phenology or environmental conditions that result from climate warming may promote novel species assemblages as host and pathogen ranges expand to previously unoccupied areas. Recent evidence from the Arctic and subarctic suggests an increase in the spread and prevalence of some wildlife diseases, but baseline data necessary to detect and verify such changes are still lacking. Wild birds are undergoing rapid shifts in distribution and have been implicated in the spread of wildlife and zoonotic diseases. Here, we review evidence of current and projected changes in the abundance and distribution of avian diseases and outline strategies for future research. We discuss relevant climatic and environmental factors, emerging host–pathogen contact zones, the relationship between host condition and immune function, and potential wildlife and human health outcomes in northern regions.

  2. Tracking and unpacking rapid Arctic change: Indicators of community health and sustainability in northern Alaska and links to cryospheric change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Sam, J. M.; Mueller-stoffels, M.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Fresco, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    Tracking and responding to rapid Arctic change benefits from time series of indicator variables that describe the state of the system and can inform anticipatory action. A key challenge is to identify and monitor sets of indicators that capture relevant variability, trends, and transitions in social-environmental systems. We present findings from participatory scenarios focused on community health and sustainability in northern Alaska. In a series of workshops in 2015 and 2016 (Kotzebue workshop photo shown below), over 50 experts, mostly local, identified determinants of community health and sustainability by 2040 in the Northwest Arctic and North Slope Boroughs, Alaska. Drawing on further research, an initial set of factors and uncertainties was refined and prioritized into a total of 20 key drivers, ranging from governance issues to socio-economic and environmental factors. The research team then developed sets of future projections that describe plausible outcomes by mid-century for each of these drivers. A plausibility and consistency analysis of all pairwise combinations of these projections (following Mueller-Stoffels and Eicken, In: North by 2020 - Perspectives on Alaska's Changing Social-Ecological Systems, University of Alaska Press, 2011) resulted in the identification of robust scenarios. The latter were further reviewed by workshop participants, and a set of indicator variables, including indicators of relevant cryospheric change, was identified to help track trajectories towards plausible future states. Publically accessible recorded data only exist for a subset of the more than 70 indicators, reaching back a few years to several decades. For several indicators, the sampling rate or time series length are insufficient for tracking of and response to change. A core set of variables has been identified that meets indicator requirements and can serve as a tool for Alaska Arctic communities in adapting to or mitigating rapid change affecting community

  3. Rapid and Automated Determination of Plutonium and Neptunium in Environmental Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Jixin

    This thesis presents improved analytical methods for rapid and automated determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples using sequential injection (SI) based chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The progress of methodology development...... and optimization for rapid determination of plutonium in environmental samples using SIextraction chromatography prior to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Paper III); (3) Development of an SI-chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental samples...... for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium within an SI system (Paper VI). The results demonstrate that the developed methods in this study are reliable and efficient for accurate assays of trace levels of plutonium and neptunium as demanded in different situations including...

  4. Rapidly reversible redox transformation in nanophase manganese oxides at room temperature triggered by changes in hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkner, Nancy; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-04-29

    Chemisorption of water onto anhydrous nanophase manganese oxide surfaces promotes rapidly reversible redox phase changes as confirmed by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and titration for manganese average oxidation state. Surface reduction of bixbyite (Mn2O3) to hausmannite (Mn3O4) occurs in nanoparticles under conditions where no such reactions are seen or expected on grounds of bulk thermodynamics in coarse-grained materials. Additionally, transformation does not occur on nanosurfaces passivated by at least 2% coverage of what is likely an amorphous manganese oxide layer. The transformation is due to thermodynamic control arising from differences in surface energies of the two phases (Mn2O3 and Mn3O4) under wet and dry conditions. Such reversible and rapid transformation near room temperature may affect the behavior of manganese oxides in technological applications and in geologic and environmental settings.

  5. Environmental health implications of global climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Robert T.; Patz, Jonathan; Gubler, Duane J.; Parson, Edward A.; Vincent, James H.

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviews the background that has led to the now almost-universally held opinion in the scientific community that global climate change is occurring and is inescapably linked with anthropogenic activity. The potential implications to human health are considerable and very diverse. These include, for example, the increased direct impacts of heat and of rises in sea level, exacerbated air and water-borne harmful agents, and - associated with all the preceding - the emergence of environmental refugees. Vector-borne diseases, in particular those associated with blood-sucking arthropods such as mosquitoes, may be significantly impacted, including redistribution of some of those diseases to areas not previously affected. Responses to possible impending environmental and public health crises must involve political and socio-economic considerations, adding even greater complexity to what is already a difficult challenge. In some areas, adjustments to national and international public health practices and policies may be effective, at least in the short and medium terms. But in others, more drastic measures will be required. Environmental monitoring, in its widest sense, will play a significant role in the future management of the problem. (Author)

  6. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Thorne, M.; Egan, M.; Calvez, M.; Kautsky, U.

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example

  7. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, L.M. [Bracewell and Patterson, LLP (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO{sub 2} emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to

  8. Environmental federalism and US climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental disputes involving states over the proper state and federal roles have grown in number and magnitude over the last several years, with many disputes engaging dozens of states. States with competing views are fully engaged in the ongoing debate over climate change, a textbook case for testing the contours of environmental federalism. The issue has all the necessary components: transboundary environmental impacts; competing state economic and environmental interests; state self-interest; disagreement on first principles including what is the proper role of the states; and a somewhat ill-defined federal role. With those qualities, one would expect the federal government to step in and regulate. Instead, the federal government has declined to regulate, inviting a national discourse on whether and how to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. As of Spring 2004, twenty-eight states have launched or are planning initiatives, some of which will directly regulate sources of GHG emissions. As these programs take root, pressure will build for a greater federal role. This paper will advance the position that even with this building momentum, the federal government is not likely to emulate state programs that mandate CO 2 emission reductions. In the face of high national cost, uncertain environmental benefits, and a history of federal non-regulatory action, federal regulation at this time appears to be a remote possibility. State efforts to address global climate change add value to the debate, but they do not create the cocoon of consensus the federal government seeks before launching mandatory programs of this magnitude. The more likely scenario is that the federal government will continue on its present course, funding research and development, investing in energy efficient technologies, and supporting voluntary measures. Under this scenario, states and the private sector would continue to function as the 'laboratories' to develop new ideas to improve energy

  9. Behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomainen, Ulla; Candolin, Ulrika

    2011-08-01

    The initial response of individuals to human-induced environmental change is often behavioural. This can improve the performance of individuals under sudden, large-scale perturbations and maintain viable populations. The response can also give additional time for genetic changes to arise and, hence, facilitate adaptation to new conditions. On the other hand, maladaptive responses, which reduce individual fitness, may occur when individuals encounter conditions that the population has not experienced during its evolutionary history, which can decrease population viability. A growing number of studies find human disturbances to induce behavioural responses, both directly and by altering factors that influence fitness. Common causes of behavioural responses are changes in the transmission of information, the concentration of endocrine disrupters, the availability of resources, the possibility of dispersal, and the abundance of interacting species. Frequent responses are alterations in habitat choice, movements, foraging, social behaviour and reproductive behaviour. Behavioural responses depend on the genetically determined reaction norm of the individuals, which evolves over generations. Populations first respond with individual behavioural plasticity, whereafter changes may arise through innovations and the social transmission of behavioural patterns within and across generations, and, finally, by evolution of the behavioural response over generations. Only a restricted number of species show behavioural adaptations that make them thrive in severely disturbed environments. Hence, rapid human-induced disturbances often decrease the diversity of native species, while facilitating the spread of invasive species with highly plastic behaviours. Consequently, behavioural responses to human-induced environmental change can have profound effects on the distribution, adaptation, speciation and extinction of populations and, hence, on biodiversity. A better understanding of

  10. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. A methodology to enable rapid evaluation of aviation environmental impacts and aircraft technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Keith Frederick

    Commercial aviation has become an integral part of modern society and enables unprecedented global connectivity by increasing rapid business, cultural, and personal connectivity. In the decades following World War II, passenger travel through commercial aviation quickly grew at a rate of roughly 8% per year globally. The FAA's most recent Terminal Area Forecast predicts growth to continue at a rate of 2.5% domestically, and the market outlooks produced by Airbus and Boeing generally predict growth to continue at a rate of 5% per year globally over the next several decades, which translates into a need for up to 30,000 new aircraft produced by 2025. With such large numbers of new aircraft potentially entering service, any negative consequences of commercial aviation must undergo examination and mitigation by governing bodies so that growth may still be achieved. Options to simultaneously grow while reducing environmental impact include evolution of the commercial fleet through changes in operations, aircraft mix, and technology adoption. Methods to rapidly evaluate fleet environmental metrics are needed to enable decision makers to quickly compare the impact of different scenarios and weigh the impact of multiple policy options. As the fleet evolves, interdependencies may emerge in the form of tradeoffs between improvements in different environmental metrics as new technologies are brought into service. In order to include the impacts of these interdependencies on fleet evolution, physics-based modeling is required at the appropriate level of fidelity. Evaluation of environmental metrics in a physics-based manner can be done at the individual aircraft level, but will then not capture aggregate fleet metrics. Contrastingly, evaluation of environmental metrics at the fleet level is already being done for aircraft in the commercial fleet, but current tools and approaches require enhancement because they currently capture technology implementation through post

  12. Innovation in regulation of rapidly changing health markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gerald; Henson, Spencer; Peters, David H

    2014-06-24

    The rapid evolution and spread of health markets across low and middle-income countries (LMICs) has contributed to a significant increase in the availability of health-related goods and services around the world. The support institutions needed to regulate these markets have lagged behind, with regulatory systems that are weak and under-resourced. This paper explores the key issues associated with regulation of health markets in LMICs, and the different goals of regulation, namely quality and safety of care, value for money, social agreement over fair access and financing, and accountability. Licensing, price controls, and other traditional approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services have played an important role, but they have been of questionable effectiveness in ensuring safety and efficacy at the point of the user in LMICs. The paper proposes a health market systems conceptual framework, using the value chain for the production, distribution and retail of health goods and services, to examine regulation of health markets in the LMIC context. We conclude by exploring the changing context going forwards, laying out implications for future heath market regulation. We argue that the case for new approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services in LMICs is compelling. Although traditional "command and control" approaches will have a place in the toolkit of regulators, a broader bundle of approaches is needed that is adapted to the national and market-level context of particular LMICs. The implication is that it is not possible to apply standard or single interventions across countries, as approaches proven to work well in one context will not necessarily work well elsewhere.

  13. Social constructions of environmental services in a rapidly densifying peri-urban area under dual governance in Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sutherland

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodiversity plays a critical role in improving the quality of life and resilience of poor urban communities in Durban. Objectives: However, the rapid densification that is taking place in the ‘rural periphery’ of the city is impacting significantly on the integrity of ecosystems, which provide valuable ecosystem services. It is also changing the relations between people and the environment. Mzinyathi and eSkebheni, in the north-west of Durban, are peri-urban areas located on Ingonyama Trust land and hence they are governed by both the traditional authority and the eThekwini Municipality. The settlement pattern is changing rapidly here as middle and upper income residents move into the area, changing the way of life from being rural and ‘traditional’ to urban and ‘modern’. Method: This paper focused on the nexus of rapid urban growth, dual governance systems, biodiversity loss and cultural change in these two areas. It adopted a qualitative methodology and social constructivist approach. Data on the value of environmental services in the area was collected through interviewing the traditional authority, provincial and municipal planners and environmentalists, and household members. Results: The paper revealed that environmental services are constructed in multiple ways within a particular socio-historical and political context, that they have value to peri-urban communities, and that their function and use is changing as a result of the ‘modernisation’ of the area. The impact of the dual governance system and traditional land allocation process on environmental services is significant. This has implications for long term sustainability, for the quality of life of peri-urban residents and for planning and urban governance.

  14. More rapid climate change promotes evolutionary rescue through selection for increased dispersal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeye, Jeroen; Travis, Justin M J; Stoks, Robby; Bonte, Dries

    2013-02-01

    Species can either adapt to new conditions induced by climate change or shift their range in an attempt to track optimal environmental conditions. During current range shifts, species are simultaneously confronted with a second major anthropogenic disturbance, landscape fragmentation. Using individual-based models with a shifting climate window, we examine the effect of different rates of climate change on the evolution of dispersal distances through changes in the genetically determined dispersal kernel. Our results demonstrate that the rate of climate change is positively correlated to the evolved dispersal distances although too fast climate change causes the population to crash. When faced with realistic rates of climate change, greater dispersal distances evolve than those required for the population to keep track of the climate, thereby maximizing population size. Importantly, the greater dispersal distances that evolve when climate change is more rapid, induce evolutionary rescue by facilitating the population in crossing large gaps in the landscape. This could ensure population persistence in case of range shifting in fragmented landscapes. Furthermore, we highlight problems in using invasion speed as a proxy for potential range shifting abilities under climate change.

  15. The determination of Sr-90 in environmental material using an improved rapid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghods, A.; Veselsky, J.C.; Zhu, S.; Mirna, A.; Schelenz, R.

    1989-01-01

    A short report on strontium 90, its occurrence in the biosphere and its rapid determination methods is given. Classification of determination methods suitable for various environmental and biological materials is established. Interference due to Y-91 and a method to eliminate the activity of Y-90 and Y-91 is discussed. Tabs

  16. Environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit (BRT in the Metropolitan City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salehi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bus rapid transit is an innovative, high capacity, lower cost public transit solution in metropolitan cities. Idea is to dedicate lanes for quick and efficient transport of passengers to their destinations. In the present investigation the environmental impact assessment of bus rapid transit  in Tehran metropolitan city is brought out. For this purpose bus rapid transit Lane No. 10 is investigated. The bus rapid transit Lane No.10 is about 10 km in distance that moves up and down between Azadi and Simon Bolivar Squares. About 77500 passengers using 50 buses are transited per day in lane No. 10. These 50 buses cover a distance of 9600 km/day. The results of present study showed that about 6.5 million liters of fuel is saved annually. It should be pointed out that environmental costs are also reduced for about US$ 1.7 million/yr. The overall score of environmental impact assessment stands at +10 that is indicative of Lane No. 10 compatibility with the environmental considerations.

  17. Conclusions: environmental change, wildlife conservation and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Brown, Janine L; Comizzoli, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Our intention when planning this book was to explore the diverse ways that reproductive science is inextricably tied to many aspects of biodiversity conservation, using the opportunity to present a vast amount of specialised information in a way that forms a coherent and important body of work. Some of the chapters were therefore concerned with understanding how taxonomic groups and species are being affected by globally important environmental changes, mostly caused through anthropogenic influences. Others were more focused on monitoring and understanding the physiology of wild species, with the aim of better understanding mechanisms underlying responses to captive conditions and environmental change, in both wild and captive animals. We also wanted to review advances in technological measures that are being actively developed to support the breeding and management of wildlife. In a few cases we have presented specific case studies that highlight the amount of effort required for the successful development of assisted reproductive technologies for wild species. Viewed overall, the outcome is spectacular; the last decade has seen enormous progress in many aspects of the sciences and technologies relevant to the topic. It is also clear that the boundaries between different scientific disciplines are becoming ever more blurred, and it is no longer easy or even possible to remain focused on a highly specialized topic in reproduction or conservation, without having at least some understanding of allied subjects. Here we present a few concluding comments about what we have learnt, and how the various topics interact with each other. We also emphasize that, as far as we know, no similarly comprehensive consideration of the contribution of reproductive science to wildlife conservation has been published within the last decade.

  18. Rapid-viability PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létant, Sonia E; Murphy, Gloria A; Alfaro, Teneile M; Avila, Julie R; Kane, Staci R; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M; Shah, Sanjiv R

    2011-09-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real-time PCR analysis is conducted on samples before and after incubation. The method, referred to as rapid-viability (RV)-PCR, uses the change in cycle threshold after incubation to detect the presence of live organisms. In this article, we report a novel RV-PCR method for detection of live, virulent Bacillus anthracis, in which the incubation time was reduced from 14 h to 9 h, bringing the total turnaround time for results below 15 h. The method incorporates a magnetic bead-based DNA extraction and purification step prior to PCR analysis, as well as specific real-time PCR assays for the B. anthracis chromosome and pXO1 and pXO2 plasmids. A single laboratory verification of the optimized method applied to the detection of virulent B. anthracis in environmental samples was conducted and showed a detection level of 10 to 99 CFU/sample with both manual and automated RV-PCR methods in the presence of various challenges. Experiments exploring the relationship between the incubation time and the limit of detection suggest that the method could be further shortened by an additional 2 to 3 h for relatively clean samples.

  19. Adapting a rapid assessment protocol to environmentally assess palm swamp (Veredas) springs in the Cerrado biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ariane; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-30

    The exploitation and degradation of natural environments exert intense pressure on important ecosystems worldwide. Thus, it is necessary developing or adapting assessment methods to monitor environmental changes and to generate results to be applied to environmental management programs. The Brazilian Veredas (phytophysiognomies typical to the Cerrado biome) are threatened by several human activities; thus, the aim of the present study is to adapt a rapid assessment protocol (RAP) to be applied to Veredas springs, by using the upper course of the Vai-e-Vem stream watershed (Ipameri County, Goiás State, Brazil). Therefore, several springs in the study site were visited and 11 of them were considered Veredas springs. After the RAP was adapted, the instrument was validated and used to environmentally assess the springs in order to demonstrate its applicability. The present study has provided an instrument of option to monitor Veredas springs.

  20. Women in Physics in a Rapidly Changing China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An

    2008-03-01

    Despite the upheavals of the 20th century, physics managed to survive quite well in China, where the first woman president of the American Physical Society was born and bred. During the 1950s as a result of policies that emphasized science and engineering, declared equal rights and equal pay for men and women, and assigned jobs to college graduates irrespective of sex, the number of women in physics increased rapidly, many of whom made notable achievements. Since China's opening up over the last thirty years tremendous changes have taken place, and women now face new opportunities as well as challenges in all aspects of society. Whereas physics used to be regarded as the most elite of the sciences, new fields such as computer science, biotechnology and business are now competing for the best students. Compared with other countries the statistics are not bad; in schools and many physics departments the ratio of women teachers may be 30% or higher, but the numbers drop drastically with rank. Moreover, in some research institutions the ratio of female physicists is actually declining, due to retirement of the older generation and fewer successors. Compulsory retirement for women at an earlier age than for men is also a new factor. Conversely, in recent years the ratio of female graduate students enrolling in physics has increased, even reaching 40% in some universities. However, the reasons for this do not bode well: men are not performing so well as women in entrance exams, while the latter are facing increasing discrimination in employment so they have to seek higher degree qualifications. With the further development of China's economy there will be abundant demand for qualified personnel including women with a physics background. It is imperative to actively support the upcoming generation of women physicists and not lose them in the leaky pipeline. The Chinese Physical Society has taken certain positive steps, such as the recent establishment of the Xie Xi

  1. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Basu, Niladri; Bustamante, Paco; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Hopkins, William A.; Kidd, Karen A.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.

  2. Global Environmental Change: An integrated modelling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Elzen, M.

    1993-01-01

    Two major global environmental problems are dealt with: climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion (and their mutual interactions), briefly surveyed in part 1. In Part 2 a brief description of the integrated modelling framework IMAGE 1.6 is given. Some specific parts of the model are described in more detail in other Chapters, e.g. the carbon cycle model, the atmospheric chemistry model, the halocarbon model, and the UV-B impact model. In Part 3 an uncertainty analysis of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion is presented (Chapter 4). Chapter 5 briefly reviews the social and economic uncertainties implied by future greenhouse gas emissions. Chapters 6 and 7 describe a model and sensitivity analysis pertaining to the scientific uncertainties and/or lacunae in the sources and sinks of methane and carbon dioxide, and their biogeochemical feedback processes. Chapter 8 presents an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the carbon cycle model, the halocarbon model, and the IMAGE model 1.6 as a whole. Part 4 presents the risk assessment methodology as applied to the problems of climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion more specifically. In Chapter 10, this methodology is used as a means with which to asses current ozone policy and a wide range of halocarbon policies. Chapter 11 presents and evaluates the simulated globally-averaged temperature and sea level rise (indicators) for the IPCC-1990 and 1992 scenarios, concluding with a Low Risk scenario, which would meet the climate targets. Chapter 12 discusses the impact of sea level rise on the frequency of the Dutch coastal defence system (indicator) for the IPCC-1990 scenarios. Chapter 13 presents projections of mortality rates due to stratospheric ozone depletion based on model simulations employing the UV-B chain model for a number of halocarbon policies. Chapter 14 presents an approach for allocating future emissions of CO 2 among regions. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    The colonization of the circumpolar peoples has had a profound influence on their health. History tells about devastating epidemics and the introduction of alcohol. The last 50 years have witnessed an unprecedented societal development in Greenland and a rapid epidemiological transition. Physical...... health and survival have improved but at the expense of mental health. The incidence of tuberculosis and the infant mortality rate have decreased because of improved socioeconomic conditions and health care. Mental health has deteriorated parallel to the rapid modernization of Greenlandic society...

  4. Capacity of old trees to respond to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nathan G; Buckley, Thomas N; Tissue, David T

    2008-11-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] has increased dramatically within the current life spans of long-lived trees and old forests. Consider that a 500-year-old tree in the early twenty-first century has spent 70% of its life growing under pre-industrial levels of [CO2], which were 30% lower than current levels. Here we address the question of whether old trees have already responded to the rapid rise in [CO2] occurring over the past 150 years. In spite of limited data, aging trees have been shown to possess a substantial capacity for increased net growth after a period of post-maturity growth decline. Observations of renewed growth and physiological function in old trees have, in some instances, coincided with Industrial Age increases in key environmental resources, including [CO2], suggesting the potential for continued growth in old trees as a function of continued global climate change.

  5. A big data management platform for rapidly changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahedi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Big data is now a reality. Storing, managing, and analyzing very large amount of data is a common challenge in the world of technology where digital content is rapidly growing. In recent years, FEI advanced electron microscopes, with their unsurpassed magnification and resolving power brought an

  6. Rapid landscape change in 6th century northern Jordan: interdisciplinary geoarchaeological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Landscapes of the ancient fertile crescent are considered affected by soil degradation as result of long-term farming since the Neolithic, and impressive ruins of antiquity led to assumptions that their abandonment must have been conntected with reduced agricultural productivity. In this context, a valley fill near the site of Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan was apparently deposited largely during the 6th century AD, and provides evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. However, an interdisciplinary case study of land use, soil development, and sediments found that the valley fill cannot be connected with large-scale soil erosion in the vicinity of the site. On the one hand, this is indicated by the distribution of soil development and archaeological material as marker of past land use activity in the past, which suggests that the best soils were and still are used intensively. On the other hand, the sediments seem to point to the occurrence of climatic extremes such as heavy floods, the occurrence of soil creep after water saturation, but also a significant shift to aridity which may have triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, possibly connected with the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. Modern analogies of the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 let it seem possible that a volcanic event, perhaps the outbreak of the Ilopango volcano, was connected with these environmental turbulences. Such events cannot be understood by isolated studies: without a broad interdisciplinary framework, single archives are prone to misinterpretation, and our understanding of the environmental history of Abila is still very limited.

  7. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    . - Systematically characterize the sources, occurrence, transport and fate of environmental contaminants to guide efforts to manage and mitigate contamination. * Strategic Science Action 2. - Evaluate the threats of contamination on the health of the environment, fish, wildlife, and people, and inform the associated management and protection efforts. * Strategic Science Action 3. - Characterize potential human exposure to support establishment of health-based standards or guidelines and contamination-reduction efforts. Goal 3: Reduce the impact of pathogens on the environment, fish, wildlife, and people. * Strategic Science Action 1. - Determine the biotic and abiotic factors that control the ecology of infectious diseases affecting natural populations of aquatic and terrestrial species and potential transmission to other animals and humans. * Strategic Science Action 2. - Establish how natural and anthropogenic environmental changes affect the distribution and severity of infectious diseases in natural populations of aquatic and terrestrial species and potential transmission to other animals and humans. * Strategic Science Action 3. - Develop surveillance systems to identify changing patterns of disease activity in priority geographic areas. Goal 4: Discover the complex interactions and combined effects of exposure to contaminants and pathogens. * Strategic Science Action 1. - Identify how exposure to one class of disease agents (contaminants or pathogens) can make an organism more susceptible to effects from exposure to the other class of disease agents. * Strategic Science Action 2. - Implement interdisciplinary studies that characterize the effects of combined exposure to pathogens and contaminants. Goal 5: Prepare for and respond to the environmental impacts and related health threats of natural and anthropogenic disasters. * Strategic Science Action 1. - Establish a formal interdisciplinary science capability to rapidly assess the environmental health risks associated with

  8. Report of a seminar on natural environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This document reports the presentations given at a seminar on Natural Environmental Change: Processes Affecting the Deep Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Britain and the ensuing discussion. Following introductory summaries of the Department of the Environment research programme into radioactive waste management and Nirex-funded research into long-term environmental change, four topical presentations were given, namely, ''Climatic Change'', ''Surface Processes'', and ''Stress and Seismicity''. These presentations and the consequent discussion have served to clarify many key aspects of long-term environmental change and have provided direction to the ongoing studies of the effects of environmental change on the performance of deep radioactive waste disposal facilities. (author)

  9. Global Environmental Change: What Can Health Care Providers and the Environmental Health Community Do About It Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian S.; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A.; Hu, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon- and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available “planetary health” metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations. PMID:17185267

  10. Global environmental change: what can health care providers and the environmental health community do about it now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian S; Parker, Cindy; Glass, Thomas A; Hu, Howard

    2006-12-01

    The debate about whether global environmental change is real is now over; in its wake is the realization that it is happening more rapidly than predicted. These changes constitute a profound challenge to human health, both as a direct threat and as a promoter of other risks. We call on health care providers to inform themselves about these issues and to become agents of change in their communities. It is our responsibility as clinicians to educate patients and their communities on the connections between regressive policies, unsustainable behaviors, global environmental changes, and threats to health and security. We call on professional organizations to assist in educating their members about these issues, in helping clinicians practice behavior change with their patients, and in adding their voices to this issue in our statehouses and Congress. We call for the development of carbon and other environmental-labeling of consumer products so individuals can make informed choices; we also call for the rapid implementation of policies that provide tangible economic incentives for choosing environmentally sustainable products and services. We urge the environmental health community to take up the challenge of developing a global environmental health index that will incorporate human health into available "planetary health" metrics and that can be used as a policy tool to evaluate the impact of interventions and document spatial and temporal shifts in the healthfulness of local areas. Finally, we urge our political, business, public health, and academic leaders to heed these environmental warnings and quickly develop regulatory and policy solutions so that the health of populations and the integrity of their environments will be ensured for future generations.

  11. A new oxidation flow reactor for measuring secondary aerosol formation of rapidly changing emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Pauli; Saukko, Erkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Bloss, Matthew; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) or environmental chambers can be used to estimate secondary aerosol formation potential of different emission sources. Emissions from anthropogenic sources, such as vehicles, often vary on short timescales. For example, to identify the vehicle driving conditions that lead to high potential secondary aerosol emissions, rapid oxidation of exhaust is needed. However, the residence times in environmental chambers and in most oxidation flow reactors are too long to study these transient effects ( ˜ 100 s in flow reactors and several hours in environmental chambers). Here, we present a new oxidation flow reactor, TSAR (TUT Secondary Aerosol Reactor), which has a short residence time ( ˜ 40 s) and near-laminar flow conditions. These improvements are achieved by reducing the reactor radius and volume. This allows studying, for example, the effect of vehicle driving conditions on the secondary aerosol formation potential of the exhaust. We show that the flow pattern in TSAR is nearly laminar and particle losses are negligible. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in TSAR has a similar mass spectrum to the SOA produced in the state-of-the-art reactor, PAM (potential aerosol mass). Both reactors produce the same amount of mass, but TSAR has a higher time resolution. We also show that TSAR is capable of measuring the secondary aerosol formation potential of a vehicle during a transient driving cycle and that the fast response of TSAR reveals how different driving conditions affect the amount of formed secondary aerosol. Thus, TSAR can be used to study rapidly changing emission sources, especially the vehicular emissions during transient driving.

  12. Rapid evolution of phenology during range expansion with recent climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenhouwer, Nicky; Wilschut, Rutger A; Williams, Jennifer L; van der Putten, Wim H; Levine, Jonathan M

    2018-02-01

    Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species' current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species' ability to shift their range with climate change may therefore depend on how populations evolve in response to such novel environmental conditions. However, due to the recent nature of thus far observed range expansions, the role of rapid adaptation during climate change migration is only beginning to be understood. Here, we evaluated evolution during the recent native range expansion of the annual plant Dittrichia graveolens, which is spreading northward in Europe from the Mediterranean region. We examined genetically based differentiation between core and edge populations in their phenology, a trait that is likely under selection with shorter growing seasons and greater seasonality at northern latitudes. In parallel common garden experiments at range edges in Switzerland and the Netherlands, we grew plants from Dutch, Swiss, and central and southern French populations. Population genetic analysis following RAD-sequencing of these populations supported the hypothesized central France origins of the Swiss and Dutch range edge populations. We found that in both common gardens, northern plants flowered up to 4 weeks earlier than southern plants. This differentiation in phenology extended from the core of the range to the Netherlands, a region only reached from central France over approximately the last 50 years. Fitness decreased as plants flowered later, supporting the hypothesized benefits of earlier flowering at the range edge. Our results suggest that native range expanding populations can rapidly adapt to novel environmental conditions in the expanded range, potentially promoting their ability to spread. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rapid deuterium exchange-in time for probing conformational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, K.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Isotopic exchange of protein backbone amide hydrogens has been used extensively as a sensitive probe of protein structure. One of the salient features of hydrogen exchange is the vast range of exchange rates in one protein. Isotopic exchange methods have been used to study the structural features including protein folding and unfolding (1), functionally different forms of proteins (2), protein-protein complexation (3), and protein stability parameter. Many backbone amide protons that are surface accessible and are not involved in hydrogen bonding undergo rapid deuterium exchange. In order to study, fast exchanging amide protons, fast exchange-in times are necessary

  14. Policy options to respond to rapid climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Marinova, N.A.; Bakker, S.; Tilburg, van X.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme

  15. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  16. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  17. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may....... Special considerations should be given in rapidly developing fields. If started too early the resulting comparison will likely turn out to be irrelevant because the new technology is not fully developed, not mastered or the device may have undergone major modifications rendering the results obsolete....... On the other hand, if started too late there is a chance that data may be lost because the technology has already been introduced into the daily clinics and physicians may be unwilling to recruit patients. Or the opposite, that the technique may have been rejected without a proper trial. In this situation...

  18. Environmental variation and population responses to global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Callum R.; Vindenes, Yngvild; Bailey, Liam; van de Pol, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Species' responses to environmental changes such as global warming are affected not only by trends in mean conditions, but also by natural and human-induced environmental fluctuations. Methods are needed to predict how such environmental variation affects ecological and evolutionary processes, in

  19. Environmental Education for Behaviour Change: Which Actions Should Be Targeted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2012-01-01

    One aim of environmental education is to enable people to make informed decisions about their environmental behaviour; this is particularly significant with environmental problems that are believed to be both major and imminent, such as climate change resulting from global warming. Previous research suggests no strong link between a person's…

  20. Holocene environmental changes in Red River Delta, Vietnam as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    63

    2VNU Key Laboratory of Geoenvironment and Climate change Response – 334 ... Keywords: Environmental change; Stable isotopes; C/N ratios; Red River ...... and Meade R H 1983 World-wide delivery of river sediment to the oceans; The.

  1. Managing in the rapidly changing context of higher education: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Besides the rate of change in the sector there are also, as seen from the continuous media coverage, a number of universities and technikons in some form of financial or leadership crisis. Over the past years one of the main reasons given for these crises was outstanding student fees. However, the reasons now alluded to ...

  2. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  3. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lin; Kulczychi, A. [Rutgers Univ., Cook College, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Despite much effort over the past decade on the ecological consequences of global warming, ecologists still have little understanding of the importance of interspecific interactions in species responses to environmental change. Models predict that predation should mitigate species responses to environmental change, and that interspecific competition should aggravate species responses to environmental change. To test this prediction, we studied how predation and competition affected the responses of two ciliates, Colpidiumstriatum and Parameciumtetraurelia, to temperature change in laboratory microcosms. We found that neither predation nor competition altered the responses of Colpidiumstratum to temperature change, and that competition but not predation altered the responses of Paramecium tetraurelia to temperature change. Asymmetric interactions and temperature-dependent interactions may have contributed to the disparity between model predictions and experimental results. Our results suggest that models ignoring inherent complexities in ecological communities may be inadequate in forecasting species responses to environmental change. (au)

  5. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Global Climate Change as Environmental Megacrisis

    OpenAIRE

    Endter-Wada, Joanna; Ingram, Helen

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze global climate change utilizing insights from the governance and crisis management literatures that seek to understand the prospects, nature, characteristics and the effects of cataclysmic events. They argue that global climate change is a mega-crisis hiding in plain sight yet there has been no proportionate mega-crisis response. People are still grappling with how to make sense of climate change, how to bridge multiple ways of knowing it, and how to negotiate collective c...

  7. Baseline scenarios of global environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcamo, J.; Kreileman, G.J.J.; Bollen, J.C.; Born, G.J. van den; Krol, M.S.; Toet, A.M.C.; Vries, H.J.M. de; Gerlagh, R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents three baseline scenarios of no policy action computed by the IMAGE2 model. These scenarios cover a wide range of coupled global change indicators, including: energy demand and consumption; food demand, consumption, and production; changes in land cover including changes in extent of agricultural land and forest; emissions of greenhouse gases and ozone precursors; and climate change and its impacts on sea level rise, crop productivity and natural vegetation. Scenario information is available for the entire world with regional and grid scale detail, and covers from 1970 to 2100. (author)

  8. World Wind Tools Reveal Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Originally developed under NASA's Learning Technologies program as a tool to engage and inspire students, World Wind software was released under the NASA Open Source Agreement license. Honolulu, Hawaii based Intelesense Technologies is one of the companies currently making use of the technology for environmental, public health, and other monitoring applications for nonprofit organizations and Government agencies. The company saved about $1 million in development costs by using the NASA software.

  9. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Aranda, Manuel; Barshis, Daniel J.; Bay, Line; Berumen, Michael L.; Bourne, David G.; Cantin, Neal; Foret, Sylvain; Matz, Mikhail; Miller, David J.; Moya, Aurelie; Putnam, Hollie M.; Ravasi, Timothy; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Voolstra, Christian R.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Whitelaw, Emma; Willis, Bette L.; Munday, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  10. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2014-11-18

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

  11. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  12. Rapid filtration separation-based sample preparation method for Bacillus spores in powdery and environmental matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Sandra; Boissinot, Maurice; Charlebois, Isabelle; Fauvel, Chantal M; Shi, Lu-E; Lévesque, Julie-Christine; Paquin, Amélie T; Bastien, Martine; Stewart, Gale; Leblanc, Eric; Sato, Sachiko; Bergeron, Michel G

    2012-03-01

    Authorities frequently need to analyze suspicious powders and other samples for biothreat agents in order to assess environmental safety. Numerous nucleic acid detection technologies have been developed to detect and identify biowarfare agents in a timely fashion. The extraction of microbial nucleic acids from a wide variety of powdery and environmental samples to obtain a quality level adequate for these technologies still remains a technical challenge. We aimed to develop a rapid and versatile method of separating bacteria from these samples and then extracting their microbial DNA. Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii was used as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. We studied the effects of a broad variety of powdery and environmental samples on PCR detection and the steps required to alleviate their interference. With a benchmark DNA extraction procedure, 17 of the 23 samples investigated interfered with bacterial lysis and/or PCR-based detection. Therefore, we developed the dual-filter method for applied recovery of microbial particles from environmental and powdery samples (DARE). The DARE procedure allows the separation of bacteria from contaminating matrices that interfere with PCR detection. This procedure required only 2 min, while the DNA extraction process lasted 7 min, for a total of sample preparation procedure allowed the recovery of cleaned bacterial spores and relieved detection interference caused by a wide variety of samples. Our procedure was easily completed in a laboratory facility and is amenable to field application and automation.

  13. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  14. Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Mumby, P. J.; Hooten, A. J.; Steneck, R. S.; Greenfield, P.; Gomez, E.; Harvell, C. D.; Sale, P. F.; Edwards, A. J.; Caldeira, K.; Knowlton, N.; Eakin, C. M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Muthiga, N.; Bradbury, R. H.; Dubi, A.; Hatziolos, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2°C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people. As the International Year of the Reef 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of coral-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided.

  15. Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

  16. Health impacts of rapid economic changes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Harnvoravongchai, P; Pitayarangsarit, S; Kasemsup, V

    2000-09-01

    The economic crisis in Thailand in July 1997 had major social implications for unemployment, under employment, household income contraction, changing expenditure patterns, and child abandonment. The crisis increased poverty incidence by 1 million, of whom 54% were the ultra-poor. This paper explores and explains the short-term health impact of the crisis, using existing data and some special surveys and interviews for 2 years during 1998-99. The health impacts of the crisis are mixed, some being negative and some being positive. Household health expenditure reduced by 24% in real terms; among the poorer households, institutional care was replaced by self-medication. The pre-crisis rising trend in expenditure on alcohol and tobacco consumption was reversed. Immunization spending and coverage were sustained at a very high level after the crisis, but reports of increases in diphtheria and pertussis indicate declining programme quality. An increase in malaria, despite budget increases, had many causes but was mainly due to reduced programme effectiveness. STD incidence continued the pre-crisis downward trend. Rates of HIV risky sexual behaviour were higher among conscripts than other male workers, but in both groups there was lower condom use with casual partners. HIV serosurveillance showed a continuation of the pre-crisis downward trend among commercial sex workers (CSW, both brothel and non-brothel based), pregnant women and donated blood; this trend was slightly reversed among male STD patients and more among intravenous drug users. Condom coverage among brothel based CSW continued to increase to 97.5%, despite a 72% budget cut in free condom distribution. Poverty and lack of insurance coverage are two major determinants of absence of or inadequate antenatal care, and low birthweight. The Low Income Scheme could not adequately cover the poor but the voluntary Health Card Scheme played a health safety net role for maternal and child health. Low birthweight and

  17. The environmental impact of changing consumption patterns: a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2001-01-01

    How does environmental impact change when national income increases? So far, this question has been mainly discussed from the point of view of production, but in recent years several studies have dealt with the question of decoupling from the point of view of consumption. The optimistic subscribers...... assessment of the environmental impact is most appropriately based on an input approach. Then data on input intensities for different categories of consumption goods are combined with data on changes in consumption patterns, and it is concluded that the historical changes in the composition of consumption...... seem to have done little to counterbalance the environmental effects of growth....

  18. Global environmental change and sustainable development in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, J.; Liberatore, A.; Grundlach, K. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    The document contains all but two papers presented at the Workshop as well as a summary of the contributions and discussions, a list of socio-economic research priorities identified at the meeting and a policy brief based on the themes woven together at the Workshop. The workshop was organised within the framework of the European Network for Research in Global Change (ENRICH). Papers include: global environmental change and sustainable development in Europe and in the Mediterranean basin, water management and global environmental change policies, human impacts on the nitrogen cycle, the merchandising of biodiversity, environmental performance indicators, urban sustainability indicators and strategies for sustainability.

  19. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J

    2018-03-01

    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Climate and environmental change in China. 1951-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Dahe [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute; Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). State Meteorological Administration; Ding, Yongjian [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou (China). Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute; Mu, Mu (ed.) [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao (China). Inst. of Oceanology

    2016-02-01

    Through numerous color figures and tables, this book presents the most up-to-date knowledge on climate and environmental change in China. It documents the evidence and attribution of climate and environmental changes in the past few decades and discusses the impacts of climate change on environments, economy, and society. The book further provides projections of climate change and its impacts in the future. Finally, it offers the climate change mitigation and adaption technologies with strategic options which will be of interest for policy makers, researchers and the general public as well.

  1. Climate and environmental change in China. 1951-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Dahe; Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, BJ; Ding, Yongjian; Mu, Mu

    2016-01-01

    Through numerous color figures and tables, this book presents the most up-to-date knowledge on climate and environmental change in China. It documents the evidence and attribution of climate and environmental changes in the past few decades and discusses the impacts of climate change on environments, economy, and society. The book further provides projections of climate change and its impacts in the future. Finally, it offers the climate change mitigation and adaption technologies with strategic options which will be of interest for policy makers, researchers and the general public as well.

  2. Global Environmental Change : Understanding the Human Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel; Young, Oran R; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences; Stern, Paul C; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  3. Global environmental change: understanding the human dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stern, Paul C; Young, Oran R; Druckman, Daniel

    ... on the Human Dimensions of Global Change Commission on the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1992 Copyrightthe cannot be not from book, paper however, version for formatting, original authoritative the typesetting-specific the as from created publication files ...

  4. Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A.; El-Keblawy, Ali; Najar, Atyat

    2017-04-01

    Calotropis procera seedlings could be used as a rapid cost effective bioindicator for measuring aluminum environmental pollution Kareem A. Mosa, Ali El-Keblawy, Atyat Najar Department of Applied Biology, College of Sciences, University of Sharjah, UAE Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of different heavy metals in natural resources like soil, water and air thus affecting their quality. Aluminum (Al) is a dominant heavy metal pollutant that causes serious toxic effects to living systems including plants. Therefore, it is critical to regularly monitor the changes in Al levels in natural resources. Living organisms could be used as bioindicators for monitoring and measuring the levels of heavy metals in environmental samples. The aim of this study was to develop a cost effective bioindicator for monitoring aluminum (Al) and assess the damage caused by Al bioaccumulation using the root system of Calotropis Procera seedlings. A hydroponic system was developed for growing C. Procera in four different concentrations of Al (20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm). Root length and shoot fresh and dry weights were assessed after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days of Al treatment. The results showed remarkable sensitivity of C. Procera seedlings for the different concentrations of Al. There was gradual but significant decrease in C. Procera root length with the increase in the Al concentrations. X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XRF) analysis indicated a significant increase in Al concentration in C. Procera roots with the increase of both Al concentration in the hydroponic solution and the growing period. Moreover, electrical conductivity analysis showed that Al induced damage to C. Procera root plasma membrane as indicated by the increase in electrolyte leakages. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR analysis confirmed the genotoxin effect of Al which induced C. Procera genomic DNA modification. Altogether, the result demonstrated that C. Procera could

  5. Environmental change and human mobility in the digital age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boas, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    This intervention argues for the need of research to examine how information and communication technologies (ICTs) shape human mobility in the context of environmental change. ICTs are becoming increasingly central in the daily lives of migrants and communities at risk of environmental events.

  6. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Stingl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...

  7. Special Issue: Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingl, Ulrich

    2018-03-30

    Environmental issues such as eutrophication, ocean acidification, sea level rise, saltwater intrusion, increase in carbon dioxide levels, or rise of average global temperatures, among many others, are impacting and changing whole ecosystems [...].

  8. Through the eyes of children: perceptions of environmental change in tropical forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Pellier

    Full Text Available This study seeks to understand children's perceptions of their present and future environments in the highly biodiverse and rapidly changing landscapes of Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo. We analyzed drawings by children (target age 10-15 years from 22 villages, which show how children perceive the present conditions of forests and wildlife surrounding their villages and how they expect conditions to change over the next 15 years. Analyses of picture elements and their relationships to current landscape variables indicate that children have a sophisticated understanding of their environment and how different environmental factors interact, either positively or negatively. Children appear to have landscape-dependent environmental perceptions, showing awareness of past environmental conditions and many aspects of recent trends, and translating these into predictions for future environmental conditions. The further removed their present landscape is from the originally forested one, the more environmental change they expect in the future, particularly declines in forest cover, rivers, animal diversity and increases in temperature and natural disasters. This suggests that loss of past perceptions and associated "shifting environmental baselines" do not feature strongly among children on Borneo, at least not for the perceptions we investigated here. Our findings that children have negative expectations of their future environmental conditions have important political implications. More than other generations, children have a stake in ensuring that future environmental conditions support their long-term well-being. Understanding what drives environmental views among children, and how they consider trade-offs between economic development and social and environmental change, should inform optimal policies on land use. Our study illuminates part of the complex interplay between perceptions of land cover and land use change. Capturing the views of children

  9. How to change environmental conditions for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commers, Matthew J; Gottlieb, Nell; Kok, Gerjo

    2007-03-01

    Since the Lalonde report, contemporary public-health theory has given steadily more attention to the role of environments in influencing health status. Environments, both social and physical, influence health directly or through complex interactions with behavior, genetics and health-care systems. They are also important for public-health because environments are the complex systems through which people are both empowered and exercise their empowerment. If public-health professionals are to play a significant role in influencing environments for health, they need analytical instruments that enable them to link specific environmental conditions with the actions necessary to improve them. These instruments must also enable public-health professionals to identify points of leverage for stimulating key actors to take the actions necessary to make environments more promoting of health. This article first presents one such analytical instrument. Then, building on examples relating to socio-economic health inequities, the analytical instrument is applied to reveal how it can add value to health professionals' effectiveness in planning interventions for more health-promoting environments.

  10. CLIMATE CHANGE AND COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICTS: ARE THEY CORRELATED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Romsan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and global warming affect major change in freshwater availability and season uncertainty which hamper all part of the globe. Although the phenomenon is not new but it needs concerns from all the government of States around the world to  address the problem. If notthe drought and water shortages will directly and indirectly be the world problem and finally will ignite conflict over resources.Pollution and environmental degradation will also affect the sustainability of community’s economic activities. In Indonesia, since the enforcement of the first Environmental Management Act of 1982 up to the third Environmental Management Act of 2019, there have been forty one conflicts involving community and industries and palm plantation companies. All the conflicts are brought before the courts. Herein, industries and plantations are blamed for responsible for river water pollution and environmental degradation. Unfortunately, there is very little information in Indonesia obtained from the research reports, journals, news papers, magazines whether climate change and global warming also responsible for the occurrence of community environmental conflict. From the second data sources obtained from outsite Indonesia it is found that there is a link between climate change and community environmental disputes. The objectives of this paper tryto examine whether the cases submitted and solved by the District Courtsalso have some connection with the climate change phenomenon. Other objectives are to recommend to the Government of Indonesia to strengthen the existing regulations dealing with the climate change

  11. Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in the Rapidly Changing Economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfeng; Benjamin, Emelia J; MacMahon, Stephen

    2016-06-14

    With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental changes. The latter have predisposed to increasing cardiovascular risk factors and the CVD pandemic. Rising CVD rates have had a major economic impact, which has challenged the healthcare system and the whole society. With recognition of the importance of health, initial political steps and national actions have been taken to address the CVD epidemic. Looking to the future, we recommend that 4 priorities should be taken: pursue multisectorial government and nongovernment strategies targeting the underlying causes of CVD (the whole-of-government and whole-of-society policy); give priority to prevention; reform the healthcare system to fit the nature of noncommunicable diseases; and conduct research for evidence-based, low-cost, simple, sustainable, and scalable interventions. By pursuing the 4 priorities, the pandemic of CVD and other major noncommunicable diseases in China will be reversed and the global sustainable development goal achieved. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Rapid changes in genetic architecture of behavioural syndromes following colonization of a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Green, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Harris, S; Pettersson, L B; Svensson, E I

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural syndromes, that is correlated behaviours, may be a result from adaptive correlational selection, but in a new environmental setting, the trait correlation might act as an evolutionary constraint. However, knowledge about the quantitative genetic basis of behavioural syndromes, and the stability and evolvability of genetic correlations under different ecological conditions, is limited. We investigated the quantitative genetic basis of correlated behaviours in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. In some Swedish lakes, A. aquaticus has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes, presumably due to habitat-specific selection from predation. Using a common garden approach and animal model analyses, we estimated quantitative genetic parameters for behavioural traits and compared the genetic architecture between the ecotypes. We report that the genetic covariance structure of the behavioural traits has been altered in the novel ecotype, demonstrating divergence in behavioural correlations. Thus, our study confirms that genetic correlations behind behaviours can change rapidly in response to novel selective environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  13. EDITORIAL: Northern Hemisphere high latitude climate and environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber

    2007-10-01

    High Northern Hemisphere latitudes are undergoing rapid and significant change associated with climate warming. Climatic change in this region interacts with and affects the rate of the global change through atmospheric circulation, biogeophysical, and biogeochemical feedbacks. Changes in the surface energy balance, hydrologic cycle, and carbon budget feedback to regional and global weather and climate systems. Two-thirds of the Northern Hemisphere high latitude land mass resides in Northern Eurasia (~20% of the global land mass), and this region has undergone sweeping socio-economic change throughout the 20th century. How this carbon-rich, cold region component of the Earth system functions as a regional entity and interacts with and feeds back to the greater global system is to a large extent unknown. To mitigate the deficiencies in understanding these feedbacks, which may in turn hamper our understanding of the global change rates and patterns, an initiative was formed. Three years ago the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was established to address large-scale and long-term manifestations of climate and environmental change in this region. The NEESPI Science Plan and its Executive Summary have been published at the NEESPI web site (neespi.org). Since 2004, NEESPI participants have been able to seed several waves of research proposals to international and national funding agencies and institutions and also contribute to the International Polar Year. Currently, NEESPI is widely recognized and endorsed by several Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP) programmes and projects: the International Geosphere and Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Research Programme through the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment and Climate and Cryosphere Projects, the Global Water System Project, Global Carbon Project, Global Land Project, and the Integrated Land Ecosystem—Atmosphere Processes Study. Through NEESPI, more than 100 individually

  14. Photogrammetric methods in surveying environmental state and changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Various types of maps prepared by means of photogrammetry are reviewed. So-called orthophotomaps, showing air, land or water pollution and their sources on the background of ground, vegetation and various surface objects are characterized. Methods of interpreting orthophotomaps showing environmental effects of mining coal, coal combustion and other pollution sources are reviewed. Role of statistical data in evaluation of pollution and the general environmental impact of mines or power stations are discussed. A comprehensive system of describing the condition of the natural environment, observed environmental changes, and forecasting environmental effects of coal mining, combustion and other pollution sources is described. It is called environmental monitoring. Role of photogrammetry in environmental monitoring is stressed: air photography, satellite data, and infrared photography of vegetation. (7 refs.) (In Polish)

  15. Effects of environmental change on malaria in the Amazon region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Takken, W.; Tarso Vilarinhos, de, P.; Schneider, P.; Santos, dos, F.

    2003-01-01

    Malaria is endemic in Brazil, affecting mostly the Amazon states. Whereas 50 years ago good progress was made towards its control, since the opening up of the Amazon region for forestry, agriculture and livestock activities, the disease has rapidly increased in incidence, peaking to >500,000 cases annually in the 1990s. Rondônia state was particularly hard hit, with thousands of new immigrants suffering malaria attacks. It is argued that the environmental change caused by deforestation has...

  16. Linking degradation status with ecosystem vulnerability to environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Baho, Didier L.; Allen, Craig R.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental change can cause regime shifts in ecosystems, potentially threatening ecosystem services. It is unclear if the degradation status of ecosystems correlates with their vulnerability to environmental change, and thus the risk of future regime shifts. We assessed resilience in acidified (degraded) and circumneutral (undegraded) lakes with long-term data (1988–2012), using time series modeling. We identified temporal frequencies in invertebrate assemblages, which identifies groups of species whose population dynamics vary at particular temporal scales. We also assessed species with stochastic dynamics, those whose population dynamics vary irregularly and unpredictably over time. We determined the distribution of functional feeding groups of invertebrates within and across the temporal scales identified, and in those species with stochastic dynamics, and assessed attributes hypothesized to contribute to resilience. Three patterns of temporal dynamics, consistent across study lakes, were identified in the invertebrates. The first pattern was one of monotonic change associated with changing abiotic lake conditions. The second and third patterns appeared unrelated to the environmental changes we monitored. Acidified and the circumneutral lakes shared similar levels and patterns of functional richness, evenness, diversity, and redundancy for species within and across the observed temporal scales and for stochastic species groups. These similar resilience characteristics suggest that both lake types did not differ in vulnerability to the environmental changes observed here. Although both lake types appeared equally vulnerable in this study, our approach demonstrates how assessing systemic vulnerability by quantifying ecological resilience can help address uncertainty in predicting ecosystem responses to environmental change across ecosystems.

  17. The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Camp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and localized anthropogenic stressors are driving rapid declines in coral reef health. In vitro experiments have been fundamental in providing insight into how reef organisms will potentially respond to future climates. However, such experiments are inevitably limited in their ability to reproduce the complex interactions that govern reef systems. Studies examining coral communities that already persist under naturally-occurring extreme and marginal physicochemical conditions have therefore become increasingly popular to advance ecosystem scale predictions of future reef form and function, although no single site provides a perfect analog to future reefs. Here we review the current state of knowledge that exists on the distribution of corals in marginal and extreme environments, and geographic sites at the latitudinal extremes of reef growth, as well as a variety of shallow reef systems and reef-neighboring environments (including upwelling and CO2 vent sites. We also conduct a synthesis of the abiotic data that have been collected at these systems, to provide the first collective assessment on the range of extreme conditions under which corals currently persist. We use the review and data synthesis to increase our understanding of the biological and ecological mechanisms that facilitate survival and success under sub-optimal physicochemical conditions. This comprehensive assessment can begin to: (i highlight the extent of extreme abiotic scenarios under which corals can persist, (ii explore whether there are commonalities in coral taxa able to persist in such extremes, (iii provide evidence for key mechanisms required to support survival and/or persistence under sub-optimal environmental conditions, and (iv evaluate the potential of current sub-optimal coral environments to act as potential refugia under changing environmental conditions. Such a collective approach is critical to better understand the future survival of

  18. Lake ecosystem response to rapid lateglacial climate changes in lake sediments from northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Ott, Florian; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Apolinarska, Karina; Lutyńska, Monika; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Brauer, Achim; Wulf, Sabine; Skubała, Piotr; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-04-01

    During the Late Glacial Period environment changes were triggered by climatic oscillations which in turn controlled processes like, for example, permafrost thawing, vegetation development and ground water circulation. These environmental changes are ideally recorded in lake sediments and thus can be reconstructed applying a multi-poxy approach. Here, we present the results from the Trzechowskie paleolake, located in the northern Polish lowlands (eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland). The site is situated on the outwash plain of the Wda River, which was formed during the Pomeranian phase of the Vistulian glaciation ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The depression of the Trzechowskie lake basin formed after melting of a buried ice block during the Allerød (13903±170 cal yrs BP). We reconstructed environmental changes in the Trzechowskie paleolake and its catchment using biotic proxies (macrofossils, pollen, cladocera, diatoms, oribatidae mite) and geochemical proxies (δ18O, δ13C, loss-on-ignition (LOI), CaCO3 content). In addition, we carried out µ-XRF element core scanning. The chronology has been established by means of biostratigraphyAMS14C dating on plant macro remains, varve counting in laminated intervals and the late Allerød Laacher See Tephra isochrone. Our results showed that biogenic accumulation in the lake started during the Bølling. Development of coniferous forest during the Allerød with dominance of Pinus sylvestris lead to leaching of carbonates in the catchment due to low pH increasing the flux of Ca ions into the lake. In consequence calcite precipitating in the lake increased as evidences by increasing CaCO3 contents. Both biotic and physical proxies clearly reflect the rapid decrease in productivity at the onset of the Younger Dryas. We compare the data from the Trzechowskie paleolake with the Meerfelder Maar and Rehwiese lake records based on tephrochronological synchronization using the Laacher See Tephra. This study is a contribution to the

  19. Long-term culture change related to rapid response system implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer; Johansson, Anna; Lennes, Inga; Hsu, Douglas; Tess, Anjala; Howell, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention to patient safety in training hospitals may come at the expense of trainee autonomy and professional growth. This study sought to examine changes in medical trainees' self-reported behaviour after the institution-wide implementation of a rapid response system. We conducted a two-point cross-sectional survey of medical trainees in 2006, during the implementation of a rapid response system, and in 2010, in a single academic medical centre. A novel instrument was used to measure trainee likelihood of calling for supervisory assistance, perception of autonomy, and comfort in managing decompensating patients. Non-parametric tests to assess for change were used and year of training was evaluated as an effect modifier. Response rates were 38% in 2006 and 70% in 2010. After 5 years of the full implementation of the rapid response system, residents were significantly more likely to report calling their attending physicians for assistance (rising from 40% to 65% of relevant situations; p autonomy at 5 years after the implementation of the rapid response system. These changes were mirrored in the actual use of the rapid response system, which increased by 41% during the 5-year period after adjustment for patient volume (p < 0.0001). A primary team-focused implementation of a rapid response system was associated with durable changes in resident physicians' reported behaviour, including increased comfort with involving more experienced physicians and managing unstable patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Rapid changes in the range limits of Scots pine 4000 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, A.J.; Huntley, B.

    1991-01-01

    Paleoecological data provide estimates of response rates to past climate changes. Fossil Pinus sylvestris stumps in far northern Scotland demonstrate former presence of pine trees where conventional pollen evidence of pine forests is lacking. Radiocarbon, dendrochronological, and fine temporal-resolution palynological data show that pine forest were present for about four centuries some 4,000 years ago; the forests expanded and then retreated rapidly some 70 to 80 kilometers. Despite the rapidity of this response to climate change, it occurred at rates slower by an order of magnitude than those necessary to maintain equilibrium with forecast climate changes attributed to the greenhouse effect

  1. Understanding rapid theoretical change in particle physics: a month-by-month co-citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Koester, D.; White, D.H.; Kern, R.

    1979-01-01

    While co-citation analysis has proved a powerful tool in the study of changes in intellectual foci in science, no one has ever used the technique to study very rapid changes in the theoretical structure of a scientific field. This paper presents month-by-month co-citation analyses of key phases in the weak-electromagnetic unification research program within particle physics, and shows that these analyses capture and illuminate very rapid intellectual changes. These data provide yet another illustration of the utility of co-citation analysis for understanding the history of science. 8 figures

  2. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  3. Curioser and Curioser: New Concepts in the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Frances C.

    1999-01-01

    The new "Handbook" assumes that society is changing rapidly and educational administration must change with it. This article critiques chapters on four concepts: ideology, the new consumerism, social capital, and the new institutionalism. Consumerism is pure 19th-century liberalism/individualism; social capital theory and…

  4. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  5. Environmental management at the Grand Rapids Generating Station following the Unit No.1 headcover failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Failure of the headcover of Unit 1 in the Grand Rapids generating station in March, 1992 caused the station to flood, releasing several thousand gallons of oil and removing the station from service for several weeks. Environmental considerations were a considerable part of the station restoration activities, reservoir and flow management programs and responses to public concerns arising from the accident. A major oil spill containment and cleanup program was undertaken, with station cleanup and debris disposal carried out in a manner acceptable to environmental authorities. Reservoir spillage was necessitated by the station shutdown. The spill recreated fish habitat in the spillway and walleye spawning were documented. A compensation program was developed to respond to problems caused by debris flushed from the spillway channel. On spill termination, a fish salvage program removed fish from a scour hole in the spillway channel. A proactive program of public information provided local residents with the facts about the incident and response program, and allayed concerns about public safety. 4 refs., 2 figs

  6. Rapid and sensitive reporter gene assays for detection of antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects of environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, Anne; Jørgensen, E.C.B.; Larsen, John Christian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential antiandrog......Reports on increasing incidences in developmental abnormalities of the human male reproductive tract and the recent identifications of environmental chemicals with antiandrogenic activity necessitate the screening of a larger number of compounds in order to get an overview of potential...... antiandrogenic chemicals present in our environment. Thus, there is a great need for an effective in vitro screening method for (anti)androgenic chemicals. We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible reporter gene assay for detection of antiandrogenic chemicals. Chinese Hamster Ovary cells were...... calcium phosphate transfection method, this method has the advantage of being more feasible, as the assay can be scaled down to the microtiter plate format. Furthermore, the transfection reagent is noncytotoxic, allowing its addition together with the test compounds thereby reducing the hands...

  7. Environmental Sustainability Change Management in SMEs: Learning from Sustainability Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, Doren; Wiesner, Retha; Roxas, Banjo

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the change management processes involved in undertaking environmental sustainability (ES) initiatives within Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) and relate these to the main attributes of learning organisations. Using case study techniques, the study draws from the change management experiences of a sample of 12 ES…

  8. Framing Vulnerability and Adaptation to Environmental Change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    The launching of this African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology coincides with the highly publicized release of international assessment of climate change. The latest, on 6th April, 2007 was the 21-page summary for policy makers from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) working group ...

  9. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  10. How Is Environmental Proactivity Accomplished? Drivers and Barriers in Firms’ Pro-Environmental Change Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Valero-Gil

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The contaminating effects of economic activity and the scarcity of natural resources has led firms to a situation in which corporate strategy has been compromised by environmental issues. The objective of this paper is to analyse some of the factors determining the pro-environmental change process by considering the drivers encouraging firms to progress in environmental protection and the barriers that curb this progress. Using a structural equation model implemented on a sample of 303 firms, our results confirm a direct and positive effect of stakeholder pressure and of the expectations of obtaining competitive advantages from the pro-environmental change process. The results also confirmed the indirect effect of stakeholder pressure on pro-environmental change through managers’ expectations of obtaining competitive advantages, which play a mediating role in the firm’s response. Although managers interpret the barriers we have studied as obstacles to adopting environmental protection measures, they do not prevent any firm from reaching advanced levels of pro-environmental change.

  11. Changing behaviour: successful environmental programmes in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Young, CW; Davis, M; McNeill, IM; Malhotra, B; Russell, S; Unsworth, K; Clegg, CW

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on improving the pro-environmental attitudes, behaviour and habits of individuals whether at home, in education, traveling, shopping or in the workplace. This article focuses on the workplace by conducting a multi-disciplinary literature review of research that has examined the influence of organisation-based behaviour change initiatives. The review includes only research evidence that measured actual environmental performance (e.g. energy use) rather than solely ...

  12. Changes in environmental law. [German Federal Republic]. Umweltrecht im Wandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Tasch, P C

    1978-01-01

    In this study the changing process of environmental law is depicted which is marked by the ecological crisis and the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the reform of the ecological licensing and voidance procedures which is in the centre of the discussion about (environmental) law policy as well as on the jurisprudential enforcement of the basic environmental right on life and physical integrity. The volume ends with a study on 'Nuclear Energy, Law and Judiciary Power' - a subject which is of immediate interest and special significance with its far-reaching political consequences for ecology, energy, and economics.

  13. Drastic Environmental Change on Mars: Applying the Lessons Learned on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairen, A.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Irwin, L. N.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and drastic environmental change has occurred frequently on Earth, posing a critical challenge to life. However, directional selection has overcome those challenges and driven life on our planet to ever increasing diversity and complexity. Based on our knowledge of the natural history of Earth, the effect of drastic environmental changes on a planet's biosphere can be attributed to three main factors: (1) the nature and time scale of change, (2) the composition of the biosphere prior to change, and (3) the nature of the environment following the change. Mars has undergone even larger environmental changes than Earth, from habitable conditions under which the origin of life (or transfer of life from Earth) seem plausible, to a dry and cold planet punctuated by wetter conditions. Given its planetary history, life on Mars could have retreated to a psychrophilic lifestyle in the deep subsurface or to environmental near-surface niches, such as hydrothermal regions and caves. Further, strong directional selection could have pushed putative martian life to evolve alternating cycles between active and dormant forms, as well as the innovation of new traits adapted to challenging near-surface conditions (e.g., use of H2O2 or perchlorates as antifreeze compounds).

  14. Climate Change: Implications for the Assumptions, Goals and Methods of Urban Environmental Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Hill

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing awareness of the implications of global climate change, shifts are becoming necessary and apparent in the assumptions, concepts, goals and methods of urban environmental planning. This review will present the argument that these changes represent a genuine paradigm shift in urban environmental planning. Reflection and action to develop this paradigm shift is critical now and in the next decades, because environmental planning for cities will only become more urgent as we enter a new climate period. The concepts, methods and assumptions that urban environmental planners have relied on in previous decades to protect people, ecosystems and physical structures are inadequate if they do not explicitly account for a rapidly changing regional climate context, specifically from a hydrological and ecological perspective. The over-arching concept of spatial suitability that guided planning in most of the 20th century has already given way to concepts that address sustainability, recognizing the importance of temporality. Quite rapidly, the concept of sustainability has been replaced in many planning contexts by the priority of establishing resilience in the face of extreme disturbance events. Now even this concept of resilience is being incorporated into a novel concept of urban planning as a process of adaptation to permanent, incremental environmental changes. This adaptation concept recognizes the necessity for continued resilience to extreme events, while acknowledging that permanent changes are also occurring as a result of trends that have a clear direction over time, such as rising sea levels. Similarly, the methods of urban environmental planning have relied on statistical data about hydrological and ecological systems that will not adequately describe these systems under a new climate regime. These methods are beginning to be replaced by methods that make use of early warning systems for regime shifts, and process

  15. Facing global environmental change. Environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, Hans Guenter [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Political and Social Sciences; United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); AFES-Press, Mosbach (Germany); Oswald Spring, Ursula [National Univ. of Mexico (UNAM), Cuernavaca, MOR (MX). Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidiscipinarias (CRIM); United Nations Univ., Bonn (DE). Inst. for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS); Grin, John [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Amsterdam School for Social Science Research; Mesjasz, Czeslaw [Cracow Univ. of Economics (Poland). Faculty of Management; Kameri-Mbote, Patricia [Nairobi Univ. (Kenya). School of Law; International Environmental Law Research Centre, Nairobi (Kenya); Behera, Navnita Chadha [Jamia Millia Islamia Univ., New Delhi (India). Nelson Mandela Center for Peace and Conflict Resolution; Chourou, Bechir [Tunis-Carthage Univ., Hammam-Chatt (Tunisia); Krummenacher, Heinz (eds.) [swisspeace, Bern (Switzerland). FAST International

    2009-07-01

    This policy-focused, global and multidisciplinary security handbook on Facing Global Environmental Change addresses new security threats of the 21st century posed by climate change, desertification, water stress, population growth and urbanization. These security dangers and concerns lead to migration, crises and conflicts. They are on the agenda of the UN, OECD, OSCE, NATO and EU. In 100 chapters, 132 authors from 49 countries analyze the global debate on environmental, human and gender, energy, food, livelihood, health and water security concepts and policy problems. In 10 parts they discuss the context and the securitization of global environmental change and of extreme natural and societal outcomes. They suggest a new research programme to move from knowledge to action, from reactive to proactive policies and to explore the opportunities of environ-mental cooperation for a new peace policy. (orig.)

  16. Climate Change and Environmental assessments: Issues in an African Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalfelt, Arne; Naess, Lars Otto

    1997-12-31

    The present report discusses the potential for integrating climate change issues into environmental assessments of development actions, with an emphasis on sub-Sahara Africa. The study is motivated by the fact that future climate change could have significant adverse impacts on the natural and socio-economic environment in Africa. Yet, to date global change issues, including climate change, have been largely overlooked in the process of improving environmental assessment procedures and methodologies. It is argued that although emissions of greenhouse gases in Africa are negligible today, it is highly relevant to include this aspect in the planning of long-term development strategies. The report discusses potential areas of conflicts and synergies between climate change and development goals. The general conclusion is that environmental assessments could be an appropriate tool for addressing climate change issues, while there are still several obstacles to its practical implementation. Four priority areas are suggested for further work: (1) Environmental accounting, (2) harmonization and standard-setting, (3) implementation, and (4) risk management. 82 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Modeling adaptive and non-adaptive responses to environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coulson, Tim; Kendall, Bruce E; Barthold, Julia A.

    2017-01-01

    , with plastic responses being either adaptive or non-adaptive. We develop an approach that links quantitative genetic theory with data-driven structured models to allow prediction of population responses to environmental change via plasticity and adaptive evolution. After introducing general new theory, we...... construct a number of example models to demonstrate that evolutionary responses to environmental change over the short-term will be considerably slower than plastic responses, and that the rate of adaptive evolution to a new environment depends upon whether plastic responses are adaptive or non-adaptive....... Parameterization of the models we develop requires information on genetic and phenotypic variation and demography that will not always be available, meaning that simpler models will often be required to predict responses to environmental change. We consequently develop a method to examine whether the full...

  18. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryony A; Grace, Delia; Kock, Richard; Alonso, Silvia; Rushton, Jonathan; Said, Mohammed Y; McKeever, Declan; Mutua, Florence; Young, Jarrah; McDermott, John; Pfeiffer, Dirk Udo

    2013-05-21

    A systematic review was conducted by a multidisciplinary team to analyze qualitatively best available scientific evidence on the effect of agricultural intensification and environmental changes on the risk of zoonoses for which there are epidemiological interactions between wildlife and livestock. The study found several examples in which agricultural intensification and/or environmental change were associated with an increased risk of zoonotic disease emergence, driven by the impact of an expanding human population and changing human behavior on the environment. We conclude that the rate of future zoonotic disease emergence or reemergence will be closely linked to the evolution of the agriculture-environment nexus. However, available research inadequately addresses the complexity and interrelatedness of environmental, biological, economic, and social dimensions of zoonotic pathogen emergence, which significantly limits our ability to predict, prevent, and respond to zoonotic disease emergence.

  19. Environmental stress, resource management and demographic change in Northern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niboye, E.P.

    1999-12-01

    the management of resources both at global and local levels. We found out empirically that despite the dwindling natural resource base, the people in Arumeru still maintain their demographic dynamism. For them, it is a rational thing to do. The explanation for this phenomenon is not discrete, but spans the whole range of the population-resource continuum. From the demographic transition point of view, the society has not reached the threshold where child labour is valueless. In Arumeru, the children are still valued for their labour as they participate in both agro-pastoral related income generating activities. Further, children are still old age insurers. Thus, the age long traditions which favour the persistence of high fertility regimes are still in force. Having children is still a pleasure which costs nothing and hence the family size is rarely determined by the household's income. The interplay of proximate determinants of fertility is found to have an effect on the population increase in the district. People enter into marriage unions at very young ages, while the breastfeeding duration has drastically decreased in recent years. Furthermore, postpartum abstinence is no longer observed and incidences of pathological infertility have been tremendously reduced, thanks to modern medicine. All these factors support high fertility regimes. The argument that rapid population growth always leads to environmental decline and thus forces rural economies into diminishing returns, over-utilisation of resource and pauperisation is rejected. Despite the population increase and dwindling resource base in Arumeru, food security, rural incomes and standard of living have consistently improved throughout the century. The situation in the study area somehow accommodate the Boserupian model, where population growth triggers agricultural intensification, but in this case, the forces which triggers change did not emanate from within, but were externally generated. Institutional

  20. Role of social science in global environmental change: case of urbanisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available the role of social scientists in global environmental change by examining urbanisation and other environmental changes as suggested in the science plan of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP 2005)...

  1. Accumulation, transfer, and environmental risk of soil mercury in a rapidly industrializing region of the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Biao; Yan, Lianxiang; Sun, Weixia; Zhao, Yongcun; Shi, Xuezheng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Wang, Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Graduate Univ. of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Weindorf, David C. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). AgCenter

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Mercury (Hg) accumulation and transfer in soil ecosystems has been altered on local, regional, and even global scales, and their environmental risk has increasingly been a concern to the public and the scientific community. Materials and methods: A county level region in Zhangjiagang County, the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China and a factory with Hg-contaminated wastewater discharging within the region were selected to study the accumulation, bioavailability, and transfer of Hg from different sources in soils and crops under rapid industrialization, urbanization, and intensive agricultural activities. Regional soil samples close to and away from factories and local soil and crop samples around a typical factory were collected in the YRD region of China. Soil and crop Hg and basic soil properties were examined. Results and discussion: Significant soil Hg accumulation was found in soils away from factories regardless of Cambosols (Entisols) and Anthrosols (Inceptisols), while the mobile HCl-extractable Hg (HCl-Hg) were greater in soils closer to factories due to a decrease and increase in soil pH and organic matter. A high level of soil total Hg (T-Hg) was found around the factory, and soil and crop Hg accumulation in the vicinity of the factory was localized with an exponential decrease as distance away from the wastewater discharge outlet increased. Although Hg accumulated in these soils, the T-Hg levels at only a few sampling sites in acidic Anthrosols area were found to exceed the second most stringent critical value of Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for Soils. Conclusions: Considering the cessation of Hg-containing agrochemicals and limitation of effects of industrial activities on Hg accumulation, more attention should be paid to the changes in soil properties and crop rotations than controlling the pathways of Hg entering soils because the current environmental risk is mobilization of accumulated soil Hg. (orig.)

  2. Rapid collection, detection, and assessment of environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.; Huckins, J.; Petty, J.; Butorin, A.

    1995-01-01

    PAHs, an important class of environmental chemical contaminants found primarily in petroleum and coal products, frequently are the most numerous and ubiquitous organic pollutants recovered in sediment residues. PAHs are considered hazardous in water and soil because many are acutely toxic and have the potential for genotoxic activity. Selected EPA priority pollutants (2, 3, 4, and 5-ring PAHs) and complex PAH mixtures (crude oil, gasoline, and recycled motor oil) were collected and concentrated from water and sediment with semipermeable polymeric membrane devices (SPMDs) that contain a thin film of triolein. Analytes were extracted from the SPMDs by dialysis in hexane or directly by rinsing with acetone DMSO, concentrated in the carrier solvent DMSO, and detected with the luminescent bacterial assays Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign. High SPMD-water concentration factors of PAHs appeared to correspond closely to the occurrence of PAHs in sediments previously reported in the literature; for example, pyrene had the highest SPMD concentration factor and was the most commonly found PAH in sediment residues. Mutatox reg-sign with rat hepatic S9 activation detected all PAHs tested. The PAH's molecular weight and number of rings appeared to directly influence acute toxicity (EC50, microg/mL); for example, two-ring naphthalene had an EC50 value of 0.78 whereas five-ring benzo(a)pyrene had an EC50 value of 15.0, about a twenty-fold difference, Microtox reg-sign and Mutatox reg-sign, in combination with SPMDs were able to rapidly (< 24h) assess the bioavailability, toxicity, and genotoxicity of these environmental PAHs

  3. Monitoring changes in seismic velocity related to an ongoing rapid inflation event at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.

  4. Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change': A Traveling Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, E. M.; Hakala, J. S.; Gearheard, S.

    2006-12-01

    The Inuit of Nunavut, Canada, have an intimate relationship with their surroundings. As a culture that relies on knowledge of sea ice, snow, and weather conditions for success in hunting, fishing, and healthy wellbeing, Inuit have observed and studied environmental patterns for generations. An ongoing study into their traditional knowledge and their observations of environmental change is being conducted by researcher Dr. Shari Gearheard, who has worked with Inuit communities in Nunavut for over a decade. The results of the research have been published in scientific journals, and to communicate the results to a broader audience, Dr. Gearheard designed an interactive CD-ROM displaying photographs, maps, and interview videos of Inuit Elders' perspectives on the changes they have witnessed. Receiving immediate popularity since its release in 2004, copies of `When the Weather is Uggianaqtuq: Inuit Observations of Environmental Change' have been distributed worldwide, to indigenous peoples, social science and climate change researchers, teachers, students, and the general public. To further disseminate the information contained on the CD-ROM, the National Snow and Ice Data Center and the Museum of Natural History, both of the University of Colorado, are partnering to create an exhibition which will open at the Museum during the International Polar Year in April 2008. The exhibit, tentatively titled `Inuit Perspectives on Arctic Environmental Change,' will feature photographs, graphics, and text in both English and Inuktitut describing environmental change in the North. The goals are to make the information and interpretation contained on the CD-ROM available and more accessible to a broad audience and to raise awareness about Arctic climate change and the important contribution of Inuit knowledge. Following exhibition at the Museum, the exhibit will travel throughout the United States, Alaska, and Nunavut, through a network of museums, schools, libraries, tribal

  5. Climate change and environmental concentrations of POPs: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Domingo, José L

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, the climate change impact on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has become a topic of notable concern. Changes in environmental conditions such as the increase of the average temperature, or the UV-B radiation, are likely to influence the fate and behavior of POPs, ultimately affecting human exposure. The state of the art of the impact of climate change on environmental concentrations of POPs, as well as on human health risks, is here reviewed. Research gaps are also identified, while future studies are suggested. Climate change and POPs are a hot issue, for which wide attention should be paid not only by scientists, but also and mainly by policy makers. Most studies reported in the scientific literature are focused on legacy POPs, mainly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. However, the number of investigations aimed at estimating the impact of climate change on the environmental levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is scarce, despite of the fact that exposure to PAHs and photodegradation byproducts may result in adverse health effects. Furthermore, no data on emerging POPs are currently available in the scientific literature. In consequence, an intensification of studies to identify and mitigate the indirect effects of the climate change on POP fate is needed to minimize the human health impact. Furthermore, being this a global problem, interactions between climate change and POPs must be addressed from an international perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate change and environmental concentrations of POPs: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadal, Martí; Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse; Domingo, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the climate change impact on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has become a topic of notable concern. Changes in environmental conditions such as the increase of the average temperature, or the UV-B radiation, are likely to influence the fate and behavior of POPs, ultimately affecting human exposure. The state of the art of the impact of climate change on environmental concentrations of POPs, as well as on human health risks, is here reviewed. Research gaps are also identified, while future studies are suggested. Climate change and POPs are a hot issue, for which wide attention should be paid not only by scientists, but also and mainly by policy makers. Most studies reported in the scientific literature are focused on legacy POPs, mainly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. However, the number of investigations aimed at estimating the impact of climate change on the environmental levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is scarce, despite of the fact that exposure to PAHs and photodegradation byproducts may result in adverse health effects. Furthermore, no data on emerging POPs are currently available in the scientific literature. In consequence, an intensification of studies to identify and mitigate the indirect effects of the climate change on POP fate is needed to minimize the human health impact. Furthermore, being this a global problem, interactions between climate change and POPs must be addressed from an international perspective.

  7. Climate change and environmental concentrations of POPs: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal, Martí, E-mail: marti.nadal@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Marquès, Montse; Mari, Montse [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Environmental Engineering Laboratory, Departament d’Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Avinguda Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Domingo, José L. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    In recent years, the climate change impact on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has become a topic of notable concern. Changes in environmental conditions such as the increase of the average temperature, or the UV-B radiation, are likely to influence the fate and behavior of POPs, ultimately affecting human exposure. The state of the art of the impact of climate change on environmental concentrations of POPs, as well as on human health risks, is here reviewed. Research gaps are also identified, while future studies are suggested. Climate change and POPs are a hot issue, for which wide attention should be paid not only by scientists, but also and mainly by policy makers. Most studies reported in the scientific literature are focused on legacy POPs, mainly polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. However, the number of investigations aimed at estimating the impact of climate change on the environmental levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is scarce, despite of the fact that exposure to PAHs and photodegradation byproducts may result in adverse health effects. Furthermore, no data on emerging POPs are currently available in the scientific literature. In consequence, an intensification of studies to identify and mitigate the indirect effects of the climate change on POP fate is needed to minimize the human health impact. Furthermore, being this a global problem, interactions between climate change and POPs must be addressed from an international perspective.

  8. Comparing rapid methods for detecting Listeria in seafood and environmental samples using the most probably number (MPN) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristina D; Win, Jessicah K; Chantarachoti, Jiraporn; Mutukumira, Anthony N; Fletcher, Graham C

    2012-02-15

    The standard Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) protocol for detecting Listeria in food and on environmental surfaces takes about 96 h. Some studies indicate that rapid methods, which produce results within 48 h, may be as sensitive and accurate as the culture protocol. As they only give presence/absence results, it can be difficult to compare the accuracy of results generated. We used the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique to evaluate the performance and detection limits of six rapid kits for detecting Listeria in seafood and on an environmental surface compared with the standard protocol. Three seafood products and an environmental surface were inoculated with similar known cell concentrations of Listeria and analyzed according to the manufacturers' instructions. The MPN was estimated using the MPN-BAM spreadsheet. For the seafood products no differences were observed among the rapid kits and efficiency was similar to the BAM method. On the environmental surface the BAM protocol had a higher recovery rate (sensitivity) than any of the rapid kits tested. Clearview™, Reveal®, TECRA® and VIDAS® LDUO detected the cells but only at high concentrations (>10(2) CFU/10 cm(2)). Two kits (VIP™ and Petrifilm™) failed to detect 10(4) CFU/10 cm(2). The MPN method was a useful tool for comparing the results generated by these presence/absence test kits. There remains a need to develop a rapid and sensitive method for detecting Listeria in environmental samples that performs as well as the BAM protocol, since none of the rapid tests used in this study achieved a satisfactory result. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is rapid growth in Internet usage environmentally sustainable for Australia? An empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin, Mohammad; Alam, Khorshed; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    This study estimates the short- and long-run effects of Internet usage and economic growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using annual time series macro data for Australia for the period 1985-2012. Autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) bounds and Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration tests are applied. ARDL estimates indicate no significant long-run relationship between Internet usage and CO2 emissions, which implies that the rapid growth in Internet usage is still not an environmental threat for Australia. The study further indicates that higher level of economic growth is associated with lower level of CO2 emissions; however, Internet usage and economic growth have no significant short-run relationship with CO2 emissions. Financial development has both short-run and long-run significant positive association with CO2 emissions. The findings offer support in favor of energy efficiency gains and a reduction in energy intensity in Australia. However, impulse response and variance decomposition analysis suggest that Internet usage, economic growth and financial development will continue to impact CO2 emissions in the future, and as such, this study recommends that in addition to the existing measures to combat CO2 emissions, Australia needs to exploit the potential of the Internet not only to reduce its own carbon footprint but also to utilize information and communication technology (ICT)-enabled emissions abatement potential to reduce emissions in various other sectors across the economy, such as, power, renewable energy especially in solar and wind energy, agriculture, transport and service.

  10. Communication and logging hub for rapid prototyping of environmental sensors: presenting the Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hut, R.

    2017-12-01

    When desiging prototype sensors for environmental variables a critical step is a comparison campaign where the new sensor is compared to current state of the art sensors. In this step one of the headaches for researchers can be connecting their sensor to a logging or communication device. I present a simple solution: to use smartphone that scans for Bluetooth Low Energy transmissions and uploads any measurement to a data server. In this way the prototype sensor only has to transmit its measurement values over BLE, which can be done using off-the-shelf components. The sensors don't have to be physically connected to the phone, allowing for very rapid deployment of sensors in locations that have a communication hub (ie. phone) installed. The communication and logging hub consists of nothing more than a low cost Android smartphone running a dedicated app. The phone is encased in a waterproof box with a large powerbank and a solar panel. I will demonstrate this live at the Fall Meeting. By installing these phones along permanent WMO certified station locations, comparisons campaigns can use the "golden standard" from the WMO without much problems.

  11. Environmental Change and Human Mobility: Trends, Law and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan F. Martin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the protection of persons displaced by natural disasters and the impacts of climate change will require sustained attention. This article identifies practical solutions, many of which are currently under consideration by governments and international organizations, to improve the lives of millions of people affected by environmental crises. It begins with a brief overview of why people move, the nature of those movements, and the relationship between human mobility and adaptation to environmental change by highlighting three types of mobility – migration, displacement and planned relocation. Next, the international and regional level will be discussed, with particular focus on legislative and policy frameworks for addressing human mobility in the context of environmental change. The article identifies gaps in existing frameworks as well as recent efforts to address them, particularly through mini-multilateral initiatives aimed at identifying principles and practices that should guide governmental action. The article concludes that efforts to improve responses require a better evidence base than currently exists on issues such as the environmental determinants of migration, displacement and planned relocation; the multi-faceted ways in which environmental factors relate to the many other causes of population movements in the cases of human mobility; and the impact of such movements on the well-being of migrants, communities of origin, and communities of destination.

  12. Post-material values and environmental policy change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, N. (International Inst. for Environmental and Society, Berlin, Germany); Wandesforde-Smith, G.

    Environmental policy may be particularly suited as a vehicle to articulate post-material values in advanced industrial societies, and recognition of this is likely to prove enormously helpful in future comparative and cross-national research into the origins of environmentalism and the causes of environmental policy change. The paper notes the salient characteristics of post-materialism and the overlap of these with the leading indicators of environmentalism. Possible structural causes for this overlap are noted and opposed to the prevailing socialization explanation for the adoption of post-material and environmental values. To help understand the impact of environmentalism on policy, an idealized development of the movement is sketched. This leads to the description of a set of general factors likely to be related to the way environmentalism finds political expressions in various countries. In the final section, the focus is on what we might want to know about the policy process in order to be able to gauge environmentalist influence on policy outputs. 20 references.

  13. Engaging Chicago residents in climate change action: Results from Rapid Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Jennifer. Hirsch

    2010-01-01

    Addressing climate change requires action at all levels of society, from neighborhood to international levels. Using Rapid Ethnography rooted in Asset Based Community Development theory, we investigated climate-friendly attitudes and behaviors in two Chicago neighborhoods in order to assist the City with implementation of its Climate Action Plan. Our research suggests...

  14. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  15. Social vulnerability and environmental change along urban-rural interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Sarah Hitchner; Cassandra Johnson

    2012-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly urbanized and interconnected, the distinction between urban and rural areas is diminishing. Creation of new urban–rural interface areas causes immediate changes in local natural and social environments, and theseareas are also susceptible to both short-term and long-term environmental changes. Different groups of people...

  16. Fine roots and ectomycorrhizas as indicators of environmental change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlín, Pavel; Kieliszewska-Rokicka, B.; Rudawska, M.; Grebenc, T.; Alberton, O.; Lehto, T.; Bakker, M. R.; Borja, I.; Konopka, B.; Leski, T.; Kraigher, H.; Kuyper, T. W.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 3 (2007), s. 406-425 ISSN 1126-3504 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC E38.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Environmental change * indicators * meta-analysis * temperate and boreal zones * woody plants Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2007

  17. Challenges to professionalism: Social accountability and global environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, David; Walpole, Sarah; Barna, Stefi

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of professionalism as it relates to social change and social accountability, and expands on them in the light of global environmental changes. Professionalism in medicine includes concepts of altruism, service, professional knowledge, self-regulation and autonomy. Current dialogues around social accountability suggest that medical schools should re-orientate their strategy and desired education, research and service outcomes to the health needs of the communities they serve.This article addresses the following questions: • How do we reconcile ideas of medical professionalism with the demands of creating a more equal, just, sustainable and socially inclusive society? • What new challenges do or will we face in relation to environmental degradation, biodiversity loss, ecosystem health and climate change? • How can medical schools best teach social and environmental responsiveness within a framework of professionalism? • How do medical schools ensure that tomorrow's doctors possess the knowledge, skills and attitude to adapt to the challenges they will face in future roles?We offer ideas about why and how medical educators can change, recommendations to strengthen the teaching of professionalism and social accountability and suggestions about the contribution of an emerging concept, that of "environmental accountability".

  18. Socio-economic data for global environmental change research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Ilona; Biewald, Anne; Coumou, Dim

    2015-01-01

    Subnational socio-economic datasets are required if we are to assess the impacts of global environmental changes and to improve adaptation responses. Institutional and community efforts should concentrate on standardization of data collection methodologies, free public access, and geo-referencing....

  19. The High-mountain Cryosphere: Environmental Changes and Human Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Shahgedanova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: The High-mountain Cryosphere: Environmental Changes and Human Risks Edited by Christian Huggel, Mark Carey, John J. Clague, and Andreas Kääb. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 363 pp. Hardcover: US$ 140.00, ISBN 978-1-107-06584-0. E-book: US$ 112.00, ISBN 978-1-316-35515-2.

  20. Climate Change and Requirement of Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mahatab

    that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it. As different kinds of threats posed by climate change are continuously increasing all over the world the issue of “technology transfer” especially the transfer of environmentally sound technologies has become one of the key topics...

  1. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies...

  2. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  3. Environmental change, climate, and health: issues and research methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMichael, A. J. (Anthony J.); Martens, Willem Jozef Meine

    2002-01-01

    ... relationships. The agenda of research and policy advice must be extended to include the larger-framed and longer-term environmental change issues. This book identifies the nature and scope of the problem, and explores the conceptual and methodological approaches to studying these relationships, modelling their future realization, providing estimates of health i...

  4. Rapid stress-induced transcriptomic changes in the brain depend on beta-adrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Martin; Manuella, Francesca; von Ziegler, Lukas; Durán-Pacheco, Gonzalo; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Bohacek, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Acute exposure to stressful experiences can rapidly increase anxiety and cause neuropsychiatric disorders. The effects of stress result in part from the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, which regulate gene expression in different brain regions. The fast neuroendocrine response to stress is largely mediated by norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), followed by a slower and more sustained release of corticosterone. While corticosterone is an important regulator of gene expression, it is not clear which stress-signals contribute to the rapid regulation of gene expression observed immediately after stress exposure. Here, we demonstrate in mice that 45 min after an acute swim stress challenge, large changes in gene expression occur across the transcriptome in the hippocampus, a region sensitive to the effects of stress. We identify multiple candidate genes that are rapidly and transiently altered in both males and females. Using a pharmacological approach, we show that most of these rapidly induced genes are regulated by NE through β-adrenergic receptor signaling. We find that CRH and corticosterone can also contribute to rapid changes in gene expression, although these effects appear to be restricted to fewer genes. These results newly reveal a widespread impact of NE on the transcriptome and identify novel genes associated with stress and adrenergic signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel Sample Preparation Method for Safe and Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Powders and Nasal Swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra; Davis, Carisa; Rycerz, Tony; Ewert, Matthew; Cannons, Andrew; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores have been used as a biological weapon in the United States. We wanted to develop a safe, rapid method of sample preparation that provided safe DNA for the detection of spores in environmental and clinical specimens. Our method reproducibly detects B. anthracis in samples containing

  6. Integrated ocean management as a strategy to meet rapid climate change: the Norwegian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-02-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addresses the Norwegian experience in introducing integrated, ecosystem-based oceans management, emphasizing how climate change, seen as a major long-term driver of change in ecosystems, is addressed in management plans. Understanding the direct effects of climate variability and change on ecosystems and indirect effects on human activities is essential for adaptive planning to be useful in the long-term management of the marine environment.

  7. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Escuela de Doctorado, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 29, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  8. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro; Martín-Aranda, Rosa M.; Díaz-Sierra, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  9. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  10. Environmental science applications with Rapid Integrated Mapping and analysis System (RIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A.; Prusevich, A.; Gordov, E.; Okladnikov, I.; Titov, A.

    2016-11-01

    The Rapid Integrated Mapping and analysis System (RIMS) has been developed at the University of New Hampshire as an online instrument for multidisciplinary data visualization, analysis and manipulation with a focus on hydrological applications. Recently it was enriched with data and tools to allow more sophisticated analysis of interdisciplinary data. Three different examples of specific scientific applications with RIMS are demonstrated and discussed. Analysis of historical changes in major components of the Eurasian pan-Arctic water budget is based on historical discharge data, gridded observational meteorological fields, and remote sensing data for sea ice area. Express analysis of the extremely hot and dry summer of 2010 across European Russia is performed using a combination of near-real time and historical data to evaluate the intensity and spatial distribution of this event and its socioeconomic impacts. Integrative analysis of hydrological, water management, and population data for Central Asia over the last 30 years provides an assessment of regional water security due to changes in climate, water use and demography. The presented case studies demonstrate the capabilities of RIMS as a powerful instrument for hydrological and coupled human-natural systems research.

  11. A bioinspired color-changing polystyrene microarray as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Weng, Hsueh-Ping; Hsu, Jyun-Jheng; Yu, Hsin Her

    2016-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and arranged in an array of closely packed, opal-like photonic crystals by slow self-assembly through dip-coating. This periodic array of PS microspheres was then employed as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol. Both solvents could be detected rapidly based on the routes of their reflection coordinates in the chromaticity diagram or directly by the naked eye on the basis of the change in color within 1 min once a solvent sample had been placed on the PS photochromic sensor. This opal-like PS sensor can thus not only be employed as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol but can also be used as a powerful tool for the fast screening of illicit drugs and toxic chemicals during forensic investigations. - Highlights: • Opal-like array of polystyrene (PS) microspheres is synthesized by self-assembly. • This periodic PS array is used as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol. • Solvents are detected by routes of reflection coordinates in chromaticity diagram. • They are also detected directly by naked eye based on change in color of sensor. • The color change is irreversible for methanol but reversible for ethanol.

  12. A bioinspired color-changing polystyrene microarray as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai, E-mail: wkkuo@nfu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Weng, Hsueh-Ping, E-mail: sherry.weng7949@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jyun-Jheng, E-mail: k88520x@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and arranged in an array of closely packed, opal-like photonic crystals by slow self-assembly through dip-coating. This periodic array of PS microspheres was then employed as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol. Both solvents could be detected rapidly based on the routes of their reflection coordinates in the chromaticity diagram or directly by the naked eye on the basis of the change in color within 1 min once a solvent sample had been placed on the PS photochromic sensor. This opal-like PS sensor can thus not only be employed as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol but can also be used as a powerful tool for the fast screening of illicit drugs and toxic chemicals during forensic investigations. - Highlights: • Opal-like array of polystyrene (PS) microspheres is synthesized by self-assembly. • This periodic PS array is used as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol. • Solvents are detected by routes of reflection coordinates in chromaticity diagram. • They are also detected directly by naked eye based on change in color of sensor. • The color change is irreversible for methanol but reversible for ethanol.

  13. Environmentally benign formation of polymeric microspheres by rapid expansion of supercritical carbon dioxide solution with a nonsolvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, K; Mishima, K; Umemoto, H; Yamaguchi, S

    2001-10-15

    A novel method is reported for forming polymer microparticles, which reduce atmospheric emissions of environmentally harmful volatile organic compounds such as toluene and xylene used as paint solvent in paint industry. The polymer microparticles have formed through rapid expansion from supercritical solution with a nonsolvent (RESS-N). Solubilization of poly(styrene)-b-(poly(methyl methacrylate)-co-poly (glycidyl methacrylate)) copolymer(PS-b-(PMMA-co-PGMA), MW = 5000, PS/PMMA/PGMA = 2/5/3), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, M. W = 4000), bisphenol A type epoxy resin (EP, MW = 3000), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA; MW = 15000, 75000, 120000), and poly(oxyalkylene) alkylphenyl ether (MW = 4000) in carbon dioxide (CO2) was achieved with the use of small alcohols as cosolvents. The solubility of the PS-b-(PMMA-co-PGMA) is extremely low in either CO2 or ethanol but becomes 20 wt % in a mixture of the two. Because ethanol is a nonsolvent for the polymer, it can be used as a cosolvent in rapid expansion from supercritical solution to produce 1-3 microm particles that do not agglomerate. Obtained polymer particles by RESS-N were applied as powder coatings. The resulting coatings have a smooth and coherent film. The particle size distribution of microspheres was controlled by changing the polymer concentration, preexpansion pressure, temperature, and injection distance. The feed compositions were more effective than the other factors in controlling the particle size. The polymeric microparticles formed by RESS-N method can be utilized to make the thin coating film without anytoxic organic solvents and/or surfactants.

  14. South African pension fund conversions: Dealing with environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. George

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse South African pension fund conversions from defined benefit to defined contribution structures and to develop a model for dealing with environmental change. Design/Methodology/Approach: Qualitative research methodology was used. Industry experts were interviewed to obtain a macro view of the phenomenon and specific manifestations of the phenomenon were also considered in case studies.Feedback from semi-structured interviews was categorised into several emergent themes. Within-case and cross-case analyses were conducted. Findings: Results indicated that an environmental shock exerted a substantial influence on the course of events. Under these: • Various factors combined to drive organisational evolution (i.e. adaptation to the environment. • Adaptation speed was inappropriate and exceeded that which was required for sufficient thought. • Uncertainty and vacuum circumstances arose leading to consequences that require redress. • The relative power of the stakeholders changed and influenced the strategic outcome. • An imbalance in stakeholder interests arose and ethical factors became consequential. • Business acted to restore certainty for itself. Implications: This paper provides insight into organisational behaviour during periods of environmental shock. Environmental shock can be defined as "a condition that arises where business or societal rules are inadequate, or do not exist, to deal with unfolding events". An environmental shock has greater magnitude than a competitive shock, and can include several competitive shocks. Originality/Value: Analysis of pension fund conversions revealed organisational behaviour during periods of environmental shock and the emerging model can be applied in other instances of environmental shock, such as broad-based black economic empowerment (B-B BEE, land redistribution, sanctions and constitutional development.

  15. African Environmental Change from the Pleistocene to the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    This review explores what past environmental change in Africa—and African people’s response to it—can teach us about how to cope with life in the Anthropocene. Organized around four drivers of change—climate; agriculture and pastoralism; megafauna; and imperialism, colonialism, and capitalism......—our review focuses on key regions and debates, including dynamics of the Sahara-Sahel zones; the structure and function of savannas and Central African rainforests; and efforts at nature conservation. Contingent environmental change is a recurring theme in the history of the continent, producing a mosaic...... floral and faunal biogeography. With high levels of poverty, fast population growth, and potentially dramatic impacts expected from future climate change, Africa is emblematic of the kinds of social and ecological precariousness many fear will characterize the future globally. African people’s innovation...

  16. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  17. Rapid Hip Osteoarthritis Development in a Patient with Anterior Acetabular Cyst with Sagittal Alignment Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Homma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is rare and develops unusual clinical course. Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms of the development of RDC. However the exact mechanism of RDC is still not clear. The difficulty of the study on RDC is attributed to its rareness and the fact that the data before the onset of RDC is normally unavailable. In this report, we presented the patient having the radiographic data before the onset who had rapid osteoarthritis (OA development after contralateral THA, which meets the current criteria of RDC. We thought that the increased posterior tilt of the pelvis after THA reinforced the stress concentration at pre-existed anterior acetabular cyst, thereby the destruction of the cyst was occurred. As a result the rapid OA was developed. We think that there is the case of rapid osteoarthritis developing due to alternating load concentration by posterior pelvic tilt on preexisting anterior acetabular cyst such as our patient among the cases diagnosed as RDC without any identifiable etiology. The recognition of sagittal alignment changes and anterior acetabular cyst may play important role in prediction and prevention of the rapid hip osteoarthritis development similar to RDC.

  18. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual Local Farmers’ Perceptions of Environmental Change in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Röschel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Climatic and environmental changes are expected to affect in particular those regions where the economy is primarily based on the agricultural sector and where the dependency on water availability is high. This study examines how smallholder farmers in rural Tanzania perceived climatic and environmental changes over the past 20 years and the resulting effects on water availability and food security. The study is based on a household survey of 899 farmers in a semi-arid and a sub-humid region in Tanzania. It was found that (a significant differences in perceptions of the environment by farmers can be attributed to agro-climatic location, while the distance to a water source has less impact on individual perception; (b differently perceived changes affect individual water availability and food security; and (c the farm level adaptation methods applied are linked to vulnerability to changes and the household dependence on the immediate environment. The authors conclude that the specific environmental surroundings paired with socio-economic factors can severely compound the negative effects of water scarcity on rural farmers.

  20. Rapid change of field line connectivity and reconnection in stochastic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Bhattacharjee, A.; Boozer, Allen H.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields without a direction of continuous symmetry have the generic feature that neighboring field lines exponentiate away from each other and become stochastic, and hence the ideal constraint of preserving magnetic field line connectivity becomes exponentially sensitive to small deviations from ideal Ohm's law. The idea of breaking field line connectivity by stochasticity as a mechanism for fast reconnection is tested with numerical simulations based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations with a strong guide field line-tied to two perfectly conducting end plates. Starting from an ideally stable force-free equilibrium, the system is allowed to undergo resistive relaxation. Two distinct phases are found in the process of resistive relaxation. During the quasi-static phase, rapid change of field line connectivity and strong induced flow are found in regions of high field line exponentiation. However, although the field line connectivity of individual field lines can change rapidly, the overall pattern of field line mapping appears to deform gradually. From this perspective, field line exponentiation appears to cause enhanced diffusion rather than reconnection. In some cases, resistive quasi-static evolution can cause the ideally stable initial equilibrium to cross a stability threshold, leading to formation of intense current filaments and rapid change of field line mapping into a qualitatively different pattern. It is in this onset phase that the change of field line connectivity is more appropriately designated as magnetic reconnection. Our results show that rapid change of field line connectivity appears to be a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for fast reconnection.

  1. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius G T Schut

    Full Text Available Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR. However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR data and Red Green and Blue (RGB imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region. Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa = 0.8 and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R(2 of 0.8-0.9 allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented

  2. ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE FOR THE ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE AIRPORT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan Durmaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Air transportation industry is a globally growing industry. As an inseparable part of this industry, airport management is also becoming more crucial issue to be dealt with. Airports offer economic and social benefits to the society, but also environmental impacts of airport operations are increasing due to high traffic growth. While airport capacity is increasing, airport operators are being responsible for mitigating environmental constraints. Today to implement airport environmental management system is seen as a critical way of solution. To ensure effective implementation of this system, an organizational change with definite roles, responsibilities and structure are needed. This study illustrates a way of organizational response to market forces and national regulations guiding the achievement of sustainable airports by determining the structure and the roles in an airport organization.

  3. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  4. Causes of Climate and Environmental Changes: The Need for Environmental-Friendly Education Policy in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwankwoala, H. N. L.

    2015-01-01

    Man cannot naturally be detached from his environment. From time to time, changes in climate and environmental conditions occur as a result of natural and human factors. Obviously, the natural factors are almost beyond human control. But, the human factors are to a very large extent under human control. Thus, this paper tried to discover natural…

  5. Environmental Education in a Region of Rapid Economic Development: The Case of Sarawak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Stephen.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses an innovative approach to environmental education that takes into account the interactions between cultural diversity and environmental controversy. Examines the situation in Sarawak, a State of East Malaysia, in the light of existing theoretical work. Contains 21 references. (JRH)

  6. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dryland responses to global change suggest the potential for rapid non-linear responses to some changes but resilience to others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Tucker, C.; Rutherford, W. A.; Wertin, T. M.; McHugh, T. A.; Morrissey, E.; Kuske, C.; Belnap, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome, making up over 35% of Earth's land surface. In the context of this vast areal extent, it is no surprise that recent research suggests dryland inter-annual variability and responses to change have the potential to drive biogeochemical cycles and climate at the global-scale. Further, the data we do have suggest drylands can respond rapidly and non-linearly to change. Nevertheless, our understanding of the cross-system consistency of and mechanisms behind dryland responses to a changed environment remains relatively poor. This poor understanding hinders not only our larger understanding of terrestrial ecosystem function, but also our capacity to forecast future global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Here we present data from a series of Colorado Plateau manipulation experiments - including climate, land use, and nitrogen deposition manipulations - to explore how vascular plants, microbial communities, and biological soil crusts (a community of mosses, lichens, and/or cyanobacteria living in the interspace among vascular plants in arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide) respond to a host of environmental changes. These responses include not only assessments of community composition, but of their function as well. We will explore photosynthesis, net soil CO2 exchange, soil carbon stocks and chemistry, albedo, and nutrient cycling. The experiments were begun with independent questions and cover a range of environmental change drivers and scientific approaches, but together offer a relatively holistic picture of how some drylands can change their structure and function in response to change. In particular, the data show very high ecosystem vulnerability to particular drivers, but surprising resilience to others, suggesting a multi-faceted response of these diverse systems.

  8. New type of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Environments with Rapidly Changing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhan Myroslav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.

  9. How the cerebral serotonin homeostasis predicts environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalbitzer, Jan; Kalbitzer, Urs; Knudsen, Gitte Moos

    2013-01-01

    Molecular imaging studies with positron emission tomography have revealed that the availability of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in the human brain fluctuates over the course of the year. This effect is most pronounced in carriers of the short allele of the 5-HTT promoter region (5-HTTLPR), which...... has in several previous studies been linked to an increased risk to develop mood disorders. We argue that long-lasting fluctuations in the cerebral serotonin transmission, which is regulated via the 5-HTT, are responsible for mediating responses to environmental changes based on an assessment...... of cerebral serotonin transmission to seasonal and other forms of environmental change imparts greater behavioral flexibility, at the expense of increased vulnerability to stress. This model may explain the somewhat higher prevalence of the s-allele in some human populations dwelling at geographic latitudes...

  10. Integrated Decision Support for Global Environmental Change Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Cantrell, S.; Higgins, G. J.; Marshall, J.; VanWijngaarden, F.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes are happening now that has caused concern in many parts of the world; particularly vulnerable are the countries and communities with limited resources and with natural environments that are more susceptible to climate change impacts. Global leaders are concerned about the observed phenomena and events such as Amazon deforestation, shifting monsoon patterns affecting agriculture in the mountain slopes of Peru, floods in Pakistan, water shortages in Middle East, droughts impacting water supplies and wildlife migration in Africa, and sea level rise impacts on low lying coastal communities in Bangladesh. These environmental changes are likely to get exacerbated as the temperatures rise, the weather and climate patterns change, and sea level rise continues. Large populations and billions of dollars of infrastructure could be affected. At Northrop Grumman, we have developed an integrated decision support framework for providing necessary information to stakeholders and planners to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change at the regional and local levels. This integrated approach takes into account assimilation and exploitation of large and disparate weather and climate data sets, regional downscaling (dynamic and statistical), uncertainty quantification and reduction, and a synthesis of scientific data with demographic and economic data to generate actionable information for the stakeholders and decision makers. Utilizing a flexible service oriented architecture and state-of-the-art visualization techniques, this information can be delivered via tailored GIS portals to meet diverse set of user needs and expectations. This integrated approach can be applied to regional and local risk assessments, predictions and decadal projections, and proactive adaptation planning for vulnerable communities. In this paper we will describe this comprehensive decision support approach with selected applications and case studies to illustrate how this

  11. The emergence of land change science for global environmental change and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner II, B.L.; Lambin, E.F.; Reenberg, Anette

    2007-01-01

      Land change science has emerged as a fundamental component of global environmental change and sustainability research.  This interdisciplinary field seeks to understand the dynamics of land-cover and land-use as a coupled human-environment system in order to address theory, concepts, models......, and applications relevant to environmental and societal problems, including the intersection of the two.  The major components and advances in land change are addressed: observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system-causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues.  The six articles...

  12. Proteome Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Response to Environmental Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Thomas E.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Yang, Xiaohua; Nicora, Carrie D.; Camp, David G.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-11-02

    We examined global changes in protein expression in the B31 strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, in response to two environmental cues (pH and temperature) chosen for their reported similarity to those encountered at different stages of the organism’s life cycle. Multidimensional nano-liquid chromatographic separations coupled with tandem mass spectrometry were used to examine the array of proteins (i.e., the proteome) of B. burgdorferi for different pH and temperature culture conditions. Changes in pH and temperature elicited in vitro adaptations of this spirochete known to cause Lyme disease and led to alterations in protein expression that are associated with increased microbial pathogenesis. We identified 1031 proteins that represent 59% of the annotated genome of B. burgdorferi and elucidated a core proteome of 414 proteins that were present in all environmental conditions investigated. Observed changes in protein abundances indicated varied replicon usage, as well as proteome functional distributions between the in vitro cell culture conditions. Surprisingly, the pH and temperature conditions that mimicked B. burgdorferi residing in the gut of a fed tick showed a marked reduction in protein diversity. Additionally, the results provide us with leading candidates for exploring how B. burgdorferi adapts to and is able to survive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and lay a foundation for planned in situ studies of B. burgdorferi isolated from the tick midgut and infected animals.

  13. Impact of Environmental Changes on Migratory Bird Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Stöcker-Segre

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a mathematical model that studies and simulates the interconnection between energetic and ecological aspects of bird migration. By comparing model predictions with experimental data, we show that it can be used to assess the impact of changing environmental conditions in breeding, wintering, and stop-over sites on migratory success. We relate in particular to the European white stork (Ciconia ciconia and its Eastern migration route and discuss questions concerning the timing, stopover, and feeding behavior en route. Opinions concerning the importance of resource availability and resource quality en route are divided. Whereas some studies have shown that storks gain weight in the wintering site, but almost do not feed en route, others stress the importance of the quality of stop-over locations. We address these questions and simulate the development of stork populations for changing environmental conditions. We demonstrate that resource availability and competition for breeding sites are crucial factors determining the timing of spring migration and the length of stop-over periods. Analyzing the robustness of migration strategies with respect to changing environmental conditions, we show that birds will shorten their stay in stop-over places of poor resource availability rather than prolonging it in the attempt to gain time for accumulating fat reserves.

  14. Observation of reversible, rapid changes in drug susceptibility of hypoxic tumor cells in a microfluidic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, Todd; Ansari, Megan; Pappas, Dimitri, E-mail: d.pappas@ttu.edu

    2016-09-14

    Hypoxia is a major stimulus for increased drug resistance and for survival of tumor cells. Work from our group and others has shown that hypoxia increases resistance to anti-cancer compounds, radiation, and other damage-pathway cytotoxic agents. In this work we utilize a microfluidic culture system capable of rapid switching of local oxygen concentrations to determine changes in drug resistance in prostate cancer cells. We observed rapid adaptation to hypoxia, with drug resistance to 2 μM staurosporine established within 30 min of hypoxia. Annexin-V/Sytox Green apoptosis assays over 9 h showed 78.0% viability, compared to 84.5% viability in control cells (normoxic cells with no staurosporine). Normoxic cells exposed to the same staurosporine concentration had a viability of 48.6% after 9 h. Hypoxia adaptation was rapid and reversible, with Hypoxic cells treated with 20% oxygen for 30 min responding to staurosporine with 51.6% viability after drug treatment for 9 h. Induction of apoptosis through the receptor-mediated pathway, which bypasses anti-apoptosis mechanisms induced by hypoxia, resulted in 39.4 ± 7% cell viability. The rapid reversibility indicates co-treatment of oxygen with anti-cancer compounds may be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Microfluidic system switches rapidly between normoxia and hypoxia (5 min). • Observation of rapid adaptation of PC3 cells to hypoxia and normoxia (30 min). • Drug susceptibility in tumor cells restored after chip switched to normoxia for 30 min.

  15. Rapid and stream-lined methods for analysis of actinides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: 1) Project Summary: A systematic study of separating the actinides from each other in 1 M hydrochloric acid media has been carried out using selective oxidation/reduction processes followed by co-precipitation with neodymium fluoride. We have optimized two such procedures, one with bromate and another with permanganate, for the sequential separation of Am, Pu, Np, and U isotopes. The first procedure involves oxidation of Pu, Np and U to +6 state in 1 M HCI media at 85 deg C with 30% NaBrO 3 and separation from trivalent Am by collecting the latter on the first NdF 3 co- precipitated source. Plutonium is then reduced and converted to +4 oxidation state with 40% NaNO 2 at 85 deg C, while Np and U are kept oxidized with additional bromate in solution at 50-70 deg C, thus separating Pu by collection on a second NdF 3 source. At this stage, Np present in the filtrate is reduced with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and separated from U by collecting on a third source. Subsequently, U is reduced with 30% TiCI 3 and co-precipitated on a final source. The second procedure, which employs KMnO 4 in 1 M HCI media at 60-85 deg C for oxidizing Pu, Np and U, and separating from Am, produces MnO 2 which is collected along with Am on the co-precipitated NdF 3 . This MnO 2 is dissolved on the filter itself with 1 ml of acidified 1.5% H 2 O 2 without any degradation of the α-spectra. After evaporating the filtrate to destroy H 2 O 2 , Pu, Np and U are separated by following steps similar to those in the bromate procedure. The recoveries of the actinides with both procedures are >99%. The decontamination factors are between 10 3 and 10 4 . 2) Summary of Proposed Work for the Next Year: Now that the separation procedure has been developed, we will begin to incorporate it into rapid and steam-lined procedures for samples, such as water, air filters and environmental materials. (author)

  16. [Dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province: a structural decomposition analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-Long; Chen, Xing-Peng; Yang, Jing; Xue, Bing; Li, Yong-Jin

    2010-02-01

    Based on the ideology of macro environmental economics, a function of environmental pressure represented by pollutant emission was built, and the relative importance of the driving factors in the dynamic changes of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressure in Gansu Province in 1990 - 2005 was analyzed by using structural decomposition analysis (SDA) model combining with 'refined Laspeyres' method. In the study period, the environmental pressure in the Province was mainly caused by the emission of waste gases and solids in the process of economic growth, and showed a rapid increasing trend at the late stage of the period. Population factor had less impact on the increase of this environmental pressure, while economic growth factor had obvious impact on it. Technological progress did mitigate, but could not offset the impact of economic growth factor, and the impacts of economic growth and technological factors on the environmental pressure differed with the kinds of pollutants.

  17. Reconstructing recent environmental change in the Carpathian Basin; advocating an interdisciplinary approach for 2020 environmental science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon HUTCHINSON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to environmental science is particularly important in the field of palaeoenvironmental research. Indeed, while the majority of such studies employ a range of proxies in their investigation, the more innovative studies tend to truly cross discipline boundaries. The investigation of depositional environments (e.g., lake sediments and mires as archives of environmental history has a long tradition in the Carpathian region. However, glacial lakes across the region have also been described as under-investigated despite their potential for palaeolimnological study (Buczko et al. 2009. Studies have also largely focused on relatively early (Late Glacial and Early Holocene environmental change.  Nevertheless, there is an increasing interest in the reconstruction of more human-driven impacts on the environment and events in the very recent past on a century to decade timescale e.g., post Industrial Revolution and following political change from the mid 1940s and in the late 1980s. Furthermore, efforts have are also being made to inform the debate about future climate and environmental changes linking palaeoenvironmental records to predictive computer modelling.

  18. Rapid instrumental and separation methods for monitoring radionuclides in food and environmental samples. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, I.S.; Shukla, V.K.; Singh, A.N.; Nair, C.K.G.; Hingorani, S.B.; Dey, N.N.; Jha, S.K.; Rao, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    surface barrier detector, in close agreement. Presently the liquid scintillation counter is used with discriminator settling adjusted to count Pu alpha pulses and also the output from the liquid scintillator is connected to a 2K MCA to see the alpha spectrum. The unit at present does not have the Pulse Shape Analyser (PSA) unit which is being planned to be incorporated in the system to improve the resolution. The work is in progress for direct extraction to a liquid scintillation cocktail containing extracting reagents like high mol. amine (TIOA) and Di2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid and then count by liquid scintillation counting. Solvent extraction using specific reagent and then direct liquid scintillation counting is being investigated as a general rapid method for beta and alpha emitters in environmental samples

  19. Shifts in frog size and phenology: Testing predictions of climate change on a widespread anuran using data from prior to rapid climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Jennifer A; Caruso, Nicholas M; Apodaca, Joseph J; Rissler, Leslie J

    2018-01-01

    Changes in body size and breeding phenology have been identified as two major ecological consequences of climate change, yet it remains unclear whether climate acts directly or indirectly on these variables. To better understand the relationship between climate and ecological changes, it is necessary to determine environmental predictors of both size and phenology using data from prior to the onset of rapid climate warming, and then to examine spatially explicit changes in climate, size, and phenology, not just general spatial and temporal trends. We used 100 years of natural history collection data for the wood frog, Lithobates sylvaticus with a range >9 million km 2 , and spatially explicit environmental data to determine the best predictors of size and phenology prior to rapid climate warming (1901-1960). We then tested how closely size and phenology changes predicted by those environmental variables reflected actual changes from 1961 to 2000. Size, phenology, and climate all changed as expected (smaller, earlier, and warmer, respectively) at broad spatial scales across the entire study range. However, while spatially explicit changes in climate variables accurately predicted changes in phenology, they did not accurately predict size changes during recent climate change (1961-2000), contrary to expectations from numerous recent studies. Our results suggest that changes in climate are directly linked to observed phenological shifts. However, the mechanisms driving observed body size changes are yet to be determined, given the less straightforward relationship between size and climate factors examined in this study. We recommend that caution be used in "space-for-time" studies where measures of a species' traits at lower latitudes or elevations are considered representative of those under future projected climate conditions. Future studies should aim to determine mechanisms driving trends in phenology and body size, as well as the impact of climate on population

  20. Indirect effects of human-induced environmental change on offspring production mediated by behavioural responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candolin, Ulrika; Nieminen, Anne; Nyman, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes often cause behavioural alterations in animals. The consequences that these alterations in turn have for the viability of populations are, however, poorly known. We used a population of threespine sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus in the Baltic Sea to investigate the consequences of behavioural responses to human-induced eutrophication for offspring production. The investigated population has been growing during the last decades, and one cause could be increased offspring production. We combined field-based surveys with laboratory-based experiments, and found that an enhanced growth of macroalgae relaxed agonistic interactions among males. This allowed more males to nest, improved hatching success, and increased the number of reproductive cycles that males completed. Thus, the behavioural responses were adaptive at the individual level and increased offspring production. However, a larger proportion of small males of low competitive ability reproduced in dense vegetation. As male size and dominance are heritable, this could influence the genetic composition of the offspring. Together with a higher number of offspring produced, this could influence natural selection and the rate of adaptation to the changing environment. Thus, behavioural responses to a rapid human-induced environmental change can influence offspring production, with potential consequences for population dynamics and evolutionary processes.

  1. RAPID SPECTRAL CHANGES OF CYGNUS X-1 IN THE LOW/HARD STATE WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Makishima, K. [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Negoro, H. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Torii, S.; Noda, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mineshige, S. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-04-20

    Rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray on a timescale down to {approx}0.1 s are studied by applying a ''shot analysis'' technique to the Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1, performed on 2008 April 18 during the low/hard state. We successfully obtained the shot profiles, covering 10-200 keV with the Suzaku HXD-PIN and HXD-GSO detector. It is notable that the 100-200 keV shot profile is acquired for the first time owing to the HXD-GSO detector. The intensity changes in a time-symmetric way, though the hardness changes in a time-asymmetric way. When the shot-phase-resolved spectra are quantified with the Compton model, the Compton y-parameter and the electron temperature are found to decrease gradually through the rising phase of the shot, while the optical depth appears to increase. All the parameters return to their time-averaged values immediately within 0.1 s past the shot peak. We have not only confirmed this feature previously found in energies below {approx}60 keV, but also found that the spectral change is more prominent in energies above {approx}100 keV, implying the existence of some instant mechanism for direct entropy production. We discuss possible interpretations of the rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray band.

  2. Climate change in Australian tropical rainforests: an impending environmental catastrophe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen E; Bolitho, Elizabeth E; Fox, Samantha

    2003-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that global climate change is affecting many ecosystems around the globe and that its impact is increasing rapidly. Many studies predict that impacts will consist largely of shifts in latitudinal and altitudinal distributions. However, we demonstrate that the impacts of global climate change in the tropical rainforests of northeastern Australia have the potential to result in many extinctions. We develop bioclimatic models of spatial distribution for the regionally endemic rainforest vertebrates and use these models to predict the effects of climate warming on species distributions. Increasing temperature is predicted to result in significant reduction or complete loss of the core environment of all regionally endemic vertebrates. Extinction rates caused by the complete loss of core environments are likely to be severe, nonlinear, with losses increasing rapidly beyond an increase of 2 degrees C, and compounded by other climate-related impacts. Mountain ecosystems around the world, such as the Australian Wet Tropics bioregion, are very diverse, often with high levels of restricted endemism, and are therefore important areas of biodiversity. The results presented here suggest that these systems are severely threatened by climate change. PMID:14561301

  3. Extreme Temperature Exceedances Change more Rapidly Under Future Warming in Regions of non-Gaussian Short Temperature Distribution Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikith, P. C.; Neelin, J. D.; Meyerson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Regions of shorter-than-Gaussian warm and cold side temperature distribution tails are shown to occur in spatially coherent patterns in the current climate. Under such conditions, warming may be manifested in more complex ways than if the underlying distribution were close to Gaussian. For example, under a uniform warm shift, the simplest prototype for future warming, a location with a short warm side tail would experience a greater increase in extreme warm exceedances compared to if the distribution were Gaussian. Similarly, for a location with a short cold side tail, a uniform warm shift would result in a rapid decrease in extreme cold exceedances. Both scenarios carry major societal and environmental implications including but not limited to negative impacts on human and ecosystem health, agriculture, and the economy. It is therefore important for climate models to be able to realistically reproduce short tails in simulations of historical climate in order to boost confidence in projections of future temperature extremes. Overall, climate models contributing to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project capture many of the principal observed regions of short tails. This suggests the underlying dynamics and physics occur on scales resolved by the models, and helps build confidence in model projections of extremes. Furthermore, most GCMs show more rapid changes in exceedances of extreme temperature thresholds in regions of short tails. Results therefore suggest that the shape of the tails of the underlying temperature distribution is an indicator of how rapidly a location will experience changes to extreme temperature occurrence under future warming.

  4. [Developmental changes of rapid automatized naming and Hiragana reading of Japanese in elementary-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoka; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Kita, Yosuke; Kaga, Makiko; Gotoh, Takaaki; Koike, Toshihide

    2011-11-01

    Two hundred and seven Japanese elementary school children aged from 6 (Grade 1) to 12 (Grade 6) years old were tested for their abilities to name numbers and pictured objects along with reading Hiragana characters and words. These children all showed typical development and their classroom teachers judged that they were not having any problems with reading or writing. The children were randomly divided into two groups, the first group was assigned to two naming tasks;the rapid automatized naming (RAN) of "numbers" and "pictured objects," the second group was assigned to two rapid alternative stimulus (RAS) naming tasks using numbers and pictured objects. All children were asked to perform two reading tasks that were written in Hiragana script: single mora reading task and four syllable word reading task. The total articulation time for naming and reading and performance in terms of accuracy were measured for each task. Developmental changes in these variables were evaluated. The articulation time was significantly longer for the first graders, and it gradually shortened as they moved through to the upper grades in all tasks. The articulation time reached a plateau in the 5th grade for the number naming, while gradual change continued after drastic change in the lower grades for the pictured object naming. The articulation times for the single mora reading and RAN of numbers correlated strongly. The articulation time for the RAS naming was significantly longer compared to that for the RAN, though there were very few errors. The RAS naming showed the highest correlation with the four syllable word reading. This study demonstrated that the performance in rapid automatized naming of numbers and pictures were closely related with performance on reading tasks. Thus Japanese children with reading disorders such as developmental dyslexia should also be evaluated for rapid automatized naming.

  5. Observation of reversible, rapid changes in drug susceptibility of hypoxic tumor cells in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Todd; Ansari, Megan; Pappas, Dimitri

    2016-09-14

    Hypoxia is a major stimulus for increased drug resistance and for survival of tumor cells. Work from our group and others has shown that hypoxia increases resistance to anti-cancer compounds, radiation, and other damage-pathway cytotoxic agents. In this work we utilize a microfluidic culture system capable of rapid switching of local oxygen concentrations to determine changes in drug resistance in prostate cancer cells. We observed rapid adaptation to hypoxia, with drug resistance to 2 μM staurosporine established within 30 min of hypoxia. Annexin-V/Sytox Green apoptosis assays over 9 h showed 78.0% viability, compared to 84.5% viability in control cells (normoxic cells with no staurosporine). Normoxic cells exposed to the same staurosporine concentration had a viability of 48.6% after 9 h. Hypoxia adaptation was rapid and reversible, with Hypoxic cells treated with 20% oxygen for 30 min responding to staurosporine with 51.6% viability after drug treatment for 9 h. Induction of apoptosis through the receptor-mediated pathway, which bypasses anti-apoptosis mechanisms induced by hypoxia, resulted in 39.4 ± 7% cell viability. The rapid reversibility indicates co-treatment of oxygen with anti-cancer compounds may be a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can environmental improvement change the population distribution of walking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2017-06-01

    Few studies have explored the impact of environmental change on walking using controlled comparisons. Even fewer have examined whose behaviour changes and how. In a natural experimental study of new walking and cycling infrastructure, we explored changes in walking, identified groups who changed in similar ways and assessed whether exposure to the infrastructure was associated with trajectories of walking. 1257 adults completed annual surveys assessing walking, sociodemographic and health characteristics and use of the infrastructure (2010-2012). Residential proximity to the new routes was assessed objectively. We used latent growth curve models to assess change in total walking, walking for recreation and for transport, used simple descriptive analysis and latent class analysis (LCA) to identify groups who changed in similar ways and examined factors associated with group membership using multinomial regression. LCA identified five trajectories, characterised by consistently low levels; consistently high levels; decreases; short-lived increases; and sustained increases. Those with lower levels of education and lower incomes were more likely to show both short-lived and sustained increases in walking for transport. However, those with lower levels of education were less likely to take up walking. Proximity to the intervention was associated with both uptake of and short-lived increases in walking for transport. Environmental improvement encouraged the less active to take up walking for transport, as well as encouraging those who were already active to walk more. Further research should disentangle the role of socioeconomic characteristics in determining use of new environments and changes in walking. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. A rapid MALDI-TOF MS identification database at genospecies level for clinical and environmental Aeromonas strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Benagli

    Full Text Available The genus Aeromonas has undergone a number of taxonomic and nomenclature revisions over the past 20 years, and new (subspecies and biogroups are continuously described. Standard identification methods such as biochemical characterization have deficiencies and do not allow clarification of the taxonomic position. This report describes the development of a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS identification database for a rapid identification of clinical and environmental Aeromonas isolates.

  8. Strategic Environmental Assessment Framework for Landscape-Based, Temporal Analysis of Wetland Change in Urban Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizo, Anton; Noble, Bram F; Bell, Scott

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents and demonstrates a spatial framework for the application of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in the context of change analysis for urban wetland environments. The proposed framework is focused on two key stages of the SEA process: scoping and environmental baseline assessment. These stages are arguably the most information-intense phases of SEA and have a significant effect on the quality of the SEA results. The study aims to meet the needs for proactive frameworks to assess and protect wetland habitat and services more efficiently, toward the goal of advancing more intelligent urban planning and development design. The proposed framework, adopting geographic information system and remote sensing tools and applications, supports the temporal evaluation of wetland change and sustainability assessment based on landscape indicator analysis. The framework was applied to a rapidly developing urban environment in the City of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, analyzing wetland change and land-use pressures from 1985 to 2011. The SEA spatial scale was rescaled from administrative urban planning units to an ecologically meaningful area. Landscape change assessed was based on a suite of indicators that were subsequently rolled up into a single, multi-dimensional, and easy to understand and communicate index to examine the implications of land-use change for wetland sustainability. The results show that despite the recent extremely wet period in the Canadian prairie region, land-use change contributed to increasing threats to wetland sustainability.

  9. Evolution under changing climates: climatic niche stasis despite rapid evolution in a non-native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jake M

    2013-09-22

    A topic of great current interest is the capacity of populations to adapt genetically to rapidly changing climates, for example by evolving the timing of life-history events, but this is challenging to address experimentally. I use a plant invasion as a model system to tackle this question by combining molecular markers, a common garden experiment and climatic niche modelling. This approach reveals that non-native Lactuca serriola originates primarily from Europe, a climatic subset of its native range, with low rates of admixture from Asia. It has rapidly refilled its climatic niche in the new range, associated with the evolution of flowering phenology to produce clines along climate gradients that mirror those across the native range. Consequently, some non-native plants have evolved development times and grow under climates more extreme than those found in Europe, but not among populations from the native range as a whole. This suggests that many plant populations can adapt rapidly to changed climatic conditions that are already within the climatic niche space occupied by the species elsewhere in its range, but that evolution to conditions outside of this range is more difficult. These findings can also help to explain the prevalence of niche conservatism among non-native species.

  10. Environmental and ecological changes associated with a marina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Natalie K; Dafforn, Katherine A; Coleman, Melinda A; Johnston, Emma L

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic modifications to waterways are common and their ecological consequences must be understood to effectively conserve local biodiversity. The facilitation of recreational boating activities often requires substantial alteration of natural areas, however the environmental and ecological consequences of such alterations are rarely described in the scientific literature. In this study, ecological and physico-chemical conditions were investigated in a recreational boating marina, located inside a marine park on the south-east coast of Australia. Recruitment panels were deployed for 8 weeks both inside and outside the marina, and differences in the composition of the developing fouling communities were observed. The recruitment of taxa, which often have short-lived larvae, was increased inside the marina (bryozoans, spirorbids and sponges) while the recruitment of taxa, which often have longer-lived larvae, was reduced or absent (barnacles, solitary ascidians and non-spirorbid polychaetes). Differences were also observed in environmental conditions inside the marina cf. directly outside. The marina environment had higher turbidity, temperature and pH along with higher concentrations of lead and copper in suspended sediments, while flow rates and trapped sediment loads were reduced inside the marina. The differences observed in the study suggest that there may be marked environmental changes associated with marina developments. The potential ecological consequences of these changes should be a primary consideration during the planning process, particularly for developments in locations of notable ecological value.

  11. Rapid area change in pitch-up manoeuvres of small perching birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, D T; Rival, D E

    2015-10-26

    Rapid pitch-up has been highlighted as a mechanism to generate large lift and drag during landing manoeuvres. However, pitching rates had not been measured previously in perching birds, and so the direct applicability of computations and experiments to observed behaviour was not known. We measure pitch rates in a small, wild bird (the black-capped chickadee; Poecile atricapillus), and show that these rates are within the parameter range used in experiments. Pitching rates were characterized by the shape change number, a metric comparing the rate of frontal area increase to acceleration. Black-capped chickadees increase the shape change number during perching in direct proportion to their total kinetic and potential energy at the start of the manoeuvre. The linear relationship between dissipated energy and shape change number is in accordance with a simple analytical model developed for two-dimensional pitching and decelerating airfoils. Black-capped chickadees use a wing pitch-up manoeuvre during perching to dissipate energy quickly while maintaining lift and drag through rapid area change. It is suggested that similar pitch-and-decelerate manoeuvres could be used to aid in the controlled, precise landings of small manoeuvrable air vehicles.

  12. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  13. Rapid Salmonella detection in experimentally inoculated equine faecal and veterinary hospital environmental samples using commercially available lateral flow immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, B A; Noyes, N R; Bolte, D S; Hyatt, D R; van Metre, D C; Morley, P S

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is the most commonly reported cause of outbreaks of nosocomial infections in large animal veterinary teaching hospitals and the closure of equine hospitals. Rapid detection may facilitate effective control practices in equine populations. Shipping and laboratory testing typically require ≥48 h to obtain results. Lateral flow immunoassays developed for use in food-safety microbiology provide an alternative that has not been evaluated for use with faeces or environmental samples. We aimed to identify enrichment methods that would allow commercially available rapid Salmonella detection systems (lateral flow immunoassays) to be used in clinical practice with equine faecal and environmental samples, providing test results in 18-24 h. In vitro experiment. Equine faecal and environmental samples were inoculated with known quantities of S. enterica serotype Typhimurium and cultured using 2 different enrichment techniques for faeces and 4 enrichment techniques for environmental samples. Samples were tested blindly using 2 different lateral flow immunoassays and plated on agar media for confirmatory testing. In general, commercial lateral flow immunoassays resulted in fewer false-negative test results with enrichment of 1 g faecal samples in tetrathionate for 18 h, while all environmental sample enrichment techniques resulted in similar detection rates. The limit of detection from spiked samples, ∼4 colony-forming units/g, was similar for all methods evaluated. The lateral flow immunoassays evaluated could reliably detect S. enterica within 18 h, indicating that they may be useful for rapid point-of-care testing in equine practice applications. Additional evaluation is needed using samples from naturally infected cases and the environment to gain an accurate estimate of test sensitivity and specificity and to substantiate further the true value of these tests in clinical practice. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  14. Niche tracking and rapid establishment of distributional equilibrium in the house sparrow show potential responsiveness of species to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available The ability of species to respond to novel future climates is determined in part by their physiological capacity to tolerate climate change and the degree to which they have reached and continue to maintain distributional equilibrium with the environment. While broad-scale correlative climatic measurements of a species' niche are often described as estimating the fundamental niche, it is unclear how well these occupied portions actually approximate the fundamental niche per se, versus the fundamental niche that exists in environmental space, and what fitness values bounding the niche are necessary to maintain distributional equilibrium. Here, we investigate these questions by comparing physiological and correlative estimates of the thermal niche in the introduced North American house sparrow (Passer domesticus. Our results indicate that occupied portions of the fundamental niche derived from temperature correlations closely approximate the centroid of the existing fundamental niche calculated on a fitness threshold of 50% population mortality. Using these niche measures, a 75-year time series analysis (1930-2004 further shows that: (i existing fundamental and occupied niche centroids did not undergo directional change, (ii interannual changes in the two niche centroids were correlated, (iii temperatures in North America moved through niche space in a net centripetal fashion, and consequently, (iv most areas throughout the range of the house sparrow tracked the existing fundamental niche centroid with respect to at least one temperature gradient. Following introduction to a new continent, the house sparrow rapidly tracked its thermal niche and established continent-wide distributional equilibrium with respect to major temperature gradients. These dynamics were mediated in large part by the species' broad thermal physiological tolerances, high dispersal potential, competitive advantage in human-dominated landscapes, and climatically induced

  15. On the frontiers of climate and environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is inteded to fill a gap in climate-change literature by providing a comprehensive regional study and identifying the overall adaptation challenges in a real-life context. It is argued that greater realism and broader vision is needed in order to address the climate challenge. It is imp....... It is imperative to integrate general environmental management with any climate-change adaptation effort.......This book is inteded to fill a gap in climate-change literature by providing a comprehensive regional study and identifying the overall adaptation challenges in a real-life context. It is argued that greater realism and broader vision is needed in order to address the climate challenge...

  16. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen, E-mail: sannevl@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University-Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark); Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University, Skibbrogade 5, 1. Sal, 9000 Aalborg (Denmark); Driscoll, Patrick, E-mail: patrick@plan.aau.dk [The Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Aalborg University-Copenhagen, A.C. Meyers Vænge 15, 2450 København SV (Denmark)

    2013-11-15

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty.

  17. Do environmental and climate change issues threaten sustainable development?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesarovic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The atmospheric environment is presently under threat from anthropogenic emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases to the extent that irreversible changes to the climate, the ozone layer and the quality of the air could occur. While the required changes in practice and regulations may hit economies if the induced costs are to be internalised, the impact of ignoring these requirements might even threaten the concept of sustainable development. The prospects of environmental pollution, depletion of ozone layer and climate change due to human activities have sparked a variety of controversies on many fronts. These topics are discussed with respect to the imposed threats to the sustainable development, and with particular attention paid to delays in urgent emission reductions. (author)

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions considered responsible for climate change: Environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialetto, G.; Venanzi, M.; Gaudioso, D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper concerns the more significant environmental indicators related to the emissions of radiatively and chemically/photochemically active trace gases. Reference is made to the preliminary work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to the proposals made in the framework of the international negotiation on climate change. Aiming to contribute to the definition of a national strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, this paper proposes a possible application of the indicators. The calculation of the indicators is based on the emission estimate performed by ENEA (Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) for the Report on the State of the Environment edited by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Finally, the paper suggests an application of such indicators for the international negotiation, in the framework of the Italian proposal for the Convention on climate change

  19. Avoiding climate change uncertainties in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone; Driscoll, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    This article is concerned with how Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) practice handles climate change uncertainties within the Danish planning system. First, a hypothetical model is set up for how uncertainty is handled and not handled in decision-making. The model incorporates the strategies ‘reduction’ and ‘resilience’, ‘denying’, ‘ignoring’ and ‘postponing’. Second, 151 Danish SEAs are analysed with a focus on the extent to which climate change uncertainties are acknowledged and presented, and the empirical findings are discussed in relation to the model. The findings indicate that despite incentives to do so, climate change uncertainties were systematically avoided or downplayed in all but 5 of the 151 SEAs that were reviewed. Finally, two possible explanatory mechanisms are proposed to explain this: conflict avoidance and a need to quantify uncertainty

  20. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Audra L.; Card, Daren C.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Schield, Drew R.; Adams, Richard H.; Pollock, David D.; Secor, Stephen M.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and ...

  1. Rapid issue tracking: A method for taking the pulse of the public discussion of environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Patrick Reed; Ashley. Goldhor-Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    Environmental communication professionals and other decision makers need to understand public sentiment toward environmental issues to effectively carry out their stewardship responsibilities. However, it is often difficult to obtain timely and reliable information about public discussion and debate regarding these issues. This paper describes an approach designed to...

  2. Explaining international co-authorship in global environmental change research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jappe, A.

    2006-04-15

    This paper maps the domain of earth and environmental sciences (EES) and investigates the relationship between cognitive problem structures and internationalisation patterns, drawing on the concepts of systemic versus cumulative global environmental change (GEC) and mutual task dependence in scientific fields. We find that scientific output concentration and internationalisation are significantly higher in the systemic GEC fields of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences and Oceanography than in the cumulative GEC fields Ecology and Water Resources. The relationship is explained by stronger mutual task dependence in systemic GEC fields. In contrast, the portion of co-authorships with developing, emerging and transition countries among all international publications is larger for Water Resources than for the three other fields, consistent with the most pressing needs for STI capacity development in these countries. (orig.)

  3. Climate change mitigation and adaptation in strategic environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wende, Wolfgang; Bond, Alan; Bobylev, Nikolai; Stratmann, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Countries are implementing CO 2 emission reduction targets in order to meet a globally agreed global warming limit of +2 °C. However, it was hypothesised that these national reduction targets are not translated to regional or state level planning, and are not considered through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in order to meet emission reduction obligations falling on the transport, energy, housing, agriculture, and forestry sectors. SEAs of land use plans in the German state of Saxony, and the English region of the East of England were examined for their consideration of climate change impacts based on a set of criteria drawn from the literature. It was found that SEAs in both cases failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the spatial plan, and that CO 2 reduction targets were not considered. This suggests a need for more clarity in the legal obligations for climate change consideration within the text of the SEA Directive, a requirement for monitoring of carbon emissions, a need for methodological guidance to devolve global climate change targets down to regional and local levels, and a need for guidance on properly implementing climate change protection in SEA. - Highlights: ► Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEA) of 12 land use plans from Germany and England have been examined. ► SEA failed to consider climate change impacts at scales larger than the boundary of the land use plans. ► SEA should be an important instrument for climate protection. ► Concrete steps for climate protection mainstreaming into SEA at the European Union and national levels have been suggested.

  4. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    Global warming is acknowledged as a major crisis facing society today, principally due to anticipated impacts on the environment, and availability and distribution of water resources. Scientific understanding of recent human-induced climate change, as well as evaluation of potential mitigation strategies, is progressively being developed through studies of atmospheric greenhouse gases and modern water energy carbon cycling processes. These efforts have been advanced through study of past global climate changes to understand mechanisms that play a role in determining natural climate fluctuations observed in ice cores, lake and sea sediments, corals, paleo-groundwater, cave deposits, tree rings, and other archives. Predictive models incorporating natural and human-induced climate change processes contribute to a better appreciation for the sensitivity of climate to specific anthropogenic perturbations. Increasingly, isotopes are being integrated in climate change studies. For example, isotope methodologies offer substantial improvements in the ability to label the origin and fate of greenhouse gases, and for studying the water and carbon cycle response to past climate changes, a high priority area for action identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Isotopes are also widely used as diagnostic variables for validation of models aimed at providing a prognosis of future environmental conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has long supported research and development of isotope applications for climate studies. The joint IAEA/WMO Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation managed by the IAEA has for the last four decades provided the basic isotope data necessary for integrating stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in climate models. The IAEA has also sponsored co-ordinated research projects on Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere and Isotope-Aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

  5. Proceedings of the study of environmental change using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Global warming is acknowledged as a major crisis facing society today, principally due to anticipated impacts on the environment, and availability and distribution of water resources. Scientific understanding of recent human-induced climate change, as well as evaluation of potential mitigation strategies, is progressively being developed through studies of atmospheric greenhouse gases and modern water energy carbon cycling processes. These efforts have been advanced through study of past global climate changes to understand mechanisms that play a role in determining natural climate fluctuations observed in ice cores, lake and sea sediments, corals, paleo-groundwater, cave deposits, tree rings, and other archives. Predictive models incorporating natural and human-induced climate change processes contribute to a better appreciation for the sensitivity of climate to specific anthropogenic perturbations. Increasingly, isotopes are being integrated in climate change studies. For example, isotope methodologies offer substantial improvements in the ability to label the origin and fate of greenhouse gases, and for studying the water and carbon cycle response to past climate changes, a high priority area for action identified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Isotopes are also widely used as diagnostic variables for validation of models aimed at providing a prognosis of future environmental conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has long supported research and development of isotope applications for climate studies. The joint IAEA/WMO Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation managed by the IAEA has for the last four decades provided the basic isotope data necessary for integrating stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in climate models. The IAEA has also sponsored co-ordinated research projects on Isotope Variations of Carbon Dioxide and other Trace Gases in the Atmosphere and Isotope-Aided Studies of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

  6. A decade of democracy: environmental management in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Aucamp

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The world’s focus on the environment started in 1972 with the Conference of the United Nations on the Human Environment in Stockholm. This led to the formation of the United Nations’ Environmental Programme (UNEP. The new interest in the role of the humans in the environment only picked up momentum after the publication of the report, Our Common Future by the World Commission on Development and the Environment, led by Harlem Gro Brundtland and the follow-up Conference in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 (The Earth Summit. The main products from this conference were the Earth Charter and the Agenda 21 principles and action plans. Not long after this event South Africa had a change in government in 1994. The new Constitution that was accepted in 1996 is one of the few constitutions that contain pertinent clauses pertaining to the protection of the environment. Environmental legislation such as the new National Environmental Management Act, a National Water Act, a Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, an Air Quality Management Bill has been adapted since 1994. A huge number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs attended the Rio Conference. Some, like Greenpeace (and locally Earthlife Africa, developed pressure groups that pressurised governments to give more attention to the protection of the environment and to improve environmental management. During this period results of scientific research that had a large impact on humankind’s perception of the environment, were published. The discovery of the hole in the ozone layer and of the increase in global warming led to great public interest. This led to conventions and protocols that have been ratified by most countries in the world, for example 189 out of a possible 191 countries ratified the Montreal Protocol for the Protection of the Ozone Layer by June 2004. The private sector responded and today it is the norm to report about the “Triple Bottom-line” (economic, social and

  7. Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, David G.; Hop, Haakon; Mundy, Christopher J.; Else, Brent; Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Ehn, Jens K.; Assmy, Philipp; Daase, Malin; Candlish, Lauren M.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly due to a warming Arctic climate with commensurate reductions in sea ice extent and thickness. This Pan-Arctic review summarizes the main changes in the Arctic ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface, with implications for primary- and secondary producers in the ice and the underlying water column. Changes in the Arctic MIZ were interpreted for the period 1979-2010, based on best-fit regressions for each month. Trends of increasingly open water were statistically significant for each month, with quadratic fit for August-November, illustrating particularly strong seasonal feedbacks in sea-ice formation and decay. Geographic interpretations of physical and biological changes were based on comparison of regions with significant changes in sea ice: (1) The Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean including the Canada Basin and the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian seas; (2) The Canadian Arctic Archipelago; (3) Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay; and (4) the Barents and Kara seas. Changes in ice conditions in the Barents sea/Kara sea region appear to be primarily forced by ocean heat fluxes during winter, whereas changes in the other sectors appear to be more summer-autumn related and primarily atmospherically forced. Effects of seasonal and regional changes in OSA-system with regard to increased open water were summarized for photosynthetically available radiation, nutrient delivery to the euphotic zone, primary production of ice algae and phytoplankton, ice-associated fauna and zooplankton, and gas exchange of CO2. Changes in the physical factors varied amongst regions, and showed direct effects on organisms linked to sea ice. Zooplankton species appear to be more flexible and likely able to adapt to variability in the onset of primary production. The major changes identified for the ice-associated ecosystem are with regard to production timing and abundance or biomass of ice flora and fauna, which are related to

  8. Climate Change and Schools: Environmental Hazards and Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Perry E; Uijttewaal, Simone A M; Stewart, James; Galvez, Maida P

    2017-11-16

    The changing climate is creating additional challenges in maintaining a healthy school environment in the United States (U.S.) where over 50 million people, mostly children, spend approximately a third of their waking hours. Chronic low prioritization of funds and resources to support environmental health in schools and lack of clear regulatory oversight in the U.S. undergird the new risks from climate change. We illustrate the extent of risk and the variation in vulnerability by geographic region, in the context of sparse systematically collected and comparable data particularly about school infrastructure. Additionally, we frame different resilience building initiatives, focusing on interventions that target root causes, or social determinants of health. Disaster response and recovery are also framed as resilience building efforts. Examples from U.S. Federal Region 2 (New Jersey, New York, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and nationally are used to illustrate these concepts. We conclude that better surveillance, more research, and increased federal and state oversight of environmental factors in schools (specific to climate risks) is necessary, as exposures result in short- and long term negative health effects and climate change risks will increase over time.

  9. Multiscale and multidisciplinary Marine Rapid Environmental Assessment data collection methods for process studies: the case of the Taranto Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Ivan; Maicu, Francesco; Pinardi, Nadia; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Causio, Salvatore; Caporale, Claudio; Demarte, Maurizio; Falconieri, Alfredo; Lecci, Rita; Lacava, Teodosio; Lisi, Matteo; Sepp-Neves, Augusto; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfe', Giorgia; Trotta, Francesco; Zaggia, Luca; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Fratianni, Claudia; Grandi, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The present work aims to investigate the thermohaline properties and the circulation of the Gulf of Taranto, which is a deep, semi-enclosed ocean area in the northern Ionian sea, encircled by two Italian peninsulas of southern Apulia and Calabria. Since few observations in the past have been reported in the Gulf of Taranto, it emerged the need of planning and implementing oceanographic cruises in this area, based on an innovative concept of MREA (Marine Rapid Environmental Assessment). The methodology was based on an optimal experimental strategy to collect definitive evidences on ocean mesoscales with a spatial-and-time synoptic coverage. The MREA surveys have been performed thanks to the synergies between Italian oceanographic research centers and the Italian Navy Hydrographic Institute. Starting from the experience and results of MREA14 (Pinardi et al., 2016), which have shown in the Gulf an anticyclonic circulation in Autumn (October 2014) and the presence of submesoscale structure, a new experiment (MREA16) was repeated in a different season (Summer, June-July 2016), evaluating possible changes in current circulation. Furthermore, the new sampling methodology was refined and strengthened integrating the classical CTD data collection with additional simultaneous measurements of currents by means of vessel-mounted ADCP. The geostrophic circulation pattern derived from the CTD objective-analysis mapping techniques has been verified with the ADCP measurements. Moreover, the analysis on circulation fields confirms the presence of possible submesoscale structures, which can be well solved by a high-resolution sampling scheme. The MREA investigation in Gulf of Taranto shows a large-scale gyre anticyclonically-oriented in Autumn (MREA14) and cyclonically-oriented in Summer (MREA16). This opposite circulation pattern is probably connected to (i) the impact of Western Adriatic Coastal Current (WACC), (ii) the effect of the Northern Ionian Sea outflow-inflow system in

  10. Environmental changes and vulnerability in the Gharbi Island (Kerkennah, Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, L.; Bouaziz, R.; Dahech, S.; Daoud, A.; Beltrando, G.

    2012-04-01

    Most reliable models of climatic observation and forecast show that the south of the Mediterranean perimeter is threatened by important variations of environmental conditions. The Gharbi Island that belongs to the Kerkennah archipelago is located 20 km away from the Sfax coast and is likely to undergo the consequences of these regional-scale evolutions. In addition, the socio-economic changes that started in the 80's may have an impact on land use. Indeed, marine conditions changed and overfishing causes the decrease of fish quantity and the leaving of the fisher in favor of agriculture. To enlighten changes of various natures and understand the mechanisms of their origin or development, we performed a comparison of land use on 4 dates over the last 50 years, using photointerpretation on two high resolution images (1963: aerial photography and 2010: Spot image; 2,5m resolution) and remote sensing on two Landsat 5 TM images (1984 and 2011). To support and complete our large scale observations, we also added photographic data gathered during two field campaigns. The first change we observed is a urban extension (stakes) predominantly imputed to the construction of holiday resort for Tunisian citizen, and for a minority to international tourism. We also found that the number of agricultural parcels (stakes) has been multiplied during the past decades in response of changes on agricultural practices, and that an irrigated zone has been created in response to the increase of hydric stress and of farmers. Finally, we describe an enlargement of sebkhas (low, salty and liable to flooding areas (hazard)) that might likely be caused by climatic and environmental evolution like sea level rise and subsidence. We conclude one the one hand that vulnerability and also risks of salinization and loss of farmland around the sebkhas and in the irrigated zone have increase and on the other hand that human infrastructures that are very close or in the sebkhas are vulnerable to sea

  11. Environmental forcing and Southern Ocean marine predator populations: effects of climate change and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathan, P N; Forcada, J; Murphy, E J

    2007-12-29

    The Southern Ocean is a major component within the global ocean and climate system and potentially the location where the most rapid climate change is most likely to happen, particularly in the high-latitude polar regions. In these regions, even small temperature changes can potentially lead to major environmental perturbations. Climate change is likely to be regional and may be expressed in various ways, including alterations to climate and weather patterns across a variety of time-scales that include changes to the long interdecadal background signals such as the development of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Oscillating climate signals such as ENSO potentially provide a unique opportunity to explore how biological communities respond to change. This approach is based on the premise that biological responses to shorter-term sub-decadal climate variability signals are potentially the best predictor of biological responses over longer time-scales. Around the Southern Ocean, marine predator populations show periodicity in breeding performance and productivity, with relationships with the environment driven by physical forcing from the ENSO region in the Pacific. Wherever examined, these relationships are congruent with mid-trophic-level processes that are also correlated with environmental variability. The short-term changes to ecosystem structure and function observed during ENSO events herald potential long-term changes that may ensue following regional climate change. For example, in the South Atlantic, failure of Antarctic krill recruitment will inevitably foreshadow recruitment failures in a range of higher trophic-level marine predators. Where predator species are not able to accommodate by switching to other prey species, population-level changes will follow. The Southern Ocean, though oceanographically interconnected, is not a single ecosystem and different areas are dominated by different food webs. Where species occupy different positions in

  12. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain

  13. Mycorrhizas and global environmental change: Research at different scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staddon, P.L.; Heinemeyer, A.; Fitter, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    Global environmental change (GEC), in particular rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature, will affect most ecosystems. The varied responses of plants to these aspects of GEC are well documented. As with other key below-ground components of terrestrial ecosystems, the response...... of the ubiquitous mycorrhizal fungal root symbionts has received limited attention. Most of the research on the effects of GEC on mycorrhizal fungi has been pot-based with a few field (especially monoculture) studies. A major question that arises in all these studies is whether the GEC effects on the mycorrhizal...

  14. Ecological ethics in captivity: balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Ethical obligations to animals in conservation research and management are manifold and often conflicting. Animal welfare concerns often clash with the ethical imperative to understand and conserve a population or ecosystem through research and management intervention. The accelerating pace and impact of global environmental change, especially climate change, complicates our understanding of these obligations. One example is the blurring of the distinction between ex situ (zoo- and aquarium-based) conservation and in situ (field-based) approaches as zoos and aquariums become more active in field conservation work and as researchers and managers consider more intensive interventions in wild populations and ecosystems to meet key conservation goals. These shifts, in turn, have consequences for our traditional understanding of the ethics of wildlife research and management, including our relative weighting of animal welfare and conservation commitments across rapidly evolving ex situ and in situ contexts. Although this changing landscape in many ways supports the increased use of captive wildlife in conservation-relevant research, it raises significant ethical concerns about human intervention in populations and ecosystems, including the proper role of zoos and aquariums as centers for animal research and conservation in the coming decades. Working through these concerns requires a pragmatic approach to ethical analysis, one that is able to make trade-offs among the many goods at stake (e.g., animal welfare, species viability, and ecological integrity) as we strive to protect species from further decline and extinction in this century.

  15. Neurogenomics and the role of a large mutational target on rapid behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Craig E; Kulathinal, Rob J

    2016-11-08

    Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage. However, unlike other rapidly evolving functional systems such as sperm-egg interactions and immune defense, the genetic basis of rapid behavioral change remains elusive. Here we propose that the rapid divergence and widespread novelty of innate and adaptive behavior is primarily a function of its genomic architecture. Specifically, we hypothesize that the broad diversity of behavioral phenotypes present at micro- and macroevolutionary scales is promoted by a disproportionately large mutational target of neurogenic genes. We present evidence that these large neuro-behavioral targets are significant and ubiquitous in animal genomes and suggest that behavior's novelty and rapid emergence are driven by a number of factors including more selection on a larger pool of variants, a greater role of phenotypic plasticity, and/or unique molecular features present in large genes. We briefly discuss the origins of these large neurogenic genes, as they relate to the remarkable diversity of metazoan behaviors, and highlight key consequences on both behavioral traits and neurogenic disease across, respectively, evolutionary and ontogenetic time scales. Current approaches to studying the genetic mechanisms underlying rapid phenotypic change primarily focus on identifying signatures of Darwinian selection in protein-coding regions. In contrast

  16. Social Environmental Correlates of Health Behaviors in a Faith-Based Policy and Environmental Change Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermstad, April; Honeycutt, Sally; Flemming, Shauna StClair; Carvalho, Michelle L; Hodge, Tarccara; Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle C; Arriola, Kimberly R Jacob

    2018-03-01

    Diet and physical activity are behavioral risk factors for many chronic diseases, which are among the most common health conditions in the United States. Yet most Americans fall short of meeting established dietary and physical activity guidelines. Faith-based organizations as settings for health promotion interventions can affect members at multiple levels of the social ecological model. The present study investigated whether change in the church social environment was associated with healthier behavior at church and in general at 1-year follow-up. Six churches received mini-grants and technical assistance for 1 year to support policy and environmental changes for healthy eating (HE) and physical activity (PA). Socioenvironmental (social support and social norms) and behavioral (HE and PA at church and in general) outcomes were derived from baseline and 1-year follow-up church member surveys ( n = 258). Three of six churches demonstrated significant improvements in all three socioenvironmental aspects of HE. Two of five churches exhibited significant socioenvironmental improvements for PA at follow-up. Church social environmental changes were related to health behaviors at church and in general ( p Change in social support for HE, social support for PA, and social norms for PA were each associated with three church-based and general behavioral outcomes. Social norms for healthy eating were related to two general behavior outcomes and social norms for unhealthy eating to one general behavioral outcome. Study findings demonstrate that socioenvironmental characteristics are essential to multilevel interventions and merit consideration in designing policy and environmental change interventions.

  17. Experiences of Families Transmitting Values in a Rapidly Changing Society: Implications for Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyil, Yudum; Prouty, Anne; Blanchard, Amy; Lyness, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Intergenerational value transmission affects parent-child relationships and necessitates constant negotiation in families. Families with adolescents from rapidly changing societies face unique challenges in balancing the traditional collectivistic family values that promote harmony with emerging values that promote autonomy. Using modern Turkey as an example of such a culture, the authors examine the transmission process in families that hold more traditional and collectivistic values than their adolescent children. Special consideration is given to generational and cultural differences in the autonomy and relatedness dimensions. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  18. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Rod

    2013-01-01

    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.

  19. Tropical vegetation evidence for rapid sea level changes associated with Heinrich Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Catalina; Dupont, Lydie M, E-mail: catalina@uni-bremen.d, E-mail: dupont@uni-bremen.d [MARUM - Centre for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, D-28359 Germany (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    A Cariaco Basin pollen record shows the development of tropical salt marshes during marine isotope stage 3. Rapid and abrupt expansions of salt marsh vegetation in tropical South America are associated with north Atlantic Heinrich Events stadials (HE-stadials). Intervals of salt marsh expansion have an internal structure, which consists of a recurrent alternation of species that starts with pollen increments of Chenopodiaceae, that are followed by increments of grasses, and subsequently by increments of Cyperaceae. This pattern suggests a successional process that is determined by the close relationship between sea-level and plant community dynamics. The salt tolerant Chenopodiaceae, indicate hypersaline intertidal environments, which were most likely promoted by extremely dry atmospheric conditions. Rapid sea-level rise characterizes the onset of HE-stadials, causing the continued recruitment of pioneer species, which are the only ones tolerating rapid rates of disturbance. Once sea-level rise decelerates, marsh plants are able to trap and stabilize sediments, favouring the establishment of more competitive species. These results add to the scarce knowledge on the dynamics of tropical salt marsh ecosystems, and provide independent paleoclimatic evidence on sea-level changes following Antarctic climate variability.

  20. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Qu

    Full Text Available One of the most common integrative medicine (IM modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  1. Sensory Systems and Environmental Change on Behavior during Social Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bierbower

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of environmental conditions for transmitting sensory cues and the ability of crayfish to utilize olfaction and vision were examined in regards to social interactive behavior. The duration and intensity of interactions were examined for conspecific crayfish with different sensory abilities. Normally, vision and chemosensory have roles in agonistic communication of Procambarus clarkii; however, for the blind cave crayfish (Orconectes australis packardi, that lack visual capabilities, olfaction is assumed to be the primary sensory modality. To test this, we paired conspecifics in water and out of water in the presence and absence of white light to examine interactive behaviors when these various sensory modalities are altered. For sighted crayfish, in white light, interactions occurred and escalated; however, when the water was removed, interactions and aggressiveness decreased, but, there was an increase in visual displays out of the water. The loss of olfaction abilities for blind cave and sighted crayfish produced fewer social interactions. The importance of environmental conditions is illustrated for social interactions among sighted and blind crayfish. Importantly, this study shows the relevance in the ecological arena in nature for species survival and how environmental changes disrupt innate behaviors.

  2. Lineage-specific responses of microbial communities to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblut, Nicholas D; Shade, Ashley; Read, Jordan S; McMahon, Katherine D; Whitaker, Rachel J

    2013-01-01

    A great challenge facing microbial ecology is how to define ecologically relevant taxonomic units. To address this challenge, we investigated how changing the definition of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) influences the perception of ecological patterns in microbial communities as they respond to a dramatic environmental change. We used pyrosequenced tags of the bacterial V2 16S rRNA region, as well as clone libraries constructed from the cytochrome oxidase C gene ccoN, to provide additional taxonomic resolution for the common freshwater genus Polynucleobacter. At the most highly resolved taxonomic scale, we show that distinct genotypes associated with the abundant Polynucleobacter lineages exhibit divergent spatial patterns and dramatic changes over time, while the also abundant Actinobacteria OTUs are highly coherent. This clearly demonstrates that different bacterial lineages demand different taxonomic definitions to capture ecological patterns. Based on the temporal distribution of highly resolved taxa in the hypolimnion, we demonstrate that change in the population structure of a single genotype can provide additional insight into the mechanisms of community-level responses. These results highlight the importance and feasibility of examining ecological change in microbial communities across taxonomic scales while also providing valuable insight into the ecological characteristics of ecologically coherent groups in this system.

  3. Environmental health risk assessment and management for global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P.

    2014-12-01

    This environmental health risk assessment and management approach for atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution is based almost entirely on IPCC AR5 (2014) content, but the IPCC does not make recommendations. Large climate model uncertainties may be large environmental health risks. In accordance with environmental health risk management, we use the standard (IPCC-endorsed) formula of risk as the product of magnitude times probability, with an extremely high standard of precaution. Atmospheric GHG pollution, causing global warming, climate change and ocean acidification, is increasing as fast as ever. Time is of the essence to inform and make recommendations to governments and the public. While the 2ºC target is the only formally agreed-upon policy limit, for the most vulnerable nations, a 1.5ºC limit is being considered by the UNFCCC Secretariat. The Climate Action Network International (2014), representing civil society, recommends that the 1.5ºC limit be kept open and that emissions decline from 2015. James Hansen et al (2013) have argued that 1ºC is the danger limit. Taking into account committed global warming, its millennial duration, multiple large sources of amplifying climate feedbacks and multiple adverse impacts of global warming and climate change on crops, and population health impacts, all the IPCC AR5 scenarios carry extreme environmental health risks to large human populations and to the future of humanity as a whole. Our risk consideration finds that 2ºC carries high risks of many catastrophic impacts, that 1.5ºC carries high risks of many disastrous impacts, and that 1ºC is the danger limit. IPCC AR4 (2007) showed that emissions must be reversed by 2015 for a 2ºC warming limit. For the IPCC AR5 only the best-case scenario RCP2.6, is projected to stay under 2ºC by 2100 but the upper range is just above 2ºC. It calls for emissions to decline by 2020. We recommend that for catastrophic environmental health risk aversion, emissions decline

  4. Improving predictive capabilities of environmental change with GLOBE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica Hill

    This dissertation addresses two applications of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) essential for predicting environmental changes. The first study focuses on whether NDVI can improve model simulations of evapotranspiration for temperate Northern (>35°) regions. The second study focuses on whether NDVI can detect phenological changes in start of season (SOS) for high Northern (>60°) environments. The overall objectives of this research were to (1) develop a methodology for utilizing GLOBE data in NDVI research; and (2) provide a critical analysis of NDVI as a long-term monitoring tool for environmental change. GLOBE is an international partnership network of K-12 students, teachers, and scientists working together to study and understand the global environment. The first study utilized data collected by one GLOBE school in Greenville, Pennsylvania and the second utilized phenology observations made by GLOBE students in Alaska. Results from the first study showed NDVI could predict transpiration periods for environments like Greenville, Pennsylvania. In phenological terms, these environments have three distinct periods (QI, QII, and QIII). QI reflects onset of the growing season (mid March--mid May) when vegetation is greening up (NDVI 0.60). Results from the second study showed that a climate threshold of 153 +/- 22 growing degree days was a better predictor of SOS for Fairbanks than a NDVI threshold applied to temporal AVHRR and MODIS datasets. Accumulated growing degree days captured the interannual variability of SOS better than the NDVI threshold and most closely resembled actual SOS observations made by GLOBE students. Overall, biweekly composites and effects of clouds, snow, and conifers limit the ability of NDVI to monitor phenological changes in Alaska. Both studies did show that GLOBE data provides an important source of input and validation information for NDVI research.

  5. Attribution Analyses of Impacts of Environmental Changes on Streamflow and Sediment Load in a Mountainous Basin, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Located in the southeastern China and northern Vietnam, the Red River is an important international trans-boundary river that has experienced rapid deforestation and environmental changes over the past decades. We conducted attribution analysis of impacts of various environmental changes on streamflow and sediment load. The contribution of reclassified environmental changes to total change of the streamflow and sediment load was separated. Land cover change based on climate-induced and human-induced indicators were defined. We found that human-induced land cover change was the main factor affecting changes of the streamflow and sediment load. Changes of the land cover were more pronounced in the dry season than in the wet season whereas sediment load changed more in the wet season than in the dry season. In addition, changes in sediment load were mainly caused by human-induced land cover change and the changes of land cover were more influential on sediment load than on streamflow in the Red River basin.

  6. Carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, W. W.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon trading namely the reduction of future carbon dioxide levels has been widely touted as a solution needed to counter the problem of climate change. However, there are enormous risks involved as the measure tackles only one of the causes of climate change and may prove to be ineffective. This presentation highlights ten points relevant to the discussion on carbon trading, climate change, environmental sustainability and saving planet Earth for increasing public awareness. They include: (1) Climate has changed throughout Earth’s history. (2) The present level of about 388 parts per million level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has already exceeded the maximum level of the past 800,000 years. This value is obtained from air bubbles trapped within the ice in Antarctica but the consequence of further increases remains uncertain. (3) Earth scientists do not have an overwhelming consensus on whether carbon trading alone is an effective measure in mitigating climate change. (4) The present state of the Earth’s demise is largely the result of human actions including population growth and the mismanagement of the Earth. (5) The latest evidence on sea-level changes in the South China Sea a far-field region unaffected by glacial isostatic readjustment is not in support of a ‘rapid’ rate of future sea-level rise through global warming. (6) Volcanic eruptions have an important role in driving the Earth’s climate. Examples of temperature lowering as well as abnormally wet and dry years can both be found in the instrumental record. (7) Humans have drastically modified the ‘natural’ water cycle. This is however not a well recognized cause of climate change compared to the emission of greenhouse gases through fossil fuel consumption. (8) The bulk (~75%) of the rise in mean annual temperature of about 1oC observed at the Hong Kong Observatory Station since record began in 1884 is best explained by the thermal heat island effect. (9) No evidence has been found

  7. Recent Trends in Rapid Environmental Monitoring of Pathogens and Toxicants: Potential of Nanoparticle-Based Biosensor and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedrith, Preeyaporn; Thasiphu, Thalisa; Weon, Jong-Il; Boonprasert, Rattana; Tuitemwong, Kooranee; Tuitemwong, Pravate

    2015-01-01

    Of global concern, environmental pollution adversely affects human health and socioeconomic development. The presence of environmental contaminants, especially bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens and their toxins as well as chemical substances, poses serious public health concerns. Nanoparticle-based biosensors are considered as potential tools for rapid, specific, and highly sensitive detection of the analyte of interest (both biotic and abiotic contaminants). In particular, there are several limitations of conventional detection methods for water-borne pathogens due to low concentrations and interference with various enzymatic inhibitors in the environmental samples. The increase of cells to detection levels requires long incubation time. This review describes current state of biosensor nanotechnology, the advantage over conventional detection methods, and the challenges due to testing of environmental samples. The major approach is to use nanoparticles as signal reporter to increase output rather than spending time to increase cell concentrations. Trends in future development of novel detection devices and their advantages over other environmental monitoring methodologies are also discussed. PMID:25884032

  8. Rapid changes in protein phosphorylation associated with gravity perception in corn roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.J.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    A previous paper from this laboratory showed calcium- and calmodulin-dependent in vivo protein phosphorylation in corn root tips. The authors show that rapid changes in calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation are involved in light-dependent graviperception in corn root tips. Corn seedlings (Zea mays L, cv Merit) were grown in the dark for 3 d, then apical root segments were harvested in dim green light to measure in vivo protein phosphorylation. Segments were incubated with 0.5 mCi 32 P for 1 h, then immediately frozen in liquid N 2 or first treated with either 7 min light, or 7 min light plus 1 mM EGTA and 10 μM A23187. Labeled proteins were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and detected by autoradiography. Light caused rapid and specific promotion of phosphorylation of 5 polypeptides. The increases in protein phosphorylation were reversed by treating with EGTA and A23187. The authors postulate that these changes in protein phosphorylation are an essential part of the light-dependent gravity response in Merit roots

  9. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Strategies for sustainable management of renewable resources during environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindkvist, Emilie; Ekeberg, Örjan; Norberg, Jon

    2017-03-15

    As a consequence of global environmental change, management strategies that can deal with unexpected change in resource dynamics are becoming increasingly important. In this paper we undertake a novel approach to studying resource growth problems using a computational form of adaptive management to find optimal strategies for prevalent natural resource management dilemmas. We scrutinize adaptive management, or learning-by-doing, to better understand how to simultaneously manage and learn about a system when its dynamics are unknown. We study important trade-offs in decision-making with respect to choosing optimal actions (harvest efforts) for sustainable management during change. This is operationalized through an artificially intelligent model where we analyze how different trends and fluctuations in growth rates of a renewable resource affect the performance of different management strategies. Our results show that the optimal strategy for managing resources with declining growth is capable of managing resources with fluctuating or increasing growth at a negligible cost, creating in a management strategy that is both efficient and robust towards future unknown changes. To obtain this strategy, adaptive management should strive for: high learning rates to new knowledge, high valuation of future outcomes and modest exploration around what is perceived as the optimal action. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Analysis of changes in environmental radiation, and three types of environmental radiation detector performance comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H; Seo, J.H; Park, S.M; Yu, B.N; Park, J.H; Joo, K.S

    2013-06-01

    High-pressure ion chamber (GE Reuter-Stokes, HPIC), accuracy is high but the high price and do not have the ability nuclide analysis is a disadvantage. NaI(Tl) and PMT scintillation detector of radioactive materials can be divided. Environmental radiation measurements using a semiconductor with SiPM detector PMT to replace the value of the results were compared. SiPM detector using radiation environment were measured in the field to verify the accuracy and energy resolution. SiPMs performance as environmental radiation measurement equipment and radioactive material distinction as a personal dosimeter based technology, using the above results were prepared. The interest on the environmental radiation due to the Fukushima power plant crisis in Japan has been growing concern about the radiation environment of the relatively close proximity Korea is a very heightened state. Could be confirmed in the radiation environment of nuclear power plants around the analysis and performance of the next generation of environmental radiation meter. Fukushima power plants accident after 2 years, the equipment installed by this analysis meets the performance as a radiation detector could be confirmed as follows. CANA Inc. developed by radionuclides classification of using man-made and natural radionuclides and man-made radionuclides separated, ensure the value of the results were analyzed. Could be and alternative to the conventional detector energy resolution ( 137 CS<15%) and linearity (<15%) to satisfy the performance requirements of the measurement result of environmental radiation detector is considered. SiPM radiation environment changes and HPIC and NaI(TI) scintillation detector installed in Korea of the Fukushima power plant after the accident, radiation environment using a small alternative was to verify the accuracy of the measuring equipment. A big difference in performance as invisible by comparison with the large detector Assay miniaturization rough as a personal

  12. Modeling of Andean Páramo Ecosystems’ Hydrological Response to Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Flores-López

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Peruvian Andes, water infiltration from tropical wetlands, called páramo, generates headwaters for downstream rivers. The hydrological processes of these wetlands are not well understood within the larger hydrological system, impeding efforts to mitigate the rapid environmental changes anticipated due to regional population growth and climate change. This study constructed and calibrated a Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP system model for ecosystems with sparse data in the Quiroz-Chipillico watershed in the Piura region of Peru. The model simulates the impacts of possible changes within the hydrological system to assist decision-makers in strategizing about sustainable development for the region, especially the páramo. Using scenarios designed with stakeholder participation, the WEAP model for the Quiroz-Chipillico watershed examines river headflow production, reservoir water levels, and demand coverage for downstream users when the upstream páramo and its environs are subjected to changes of temperature, precipitation, and land use. The model reveals that while temperature and precipitation changes can be expected to impact páramo water production, the anticipated land use changes will be a primary driver of hydrological responses in the páramo and subsequent changes downstream.

  13. Pyrite sulfur isotopes reveal glacial-interglacial environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Virgil; Sansjofre, Pierre; Rabineau, Marina; Revillon, Sidonie; Houghton, Jennifer; Fike, David A.

    2017-06-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth’s surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth’s surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ34S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records. Here, we investigate alternative controls on the sedimentary sulfur isotopic composition of marine pyrite by examining a 300-m drill core of Mediterranean sediments deposited over the past 500,000 y and spanning the last five glacial-interglacial periods. Because this interval is far shorter than the residence time of marine sulfate, any change in the sulfur isotopic record preserved in pyrite (δ34Spyr) necessarily corresponds to local environmental changes. The stratigraphic variations (>76‰) in the isotopic data reported here are among the largest ever observed in pyrite, and are in phase with glacial-interglacial sea level and temperature changes. In this case, the dominant control appears to be glacial-interglacial variations in sedimentation rates. These results suggest that there exist important but previously overlooked depositional controls on sedimentary sulfur isotope records, especially associated with intervals of substantial sea level change. This work provides an important perspective on the origin of variability in such records and suggests meaningful paleoenvironmental information can be derived from pyrite δ34S records.

  14. Mercury enrichment indicates volcanic triggering of the Valanginian environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Morales, Chloé; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Westermann, Stéphane; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl

    2017-04-01

    The Valanginian stage (Early Cretaceous, ˜137-132 Ma) recorded an episode of pronounced palaeoenvironmental change, which is marked by a globally recorded positive δ13C excursion of 1.5 to 2‰ amplitude, also known as the "Weissert event or episode". Its onset near the early/late Valanginian boundary (B. campylotoxus-S. verrucosum ammonite Zones) coincides with a phase of warmer climate conditions associated with enhanced humidity, major changes in the evolution of marine plankton, and the drowning of tropical and subtropical marine shallow-water carbonate ecosystems. The globally recorded excursion indicates important transformations in the carbon cycle, which have tentatively been associated with Paraná-Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) volcanic activity. Incertainties in existing age models preclude, however, its positive identification as a trigger of Valanginian environmental change. Since very recently, mercury (Hg) chemostratigraphy offers the possibly to evaluate the role of LIP activity during major palaeoenvironmental perturbations. In this study we investigate the distribution of Hg contents in four Valanginian reference sections located in pelagic and hemipelagic environments in the Central Tethyan Realm (Lombardian Basin, Breggia section), the northern Tethyan margin (Vocontian Basin, Orpierre and Angles sections), and the narrow seaway connecting the Tethyan and Boreal Oceans (Polish Basin, Wawal core). All records show an enrichment in Hg concentrations at or near the onset of the Weissert Episode, with maximal values of 70.5 ppb at Angles, 59.5 ppb at Orpierre, 69.9 ppb at Wawal, and 17.0 ppb at Breggia. The persistence of the Hg anomaly in Hg/TOC and Hg/phyllosilicate ratios shows that organic-matter scavenging and/or adsorbtion onto clay minerals only played a limited role.We propose that volcanic outgassing was the primary source of the Hg enrichment and conclude that an important magmatic pulse triggered the Valanginian environmental

  15. Improving environmental change research with systematic techniques for qualitative scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Vanessa Jine; Kriegler, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Scenarios are key tools in analyses of global environmental change. Often they consist of quantitative and qualitative components, where the qualitative aspects are expressed in narrative, or storyline, form. Fundamental challenges in scenario development and use include identifying a small set of compelling storylines that span a broad range of policy-relevant futures, documenting that the assumptions embodied in the storylines are internally consistent, and ensuring that the selected storylines are sufficiently comprehensive, that is, that descriptions of important kinds of future developments are not left out. The dominant approach to scenario design for environmental change research has been criticized for lacking sufficient means of ensuring that storylines are internally consistent. A consequence of this shortcoming could be an artificial constraint on the range of plausible futures considered. We demonstrate the application of a more systematic technique for the development of storylines called the cross-impact balance (CIB) method. We perform a case study on the scenarios published in the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES), which are widely used. CIB analysis scores scenarios in terms of internal consistency. It can also construct a very large number of scenarios consisting of combinations of assumptions about individual scenario elements and rank these combinations in terms of internal consistency. Using this method, we find that the four principal storylines employed in the SRES scenarios vary widely in internal consistency. One type of storyline involving highly carbon-intensive development is underrepresented in the SRES scenario set. We conclude that systematic techniques like CIB analysis hold promise for improving scenario development in global change research. (letter)

  16. Rapid-Viability PCR Method for Detection of Live, Virulent Bacillus anthracis in Environmental Samples ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Létant, Sonia E.; Murphy, Gloria A.; Alfaro, Teneile M.; Avila, Julie R.; Kane, Staci R.; Raber, Ellen; Bunt, Thomas M.; Shah, Sanjiv R.

    2011-01-01

    In the event of a biothreat agent release, hundreds of samples would need to be rapidly processed to characterize the extent of contamination and determine the efficacy of remediation activities. Current biological agent identification and viability determination methods are both labor- and time-intensive such that turnaround time for confirmed results is typically several days. In order to alleviate this issue, automated, high-throughput sample processing methods were developed in which real...

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylation alterations of Alternanthera philoxeroides in natural and manipulated habitats: implications for epigenetic regulation of rapid responses to environmental fluctuation and phenotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lexuan; Geng, Yupeng; Li, Bo; Chen, Jiakuan; Yang, Ji

    2010-11-01

    Alternanthera philoxeroides (alligator weed) is an invasive weed that can colonize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Individuals growing in different habitats exhibit extensive phenotypic variation but little genetic differentiation in its introduced range. The mechanisms underpinning the wide range of phenotypic variation and rapid adaptation to novel and changing environments remain uncharacterized. In this study, we examined the epigenetic variation and its correlation with phenotypic variation in plants exposed to natural and manipulated environmental variability. Genome-wide methylation profiling using methylation-sensitive amplified fragment length polymorphism (MSAP) revealed considerable DNA methylation polymorphisms within and between natural populations. Plants of different source populations not only underwent significant morphological changes in common garden environments, but also underwent a genome-wide epigenetic reprogramming in response to different treatments. Methylation alterations associated with response to different water availability were detected in 78.2% (169/216) of common garden induced polymorphic sites, demonstrating the environmental sensitivity and flexibility of the epigenetic regulatory system. These data provide evidence of the correlation between epigenetic reprogramming and the reversible phenotypic response of alligator weed to particular environmental factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Chemopreventive agents attenuate rapid inhibition of gap junctional intercellular communication induced by environmental toxicants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, J. E.; Upham, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 5 (2016), s. 827-837 ISSN 0163-5581 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12034 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : gap junctional intercellular communication * chemopreventive agents * environmental toxicants Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2016

  19. Polychaete diversity and its relevance in the rapid environmental assessment of Mumbai Port

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sukumaran, S.; SaralaDevi, K.

    , 469–474. 11. Reish, D. J., Effect of pollution abatement in Los Angeles harbors. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 1971, 2, 71–74. 12. Levin, L. A., Polychaetes as environmental indicators: response to low oxygen and organic enrichment. Bull. Mar. Sci., 2000, 67...

  20. A simple and rapid cultural method for detection of Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillaume-Gentil, O.; Sonnard, V.; Kandhai, M.C.; Marugg, J.; Joosten, H.

    2005-01-01

    A method was developed to detect and identify Enterobacter sakazakii in environmental samples. The method is based on selective enrichment at 45 ± 0.5°C in lauryl sulfate tryptose broth supplemented with 0.5 M NaCl and 10 mg/liter vancomycin (mLST) for 22 to 24 h followed by streaking on tryptone

  1. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  2. Monitoring Forest Change in Landscapes Under-Going Rapid Energy Development: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Pickell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development of energy resources around the world has substantially increased forest change related to oil and gas activities. In some cases, oil and gas activities are the primary catalyst of land-use change in forested landscapes. We discuss the challenges associated with characterizing ecological change related to energy resource development using North America as an exemplar. We synthesize the major impacts of energy development to forested ecosystems and offer new perspectives on how to detect and monitor anthropogenic disturbance during the Anthropocene. The disturbance of North American forests for energy development has resulted in persistent linear corridors, suppression of historical disturbance regimes, novel ecosystems, and the eradication of ecological memory. Characterizing anthropogenic disturbances using conventional patch-based disturbance measures will tend to underestimate the ecological impacts of energy development. Suitable indicators of anthropogenic impacts in forests should be derived from the integration of multi-scalar Earth observations. Relating these indicators to ecosystem condition will be a capstone in the progress toward monitoring forest change in landscapes undergoing rapid energy development.

  3. Global environmental change: local perceptions, understandings, and explanations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aili Pyhälä

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Global environmental change (GEC is an increasingly discussed phenomenon in the scientific literature as evidence of its presence and impacts continues to grow. Yet, while the documentation of GEC is becoming more readily available, local perceptions of GEC - particularly in small-scale societies - and preferences about how to deal with it, are still largely overlooked. Local knowledge and perceptions of GEC are important in that agents make decisions (including on natural resource management based on individual perceptions. We carried out a systematic literature review that aims to provide an exhaustive state-of-the-art of the degree to and manner in which the study of local perceptions of change are being addressed in GEC research. We reviewed 126 articles found in peer-reviewed journals (between 1998 and 2014 that address local perceptions of GEC. We used three particular lenses of analysis that are known to influence local perceptions, namely (i cognition, (ii culture and knowledge, and (iii possibilities for adaptation.We present our findings on the geographical distribution of the current research, the most common changes reported, perceived drivers and impacts of change, and local explanations and evaluations of change and impacts. Overall, we found the studies to be geographically biased, lacking methodological reporting, mostly theory based with little primary data, and lacking of indepth analysis of the psychological and ontological influences in perception and implications for adaptation. We provide recommendations for future GEC research and propose the development of a "meta-language" around adaptation, perception, and mediation to encourage a greater appreciation and understanding of the diversity around these phenomena across multiple scales, and improved codesign and facilitation of locally relevant adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  4. Predicting effects of environmental change on river inflows to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estuarine river watersheds provide valued ecosystem services to their surrounding communities including drinking water, fish habitat, and regulation of estuarine water quality. However, the provisioning of these services can be affected by changes in the quantity and quality of river water, such as those caused by altered landscapes or shifting temperatures or precipitation. We used the ecohydrology model, VELMA, in the Trask River watershed to simulate the effects of environmental change scenarios on estuarine river inputs to Tillamook Bay (OR) estuary. The Trask River watershed is 453 km2 and contains extensive agriculture, silviculture, urban, and wetland areas. VELMA was parameterized using existing spatial datasets of elevation, soil type, land use, air temperature, precipitation, river flow, and water quality. Simulated land use change scenarios included alterations in the distribution of the nitrogen-fixing tree species Alnus rubra, and comparisons of varying timber harvest plans. Scenarios involving spatial and temporal shifts in air temperature and precipitation trends were also simulated. Our research demonstrates the utility of ecohydrology models such as VELMA to aid in watershed management decision-making. Model outputs of river water flow, temperature, and nutrient concentrations can be used to predict effects on drinking water quality, salmonid populations, and estuarine water quality. This modeling effort is part of a larger framework of

  5. Determinants of environmental action with regard to climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Duerrenberger, G.; Kastenholz, H.; Truffer, B.

    1993-01-01

    The study of human dimensions of global climatic change is still in the initial stage of development. Several attempts have been undertaken to define sensible research strategies in the field but until now relatively little empirical work has been undertaken and there is a lack of sound theoretical arguments. The present paper presents a theory-based empirical study of determinants influencing the probability that somebody takes climate-relevant environmental action. Important methodological differences between current models of climate dynamics and models of human reality are discussed in order to build three models of climate-related environmental action. A model focussed on the information transfer from science to the public at large is compared with a model focussed on sociodemographic characteristics and with a model focussed on socio-cultural variables like interpersonal rules and social networks. The hypothesis that the latter model is strongly superior to the former ones is tested and confirmed. Some implications for interdisciplinary cooperation and for policy making are discussed. 51 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Faming; Huang, Boqiang; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Shenghui

    2018-05-23

    Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A), while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002⁻2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B). Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban sustainability in

  7. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  8. Urbanization and environmental change during the economic transition on the Mongolian Plateau: Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peilei; Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet

    2016-01-01

    Driven by drastic socioeconomic changes in China and Mongolia, urbanization has become one of the most significant driving forces in the transformation of the Mongolian Plateau in the past 30 years. Using Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar as case studies, we developed a holistic approach to examine the socioeconomic and natural driving forces for urbanization and to investigate the impact on the urban environment. We used a multidisciplinary approach and relied on a variety of data sources to assess the changes of the landscape and environment of the two cities. We detected a rapid urbanization in Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar, both in terms of urban population growth and urban land expansion, from 1990 to 2010, with a much faster speed in 2000-2010. The local geo-physical conditions have constrained the spatial direction of expansion. Ulaanbaatar lagged behind Hohhot for about a decade when measured by indicators of urban population and urban land. Both cities have a degraded urban environment and a growing air pollution epidemic. While Hohhot had worse air pollution than Ulaanbaatar in the early 2000s, the gap between the two cities became smaller after 2010. The research presented here highlights the following as key determinants for urbanization and environmental change: (1) the co-evolution of urbanization, economic development, and environmental change; (2) the urbanization of transitional economies driven by the change of the economic structure, i.e., the development by both manufacturing and tertiary sectors and the change in the primary sector; and (3) the recent institutional changes and increased integration with the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Building-in-Briefcase: A Rapidly-Deployable Environmental Sensor Suite for the Smart Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekly, Kevin; Jin, Ming; Zou, Han; Hsu, Christopher; Soyza, Chris; Bayen, Alexandre; Spanos, Costas

    2018-04-29

    A building’s environment has profound influence on occupant comfort and health. Continuous monitoring of building occupancy and environment is essential to fault detection, intelligent control, and building commissioning. Though many solutions for environmental measuring based on wireless sensor networks exist, they are not easily accessible to households and building owners who may lack time or technical expertise needed to set up a system and get quick and detailed overview of environmental conditions. Building-in-Briefcase (BiB) is a portable sensor network platform that is trivially easy to deploy in any building environment. Once the sensors are distributed, the environmental data is collected and communicated to the BiB router via the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and WiFi technology, which then forwards the data to the central database securely over the internet through a 3G radio. The user, with minimal effort, can access the aggregated data and visualize the trends in real time on the BiB web portal. Paramount to the adoption and continued operation of an indoor sensing platform is battery lifetime. This design has achieved a multi-year lifespan by careful selection of components, an efficient binary communications protocol and data compression. Our BiB sensor is capable of collecting a rich set of environmental parameters, and is expandable to measure others, such as CO 2 . This paper describes the power characteristics of BiB sensors and their occupancy estimation and activity recognition functionality. We have demonstrated large-scale deployment of BiB throughout Singapore. Our vision is that, by monitoring thousands of buildings through BiB, it would provide ample research opportunities and opportunities to identify ways to improve the building environment and energy efficiency.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for Rapid Attack Identification, Detection, and Reporting System - Block 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-03

    Navassa Island, and Kingman Reef . 3 Through an agreement with the Republic of the Marshall Islands Government, US actions at USAKA are subject to...tripod (similar to the RE used at the Hosted Sites) 15 RAIDRS Block 10 Final Environmental Assessment Banana R ive r A t l an t i c...operations, wastewater treatment plants , fuel storage tanks, aircraft and ground vehicle refueling and maintenance operations, soil

  11. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dentoskeletal changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Zeliha Muge; Akin, Mehmet; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ileri, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the changes in arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) and to compare the measurements between the crossbite and the noncrossbite sides with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From our clinic archives, we selected the CBCT records of 30 patients with unilateral skeletal crossbite (13 boys, 14.2 ± 1.3 years old; 17 girls, 13.8 ± 1.3 years old) who underwent ARME treatment. A modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance including an occlusal locking mechanism was used in all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME treatment and after a 3-month retention period. Fourteen angular and 80 linear measurements were taken for the maxilla and the mandible. Frontally clipped CBCT images were used for the evaluation. Paired sample and independent sample t tests were used for statistical comparisons. Comparisons of the before-treatment and after-retention measurements showed that the arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth increased significantly on the crossbite side of the maxilla and on the noncrossbite side of the mandible (P ARME treatment, the crossbite side of the maxilla and the noncrossbite side of the mandible were more affected than were the opposite sides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  13. Responses of Vegetation Cover to Environmental Change in Large Cities of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation cover is crucial for the sustainability of urban ecosystems; however, this cover has been undergoing substantial changes in cities. Based on climate data, city statistical data, nighttime light data and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset, we investigate the spatiotemporal variations of climate factors, urban lands and vegetation cover in 71 large cities of China during 1998–2012, and explore their correlations. A regression model between growing-season NDVI (G-NDVI and urban land proportion (PU is built to quantify the impact of urbanization on vegetation cover change. The results indicate that the spatiotemporal variations of temperature, precipitation, PU and G-NDVI are greatly different among the 71 cities which experienced rapid urbanization. The spatial difference of G-NDVI is closely related to diverse climate conditions, while the inter-annual variations of G-NDVI are less sensitive to climate changes. In addition, there is a negative correlation between G-NDVI trend and PU change, indicating vegetation cover in cities have been negatively impacted by urbanization. For most of the inland cities, the urbanization impacts on vegetation cover in urban areas are more severe than in suburban areas. But the opposite occurs in 17 cities mainly located in the coastal areas which have been undergoing the most rapid urbanization. Overall, the impacts of urbanization on G-NDVI change are estimated to be −0.026 per decade in urban areas and −0.015 per decade in suburban areas during 1998–2012. The long-term developments of cities would persist and continue to impact on the environmental change and sustainability. We use a 15-year window here as a case study, which implies the millennia of human effects on the natural biotas and warns us to manage landscapes and preserve ecological environments properly.

  14. Response diversity determines the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Furukawa, Takuya; Sasaki, Takehiro

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of biodiversity for ecosystem stability and the maintenance of optimal ecosystem functionality. Conservation measures are thus essential to safeguard the ecosystem services that biodiversity provides and human society needs. Current anthropogenic threats may lead to detrimental (and perhaps irreversible) ecosystem degradation, providing strong motivation to evaluate the response of ecological communities to various anthropogenic pressures. In particular, ecosystem functions that sustain key ecosystem services should be identified and prioritized for conservation action. Traditional diversity measures (e.g. 'species richness') may not adequately capture the aspects of biodiversity most relevant to ecosystem stability and functionality, but several new concepts may be more appropriate. These include 'response diversity', describing the variation of responses to environmental change among species of a particular community. Response diversity may also be a key determinant of ecosystem resilience in the face of anthropogenic pressures and environmental uncertainty. However, current understanding of response diversity is poor, and we see an urgent need to disentangle the conceptual strands that pervade studies of the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Our review clarifies the links between response diversity and the maintenance of ecosystem functionality by focusing on the insurance hypothesis of biodiversity and the concept of functional redundancy. We provide a conceptual model to describe how loss of response diversity may cause ecosystem degradation through decreased ecosystem resilience. We explicitly explain how response diversity contributes to functional compensation and to spatio-temporal complementarity among species, leading to long-term maintenance of ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent quantitative studies suggest that traditional diversity measures may often be uncoupled from

  15. Portable rapid gas content measurement - an opportunity for a step change in the coal industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamish, Basil; Kizil, Mehmet; Gu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The last major advance in gas content measurement for coal seams was the introduction of the quick crush technique in the early 1990s. This is a laboratory test method that has proven very reliable over the years. Recent laboratory testing using a portable quick crushing device, known as the portable gas content analyser, has produced consistent gas content results for a set of core samples obtained from a single borehole that intersected four coal seams. The retained gas content values obtained for the seams show the same increasing gas content pattern and gas composition change with depth as the standard quick crush technique. Use of the portable gas content analyser provides the opportunity to produce rapid, reliable gas content measurement of coal that could be developed for assessing gas compliance cores and outburst-prone conditions at a mine site.

  16. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragao, Luiz E.O.C.; Poulter, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21. Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990's mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990's and early 2000's to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) PgCyear-1 in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP=-0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) PgCyear -1 ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. (authors)

  17. Environmental change and the carbon balance of Amazonian forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Luiz E O C; Poulter, Benjamin; Barlow, Jos B; Anderson, Liana O; Malhi, Yadvinder; Saatchi, Sassan; Phillips, Oliver L; Gloor, Emanuel

    2014-11-01

    Extreme climatic events and land-use change are known to influence strongly the current carbon cycle of Amazonia, and have the potential to cause significant global climate impacts. This review intends to evaluate the effects of both climate and anthropogenic perturbations on the carbon balance of the Brazilian Amazon and to understand how they interact with each other. By analysing the outputs of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Report 4 (AR4) model ensemble, we demonstrate that Amazonian temperatures and water stress are both likely to increase over the 21st Century. Curbing deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon by 62% in 2010 relative to the 1990s mean decreased the Brazilian Amazon's deforestation contribution to global land use carbon emissions from 17% in the 1990s and early 2000s to 9% by 2010. Carbon sources in Amazonia are likely to be dominated by climatic impacts allied with forest fires (48.3% relative contribution) during extreme droughts. The current net carbon sink (net biome productivity, NBP) of +0.16 (ranging from +0.11 to +0.21) Pg C year(-1) in the Brazilian Amazon, equivalent to 13.3% of global carbon emissions from land-use change for 2008, can be negated or reversed during drought years [NBP = -0.06 (-0.31 to +0.01) Pg C year(-1) ]. Therefore, reducing forest fires, in addition to reducing deforestation, would be an important measure for minimizing future emissions. Conversely, doubling the current area of secondary forests and avoiding additional removal of primary forests would help the Amazonian gross forest sink to offset approximately 42% of global land-use change emissions. We conclude that a few strategic environmental policy measures are likely to strengthen the Amazonian net carbon sink with global implications. Moreover, these actions could increase the resilience of the net carbon sink to future increases in drought frequency. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2014 Cambridge Philosophical

  18. Phase field modeling of rapid crystallization in the phase-change material AIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Boussinot, Guillaume; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Apel, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We carry out phase field modeling as a continuum simulation technique in order to study rapid crystallization processes in the phase-change material AIST (Ag4In3Sb67Te26). In particular, we simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of the crystallization of a molten area of the phase-change material embedded in a layer stack. The simulation model is adapted to the experimental conditions used for recent measurements of crystallization rates by a laser pulse technique. Simulations are performed for substrate temperatures close to the melting temperature of AIST down to low temperatures when an amorphous state is involved. The design of the phase field model using the thin interface limit allows us to retrieve the two limiting regimes of interface controlled (low temperatures) and thermal transport controlled (high temperatures) dynamics. Our simulations show that, generically, the crystallization velocity presents a maximum in the intermediate regime where both the interface mobility and the thermal transport, through the molten area as well as through the layer stack, are important. Simulations reveal the complex interplay of all different contributions. This suggests that the maximum switching velocity depends not only on material properties but also on the precise design of the thin film structure into which the phase-change material is embedded.

  19. Spectroscopic sensitivity of real-time, rapidly induced phytochemical change in response to damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, John J; Serbin, Shawn P; Townsend, Philip A

    2013-04-01

    An ecological consequence of plant-herbivore interactions is the phytochemical induction of defenses in response to insect damage. Here, we used reflectance spectroscopy to characterize the foliar induction profile of cardenolides in Asclepias syriaca in response to damage, tracked in vivo changes and examined the influence of multiple plant traits on cardenolide concentrations. Foliar cardenolide concentrations were measured at specific time points following damage to capture their induction profile. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling was employed to calibrate cardenolide concentrations to reflectance spectroscopy. In addition, subsets of plants were either repeatedly sampled to track in vivo changes or modified to reduce latex flow to damaged areas. Cardenolide concentrations and the induction profile of A. syriaca were well predicted using models derived from reflectance spectroscopy, and this held true for repeatedly sampled plants. Correlations between cardenolides and other foliar-related variables were weak or not significant. Plant modification for latex reduction inhibited an induced cardenolide response. Our findings show that reflectance spectroscopy can characterize rapid phytochemical changes in vivo. We used reflectance spectroscopy to identify the mechanisms behind the production of plant secondary metabolites, simultaneously characterizing multiple foliar constituents. In this case, cardenolide induction appears to be largely driven by enhanced latex delivery to leaves following damage. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Changes in the etiology of valvular heart disease in the rapidly aging Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun-Young; Seo, Su Ra; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the changes in the causes of valvular heart disease between 2006 and 2011 in Korea. Data were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2006 through 2011. These data consisted of primary diagnoses related to valvular heart disease regardless of other conditions. Valvular heart disease included non-rheumatic mitral valve disorders, non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders, rheumatic mitral valve disorders, and rheumatic aortic valve disorders. Overall, the age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart disease was 70.6 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 110.3 in 2011. This represented an increase from 42.2 to 65.2 in women and from 28.4 to 45.1 in men. In particular, there was a greater increase in prevalence in patients aged 65 years or older compared with groups aged 20-44 years or 45-64 years for both genders. The age-standardized cumulative prevalence of rheumatic valve disease did not change dramatically between 2006 and 2011. The overall age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart diseases increased between 2006 and 2011, especially in individuals older than 65 years. These changes should be considered in future designs of cardiovascular healthcare services in countries with a rapidly aging population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure science in an age of rapidly changing climate: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaKind, Judy S; Overpeck, Jonathan; Breysse, Patrick N; Backer, Lorrie; Richardson, Susan D; Sobus, Jon; Sapkota, Amir; Upperman, Crystal R; Jiang, Chengsheng; Beard, C Ben; Brunkard, J M; Bell, Jesse E; Harris, Ryan; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Peltier, Richard E; Chew, Ginger L; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to alter the production, use, release, and fate of environmental chemicals, likely leading to increased uncertainty in exposure and human health risk predictions. Exposure science provides a key connection between changes in climate and associated health outcomes. The theme of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science—Exposures in an Evolving Environment—brought this issue to the fore. By directing attention to questions that may affect society in profound ways, exposure scientists have an opportunity to conduct “consequential science”—doing science that matters, using our tools for the greater good and to answer key policy questions, and identifying causes leading to implementation of solutions. Understanding the implications of changing exposures on public health may be one of the most consequential areas of study in which exposure scientists could currently be engaged. In this paper, we use a series of case studies to identify exposure data gaps and research paths that will enable us to capture the information necessary for understanding climate change-related human exposures and consequent health impacts. We hope that paper will focus attention on under-developed areas of exposure science that will likely have broad implications for public health. PMID:27485992

  2. Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2 with Rapidly Changing High Arctic Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    High Arctic landscapes are expansive and changing rapidly. However our understanding of their functional responses and potential to mitigate or enhance anthropogenic climate change is limited by few measurements. We collected eddy covariance measurements to quantify the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 with polar semidesert and meadow wetland landscapes at the highest-latitude location measured to date (82°N). We coupled these rare data with ground and satellite vegetation production measurements (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) to evaluate the effectiveness of upscaling local to regional NEE. During the growing season, the dry polar semidesert landscape was a near zero sink of atmospheric CO2 (NEE: -0.3±13.5 g C m-2). A nearby meadow wetland accumulated over two magnitudes more carbon (NEE: -79.3±20.0 g C m-2) than the polar semidesert landscape, and was similar to meadow wetland NEE at much more southern latitudes. Polar semidesert NEE was most influenced by moisture, with wetter surface soils resulting in greater soil respiration and CO2 emissions. At the meadow wetland, soil heating enhanced plant growth, which in turn increased CO2 uptake. Our upscaling assessment found that polar semidesert NDVI measured on site was low (mean: 0.120-0.157) and similar to satellite measurements (mean: 0.155-0.163). However, weak plant growth resulted in poor satellite NDVI-NEE relationships and created challenges for remotely-detecting changes in the cycling of carbon on the polar semidesert landscape. The meadow wetland appeared more suitable to assess plant production and NEE via remote-sensing, however high Arctic wetland extent is constrained by topography to small areas that may be difficult to resolve with large satellite pixels. We predict that until summer precipitation and humidity increases substantially, climate-related changes of dry high Arctic landscapes may be restricted by poor soil moisture retention, and therefore have some inertia against

  3. Rationalizing and advancing the 3-MPBA SERS sandwich assay for rapid detection of bacteria in environmental and food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Brooke; Mills, Alexander; Tucker, Madeline; Gao, Siyue; McLandsborough, Lynne; He, Lili

    2018-06-01

    Bacterial foodborne illness continues to be a pressing issue in our food supply. Rapid detection methods are needed for perishable foods due to their short shelf lives and significant contribution to foodborne illness. Previously, a sensitive and reliable surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sandwich assay based on 3-mercaptophenylboronic acid (3-MBPA) as a capturer and indicator molecule was developed for rapid bacteria detection. In this study, we explored the advantages and constraints of this assay over the conventional aerobic plate count (APC) method and further developed methods for detection in real environmental and food matrices. The SERS sandwich assay was able to detect environmental bacteria in pond water and on spinach leaves at higher levels than the APC method. In addition, the SERS assay appeared to have higher sensitivity to quantify bacteria in the stationary phase. On the other hand, the APC method was more sensitive to cell viability. Finally, a method to detect bacteria in a challenging high-sugar juice matrix was developed to enhance bacteria capture. This study advanced the SERS technique for real applications in environment and food matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. On the dense water cascading in the Southern Adriatic Sea during 2012: Setup of a Rapid Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langone, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    In the North Adriatic, Dense Shelf Water (DSW) forms during cold and dry winters by cooling and evaporation. DSW spreads southward along the western shelf reaching the southern Adriatic basin (1200 m deep) after 1-2 months, where sinks through cascading events. In February 2012, a large Siberian High caused blocking of the Atlantic flow and a westward flow of dry and cold air masses from eastern Russia toward Europe. The North Adriatic experienced a cold spell with large decrease of surface temperature (3° -6° C) associated to severe cold and dry Bora wind. The result was the formation of extremely dense shelf water, further made possible by the very limited discharge of the Po river in the preceding autumn. As contribution to the Italian research programme RITMARE (Italian Research for the Sea), CNR-ISMAR set up a Rapid Environmental Assessment (REA) experiment to study the occurrence, amount, timing and properties of the newly formed DSW. Setting up REA strategies is crucial for several scientific and practical reasons: (i) capturing extreme events to improve our understanding of natural systems in a global-change scenario; (ii) to evaluate their impact on marine systems and the biota; (iii) to address issues related to fluctuating fish stocks as well as (iv) C export and sequestration in the deep sea. The experiment was designed with an integrated approach, including modeling simulations, mooring deployments and quick-response oceanographic cruises. Based on numerical model ensemble, the arrival time of the DSW at the Gargano Cape was forecasted likely starting after March 15, 2012, thus moorings were deployed few days before. Five moorings were deployed in sites selected on the basis of modelling predictions and geology-driven inferences defining areas where the passage of dense shelf water is most likely to occur. Moorings were equipped with down-looking ADCPs, automatic sediment traps, temperature loggers, recorders of temperature, conductivity and

  5. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  6. Climatic and Environmental Changes Affecting Communities in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liette Vasseur

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Small rural coastal communities located in Atlantic Canada are vulnerable to the effects of climate and environmental changes. Major storms have impounded the coastline, causing much physical damage and affecting the socioeconomics of these communities that are composed of an aging population. The current study relays findings based on interviews completed in 2011–2012, following the 2010 winter storms in Atlantic Canada. It portrays the physical and social–ecological impacts affecting 10 coastal communities located in the provinces of Québec, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. Semi-structured interviews held in these provinces are the basis for the contributions of this research. The findings reveal physical changes related to coastal erosion from high-wave impacts and storm surge causing flooding of the coastal zone. Also considered are strategies preferred and actually implemented by residents, such as building of protection walls, although undesirable. Due to funding constraints, however, many of these large-scale flood protection projects are not possible without governmental support. Instead, it is suggested that development be controlled and some respondents in this study upheld that relocation be used to alleviate the situation. Finally, more work is required to improve emergency planning. Better concerted short- and long-term responses need to be coordinated by local authorities and higher up in the government in order to ensure the sustainability of these coastal communities.

  7. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Adarsh

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the cannons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme

  8. Hydrogen energy in changing environmental scenario: Indian context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Hudson, M. Sterlin; Dubey, P.K.; Pukazhselvan, D.; Pandey, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Raghubanshi, Himanshu; Shahi, Rohit R.; Srivastava, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with how the Hydrogen Energy may play a crucial role in taking care of the environmental scenario/climate change. The R and D efforts, at the Hydrogen Energy Center, Banaras Hindu University have been described and discussed to elucidate that hydrogen is the best option for taking care of the environmental/climate changes. All three important ingredients for hydrogen economy, i.e., production, storage and application of hydrogen have been dealt with. As regards hydrogen production, solar routes consisting of photoelectrochemical electrolysis of water have been described and discussed. Nanostructured TiO 2 films used as photoanodes have been synthesized through hydrolysis of Ti[OCH(CH 3 ) 2 ] 4 . Modular designs of TiO 2 photoelectrode-based PEC cells have been fabricated to get high hydrogen production rate (∝10.35 lh -1 m -2 ). However, hydrogen storage is a key issue in the success and realization of hydrogen technology and economy. Metal hydrides are the promising candidates due to their safety advantage with high volume efficient storage capacity for on-board applications. As regards storage, we have discussed the storage of hydrogen in intermetallics as well as lightweight complex hydride systems. For intermetallic systems, we have dealt with material tailoring of LaNi 5 through Fe substitution. The La(Ni l-x Fe x ) 5 (x = 0.16) has been found to yield a high storage capacity of ∝2.40 wt%. We have also discussed how CNT admixing helps to improve the hydrogen desorption rate of NaAlH 4 . CNT (8 mol%) admixed NaAlH 4 is found to be optimum for faster desorption (∝3.3 wt% H 2 within 2 h). From an applications point of view, we have focused on the use of hydrogen (stored in intermetallic La-Ni-Fe system) as fuel for Internal Combustion (IC) engine-based vehicular transport, particularly two and three-wheelers. It is shown that hydrogen used as a fuel is the most effective alternative fuel for circumventing climate change. (author)

  9. Holocene environmental changes and climate development in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, Stefan; Helmens, Karin

    2010-12-01

    The primary aim of this report is to give an overview of the Holocene environmental and climatic changes in Greenland and to describe the development of the periglacial environment during the Holocene. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the ice sheet on its surroundings, both in terms of time (with respect to the response of the biosphere to deglaciation or ice sheet proximity) and in space (through the influence of the ice sheet on the regional climate, more specifically on temperature and aridity). Published records are reviewed, and regional trends are summarized. A range of different natural archives is available for such studies, including ice-core data, marine records, and continental sources of information, including peat profiles and lacustrine records. Because of the high number of lakes in all ice-free areas of Greenland, the lacustrine records offer the opportunity to get a spatial overview of past changes in environment and climate as well. This report focuses on (palaeo-) ecological studies, as it is intended to assemble basic information for future studies on adaptation of the biosphere to changes in climate. There is a bias towards pollen- and macro-remain-based reconstructions of past changes, as these dominate performed palaeoecological studies in Greenland; unfortunately, only a limited number of studies exist that include more modern proxies such as diatoms or chironomids (climate-indicators), but where available in the literature, these have been included. The report starts with an introduction where the current climatic and biological zonation of Greenland is discussed together with an overview of the geology of Greenland (on the full geological timescale) in order to put the following sections in perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the ice sheet history of Greenland from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) onward where special emphasis is given to the spatial variability of deglaciation at the onset of the Holocene. To enhance the

  10. Holocene environmental changes and climate development in Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Stefan; Helmens, Karin (Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    The primary aim of this report is to give an overview of the Holocene environmental and climatic changes in Greenland and to describe the development of the periglacial environment during the Holocene. Special emphasis is given to the influence of the ice sheet on its surroundings, both in terms of time (with respect to the response of the biosphere to deglaciation or ice sheet proximity) and in space (through the influence of the ice sheet on the regional climate, more specifically on temperature and aridity). Published records are reviewed, and regional trends are summarized. A range of different natural archives is available for such studies, including ice-core data, marine records, and continental sources of information, including peat profiles and lacustrine records. Because of the high number of lakes in all ice-free areas of Greenland, the lacustrine records offer the opportunity to get a spatial overview of past changes in environment and climate as well. This report focuses on (palaeo-) ecological studies, as it is intended to assemble basic information for future studies on adaptation of the biosphere to changes in climate. There is a bias towards pollen- and macro-remain-based reconstructions of past changes, as these dominate performed palaeoecological studies in Greenland; unfortunately, only a limited number of studies exist that include more modern proxies such as diatoms or chironomids (climate-indicators), but where available in the literature, these have been included. The report starts with an introduction where the current climatic and biological zonation of Greenland is discussed together with an overview of the geology of Greenland (on the full geological timescale) in order to put the following sections in perspective. Chapter 2 discusses the ice sheet history of Greenland from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) onward where special emphasis is given to the spatial variability of deglaciation at the onset of the Holocene. To enhance the

  11. Challenges of rapid economic growth in China: Reconciling sustainable energy use, environmental stewardship and social development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Oberheitmann, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    China aims at quadrupling per-capita GDP by 2020 compared to the year 2000. Without any energy and environmental policy measures, this tremendous economic growth would be associated with a quadrupling of primary energy consumption up to 6.3 billion tons of standard coal equivalents (sce) and energy-related CO 2 -emissions of 13.9 billion tons Against this background, this paper is to set China's need to implement its sustainable development strategy into the quantitative context of the countries economic development and subsequent economic growth-related environmental problems. China is urgently searching for a way to ease the negative implications of economic growth and has committed itself to achieve a level of 3.0 billion ton sce primary energy consumption in 2020. As a consequence, the macro-economic energy intensity has to be reduced by 53% by 2020. A reduction of 53% by 2020 would lead to an energy intensity level 30% points below the year-2000 level of developed countries. As for natural resources, the expected economic growth will lead to an increase of crude oil net-imports up to 455 million ton sce in 2020 and 650 million ton sce in 2030. As for regional income distribution, economic growth helped to decrease existing inequities

  12. Environmentally Benign, Rapid, and Selective Extraction of Gold from Ores and Waste Electronic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chunlin; Sun, Huaming; Liu, Wen-Jing; Guan, Binbin; Deng, Xudong; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of gold from ores and electronic waste is an important topic worldwide, as this precious metal has immense value in a variety of fields. However, serious environmental pollution and high energy consumption due to the use of toxic oxidation reagents and harsh reaction conditions is a well-known problem in the gold industry. Herein, we report a new chemical method based on the combined use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and pyridine (Py), which has a greatly decreased environmental impact and reagent cost, as well as mild reaction requirements. This method can directly leach Au 0 from gold ore and electronic waste to form Au III in water. The process is achieved in a yield of approximately 90 % at room temperature and a nearly neutral pH. The minimum dose of NBS/Py is as low as 10 mm, which exhibits low toxicity towards mammalian cells and animals as well as aquatic creatures. The high leaching selectivity of Au over other metals during gold leaching is demonstrated, showing that this method has great potential for practical industrial application towards the sustainable refining of gold from ores and electronic waste. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  14. Rapid changes in the level of Kluane Lake in Yukon Territory over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Luckman, Brian H.; Van Dorp, Richard D.; Gilbert, Robert; Froese, Duane; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2006-09-01

    The level of Kluane Lake, the largest lake in Yukon Territory, was lower than at present during most of the Holocene. The lake rose rapidly in the late seventeenth century to a level 12 m above present, drowning forest and stranding driftwood on a conspicuous high-stand beach, remnants of which are preserved at the south end of the lake. Kluane Lake fell back to near its present level by the end of the eighteenth century and has fluctuated within a range of about 3 m over the last 50 yr. The primary control on historic fluctuations in lake level is the discharge of Slims River, the largest source of water to the lake. We use tree ring and radiocarbon ages, stratigraphy and sub-bottom acoustic data to evaluate two explanations for the dramatic changes in the level of Kluane Lake. Our data support the hypothesis of Hugh Bostock, who suggested in 1969 that the maximum Little Ice Age advance of Kaskawulsh Glacier deposited large amounts of sediment in the Slims River valley and established the present course of Slims River into Kluane Lake. Bostock argued that these events caused the lake to rise and eventually overflow to the north. The overflowing waters incised the Duke River fan at the north end of Kluane Lake and lowered the lake to its present level. This study highlights the potentially dramatic impacts of climate change on regional hydrology during the Little Ice Age in glacierised mountains.

  15. Methodology for characterizing the environmental impacts of hydroelectric generating stations : a case study of Farmer Rapids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, C.; Renaud, S.; Begin, P.; Belzile, L.; Caumartin, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper described a novel methodology used to characterize the downstream section of a generating station that was not navigable by boat. The method was used as part of a fish habitat characterization study conducted in the Farmers Rapids area of Quebec. The purpose of the study was to identify the discharges and water levels needed to preserve fish habitats in the region. Initially, experimental fishing was undertaken to locate, validate and characterize fish habitats. Habitat models were then developed using a microhabitat modelling method to establish pertinent discharges and water levels. In order to model areas that were not navigable by boat, discharges released by the generating station were reduced to a minimum to temporarily decrease water levels and expose the river. High definition aerial photography and topographic mapping was conducted. The information obtained from the 2 procedures was then used to describe and map the riverbed substrate as well as the bathymetry and aquatic habitats. A 2D hydrodynamic model was then used to simulate water flows in the area at various discharges. The results of the hydrodynamic models and the habitat models were then used to establish appropriate discharges for optimal fish habitats

  16. Automated rapid analysis for dioxins and PCBs in food, feedingstuff and environmental matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelscher, K.; Maulshagen, A.; Behnisch, P.A. [eurofins-GfA, Muenster (Germany); Shirkhan, H. [Fluid Management Systems Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Lieck, G. [University of Applied Science, Steinfurt (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Today there is a need to develop high throughput specific and sensitive methods for the determination of dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs to ensure their rapid and reliable quantification in several kinds of food and feedingstuffs. Ideally one method would fit for several matrices with highest quality standards and with the possibility of a cost/time-effective samplehandling. However, generally in case of the numerous different PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs as well as the large concentration range to cover this is quite difficult to fulfill. The implementation of an automated sample-treatment flow process (''dioxin street''), which contains an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), a Power-Prep workstation (Fluid Management Systems, FMS) for automated clean-up, a Syncore Polyvap (Buechi, Switzerland) for solvent evaporation and a HRGC/HRMS (VG AutoSpec) analysis as detection method for several kinds of different matrices is described here. The aim of the present study is to confirm the high quality, low limits of quantification (LOQ), low PCB background levels and reliability of the Power-Prep system in combination with ASE extraction for dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and indicator-PCBs.

  17. Rapid changes in water hardness and alkalinity: Calcite formation is lethal to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Sarah J; Woodman, Samuel; Steinkey, Dylan; Meays, Cindy; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-07-15

    There is growing concern that freshwater ecosystems may be negatively affected by ever-increasing anthropogenic inputs of extremely hard, highly alkaline effluent containing large quantities of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3(2-), and HCO3(-) ions. In this study, the toxicity of rapid and extreme shifts in water hardness (38-600mg/L as CaCO3) and alkalinity (30-420mg/L as CaCO3) to Daphnia magna was tested, both independently and in combination. Within these ranges, where no precipitation event occurred, shifts in water hardness and/or alkalinity were not toxic to D. magna. In contrast, 98-100% of D. magna died within 96h after exposure to 600mg/L as CaCO3 water hardness and 420mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity (LT50 of 60h with a 95% CI of 54.2-66.0h). In this treatment, a CaCO3 (calcite) precipitate formed in the water column which was ingested by and thoroughly coated the D. magna. Calcite collected from a mining impacted stream contained embedded organisms, suggesting field streams may also experience similar conditions and possibly increased mortality as observed in the lab tests. Although further investigation is required to determine the exact fate of aquatic organisms exposed to rapid calcite precipitation in the field, we caution that negative effects may occur more quickly or at lower concentrations of water hardness and alkalinity in which we observed effects in D. magna, because some species, such as aquatic insects, are more sensitive than cladocerans to changes in ionic strength. Our results provide evidence that both calcite precipitation and the major ion balance of waters should be managed in industrially affected ecosystems and we support the development of a hardness+alkalinity guideline for the protection of aquatic life. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A, while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002–2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B. Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban

  19. Cumulative effects of rapid climate and land-use changes on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Forbes, B. C.; Epstein, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Our principal goal is to develop better, more far-looking tools to predict the cumulative effects of resource development, climate-change, and traditional land use. Here we use remote sensing, climate-change analyses, socio-economic analyses, and vegetation-change models to examine the cumulative effects of climate change, gas development, and reindeer herding on the Yamal Peninsula in northwest Siberia as part of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). We find: 1. Direct (planned) impacts of industrial activities on the Yamal Peninsula are currently local and limited in extent, but this is changing rapidly as extensive gas fields are developed and land and sea transportation corridors are developed to get the gas to market. Indirect impacts of the development at Bovanenkovo, the largest gas field, exceed the direct impacts by a factor of three, and the total area of influence of the development on the reindeer pasturelands (e.g., area where migration routes and access to pasturelands is affected) exceeds the direct impacts by a factor of about 40. 2. The trend in land-surface temperatures has co-varied with the trend in sea-ice. Low sea ice in the preceding December-March period is correlated to warmer land temperature the following summer. The sea- ice trends in the Kara Sea-Yamal region are tied to variation in the North Atlantic Oscillation index. 4. Only a small greening response to warming has been detected on the Yamal in comparison with some other areas in the Arctic (e.g. Northern Alaska). The actual effects of climate-change on vegetation are currently hard to document at the ground level because of lack of baseline and long-term ground observations and difficulty of excluding reindeer in these studies. 5. There is high potential for extensive landscape effects due to unstable sandy soils, and extremely ice-rich permafrost near the surface on slopes. 6. Two different vegetation modeling approaches are being used to predict

  20. Mono Lake sediments preserve a record of recent environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixnerova, J.; Betts, M.; Westacott, S.; Ingalls, M.; Miller, L. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Trower, L.; Geobiology Course, A.

    2017-12-01

    H conditions. This process could help elucidate the previously reported dearth of bioavailable nitrogen in Mono Lake. We conclude that the unique chemistry allows the Mono Lake sediments to preserve both a record of environmental change and characteristic fingerprints that could be used to identify similar lake systems in the rock record.

  1. Europe's Southeastern Gateway: Responding to Rapidly Changing Patterns of World Shipping. The University's Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World trade and transportation are changing dramatically. Energy prices and transport sustainability concerns are reinvigorating ocean freighter shipping. An ever-increasing portion of trade is in containers, and container ships are getting larger quickly. Many ports, nations and continents are not keeping up with ship size increases putting them at a trade disadvantage. Major canals and seaways must also upgrade or be rendered obsolete, causing a change in the pattern of world trade. Ports have to do more than expand vessel size limits. Port regions must also invest in infrastructure that improves multi-modal access to the port and augments hand-off of containers to smaller seaway ships, trains and trucks. With heightened security and evolving emphasis on flexible and efficient logistics, ports must become high-tech logistics hubs with improved real-time data about port throughput. Constanţa, Romania provides an example of an attempt to respond to this rapid change. Near the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea, Constanţa offers a potential southeastern gateway to Europe for the Black Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Ships from Asia, entering via the Suez Canal can easily access Constanţa, and thus save more than ten days of shipping time for destinations in southeastern Europe compared to shipping through Rotterdam or Hamburg. But Constanţa needs to make all the improvements mentioned above. Universities have several roles in this endeavor, including identifying and forecasting trends, providing the technical knowledge to develop high-tech logistics hubs, pursing publicprivate partnerships for infrastructure development and offering training.

  2. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  3. DNA microarray unravels rapid changes in transcriptome of MK-801 treated rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Kulikova, Sofya P; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Pinault, Didier; Masuo, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of MK-801 on gene expression patterns genome wide in rat brain regions. METHODS: Rats were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of MK-801 [0.08 (low-dose) and 0.16 (high-dose) mg/kg] or NaCl (vehicle control). In a first series of experiment, the frontoparietal electrocorticogram was recorded 15 min before and 60 min after injection. In a second series of experiments, the whole brain of each animal was rapidly removed at 40 min post-injection, and different regions were separated: amygdala, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain and ventral striatum on ice followed by DNA microarray (4 × 44 K whole rat genome chip) analysis. RESULTS: Spectral analysis revealed that a single systemic injection of MK-801 significantly and selectively augmented the power of baseline gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations in the frontoparietal electroencephalogram. DNA microarray analysis showed the largest number (up- and down- regulations) of gene expressions in the cerebral cortex (378), midbrain (376), hippocampus (375), ventral striatum (353), amygdala (301), and hypothalamus (201) under low-dose (0.08 mg/kg) of MK-801. Under high-dose (0.16 mg/kg), ventral striatum (811) showed the largest number of gene expression changes. Gene expression changes were functionally categorized to reveal expression of genes and function varies with each brain region. CONCLUSION: Acute MK-801 treatment increases synchrony of baseline gamma oscillations, and causes very early changes in gene expressions in six individual rat brain regions, a first report. PMID:26629322

  4. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Bruyn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ. This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  5. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Hall, Brenda L; Chauke, Lucas F; Baroni, Carlo; Koch, Paul L; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2009-07-01

    Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ). This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  6. From nature-dominated to human-dominated environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerli, Bruno; Grosjean, Martin; Hofer, Thomas; Núñez, Lautaro; Pfister, Christian

    2000-01-01

    To what extent is it realistic and useful to view human history as a sequence of changes from highly vulnerable societies of hunters and gatherers through periods with less vulnerable, well buffered and highly productive agrarian-urban societies to a world with regions of extreme overpopulation and overuse of life support systems, so that vulnerability to climatic-environmental changes and extreme events is again increasing? This question cannot be fully answered in our present state of knowledge, but at least we can try to illustrate, with three case studies from different continents, time periods and ecosystems, some fundamental changes in the relationship between natural processes and human activities that occur, as we pass from a nature-dominated to a human dominated environment. 1. Early-mid Holocene: Nature dominated environment — human adaptation, mitigation, and migration. In the central Andes, the Holocene climate changed from humid (10,800-8000 BP) to extreme arid (8000-3600 BP) conditions. Over the same period, prehistoric hunting communities adopted a more sedentary pattern of resource use by settling close to the few perennial water bodies, where they began the process of domesticating camelids around 5000 BP and irrigation from about 3100 BP. 2. Historical period: An agrarian society in transition from an "enduring" to an innovative human response. Detailed documentary evidence from Western Europe may be used to reconstruct quite precisely the impacts of climatic variations on agrarian societies. The period considered spans a major transition from an apparently passive response to the vagaries of the environment during the 16th century to an active and innovative attitude from the onset of the agrarian revolution in the late 18th century through to the present day. The associated changes in technology and in agricultural practices helped to create a society better able to survive the impact of climatic extremes. 3. The present day: A human dominated

  7. The role of employee assistance programs in the era of rapid change in the health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumerall, S W; Israel, A R; Brewer, R; Prew, R E

    1999-01-01

    With the rapid changes occurring in the American healthcare system, questions regarding various aspects of care have arisen. These changes have led to the need for individuals working within an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) to respond quickly and effectively to crisis situations. This article summarizes the different roles and responsibilities of EAP workers in the healthcare marketplace.

  8. Formalizing knowledge on international environmental regimes: A first step towards integrating political science in integrated assessments of global environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, M.G.; Janssen, P.H.M.; Kok, M.T.J.; Frantzi, S.; Dellas, E.D.; Pattberg, P.H.; Petersen, A.C.; Biermann, F.

    2013-01-01

    International environmental regimes are considered key factors in dealing with global environmental change problems. It is important to understand if and how regimes are effective in tackling these problems, which requires knowledge on their potential impact on these problems as well as on their

  9. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  10. Dental arch changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion: A retrospective model analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor M D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse deficiency of the maxilla is a common clinical problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Transverse maxillary deficiency, isolated or associated with other dentofacial deformities, results in esthetic and functional impairment giving rise to several clinical manifestations such as asymmetrical facial growth, positional and functional mandibular deviations, altered dentofacial esthetics, adverse periodontal responses, unstable dental tipping, and other functional problems. Orthopedic maxillary expansion is the preferred treatment approach to increase the maxillary transverse dimension in young patients by splitting of the mid palatal suture. This orthopedic procedure has lately been subject of renewed interest in orthodontic treatment mechanics because of its potential for increasing arch perimeter to alleviate crowding in the maxillary arch without adversely affecting facial profile. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to establish a correlation between transverse expansion and changes in the arch perimeter, arch width and arch length. Methods: For this purpose, 10 subjects (five males, five females were selected who had been treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME using hyrax rapid palatal expander followed by fixed mechanotherapy (PEA. Pretreatment (T1, postexpansion (T2, and posttreatment (T3 dental models were compared for dental changes brought about by RME treatment and its stability at the end of fixed mechanotherapy. After model measurements were made, the changes between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were compared to assess the effects of RME on dental arch measurements. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are compared by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test. Arch perimeter changes are correlated with changes in arch widths at the canine, premolar and molar

  11. Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000 led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985.Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos pol

  12. Isotope techniques in the study of past and current environmental changes in the hydrosphere and the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Expanding economic and technological activities of mankind are contributing to rapid and potentially stressful changes in the global ecosystem. These changes may have harmful, far-reaching consequences in the near future. The current changes in the global ecosystem are also affecting the hydrological cycle. Environmental isotopes, whose distribution in natural compounds is governed by environmental conditions, are among the most powerful tools for investigating past and current environmental changes. Thorough understanding of the past environment is a prerequisite for any meaningful prediction of the Earth's ecosystem behaviour. Important conclusions on past environment conditions can be derived from the analysis of isotope ratios preserved in various environmental archives. The present worked covers both the 'present' and the 'past' of the global atmosphere/hydrosphere system. The presentations were organized in five major topics: (i) isotopes in atmospheric studies; (ii) isotopes in the soil-plants-atmosphere system; (iii) degradation of water resources; (iv) palaeohydrology and palaeowaters; and (v) isotope indicators of climatic changes. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Currency and Competence of Occupational Therapists and Consumers with Rapidly Changing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Steel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technology was once a specialised field of practice, involving products designed for populations with specific impairments or functional goals. In Australia, occupational therapists have, at times, functioned as gatekeepers to public funding, prescribing products from a predefined list. An expanding range of accessible mainstream products available via international and online markets has changed the meaning and application of assistive technology for many people with disability. In the policy context of consumer choice and cost-effectiveness, have occupational therapists been left behind? This paper describes the change in context for access to assistive technology resulting in expanded possibilities for participation and inclusion. A case study of environmental control systems is used to explore the overlap of mainstream and assistive products and the funding and services to support their uptake. The analysis describes a future policy and practice context in which assistive technology includes a spectrum of products decoupled from access to independent advice and support services. A broader scope of occupational therapy practice has potential to enhance the occupational rights of people with disability and the efficiency and effectiveness of assistive technology provision.

  14. A simple and rapid visual method for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in environmental waters using thymol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, M.; Fujinaga, K.; Seike, Y.; Honda, S. [Dept. of Material Science, Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Matsue (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Simple visual and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of ammonia nitrogen in water are proposed, based on the color development of indothymol blue formed between ammonia and thymol. The color development was accelerated by nitroprusside to complete in 3 min. This color development is remarkably rapid compared with that of the other conventional methods with indothymol blue and indophenol blue. The concentration range of ammonia nitrogen spectrophotometrically determined was 0.04-1.2 mg/L NH{sub 4}-N. The absorbance per 1 {mu}g NH{sub 4}-N was 0.0215 (molar absorptivity = 1.51 x 10{sup 4}) at 690 nm. The visual method not using any instrument as an in situ method in field works was developed based on the optimum conditions for the established spectrophotometric method. This visual method was successfully applied to the determination of ammonia nitrogen in environmental waters. (orig.)

  15. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2015-01-01

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum

  16. The Performance Assessment of the Detector for the Portable Environmental Radiation Distribution Monitoring System with Rapid Nuclide Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Uk Jae; Kim, Hee Reyoung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The environment radiation distribution monitoring system measures the radiation using a portable detector and display the overall radiation distribution. Bluetooth and RS-232 communications are used for constructing monitoring system. However RS-232 serial communication is known to be more stable than Bluetooth and also it can use the detector's raw data which will be used for getting the activity of each artificial nuclide. In the present study, the detection and communication performance of the developed detector with RS-232 method is assessed by using standard sources for the real application to the urban or rural environment. Assessment of the detector for the portable environmental radiation distribution monitoring system with rapid nuclide recognition was carried out. It was understood that the raw data of detector could be effectively treated by using RS-232 method and the measurement showed a good agreement with the calculation within the relative error of 0.4 % in maximum.

  17. Environmental change and hydrological responses in the interior of western Canada: Towards improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction by the Changing Cold Regions Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.; Carey, S. K.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Stewart, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    The past several decades have been a period of rapid climatic and environmental change. In western Canada, as in other areas globally, warming and changes in precipitation have led to vast reductions in seasonal snowcover and freshwater ice cover, retreating glaciers, thawing permafrost, changing forest composition and structure, increasing northern shrub coverage, and earlier timing of river flows in spring. Yet streamflow volume has exhibited a variety of responses across the region and over different time scales, and patterns of change are not easily generalizable. Improved understanding, diagnosis, and prediction of the rapidly changing components of the Earth system are key to managing uncertain water futures, but this is challenging due to complex system behavior and sometimes compensatory responses. The Changing Cold Regions Network (CCRN) is a Canadian research network and GEWEX Regional Hydroclimate Project that is addressing these issues, with a geographic focus on the Saskatchewan and Mackenzie River basins. This paper will present examples of the changes that have been observed at a set of long-term and well-studied headwater research basins, and highlight how various processes confound hydrological responses here, pointing to the need for careful diagnosis. We will discuss some recent CCRN activities and progress toward improving conceptual understanding and developing scenarios of change for the 21st century, which can then be applied within process-based hydrological models for future prediction. Several priority research areas that will be a focus of continued work in CCRN will be recommended.

  18. Unconventional politics of unconventional gas: Environmental reframing and policy change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Andrew Robert

    The present Rocky Mountain West natural gas boom, enabled by historic pro-resource-development political, institutional, economic, and cultural structures, is a politically contested battle over values. Volatile political action, unconventional coalitions, and unconventional politics engulf this unconventional gas boom -- especially at the state level. In this comparative case study of natural gas policy in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, I measure and compare these values, expressed as frames, through textual analysis of interest group public documents and state legislative bills and statutes from 1999-2008. By developing a new measure of state legislative framing, I test the relationship between interest group and institutional framing and also provide a viable measure of policy change useful to Narrative Policy Analysis theory. Results show that competing interest group and state legislative framing efforts are dynamic, measurably different, and periodically correlative. Competing interest groups rarely engage each other, except as the conflict matures when status-quo-supporters break their silence and engage the challengers' frames that have gained legislative traction. Environmental and land-use counter-framing ensues, but status-quo-supporters remain vigilant in their economic framing. Economic frames retain their institutional privilege within Wyoming and New Mexico, but natural gas policy undergoes a complete environmental reframe in the Colorado state legislature. Although the historically dominant economy frame based on "Old West" values remains largely intact, the respective state legislatures partially reframe policy (within 4 years) using environment, alternative land-uses, and democracy frames based on "New West" and long-extant but previously marginalized status-quo-challenger definitions. This reframing is not a strictly partisan issue, but rather it is influenced by political context, policy diffusion, and long-term interest group advocacy and

  19. The Boltysh crater record of rapid vegetation change during the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, D. W.; Daly, R.; Gilmour, I.; Gilmour, M.; Kelley, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of a cored borehole drilled through the sedimentary fill of the 24km wide Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine has yielded a unique, high resolution record spanning algae records. These records reflect environmental change from the K/Pg1 to the post Dan-C2 Danian. Leading into the CIE, warm temperate gymnosperm - angiosperm - fern communities are replaced by precipitation limited (winterwet) plant communities within the negative CIE. Winterwet plant communities dominate the negative CIE, but are replaced within the isotope recovery stage by warm temperate floras. These in turn give way to cooler temperate floras in the post positive CIE section of the uppermost crater fill. The distribution of temperate taxa about the negative CIE represents the broadest scale of oscillatory variation in the palynofloras. Shorter frequency oscillations are evident from diversity and botanical group distributions reflecting changes in moisture availability over several thousand years. Detailed analysis of variability within one of these oscillations records plant community cyclicity across the inception of the negative CIE. This short term cyclicity provides evidence that the replacement of warm termperate by winterwet floras occurred in a stepwise manner at the negative CIE suggesting cumulative atmospheric forcing. At <1mm scale, lamination within the negative CIE showed no obvious lithological or colour differences, and are not seasonal couplets. However, palynofloral analysis of laminations from within the negative CIE has yielded evidence of annual variation identifying the potential for recoding changes in 'paleoweather' across a major hyperthermal event. [1] Jolley, D. W. et al. (2010) Geology 38, 835-838.

  20. A multiple-proxy approach to understanding rapid Holocene climate change in Southeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, S. H.; Bradley, R. S.; Balascio, N. L.; de Wet, G.

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of the Arctic to climate change has made it an excellent workshop for paleoclimatological research. Although there have been previous studies concerning climate variability carried out in the Arctic, there remains a critical dearth of knowledge due the limited number of high-resolution Holocene climate-proxy records available from this region. This gap skews our understanding of observed and predicted climate change, and fuels uncertainty both in the realms of science and policy. This study takes a comprehensive approach to tracking Holocene climate variability in the vicinity of Tasiilaq, Southeast Greenland using a ~5.6 m sediment core from Lower Sermilik Lake. An age-depth model for the core has been established using 8 radiocarbon dates, the oldest of which was taken at 4 m down core and has been been dated to approximately 6.2 kyr BP. The bottom meter of the core below the final radiocarbon date contains a transition from cobbles and coarse sand to organic-rich laminations, indicating the termination of direct glacial influence and therefore likely marking the end of the last glacial period in this region. The remainder of the core is similarly organic-rich, with light-to-dark brown laminations ranging from 0.5 -1 cm in thickness and riddled with turbidites. Using this core in tandem with findings from an on-site assessment of the geomorphic history of the locale we attempt to assess and infer the rapid climatic shifts associated with the Holocene on a sub-centennial scale. Such changes include the termination of the last glacial period, the Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum, the Neoglacial Period, the Medieval Climatic Optimum, and the Little Ice Age. A multiple proxy approach including magnetic susceptibility, bulk organic geochemistry, elemental profiles acquired by XRF scanning, grain-size, and spectral data will be used to characterize the sediment and infer paleoclimate conditions. Additionally, percent biogenic silica by weight has been

  1. Rapid Temperature Changes and the Early Activity on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Delbo', M.; Libourel, G.

    2015-09-01

    The so-called “early activity” of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has been observed to originate mostly in parts of the concave region or “neck” between its two lobes. Since activity is driven by the sublimation of volatiles, this is a puzzling result because this area is less exposed to the Sun and is therefore expected to be cooler on average. We used a thermophysical model that takes into account thermal inertia, global self-heating, and shadowing, to compute surface temperatures of the comet. We found that, for every rotation in the 2014 August-December period, some parts of the neck region undergo the fastest temperature variations of the comet’s surface precisely because they are shadowed by their surrounding terrains. Our work suggests that these fast temperature changes are correlated to the early activity of the comet, and we put forward the hypothesis that erosion related to thermal cracking is operating at a high rate on the neck region due to these rapid temperature variations. This may explain why the neck contains some ice—as opposed to most other parts of the surface—and why it is the main source of the comet’s early activity. In a broader context, these results indicate that thermal cracking can operate faster on atmosphereless bodies with significant concavities than implied by currently available estimates.

  2. Rapid modification in the olfactory signal of ants following a change in reproductive status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Renault, Valérie; Peeters, Christian

    2005-02-01

    In insect societies, the presence and condition of egg-layers can be assessed with pheromones. Exocrine secretions are expected to vary in time in order to give up-to-date information on an individual’s reproductive physiology. In the queenless monogynous ant Streblognathus peetersi, we allowed a previously infertile high-ranking worker to accede to the alpha rank, thus triggering the onset of her oogenesis (15 replicates). We then studied her interactions with an established egg-layer from the same colony after different durations, ranging from 20 h to several days. Even though her eggs are only ready to be laid after 30 days, the new alpha was recognised within 1 2 days. Detection occurred at a distance of a few millimetres, suggesting the involvement of a pheromone with low volatility, such as cuticular hydrocarbons. When the new alpha had differentiated for >48 h, she was attacked by the established egg-layer. In all cases, low-ranking workers eventually immobilised one of the two alphas: the new alpha was the target if she had differentiated only recently, suggesting that police workers select the dominant worker with the “less fertile” odour. Using the behaviour of ants as our measure, we demonstrate that a dominant’s olfactory signal changes rapidly with a modification in her social status, and it occurs well before the onset of egg-laying.

  3. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  4. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Changes in soft tissue nasal widths associated with rapid maxillary expansion in prepubertal and postpubertal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bret M; McNamara, James A; Bandeen, Roger L; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate changes in the soft tissue width of the nose induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Data on greater alar cartilage (GAC) and alar base (AB) widths were compared with a normative sample within the same age range. This prospective study consisted of an RME sample of 79 patients treated with an RME protocol. Mean age at the start of RME treatment was 13.5 years; average duration of treatment was 6.7 months. Patients were grouped into prepubertal and postpubertal groups based on their cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stage. AB and GAC widths were determined at three separate time points. The normative sample consisted of 437 orthodontically untreated whites, aged 10-16 years. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine group differences. In addition, independent sample t-tests were used to compare posttreatment nasal width values vs the untreated normative sample. Increases in AB and GAC widths of the nose in the RME sample were less than 1.5 mm. No significant differences were noted in width changes between the prepubertal and postpubertal subgroups. Comparisons of T3 values showed that on average nasal width increases were greater in the RME group than in untreated norms by 1.7 mm for the GAC measure (statistically significant), and by less than 1 mm for the AB measure. RME has no significant clinical effects on the widths of the apical base and the greater alar cartilage of the nose; no differences were observed between the two maturational subgroups.

  6. Rapid molecular detection of invasive species in ballast and harbor water by integrating environmental DNA and light transmission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Scott P; Grey, Erin; Olds, Brett; Feder, Jeffery L; Ruggiero, Steven T; Tanner, Carol E; Lodge, David M

    2015-04-07

    Invasive species introduced via the ballast water of commercial ships cause enormous environmental and economic damage worldwide. Accurate monitoring for these often microscopic and morphologically indistinguishable species is challenging but critical for mitigating damages. We apply eDNA sampling, which involves the filtering and subsequent DNA extraction of microscopic bits of tissue suspended in water, to ballast and harbor water sampled during a commercial ship's 1400 km voyage through the North American Great Lakes. Using a lab-based gel electrophoresis assay and a rapid, field-ready light transmission spectroscopy (LTS) assay, we test for the presence of two invasive species: quagga (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels. Furthermore, we spiked a set of uninfested ballast and harbor samples with zebra mussel tissue to further test each assay's detection capabilities. In unmanipulated samples, zebra mussel was not detected, while quagga mussel was detected in all samples at a rate of 85% for the gel assay and 100% for the LTS assay. In the spiked experimental samples, both assays detected zebra mussel in 94% of spiked samples and 0% of negative controls. Overall, these results demonstrate that eDNA sampling is effective for monitoring ballast-mediated invasions and that LTS has the potential for rapid, field-based detection.

  7. A simple, rapid, cost-effective and sensitive method for detection of Salmonella in environmental and pecan samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobhal, S; Zhang, G; Rohla, C; Smith, M W; Ma, L M

    2014-10-01

    PCR is widely used in the routine detection of foodborne human pathogens; however, challenges remain in overcoming PCR inhibitors present in some sample matrices. The objective of this study was to develop a simple, sensitive, cost-effective and rapid method for processing large numbers of environmental and pecan samples for Salmonella detection. This study was also aimed at validation of a new protocol for the detection of Salmonella from in-shell pecans. Different DNA template preparation methods, including direct boiling, prespin, multiple washing and commercial DNA extraction kits, were evaluated with pure cultures of Salmonella Typhimurium and with enriched soil, cattle feces and in-shell pecan each spiked individually with Salmonella Typhimurium. PCR detection of Salmonella was conducted using invA and 16S rRNA gene (internal amplification control) specific primers. The effect of amplification facilitators, including bovine serum albumin (BSA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and gelatin on PCR sensitivity, was also evaluated. Conducting a prespin of sample matrices in combination with the addition of 0·4% (w/v) BSA and 1% (w/v) PVP in PCR mix was the simplest, most rapid, cost-effective and sensitive method for PCR detection of Salmonella, with up to 40 CFU Salmonella per reaction detectable in the presence of over 10(9 ) CFU ml(-1) of background micro-organisms from enriched feces soil or pecan samples. The developed method is rapid, cost-effective and sensitive for detection of Salmonella from different matrices. This study provides a method with broad applicability for PCR detection of Salmonella in complex sample matrices. This method has a potential for its application in different research arenas and diagnostic laboratories. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Implications for the inter-organizational design of environmental care when changing environmental control points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, J.L.F.; Seuring, S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we try to bridge the gap between two lines of thought within the environmental care literature. We differentiate between two major clusters in this literature; (1) environmental management and (2) strategic approach to environmental care. Although both approaches focus on the same

  9. Evolutionary history of lagomorphs in response to global environmental change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Ge

    Full Text Available Although species within Lagomorpha are derived from a common ancestor, the distribution range and body size of its two extant groups, ochotonids and leporids, are quite differentiated. It is unclear what has driven their disparate evolutionary history. In this study, we compile and update all fossil records of Lagomorpha for the first time, to trace the evolutionary processes and infer their evolutionary history using mitochondrial genes, body length and distribution of extant species. We also compare the forage selection of extant species, which offers an insight into their future prospects. The earliest lagomorphs originated in Asia and later diversified in different continents. Within ochotonids, more than 20 genera occupied the period from the early Miocene to middle Miocene, whereas most of them became extinct during the transition from the Miocene to Pliocene. The peak diversity of the leporids occurred during the Miocene to Pliocene transition, while their diversity dramatically decreased in the late Quaternary. Mantel tests identified a positive correlation between body length and phylogenetic distance of lagomorphs. The body length of extant ochotonids shows a normal distribution, while the body length of extant leporids displays a non-normal pattern. We also find that the forage selection of extant pikas features a strong preference for C(3 plants, while for the diet of leporids, more than 16% of plant species are identified as C(4 (31% species are from Poaceae. The ability of several leporid species to consume C(4 plants is likely to result in their size increase and range expansion, most notably in Lepus. Expansion of C(4 plants in the late Miocene, the so-called 'nature's green revolution', induced by global environmental change, is suggested to be one of the major 'ecological opportunities', which probably drove large-scale extinction and range contraction of ochotonids, but inversely promoted diversification and range expansion of

  10. Paleosols as Archives of Environmental Change in Deep Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Quentin

    2015-04-01

    Paleosols develop at the geosphere-atmosphere interface and potentially provide an archive of environmental conditions at the time of their formation. Although paleosols from deep time can be difficult to recognize due to the masking of pedogenic features by metamorphism and deformation, they may record transient (i.e. time-dependent) events which are often difficult to recognize in other geological proxies. Paleosols from the Archean and Paleoproterozoic are rare and complex to study, but offer an opportunity to gain insight into what may be relatively short-scale temporal variations in the Earth's atmospheric composition. For instance, it is widely believed that atmospheric oxygen saturation rose from 10E-02 PAL at the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) at ca. 2.4 Ga. Until recently however, chemical or physical evidence from paleosols for earlier oxygenation events were generally thought to be lacking. Recent studies of paleosols from eastern India (Keonjhar Paleosol, Singhbhum Craton) and South Africa (Nsuze Paleosol, Kaapvaal Craton) have provided chemical evidence for transient Mesoarchean atmospheric oxygenation at ca. 3.0 Ga. These paleosols are considered to preserve the earliest known vestiges of terrestrial oxidative weathering, signifying a transient, early oxygen accumulation in the Earth's atmosphere. This has far-reaching implications from both atmospheric and biological evolutionary perspectives in that chemical signatures preserved in these Mesoarchean paleosols are thought to signify the presence of molecular oxygen at levels higher than those attributable to photo-dissociation of atmospheric water alone. Such elevated levels of atmospheric oxygen could only be due to the presence of a sufficiently large biomass of micro-organisms capable of oxidative photosynthesis. Although the Archean-Paleoproterozoic paleosol geological record is fragmentary and geochemical signatures are not necessarily straightforward to interpret, these paleosols provide an

  11. Environmental Changes Can Produce Shifts in Chagas Disease Infection Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Cordovez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological network contains all the organisms involved (types in the transmission of a parasite. The nodes of the network represent reservoirs, hosts, and vectors, while the links between the nodes represent the strength and direction of parasite movement. Networks that contain humans are of special interest because they are of concern to public health authorities. Under these circumstances, it is possible, in principle, to identify cycles (closed paths in the network that include humans and select the ones that carry the maximum probability of human infection. The basic reproduction number R 0 in such a network gives the average number of new infections of any type after the introduction of one individual infected by any type. To obtain R 0 for complex networks, one can use the next-generation matrix (NGM approach. Every entry in NGM will average the contribution of each link that connects two types. To tease the contribution of every cycle apart, we define the virulence as the geometric mean of the NGM entries corresponding to the links therein. This approach allows for the quantification of specific cycles of interest while it also makes the computation of the sensitivity and elasticity of the parameters easier. In this work, we compute the virulence for the transmission dynamics of Chagas disease for a typical rural area in Colombia incorporating the effect of environmental changes on the vector population size. We concluded that the highest contribution to human infection comes from humans themselves, which is a surprising and interesting result. In addition, sensitivity analysis revealed that increasing vector population size increases the risk of human infection.

  12. Diagnostic of ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin using two methods of rapid environmental assessment, Federal District, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Joveli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid environmental assessments have been used to describe the quality and semi-quantitative attributes of the ecosystems along an environmental gradient using visual observations and few measurements. The aim of this study was to identify and measure anthropogenic impacts on ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin, Federal District, Central Brazil, and to propose its environmental zoning. This study was performed using two methods based on rapid environmental assessment: a rapid river assessment protocol, to evaluate in an integrated form the features of a lotic system section according to the conservation or degradation condition of the fluvial environment; and the Leopold matrix, to identify and evaluate the anthropogenic impacts. The environmental zoning of this sub-basin detected three areas: preserved, transition and urban areas. The environmental assessment revealed, the preserved area had lotic stretches with natural features under low magnitude of impacts, except on burned areas. In the transition area, there was a predominance of lotic stretches with altered features, due to agriculture and livestock activities of intermediate level of impacts. Finally, the urban area had altered and impacted lotic stretches of higher magnitude due to anthropogenic impacts. Thus, this study revealed large differences among the areas detected by environmental zoning, according to the methods used. These methods were considered complementary in relation to environmental diagnostic of the ribeirão Mestre d’Armas sub-basin.

  13. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Xie, Yuanbo, E-mail: former_007@163.com; Hao, Fanghua, E-mail: fanghua@bnu.edu.cn

    2014-04-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  14. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Xie, Yuanbo; Hao, Fanghua

    2014-01-01

    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  15. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  16. Rapid change of ion energy distribution and floating potential at L/H transition in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Okano, F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid changes of the main ion energy distribution at transitions from L-to-H, H-to-L and during ELMs are studied with the time of flight neutral measurement in the JFT-2M tokamak. The change of the main ion energy distribution after sawtooth crash during an L-mode phase is also studied. The change of the ion energy distribution just after sawtooth crash is the same as that at L/H-transition. The floating potential measured in the SOL also shows the rapid jump to more positive just after the sawtooth crash (at the same time of the change of an ion energy distribution). This shows the increase of ion outflux in the SOL and might correspond to the change of the ion energy distribution. This may be the reason why most of H-modes are triggered by a sawtooth. (author)

  17. Spatial Analysis of Environmental Change Impacts on Wheat Production in Mid-Lower North, South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Q.; Williams, M. [Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5005 (Australia); Bryan, BV. [Policy and Economic Research Unit, CSIRO Land and Water, Private Bag 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia, 5064 (Australia); Bellotti, W. [School of Agriculture and Wine, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5371 (Australia)

    2005-09-01

    Three environmental change scenarios (the best scenario, the most likely scenario and the worst scenario) were used by the APSIM (Agricultural Production System sIMulator) Wheat module to study the possible impacts of future environmental change (climate change plus pCO2 change) on wheat production in the Mid-Lower North of South Australia. GIS software was used to manage spatial-climate data and spatial-soil data and to present the results. Study results show that grain yield (kg ha{sup -1}) was adversely affected under the worst environmental change scenario (-100% {approx} -42%) and the most likely environmental change scenario (-58% {approx} -3%). Grain nitrogen content (% N) either increased or decreased depending on the environmental change scenarios used and climate divisions (-25% {approx} +42%). Spatial variability was found for projected impact outcomes within climate divisions indicating the necessity of including the spatial distribution of soil properties in impact assessment.

  18. Climate patriots? Concern over climate change and other environmental issues in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranter, Bruce; Lester, Libby

    2017-08-01

    Echoing the anti-pollution and resource conservation campaigns in the United States in the early-to-mid-twentieth century, some scholars advocate mobilising support for environmental issues by harnessing the notion of environmental patriotism. Taking action to reduce the impact of global warming has also been cast as a patriotic cause. Drawing upon quantitative data from a recent national survey, we examine the link between patriotism and environmental attitudes in Australia, focussing upon climate change. We find that patriotism has a largely neutral association with concern over environmental issues, with the exception of climate change and, to a lesser extent, wildlife preservation. Expressing concern over climate change appears to be unpatriotic for some Australians. Even after controlling for political party identification and other important correlates of environmental issue concerns, patriots are less likely than others to prioritise climate change as their most urgent environmental issue and less likely to believe that climate change is actually occurring.

  19. Prediction uncertainty of environmental change effects on temperate European biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dormann, C.; Schweiger, O.; Arens, P.F.P.; Augenstein, I.; Aviron, S.; Bailey, D.; Baudry, J.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Cerny, M.; Cock, de R.; Blust, de G.; DeFilippi, R.; Diekotter, T.; Dirksen, J.; Durka, W.; Edwards, P.J.; Frenzel, M.; Hamersky, R.; Hendrickx, F.; Herzog, F.; Klotz, S.; Koolstra, B.J.H.; Lausch, A.; Coeur, Le D.; Liira, J.; Maelfait, J.P.; Opdam, P.; Roubalova, M.; Schermann, A.; Schermann, N.; Schmidt, T.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Speelmans, M.; Simova, P.; Verboom, J.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Zobel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Observed patterns of species richness at landscape scale (gamma diversity) cannot always be attributed to a specific set of explanatory variables, but rather different alternative explanatory statistical models of similar quality may exist. Therefore predictions of the effects of environmental

  20. Antarctica and Global Environmental Change - Lessons from the Past Inform Climate Change Policy Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Scientific Team Of Odp Drilling Leg 318; Andrill Science Team

    2011-12-01

    of radiative forcing, is strong at all timescales. It also appears that we are committed to the attainment of pCO2 levels within the next several decades that in the past were associated with substantial reductions in Antarctic glacial ice volume, and hence significant amounts of global sea level rise. New and detailed studies of past warm intervals as well as the most recent deglaciation reveal the potential for century-scale (or even more rapid) melt events. A new ultra-high resolution record of East Antarctic climate change extending to the most recent deglaciation reveals unusually large climatic excursions in both the earliest Holocene and mid-Holocene. Taken together, the paleoclimate record derived from geological drilling in Antarctica should be taken by policymakers as substantial and credible new evidence of increased risk of dangerous climate change in the decades and century ahead.

  1. Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scardia, Giancarlo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.

    2014-11-01

    We report a palaeomagnetic investigation of the last full geomagnetic field reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition, as preserved in a continuous sequence of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Apennines of Central Italy. The palaeomagnetic record provides the most direct evidence for the tempo of transitional field behaviour yet obtained for the M-B transition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephra layers bracketing the M-B transition provides high-accuracy age constraints and indicates a mean sediment accumulation rate of about 0.2 mm yr-1 during the transition. Two relative palaeointensity (RPI) minima are present in the M-B transition. During the terminus of the upper RPI minimum, a directional change of about 180 ° occurred at an extremely fast rate, estimated to be less than 2 ° per year, with no intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) documented during the transit from the southern to northern hemisphere. Thus, the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron as represented by the palaeomagnetic directions and VGPs developed in a time interval comparable to the duration of an average human life, which is an order of magnitude more rapid than suggested by current models. The reported investigation therefore provides high-resolution integrated palaeomagnetic and radioisotopic data that document the fine details of the anatomy and tempo of the M-B transition in Central Italy that in turn are crucial for a better understanding of Earth's magnetic field, and for the development of more sophisticated models that are able to describe its global structure and behaviour.

  2. Diverse multi-decadal changes in streamflow within a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Jeremy E.; Hill, T. Chee; Milligan, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on streamflow depends on a variety of factors (e.g., climate, initial land cover, inter-basin transfers, water withdrawals, wastewater effluent, etc.). The purpose of this study is to examine trends in streamflow from 1986 to 2015 in a range of watersheds within the rapidly urbanizing Atlanta, GA metropolitan area. This study compares eight watersheds over three decades, while minimizing the influence of inter-annual precipitation variability. Population and land-cover data were used to analyze changes over approximately twenty years within the watersheds. Precipitation totals for the watersheds were estimated using precipitation totals at nearby weather stations. Multiple streamflow variables, such as annual streamflow, frequencies of high-flow days (HFDs), flashiness, and precipitation-adjusted streamflow, for the eight streams were calculated using daily streamflow data. Variables were tested for significant trends from 1986 to 2015 and significant differences between 1986-2000 and 2001-2015. Flashiness increased for all streams without municipal water withdrawals, and the four watersheds with the largest increase in developed land had significant increases in flashiness. Significant positive trends in precipitation-adjusted mean annual streamflow and HFDs occurred for the two watersheds (Big Creek and Suwanee Creek) that experienced the largest increases in development, and these were the only watersheds that went from majority forest land in 1986 to majority developed land in 2015. With a disproportionate increase in HFD occurrence during summer, Big Creek and Suwannee Creek also had a reduction in intra-annual variability of HFD occurrence. Watersheds that were already substantially developed at the beginning of the period and did not have wastewater discharge had declining streamflow. The most urbanized watershed (Peachtree Creek) had a significant decrease in streamflow, and a possible cause of the decrease was increasing

  3. Geo-Environmental Estimation of Land Use Changes and Its Effects on Egyptian Temples at Luxor City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Elfadaly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the Egyptian temples at Luxor city have been intensely investigated, but most of these studies just focused on the classical sides of the archaeological and historical descriptions. Many of the environmental problems are the inevitable results of the unplanned urban crawling around the monuments temples. This paper aims at assessing the environmental changes around some temples of Luxor City using remote sensing and GIS techniques. In particular, a historical database made up of Corona and Landsat TM data have been investigated along with the new acquisitions of Quickbird 2 and Sentinel 2. Results from our investigation highlighted rapid changes in urban and agricultural areas, which adversely affected the Egyptian monumental temples causing serious degradation phenomena. Using the information obtained from our RS&GIS based analysis, mitigation strategies have been also identified for supporting the preservation of the archaeological area.

  4. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  5. Instrumentation for Examining Microbial Response to Changes In Environmental Pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaich, J.; Storrs, A.; Wang, J.; Ouandji, C.; Arismendi, D.; Hernandez, J.; Sardesh, N.; Ibanez, C. R.; Owyang, S.; Gentry, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Automated Adaptive Directed Evolution Chamber (AADEC) is a device that allows operators to generate a micro-scale analog of real world systems that can be used to model the local-scale effects of climate change on microbial ecosystems. The AADEC uses an artificial environment to expose cultures of micro-organisms to environmental pressures, such as UV-C radiation, chemical toxins, and temperature. The AADEC autonomously exposes micro-organisms to slection pressures. This improves upon standard manual laboratory techniques: the process can take place over a longer period of time, involve more stressors, implement real-time adjustments based on the state of the population, and minimize the risk of contamination. We currently use UV-C radiation as the main selection pressure, UV-C is well studied both for its cell and DNA damaging effects as a type of selection pressure and for its related effectiveness as a mutagen; having these functions united makes it a good choice for a proof of concept. The AADEC roadmap includes expansion to different selection pressures, including heavy metal toxicity, temperature, and other forms of radiation. The AADEC uses closed-loop control to feedback the current state of the culture to the AADEC controller that modifies selection pressure intensity during experimentation, in this case culture density and growth rate. Culture density and growth rate are determined by measuring the optical density of the culture using 600 nm light. An array of 600 nm LEDs illuminate the culture and photodiodes are used to measure the shadow on the opposite side of the chamber. Previous experiments showed that we can produce a million fold increase to UV-C radiation over seven iterations. The most recent implements a microfluidic system that can expose cultures to multiple different selection pressures, perform non-survival based selection, and autonomously perform hundreds of exposure cycles. A scalable pump system gives the ability to pump in various

  6. The Girls on Ice program: Improving perceptions of climate change and environmental stewardship by exploring a glacier landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J. C.; Conner, L.; Pettit, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Girls on Ice is a unique, free, science and mountaineering experience for underserved girls aged 16 to 18. Each year, two teams of nine girls spend eight days on a remote Alaska or Washington glacier to learn about glaciology, climate change, and alpine ecology (as well as mountaineering, art and leadership). During the program, the girls live on, explore and study a glacier and the visibly climate change-altered landscape that surrounds it, through both instructor-led modules and scientific field studies the girls design themselves. Time spent on the glacier means witnessing rivers of meltwater running off the surface, climbing 300 m uphill to where the glacier last sat 150 years ago, and learning how scientists monitor the glacier's retreat. Previous studies have shown that pro-environmental behavior in youth is strongly influenced by having significant life experiences outdoors, and that engagement of citizens in a climate change-impacted landscape is emerging as a powerful way to connect people to environment and to motivate environmental action. Given the significant life experience provided by our unique wilderness format, and the interactions with a rapidly changing glacier landscape, this study examines how participation in Girls on Ice impacts the 16 to 18 year-old participants' perceptions of climate change, as well as their sense of environmental identity. We use mixed qualitative and quantitative methods, including pre- and post-program questionnaires, an in-program focus group discussion, end-of-program interviews, and early and late in-program concept (node-link) mapping exercises. Preliminary results from qualitative data show a shift in many girls' perceptions of climate change towards being motivated to act to combat it, with particular reference to glaciers as a key component prompting that shift. Ultimately, this study aims to demonstrate the value of tenets of environmental and outdoor education theory, namely significant life experiences and

  7. Rapid Assessment of Small Changes to Major Gun and Projectile Dynamic Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erline, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's 5-in 54-cal. (5"/54) gun system Mark (Mk) 45 was subjected to first-order dynamic analysis tools that allowed rapid assessment of ballistic dispersion of a typical naval high explosive projectile...

  8. Modeling effects of environmental change on wolf population dynamics, trait evolution, and life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Tim; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Wayne, Robert K; Smith, Douglas W

    2011-12-02

    Environmental change has been observed to generate simultaneous responses in population dynamics, life history, gene frequencies, and morphology in a number of species. But how common are such eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change likely to be? Are they inevitable, or do they require a specific type of change? Can we accurately predict eco-evolutionary responses? We address these questions using theory and data from the study of Yellowstone wolves. We show that environmental change is expected to generate eco-evolutionary change, that changes in the average environment will affect wolves to a greater extent than changes in how variable it is, and that accurate prediction of the consequences of environmental change will probably prove elusive.

  9. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  10. Neolithisation of the Aegean and Southeast Europe during the 6600–6000 calBC period of Rapid Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Weninger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In extension of the recently established ‘Rapid Climate Change (RCC Neolithisation Model’ (Clare 2013, in the present paper we demonstrate the existence of a remarkable coincidence between the exact (decadel-scale entry and departure dates of the Neolithic into/from the Aegean (~6600/6050 calBC with begin/end of RCC-conditions.

  11. Environmental impact assessment of structural flood mitigation measures by a rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique: a case study in Metro Manila, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbuena, Romeo; Kawamura, Akira; Medina, Reynaldo; Amaguchi, Hideo; Nakagawa, Naoko; Bui, Duong Du

    2013-07-01

    In recent decades, the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the planning processes of infrastructure projects has created significant awareness on the benefits of environmentally sound and sustainable urban development around the world. In the highly urbanized megacities in the Philippines, like Metro Manila, high priority is given by the national government to structural flood mitigation measures (SFMM) due to the persistently high frequency of flood-related disasters, which are exacerbated by the on-going effects of climate change. EIA thus, should be carefully and effectively executed to maximize the potential benefits of the SFMM. The common practice of EIA in the Philippines is generally qualitative and lacks clear methodology in evaluating multi-criteria systems. Thus, this study proposes the use of the rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) technique to provide a method that would systematically and quantitatively evaluate the socio-economic and environmental impacts of planned SFMM in Metro Manila. The RIAM technique was slightly modified to fit the requirements of this study. The scale of impact was determined for each perceived impact, and based on the results, the planned SFMM for Metro Manila will likely bring significant benefits; however, significant negative impacts may also likely occur. The proposed modifications were found to be highly compatible with RIAM, and the results of the RIAM analysis provided a clear view of the impacts associated with the implementation of SFMM projects. This may prove to be valuable in the practice of EIA in the Philippines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Environmental Change Efficiency to the Sustainability of Urban Development at the Neighborhood Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Fu Kuo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a new assessment model framework, termed the driving forces-pressure-state-impact-policy and pattern (DPSIP model, for environmental change efficiency in urban land development, based on urban sustainable development and the theory of economic efficiency evaluation. A spatial and measurable efficiency value is defined for environmental changes in urban land development, which provides a comprehensive evaluation index for the efficiency of urban development and its environmental impact. This type of urban interior sustainability is considered new within the context of global environmental changes. We identify nine important indicators to evaluate the relative efficiency of 233 neighborhoods in Tainan, Taiwan. The results indicate that the average environmental change efficiency is 89.44%, which shows clear spatial differentiation. The key indicators affecting the efficiency score are area, population density, location, mixed land uses, the floor area ratio, and the impervious ratio. In the future, urban design can reduce environmental impacts and enhance efficiency values.

  13. Ecoregional-scale monitoring within conservation areas, in a rapidly changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecological systems can prove invaluable for resource management and conservation. Such monitoring can: (1) detect instances of long-term trend (either improvement or deterioration) in monitored resources, thus providing an early-warning indication of system change to resource managers; (2) inform management decisions and help assess the effects of management actions, as well as anthropogenic and natural disturbances; and (3) provide the grist for supplemental research on mechanisms of system dynamics and cause-effect relationships (Fancy et al., 2009). Such monitoring additionally provides a snapshot of the status of monitored resources during each sampling cycle, and helps assess whether legal standards and regulations are being met. Until the last 1-2 decades, tracking and understanding changes in condition of natural resources across broad spatial extents have been infrequently attempted. Several factors, however, are facilitating the achievement of such broad-scale investigation and monitoring. These include increasing awareness of the importance of landscape context, greater prevalence of regional and global environmental stressors, and the rise of landscape-scale programs designed to manage and monitor biological systems. Such programs include the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program (Moser et al., 2008), Canada's National Forest Inventory, the 3Q Programme for monitoring agricultural landscapes of Norway (Dramstad et al., 2002), and the emerging (US) Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (USDOI Secretarial Order 3289, 2009; Anonymous, 2011). This Special Section explores the underlying design considerations, as well as many pragmatic aspects associated with program implementation and interpretation of results from broad-scale monitoring systems, particularly within the constraints of high-latitude contexts (e.g., low road density, short field season, dramatic fluctuations in temperature). Although Alaska is

  14. Cohort change and the diffusion of environmental concern: A cross-national analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Pampel, Fred C.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores value change across cohorts for a multinational population sample. Employing a diffusion-of-innovations approach, we combine competing theories predicting the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and environmentalism: post-materialism and affluence theories, and global environmentalism theory. The diffusion argument suggests that high-SES groups first adopt pro-environmental views, but as time passes by, environmentalism diffuses to lower-SES groups. We test th...

  15. Road building, land use and climate change: prospects for environmental governance in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perz, Stephen; Brilhante, Silvia; Brown, Foster; Caldas, Marcellus; Ikeda, Santos; Mendoza, Elsa; Overdevest, Christine; Reis, Vera; Reyes, Juan Fernando; Rojas, Daniel; Schmink, Marianne; Souza, Carlos; Walker, Robert

    2008-05-27

    Some coupled land-climate models predict a dieback of Amazon forest during the twenty-first century due to climate change, but human land use in the region has already reduced the forest cover. The causation behind land use is complex, and includes economic, institutional, political and demographic factors. Pre-eminent among these factors is road building, which facilitates human access to natural resources that beget forest fragmentation. While official government road projects have received considerable attention, unofficial road building by interest groups is expanding more rapidly, especially where official roads are being paved, yielding highly fragmented forest mosaics. Effective governance of natural resources in the Amazon requires a combination of state oversight and community participation in a 'hybrid' model of governance. The MAP Initiative in the southwestern Amazon provides an example of an innovative hybrid approach to environmental governance. It embodies a polycentric structure that includes government agencies, NGOs, universities and communities in a planning process that links scientific data to public deliberations in order to mitigate the effects of new infrastructure and climate change.

  16. When unfamiliarity matters: Changing environmental context between study and test affects recognition memory for unfamiliar stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russo, R.; Ward, G.; Geurts, H.M.; Scheres, A.P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Performance in recognition memory has been shown to be relatively insensitive to the effect of environmental context changes between study and test. Recent evidence (P. Dalton, 1993) showed that environmental context changes between study and test affected recognition memory discrimination for

  17. Deforestation: Can We Balance Resource Conservation with Economic Growth? Global Environmental Change Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This book is the second installment in the Global Environmental Change Series that links the ecology and biology of global environmental changes with insights and information from other disciplines. This series teaches students how to gather a wide range of information from pertinent areas of study and encourages them to develop their own opinions…

  18. Defensive technology and welfare analysis of environmental quality change with uncertain consumer health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.K.; Moffitt, L.J.

    1993-01-01

    Measuring the ex post losses from environmental quality change is an important issue when environmental contamination creates health risks, liability is assigned, and private compensation efforts are required. This paper proposes a methodology for measuring the ex post welfare impact of environmental quality change using market behavior from defensive expenditures. Conditions under which a defensive technology can provide a bound on welfare estimates are identified

  19. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... change can affect your health. Read About It Climate Change and Human Health (Public Broadcasting Services (including their teacher resources)) - Web ... Health Sciences) - Overview of the potential effects of climate change on human health. Climate and Health Program: Health Effects (Centers for ...

  20. Effect Of Seasonal Rainfall And Other Environmental Changes, On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The last study on snail population density in relation to rainfall pattern in Kigungu canoe landing and recreational sites on Lake Victoria shore was earlier carried out about fifteen years ago. This study also reviewed the influence of other environmental factors on the snails\\' infection rate. Objective: To reassess ...

  1. Social Climate Change: A Sociology of Environmental Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Manning

    2003-01-01

    Democracy demands that public policy ultimately reflect evolving social thought. However, in the nonmarket realm of public land management, and environmental policy more broadly, where price signals that drive the free-market economy are generally lacking, this requires a concerted effort on the part of social science to measure and monitor societal values and related...

  2. Evolving Changes in the Management of Burns and Environmental Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    and Environmental Injuries 965 within the investing fascia of an extremity causes vascular compromise and neuro- muscular damage. Common causes of...resistance) Enteral feeding intolerance ( distension , high residuals, or diarrhea). Prospective validation of these indicators is needed.85 In the presence

  3. Environmental Education Evaluation: Time to Reflect, Time for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the "Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning," attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased…

  4. Future global ethics: environmental change, embedded ethics, evolving human identity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Work on global ethics looks at ethical connections on a global scale. It should link closely to environmental ethics, recognizing that we live in unified social-ecological systems, and to development ethics, attending systematically to the lives and interests of

  5. Evaluation of the Holocene environmental changes of the southwest ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the palaeo-environmental conditions of western coast of India during this epoch through the analysis of ... India had experienced high intensity rainfall during the earlier part of the Atlantic chronozone due to ..... of evergreen forest elements in pollen spectra also .... Quaternary peat deposits from Vembanad Lake (lagoon),.

  6. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, S; Kortum, S; Pakes, A

    1996-11-12

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate "hedonic cost functions" that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices.

  7. Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Steven; Kortum, Samuel; Pakes, Ariel

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on how changes in the economic and regulatory environment have affected production costs and product characteristics in the automobile industry. We estimate “hedonic cost functions” that relate product-level costs to their characteristics. Then we examine how this cost surface has changed over time and how these changes relate to changes in gas prices and in emission standard regulations. We also briefly consider the related questions of how changes in automobile characteristics, and in the rate of patenting, are related to regulations and gas prices. PMID:8917486

  8. Rapid Assessment of Environmental Health Impacts for Policy Support: The Example of Road Transport in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Briggs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An integrated environmental health impact assessment of road transport in New Zealand was carried out, using a rapid assessment. The disease and injury burden was assessed from traffic-related accidents, air pollution, noise and physical (inactivity, and impacts attributed back to modal source. In total, road transport was found to be responsible for 650 deaths in 2012 (2.1% of annual mortality: 308 from traffic accidents, 283 as a result of air pollution, and 59 from noise. Together with morbidity, these represent a total burden of disease of 26,610 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. An estimated 40 deaths and 1874 DALYs were avoided through active transport. Cars are responsible for about 52% of attributable deaths, but heavy goods vehicles (6% of vehicle kilometres travelled, vkt accounted for 21% of deaths. Motorcycles (1 per cent of vkt are implicated in nearly 8% of deaths. Overall, impacts of traffic-related air pollution and noise are low compared to other developed countries, but road accident rates are high. Results highlight the need for policies targeted at road accidents, and especially at heavy goods vehicles and motorcycles, along with more general action to reduce the reliance on private road transport. The study also provides a framework for national indicator development.

  9. Rapid fluvial aggradation in response to climate change in northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    River channels near the edge of the northwestern Argentine Andes are rapidly aggrading at present, with preliminary estimates suggesting rates of ~20 cm yr-1. This mirrors cycles of extensive aggradation over the past 100,000 years that formed pronounced fill terraces along regional valley networks and record periods in which in which climate-driven sediment supply overcame uplift-driven river incision (Robinson et al, 2005). Here we use the new SedFlow model (Heimann et al., 2014) to help us understand the causes and spread of aggradation across these basins in the modern system, with the additional eventual goal to better interpret the geologic record. We provide field-derived grain-size distributions, field-measured and remotely-sensed channel widths and valley slopes, and a variety of possible sediment source locations and amounts as inputs to SedFlow, which routes sediment through the fluvial channel network to produce time-evolving predictions of aggradation and incision. We compare these predictions against changes in topography measured by IceSAT (Zwally et al., 2014) and field surveys. We initially test the system response to a series of isolated sediment inputs to observe interactions between tributary systems and the mainstem river. Recent observations indicate that debris-flow induced landslides are important contributors to aggradation in these rivers (Cencetti and Rivelli, 2011). These and other sediment production and transport processes are likely driven by variations in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (Bookhagen and Strecker, 2009). Therefore, we then run SedFlow with sediment inputs distributed across the landscape based on locations where ENSO influences may trigger enhanced landsliding. These model experiments help us towards our end goal of providing a more quantitative basis to interpret field observations of landscape response to changing patterns of precipitation. References: Bookhagen, B. and Strecker, M.: Amazonia: Landscape and

  10. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  11. We really need to talk: adapting FDA processes to rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly evolving realm of modern commerce strains traditional regulatory paradigms. This paper traces the historical evolution of FDA crisis-response regulation and provides examples of ways in which the definitions and procedures resulting from that past continue to be challenged by new products as market entrants, some in good faith and others not, take actions that create disconnects between actual product and marketing controls and those that consumers might expect. The paper then explores some of the techniques used by other federal agencies that have faced similar challenges in environments characterized by rapid innovation, and draws from this analysis suggestions for improvement of the FDA's warning letter system.

  12. Policy, systems, and environmental change in the Mississippi Delta: considerations for evaluation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C; Honeycutt, Sally; Davis, Melvin; Dauria, Emily; Berg, Carla; Dove, Cassandra; Gamble, Abigail; Hawkins, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    Community-level policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change strategies may offer an economical and sustainable approach to chronic disease prevention. The rapidly growing number of untested but promising PSE strategies currently underway offers an exciting opportunity to establish practice-based evidence for this approach. This article presents lessons learned from an evaluation of a community-based PSE initiative targeting stroke and cardiovascular disease prevention in the Mississippi Delta. Its purpose is to describe one approach to evaluating this type of PSE initiative, to stimulate discussion about best practices for evaluating PSE strategies, and to inform future evaluation and research efforts to expand practice-based evidence. The evaluation used a descriptive mixed-methods design and focused on the second year of a multisectoral, multiyear initiative. Cross-sectional data were collected in the summer and fall of 2010 using four data collection instruments: a grantee interview guide (n = 32), a health council member survey (n = 256), an organizational survey (n = 60), and a grantee progress report (n = 26). Fifty-eight PSE changes were assessed across five sectors: health, faith, education, worksite, and community/city government. PSE strategies aligned with increased access to physical activity opportunities, healthy food and beverage options, quality health care, and reduced exposure to tobacco. Results showed that grantees were successful in completing a series of steps toward PSE change and that sector-specific initiatives resulted in a range of PSE changes that were completed or in progress. Considerations for designing evaluations of community-based PSE initiatives are discussed. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  13. Holocene environmental change and archaeology, Yangtze River Valley, China: Review and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Holocene environmental change and environmental archaeology are important components of an international project studying the human-earth interaction system. This paper reviews the progress of Holocene environmental change and environmental archaeology research in the Yangtze River Valley over the last three decades, that includes the evolution of large freshwater lakes, Holocene transgression and sea-level changes, Holocene climate change and East Asian monsoon variation, relationship between the rise and fall of primitive civilizations and environmental changes, cultural interruptions and palaeoflood events, as well as relationship between the origin of agriculture and climate change. These research components are underpinned by the dating of lacustrine sediments, stalagmites and peat to establish a chronology of regional environmental and cultural evolution. Interdisciplinary and other environment proxy indicators need to be used in comparative studies of archaeological site formation and natural sedimentary environment in the upper, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Valley. Modern technology such as remote sensing, molecular bioarchaeology, and virtual reality, should be integrated with currently used dating, geochemical, sedimentological, and palaeobotanical methods of analysis in environmental archaeology macro- and micro-studies, so as to provide a greater comprehensive insight into Holocene environmental and cultural interaction and change in the Yangtze River Valley area.

  14. Beyond naturalness: Adapting wilderness stewardship to an era of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and its effects are writ large across wilderness landscapes. They always have been and always will be (see Figure 1). But contemporary change is different. For the first time, the pace and direction of climate change appear to be driven significantly by human activities (IPCC 2007), and this change is playing out across landscapes already affected by...

  15. Environmental education evaluation: time to reflect, time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crohn, Kara; Birnbaum, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Evaluation in environmental education is fairly nascent despite decades-long attention to its importance. In setting the context for future chapters appearing in this special issue of the Journal of Evaluation and Program Planning, attention is devoted to the political circumstances associated with retrenchment in the public sector and increased involvement of citizens in environmental issues in their regions. It further is nested in the context of potential political reforms in a stable market democracy where education is but one strategy that can be bundled with regulations and taxes/subsidies. Additional attention is directed to explaining many of the key evaluation theories--utilization-focused evaluation, evaluative capacity building, and program-theory driven evaluation. The final section of this chapter situates the subsequent chapters of this volume based on the demographic target (youth or adult) as well as connection to a particular evaluation theory. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of rapid universal method for determination of Cs-137 in different environmental samples by means of inorganic ion exchangers. Part of a coordinated programme on radiological and environmental protection studies in the Danube river catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radicheva, M.

    1983-02-01

    Using three synthetic inorganic ion exchangers of the same type - X 2 [YFe (CN) 6 ] (when X=alkali metal, Y=transition metal) one simple and universal rapid method for determination of Cs-137 in environmental samples was developed. The investigations carried out on synthesis, next preparation and practical use in routine analysis showed that K[CoFe(CN) 6 ] (abbr.KCFC-II) is the most suitable for analysis of low level activities of Cs-137 in different environmental samples. The optimum conditions for routine use of KCFC-II in different separation schemes were found. Repeated analysis of Cs-137 in different environmental samples as well as analysis of IAEA-Reference Materials using our rapid and one classical method showed good agreement of the results. The proposed rapid method can be used in emergency situations and in routine radiation control. (author)

  17. What Is Climate Change? (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the solution Take Aim at Climate Change (Passport to Knowledge) - Interactive website, including a video and topics on climate change, polar bears, glaciers, and carbon dioxide. Cool School Challenge (Pugent Sound Clean Air Agency) - Engages students and teachers in practical strategies to ...

  18. Environmental law and climate change : Volumes I & II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan

    Two volume set that brings together 54 of the most influential and important scientific journal articles in the field of climate law, thematically grouped together as follows: introducing climate law, theories and approaches, climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation, climate justice,

  19. Community Theories of Change: Linking Environmental Justice to Sustainability through Stakeholder Perceptions in Milwaukee (WI, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn Hornik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmental justice and sustainability are compatible lenses, yet action toward equity is often missing from urban sustainability initiatives. This study aims to assess the cohesion of these frameworks in practice. To do this, we parse individuals’ theories of change, or how they identify and propose to resolve environmental injustices in the pursuit of sustainability. We posit that these theories of change are comprised of three main components: (1 perceived environmental benefits and burdens; (2 the causal pathways of environmental and social injustice; and (3 visions for positive change. Drawing from 35 stakeholder interviews in Milwaukee (WI, USA we examine individual and institutional perspectives on environmental and social change and their links to the production of injustice. Our findings reveal that participants do not distinguish between environmental and social injustices. Instead, both social and environmental factors are implicated in injustice. Furthermore, we identify two mental maps for how social and economic change reproduce injustice. These findings suggest the need to reorient how urban injustice is considered and make efforts to acknowledge how a diversity of operational theories of change could either be divisive or could bring environmental justice and sustainability initiatives together.

  20. Automatic change detection in RapidEye data using the combined MAD and kernel MAF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hecheltjen, Antje; Thonfeld, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The IR-MAD components show changes for a large part of the entire subset. Especially phenological changes in the agricultural fields surrounding the open pit are predominant. As opposed to this, kMAF components focus more on changes in the open-cast mine (and changes due to the two clouds...... and their shadows, not visible in the zoom). Ground data were available from bucket-wheel excavators on the extraction side (to the northwest in the open pit) in terms of elevation data for both dates. No ground data were available for changes due to backfill (southeastern part of the open pit) or changes due...

  1. Identification of farmer characteristics and farm strategies explaining changes in environmental management and environmental and economic performance of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ondersteijn, C.J.M.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1998, the Mineral Accounting System (MINAS) was introduced in The Netherlands. MINAS penalises farms with a levy if the farm nutrient surpluses exceed a certain threshold. The threshold is strict, meaning that most farmers need to change their environmental management and performance to avoid

  2. Lagoon islets as indicators of recent environmental changes in the South Pacific - The New Caledonian example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Manuel; Vendé-Leclerc, Myriam; Maurizot, Pierre; Le Cozannet, Gonéri; Robineau, Bernard; Nicolae-Lerma, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    The question of the impacts of climate change and sea level rise on small islands is currently much discussed. The many thousands of Pacific islands in their different contexts (geodynamic, climatic, etc.) and the insufficient data available explain why it is difficult to clearly discern the specific role of climate change in the recent evolution of these islands. To address this question, we investigated the recent changes affecting 21 islets in New Caledonia's lagoon. These islets are either located on small patch-reefs inside the New Caledonia Island lagoon or lie directly on the barrier reef. Based on the studies we conducted (field surveys, reconstruction of changes in the islets over the last decades, shoreline changes) we were able to define a typology of the islets that includes 6 stages and a life expectancy index. Using the life expectancy index, we found that of the 21 islets studied, 19% are in a highly critical situation, meaning they are very likely to be endangered in the short term (within the next few years), 9.5% are in a critical situation, i.e., likely to disappear in the near future and very likely to disappear in the medium term (next few decades), 19% are evolving rapidly, which could lead to their disappearance in the medium term but not in the short term, 9.5% are not endangered in the short and medium term and 43% are not endangered at all (stable or accreting, large area, relatively higher altitude). In this context, the rise in sea level induced by climate change is an adverse factor which is likely to lower the resilience of the islets to erosion processes. Other factors like the degradation of the reef ecosystem due to variations in ocean salinity, temperature and acidity, lower sediment stocks on the beaches and foreshores, human visitors, coastal development and so on are other adverse factors that could modify the capacity for resilience of these islets. Due to their variety and sensitivity, New Caledonia's islets could thus serve

  3. Rapidly changing treatment options adding burden to the management of typhoid fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever continues to be a global public health problem. It is caused by the facultative intracellular organisms Salmonella enteric serotype Typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Antimicrobial therapy is the mainstay for treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole had been in use for decades for treating enteric fever. But the emergence and rapid spread of drug resistance has resulted in rapid shift of treatment options from chloramphenicol to fluoroquinolones to third generation cephalosporins to azithromycin with tigecycline and carbapenems in line, thus adding burden to the health-care sector in developing countries. Rational and judicious antibiotic prescribing practices by health professionals are necessary to prevent further development of drug resistance and help in re-emergence of sensitive strains.

  4. Phase Change Permeation Technology for Environmental Control & Life Support Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is evaluating Dutyion™, a phase change permeation membrane technology developed by Design Technology and Irrigation (DTI), for use in future advanced life...

  5. Sexual conflict and environmental change: trade-offs within and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    specific selection on a shared genome. With several notable exceptions, intralocus sexual conflict has been investigated in constant environments to which the study organisms have had an opportunity to adapt. However, a change in the environment ...

  6. Climate Change in Environmental Impact Assessment of Renewable Energy Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2012-01-01

    Many renewable energy projects are subject to EIA. However a question that surfaces is what use an impact assessment is when the project is ‘good for the environment’? One of the current topics receiving much attention in impact assessment is climate change and how this factor is integrated...... in impact assessments. This warrants the question: How do we assess the climate change related impacts of a project that inherently has a positive effect on climate? This paper is based on a document study of EIA reports from Denmark. The results show that climate change is included in most of the EIA...... reports reviewed, and that only climate change mitigation is in focus while adaptation is absent. Also the results point to focus on positive impacts, while the indirect negative impacts are less apparent. This leads to a discussion of the results in the light of the purpose of EIA....

  7. Internet-driven changes in environmental NGO action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Pereira Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies, considered both as a technological resource and as a social technology, play an important role in the shaping of existing social relations and in the creation of new modes of interaction and social organization (AA. VV., 2000. However, traditional approaches of political action frequently misstate just how politically active citizens are by underrating changes occurred in the realm of political mediation (Norris, 2002, p. 2; Epstein, 1991, p. 230. The changes in the organizational and action repertoires go hand in hand with the specificities of each NGO's cultural interpretative devices, which are influenced by technological change (Zald, 1996, p. 266-270. On the other hand, frames are also subject to internal debate, a process in which ICTs also take part (Webster, 2001, p. 7. Hence, this paper focuses on clarifying the ways in which NGOs have their structure and action repertoires changed by the use of ICTs.

  8. Methoxychlor and Vinclozolin Induce Rapid Changes in Intercellular and Intracellular Signaling in Liver Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babica, Pavel; Zurabian, Rimma; Kumar, Esha R; Chopra, Rajus; Mianecki, Maxwell J; Park, Joon-Suk; Jaša, Libor; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-09-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) and vinclozolin (VIN) are well-recognized endocrine disrupting chemicals known to alter epigenetic regulations and transgenerational inheritance; however, non-endocrine disruption endpoints are also important. Thus, we determined the effects of MXC and VIN on the dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. Both chemicals induced a rapid dysregulation of GJIC at non-cytotoxic doses, with 30 min EC50 values for GJIC inhibition being 10 µM for MXC and 126 µM for VIN. MXC inhibited GJIC for at least 24 h, while VIN effects were transient and GJIC recovered after 4 h. VIN induced rapid hyperphosphorylation and internalization of gap junction protein connexin43, and both chemicals also activated MAPK ERK1/2 and p38. Effects on GJIC were not prevented by MEK1/2 inhibitor, but by an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), resveratrol, and in the case of VIN, also, by a p38 inhibitor. Estrogen (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) modulators (estradiol, ICI 182,780, HPTE, testosterone, flutamide, VIN M2) did not attenuate MXC or VIN effects on GJIC. Our data also indicate that the effects were elicited by the parental compounds of MXC and VIN. Our study provides new evidence that MXC and VIN dysregulate GJIC via mechanisms involving rapid activation of PC-PLC occurring independently of ER- or AR-dependent genomic signaling. Such alterations of rapid intercellular and intracellular signaling events involved in regulations of gene expression, tissue development, function and homeostasis, could also contribute to transgenerational epigenetic effects of endocrine disruptors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Strengthening Multidisciplinary Research on Climate and Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Tom; Li, Jianping; Alverson, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The difficulty with multidisciplinary research is finding common ground for scientists, whose approach to a particular scientific problem can differ radically. For example, there is agreement between the geophysical community and the food science and technology community that food security is an important issue. However, the climate change community sees possible solutions coming from more detailed studies on the links between climate change and agriculture, whereas the food science community sees possible solutions emerging from studies of food logistics and supply chains.

  10. Land use change monitoring in Maryland using a probabilistic sample and rapid photointerpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya Lister; Andrew Lister; Eunice Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. state of Maryland needs to monitor land use change in order to address land management objectives. This paper presents a change detection method that, through automation and standard geographic information system (GIS) techniques, facilitates the estimation of landscape change via photointerpretation. Using the protocols developed, we show a net loss of forest...

  11. Rapid lung MRI in children with pulmonary infections: Time to change our diagnostic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Singh, Meenu; Agarwal, Ritesh; Bhatia, Anmol; Lee, Edward Y

    2016-05-01

    To determine the diagnostic utility of a new rapid MRI protocol, as compared with computed tomography (CT) for the detection of various pulmonary and mediastinal abnormalities in children with suspected pulmonary infections. Seventy-five children (age range of 5 to 15 years) with clinically suspected pulmonary infections were enrolled in this prospective study, which was approved by the institutional ethics committee. All patients underwent thoracic MRI (1.5T) and CT (64 detector) scan within 48 h of each other. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of MRI were evaluated with CT as a standard of reference. Inter-observer agreement was measured with the kappa coefficient. MRI with a new rapid MRI protocol demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 100% for detecting pulmonary consolidation, nodules (>3 mm), cyst/cavity, hyperinflation, pleural effusion, and lymph nodes. The kappa-test showed almost perfect agreement between MRI and multidetector CT (MDCT) in detecting thoracic abnormalities (k = 0.9). No statistically significant difference was observed between MRI and MDCT for detecting thoracic abnormalities by the McNemar test (P = 0.125). Rapid lung MRI was found to be comparable to MDCT for detecting thoracic abnormalities in pediatric patients with clinically suspected pulmonary infections. It has a great potential as the first line cross-sectional imaging modality of choice in this patient population. However, further studies will be helpful for confirmation of our findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Land use changes in Europe: Processes of change, environmental transformations, and future patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Thomas, A.J.; Chadwick, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As the pressures to control costs and resources expended on cleaning up hazardous waste sites increase, there is a growing notion that consideration of ultimate land use or end states should aid in focusing remediation efforts, and thus, controlling costs. Resources would not be expended on all sites equally, rather knowledge that a particular site is most likely to be used for industrial rather than residential purposes, for example, would influence the type of clean-up invoked at a site and the clean-up goals themselves. Thus, land use has become a hot topic among environmental risk assessors and risk managers. This milieu makes the contents of Volume 18 in Kluwer's GeoJournal Library of particular interest. The book is a collection of papers, with contributors from across Europe. The paper generally fall into three categories: analyses of historical land use patterns in particular countries, forecasts of changing land use trends for the EC countries, and analyses of particular factors affecting land use decisions (atmospheric contamination, hydrologic regimes, land use decision methodologies). Although very little of the text deals explicitly with hazardous waste clean up, the perspective provided by a view of the European struggles with land use allocations provides helpful context to those in the historically unlimited spaces of the United States just beginning to come to terms with the concept

  13. Environmental Education and Behavioral Change: An Identity-Based Environmental Education Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Nicholas M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the effectiveness of environmental education (EE) programs at fostering ecologically responsible behavior is analyzed through the lens of psychology. In section 1, a critique of knowledge and attitude appeals is presented using contemporary psychological understandings of these constructs to show why many EE programs have been met…

  14. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...... associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...

  15. Future of Pacific salmon in the face of environmental change: Lessons from one of the world's remaining productive salmon regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Erik R.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Trammell, Jamie; Rinella, Daniel J.; Floyd, Angelica L.; Grunblatt, Jess; McCarthy, Molly D.; Meyer, Benjamin E.; Morton, John M.; Powell, James E.; Prakash, Anupma; Reimer, Matthew N.; Stuefer, Svetlana L.; Toniolo, Horacio; Wells, Brett M.; Witmer, Frank D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. face serious challenges from climate and landscape change, particularly in the southern portion of their native range. Conversely, climate warming appears to be allowing salmon to expand northwards into the Arctic. Between these geographic extremes, in the Gulf of Alaska region, salmon are at historically high abundances but face an uncertain future due to rapid environmental change. We examined changes in climate, hydrology, land cover, salmon populations, and fisheries over the past 30–70 years in this region. We focused on the Kenai River, which supports world-famous fisheries but where Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha populations have declined, raising concerns about their future resilience. The region is warming and experiencing drier summers and wetter autumns. The landscape is also changing, with melting glaciers, wetland loss, wildfires, and human development. This environmental transformation will likely harm some salmon populations while benefiting others. Lowland salmon streams are especially vulnerable, but retreating glaciers may allow production gains in other streams. Some fishing communities harvest a diverse portfolio of fluctuating resources, whereas others have specialized over time, potentially limiting their resilience. Maintaining diverse habitats and salmon runs may allow ecosystems and fisheries to continue to thrive amidst these changes.

  16. Environmental pollution and allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, H; Inoue, K

    2017-01-01

    Environmental changes are thought to be the main factor in the rapid increase and worsening of allergic diseases. While there have been significant changes in many environmental factors, including in environments such as residential, health and sanitation, food, and water/soil/atmospheric environments, the root of each of these changes is likely an increase in chemical substances. In fact, various environmental pollutants, such as air pollutants and chemical substances, have been shown to wor...

  17. Changes in environmental radon related with the day eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaso P, M.I.; Cervantes, M.L.; Segovia A, N.; Espindola, V.H.

    1992-05-01

    Systematic studies of radon and of gamma dose in air in the Nuclear Center of Mexico during a period of nine months that include the total Sun eclipse happened at July 11, 1991 were carried out. The radon concentrations were measured with an electronic equipment that measures in continuous form and the rate of gamma dose in air was obtained with a ionization chamber. The results show that the radon fluctuations in air are influenced by the meteorological changes showing behaviors different to long and short term. The variations of long term are correlated directly with the external temperature while those of short term have an inverse relationship with the temperature. These last results are discussed regarding drastic atmospheric changes happened in the period and those light changes result of the total Sun eclipse. The rate of gamma dose in air showed stability during the study. (Author)

  18. Environmental health indicators of climate change for the United States: findings from the State Environmental Health Indicator Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Paul B; Sinclair, Amber H; Ross, Zev; Anderson, Henry; Boothe, Vicki; Davis, Christine; Ebi, Kristie; Kagey, Betsy; Malecki, Kristen; Shultz, Rebecca; Simms, Erin

    2009-11-01

    To develop public health adaptation strategies and to project the impacts of climate change on human health, indicators of vulnerability and preparedness along with accurate surveillance data on climate-sensitive health outcomes are needed. We researched and developed environmental health indicators for inputs into human health vulnerability assessments for climate change and to propose public health preventative actions. We conducted a review of the scientific literature to identify outcomes and actions that were related to climate change. Data sources included governmental and nongovernmental agencies and the published literature. Sources were identified and assessed for completeness, usability, and accuracy. Priority was then given to identifying longitudinal data sets that were applicable at the state and community level. We present a list of surveillance indicators for practitioners and policy makers that include climate-sensitive health outcomes and environmental and vulnerability indicators, as well as mitigation, adaptation, and policy indicators of climate change. A review of environmental health indicators for climate change shows that data exist for many of these measures, but more evaluation of their sensitivity and usefulness is needed. Further attention is necessary to increase data quality and availability and to develop new surveillance databases, especially for climate-sensitive morbidity.

  19. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    only partially compatible with the geochemical and hydrodynamic calculations for the CT3 aquifer. This leads to many questions about the representativeness of instrumentation (in spite of dense observations), the heterogeneity of the landscape (perhaps even stronger than supposed, complementarities and differences between methods, etc.). Similarly, the diversity and evolution of human behaviours facing new situations (population growth, environmental changes) are essential elements to take into account, not always easily accessible to hydrologists.

  20. Phase Change Permeation Technology For Environmental Control Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of a phase change permeation membrane (Dutyion [Trademark]) to passively and selectively mobilize water in microgravity to enable improved water recovery from urine/brine for Environment Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and water delivery to plans for potential use in microgravity.

  1. Climate change, environmental security and displacement in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUKE AMADI

    Technology. Full Length ... support artisanal and industrial fisheries accounting for ... impact of wave breakers and the full force of storms and ... to internal conflict between competing ethnic groups or .... general information about climate change in the Niger Delta and ...... Flood control in the region needs collaborative efforts.

  2. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  3. Operational research leading to rapid national policy change: tuberculosis-diabetes collaboration in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Wilson, N C; Chadha, S S; Gupta, D; Nair, S; Zachariah, R; Kapur, A; Harries, A D

    2014-06-21

    In 2011, bi-directional screening for tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), although how best to implement the activity was not clear. In India, with early engagement of national programme managers and all important stakeholders, a countrywide, multicentre operational research (OR) project was designed in October 2011 and completed in 2012. The results led to a rapid national policy decision to routinely screen all TB patients for DM in September 2012. The process, experience and enablers of implementing this unique and successful collaborative model of operational research are presented.

  4. Global Climate Change and Environmental Health: Proceedings of the 1997 Annual Conference of the Society for Occupational and Environmental Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovats, Sari; Patz, Jonathan A.; Dobbins, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together a diverse group of occupational and environmental health experts to address the potential effects of climate change and ozone depletion on the current and future incidence of disease, heat stress, food and water supplies, and air pollution; to discuss initial strategies for improving R and D, global health surveillance systems, disease prevention, medical and public health community education, international cooperation, and public outreach; to address this international occupational and environmental health problem; and to explore international challenges and opportunities for collaborative projects in addressing these potential effects

  5. Designing environmental campaigns by using agent-based simulations: strategies for changing environmental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Martens, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Agent-based computer simulation was used to create artificial communities in which each individual was constructed according to the principles of the elaboration likelihood model of Petty and Cacioppo [1986. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In: Berkowitz, L. (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Academic Press, New York, NY, pp. 123-205]. Campaigning strategies and community characteristics were varied systematically to understand and test their impact on attitudes towards environmental protection. The results show that strong arguments influence a green (environmentally concerned) population with many contacts most effectively, while peripheral cues have the greatest impact on a non-green population with fewer contacts. Overall, deeper information scrutiny increases the impact of strong arguments but is especially important for convincing green populations. Campaigns involving person-to-person communication are superior to mass-media campaigns because they can be adapted to recipients' characteristics.

  6. Disruption of the ‘disease triangle’ by chemical and physical environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. H. Chappelka; N. E. Grulke; L. De Kok

    2015-01-01

    The physical and chemical environment of the Earth has changed rapidly over the last 100 years and is predicted to continue to change into the foreseeable future. One of the main concerns with potential alterations in climate is the propensity for increases in the magnitude and frequency of extremes to occur. Even though precipitation is predicted to increase in some...

  7. Social and Economic Influences in Curriculum Change in Japan: Case History of Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Yasuo

    1981-01-01

    Surveys social, economic and environmental characteristics of Japan in the 1960s and 1970s and describes their influence on curriculum changes in secondary science education. Discusses Japanese attitudes towards nature as a foundation for environmental education, the impact of western culture on this attitude, and the future of environmental…

  8. Economic and environmental impacts of dietary changes in Iran : an input-output analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahmani, R.; Bakhshoodeh, M.; Zibaei, M.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Eftekhari, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Iran's simple and environmentally extended commodity by commodity input-output (IO) model was used to determine the impacts of dietary changes on the Iranian economy and on the environmental load. The original model is based on the status-quo diet and was modified to include the World Health

  9. Global environmental change effects on plant community composition trajectories depend upon management legacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perring, Michael P.; Bernhardt-Römermann, Markus; Baeten, Lander; Midolo, Gabriele; Blondeel, Haben; Depauw, Leen; Landuyt, Dries; Maes, Sybryn L.; Lombaerde, De Emiel; Carón, Maria Mercedes; Vellend, Mark; Brunet, Jörg; Chudomelová, Markéta; Decocq, Guillaume; Diekmann, Martin; Dirnböck, Thomas; Dörfler, Inken; Durak, Tomasz; Frenne, De Pieter; Gilliam, Frank S.; Hédl, Radim; Heinken, Thilo; Hommel, Patrick; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kirby, Keith J.; Kopecký, Martin; Lenoir, Jonathan; Li, Daijiang; Máliš, František; Mitchell, Fraser J.G.; Naaf, Tobias; Newman, Miles; Petřík, Petr; Reczyńska, Kamila; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Standovár, Tibor; Świerkosz, Krzysztof; Calster, Van Hans; Vild, Ondřej; Wagner, Eva Rosa; Wulf, Monika; Verheyen, Kris

    2018-01-01

    The contemporary state of functional traits and species richness in plant communities depends on legacy effects of past disturbances. Whether temporal responses of community properties to current environmental changes are altered by such legacies is, however, unknown. We expect global environmental

  10. Coping with global environmental change, disasters and security: threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauch, H.G.; Oswald Spring, Ú.; Mesjasz, C.; Grin, J.; Kameri-Mbote, P.; Chourou, B.; Dunay, P.; Birkmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. In 6 forewords, 5 preface essays 95 peer reviewed chapcountries analyse in 10

  11. Do changes in environmental and fishing pressures impact marine communities? An empirical assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rochet, M.J.; Trenkel, V.M.; Carpentier, A.; Coppin, F.; Sola, L.G.; Leaute, J.P.; Mahe, J.C.; Maiorano, P.; Mannini, A.; Murenu, M.; Piet, G.J.; Politou, C.Y.; Reale, B.; Spedicato, M.T.; Tserpes, G.; Bertrand, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    1. The development of ecosystem approaches to environmental management implies the need to account for multiple pressures on ecosystems. Trends in multiple metrics that respond differently to changes in major environmental pressures need to be combined to evaluate the impacts of fishing and

  12. Lessons from patents. Using patents to measure technological change in environmental models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, David

    2005-01-01

    When studying solutions to long-term environmental problems such as climate change, it is important to consider the role that technological change may play. Nonetheless, to date few economic models of environmental policy explicitly model the link between policy and technological change. There is a growing body of evidence that the incentives offered by prices and environmental regulations have a strong influence on both the creation and adoption of new technologies. In several recent papers, I have used patent data to examine the links between environmental policy and technological change. In addition, I have used the results of this research to calibrate the ENTICE model (for ENdogenous Technological change) of climate change, which links energy-related R and D to changes in the price of carbon. Drawing on my experiences from empirical studies on innovation and from modeling the climate change problem, in this paper I review some of the key lessons from recent empirical work using patents to study environmental innovation and diffusion, and discuss its implications for modeling climate change policy. I conclude by offering suggestions for future research

  13. Rapid forest change in the interior west presents analysis opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    A recent drought has caused compositional and structural changes in Interior West forests. Recent periodic and annual inventory data provide an opportunity to analyze forest changes on a grand scale. This "natural experiment" also provides opportunities to test the effectiveness of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) methodologies. It also presents some...

  14. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  15. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  16. Changes in environmental policy and mountain tourism in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sacareau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Against a backdrop of environmental crisis, attributed to the impact of tourism and the practices of rural populations, Nepal has created protected areas with a view to preserving the Himalayan environment and promoting sustainable tourism in the regions concerned. Given the conflicts between conservation needs and development needs, local communities are now being given a bigger role in the governance of these protected areas. Yet the measures being taken simply accompany and guide well-established tourism dynamics that operate on a much greater scale. Trekking is thus a tourism system largely in the hands of the country’s mountain communities and is an activity that has enabled these communities to improve their living conditions while at the same time limiting environmental impacts. In this sense it is very much in line with the principles of sustainable development.Le développement du trekking au Népal a suscité des inquiétudes qui ont abouti à la création d’aires protégées sur la foi d’un scénario de crise environnementale dont les touristes et les paysans étaient jugés responsables. Devant les conflits entre la conservation et les nécessités de développement des régions concernées, la gouvernance des aires protégées a évolué dans le sens d’une meilleure prise en compte des sociétés locales. Pour autant les mesures prises ne font qu’accompagner et diriger des dynamiques touristiques plus anciennes qui s’exercent à des échelles plus vastes. Le trekking constitue ainsi un système touristique très largement aux mains des sociétés montagnardes du pays qui a permis l’amélioration de leurs conditions de vie tout en limitant ses impacts environnementaux. En ce sens le trekking répond assez largement aux principes du développement durable.

  17. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R; Holmes, Kristi L

    2017-07-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today's academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions.

  18. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins....... Here, we investigate geographical range shifts relative to changing climatic conditions among a particularly well-sampled assemblage of butterflies in Canada. We assembled observations of 81 species and measured their latitudinal displacement between two periods: 1960–1975 (a period of little climate...... change) and 1990–2005 (a period with large climate change). We find an unexpected trend for species’ northern borders to shift progressively less relative to increasing minimum winter temperatures in northern Canada. This study demonstrates a novel, systemic latitudinal gradient in lags among a large...

  19. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares

  20. The use of specialisation indices to predict vulnerability of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to environmental change

    KAUST Repository

    Lawton, Rebecca J.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    , the utility of these different indices to predict vulnerability to future environmental change is unknown. Here we compare the performance of specialisation indices using coral-feeding butterflyfishes as a model group. Our aims were to 1) quantify the dietary

  1. A global assessment of market accessibility and market influence for global environmental change studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, P.H.; Ellis, E.C.; Letourneau, A.

    2011-01-01

    Markets influence the global patterns of urbanization, deforestation, agriculture and other land use systems. Yet market influence is rarely incorporated into spatially explicit global studies of environmental change, largely because consistent global data are lacking below the national level. Here

  2. Phytoplankton niches, traits and eco-evolutionary responses to global environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litchman, Elena; Edwards, Kyle F.; Klausmeier, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton are major primary producers in aquatic ecosystems and are sensitive to various aspects of global environmental change. They can respond through phenotypic plasticity, species sorting, genetic adaptation, or a combination of these processes. Here we present conceptual, experimental...

  3. Influences of sex and activity level on physiological changes in individual adult sockeye salmon during rapid senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Kimberly A; Hinch, Scott G; Healey, Michael C; Patterson, David A; Larsson, Stefan; Farrell, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    A noninvasive biopsy protocol was used to sample plasma and gill tissue in individual sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during the critical life stage associated with spawning-arrival at a spawning channel through senescence to death several days later. Our main objective was to characterize the physiological changes associated with rapid senescence in terms of the physiological stress/cortisol hypersecretion model and the energy exhaustion model. Salmon lived an average of 5 d in the spawning channel, during which time there were three major physiological trends that were independent of sexual status: a large increase in plasma indicators of stress and exercise (i.e., lactate and cortisol), a decrease in the major plasma ions (i.e., Cl(-) and Na(+)) and osmolality, and a decrease in gross somatic energy reserves. Contrary to a generalized stress response, plasma glucose decreased in approximately 2/3 of the fish after arrival, as opposed to increasing. Furthermore, plasma cortisol levels at spawning-ground arrival were not correlated with the degree of ionoregulatory changes during rapid senescence. One mechanism of mortality in some fish may involve the exhaustion of energy reserves, resulting in the inability to mobilize plasma glucose. Sex had a significant modulating effect on the degree of physiological change. Females exhibited a greater magnitude of change for gross somatic energy, osmolality, and plasma concentrations of Cl(-), Na(+), cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, 17,20beta-progesterone, and estradiol. The activity level of an individual on the spawning grounds appeared to influence the degree of some physiological changes during senescence. For example, males that received a greater frequency of attacks exhibited larger net decreases in plasma 11-ketotestosterone while on the spawning grounds. These results suggest that rapid senescence on spawning grounds is influenced by multiple physiological processes and perhaps behavior. This study

  4. Continental and Marine Environmental changes in Europe induced by Global Climate variability and Regional Palaeography Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, S.M.

    2008-12-01

    My PhD and post-doctorate researches have focused on paleo-climatic, paleo-geographical and paleo-environmental reconstruction of the Mediterranean Basin and its adjacent seas (i.e. the residual former Paratethys) since 11 Ma. I selected this region because it is very rich in long and continuous sediment archives, which document: (1) climate evolution of the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Cenozoic with respect to vegetation changes, and (2) progressive evolution of initially marine environments towards brackish and freshwater ones. The brackish to fresh environments had a profound effect on the marine organisms (especially dino-flagellates) that responded to the stress by developing a large variety of cyst morphologies, often described as new genera and/or species. Methods. The comparative analysis of pollen grains and dinoflagellate cysts from the same samples is rarely performed for such a long time-interval because it needs a deep knowledge in taxonomy and ecology of the both complementary proxies. I reached this parallel expertise, having the benefit of training in (1) botanical identification of pollen grains from the tropical to boreal zones and their ecological significance by Dr. J.-P. Suc, (2) taxonomy and ecology of dinoflagellate cysts by Pr. M. J. Head. To achieve an understanding of the primary factor inducing morphological variations of dinoflagellate cysts, I developed a biological approach. The simultaneous work on living and fossil (using bio-metry and associated statistical analyses) dinoflagellate cysts has allowed me to initiate the development of a transfer function, widely valid and able for the modelling of the physical parameters of sea-surface waters (s