WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly changed economy

  1. Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Disease in the Rapidly Changing Economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yangfeng; Benjamin, Emelia J; MacMahon, Stephen

    2016-06-14

    With one-fifth of the world's total population, China's prevention and control of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may affect the success of worldwide efforts to achieve sustainable CVD reduction. Understanding China's current cardiovascular epidemic requires awareness of the economic development in the past decades. The rapid economic transformations (industrialization, marketization, urbanization, globalization, and informationalization) contributed to the aging demography, unhealthy lifestyles, and environmental changes. The latter have predisposed to increasing cardiovascular risk factors and the CVD pandemic. Rising CVD rates have had a major economic impact, which has challenged the healthcare system and the whole society. With recognition of the importance of health, initial political steps and national actions have been taken to address the CVD epidemic. Looking to the future, we recommend that 4 priorities should be taken: pursue multisectorial government and nongovernment strategies targeting the underlying causes of CVD (the whole-of-government and whole-of-society policy); give priority to prevention; reform the healthcare system to fit the nature of noncommunicable diseases; and conduct research for evidence-based, low-cost, simple, sustainable, and scalable interventions. By pursuing the 4 priorities, the pandemic of CVD and other major noncommunicable diseases in China will be reversed and the global sustainable development goal achieved. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Economic Growth of a Rapidly Developing Economy: Theoretical Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Sergeyevich Sukharev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the description of economic growth. Modern economy is characterized by a high rate of changes. These changes are the limiting parameters of modern development, which requires a modification of the basic models of growth, the substantiation of the expediency and necessity of a rapid development strategy. In a simple mathematical form, the statement of the problem of economic growth in the “green economy” is examined, in which the costs of environmental measures are not considered a priori as hampering economic development (as it is common for a number of modern neoclassical and neo-Keynesian growth models. The methodological basis of the article are the econometric approach and modelling method. The article has a theoretical character. The main hypothesis supposes that the rapid development strategy cannot make an adequate development strategy under certain conditions, but may be acceptable in other its specific conditions. In this sense, the important growth conditions are the availability of resources, the effectiveness of institutions and the current economic structure, the technological effectiveness of economy, as well as the conditions of technological development (“green economy” and the path of such development. In the article, on the theoretical level of analysis, the substantiation of the adequacy of the rapid development strategy for an economic system is given, whose goal is to achieve the standard of living of the countryleader. Based on the assumptions introduced, the period for which the rapid development strategy might be implemented and the economic lag of the country might be reduced from the country-leader is determined. The conditions that ensure the impact of innovations on the rate of economic development are summarized. The introduced range of dependencies and relations can be useful for the elaboration of the theory of innovation development and for the formation of a new

  3. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives...... to the analysis of the evolution of British merger control provides some important new insights, most notably that the content, form, and scope of merger control in Britain have been deeply transformed in accordance with neoliberal ideas since the 1980s and that this process, which was part of a broader...

  4. Changing pattern of premature mortality burden over 6 years of rapid growth of the economy in suburban south-west China: 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Le; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This study was conducted in Kunming, the capital of Yunnan, a poor province in south-west China experiencing rapid economic growth. The study examined the short-term trend in premature mortality burden from common causes of death in a suburban region between 1998 and 2003. Years of life lost (YLL) per 1000 population and mortality rate per 100,000 population were calculated from medical death certificates, and broken down by cause of death, sex and year without age weighting but with a discounting rate of 3%. Non-communicable diseases contributed over 80% of all causes of YLL, with a slightly increasing trend. The combined rate for communicable, maternal, prenatal and nutritional deficiencies declined from 4.7 to 2.4 per 1000 population. Remarkably, declining trends in YLL were also seen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, drug use and road traffic accidents, whereas increasing trends were seen for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and liver cancer (males). The YLL rate for stroke, self-inflicted injuries, lung cancer and stomach cancer fluctuated over time. The region should focus on further control of IHD and liver cancer.

  5. GREEN ECONOMY AND CLIMATE CHANGE PREVENTION CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While experts in economics place transition to green economy on two directions - reducing ecological footprint and increasing human welfare - climate change specialists warn that effects of global warming will have a much greater impact in the future. It is natural to join scientific contributions in these two areas because both perspectives recognize the ravages made by industrialization, which triggered a serie of abrupt climate changes. For example, the average temperature in Europe has increased about 1oC. Based on these evidences, this article will show the usefulness of introducing a concept of full cycle to prevent climate change in the new paradigm that seeks to solve problems related to the fundamentals of sustainable development through transition to green economy. Using this method, this approach intends to be a new theoretical contribution which can act as support to efficiency of new clean technologies.

  6. Climate changes, economy and growth: political relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Bastien

    2017-03-01

    The author addresses the relationships which may exist between climate change and economic growth, by discussing and criticising some common ideas, and the role of the economic parameter in the position of states within negotiations. These common ideas are: the struggle against climate change impedes economic growth, and green economy provides new growth levers. The author also discusses the fact that some countries may feel they have to slow down their growth because emerging countries are facing a strong development and thus have a strong impact on climate changes. He also outlines that political forces which are presently in power, tend to have a critical approach and speech on mitigation measures

  7. The changing strategic roles for warehousing in an emerging economy: case study in Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing globalisation of the world economy is having a profound impact on logistics. Emerging economies are experiencing rapid developments that affect their warehousing facilities. The purpose of this study is to explore the strategic roles that warehousing plays and the changes therein.

  8. The Changing Nature of Doing Business in Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Changing Nature of Doing Business in Transition Economies uses a variety of national backgrounds to review the advancing business development of emerging economies and the impact of changing business conditions. It provides detailed insights into the way in which businesses function...... successfully in emerging economies with a comprehensive overview of the major strategic aspects involved....

  9. Market Economy under Rapid Globalization and Rising Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Konov, Joshua Ioji

    2012-01-01

    Market economy of enhancing business laws in contracting, bonding, insuring, legal corporate structures , e.g. will marginalize the economic agents and tools that make market competition unfair, empower small and medium businesses and investors, and boost business activities, fiscal strength, employment, and capital transmission. Keynesian capital infusion will extend its market effect in such higher security marketplace.

  10. The economy of climatic change. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boot, P.

    1996-01-01

    In a previous article in this magazine by Aalbers and Vollebergh it was concluded that good economic arguments are available for the precautionary principle in the climate control policy. That also pleads for a far-going Dutch climate control policy. It is the opinion of the author that the foundations of their arguments are not good enough. The above-mentioned authors reply with the one-page article 'De economie van Utopia' (The economy of Utopia) to Boot's article. 7 refs

  11. Climate Change Consequences for Iowa'S Economy, Infrastructure, and Emergency Services

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This is Chapter 6 in the state-mandated Regent's institution collaborative report, "Climate Change Impacts on Iowa, 2010: Report to the Governor and the Iowa General Assembly."Iowa's climate is changing, and that means Iowa's economy is changing. A changing Iowa economy will have consequences for agriculture, food production, Iowa's vaunted insurance agency, general energy use, Iowa's households, Iowa governments, and disaster services. This chapter profiles near and longer term consequences ...

  12. A new political economy of climate change

    OpenAIRE

    Damian , Michel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article responds to Jean Tirole, winner of the Nobel prize for economics in 2014 and the signatories of the international appeal launched by Toulouse School of Economics and the Climate Economics Chair at Paris Dauphine University who propose setting a universal carbon price and establishing a transcontinental emissions trading system. We hold that the Paris Agreement, which disregarded such recommendations, represents a paradigm shift. The new political economy o...

  13. The Theoretical Foundations of Structural Changes in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustova Viktoriia Ye.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the theoretical foundations of structural changes in economy. It has been proved that structural policy of the State is one of the main directions influencing the structure of economy, balancing its proportions, and ensuring progressive development. The components of structural policy have been defined. Genesis of scientific directions of researching the structure of economy was considered. The interpretation of the concept of «structure of economy» in the works of scientists was studied. The classification of particular structures of the national industrial complex was considered. It has been proved that the main role in the analysis of structural changes should be given to the structure of economy (of industrial complex, according to the types of economic activity. The interpretations of the concepts of «structural transformations», «structural shifts», «structural changes», «structural crisis» in the economy have been clarified. The functions of structural crises have been considered. The dynamics of changes in structural shifts were researched. The classification of structural shifts in the economy was considered. An interpretation of progressive structural changes has been suggested.

  14. The Factors of Changing the Structure of Modern Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelekh O. B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at attempting to clarify the essence of structural changes and to define the most important factors that cause structural changes in the economy, as well as researching the mechanism of their influence on the process of change. Economic development is directly related to economic structures and the changes that occur in them. Therefore, it is impossible to fully analyze economic development without taking into consideration structural changes in the economy. The economic system consists of separate branches, departments, production places, enterprises, has a certain structure of production resources and external trade, spatial placement, and is regulated by economic rules and norms. Under the economic structure the author understands the placement of the basic elements of economy and the proportions that have developed between them. Therefore, changes in the structure of economy are a complex system of changes in the interrelated proportions, taking place under the influence of the existing technical basis, social mechanisms of production, distribution and exchange in accordance with public needs, available resources, and the level of the labor productivity achieved. In conditions of modern economy and production, the factors influencing changes of the structure of economy, are divided into three groups: socio-economic, scientific-technological, and institutional. The author presents a list of the most important factors for each group and analyzes the mechanisms of interrelations between them.

  15. Immigration in a Changing Economy: California's Experience - Questions and Answers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    .... This three-year study, the first to take a 30-year perspective, profiles the changing character of recent immigrants and considers their contribution to the economy, their effects on other workers...

  16. Structural change in the economy of Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyinka, Adedeji; Salau, Sheu; Vollrath, Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    We document that structural change accounts for approximately one-fifth of the total change in labor productivity in Nigeria between 1996 and 2009. Labor moved out of the agricultural and wholesale and retail trade sectors into manufacturing, transportation and communications, business services, and general services. While structural change did occur in this period, significant gains to aggregate labor productivity are still available from further shifts of labor to higher-productivity sector...

  17. Economy and policy of climatic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, S.; Joumni, H.

    2005-01-01

    In an economical framework, this book discusses the following topics: policies against the climatic changes, the scientific prospectives facing this policies priority, their costs, the new international market of carbon, the future technological innovations. This book exposes also socio-economic, geopolitical and technological questions bound to theses climatic changes and their regulation. It analyzes more especially the North-South strategies and the flexibility tools challenges of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

  18. The political economy of a changing population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.

    1995-01-01

    In the context of an overlapping generations model with intragenerational inequality and majority voting, I study how the taxation of the old and retired generation is affected when the population growth rate changes. A fall in the birth rate leads to two opposite effects. On the one hand, the old

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF CORRUPTION ON CORPORATE GOVERNANCE STANDARDS: SHARED CHARACTERISTICS OF RAPIDLY DEVELOPING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle I. Caron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the relationship between the level of corruption in rapidly developing economies and corporate governance processes therein.  Previous literature illustrates a strong relationship between corporate governance and corruption and suggests that in countries with high levels of corruption, firms lack efficient corporate governance practices.  Similarly, countries with deficient corporate governance practices and low levels of compliance to these standards breed corruption leading to a wide range of transparency dilemmas.  This study delves deeper through careful examination regarding the level of compliance with corporate governance standards and the pervasive effects of corruption on the governance processes of firms with specific regard to rapidly developing economies as well as offering comparisons and similarities of shared characteristics among these countries.

  20. Impact of Geological Changes on Regional and Global Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatiana, Skufina; Peter, Skuf'in; Vera, Samarina; Taisiya, Shatalova; Baranov, Sergey

    2017-04-01

    Periods of geological changes such as super continent cycle (300-500 million years), Wilson's cycles (300-900 million years), magmatic-tectonic cycle (150-200 million years), and cycles with smaller periods (22, 100, 1000 years) lead to a basic contradiction preventing forming methodology of the study of impact of geological changes on the global and regional economies. The reason of this contradiction is the differences of theoretical and methodological aspects of the Earth science and economics such as different time scales and accuracy of geological changes. At the present the geological models cannot provide accurate estimation of time and place where geological changes (strong earthquakes, volcanos) are expected. Places of feature (not next) catastrophic events are the only thing we have known. Thus, it is impossible to use the periodicity to estimate both geological changes and their consequences. Taking into accounts these factors we suggested a collection of concepts for estimating impact of possible geological changes on regional and global economies. We illustrated our approach by example of estimating impact of Tohoku earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 on regional and global economies. Based on this example we concluded that globalization processes increase an impact of geological changes on regional and global levels. The research is supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (Projects No. 16-06-00056, 16-32-00019, 16-05-00263A).

  1. Political economy of climate change, ecological destruction and uneven development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, Phillip Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze climate change and ecological destruction through the prism of the core general principles of political economy. The paper starts with the principle of historical specificity, and the various waves of climate change through successive cooler and warmer periods on planet Earth, including the most recent climate change escalation through the open circuit associated with the treadmill of production. Then we scrutinize the principle of contradiction associated with the disembedded economy, social costs, entropy and destructive creation. The principle of uneven development is then explored through core-periphery dynamics, ecologically unequal exchange, metabolic rift and asymmetric global (in)justice. The principles of circular and cumulative causation (CCC) and uncertainty are then related to climate change dynamics through non-linear transformations, complex interaction of dominant variables, and threshold effects. Climate change and ecological destruction are impacting on most areas, especially the periphery, earlier and more intensely than previously thought likely. A political economy approach to climate change is able to enrich the analysis of ecological economics and put many critical themes in a broad context. (author)

  2. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  3. Decline in the risk of hepatitis A virus infection in China, a country with booming economy and changing lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Xuan-Yi; Liu, Chang-Qing; Li, Yang-Ting; Zhuang, Fang-Chen

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the protective factors for the rapid decline in the risk of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in China between 1990 and 2006. Results of serological follow-up and data on annual hepatitis A incidence were analysed and correlated with economic growth and HAV vaccine output during the same period. In conclusion, both HAV vaccination and changing lifestyles associated with the booming economy contributed to the rapid risk decline. Changing lifestyles played a major role in the decline especially in the areas with booming economy.

  4. 76 FR 22451 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Change in Business Address; American Economy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Change in Business Address; American Economy Insurance Company, American States Insurance Company, SAFECO Insurance... formally changed their ``Business Address'' as follows: American Economy Insurance Company (NAIC 19690...

  5. Political economy of agrarian change: Some key concepts and questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bernstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on lectures given in recent years at the China Agricultural University, on author’s book Class Dynamics of Agrarian Change [1] and on a recent article [3]. The author supplied as few references as possible to very large literature in English on agrarian change both historical and contemporary; there is an ample bibliography in [1], which is expanded in [2-5]. The paper outlines in schematic fashion some key concepts in the political economy of agrarian change with special reference to capitalism historically and today; some key questions posed by the political economy of agrarian change, and how it seeks to investigate and answer them; two sets of more specific questions about agrarian transition to capitalism and agrarian change within capitalism (internal to the countryside, bringing in rural-urban interconnections, pointing towards the place of agriculture within larger ‘national’ economies, and concerning the character and effects of the capitalist world economy. With the aid of the last group of questions, the author discusses three themes, which they are deployed to investigate: the agrarian origins of capitalism, the distinction between farming and agriculture generated by capitalism, and the fate(s of peasant farmers in the modern world of capitalism. The author believes that one cannot conceive the emergence and functioning of agriculture in modern capitalism without the centrality and configurations of new sets of dynamics linking agriculture and industry, and the rural and urban, and the local, national and global. The three themes all feed into the fourth and final theme, that of investigating the fate(s of the peasantry in capitalism today, which resonates longstanding debates of the ‘disappearance’ or ‘persistence’ of the peasantry, albeit now in the conditions of contemporary ‘globalization’. The author does not deny some of the critique of the contemporary globalization, or at least its effects

  6. The Impact of Climate Change on the United States Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Robert; Neumann, James E.

    2004-08-01

    Understanding the impacts of climate change on economic behaviour is an important aspect of deciding when to take policy actions to prevent or mitigate its consequences. This book applies advanced new economics methodologies to assess impacts on potentially vulnerable aspects of the US economy: agriculture, timber, coastal resources, energy expenditure, fishing, outdoor recreation. It is intended to provide improved understanding of key issues raised in the recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports. It concludes that some climate change may produce economic gains in the agriculture and forestry sectors, whereas energy, coastal structures, and water sectors may be harmed. The book will serve as an important reference for the scientific, economic, and policy community, and will also be of interest to natural resource/environmental economists as an example of economic valuation techniques. The volume will clearly be of main importance to researchers and policymakers in the US, but will also be influential as a model for assessment of impacts on economies worldwide.

  7. Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS): Integrated perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépin, Anne-Sophie; Karcher, Michael; Gascard, Jean-Claude

    2017-12-01

    This introduction to the special issue presents an overview of the wide range of results produced during the European Union project Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society (ACCESS). This project assessed the main impacts of climate change on Arctic Ocean's geophysical variables and how these impending changes could be expected to impact directly and indirectly on socio-economic activities like transportation, marine sea food production and resource exploitation. Related governance issues were examined. These results were used to develop several management tools that can live on beyond ACCESS. In this article, we synthesize most of the project results in the form of tentative responses to questions raised during the project. By doing so, we put the findings of the project in a broader perspective and introduce the contributions made in the different articles published in this special issue.

  8. Mexico Under NAFTA: Accounting Information In a Changing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Rivera

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has successfully implemented policies to open foreign trade, stabilize the Peso, control inflation, deregulate private business, scale back state enterprises, eliminate bureaucratic red tape, and welcome foreign investment. This process started before NAFTA was considered; however, NAFTA helped in making these economic changes more permanent. Given a more propitious business environment, understanding the financial information reported by Mexican firms constitutes a relevant inquiry. This paper analyzes features of the accounting model used in that economy and compares them against the characteristics of its counterpart accounting practice in the U.S. As a whole, the Mexican accounting practice has achieved a reasonably good level of competence. In their quest to find solutions to problems and issues not yet covered by their accounting norms, the Mexican Accounting Principles Committee has paid close attention to the U.S. GAAP and to the principles advanced by the International Accounting Standards Committee. A new Law of the Securities Market has added mechanisms to guarantee a healthy operation of the securities market and to increase the transparency of transactions and financial disclosures of the companies whose securities are traded in the exchanges. All this is a reflection of the new open economy and free market mechanisms embraced by the Mexican government.

  9. Changing rural urban linkages in Africa in a globalizing economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of rural-urban linkages is critically vital for Africa‟s development in this era of rapid socio-economic transformation. A better understanding of cities and how they relate both to the rural and urban development is needed in view of the continuous changes in development. This paper argues that many of Africa‟s ...

  10. The impacts of climate change on the Finnish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuoppamaeki, P. [Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the potential influence of global warming on the Finnish economy and well-being during the next 50 to 100 years. In order to achieve this goal a cost-benefit analysis was conducted which produced a quantitative estimate of the economic and partially non-economic effects of the climate change projected to happen in Finland. The analysis utilised the natural scientific evidence produced by other SILMU projects in partial sector models. Also a broader view of the phenomena and the possibilities for restricting greenhouse gas emissions was briefly discussed and surveyed. Two of the more important side-goals were to develop the methodology for country analysis and study the possibilities for adaptation

  11. The impacts of climate change on the Finnish economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuoppamaeki, P [Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the potential influence of global warming on the Finnish economy and well-being during the next 50 to 100 years. In order to achieve this goal a cost-benefit analysis was conducted which produced a quantitative estimate of the economic and partially non-economic effects of the climate change projected to happen in Finland. The analysis utilised the natural scientific evidence produced by other SILMU projects in partial sector models. Also a broader view of the phenomena and the possibilities for restricting greenhouse gas emissions was briefly discussed and surveyed. Two of the more important side-goals were to develop the methodology for country analysis and study the possibilities for adaptation

  12. Changes in Chinese Education under Globalisation and Market Economy: Emerging Issues and Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao; Guo, Yan; Beckett, Gulbahar; Li, Qing; Guo, Linyuan

    2013-01-01

    Fuelled by forces of globalisation, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to the "socialist market economy". This study examines changes in Chinese education under globalisation and market economy, focusing on the teaching and living conditions of teachers. The study reveals that the profound transformation of…

  13. Prehospital care training in a rapidly developing economy: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Dinesh; Hollis, Michael; Abraham, Rohit; Rustagi, Neeti; Chandra, Siddharth; Malhotra, Ajai; Rajpurohit, Vikas; Purohit, Harshada; Pal, Ranabir

    2016-06-01

    The trauma pandemic is one of the leading causes of death worldwide but especially in rapidly developing economies. Perhaps, a common cause of trauma-related mortality in these settings comes from the rapid expansion of motor vehicle ownership without the corresponding expansion of national prehospital training in developed countries. The resulting road traffic injuries often never make it to the hospital in time for effective treatment, resulting in preventable disability and death. The current article examines the development of a medical first responder training program that has the potential to reduce this unnecessary morbidity and mortality. An intensive training workshop has been differentiated into two progressive tiers: acute trauma training (ATT) and broad trauma training (BTT) protocols. These four-hour and two-day protocols, respectively, allow for the mass education of laypersons-such as police officials, fire brigade, and taxi and/or ambulance drivers-who are most likely to interact first with prehospital victims. Over 750 ATT participants and 168 BTT participants were trained across three Indian educational institutions at Jodhpur and Jaipur. Trainees were given didactic and hands-on education in a series of critical trauma topics, in addition to pretraining and post-training self-assessments to rate clinical confidence across curricular topics. Two-sample t-test statistical analyses were performed to compare pretraining and post-training confidence levels. Program development resulted in recruitment of a variety of career backgrounds for enrollment in both our ATT and BTT workshops. The workshops were run by local physicians from a wide spectrum of medical specialties and previously ATT-trained police officials. Statistically significant improvements in clinical confidence across all curricular topics for ATT and BTT protocols were identified (P developing settings. Program expansion can offer an exponential growth in the training rate of medical

  14. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  15. Government as a change agent toward a sustainable economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickl, Stephan (Austrian Energy Agency, klima:aktiv Management, Vienna (Austria)); Schmidt, Alexander (osb-international Consulting GmbH (Austria))

    2009-07-01

    Many of the recent political problems like health care, migration or climate protection have a level of complexity, which makes it difficult to tackle with relying on the 'normal' instruments. If we take climate protection seriously, this means that we have to perform a deep social change towards a sustainable economy. Besides pressure factors like high oil price, regulation or subsidies, two main factors are essential: a realistic vision of an agreeable future and a network of public and private institutions, which give momentum for the change and incorporate the change. Thus, the government grows into a new role of leadership, management and facilitation of the social change. The main key is the building and stabilisation of a inter-organisational network to include, activate and focus the different stakeholders. The paper will show the lessons learnt in building networks which generate co-operation for climate protection analysing the example of the Austrian climate protection program klima:aktiv, which started in 2004 with the aim to change the market by introducing services together with main market players, do this in a systematic and comprehensive way for some years; provide for quality management with standards and trainings; and secure confidence in the services by public support. Thus you get climate protection together with economic success, higher quality of life and less cost for the consumer. The paper will show the important steps in threes phases of the project and will describe the main factors of success in the adventure of building a change network.

  16. The Rapid Ice Sheet Change Observatory (RISCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P.; Howat, I. M.; Ahn, Y.; Porter, C.; McFadden, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    The recent expansion of observational capacity from space has revealed dramatic, rapid changes in the Earth’s ice cover. These discoveries have fundamentally altered how scientists view ice-sheet change. Instead of just slow changes in snow accumulation and melting over centuries or millennia, important changes can occur in sudden events lasting only months, weeks, or even a single day. Our understanding of these short time- and space-scale processes, which hold important implications for future global sea level rise, has been impeded by the low temporal and spatial resolution, delayed sensor tasking, incomplete coverage, inaccessibility and/or high cost of data available to investigators. New cross-agency partnerships and data access policies provide the opportunity to dramatically improve the resolution of ice sheet observations by an order of magnitude, from timescales of months and distances of 10’s of meters, to days and meters or less. Advances in image processing technology also enable application of currently under-utilized datasets. The infrastructure for systematically gathering, processing, analyzing and distributing these data does not currently exist. Here we present the development of a multi-institutional, multi-platform observatory for rapid ice change with the ultimate objective of helping to elucidate the relevant timescales and processes of ice sheet dynamics and response to climate change. The Rapid Ice Sheet Observatory (RISCO) gathers observations of short time- and space-scale Cryosphere events and makes them easily accessible to investigators, media and general public. As opposed to existing data centers, which are structured to archive and distribute diverse types of raw data to end users with the specialized software and skills to analyze them, RISCO focuses on three types of geo-referenced raster (image) data products in a format immediately viewable with commonly available software. These three products are (1) sequences of images

  17. Indigenous people's detection of rapid ecological change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Shankar; Lauer, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    When sudden catastrophic events occur, it becomes critical for coastal communities to detect and respond to environmental transformations because failure to do so may undermine overall ecosystem resilience and threaten people's livelihoods. We therefore asked how capable of detecting rapid ecological change following massive environmental disruptions local, indigenous people are. We assessed the direction and periodicity of experimental learning of people in the Western Solomon Islands after a tsunami in 2007. We compared the results of marine science surveys with local ecological knowledge of the benthos across 3 affected villages and 3 periods before and after the tsunami. We sought to determine how people recognize biophysical changes in the environment before and after catastrophic events such as earthquakes and tsunamis and whether people have the ability to detect ecological changes over short time scales or need longer time scales to recognize changes. Indigenous people were able to detect changes in the benthos over time. Detection levels differed between marine science surveys and local ecological knowledge sources over time, but overall patterns of statistically significant detection of change were evident for various habitats. Our findings have implications for marine conservation, coastal management policies, and disaster-relief efforts because when people are able to detect ecological changes, this, in turn, affects how they exploit and manage their marine resources. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-cultural Change and Fraud in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537.......Book review of: Neoliberal Moral Economy: Capitalism, Socio-Cultural Change & Fraud in Uganda by Jörg Wiegratz. London and New York, Rowman & Littlefield, 2016, 375 pp. ISBN 9781783488537....

  19. Rapid Change Detection Algorithm for Disaster Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, U.; Thunig, H.; Ehlers, M.; Reinartz, P.

    2012-07-01

    This paper focuses on change detection applications in areas where catastrophic events took place which resulted in rapid destruction especially of manmade objects. Standard methods for automated change detection prove not to be sufficient; therefore a new method was developed and tested. The presented method allows a fast detection and visualization of change in areas of crisis or catastrophes. While often new methods of remote sensing are developed without user oriented aspects, organizations and authorities are not able to use these methods because of absence of remote sensing know how. Therefore a semi-automated procedure was developed. Within a transferable framework, the developed algorithm can be implemented for a set of remote sensing data among different investigation areas. Several case studies are the base for the retrieved results. Within a coarse dividing into statistical parts and the segmentation in meaningful objects, the framework is able to deal with different types of change. By means of an elaborated Temporal Change Index (TCI) only panchromatic datasets are used to extract areas which are destroyed, areas which were not affected and in addition areas where rebuilding has already started.

  20. Statistical Study of Transformation Changes in the Ukrainian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the economic diagnostics of some important macroeconomic indicators of Ukraine that will reveal the nature and speed of the economic transformation. During the period of 2003–2007, the Ukrainian economy grew at an impressive pace. However, at present, the country is undergoing a period of serious trials, it needs to address structural problems that endanger long-term economic growth. The way out of the current situation should be the realization of the potential for growth of advanced sectors and increase of productivity across the national economy. Special attention should be paid to the transition from extractive institutions to inclusive ones. Key factors in accelerating the Ukrainian economy are more vigorous fight against corruption and investment attraction. A set of institutional variables is proposed, which allows for a more thorough assessment of the nature of economic transformation in Ukraine and detection of such deviations – transformation of the national economy occurs at different speeds. Along with the traditional shifts in the structure of GDP (the dominating share of services, there’s still insignificant statistical effect of such important institutional categories as the level of political globalization, the control of corruption, the level of property rights protection, the rule of law, and the level of social globalization.

  1. Inverse relationship between changes of maximal aerobic capacity and changes in walking economy after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliano H; Carter, Stephen J; Singh, Harshvardhan; Hunter, Gary R

    2018-05-16

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the relationships between maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2max ) and walking economy during non-graded and graded walking among overweight women and (2) examine potential differences in [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy before and after weight loss. One-hundred and twenty-four premenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) between 27 and 30 kg/m 2 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (a) diet only; (b) diet and aerobic exercise training; and (c) diet and resistance exercise training. All were furnished with standard, very-low calorie diet to reduce BMI to < 25 kg/m 2 . [Formula: see text]O 2max was measured using a modified-Bruce protocol while walking economy (1-net [Formula: see text]O 2 ) was obtained during fixed-speed (4.8 k·h -1 ), steady-state treadmill walking at 0% grade and 2.5% grade. Assessments were conducted before and after achieving target BMI. Prior to weight loss, [Formula: see text]O 2max was inversely related (P < 0.05) with non-graded and graded walking economy (r = - 0.28 to - 0.35). Similar results were also observed following weight loss (r = - 0.22 to - 0.28). Additionally, we also detected a significant inverse relationship (P < 0.05) between the changes (∆, after weight loss) in ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max , adjusted for fat-free mass, with non-graded and graded ∆walking economy (r = - 0.37 to - 0.41). Our results demonstrate [Formula: see text]O 2max and walking economy are inversely related (cross-sectional) before and after weight loss. Importantly though, ∆[Formula: see text]O 2max and ∆walking economy were also found to be inversely related, suggesting a strong synchrony between maximal aerobic capacity and metabolic cost of exercise.

  2. Transition towards a hydrogen economy: infrastructures and technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, Nuno

    2010-01-01

    The double constraint of climate change and increasing scarcity of oil requires that we consider alternative energies for the medium term. This thesis focuses on the development of a hydrogen economy, which is conditional on the existence of an infrastructure for the distribution of the new fuel and the readiness of fuel cells. The main idea is that the state can play a central role in both infrastructure implementation and preparation of fuel cells technology. The thesis begins with a techno-economic analysis of the hydrogen-energy chain, which highlights the difficulty of setting up the infrastructure. The study of the development of electricity and gas networks in the past provides the empirical basis supporting the hypothesis that government can play an important role to consolidate the diffusion of socio-technical networks. In addition, private projects of stations may be justified by early-move benefits, although their financial viability depends on the demand for hydrogen which is in turn dependent on the performance of the fuel cell vehicle. The introduction of radical innovations, such as fuel cell, has been made more difficult by the domination of conventional technologies. This assertion is particularly true in the transport sector which was progressively locked into fossil fuels by a process of technological and institutional co-evolution driven by increasing returns of scale. Hence, fuel cells may primarily diffuse through the accumulation of niches where the innovation is closer to commercialization. These niches may be located in portable applications segment. Investments in research and demonstration are still necessary in order to reduce costs and increase performances of fuel cells. Using a simple model of multi-technological diffusion, we analyze the competition between the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle and the plug-in hybrid car for the automotive market. We show that an early entry of the latter may block the arrival of hydrogen in the market

  3. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  4. Economy-wide Estimates of the Implications of Climate Change - A Rejoinder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosello, F.; Roson, R.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    [Ackermann, F., Stanton, E., 2008-this issue. A comment on economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: human health. Ecological Economics. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.10.006] criticise our recent paper [Bosello, F., Roson, R., Tol, R.S.J., 2006. Economy-wide estimates of the

  5. 75 FR 36153 - Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds-Change In Business Address: American Economy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable On Federal Bonds--Change In Business Address: American Economy Insurance Company; American Fire and Casualty Company; American States... ADDRESS'' as follows: American Economy Insurance Company (NAIC 19690). BUSINESS ADDRESS: 500 North...

  6. The changes in running economy during puberty in overweight and normal weight boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: running economy (RE is important indicator of endurance performance. During puberty dynamic changes in body composition and function are observed, as such RE is also expected to change. The aim of the study was to compare the running economy (RE in overweight and normoweight boys during a running exercise performed with constant velocity, and the assessment of changes in RE during puberty.

  7. FUNDAMENTAL ECONOMIC STRUCTURE AND STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN REGIONAL ECONOMIES: A METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir K. THAKUR

    2011-01-01

    Regional economic structure is defined as the composition and patterns of various components of the regional economy such as: produc-tion, employment, consumption, trade, and gross regional product. Structur-al change is conceptualized as the change in relative importance of the aggregate indicators of the economy. The process of regional development and structural change are intertwined, implying as economic development takes place the strength and direction of intersectoral relationships ch...

  8. Changes in Global Economy Influencing the Maritime Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grama Izabella Gilda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The world economic situation has brightened in 2010. However, multiple risks threaten to undermine the prospects of a sustained recovery and a stable world economy – including sovereign debt problems in many developed regions, and fiscal austerity. These risks are further magnified by the extraordinary shocks that have occurred in 2011, which have included natural disasters and political unrest, as well as rising and volatile energy and commodity prices. Given that for shipping, all stands and falls with worldwide macroeconomic conditions, the developments in world seaborne trade mirrored the performance of the wider economy. After contracting in 2009, international shipping experienced an upswing in demand in 2010, and recorded a positive turnaround in seaborne trade volumes especially in the dry bulk and container trade segments. However, the outlook remains fragile, as seaborne trade is subject to the same uncertainties and shocks that face the world economy. This paper highlights some developments that are currently affecting maritime transport and have the potential to deeply reshape the landscape of international shipping and seaborne trade.

  9. Structural changes in the Czech, Slovak and euro area economies during the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrz Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to identify and compare the most important changes in the structure of the Czech economy, as a small open economy with independent monetary policy, the Slovak economy, as a small open economy that entered monetary union, and the economy of the euro area, which has a common monetary policy, during the turbulent period of the Great Recession, the subsequent anaemic recovery and recent disinflationary period. Structural changes are identified with the help of nonlinear dynamic stochastic models of general equilibrium with time-varying parameters. The model parameters are estimated using Bayesian methods and a nonlinear particle filter. The results confirm the similarity of the Czech and Slovak economies and show that in certain respects the structure of the Czech economy might be closer to that of the euro area than that of Slovakia. The time-varying estimates reveal many similarities between the parameter changes in the Czech economy and those in the euro area. In Slovakia, the situation during the Great Recession was dominated by the country’s adoption of the euro, which caused large deviations in its Calvo parameters.

  10. The Structural Changes in the Economy of Ukraine and its Energy Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with an analysis of structural changes in the economy of Ukraine in view of energy intensity of types of economic activity (TEA. On considering the main tendencies of development of Ukraine’s economy in 2000 – 2015, it has been proved that, unlike the world economy, its development is of more unevenly nature. In order to research structural changes in the domestic economy in the period from 2000 to 2015, the methodical approach consisting of a number of interconnected stages has been proposed. Using this approach: the structure of economy of Ukraine by TEA has been analyzed, the classification and structure of the TEA distribution by their importance have been suggested; the dynamics of TEA of Ukraine have been analyzed, the classification and structure of distribution of Ukraine’s TEA by dynamics of development has been proposed; a matrix of positioning of the TEA of Ukraine in the plane of «proportion – rate of change» has been built; the values have been calculated and directions of structural changes of TEA in economy of Ukraine have been defined; a characterization of the TEA of economy of Ukraine as to the degree of materiality of structural shift has been formed; the integral coefficients of structural shifts in economy for the studied period have been calculated; the classification of the TEA of Ukraine according to the level of energy intensity has been developed, the structure of economy by the energy intensity groups has been presented; the indices have been calculated and directions of structural shifts of groups with different energy intensity of TEA have been determined; the integral coefficients of structural shift of economy due to the groups of TEA with different energy intensity have been calculated; the general characterization of structural shifts of the TEA of Ukraine in 2000 – 2015 has been formed.

  11. From Ownership to Access: How the Sharing Economy is Changing the Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Mihail Barbu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Promoting the principles of circular economy and the new business models advocated by the circular economy can represent a solution for a more prosperous society, less dependent on primary and energy resources and more environmentally friendly. The sharing economy, which primarily involves the transformation of traditional market behaviors into collaborative consumption models, that ensure a more efficient and sustainable use of resources, is part of the circular economy and has generated business models that are compatible with it. This article discusses the possibility for the sharing economy to bring about profound changes in consumer behavior towards products and services and to highlight the factors that drive consumers’ shift towards the sharing economy. For this purpose we developed and tested a model in which the change in consumer mindset has as the main direct determinants the satisfaction with the services of the sharing economy and the intention to access such products and services. The study uses data collected through a questionnaire, applied to a sample of 320 customers of Uber – a symbol of the sharing economy, and processed using structural equation modelling. Research results show that there are premises for switching to an access-based consumption model

  12. Understanding rapid internationalization of new low-technology ventures from emerging economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    This theory-building study makes an attempt to advance the field of international entrepreneurship that is (i) fragmented and suffers from theoretical paucity, as well as from coverage bias by focusing mostly on high-technology international new ventures from developed economies and (ii) that needs...

  13. The Political Economy of Health Co-Benefits: Embedding Health in the Climate Change Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Annabelle Workman; Grant Blashki; Kathryn J. Bowen; David J. Karoly; John Wiseman

    2018-01-01

    A complex, whole-of-economy issue such as climate change demands an interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral response. However, evidence suggests that human health has remained elusive in its influence on the development of ambitious climate change mitigation policies for many national governments, despite a recognition that the combustion of fossil fuels results in pervasive short- and long-term health consequences. We use insights from literature on the political economy of health and climate chan...

  14. Public health in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I. Andreeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several months in 2013 and 2014 have been a hardly predictable time in Ukraine, and the situation is still far from being stable. This made the editorial team of TCPHEE based in Ukraine postpone publishing consecutive issues. However, while the situation still requires practical steps, many aspects including those related to public health require analysis and debate. Thus we invite opinion pieces and studies addressing all different spheres of how public health should function under changing social circumstances. There might be a wide range of such related topics. The most obvious ones are those linked to changing living conditions. Many studies have been undertaken and published with regard to health threats to refugees, people involved in natural or technical disasters (Noji, 2005. Along with environmental health threats, there might be mental health disturbances (World Health Organization, 1992 resulting from long-term strain, losses et cetera. Another important focus is related to changes in health services provision. Crimea, which is a former Ukrainian territory now occupied by the Russian Federation, was among those in Ukraine highly affected with HIV (Dehne, Khodakevich, Hamers, & Schwartlander, 1999. This was responded by several NGOs actively providing harm reduction services to high-risk groups along with methadone substitution therapy to opiate users and antiretroviral medicines to those HIV-infected (Curtis, 2010. However, there are news reports that Russia is going to stop provision of methadone (kommersant.ru, 2014. As opiate substitution programs have been shown an effective approach towards preventing HIV transmission among people who inject drugs (MacArthur et al., 2012, such change in public health policies might affect not only most at risk populations but their partners and population as a whole as well resulting in a rapid spread of HIV. Yet another related topic is that of how health services can be organized at times of

  15. Energy intensity developments in 40 major economies: Structural change or technology improvement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Sebastian; De Cian, Enrica; Schymura, Michael; Verdolini, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes energy intensity trends and drivers in 40 major economies using the WIOD database, a novel harmonized and consistent dataset of input–output table time series accompanied by environmental satellite data. We use logarithmic mean Divisia index decomposition to (1) attribute efficiency changes to either changes in technology or changes in the structure of the economy, (2) study trends in global energy intensity between 1995 and 2007, and (3) highlight sectoral and regional differences. For the country analysis we apply the traditional two factor index decomposition approach, while for the global analysis we use a three factor decomposition which includes the consideration of regional structural changes in the global economy. We first show that heterogeneity within each sector across countries is high. These general trends within sectors are dominated by large economies, first and foremost the United States. In most cases, heterogeneity is lower within each country across the different sectors. Regarding changes of energy intensity at the country level, improvements between 1995 and 2007 are largely attributable to technological change while structural change is less important in most countries. Notable exceptions are Japan, the United States, Australia, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil where a change in the industry mix was the main driver behind the observed energy intensity reduction. At the global level we find that despite a shift of the global economy to more energy-intensive countries, aggregate energy efficiency improved mostly due to technological change

  16. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  17. Changing disease profile and preventive health care in India: Issues of economy, equity and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Kaneez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of preventive health care practices has increasingly been recognized in the wake of changing disease profile in India. The disease burden has been shifting from communicable to non-communicable diseases as a result of greater focus on achieving competitiveness in a fast globalizing economy. The rapid pace of social and technological changes has led to adverse life style choices resulting in higher incidence of heart diseases, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and deteriorating inter-personal relations and psychological well-being among individuals. Most of these health risks can considerably be reduced through disseminating science-based information on health promotion and disease prevention including exercise, nutrition, smoking and tobacco cessation, immunization, counseling, fostering good habits of health and hygiene, disease screening and preventive medicine. Prior evidences indicate that preventive health interventions can improve health outcomes in a great deal. In a regressive health delivery system of India where major health expenses on curative health is met by out-of-pocket money, preventive health services hold promise to be cost efficient, clinically effective and equity promoting. This article, therefore, examines in depth the issues and prospects of preventive and promotive health care services in realizing optimum health care needs of the people.

  18. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  19. Economy, policy and climatic change: skeptics are right?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, C.

    2008-01-01

    A degree of scepticism about the present apocalyptic forecast on damaging climate change might be in order and one does not have to be a climate change denier. On a cooler view of climate change, a more constructive approach would be to recognize the huge uncertainties that exist and to seek flexible means of dealing with problems that may arise. A direct and centralized government action seems not very convincing. On contrary, well functioning markets will produce efficient and flexible solutions. [it

  20. A change in a competitive economy with indivisible commodities

    OpenAIRE

    Takayuki Oishi; Shin Sakaue

    2008-01-01

    We consider the relationship between a traditional competitive market and a competitive market with middlemen for trading indivisible commodities. We demonstrate that existence of many homogeneous middlemen leads to a change from the market with middlemen to the bilateral market.

  1. Legitimacy Gaps and Everyday Institutional Change in Interwar British Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    be legitimated by non-elites and how their everyday actions alter policy paths established in crisis. This is illustrated by re-examining a case frequently associated with punctuated equilibrium theories of crisis and institutional change: interwar Britain. In contrast to conventional explanations, I argue......Who drives domestic institutional change in the face of international economic crisis? For rationalists the answer is powerful self-interested actors who struggle for material gains during an exogenously generated crisis. For economic constructivists it is ideational entrepreneurs who use ideas...... as weapons to establish paths for institutional change during crisis-driven uncertainty. Both approaches are elite-centric and conceive legitimacy as established by command or proclamation. This article establishes why domestic institutional change in response to international economic constraints must...

  2. Modify and Adapt: Global Higher Education in a Changing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth E. Lane; Pamela Lemoine; Tina M. Tinney; Michael D. Richardson

    2014-01-01

    The combinations of global networking and digital delivery have intense repercussions for higher education administrators who confront a magnitude of opportunities and challenges as the result of the digital revolution. Much of the reaction to technological change comes from those with a vested interest in either wholesale change or maintaining the status quo. Taking the resilience metaphor from ecology, the authors propose a framework for analyzing an institution's ability to adapt to digita...

  3. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Rapid Land Cover Change provides data and information on global and regional land cover change in raster format for...

  4. Economy of climatic change. From mitigation to adaptation policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, N.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change adaptation policies are the subject of this thesis. It has been showed that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) and the response strategies construction are characteristic of a pollutionist approach. This approach led to envision the question of climate change as a classic pollution and environment issue. As a result, this approach has generated a double bias to the disadvantage of adaptation compared to mitigation policies: adaptation has been confined in a secondary and marginal role in climate policies structuring, and with an inoperative conceptual and methodological framework for its implementation. The thesis proposes a deconstruction of this climate change conceptualization. Moreover, the major limits that characterize mitigation policies call into question the predominance given to them in climate policies construction. The 'pollutionist' approach deconstruction allows at first to show that adaptation policies definition and operationalization need to go beyond (i) the standard analytic framework of climate policies and, (ii) the climate change conceptualization as a classic pollution and environment management issue. The thesis then argues that adaptation has to be integrated in development promoting policies, which means that adaptation needs to be conceptualized no longer as an ad hoc management of pollution effects issue, but as a development issue. Whether in the proper context of adaptation policies, or more largely of climate policies, the thesis leaves open the questions of the viability, but also of the organization and financing modalities, of a climate regime which fits within development promoting. (author)

  5. Into the Green Economy – Evolutionary Perspectives on Green Economic Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    The recent ‘greening’ of the economy represents possible one of the most profound examples of economic change. While the environment used to be considered a burden to business this perspec-tive has changed making ‘eco-innovation’ increasingly recognized as a driver of economic devel-opment. Evolu......The recent ‘greening’ of the economy represents possible one of the most profound examples of economic change. While the environment used to be considered a burden to business this perspec-tive has changed making ‘eco-innovation’ increasingly recognized as a driver of economic devel...... of the greening of industry and the economy is of interest because of the focus on the fundamental social and economic difficulties of changing direction in technology. Defining the greening of the economy as a techno-economic paradigm change the paper suggests expanding on Perez’s framework (Perez, 1983, 2000...... problem solving, and simultaneously, the emergence of new green selection criteria on the market. These lead to a series of interrelated eco-innovations, which gain still more force as the green market matures. In the search for the origins of paradigmatic changes, the paper suggests to focus...

  6. Are rapid changes in brain elasticity possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, K. J.

    2017-09-01

    Elastography of the brain is a topic of clinical and preclinical research, motivated by the potential for viscoelastic measures of the brain to provide sensitive indicators of pathological processes, and to assist in early diagnosis. To date, studies of the normal brain and of those with confirmed neurological disorders have reported a wide range of shear stiffness and shear wave speeds, even within similar categories. A range of factors including the shear wave frequency, and the age of the individual are thought to have a possible influence. However, it may be that short term dynamics within the brain may have an influence on the measured stiffness. This hypothesis is addressed quantitatively using the framework of the microchannel flow model, which derives the tissue stiffness, complex modulus, and shear wave speed as a function of the vascular and fluid network in combination with the elastic matrix that comprise the brain. Transformation rules are applied so that any changes in the fluid channels or the elastic matrix can be mapped to changes in observed elastic properties on a macroscopic scale. The results are preliminary but demonstrate that measureable, time varying changes in brain stiffness are possible simply by accounting for vasodynamic or electrochemical changes in the state of any region of the brain. The value of this preliminary exploration is to identify possible mechanisms and order-of-magnitude changes that may be testable in vivo by specialized protocols.

  7. The Impact of Regional and Sectoral Productivity Changes on the U.S. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caliendo, Lorenzo; Parro, Fernando; Rossi-Hansberg, Esteban; Sarte, Pierre-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of regional and sectoral productivity changes on the U.S. economy. To that end, we consider an environment that captures the effects of interregional and intersectoral trade in propagating disaggregated productivity changes at the level of a sector in a given U.S. state to the rest of the economy. The quantitative model we develop features pairwise interregional trade across all 50 U.S. states, 26 traded and non-traded industries, labor as a mobile factor, and structures a...

  8. Pension decisions in a changing economy: gender, structure, and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, M A; Shuey, K

    2000-09-01

    As responsibility for financial security in retirement becomes more individualized, understanding the distribution and determinants of savings behavior grows in importance. Employed men and women often gain access to their pension assets when they change jobs. In this study gender differences in pre-retirement access to and disposition of accumulated pension assets are examined. The authors used data from the Health and Retirement Study to model pension participation, disposition of pension assets, and use of cash settlements derived from a pension plan in a previous job. Logit models provided estimates of gender differences in access to pensions and the preservation of pension funds for retirement. Women were less likely to have participated in employer-sponsored pension plans; more likely to cash out accumulated pension assets when they changed jobs; and, when job changes occurred at relatively young ages, equally likely to spend the settlement. However, by their late 40s, women were more likely to save the settlement, a net gender difference that increased with age at which the settlement was received. The structure of employment compensation continues to place women at a disadvantage. Gender differences in earnings and fringe benefits not only affect current financial status, but also cast a shadow over future financial security. Although the gender gap in pension coverage has been reduced, women with pensions have access to lower benefits and less in accumulated assets. As these continuing deficits are addressed, enhancing women's tendency to save pension assets for retirement can help them build financial security.

  9. Social psychiatry in a rapidly changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. J. Craig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many societies around the world are experiencing a period of unprecedented change in traditional social roles and customs. Globalisation has contributed to materialism and a me-first individualism that heightens awareness of income inequality that itself is one of the most robust markers of unhappiness in society. Ever increasing urbanisation has driven an erosion of large ‘joint’ family arrangements to be replaced by smaller and relatively isolated nuclear families and single parent living. Mass migration has unmasked deep seated fear and prejudice towards the outsider in society. These global changes are fertile ground for the social conditions that have long been known to be risks for mental illness – poverty, poor quality child care, social isolation and the active discrimination and exclusion of the alien, the physically disabled and mentally ill. While there is little we can do to reverse global change, there is much a social psychiatrist can do to mitigate the effect, ensuring his/her voice is added to other calls for reducing discriminatory practice, promoting evidence-based social interventions such as parenting advice and peer support and ensuring that the success of a treatment is measured not just in terms of symptomatic improvement but in whether it results in an outcome that is valued by the patient.

  10. ABOUT THE SECTORAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL STRUCTURAL CHANGES NECESSARY FOR THE MODERNIZATION OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Akaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of industry technological and structural changes on economic growth. It uses quantitative methods of structural changes evaluation by way of the Vatnik's proportionality constant as a means to analyze the dynamics of quality of sectoral and technological structures of the economies of Russia and several OECD countries. The comparative analysis shows that both the sectoral and technological structure of Russian economy is far from the optimal balanced structure of the OECD most developed countries' economies. It follows that Russian economy needs fundamental structural reform.Hence, the paper discusses the need for active industrial policy that can give impetus to the technological modernization of the Russian economy and facilitate its transition to the path of sustainable dynamic growth. The metallurgical, chemical and pharmaceutical industries are identified as priority sectors in industrial manufacturing. The paper analyzes condition and prospects of these industries and formulates medium-term goals of development and modernization, which can become reference points in the formation of a new sector-based industrial policy.

  11. Rapidly changing flows in the Earth's core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Mandea, M.

    2008-01-01

    A large part of the Earth's magnetic field is generated by fluid motion in the molten outer core(1). As a result of continuous satellite measurements since 1999, the core magnetic field and its recent variations can now be described with a high resolution in space and time(2). These data have...... field occurring over only a few months, indicative of fluid flow at the top of the core, can in fact be resolved. Using nine years of magnetic field data obtained by satellites as well as Earth-based observatories, we determine the temporal changes in the core magnetic field and flow in the core. We...

  12. PRINCIPLES OF MARKET ECONOMY AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE RUSSIAN INSTRUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Voronina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with result analysis of incoming of native instrument making into market economy. Reasons of dramatically worsening of many of enterprises condition and factors that are putting obstacles to its improvement are shown. Also variants of competiveness increasing ofRussian instruments are considered taking in account possible structure changes in its sphere.

  13. My Morning Coffee: The Effect of Climate Change on the Economies of Coffee-Producing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilling, K.; Brauman, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Through its effect on export crops, climate change will have important effects on economic systems and government capacity in sub-Saharan Africa. We show that climate change effects on three important export crops - coffee, cocoa and cotton - will undermine large portions of the economy, not just the rural farmers who grow these crops. Our analysis is based high-resolution data on crop location, temperature, and water requirements in conjunction with new projections for temperature increases and precipitation changes in sub-Saharan Africa. Our focus on export crops is distinct from most work on the effects of climate change on agriculture, which often focuses on subsistence and food crops. We posit that substantial and important effects on the economy and political systems will come from negative impacts on cash crops, which underpin many economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, 3% of cropland in Uganda (and 2% in Ethiopia) is used for coffee production and over 3.5 million households are involved in the sector; by contrast, 7% of cropland in Uganda (and 11% in Ethiopia) is used for maize, which contributes much less to the formal economy. The relationship between the value of coffee exported and government revenue illustrates the importance of coffee to political and economic stability. A drop in the export value of coffee by 10% in Uganda will drive government revenue down by 20%, and while there is uncertainty around the exact impact of climate change, it is likely that production will take a turn for the worse. We use these factors to assess reliance of select country's economy on these crops, from the farmer to the exporter; the sensitivity of the crops to variation in the climate; and the subsequent impact on government capacity. Our research illustrates how strongly the impacts of climate change are linked to economic and political structures.

  14. Changing the paradigm of management of innovative activity in the conditions of transformation of economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Lukina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the approaches to the development of innovation management as a management type from the traditional management, represented by Taylor's, A. Fayolle, G. Hemelom and others. There was a connection transformation of the economy and changes in the management of enterprises, aimed at the competitiveness of the market. Under the terms of the transformation of the economy the author has in mind the following factors: the knowledge economy and the new economy, forecastng and strategic planning at the enterprise and the economy in general, mass marketing and the development of global markets, non-stop process of development of knowledge, forming goal of a competitive economy. Under the innovative activity of the author understands the system of creation, dissemination and use of new types of products, actively or market, providing competitive state of the enterprise. Abstract Innovational management stages: the classic theory justifying the application of new knowledge in organizations, transforming them into new products, management by objectives, technology development and cost reduction, human capital theory, management personnel training school. Emphasizes the principles of school education, such as the complexity and unpredictability of the environment, the impossibility of planning control, since it must be continuously updated study is necessary to all the staff, including managers as a potential strategy, learning involves retrospektive thinking, allows us to analyze the previous steps organization. Abstract forms of knowledge are needed in innovation in the transformation of the economy: group, individual, and others, be implied in the innovation process. In addition, a group distinguished knowledge in the innovation of the type of trainin g, according to the method of scientific activities, as well as sources of information.

  15. Rapid Communication: seniority changing transitions in yrast states ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bhoomika Maheshwari

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... Rapid Communication: v = 2 seniority changing ... has been extensively used to understand various system- .... states. This understanding supports the previous inter- ..... Financial support from the Ministry of Human Resource.

  16. Women in Physics in a Rapidly Changing China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling-An

    2008-03-01

    Despite the upheavals of the 20th century, physics managed to survive quite well in China, where the first woman president of the American Physical Society was born and bred. During the 1950s as a result of policies that emphasized science and engineering, declared equal rights and equal pay for men and women, and assigned jobs to college graduates irrespective of sex, the number of women in physics increased rapidly, many of whom made notable achievements. Since China's opening up over the last thirty years tremendous changes have taken place, and women now face new opportunities as well as challenges in all aspects of society. Whereas physics used to be regarded as the most elite of the sciences, new fields such as computer science, biotechnology and business are now competing for the best students. Compared with other countries the statistics are not bad; in schools and many physics departments the ratio of women teachers may be 30% or higher, but the numbers drop drastically with rank. Moreover, in some research institutions the ratio of female physicists is actually declining, due to retirement of the older generation and fewer successors. Compulsory retirement for women at an earlier age than for men is also a new factor. Conversely, in recent years the ratio of female graduate students enrolling in physics has increased, even reaching 40% in some universities. However, the reasons for this do not bode well: men are not performing so well as women in entrance exams, while the latter are facing increasing discrimination in employment so they have to seek higher degree qualifications. With the further development of China's economy there will be abundant demand for qualified personnel including women with a physics background. It is imperative to actively support the upcoming generation of women physicists and not lose them in the leaky pipeline. The Chinese Physical Society has taken certain positive steps, such as the recent establishment of the Xie Xi

  17. Measuring structural change and energy use. Decomposition of the US economy from 1997 to 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    The steadily increasing focus on energy production and consumption has led to growing research attention to patterns of energy use within economies. Of particular interest has been comparing the driving forces of increasing efficiency and economic structural change. Input-output analysis (IOA) and decomposition analysis have become critical tools for performing such analyses. This study analyzes aggregate energy use in the United States in 1997 and 2002 to discover the causes of changing energy usage and flows. Results show that rising population and household consumption acted to drive up energy demand, but this driving force was offset by considerable structural change within the economy, particularly related to a quickly increasing trade deficit in manufacturing goods. Thus, while total energy intensity, the ratio of energy use to economic output, declined by approximately 12% between 1997 and 2002, changes in the structure of the economy explain this drop more than increased energy efficiency. The level of aggregation at which decomposition analyses are run was identified as a crucially sensitive parameter for the determination of structural change, and future studies should specifically address the amount of detail necessary to adequately measure changes in economic structure. (author)

  18. Building a "National Civilization" at Home and Abroad: International Students and Changing U.S. Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Fanta

    2011-01-01

    The research study examines the relationship of international students to changing U.S. political economy. The research attempts to move international students from the periphery to the center of understanding the changing U.S. political economy in the twenty-first century. I argue that international students play an important role in building a…

  19. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Carl Folke; Nick Abel; William C. Clark; Per Olsson; D. Mark Stafford Smith; Brian Walker; Oran R. Young; Fikret Berkes; Reinette Biggs; J. Morgan Grove; Rosamond L. Naylor; Evelyn Pinkerton; Will Steffen; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses...

  20. Integrated resource planning in the power sector and economy-wide changes in environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Marpaung, Charles O.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the roles of key factors (i.e., changes in structure, fuel mix and final demand) on total economy-wide changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions when power sector development follows the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach instead of traditional supply-based electricity planning (TEP). It also considers the rebound effect (RE) of energy efficiency improvements in the demand side and analyzes the sensitivity of the results to variations in the values of the RE. A framework is developed to decompose the total economy-wide change in the emission of a pollutant into four major components, i.e., structural change-, fuel mix- , final demand- and joint-effects. The final demand effect is further decomposed into three categories, i.e., construction of power plants, electricity final demand and final demand related to electricity using equipments. The factor decomposition framework is then applied in the case of the power sector in Indonesia. A key finding in the case of Indonesia is that in the absence of the RE, there would be total economy-wide reductions in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions of 431, 1.6 and 1.3 million tons respectively during the planning horizon of 2006-2025 under IRP as compared to that under TEP. The decomposition analysis shows that the final demand effect would account for 38% of the total CO 2 emission reduction followed by the structural change effect (35.1%) and fuel mix effect (27.6%) while the joint effect is negligible. The study also shows that economy-wide CO 2 emission reduction due to IRP considering the RE of 45% would be 241 million tons as compared to 333 million tons when the RE is 25%

  1. Integrated resource planning in the power sector and economy-wide changes in environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, Ram M.; Marpaung, Charles O.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the roles of key factors (i.e., changes in structure, fuel mix and final demand) on total economy-wide changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions when power sector development follows the integrated resource planning (IRP) approach instead of traditional supply-based electricity planning (TEP). It also considers the rebound effect (RE) of energy efficiency improvements in the demand side and analyzes the sensitivity of the results to variations in the values of the RE. A framework is developed to decompose the total economy-wide change in the emission of a pollutant into four major components, i.e., structural change-, fuel mix- , final demand- and joint-effects. The final demand effect is further decomposed into three categories, i.e., construction of power plants, electricity final demand and final demand related to electricity using equipment. The factor decomposition framework is then applied in the case of the power sector in Indonesia. A key finding in the case of Indonesia is that in the absence of the RE, there would be total economy-wide reductions in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions of 431, 1.6 and 1.3 million tons respectively during the planning horizon of 2006-2025 under IRP as compared to that under TEP. The decomposition analysis shows that the final demand effect would account for 38% of the total CO 2 emission reduction followed by the structural change effect (35.1%) and fuel mix effect (27.6%) while the joint effect is negligible. The study also shows that economy-wide CO 2 emission reduction due to IRP considering the RE of 45% would be 241 million tons as compared to 333 million tons when the RE is 25%. (Author)

  2. Rethinking species’ ability to cope with rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hof, Christian; Levinsky, Irina; Bastos Araujo, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing climate change is assumed to be exceptional because of its unprecedented velocity. However, new geophysical research suggests that dramatic climatic changes during the Late Pleistocene occurred extremely rapid, over just a few years. These abrupt climatic changes may have been even faster...... than contemporary ones, but relatively few continent-wide extinctions of species have been documented for these periods. This raises questions about the ability of extant species to adapt to ongoing climate change. We propose that the advances in geophysical research challenge current views about...... species' ability to cope with climate change, and that lessons must be learned for modelling future impacts of climate change on species....

  3. Institutional Change and Governance Indexes in Transition Economies: the case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Tridico

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the former communist countries, institutional change, i.e. transition towards market economy, is affected not only by introduction of law and formal institutions (change "by design", but also by social norms, old values and habits (informal institutions. I present an empirical paper focusing on transition of the Polish Economy. I used a questionnaire which was administered to a sample of about 1000 Polish firms in order to verify the impact of economic institutions on the "residual productivity". Throughout the questionnaire I built six governance indexes. Then I tested the impact of the governance indexes on the productivity of firms. I observed that the economic performance of the eastern regions of Poland, where governance indexes are worse than western, are poorer than that of the western regions of Poland

  4. Cultivating New Directions: The Changing Role of Tobacco in North Carolina's Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Kurtzman, Rachel; Golden, Shelley D; Kong, Amanda Y; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2018-01-01

    Citing potential economic harm to the state, the tobacco industry has a history of opposing tobacco control efforts in North Carolina. This commentary discusses the changing role of tobacco in North Carolina's economy, argues that tobacco control causes little economic harm to the state, and explores development of alternative industries. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning Dynamics in Transformational Change: A Study of Workforce Behavior in the Developing Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Majid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Organizational and individual learning are two different concepts in contemporaryorganizational theory. Organizational learning is a difficult concept which needs to be furtherelucidated for organizational practitioner at actual work setting; especially in the developingcountries like Pakistan. This paper reviews the literature on organizational learning intransformational change, and the comparative learning processes in the developed anddeveloping economies. Furthermore, we are dealing here with the proposed learning cycle instrategic change process with special reference to the developing countries.Keywords: Learning cycle, Transformational change, Innovation, Learning Dynamics

  6. World trade organization and structural changes in economy of a region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Davidovna Vasman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the research dedicated to the probable consequences of Russian entry to WTO are represented. Based on the analysis of the opposite points of view, it is shown that changes depend more on the economic situation in the country and not on the entry itself. The series of negative starting characteristics of Russian economy is noticed. Among those are the significant spatial differentiation of particular regions and the disproportion of the regional development. It also noted that Russian entry to WTO may deepen this disproportion. The prognosis of economic structural changes is proposed to implement in the two fields: in the traditional economic sector and the field of the knowledge-based economy. The method was developed for determining the first field of prognosis, which approbation confirmed the probable declining trend in traditional economic sectors. The task considering the second field was solved on the basis of the research in technology and innovation capital transformation processes on the example of two groups of countries: already WTO members but still developing countries and developing countries beyond WTO. The results of the research show the WTO entry neutral influence on structural changes in the knowledge-based economy.

  7. Is technological change biased toward energy? A multi-sectoral analysis for the French economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Yeddir-Tamsamani, Yasser

    2010-01-01

    Since the adoption and implementation of new technologies has an important influence on the structure and performance of the economy in both developed and developing countries, many research papers are devoted to the technology-economy nexus. Motivated by the fact that the impact of technical progress on the demand for different production factors may vary depending on the bias of the technological change, in this paper, by estimating a translog cost-share system and using state-space modeling technique, we investigate to what extent the direction of technical change is biased toward energy and away from other factors. By applying this methodology to the French economy for the period 1978-2006 the obtained results suggest that: first, technical change has a non-neutral impact on factor demands; second, capital-saving technical progress is present in the majority of the sectors studied; third, energy demand has increased in all sectors but electricity and gas. These findings may have important policy implications for environmental and energy issues in France.

  8. The Political Economy of Health Co-Benefits: Embedding Health in the Climate Change Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Bowen, Kathryn J.; Karoly, David J.; Wiseman, John

    2018-01-01

    A complex, whole-of-economy issue such as climate change demands an interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral response. However, evidence suggests that human health has remained elusive in its influence on the development of ambitious climate change mitigation policies for many national governments, despite a recognition that the combustion of fossil fuels results in pervasive short- and long-term health consequences. We use insights from literature on the political economy of health and climate change, the science–policy interface and power in policy-making, to identify additional barriers to the meaningful incorporation of health co-benefits into climate change mitigation policy development. Specifically, we identify four key interrelated areas where barriers may exist in relation to health co-benefits: discourse, efficiency, vested interests and structural challenges. With these insights in mind, we argue that the current politico-economic paradigm in which climate change is situated and the processes used to develop climate change mitigation policies do not adequately support accounting for health co-benefits. We present approaches for enhancing the role of health co-benefits in the development of climate change mitigation policies to ensure that health is embedded in the broader climate change agenda. PMID:29617317

  9. The Political Economy of Health Co-Benefits: Embedding Health in the Climate Change Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Bowen, Kathryn J; Karoly, David J; Wiseman, John

    2018-04-04

    A complex, whole-of-economy issue such as climate change demands an interdisciplinary, multi-sectoral response. However, evidence suggests that human health has remained elusive in its influence on the development of ambitious climate change mitigation policies for many national governments, despite a recognition that the combustion of fossil fuels results in pervasive short- and long-term health consequences. We use insights from literature on the political economy of health and climate change, the science–policy interface and power in policy-making, to identify additional barriers to the meaningful incorporation of health co-benefits into climate change mitigation policy development. Specifically, we identify four key interrelated areas where barriers may exist in relation to health co-benefits: discourse, efficiency, vested interests and structural challenges. With these insights in mind, we argue that the current politico-economic paradigm in which climate change is situated and the processes used to develop climate change mitigation policies do not adequately support accounting for health co-benefits. We present approaches for enhancing the role of health co-benefits in the development of climate change mitigation policies to ensure that health is embedded in the broader climate change agenda.

  10. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  11. Structural change of the economy, technological progress and long-term energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, H.

    2000-01-01

    The material included in the report is a collection of papers dealing with different issues related to the topics included in the title. Some of these papers have already either been published or presented at various conferences. Together with a general introduction, they constitute the author's PhD dissertation. The dissertation includes six papers and two shorter notes on different aspects of structural change of the economy and energy demand. Three different issues related to long-term energy demand are discussed: (1) the importance of technological change and its representation in energy-economy modelling, (2) an integration of two different modelling approaches, and (3) the effect on energy demand of structural changes exemplified by changes in the energy supply sector and in Danish trade patterns. The report highlights a few aspects of the interaction between structural economic changes and energy demand, but it does not intend to cover a wide range of issues related to these topics. In the introductory chapter some discussions and thoughts about issues not covered by the articles are brought forward. The introductory chapter includes an overview of possible relations between longterm energy demand and the economy, technical progress demography, social conditions and politics. The first two papers discuss the importance for projections of long-term energy demand of the way in which technological progress is modelled. These papers focus on energy-economy modelling. A paper dealing with two different approaches to energy demand modelling and the possible integration of these approaches in the Danish case follows next. The integrated Danish model, is then used for analysing different revenue recycling principles in relation to a CO 2 tax. The effect of subsidising biomass use is compared with recycling through corporate tax rates. Then a paper follows describing the structural change of a specific sector, namely the energy supply sector, and the implications for

  12. The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, N.; Surminski, S.

    2012-04-01

    Session ERE5.1 Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities The impact of climate change on the BRICS economies: The case of insurance demand. Over the past decade, growth in the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) economies has been a key driver of global economic growth. Current forecasts suggest that these markets will continue to be areas of significant growth for a large number of industries. We consider how climate change may influence these trends in the period to 2030, a time horizon that is long in terms of strategic planning in industry, but relatively short for climate change analysis, where the impacts are predicted to be most significant beyond around 2050. Based on current evidence, we expect climate change to affect the BRICS economies in four main ways: 1. The impact of physical climatic changes on the productivity of climate-sensitive economic activity, the local environment, human health and wellbeing, and damages from extreme weather. 2. Changing patterns of investment in climate risk management and adaptation 3. Changing patterns of investments in areas affected by greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation policy, 4. The impacts of the above globally, including on international trade, growth, investment, policy, migration and commodity prices, and their impacts on the BRICS. We review the evidence on the impacts of climate change in the BRICS and then apply this to one particular industry sector: non-life insurance. We propose five potential pathways through which climate change could influence insurance demand: economic growth; willingness to pay for insurance; public policy and regulation; the insurability of natural catastrophe risks; and new opportunities associated with adaptation and greenhouse gas mitigation. We conclude that, with the exception of public policy and regulation, the influence of climate change on insurance demand to 2030 is likely to be small when compared with the expected growth due to rising

  13. Method for producing rapid pH changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.H.; Campillo, A.J.; Shapiro, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

    A method of initiating a rapid pH change in a solution comprises irradiating the solution with an intense flux of electromagnetic radiation of a frequency which produces a substantial pK change to a compound in solution. To optimize the resulting pH change, the compound being irradiated in solution should have an excited state lifetime substantially longer than the time required to establish an excited state acid-base equilibrium in the solution. Desired pH changes can be accomplished in nanoseconds or less by means of picosecond pulses of laser radiation.

  14. Rapid Communication: v= 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 5. Rapid Communication: Δ υ = 2 seniority changing transitions in yrast 3 − states and B ( E 3 ) systematics of Sn isotopes. BHOOMIKA MAHESHWARI SWATI GARG ASHOK KUMAR JAIN. Research Article Volume 89 Issue 5 November 2017 Article ID 75 ...

  15. Climate change and sustainable energy: actions and transition to a lower carbon economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' This presentation will address climate change and transition to a lower carbon economy in general and the importance of sustainable energy in such initiatives. The talk has two main parts. In the first part, the presenter discuss why non-fossil fuel energy options, which are diverse and range from renewables through to nuclear energy, are needed to help humanity combat climate change and transition to a lower carbon economy. Such energy options reduce or eliminate emissions of greenhouse gases and thus often form the basis of sustainable energy solutions. Nonetheless, carbon dioxide capture and sequestration may allow fossil fuels to be less carbon emitting. Sustainable energy options are not sufficient for avoiding climate change, in that they are not necessarily readily utilizable in their natural forms. Hydrogen energy systems are needed to facilitate the use of non-fossil fuels by allowing them to be converted to two main classes of energy carriers: hydrogen and select hydrogen-derived fuels and electricity. As hydrogen is not an energy resource, but rather is an energy carrier that must be produced, it complements non-fossil energy sources, which often need to be converted into more convenient forms. In addition, high efficiency is needed to allow the greatest benefits to be attained from all energy options, including non-fossil fuel ones, in terms of climate change and other factors. Efficiency improvements efforts have many dimensions, including energy conservation, improved energy management, fuel substitution, better matching of energy carriers and energy demands, and more efficiency utilization of both energy quantity and quality. The latter two concepts are best considered via the use of exergy analysis, an advanced thermodynamic tool. In the second part of the presentation, actions to address climate change more generally and to help society transition to a lower carbon economy are described. The role of sustainable energy in this

  16. Change in running kinematics after cycling are related to alterations in running economy in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacci, Jason; Green, Daniel; Saunders, Philo U; Blanch, Peter; Franettovich, Melinda; Chapman, Andrew R; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that cycling may influence neuromuscular control during subsequent running but the relationship between altered neuromuscular control and run performance in triathletes is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine if a 45 min high-intensity cycle influences lower limb movement and muscle recruitment during running and whether changes in limb movement or muscle recruitment are associated with changes in running economy (RE) after cycling. RE, muscle activity (surface electromyography) and limb movement (sagittal plane kinematics) were compared between a control run (no preceding cycle) and a run performed after a 45 min high-intensity cycle in 15 moderately trained triathletes. Muscle recruitment and kinematics during running after cycling were altered in 7 of 15 (46%) triathletes. Changes in kinematics at the knee and ankle were significantly associated with the change in VO(2) after cycling (precruitment in some triathletes and that changes in kinematics, especially at the ankle, are closely related to alterations in running economy after cycling. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in energy intensiveness of Hong Kong economy, 1995-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Larry C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The growth of Primary Energy Requirements (PER) slackened appreciably since the late 1990s in Hong Kong while Final Energy Requirements (FER) actually declined. Yet GDP continued to grow at a respectable average annual growth rate during the period, leading to a drastic drop in the energy intensiveness of the economy. The article analyzed the factors that contributed to the emergence of the above phenomena and discussed its consequences. The factors that led to the drop in energy intensiveness with respect to FER includes the rising electrification of the fuel mix, improvements in energy end-use efficiency (partly induced by government policy), and changes in the structure of the Hong Kong economy. With respect to the decline in PER energy intensiveness, the following aspects are pertinent: the share of electricity consumption accounted for by nuclear imports, the efficiency of electricity generation in Hong Kong (partly determined by the type of fuels used) and losses due to transmission and distribution as well as station consumption (system losses). The decline in energy intensiveness is good to Hong Kong, both in terms of the economy and the environment. Its ramifications will be briefly discussed.

  18. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (pweight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  19. Malnutrition in a Modernising Economy: The Changing Aetiology and Epidemiology of Malnutrition in an African Kingdom, Buganda c.1940–73

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, John

    2016-01-01

    The ecological fecundity of the northern shore of Lake Victoria was vital to Buganda’s dominance of the interlacustrine region during the pre-colonial period. Despite this, protein-energy malnutrition was notoriously common throughout the twentieth century. This paper charts changes in nutritional illness in a relatively wealthy, food-secure area of Africa during a time of vast social, economic and medical change. In Buganda at least, it appears that both the causation and epidemiology of malnutrition moved away from the endemic societal causes described by early colonial doctors and became instead more defined by individual position within a rapidly modernising economy. PMID:26971598

  20. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  1. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  2. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO 2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  3. Communicating climate change – Learning from business: challenging values, changing economic thinking, innovating the low carbon economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kaesehage

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The risks and opportunities presented by climate change for Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs have been largely overlooked by previous research. The subsequent lack of knowledge in this field makes it difficult for SMEs to engage with climate change in a meaningful, profitable, and sustainable way. Further, current research cannot explain why SMEs rarely engage with climate change. We examine critically 30 SMEs, which engage with climate change knowledges and 5 Innovation-Support-Organizations (ISOs that communicate climate change knowledges. Over a three-year period we explore why and how these businesses approach the knowledge gap between climate change science and business practice, drawing on a variety of ethnographic research methods: (1 in-depth semi-structured and open interviews; (2 participant observations; and (3 practitioners’ workshops. The results demonstrate that business’ mitigation and adaptation strategies are lay-knowledge-dependent, derived from personal values, space, and place identity. To enhance the number of SMEs engaging with climate change, maximize the potential value of climate change for the econo- my and establish a low carbon economy, climate change communication needs to target personal values of business leaders. The message should highlight local impacts of climate change, the benefits of engagement to (the local society and economy, and possible financial benefits for the business. Climate change communication therefore needs to go beyond thinking about potential financial benefits and scientific evidence and challenge values, cultures, and beliefs to stimulate economic, political, and social frameworks that promote values-based decision-making.

  4. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  5. Climate change, economics and Buddhism. Part 2. New views and practices for sustainable world economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Peter L. [Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University, Brisbane, 4111 (Australia)

    2010-03-15

    The evidence of impending and serious climate and other consequences of an expanding world economy based on fossil carbon energy continues to accumulate. This two-part paper examines the potential contribution of the world view and insights of Buddhism to this search. It presents both a conceptual and practical case that Buddhism can help shape and move towards an alternative and effective paradigmatic basis for sustainable economies - one capable of bringing about and maintaining genuine, high welfare levels across the world's societies. The first paper outlined a comprehensive analytical framework to identify the fundamental nature of anthropogenic climate change. Based on the integration of two of the most influential environmental analysis tools of recent decades (the DPSIR model and IPAT equation), the framework was then broadened to facilitate ideas from the Buddhist world view by injecting two key missing aspects - the interrelated role of (1) beliefs and values (on goals and behavior) and (2) the nature of well-being or human happiness. Finally, the principal linkages between this climate change analysis framework and Buddhism were explored. In this concluding paper, the systems framework is used to demonstrate how Buddhist and related world views can feed into appropriate and effective responses to the impending challenges of climate change. This is undertaken by systematically presenting a specific, if indicative, list of relevant strategies informed by the understanding of interconnectedness and other basic principles about the nature of reality and human well-being as proposed in Buddhism. (author)

  6. ECONOMETRIC MODELLING OD THE INFLUENCE OF LAKE WATER QUALITY CHANGES ON FISHING ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Antoni Ramczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The econometric model can be a precise instrument for the analysis of the impact of the natural environment's degradation on fishing economy. This paper aims at analysing the influence of the water quality changes in lake Charzykowskie on the fishing economy. This dissertation present the results of a research on the lake water pollution's impact on fishing economy. The economic-ecological models have been constructed, explaining the changes of economic effects of the lake fishery in the conditions of an increasing water pollution in the epilimnion on the example of the catch of Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Coregonus albula, Coregonus lavaretus, Anguilla anguilla and Esox lucius in Lake Charzykowskie. Performed empirical research looked into the influence of the environmental factors on the size of fish catch. Calculations and analysis show clearly that though the habitat factors do influence the catch size of each studied fish species, they do it with different intensity and in various combinations. Both lake water quality and climate factors changes cause measurable effects on fishing industry of lake Charzykowskie. Among all the examined Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna the highest environmental requirements concerning water quality has Blicca bjoerkna. Whereas Abramis brama has slightly higher environmental requirements than Rutilus rutilus. Empirical calculations showed as well that Coregonus albula and Coregonus lavaretus have considerably higher water cleanness requirements than Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna. While when talking about Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna, most water characteristics still rather stimulated these species' development, when it comes to Coregonus albula and Coregonus lavaretus, in general they suppressed their development. The model has also proved quite high habitat requierements of Anquilla anquilla and correctness of the thesis that

  7. Perceptual classification in a rapidly-changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Summerfield, Christopher; Behrens, Timothy E.; Koechlin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Humans and monkeys can learn to classify perceptual information in a statistically optimal fashion if the functional groupings remain stable over many hundreds of trials, but little is known about categorisation when the environment changes rapidly. Here, we used a combination of computational modelling and functional neuroimaging to understand how humans classify visual stimuli drawn from categories whose mean and variance jumped unpredictably. Models based on optimal learning (Bayesian mode...

  8. How community-level social and economic developments have changed the patterns of substance use in a transition economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Y

    2017-07-01

    Most social changes take place at the community level before indirectly affecting individuals. Although the contextual effect is far-reaching, few studies have investigated the important questions of: how do community-level developments affect drinking and smoking, and how do they change the existing gender and income patterns of drinking and smoking, particularly in transition economies? In this study, I used a Chinese panel dataset between 1991 and 2011 to reveal the moderating effects of community developments. Through multilevel growth curve modeling that controls for age, period, and cohort effects, as well as individual- and community-level covariates, I found that community-level economic development and social development are negatively associated with drinking and smoking. Moreover, economic and social developments also moderate the important influences of income and gender: women start to drink more in communities with higher economic development; the traditionally positive association between income and smoking/drinking is also reversed, i.e. the rich start to smoke and drink less in communities with higher social development. This study concludes that the rapid changes in communal social and economic structures have created new health disparities based on the gender and socioeconomic hierarchy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Chinese experience of rapid modernization: sociocultural changes, psychological consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahong eSun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena.

  10. The Chinese Experience of Rapid Modernization: Sociocultural Changes, Psychological Consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahong; Ryder, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Mainland China has undergone profound changes dating back to the nineteenth century, including a contemporary period of rapid modernization that began in the 1980s. The result has been dramatic social, cultural, and economic shifts impacting the daily lives of Chinese people. In this paper, we explore the psychological implications of sociocultural transformation in China, emphasizing two central themes. First, rising individualism: findings from social and developmental psychology suggest that China’s rapid development has been accompanied by ever-increasing adherence to individualistic values. Second, rising rates of depression: findings from psychiatric epidemiology point to increasing prevalence of depression over this same time period, particularly in rural settings. We argue that links between sociocultural and psychological shifts in China can be usefully studied through a cultural psychology lens, emphasizing the mutual constitution of culture, mind, and brain. In particular, we note that the link between social change, individualism, and rising mental illness deserves careful attention. Our review suggests that shifting values and socialization practices shape emotion norms of concealment and display, with implications for depressive symptom presentation. The challenge comes with interpretation. Increasing prevalence rates of depression may indeed be a general response to the rapidity of sociocultural change, or a specific consequence of rising individualism—but may also result from increasingly ‘Western’ patterns of symptom presentation, or improvements in diagnostic practice. We conclude by considering the challenges posed to standard universal models of psychological phenomena. PMID:27092093

  11. Managing health care organizations in an age of rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, S; al-Alaiwat, S

    1998-03-01

    Health care managers find their work increasingly difficult, due in part to rapid environmental change that plagues organizational life. Management practices and attitudes that may have been appropriate in previous eras are ineffective today. A study was conducted among managers in the Ministry of Health, State of Bahrain, seeking information about current trends in the macro or external environment that affect the Ministry of Health, as well as internal environmental pressures that may be similar or different. This article provides a clear picture of the context in which managers perform their work and offers recommendations for coping with change in dynamic, complex organizations.

  12. Why the changing American economy calls for twenty-first century learning: answers to educators' questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Frank; Murnane, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    While struggling with the current pressures of educational reform, some educators will ask whether their efforts make economic sense. Questioning the future makeup of the nation's workforce, many wonder how the educational system should be tempered to better prepare today's youth. This chapter answers educators' and parents' questions around the effect of fluctuations in the American economy on the future of education. The authors offer reassurance that good jobs will always be available, but warn that those jobs will require a new level of skills: expert thinking and complex communication. Schools need to go beyond their current curriculum and prepare students to use reading, math, and communication skills to build a deeper and more thoughtful understanding of subject matter. To explain the implications of the nation's changing economy on jobs, technology, and therefore education, the authors address a range of vital questions. Citing occupational distribution data, the chapter explores the supply and range of jobs in the future, as well as why changes in the U.S. job distribution have taken place. As much of the explanation for the shift in job distribution over the past several decades is due to the computerization of the workforce, the authors discuss how computers will affect the future composition of the workforce. The chapter also addresses the consequences of educational improvement on earnings distribution. The authors conclude that beyond workforce preparedness, students need to learn how to be contributing members of a democracy.

  13. Middle Holocene rapid environmental changes and human adaptation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespez, Laurent; Glais, Arthur; Lopez-Saez, José-Antonio; Le Drezen, Yann; Tsirtsoni, Zoï; Davidson, Robert; Biree, Laetitia; Malamidou, Dimitra

    2016-03-01

    Numerous researchers discuss of the collapse of civilizations in response to abrupt climate change in the Mediterranean region. The period between 6500 and 5000 cal yr BP is one of the least studied episodes of rapid climate change at the end of the Late Neolithic. This period is characterized by a dramatic decline in settlement and a cultural break in the Balkans. High-resolution paleoenvironmental proxy data obtained in the Lower Angitis Valley enables an examination of the societal responses to rapid climatic change in Greece. Development of a lasting fluvio-lacustrine environment followed by enhanced fluvial activity is evident from 6000 cal yr BP. Paleoecological data show a succession of dry events at 5800-5700, 5450 and 5000-4900 cal yr BP. These events correspond to incursion of cold air masses to the eastern Mediterranean, confirming the climatic instability of the middle Holocene climate transition. Two periods with farming and pastural activities (6300-5600 and 5100-4700 cal BP) are evident. The intervening period is marked by environmental changes, but the continuous occurrence of anthropogenic taxa suggests the persistence of human activities despite the absence of archaeological evidence. The environmental factors alone were not sufficient to trigger the observed societal changes.

  14. Sectoral and Territorial Changes in the Economy of the Stalingrad Region in 1940-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Alyaev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with historical, economic and geographical features of sectoral and territorial consequences of the impact of military actions on the national economy in the Stalingrad region. The authors consider approaches to the management of the economy of the RSFSR in the prewar and postwar periods, their peculiarities and differences. The elements of monitoring the accounting of destruction caused by the military actions in sectoral and territorial aspects are identified. The use of archival sources, including the archives introduced into academic circulation for the first time, allows to investigate the reduction in the most important indicators of industrial production and agriculture of the region for the period of 1940–1943. In particular, the dynamics of production volumes at the industrial sites of the region, the number of people employed in the industry with specific companies during 1941–1943 were studied. The special attention is paid to such key parameters of agricultural production as acreage, the number of working and productive livestock. Territorial differences in the changes of agricultural production in administrative districts in 1940–1946 are identified. The effect of mobilization of men and equipment to the agricultural productivity is studied. Based on statistical reports, the extent of damage to educational institutions and health care is determined. The main indicators of socio-economic status of urban and rural population in comparison with the prewar period (taking into account monetary and natural income residents of the region are analyzed. Special attention is also paid to the study of the impact of military operations on the railway and vehicular transport infrastructure, which had played a key role in the Victory of the Soviet troops at Stalingrad and in the postwar reconstruction of the national economy.

  15. On being a scientist in a rapidly changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, I D

    1996-02-01

    The practice of biological science has changed dramatically since mid-century, reshaped not only by a rapid series of landmark discoveries, but also by governmental directives, institutional policies, and public attitudes. Until 1964, the major influences were the mentor, who provided direction and indoctrination into the culture of science, and in dentistry, the newly established NIDR, which fueled the research engine with an expanding research and training program. The 1965-74 period witnessed the advent of the Institutional Review Board, an increased social involvement of biological scientists, and a recognition of the need for biological and physical safeguards in the conduct of research. The most turbulent years were 1975-89, when there was a confluence of animal rights activism and regulation, growing concerns with scientific fraud and publication malpractice, and the stresses and strains (and opportunities) resulting from the rapid expansion of the academic-industrial complex. The current period is characterized by rapid pace, high volume, and an increased depth and breadth of knowledge-a major change in scale in the conduct of science. It is an exciting time but one in which ethical issues are multiplying. Attention must be paid.

  16. Modelling the impact of changes in the interest rates on the economy: An Austrian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Le Roux

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though econometric models and yield curve analysis are useful in assessing the impact of interest rate changes on the economic structure, their power to predict the magnitude and direction of swings in the business cycle is often restricted to the use of short-term interest rates. From an Austrian school perspective on interest rates, empirical evidence suggests that the profitability of heavy industries further downstream outperforms that of light industries in the initial stages of monetary easing, due to a rising demand for investment goods and a rise in capacity utilisation levels. This paper assesses the impact of interest rates changes on the productive structure of the economy by taking into account the effect thereof on sector earnings and ultimately share prices.

  17. The political economy of an energy tax: the United Kingdom's Climate Change Levy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, D. [University College, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics

    2006-03-15

    Energy taxes designed to control energy consumption, and to assist the achievement of climate change control targets under the Kyoto Protocol, are fairly common in European Union countries. Yet many of these taxes bear little resemblance to the design guidance that is given in economics textbooks. Political economy analysis, in which the interaction of economics and political reality is emphasised, explains the gap between theoretical ideals and practical reality. A closer look at the factors that influence real world policy design should help policy-oriented economists in designing measures that have a greater chance of adoption. The end-result may well be nth-best solutions which simply have to be 'lived with'. But there may also be room for design improvements that still honour the political constraints of policy design. This paper illustrates these issues in the context of one tax, the UK Climate Change Levy. (author)

  18. Rapid Structural Design Change Evaluation with AN Experiment Based FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C.-H.; Trethewey, M. W.

    1998-04-01

    The work in this paper proposes a dynamic structural design model that can be developed in a rapid fashion. The approach endeavours to produce a simplified FEM developed in conjunction with an experimental modal database. The FEM is formulated directly from the geometry and connectivity used in an experimental modal test using beam/frame elements. The model sacrifices fine detail for a rapid development time. The FEM is updated at the element level so the dynamic response replicates the experimental results closely. The physical attributes of the model are retained, making it well suited to evaluate the effect of potential design changes. The capabilities are evaluated in a series of computational and laboratory tests. First, a study is performed with a simulated cantilever beam with a variable mass and stiffness distribution. The modal characteristics serve as the updating target with random noise added to simulate experimental uncertainty. A uniformly distributed FEM is developed and updated. The results show excellent results, all natural frequencies are within 0·001% with MAC values above 0·99. Next, the method is applied to predict the dynamic changes of a hardware portal frame structure for a radical design change. Natural frequency predictions from the original FEM differ by as much as almost 18% with reasonable MAC values. The results predicted from the updated model produce excellent results when compared to the actual hardware changes, the first five modal natural frequency difference is around 5% and the corresponding mode shapes producing MAC values above 0·98.

  19. Nitrogen use efficiency in the US economy: Towards mitigation of climate change impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlton, B. Z.; Boyer, E. W.; Finzi, A. C.; Galloway, J. N.; Leach, A.; Liptzin, D.; Melillo, J. M.; Rosenstock, T.; Sobota, D. J.; Townsend, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) interacts strongly with climate change in determining the severity and extent of many human health and environmental issues, such as eutrophication, poor air quality, and the maintenance of a secure food system. We were motivated by such N-climate interactions and their environmental impacts as part of a broader assessment of N in the continental United States. We here seek to identify and quantify inefficiencies associated with intentional N creation (i.e., creating synthetic N fertilizers and cultivating N-fixing legumes) among the major N-dependent sectors of the United States economy. We define efficiency of N use as the proportion N directly incorporated into food, fiber, biofuel, and industrial goods from the pool of intentionally created N. We are interested in whether reductions in N use could be achieved without changing the current functioning of the major N-dependent economic sectors. Our analysis points to substantial inefficiencies in N use at the national scale. A large percentage of the N applied as synthetic fertilizer and fixed by legumes annually fails to enter the United States food supply. Much of the unincorporated N enters air, land and water, where it can impact human health and ecosystems. The climate change forcing of N is uncertain, though it appears that the combined effects of intentionally and unintentionally created N on climate is roughly neutral in the United States (i.e., net effect of N-enhanced C storage, nitrous oxide emissions, N-based aerosols, and tropospheric ozone on climate forcing). Thus, it is reasonable to expect that improved efficiencies in N use would have minimal negative side effects on the United States economy, human health and the environment. We suggest that policies aimed at improving N-use efficiencies are an alternative to direct climate mitigation strategies in offsetting several impacts of climate change on human health and ecosystem functioning.

  20. FEATURES OF THE LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTS IN TURBULENCE CHANGING GLOBAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg M. Tolmachev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic: The level of development of any country is currently determined by the proportion of high technologies in the GDP. Logistics – the basis for efficient management of modern knowledge-intensive production. Given the adverse conditions in the global economy, greatly enhanced the relevance of the study of logistical aspects in the management of high-tech products.Subject of research: The logistics management of production of high technology products in turbulence changing global economy. In this paper we apply scientific methods: the dialectic, comparisons and analogies, analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, abstract , logical, historical and retrospective. The purpose of this article is to identify the characteristics and problems of logistics management of production of high technology products in the countries of the Customs Union and the Eastern Partnership. Also consider the role of clusters in the formation of innovation infrastructure in the countries of the Customs Union.Results: As part of the presentation was the author of the present article the urgency of application of CALS-technologies as a tool for organization and information support for the creation, production and operation of the product at the enterprises of the national economy.Conclusions / significance: Management of enterprises in the real sector of the economy in modern conditions should be based on synergies methodological principles of market and state regulation, with increased use of methods focused on the long term. By such methods, in particular, should include the methods of logistic management of production of high technology products. The importance of these technologies has increased steadily, and in modern conditions gets a new quality content that refl ects the phased development plan targeted action to ensure that the desired state of the enterprise as a socio-economic system. This in turn points to the need to ensure that new

  1. How Rapid Change Affects Deltas in the Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, I.; Bendixen, M.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas form where the river drains into the ocean. Consequently, delta depositional processes are impacted by either changes in the respective river drainage basin or by changes in the regional marine environment. In a warming Arctic region rapid change has occurred over the last few decades in both the terrestrial domain as well as in the marine domain. Important terrestrial controls include 1) change in permafrost possibly destabilizing river banks, 2) strong seasonality of river discharge due to a short melting season, 3) high sediment supply if basins are extensively glaciated, 4) lake outbursts and ice jams favoring river flooding. Whereas in the Arctic marine domain sea ice loss promotes wave and storm surge impact, and increased longshore transport. We here ask which of these factors dominate any morphological change in Arctic deltas. First, we analyze hydrological data to assess change in Arctic-wide river discharge characteristics and timing, and sea ice concentration data to map changes in sea ice regime. Based on this observational analysis we set up a number of scenarios of change. We then model hypothetical small-scale delta formation considering change in these primary controls by setting up a numerical delta model, and combining it dynamically with a permafrost model. We find that for typical Greenlandic deltas changes in river forcing due to ice sheet melt dominate the morphological change, which is corroborated by mapping of delta progradation from aerial photos and satellite imagery. Whereas in other areas, along the North Slope and the Canadian Arctic small deltas are more stable or experienced retreat. Our preliminary coupled model allows us to further disentangle the impact of major forcing factors on delta evolution in high-latitude systems.

  2. Prolonged static stretching does not influence running economy despite changes in neuromuscular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Sarah J; Bailey, David M; Folland, Jonathan P

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of prolonged static stretching (SS) on running economy. Ten male runners (VO2(peak) 60.1 +/- 7.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 10 min of treadmill running at 70% VO2(peak) before and after SS and no stretching interventions. For the stretching intervention, each leg was stretched unilaterally for 40 s with each of eight different exercises and this was repeated three times. Respiratory gas exchange was measured throughout the running exercise with an automated gas analysis system. On a separate day, participants were tested for sit and reach range of motion, isometric strength and countermovement jump height before and after SS. The oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, energy expenditure, respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate responses to running were unaffected by the stretching intervention. This was despite a significant effect of SS on neuromuscular function (sit and reach range of motion, +2.7 +/- 0.6 cm; isometric strength, -5.6% +/- 3.4%; countermovement jump height -5.5% +/- 3.4%; all P influence running economy despite changes in neuromuscular function.

  3. Аsymmetry of Structural Institutional and Technological Changes in Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katkovа Marina Andreevna

    2014-12-01

    to innovations (scepticism, nihilism, disinclination to risk, disinclination to changes, “problems evasion”, demotivation of subjects’ innovative behavior, incompetence in the system of macroeconomic policy, non- complementarity of the institutional environment of innovative activity which appeared on the joint of institutional and technological changes, and maintaining institutional inertia in the Russian economy. It is proved that the asymmetry of institutional and technological structures of economy is generated by the nature of institutional and technological dynamics.

  4. Cosmic rays linked to rapid mid-latitude cloud changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Laken

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR flux on Earth's climate is highly uncertain. Using a novel sampling approach based around observing periods of significant cloud changes, a statistically robust relationship is identified between short-term GCR flux changes and the most rapid mid-latitude (60°–30° N/S cloud decreases operating over daily timescales; this signal is verified in surface level air temperature (SLAT reanalysis data. A General Circulation Model (GCM experiment is used to test the causal relationship of the observed cloud changes to the detected SLAT anomalies. Results indicate that the anomalous cloud changes were responsible for producing the observed SLAT changes, implying that if there is a causal relationship between significant decreases in the rate of GCR flux (~0.79 GU, where GU denotes a change of 1% of the 11-year solar cycle amplitude in four days and decreases in cloud cover (~1.9 CU, where CU denotes a change of 1% cloud cover in four days, an increase in SLAT (~0.05 KU, where KU denotes a temperature change of 1 K in four days can be expected. The influence of GCRs is clearly distinguishable from changes in solar irradiance and the interplanetary magnetic field. However, the results of the GCM experiment are found to be somewhat limited by the ability of the model to successfully reproduce observed cloud cover. These results provide perhaps the most compelling evidence presented thus far of a GCR-climate relationship. From this analysis we conclude that a GCR-climate relationship is governed by both short-term GCR changes and internal atmospheric precursor conditions.

  5. Climate engineering and the risk of rapid climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Andrew; Damon Matthews, H

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has highlighted risks associated with the use of climate engineering as a method of stabilizing global temperatures, including the possibility of rapid climate warming in the case of abrupt removal of engineered radiative forcing. In this study, we have used a simple climate model to estimate the likely range of temperature changes associated with implementation and removal of climate engineering. In the absence of climate engineering, maximum annual rates of warming ranged from 0.015 to 0.07 deg. C/year, depending on the model's climate sensitivity. Climate engineering resulted in much higher rates of warming, with the temperature change in the year following the removal of climate engineering ranging from 0.13 to 0.76 deg. C. High rates of temperature change were sustained for two decades following the removal of climate engineering; rates of change of 0.5 (0.3,0.1) deg. C/decade were exceeded over a 20 year period with 15% (75%, 100%) likelihood. Many ecosystems could be negatively affected by these rates of temperature change; our results suggest that climate engineering in the absence of deep emissions cuts could arguably constitute increased risk of dangerous anthropogenic interference in the climate system under the criteria laid out in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  6. Structural change and inter-sectoral mobility in a two-sector economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoci, Angelo; Galeotti, Marcello; Iannucci, Gianluca; Russu, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the dynamics of a two-sector economy (with a natural resource-dependent sector and an industrial sector) characterized by free inter-sectoral labor mobility and heterogeneity of agents (workers and entrepreneurs). In such a context, we analyze the effects of the deterioration of natural resources, caused by the production activity of both sectors, on inter-sectoral movements of the labor force (structural changes), on ecological dynamics and on the revenues of workers and entrepreneurs. As in the seminal work by Matsuyama (1992), we obtain that a low productivity of labor in the resource-dependent sector can fuel the industrialization process. However, differently from Matsuyama, in our model the industrialization process may give rise to a reduction in workers’ revenues if the contribution to environmental depletion of the industrial sector, per unit of product, is higher than that of the resource-dependent one.

  7. Effects of climate change on the Swiss economy (national influences); Auswirkungen der Klimaaenderung auf die Schweizer Volkswirtschaft (nationale Einfluesse)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) attempts to estimate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the Swiss economy. The authors state that no grave damage to the Swiss economy that could be caused by climate change are to be expected by the year 2030. Estimates for the year 2050 are presented and a prognosis showing a substantial increase of damage after this date is presented. Tourism and energy installations are noted as being the areas that will be most affected. Other areas affected include infrastructure, human health, water supplies, forestry and the farming economy. The methodologies used in the preparation of the study are described. Scenarios are presented and discussed. An overview of the costs incurred as a result of climate-related change is presented.

  8. Technological Innovation and Competitiveness in The Global Economy: India's Changing Status and Its Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Subrahmanya Mungila Hillemane

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   This paper probes the changing innovation status and resultant competitiveness in the context of global economy and questions the recent ranking improvements of India on the basis of hard economic facts. This paper has made use of secondary data comprising innovation indices and competitiveness rankings published by international organizations and reputed business schools from time to time since 1996 to analyze the changing status of India internationally. Later, using secondary data on key macro-economic variables published by the Government of India, the recent ranking of India is closely examined as well as recent steps taken by the government of India to improve competitiveness is elaborated. The study throws light on the changing but improving innovation dimensions and competitiveness ranking of India since 1996 till 2010. From nowhere India emerges and occupies the second slot, after China, in the global competitiveness ranking. But hard core macro-economic variables do not justify India’s elevation to the top in any way. Given this, the study throws light on the recent policy measures announced by the Government of India and its implications as well as policy imperatives.

  9. Global Megacities Differing Adaptation Responses to Climate Change: an Analysis of Annual Spend of Ten Major cities on the adaptation economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslin, M. A.; Georgeson, L.

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are increasingly at risk from climate change with negative impacts predicted for human health, the economy and ecosystems. These risks require responses from cities, to improve the resilience of their infrastructure, economy and environment to climate change. Policymakers need to understand what is already being spent on adaptation so that they can make more effective and comprehensive adaptation plans. Through the measurement of spend in the newly defined 'Adaptation Economy' we analysis the current efforts of 10 global megacities in adapting to climate change. These cities were chosen based on their size, geographical location and their developmental status. The cities are London, Paris, New York, Mexico City, Sao Paulo, Beijing, Mumbai, Jakarta, Lagos and Addis Ababa. It is important to study a range of cities in different regions of the world, with different climates and at different states of socio-economic development. While in economic terms, disaster losses from weather, climate and geophysical events are greater in developed countries, fatalities and economic losses as a proportion of GDP are higher in developing countries. In all cities examined the Adaptation Economy is still a small part of the overall economy accounting for a maximum of 0.3% of the Cities total GDP (GDPc). The differences in total spend are significant between cities in developed and rapidly emerging countries, compared to those in developing countries with a spend ranging from £16 million to £1,500 million. Comparing key sub sectors, we demonstrate that there are distinctive adaptation profiles with developing cities having a higher relative spend on health, while developed cities have a higher spend on disaster preparedness, ICT and professional services. Comparing spend per capita and as a percentage of GDPc demonstrates even more clearly disparities between the cities in the study; developing country cities spend half as much as a proportion of GPCc in some cases, and

  10. Rapid treatment-induced brain changes in pediatric CRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Nathalie; Simons, Laura; Lebel, Alyssa; Serrano, Paul; Pielech, Melissa; Prabhu, Sanjay; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-03-01

    To date, brain structure and function changes in children with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) as a result of disease and treatment remain unknown. Here, we investigated (a) gray matter (GM) differences between patients with CRPS and healthy controls and (b) GM and functional connectivity (FC) changes in patients following intensive interdisciplinary psychophysical pain treatment. Twenty-three patients (13 females, 9 males; average age ± SD = 13.3 ± 2.5 years) and 21 healthy sex- and age-matched controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to controls, patients had reduced GM in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, midcingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, basal ganglia, thalamus, and hippocampus. Following treatment, patients had increased GM in the dlPFC, thalamus, basal ganglia, amygdala, and hippocampus, and enhanced FC between the dlPFC and the periaqueductal gray, two regions involved in descending pain modulation. Accordingly, our results provide novel evidence for GM abnormalities in sensory, motor, emotional, cognitive, and pain modulatory regions in children with CRPS. Furthermore, this is the first study to demonstrate rapid treatment-induced GM and FC changes in areas implicated in sensation, emotion, cognition, and pain modulation.

  11. Mobile work: Ergonomics in a rapidly changing work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honan, Meg

    2015-01-01

    Places of work have been completely transformed by innovations in mobile work tools and ever-present access to internet data. This article characterizes use patterns and provides preliminary considerations for productive and comfortable use of common mobile devices. Two surveys described trends in mobile work. In the first, ergonomics professionals who oversee programs reported common mobile devices, their users and what data is accessed. The second, an end user survey, explored common activities performed on mobile devices, duration of use and locations where mobile work is common. The survey results provide a baseline data point for the status of mobile work in early 2014. Research indicates that additional risks have been introduced to the neck, thumbs and hands when using mobile devices. Possible trends regarding device use and work locations emerge. Intervention studies provide some direction for the practitioner. Practical strategies are outlined to reduce exposure intensity and duration. Contemporary mobile work presents tremendous change and opportunity for ergonomists and researchers to keep pace with fitting the changing models of work to the person. Continued research is needed on current mobile device use patterns to better understand ergonomic risk exposure in this rapidly changing realm.

  12. Change, continuity and power in the Russian political economy in comparative BRICs perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileva, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article-based dissertation explores the development of the Russian political economy over the past 25 years in comparative BRICs perspective. The first half of the thesis describes (article 1) and compares (article 2) the evolution of the macro-configuration of Russia's political economy

  13. A Pilot Profile of the Social Entrepreneur in the Constantly Changing Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ţigu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Social economy and social entrepreneurship are concepts subject of much debate in the academic environment, as their importance is growing in the present times, when the public sector and business environment alike have demonstrated their incapacity to solve specific social problems, such as conserving local traditions and biodiversity or insertion into the labour market of people from vulnerable groups. This article focuses on social entrepreneurs, by aiming to identify their main motivations in the founding and development of a social enterprise, as well as the main challenges faced in their social entrepreneurial activity in a constantly changing business environment. The paper presents a qualitative research conducted on Romanian social entrepreneurs. The results, interpreted through content analysis, indicate that social entrepreneurs, unlike business entrepreneurs, are not profit-driven, but mission driven, their main objective being to make a difference in the society and have a positive impact in the local communities. Furthermore, the research revealed specific challenges faced by Romanian social entrepreneurs, as well as specific differences between social and business entrepreneurs, who aim strictly achieving economic performance. Considering the limitations and future research directions, the implications of the findings are discussed, the paper outlining a profile of the social entrepreneur that can be useful to the public sector for the development of policies aimed at enhancing this type of entrepreneurship, in a constantly changing social environment.

  14. Indication of Changes in Projecting Organizational Structures Under the New Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pártlová Petra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Architecture includes organizational and management part and visions and goals of the organization, business processes leading to the goals, innovation processes, control mechanisms, information and communication technologies and others. The paper focuses on one of the most important components of corporate architecture, organizational and management framework of an enterprise in terms of its present state and anticipated changes and the expected development in the context of the emerging new economy. The research was carried out in a sample of 372 enterprises from the whole Czech Republic with the sector (industrial, manufacturing, services and primary sector and size differentiation (micro-enterprises, small and medium-sized enterprises and large enterprises according to the classification of Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic and the EU. The statistical methods were used (p-value with Pearson Chi quadrate output to analyses the results. The conclusion indicates a possible development in the corporate organization architecture in the context of the paradigm of changes in the external corporate environment.

  15. Reversing climate change how carbon removals can resolve climate change and fix the economy

    CERN Document Server

    Chichilnisky, Graciela

    2018-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol capped the emissions of the main emitters, the industrialized countries, one by one. It also created an innovative financial mechanism, the Carbon Market and its Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), which allows developing nations to receive carbon credits when they reduce their emissions below their baselines. The carbon market, an economic system that created a price for carbon for the first time, is now used in four continents, is promoted by the World Bank, and is recommended even by leading oil and gas companies. However, one critical problem for the future of the Kyoto Protocol is the continuing impasse between the rich and the poor nations. Who should reduce emissions — the rich or the poor countries? This book is about the 21st session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or COP21, held from 30 November to 11 December 2015 in Paris, which brought together around 40,000 participants in total — with delegates repre...

  16. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  17. Establishment of networks in the energy economy. Change management in the background of the revised version of the energy economy act; Etablierung von Netzwerken in der Energiewirtschaft. Change Management vor dem Hintergrund der Neufassung des Energiewirtschaftsgesetzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, F.

    2007-02-15

    The revision of the energy economy act results into fundamental modifications with respect to the energy economy. Especially, smaller public utilities are threatened in their existence due to the liberalisation of the European current markets. In order to exist in the competition, company networks offer themselves as a solution. The establishment of such networks failed due to an extreme complexity, political interests, insufficient trust in co-operation partners as well as company cultural problems. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on an analysis of six successful networks and one unsuccessful network. It is shown how networks generally and especially in the energy economy can be realized successfully. Apart from economical questions sociological and psychological aspects are examined. Main aspects are distribution of power, building up of confidence, regionality and transferring network contents. The author develops a comprehensive approach of change management in order to establish company networks and identifies success factors as well as failure factors with respect to the practical conversion. This book is written for lecturers and students of the applied economics (main field: research of networks, change management, personnel, organization, management and energy economy), managers in the area of company development of power supply companies as well as management consultants and personnel companies.

  18. Philosophy of sufficiency economy for community-based adaptation to climate change: Lessons learned from Thai case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulvadee Kansuntisukmongkol

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major components within the philosophy of a sufficiency economy include moderation, prudence, and self-immunity together with knowledge and morality. These components were proposed to safeguard local communities from adverse changes and crises. Climatic crises due to global warming can impact upon local agricultural production and consumption systems. Yet, it is still questionable whether communities following the sufficiency economy philosophy can cope with climate change. The objective of this research was to study the coping and adaptive capacity to climate change of local agricultural communities following the sufficiency economy philosophy and to analyze the success factors of adaptation to climate change. The research found five adaptive strategies leading to a resilient livelihood: (1 self-evaluation, (2 diversity dependency, (3 storage and reserve, (4 cooperation, and (5 mobility over space and time. These strategies help to reduce exposure and sensitivity, while increasing adaptive capacity to climate change with the aims of sustainability and adaptation for survival, and protecting natural resource bases for food and settlement security. Moderation, prudence, and self-immunity are critical success factors of adaptation measures, whereas local ecological knowledge with morality is a core enabling factor for adapting to climate change. These factors can be applied in community-based climate change adaptation in the National Adaptation Plan.

  19. Planetary Habitability and Rapid Environmental Change: The Biological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Makuch, D.; Fairen, A.; Irwin, L.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental conditions can change drastically and rapidly during the natural history of a planetary body. We have detailed evidence of these dramatic events from Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. Most of these occurrences seem to be triggered by astronomical events such as asteroid impacts or supernova explosions; others are triggered by the planet or moon itself (e.g., supervolcano eruptions). The associated question is always how these events affect the habitability of a planet, particularly the origin and presence of life. Under what conditions would such a drastic event be so catastrophic that it would prohibit the origin of life or be so devastating to existing organisms, that life would not be able to recover and be all but extinguished from a planet? Under what conditions would such an event be positive for the evolution of life, for example spurring life via mass extinctions and associated vacant habitats to the invention of new body plans and higher complexity? Here, we provide insights of what we can learn from the natural history of our own planet, which experienced many environmental disasters and abrupt climate changes, from the impact event that created the Moon to the extinction of the dinosaurs. We apply these insights to other planetary bodies and the question about the presence of life. One example is Mars, which underwent drastic environmental changes at the end of the Noachian period. Assuming that microbial life became established on Mars, could it have survived, perhaps by retreating to environmental niches? Life just starting out would have certainly been more vulnerable to extinction. But how far would it have to have evolved to be more resistant to potential extinction events? Would it have to be global in distribution to survive? Another example is Venus. Should Venus be seen as an example where life, which possibly arose in the first few hundred million years when the planet was still in the habitable zone, would have had no chance to

  20. Climate Changes and the Role of Recent Droughts on Agricultural Economy of Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISSA EBRAHIMZADEH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional economy is usually affected by the operation and interaction of environment and human beings in geographical spaces. Warm and dry areas create special economic conditions, which have particular functions, quite different from the characteristics of humid and cold hilly areas or those of the Mediterranean areas. The Sistan Region is located in South East of Iran. Until recent droughts (1999-2005, agriculture sector was the basis of all economic activities in Sistan area, a major share of rural as well as urban income came directly and indirectly from agricultural activities. In accordance with the latest census before the drought period (1996, about 55 percent of the rural population directly depended on the agriculture sector for their income and employment. In addition, almost 24 percent of rural population was depended to cottage and rural industries for their employments. In urban areas, 70 percent of population was linked to service sector as a source of employment. The results of this research show that the environmental changes resulting from drought in Sistan area have had deep impacts on the socio-economic factors in the region. It is clearer in the Hamoon Lake area, which, before the onset drought, had produced crops like fodders, mat, bird meat and fish. The livestock sector also suffered to a great extent. Out of the total of 1.6 million livestock units in the area, more than 0.5 million remained in the production cycle nowadays. The production of these crops reduced to zero with drought. The total direct loss resulted from the drought amounts to 14,057,332 million Rails or 1,561 billion US$. To sum up, the environmental changes resulting from drought caused more than 80 percent of agricultural and livestock activities in the region come to halt, which, in turn, due to a reduced income multiplier effect of agriculture sector resulted in greater damage to socio-economic factors in rural, as well as in urban areas.

  1. Innovation in regulation of rapidly changing health markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Gerald; Henson, Spencer; Peters, David H

    2014-06-24

    The rapid evolution and spread of health markets across low and middle-income countries (LMICs) has contributed to a significant increase in the availability of health-related goods and services around the world. The support institutions needed to regulate these markets have lagged behind, with regulatory systems that are weak and under-resourced. This paper explores the key issues associated with regulation of health markets in LMICs, and the different goals of regulation, namely quality and safety of care, value for money, social agreement over fair access and financing, and accountability. Licensing, price controls, and other traditional approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services have played an important role, but they have been of questionable effectiveness in ensuring safety and efficacy at the point of the user in LMICs. The paper proposes a health market systems conceptual framework, using the value chain for the production, distribution and retail of health goods and services, to examine regulation of health markets in the LMIC context. We conclude by exploring the changing context going forwards, laying out implications for future heath market regulation. We argue that the case for new approaches to the regulation of markets for health products and services in LMICs is compelling. Although traditional "command and control" approaches will have a place in the toolkit of regulators, a broader bundle of approaches is needed that is adapted to the national and market-level context of particular LMICs. The implication is that it is not possible to apply standard or single interventions across countries, as approaches proven to work well in one context will not necessarily work well elsewhere.

  2. Intensity related changes of running economy in recreational level distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeroff, Tobias; Bernardi, Andreas; Niederer, Daniel; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2017-09-01

    Running economy (RE) is often described as a key demand of running performance. The variety of currently used assessment methods with different running intensities and outcomes restricts interindividual comparability of RE in recreational level runners. The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of RE, assessed as oxygen cost (OC) and caloric unit cost (CUC), on running speed at individual physiological thresholds. Eighteen recreational runners performed: 1) a graded exercise test to estimate first ventilatory threshold (VT1), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); 2) discontinuous RE assessment to determine relative OC in milliliters per kilogram per kilometer (mL/kg/km) and CUC in kilocalories per kilogram per kilometer (kcal/kg/km) at three different running intensities: VT1, RCP and at a third standardized reference point (TP) in between. OC (mL/kg/km; at VT1: 235.4±26.2; at TP: 227.8±23.4; at RCP: 224.9±21.9) and CUC (kcal/kg/km at VT1: 1.18±0.13; at TP: 1.14±0.12; at RCP: 1.13±0.11) decreased with increasing intensities (P≤0.01). Controlling for the influence of sex OC and CUC linearly correlated with running speed at RCP and VO2max (P≤0.01). RE, even assessed at low intensity, is strongly related to running performance in recreational athletes. Both calculation methods used (OC and CUC) are sensitive for monitoring intensity related changes of substrate utilization. RE values decreased with higher running intensity indicating an increase of anaerobic and subsequent decrease of aerobic substrate utilization.

  3. Women and labor market changes in the global economy : growth helps, inequalities hurt, and public policy matters

    OpenAIRE

    Tzannatos, Zafiris

    1998-01-01

    This report examines the level and changes in female and male participation rates, employment segregation, and female wages relative to male wages across the world economy. It funds sufficient evidence to support the view that labor markets in developing countries are transformed relatively quickly in the sense that gender differentials in employment and pay are narrowing much faster than they did in industrialized countries. However, the report evaluates the inefficiencies arising from persi...

  4. Securing renewable resource supplies for changing market demands in a bio-based economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van J.E.G.; Klerk-Engels, de B.; Struik, P.C.; Rabbinge, R.

    2005-01-01

    Establishment of a bio-based economy has been recognised as one of the key issues for sustainable development For future developments renewable resources will play a key role as CO2 neutral raw material for sustainable industrial production to curb depletion of fossil resources. Options to fully

  5. The Outlook for Technological Change and Employment. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Findings of a study of the nation's manpower requirements to 1975 are presented. Part I, on the employment outlook, consists of a 10-year projection of manpower requirements by occupation and by industry prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and an analysis of the growth prospects and the state of fiscal policy in the United States economy as…

  6. Rapid socio-cultural change and health in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P

    2001-01-01

    The colonization of the circumpolar peoples has had a profound influence on their health. History tells about devastating epidemics and the introduction of alcohol. The last 50 years have witnessed an unprecedented societal development in Greenland and a rapid epidemiological transition. Physical...... health and survival have improved but at the expense of mental health. The incidence of tuberculosis and the infant mortality rate have decreased because of improved socioeconomic conditions and health care. Mental health has deteriorated parallel to the rapid modernization of Greenlandic society...

  7. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-10-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  8. Structural change of the physical economy. Decomposition analysis of physical and hybrid-unit input-output tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, R.

    2003-01-01

    Economic processes generate a variety of material flows, which cause resource problems through the depletion of natural resources and environmental issues due to the emission of pollutants. This thesis presents an analytical method to study the relationship between the monetary economy and the 'physical economy'. In particular, this method can assess the impact of structural change in the economy on physical throughput. The starting point for the approach is the development of an elaborate version of the physical input-output table (PIOT), which acts as an economic-environmental accounting framework for the physical economy. In the empirical application, hybrid-unit input-output (I/O) tables, which combine physical and monetary information, are constructed for iron and steel, and plastic products for the Netherlands for the years 1990 and 1997. The impact of structural change on material flows is analyzed using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA), whic specifies effects such as sectoral shifts, technological change, and alterations in consumer spending and international trade patterns. The study thoroughly reviews the application of SDA to environmental issues, compares the method with other decomposition methods, and develops new mathematical specifications. An SDA is performed using the hybrid-unit input-output tables for the Netherlands. The results are subsequently used in novel forecasting and backcasting scenario analyses for the period 1997-2030. The results show that dematerialization of iron and steel, and plastics, has generally not occurred in the recent past (1990-1997), and will not occur, under a wide variety of scenario assumptions, in the future (1997-2030)

  9. A big data management platform for rapidly changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahedi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Big data is now a reality. Storing, managing, and analyzing very large amount of data is a common challenge in the world of technology where digital content is rapidly growing. In recent years, FEI advanced electron microscopes, with their unsurpassed magnification and resolving power brought an

  10. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation.

  11. [Ecology-economy harmonious development based on the ecological services value change in Yanqi Basin, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Zulpiya; Halik, Umut; Aji, Rouzi; Nurmemet, Ilyas; Anwar, Mirigul; Keyimu, Maierdang

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we used land use/cover ecosystem service value estimation model and ecological economic coordination degree model to analyze the changes of the ecosystem service value by the land use/cover changes during 1985, 1990, 1996, 2000, 2005 and 2011 in Yanqi Basin, Xin-jiang. Then we evaluated the ecology-economy harmony and the regional differences. The results showed that during 1985-2011, there was an increasing trend in the areas of waters, wetland, sand, cultivated land and construction land in Yanqi Basin. In contrast, that of the saline-alkali land, grassland and woodland areas exhibited a decreasing trend. The ecosystem service value in Yanqi Basin during this period presented an increasing trend, among which the waters and cultivated land contributed most to the total value of ecosystem services, while the grassland and the woodland had obviously declined contribution to the total value of ecosystem services. The research showed that the development of ecological economy in the study area was at a low conflict and low coordination level. So, taking reasonable and effective use of the regional waters and soil resources is the key element to maintain the ecosystem service function and sustainable and harmonious development of economy in Yanqi Basin.

  12. Approaching the new reality. [changes in NASA space programs due to US economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Al V.

    1993-01-01

    The focus on more frequent access to space through smaller, less costly missions, and on NASA's role as a source of technological advance within the U.S. economy is discussed. The Pluto fast flyby mission is examined as an illustration of this approach. Testbeds are to be developed to survive individual programs, becoming permanent facilities, to allow for technological upgrades on an ongoing basis.

  13. Intangible economy : How can investors deliver change in businesses? Lessons from nonprofit-business partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Seitanidi, M M

    2007-01-01

    Investors traditionally prioritised tangible outcomes (money, land, machinery) in order to protect their financial assets. However, the intangible economy (trust, human resources, information, reputation) that co-exists draws attention to new expectations that request the continuous, active and within the public sphere involvement of investors in order to protect their assets by prioritising intangible resources. The paper argues that investors in intangible outcomes who aim to achieve c...

  14. Knowledge-based Economy, an Appropriate Response to Organizational Change Pressures, with a View to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Lazar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable development of organizations within knowledge-based economy, in which knowledge represents the main priority, should focus on finding solutions for the intelligent management of the limited resources, especially through organizational change and its constant assessment as a long-term impact solution. The transition of organizations to the principles of knowledge-based economy involves a major change in organizational culture. The dynamism and complexity of the new type of society, which implies a higher and more diverse level of training, together with a continuous superior training of the workforce, increasing investment in research and development and, not least, a growing volume and a diversification of information, all these represent, chained together, an element of well-being for the future generations. The introductory section summarizes the concept of sustainability and places the development of companies and economies they aggregate, in a contemporary context of organizational change pressures, on the principles of the knowledge-based economy as the only resource, virtually inexhaustible in the long-term, and which leads to a sustainable development. There follows a methodological section, consisting in the instrumental description of the method of work and in reference to the database, thus providing the theoretical and practical foundation for the confrontation between the sustainable development index (SDI in Romania and in the European Union (EU. The results and discussion section of the paper includes a confrontation between the sustainable development of Romania and that of the European Union, drawing on the SDI for each case. This statistical tool was calculated starting from the values of several statistical indicators (available in EUROSTAT statistics, issued from four information subsystems (an economic one, a social one and an environment one as major subsystems of sustainable development, to which was added

  15. Gait Retraining From Rearfoot Strike to Forefoot Strike does not change Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Jenevieve Lynn; Doerfler, Deborah; Kravitz, Len; Dufek, Janet S; Mermier, Christine

    2017-12-01

    Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group. A 10-minute treadmill RE test was performed by all subjects. The experimental group performed eight gait retraining running sessions where foot strike pattern was switched from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike, while the control group received no intervention. There were no significant differences for running economy (p=0.26), respiratory exchange ratio (p=0.258), or heart rate (p=0.248) between the groups. Knee pain reported on a visual analog scale was also significantly reduced (pstrike to forefoot strike did not affect running economy up to one-month post-retraining while reducing running-related patellofemoral pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Changing the diet of a nation: Population/regulatory strategies for a developed economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestle, M

    2000-09-01

    The principal nutritional problems of developed economies are related to the excessive and unbalanced intake of energy and nutrients. During the 20th century, as economies improved and food production became more efficient, conditions related to undernutrition were replaced by epidemics of coronary heart disease, certain cancers and other chronic conditions related to food overconsumption. In developed countries such as the United States, obesity became the predominant public health nutrition problem. To prevent obesity, people must consume less energy and be more active, but the food supplies of developed economies offer their populations amounts of energy that greatly exceed physiological need. Food overproduction causes competition in the food industry, limits its expansion, and leads food producers to invest heavily in marketing. To increase sales, food companies must encourage people to consume more of their products, substitute their products for others or develop new markets. Such efforts create an environment in which food is readily available at all times and readily overconsumed. Marketing expenditures for any single food product greatly exceed the total amounts available to governments for national campaigns to prevent chronic diseases. Existing government policies often support this environment through price supports and other means. To reverse obesity and its health consequences, governments need to consider ways to address the food environment through policies in education, agriculture, school meals, pricing, taxation and other means, as well as to develop mechanisms to fund new programme initiatives.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF INSTITUTIONAL CHANGES ON THE INVESTMENT ATTRACTIVENESS OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR OF UKRAINIAN ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy ZHUK

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful development of the Ukrainian economy, its agro-industrial segment requires a large-scale and efficient investment provision and favourable investment climate. In this regard, the actual task of the scientific community is the study of the influence of institutions on the development of investment policy, the formation of investment processes in the country. The purpose of this article is the study of institutional basis for further development of the investment processes in the agricultural sector of Ukrainian economy under conditions of integration into Europe. In the study process author used general scientific methods, in particular statistical method, method of extrapolation, analogy, institutional analysis, abstract-logical method, methods of descriptive simulation. Results of the study are as follows. The influence of formal institutions (legal regulations for the ‘rules of play’ was assessed on the investment efficiency. The ponderability of the formal institutions was identified in the investment success of the big agricultural business of Ukraine. The main causes of the low investment attractiveness of small and medium-sized business in the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian economy were defined. The ways were substantiated for development of the non-formal institutions. It was accentuated that asset capitalization of the small and medium-sized companies would be important for development of the investment processes in Ukraine.

  18. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  19. Rapid deuterium exchange-in time for probing conformational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, K.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Isotopic exchange of protein backbone amide hydrogens has been used extensively as a sensitive probe of protein structure. One of the salient features of hydrogen exchange is the vast range of exchange rates in one protein. Isotopic exchange methods have been used to study the structural features including protein folding and unfolding (1), functionally different forms of proteins (2), protein-protein complexation (3), and protein stability parameter. Many backbone amide protons that are surface accessible and are not involved in hydrogen bonding undergo rapid deuterium exchange. In order to study, fast exchanging amide protons, fast exchange-in times are necessary

  20. Policy options to respond to rapid climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Marinova, N.A.; Bakker, S.; Tilburg, van X.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme

  1. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  2. San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) climate change adaptation assessment pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the impacts of climate change on the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District : (BART) infrastructure and to develop and implement adaptation strategies against those impacts. Climate change haza...

  3. Evidence-based medicine in rapidly changing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Torben Veith

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is not a randomised controlled trial (RCT), but EBM seeks to apply evidence gained from scientific methods - which could be RCT - to daily medical practice. Any surgical treatment reflects a certain development technically as well as skills based. The procedure may....... Special considerations should be given in rapidly developing fields. If started too early the resulting comparison will likely turn out to be irrelevant because the new technology is not fully developed, not mastered or the device may have undergone major modifications rendering the results obsolete....... On the other hand, if started too late there is a chance that data may be lost because the technology has already been introduced into the daily clinics and physicians may be unwilling to recruit patients. Or the opposite, that the technique may have been rejected without a proper trial. In this situation...

  4. Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith, 2016, Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p.......Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p....

  5. Modeling of similar economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey B. Kuznetsov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to obtain dimensionless criteria ndash economic indices characterizing the national economy and not depending on its size. Methods mathematical modeling theory of dimensions processing statistical data. Results basing on differential equations describing the national economy with the account of economical environment resistance two dimensionless criteria are obtained which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes. With the theory of dimensions we show that the obtained indices are not accidental. We demonstrate the implementation of the obtained dimensionless criteria for the analysis of behavior of certain countriesrsquo economies. Scientific novelty the dimensionless criteria are obtained ndash economic indices which allow to compare economies regardless of their sizes and to analyze the dynamic changes in the economies with time. nbsp Practical significance the obtained results can be used for dynamic and comparative analysis of different countriesrsquo economies regardless of their sizes.

  6. Managing in the rapidly changing context of higher education: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Besides the rate of change in the sector there are also, as seen from the continuous media coverage, a number of universities and technikons in some form of financial or leadership crisis. Over the past years one of the main reasons given for these crises was outstanding student fees. However, the reasons now alluded to ...

  7. Alveolar bone changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mehmet; Baka, Zeliha Muge; Ileri, Zehra; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan

    2015-09-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the effects of asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) on cortical bone thickness and buccal alveolar bone height (BABH), and to determine the formation of dehiscence and fenestration in the alveolar bone surrounding the posterior teeth, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The CBCT records of 23 patients with true unilateral posterior skeletal crossbite (10 boys, 14.06 ± 1.08 years old, and 13 girls, 13.64 ± 1.32 years old) who had undergone ARME were selected from our clinic archives. The bonded acrylic ARME appliance, including an occlusal stopper, was used on all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME (T1) and after the 3-month retention period (T2). Axial slices of the CBCT images at 3 vertical levels were used to evaluate the buccal and palatal aspects of the canines, first and second premolars, and first molars. Paired samples and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical comparison. The results suggest that buccal cortical bone thickness of the affected side was significantly more affected by the expansion than was the unaffected side (P ARME significantly reduced the BABH of the canines (P ARME also increased the incidence of dehiscence and fenestration on the affected side. ARME may quantitatively decrease buccal cortical bone thickness and height on the affected side.

  8. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. No going back. Mexican women find opportunity and obstacles in a changing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, E

    1994-01-01

    An overview was provided of some of the economic and social changes in Mexico that impact on women. At the Colegio de Postgraduados, an ongoing project will examine women's work roles in an agricultural setting. The Ford Foundation has funded research studies at Mexican universities. One such study will examine women workers in foreign-owned factories producing duty free export goods; another study involves interviews with street vendors in the informal sector. Jose Alonso is a specialist on the Mexican garment industry, teaches at the University of the Americas, and advises at the Autonomous Technological Institute of Mexico. He contends that the process of development can best be understood by examining the informal sector. There is no Mexican tradition of a business class. Scholars at the Colegio de Postgraduados' Center for Rural Development are exploring income generation schemes, and building a master's degree program specializing in gender and rural development. The program would train professionals with an understanding of the needs of rural women and appropriate strategies for improving women's social and economic conditions. Crises have precipitated major shifts in work patterns in Mexico. During the 1980s, inflation and unemployment rapidly increased and income declined to 1970s levels. Mass movement of women into the labor force occurred. For many women, the dual role in long paid work hours and family and domestic care has produced independence with a big price tag. Manufacturing jobs along the free trade border areas have provided work opportunities for women, who hold 70% of the jobs. These jobs have moved from low paid menial tasks to higher skilled and better paid positions with training, but only for some women. There are few unions, and the government Confederation of Mexican Workers does not include women. Notwithstanding working conditions, women confront other problems with housing and the lack of basic amenities such as electricity, tap water

  10. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Unproductive Entrepreneurship, Institutional Change, and the Informal Economy: Entrepreneurial Potential in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. FRANK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is often ubiquitous in developing countries, and many entrepreneurs operate in the informal economy and are often involved in unproductive activity. While entrepreneurs seek to maximize their returns given the existing institutions, they also respond to the level of state capacity and the supporting structures of national and regional governance. We tackle the question of governmental legitimacy given that entrepreneurs in Eastern Europe operate in states with weak governance institutions. We test the degree to which the standard maximization of private returns decision holds by surveying informal entrepreneurs in the Republic of Moldova. The institutions that determine high versus low state capacity motivate entrepreneurs toward a productive or unproductive use of resources and the capacity of government also impacts their pursuit of private returns resulting in higher social costs. We find that Moldovan entrepreneurs evade taxation for reasons beyond simple maximization rules.

  12. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Audra L; Card, Daren C; Ruggiero, Robert P; Schield, Drew R; Adams, Richard H; Pollock, David D; Secor, Stephen M; Castoe, Todd A

    2015-05-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and timing of changes in gene expression and their relationship to changes in intestinal form and function upon feeding. Our results indicate that >2,000 genes show significant changes in expression in the small intestine following feeding, including genes involved in intestinal morphology and function (e.g., hydrolases, microvillus proteins, trafficking and transport proteins), as well as genes involved in cell division and apoptosis. Extensive changes in gene expression occur surprisingly rapidly, within the first 6 h of feeding, coincide with changes in intestinal morphology, and effectively return to prefeeding levels within 10 days. Collectively, our results provide an unprecedented portrait of parallel changes in gene expression and intestinal morphology and physiology on a scale that is extreme both in the magnitude of changes, as well as in the incredibly short time frame of these changes, with up- and downregulation of expression and function occurring in the span of 10 days. Our results also identify conserved vertebrate signaling pathways that modulate these responses, which may suggest pathways for therapeutic modulation of intestinal function in humans. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  14. Economy-Wide estimates of the implications of climate change: Human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosello, F.; Roson, R.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2006-01-01

    We study the economic impacts of climate-change-induced change in human health, viz. cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue fever and schistosomiasis. Changes in morbidity and mortality are interpreted as changes in labour productivity and demand for health care, and

  15. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely; Donelson, Jennifer M.; Aranda, Manuel; Barshis, Daniel J.; Bay, Line; Berumen, Michael L.; Bourne, David G.; Cantin, Neal; Foret, Sylvain; Matz, Mikhail; Miller, David J.; Moya, Aurelie; Putnam, Hollie M.; Ravasi, Timothy; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Thurber, Rebecca Vega; Vidal-Dupiol, Jeremie; Voolstra, Christian R.; Watson, Sue-Ann; Whitelaw, Emma; Willis, Bette L.; Munday, Philip L.

    2017-01-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  16. Rapid changes in the gut microbiome during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew H; Li, Yingying; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Pusey, Anne E; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Ochman, Howard

    2014-11-18

    Humans are ecosystems containing trillions of microorganisms, but the evolutionary history of this microbiome is obscured by a lack of knowledge about microbiomes of African apes. We sequenced the gut communities of hundreds of chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas and developed a phylogenetic approach to reconstruct how present-day human microbiomes have diverged from those of ancestral populations. Compositional change in the microbiome was slow and clock-like during African ape diversification, but human microbiomes have deviated from the ancestral state at an accelerated rate. Relative to the microbiomes of wild apes, human microbiomes have lost ancestral microbial diversity while becoming specialized for animal-based diets. Individual wild apes cultivate more phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species of bacteria than do individual humans across a range of societies. These results indicate that humanity has experienced a depletion of the gut flora since diverging from Pan.

  17. Rapid adaptive responses to climate change in corals

    KAUST Repository

    Torda, Gergely

    2017-09-01

    Pivotal to projecting the fate of coral reefs is the capacity of reef-building corals to acclimatize and adapt to climate change. Transgenerational plasticity may enable some marine organisms to acclimatize over several generations and it has been hypothesized that epigenetic processes and microbial associations might facilitate adaptive responses. However, current evidence is equivocal and understanding of the underlying processes is limited. Here, we discuss prospects for observing transgenerational plasticity in corals and the mechanisms that could enable adaptive plasticity in the coral holobiont, including the potential role of epigenetics and coral-associated microbes. Well-designed and strictly controlled experiments are needed to distinguish transgenerational plasticity from other forms of plasticity, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and their relative importance compared with genetic adaptation.

  18. Ethnobiology 5: Interdisciplinarity in an Era of Rapid Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wolverton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobiology 5 stems from Eugene Hunn’s four phases of the history of ethnobiology and focuses on the relevance of ethnobiological research in the context of environmental and cultural change.  It refers to a contemporary phase of the field’s historical development.  In this paper, I argue that ethnobiology is preadapted to be a scholarly umbrella for a number of disciplines that concern human-environment interactions, suggesting that one goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to bridge traditional academic boundaries in order to broaden the community of ethnobiologists. Another goal of Ethnobiology 5 is to capitalize on and communicate the relevance of ethnobiological scholarship for solving problems related to contemporary environmental and cultural crises.  Indeed, ethnobiology is not a subfield of any traditional discipline and by the nature of its name bridges humanities, social science, and science.  Ethnobiology has always been interdisciplinary in terms of its subject matter, yet its community of scholars is relatively small compared to mission-driven disciplines, such as conservation biology.  Venues for publication and presentation of ethnobiological research, as well as how ethnobiologists portray their research, are critical to growing ethnobiology.

  19. Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh-Guldberg, O.; Mumby, P. J.; Hooten, A. J.; Steneck, R. S.; Greenfield, P.; Gomez, E.; Harvell, C. D.; Sale, P. F.; Edwards, A. J.; Caldeira, K.; Knowlton, N.; Eakin, C. M.; Iglesias-Prieto, R.; Muthiga, N.; Bradbury, R. H.; Dubi, A.; Hatziolos, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed 500 parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2°C by 2050 to 2100, values that significantly exceed those of at least the past 420,000 years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people. As the International Year of the Reef 2008 begins, scaled-up management intervention and decisive action on global emissions are required if the loss of coral-dominated ecosystems is to be avoided.

  20. Health impacts of rapid economic changes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Harnvoravongchai, P; Pitayarangsarit, S; Kasemsup, V

    2000-09-01

    The economic crisis in Thailand in July 1997 had major social implications for unemployment, under employment, household income contraction, changing expenditure patterns, and child abandonment. The crisis increased poverty incidence by 1 million, of whom 54% were the ultra-poor. This paper explores and explains the short-term health impact of the crisis, using existing data and some special surveys and interviews for 2 years during 1998-99. The health impacts of the crisis are mixed, some being negative and some being positive. Household health expenditure reduced by 24% in real terms; among the poorer households, institutional care was replaced by self-medication. The pre-crisis rising trend in expenditure on alcohol and tobacco consumption was reversed. Immunization spending and coverage were sustained at a very high level after the crisis, but reports of increases in diphtheria and pertussis indicate declining programme quality. An increase in malaria, despite budget increases, had many causes but was mainly due to reduced programme effectiveness. STD incidence continued the pre-crisis downward trend. Rates of HIV risky sexual behaviour were higher among conscripts than other male workers, but in both groups there was lower condom use with casual partners. HIV serosurveillance showed a continuation of the pre-crisis downward trend among commercial sex workers (CSW, both brothel and non-brothel based), pregnant women and donated blood; this trend was slightly reversed among male STD patients and more among intravenous drug users. Condom coverage among brothel based CSW continued to increase to 97.5%, despite a 72% budget cut in free condom distribution. Poverty and lack of insurance coverage are two major determinants of absence of or inadequate antenatal care, and low birthweight. The Low Income Scheme could not adequately cover the poor but the voluntary Health Card Scheme played a health safety net role for maternal and child health. Low birthweight and

  1. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change. Human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosello, Francesco [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy); Roson, Roberto [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Tol, Richard S.J. [Centre for Marine and Climate Research, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-06-25

    We study the economic impacts of climate-change-induced change in human health, viz. cardiovascular and respiratory disorders, diarrhoea, malaria, dengue fever and schistosomiasis. Changes in morbidity and mortality are interpreted as changes in labour productivity and demand for health care, and used to shock the GTAP-E computable general equilibrium model, calibrated for the year 2050. GDP, welfare and investment fall (rise) in regions with net negative (positive) health impacts. Prices, production, and terms of trade show a mixed pattern. Direct cost estimates, common in climate change impact studies, underestimate the true welfare losses. (author)

  2. The Climate Change-Road Safety-Economy Nexus: A System Dynamics Approach to Understanding Complex Interdependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Alirezaei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Road accidents have the highest externality costs to society and to the economy, even when compared to the externality damages associated with air emissions and oil dependency. Road safety is one of the most complicated topics, which involves many interdependencies, and so, a sufficiently thorough analysis of roadway safety will require a novel system-based approach in which the associated feedback relationships and causal effects are given appropriate consideration. The factors affecting accident frequency and severity are highly dependent on economic parameters, environmental factors and weather conditions. In this study, we try to use a system dynamics modeling approach to model the climate change-road safety-economy nexus, thereby investigating the complex interactions among these important areas by tracking how they affect each other over time. For this purpose, five sub-models are developed to model each aspect of the overall nexus and to interact with each other to simulate the overall system. As a result, this comprehensive model can provide a platform for policy makers to test the effectiveness of different policy scenarios to reduce the negative consequences of traffic accidents and improve road safety.

  3. TAXATION OF EMPLOYEES IN ROMANIA IN 2018. CHANGES AND ITS RESULTS ON THE COUNTRY’S ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ionuț Hușman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The politico-economic context has a significant influence on the development of a country and the visions of the decision-makers together with the economic policies implemented are key elements in a country’s economic welfare. A decisive aspect of the economic policy is the fiscal framework, and when it is not at least stable, the entire economy suffers. In the recent period, in Romania, there have been various tax changes. The present paper analyses perhaps the most controversial tax change, namely, the shifting of social security contributions from the employer’s burden to the employee, along with the reduction of their rate and the reduction of the income tax rate. Implementation of such measures should be examined in terms of economic impact. One can notice that these changes have impact on three stakeholder categories: employees, employers and the state budget. Moreover, these changes must be correlated with other measures that are not directly related to the fiscal framework. At the same time, seeing an overview, one can analyze whether these changes could actually represent a starting point for moving from proportional taxation to progressive taxation. Through several impact assessments, this paper aims to analyze both from a micro and macroeconomic perspectives this tax changes and to offer a clear overview of the economic issues arisen. Such analyses will demonstrate the economic instability created through these measures.

  4. Extreme Temperature Exceedances Change more Rapidly Under Future Warming in Regions of non-Gaussian Short Temperature Distribution Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikith, P. C.; Neelin, J. D.; Meyerson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Regions of shorter-than-Gaussian warm and cold side temperature distribution tails are shown to occur in spatially coherent patterns in the current climate. Under such conditions, warming may be manifested in more complex ways than if the underlying distribution were close to Gaussian. For example, under a uniform warm shift, the simplest prototype for future warming, a location with a short warm side tail would experience a greater increase in extreme warm exceedances compared to if the distribution were Gaussian. Similarly, for a location with a short cold side tail, a uniform warm shift would result in a rapid decrease in extreme cold exceedances. Both scenarios carry major societal and environmental implications including but not limited to negative impacts on human and ecosystem health, agriculture, and the economy. It is therefore important for climate models to be able to realistically reproduce short tails in simulations of historical climate in order to boost confidence in projections of future temperature extremes. Overall, climate models contributing to the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project capture many of the principal observed regions of short tails. This suggests the underlying dynamics and physics occur on scales resolved by the models, and helps build confidence in model projections of extremes. Furthermore, most GCMs show more rapid changes in exceedances of extreme temperature thresholds in regions of short tails. Results therefore suggest that the shape of the tails of the underlying temperature distribution is an indicator of how rapidly a location will experience changes to extreme temperature occurrence under future warming.

  5. Climate change: Evolving technologies, U.S. business, and the world economy in the 21. century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harter, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The International Climate Change Partnership presents this report as one of its efforts to present current information on climate change to the public. One often hears about the expenses entailed in protecting the environment. Unfortunately, one hears less about the economic benefits that may be associated with prudent actions to counter environmental threats. This conference is particularly useful because it focuses attention on profitable business opportunities in the United States and elsewhere that arise from practical efforts to mitigate the risks of climate change. The report contains a brief synopsis of each speaker's address on climate change

  6. Climate change: Evolving technologies, U.S. business, and the world economy in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harter, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    The International Climate Change Partnership presents this report as one of its efforts to present current information on climate change to the public. One often hears about the expenses entailed in protecting the environment. Unfortunately, one hears less about the economic benefits that may be associated with prudent actions to counter environmental threats. This conference is particularly useful because it focuses attention on profitable business opportunities in the United States and elsewhere that arise from practical efforts to mitigate the risks of climate change. The report contains a brief synopsis of each speaker`s address on climate change.

  7. The Household Economy Approach. Managing the impact of climate change on poverty and food security in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Seaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have severe effects on the populations of developing countries because many of these depend heavily on agriculture for income, have large impoverished rural populations which rely on agriculture for subsistence, and are financially and technically least equipped to adapt to changing conditions. Planning to target measures to support adaptation to reduce the impact of climate change on poverty and food insecurity requires methods of identifying vulnerable households. This paper describes an established approach to vulnerability assessment, the ‘Household Economy Approach’ (HEA and its potential application to the management of climate change in developing countries. The HEA is widely used by Governments and others, chiefly in Africa, for the assessment of household vulnerability to poverty and food security. HEA uses a model based on Amartya Sen’s entitlement theory and detailed social and economic data to simulate the impact of weather related, price, policy and other shocks on household income and food access, to provide information for decision making. In developing countries climate change will be experienced in terms of increased climate variability and an increased frequency of extreme events. HEA provides a way of managing the effects of year to year shocks to prevent impoverishment and the erosion of household resilience. It also provides the information needed to develop scenarios to support the design of policies to support longer term adaptation. HEA data has already been collected for large areas of Africa.

  8. Lost in Translation? Emotional Intelligence, Affective Economies, Leadership and Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Not until the late 1990s did the rational/emotional binary embedded in mainstream literature on educational leadership and management come under challenge. Now the emotional dimensions of organisational change and leadership are widely recognised in the leadership, organisational change and school improvement literature. However, the dissolution…

  9. The “New” Environmental Policy of the European Union: A Path to Development of a Circular Economy and Mitigation of the Negative Effects of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wysokińska Zofia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the evolution of the new environmental policy of the European Union in the context of the efforts undertaken to moderate the negative effects of climate change. It describes all the activities in the European Union designed to implement new tools of the EU environmental policy, such as low carbon economy technologies, tools that improve the efficiency of managing the limited natural resources, the environmentally friendly transport package, etc. All of them are aimed at laying the foundations of the circular economy, which may also be referred to as a closed-loop economy, i.e., an economy that does not generate excessive waste and whereby any waste becomes a resource.

  10. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  11. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  12. A phenomenological study of business graduates' employment experiences in the changing economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Throy Alexander

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the perspectives of business college graduates, how technology has shaped the structures of their jobs, and the role of non-technical skills as they navigate the changing career path. Three overlapping themes emerged from the data analysis: (1) influence of increased technology capabilities on job structures and careers; (2) participation in job-related training and formal education as means of adapting to the new work environment; and (3) the role of non-technical skills in the workplace amidst the intensification of technology change. This research provides higher education practitioners and labor market researchers qualitative perspectives on work structure changes.

  13. Vulnerability of freshwater fisheries and impacts of climate change in south Indian states economies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sannadurgappa, D.; Abitha, R.; Sukumaran, S.

    and economic significance? This is a simple question, but a comprehensive answer would require predictions of the geographic patterns of global warming (from global circulation models) and predicted impacts of atmospheric warming on climatic, hydrological... on people would further require an understanding of the social and economic dynamics of fishing fleets and fishing communities, and their capacity to adapt to change. Such integrated predictions of the impact of climate change are beyond the current...

  14. Monitoring the bio-economy : Assessing local and global biomass flows, land-use change, carbon impacts and future land resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, C.S.

    2017-01-01

    As one of the common goals of developing the ‘bio-economy (BE)’ is to reduce GHG emissions from fossil feedstocks, it is crucial to monitor the associated carbon stock change from land-use change (CSC-LUC). This thesis addressed the key knowledge gaps related to (i) tracking the biomass flows for

  15. Changing the philosophy of organization management in the times of e-economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieńkowska Jolanta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the fundamental changes in the way of thinking in science and the management practice caused by the transition from the era of industrial civilization to the information civilization. These include the change in the subject of management, i.e. the transition from the management of the organization to the management of joint projects; from the requirement of flexibility from own resources to the ability to use external resources and the departure from the methodological rationality of a decision to the material rationality.

  16. Long-term culture change related to rapid response system implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer; Johansson, Anna; Lennes, Inga; Hsu, Douglas; Tess, Anjala; Howell, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Increasing attention to patient safety in training hospitals may come at the expense of trainee autonomy and professional growth. This study sought to examine changes in medical trainees' self-reported behaviour after the institution-wide implementation of a rapid response system. We conducted a two-point cross-sectional survey of medical trainees in 2006, during the implementation of a rapid response system, and in 2010, in a single academic medical centre. A novel instrument was used to measure trainee likelihood of calling for supervisory assistance, perception of autonomy, and comfort in managing decompensating patients. Non-parametric tests to assess for change were used and year of training was evaluated as an effect modifier. Response rates were 38% in 2006 and 70% in 2010. After 5 years of the full implementation of the rapid response system, residents were significantly more likely to report calling their attending physicians for assistance (rising from 40% to 65% of relevant situations; p autonomy at 5 years after the implementation of the rapid response system. These changes were mirrored in the actual use of the rapid response system, which increased by 41% during the 5-year period after adjustment for patient volume (p < 0.0001). A primary team-focused implementation of a rapid response system was associated with durable changes in resident physicians' reported behaviour, including increased comfort with involving more experienced physicians and managing unstable patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Economy-wide impacts of climate change: A joint analysis for sea level rise and tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigano, A.; Bosello, F.; Roson, R.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    While climate change impacts on human life have well defined and different origins, the interactions among the diverse impacts are not yet fully understood. Their final effects, however, especially those involving social-economic responses, are likely to play an important role. This paper is one of

  18. Main drivers of changes in CO_2 emissions in the Spanish economy: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cansino, José M.; Román, Rocío; Ordóñez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the analysis of structural decomposition of changes in CO_2 emissions in Spain by using an enhanced Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA) supported by detailed Input–Output tables from the World Input–Output Database (2013) (WIOD) for the period 1995–2009. The decomposition of changes in CO_2 emissions at sectoral level are broken down into six effects: carbonization, energy intensity, technology, structural demand, consumption pattern and scale. The results are interesting, not only for researchers but also for utility companies and policy-makers as soon as past and current political mitigation measures are analyzed in line with such results. The results allow us to conclude that the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol together with European Directives related to the promotion of RES seem to have a positive impact on CO_2 emissions trends in Spain. After reviewing the current mitigation measures in Spain, one policy recommendation is suggested to avoid the rebound effect and to enhance the fight against Climate Change that is tax benefits for those companies that prove reductions in their energy intensity ratios. - Highlights: • Kyoto's Protocol and European Directives acted against CO_2 emissions in Spain. • Changes in primary energy mix acted against increasing CO_2 emissions. • Energy efficiency seems to have improved. • Historical analysis gives support for most mitigation measures currently in force.

  19. Globalization and Institutional Change : Are Emerging Market Economies in Europe and Asia Converging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoen, Herman W.

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that globalization leads to a smaller world by institutional convergence. Politico-economic orders become alike across the world. The article analyzes institutional change triggered by the global financial crisis of 2008/2009 and compares developments in emerging markets in Europe

  20. The Employment Impact of Technological Change. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix Volume II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Eleven descriptive studies prepared by independent experts and dealing with the employment impact of technological change are presented. Part I contains (1) an analysis, at the establishment level, of employment-increasing growth of output and employment-decreasing growth of output per man-hour, (2) case studies of the elapsed time involved in the…

  1. Adjusting to Change. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix, Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Seven studies dealing with adjustment to technological change which were done by independent experts are presented. "Programs in Aid of the Poor," by Sar A. Levitan assesses the state of social insurance, public assistance, the poverty program and other assistance to the poor and compares them to current proposals as the negative income…

  2. Statements Relating to the Impact of Technological Change. Technology and the American Economy, Appendix, Volume VI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Technology, Automation and Economic Progress, Washington, DC.

    Forty-seven statements by industrial and business spokesmen, union and association representatives, and professors concern the broad impact of technological change on individuals, establishments, and society in general. Some of the longer presentations are (1) "The Poverty and Unemployment Crisis," by Walter Buckingham, (2) "Technological…

  3. Rapid changes in the range limits of Scots pine 4000 years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gear, A.J.; Huntley, B.

    1991-01-01

    Paleoecological data provide estimates of response rates to past climate changes. Fossil Pinus sylvestris stumps in far northern Scotland demonstrate former presence of pine trees where conventional pollen evidence of pine forests is lacking. Radiocarbon, dendrochronological, and fine temporal-resolution palynological data show that pine forest were present for about four centuries some 4,000 years ago; the forests expanded and then retreated rapidly some 70 to 80 kilometers. Despite the rapidity of this response to climate change, it occurred at rates slower by an order of magnitude than those necessary to maintain equilibrium with forecast climate changes attributed to the greenhouse effect

  4. Understanding rapid theoretical change in particle physics: a month-by-month co-citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, D.; Koester, D.; White, D.H.; Kern, R.

    1979-01-01

    While co-citation analysis has proved a powerful tool in the study of changes in intellectual foci in science, no one has ever used the technique to study very rapid changes in the theoretical structure of a scientific field. This paper presents month-by-month co-citation analyses of key phases in the weak-electromagnetic unification research program within particle physics, and shows that these analyses capture and illuminate very rapid intellectual changes. These data provide yet another illustration of the utility of co-citation analysis for understanding the history of science. 8 figures

  5. Rapid climate change did not cause population collapse at the end of the European Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armit, Ian; Swindles, Graeme T; Becker, Katharina; Plunkett, Gill; Blaauw, Maarten

    2014-12-02

    The impact of rapid climate change on contemporary human populations is of global concern. To contextualize our understanding of human responses to rapid climate change it is necessary to examine the archeological record during past climate transitions. One episode of abrupt climate change has been correlated with societal collapse at the end of the northwestern European Bronze Age. We apply new methods to interrogate archeological and paleoclimate data for this transition in Ireland at a higher level of precision than has previously been possible. We analyze archeological (14)C dates to demonstrate dramatic population collapse and present high-precision proxy climate data, analyzed through Bayesian methods, to provide evidence for a rapid climatic transition at ca. 750 calibrated years B.C. Our results demonstrate that this climatic downturn did not initiate population collapse and highlight the nondeterministic nature of human responses to past climate change.

  6. Curioser and Curioser: New Concepts in the Rapidly Changing Landscape of Educational Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Frances C.

    1999-01-01

    The new "Handbook" assumes that society is changing rapidly and educational administration must change with it. This article critiques chapters on four concepts: ideology, the new consumerism, social capital, and the new institutionalism. Consumerism is pure 19th-century liberalism/individualism; social capital theory and…

  7. Global trade will accelerate plant invasions in emerging economies under climate change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seebens, H.; Essl, F.; Dawson, W.; Fuentes, N.; Moser, D.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; van Kleunen, M.; Weber, E.; Winter, M.; Blasius, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 11 (2015), s. 4128-4140 ISSN 1354-1013 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G; GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/11/1028 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : plant invasions * climate change * trade Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 8.444, year: 2015

  8. Changing Workplaces in the Knowledge-Based Economy -- Evidence from Micro Data

    OpenAIRE

    Spitz-Oener, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This thesis includes four essays on various aspects of how workplaces have been changing in recent decades, all being characterized by the shift towards knowledge-based activities in production and the extensive spread of information and communication technologies at the workplace. The content of Chapter 1 is twofold. It includes a descriptive analysis that establishes the stylized facts about trends in occupational skill requirements in West Germany since 1979. It then provides evidence on t...

  9. Towards low energy consumption in Finland - An ecological change in economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sairinen, R.; Jaervilehto, P.

    1994-01-01

    Per capita energy consumption in Finland is twice the OECD average. Could Finland become a society with low energy consumption? What would that mean and why we need lower energy consumption and higher efficiency? These are questions dealt with in this article. The authors suggest that ecological goals could and should be considered in connection with the necessary changes in the economic structures resulting from the present economic depression. (orig.)

  10. Transitional economy, technological change and women's employment: the case of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Nhat Tuyen

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the changing labor and gender relations in the process of economic change in Vietnam. The report also explores the extent of opportunities for women emerging from the processes of technological change and economic liberalization. Vietnam was able to achieve considerable progress and growth with the introduction of the policy package known as doi-moi (renovation). Along with liberalization, came withdrawal of state support in vital social sectors. Under socialism, the state had observed a set of minimum labor standards and provided facilities such as childcare, which were crucial in enabling women to participate in the public sphere. With the state receding into the background, labor has been made much vulnerable to exploitation by internal and external forces. Much affected are women who have steadily been losing all support from the state, which also affects their ability to compete equally with men in the market. Therefore, although there is a Labor Code, which guarantees the rights of workers, in particular the rights of women workers, not many women in the nonstate sector can practically enjoy its legal benefits. In order to correct this situation, the government should develop a program for the implementation and monitoring of the Labor Code, with a special focus on possible violations in the private sector.

  11. An 'agenda for change': Quantifying climate change impacts on natural resource-based economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, James; Reid, Hannah; Sahlen, Linda

    2006-10-15

    For climate change adaptation to be beneficial to developing countries, it must begin quickly and this will require domestic political will. The third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) made clear that even if the Kyoto Protocol is fully implemented, inertia in climatic systems means that some level of climate change is unavoidable. The countries most vulnerable to CC include many developing nations; while those better-able to adapt and less willing to mitigate are those most guilty of past pollution, including many developed nations.

  12. The greenhouse effect economy: a review of international commitments for the struggle against climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieillefosse, A.

    2008-01-01

    After a description of climate change as a physical phenomenon, a review of assessments of costs associated to climate change and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and a discussion about the decision in a context of uncertainty, the author discusses political challenges, stressing the need for an international coordination, discussing the issue of property rights, the need to build a mutually beneficial agreement between states, and reviewing the different positions and beliefs in various countries. Then, she describes the system implemented by the Kyoto protocol, proposes an assessment of this protocol at the present time, highlights the qualities of this protocol, proposes pathways to improve it, and attempts to draw some perspectives. In a last part, she examines and comments the U.S. posture, questioning the high level of EU's ambitions in front of a lack of action of the United States, questioning also the negotiation framework, the place given to developing countries in this negotiation, and the possibility of taking up transatlantic negotiations again

  13. Token economy for schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMonagle, T

    2000-01-01

    A token economy is a behavioural therapy technique in which the desired change is achieved by means of tokens administered for the performance of predefined behaviours according to a program. Though token economy programmes were widespread in the 1970s they became largely restricted to wards where long-stay patients from institutions are prepared for transfer into the community and were particularly aimed at changing negative symptoms of schizophrenia - poor motivation, poor attention and social withdrawal.

  14. WHY THE SUDDEN CHANGE OF THE POLITICAL REGIME IS DETERMINING RISK IN ECONOMY AND SOCIETY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Lucian MEHEDINTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors aim to gather an in-depth understanding of the evolution of manking throughout the history and its political regimes, and in the same time are analizing and determining the components of the social function that exercised a great influence on the stability and dynamics of the production and consumption, pointing out that any social organization that wants to remain rational should have as a primary objective the happiness of the people, that so called,“general happiness”, that could only be achieved through education, culture, raising people's moral and intellectual knowledge. Since any political system does not seek the general good, but the one of some persons or a specific group of people, there is only very little communion between them and the people or is entirely missing and for these reasons their reign won’t be long, because the people are always wanting a political change. This "social problem" occurred because of some significant social movements, socialist doctrines whose effects still persist in present times. The efforts of the profound thinkers and mankind throughout the history, with all the positive developments did not materialize in achieving a society in which wealth is equitably distributed, where the contributions of the people in getting them is equally shared that could satisfy the requirements and the needs of the majority members of the society. In all the transformations and society changes or the political regime of the state, the human being represented the base, with its unlimited evolution and thinking, and all of these were achieved in time and were given by a certain social environment. The human being can not be separated from its social environment. He is born to live in the society, but the freedom can not be unlimited of course. The history has shown that all the hasty attempts suffered the same fate and the only sustainable progress made by the people were those who came out

  15. Tobacco-free economy: A SAM-based multiplier model to quantify the impact of changes in tobacco demand in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Muhammad Jami; Khondker, Bazlul Haque

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, where tobacco use is pervasive, reducing tobacco use is economically beneficial. This paper uses the latest Bangladesh social accounting matrix (SAM) multiplier model to quantify the economy-wide impact of demand-driven changes in tobacco cultivation, bidi industries, and cigarette industries. First, we compute various income multiplier values (i.e. backward linkages) for all production activities in the economy to quantify the impact of changes in demand for the corresponding products on gross output for 86 activities, demand for 86 commodities, returns to four factors of production, and income for eight household groups. Next, we rank tobacco production activities by income multiplier values relative to other sectors. Finally, we present three hypothetical 'tobacco-free economy' scenarios by diverting demand from tobacco products into other sectors of the economy and quantifying the economy-wide impact. The simulation exercises with three different tobacco-free scenarios show that, compared to the baseline values, total sectoral output increases by 0.92%, 1.3%, and 0.75%. The corresponding increases in the total factor returns (i.e. GDP) are 1.57%, 1.75%, and 1.75%. Similarly, total household income increases by 1.40%, 1.58%, and 1.55%.

  16. Nurturing compassion through care-giving and care-receiving: the changing moral economy of AIDs in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuah-Pearce, Khun Eng; Guiheux, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Based on the case study of an Aids clinic operated in Nanning by MSF, this paper looks at how one international NGO, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF, or Doctors Without Borders), deals with the HIV-carrier patients in Nanning, the capital of Guangxi province in China. It explores the process of care-giving to the HIV patients by MSF employees (both foreign and local) and how the patients react to the 'care-receiving' provided by this foreign NGO. This is especially pertinent in China today as HIV-patients are the victims of discriminating policies and are still very much discriminated by the general population. MSF, viewed by the victims as a foreign NGO, is regarded as an organization seen as promoting a changing and compassionate attitude toward AIDs patients through their anonymous and non-discriminating practices. Through the practices and the discourse of MSF workers and the testimonies of the patients, this paper looks at how the moral economy of AIDs is evolving from a repressive and discriminative attitude towards the compassionate attention to individual suffering. As such, MSF, through its actions, is seen as one of the agents promoting attitudinal changes toward disadvantaged groups and is facilitating the emergence of an emotional and compassionate subject.

  17. The food industry and provincial economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed.

  18. The changing political economy of sex in South Africa: the significance of unemployment and inequalities to the scale of the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Mark

    2007-02-01

    Between 1990 and 2005, HIV prevalence rates in South Africa jumped from less than 1% to around 29%. Important scholarship has demonstrated how racialized structures entrenched by colonialism and apartheid set the scene for the rapid unfolding of the AIDS pandemic, like other causes of ill-health before it. Of particular relevance is the legacy of circular male-migration, an institution that for much of the 20th century helped to propel the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among black South Africans denied permanent urban residence. But while the deep-rooted antecedents of AIDS have been noted, less attention has been given to more recent changes in the political economy of sex, including those resulting from the post-apartheid government's adoption of broadly neo-liberal policies. As an unintentional consequence, male migration and apartheid can be seen as almost inevitably resulting in AIDS, a view that can disconnect the pandemic from contemporary social and economic debates. Combining ethnographic, historical, and demographic approaches, and focusing on sexuality in the late apartheid and early post-apartheid periods, this article outlines three interlinked dynamics critical to understanding the scale of the AIDS pandemic: (1) rising unemployment and social inequalities that leave some groups, especially poor women, extremely vulnerable; (2) greatly reduced marital rates and the subsequent increase of one person households; and (3) rising levels of women's migration, especially through circular movements between rural areas and informal settlements/urban areas. As a window into these changes, the article gives primary attention to the country's burgeoning informal settlements--spaces in which HIV rates are reported to be twice the national average--and to connections between poverty and money/sex exchanges.

  19. Economies, Public Finances, and the Impact of Institutional Changes in Interregional Perspective : The Low Countries and Neighbouring German Territories (14th-17th centuries)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, Remi

    2015-01-01

    The way and extent to which differences in economic systems and stages of development, and the impact of institutional changes affected the political economy and fiscal systems of regions, or vice versa, is the overall theme of this volume. One major problem is the non-convergence of economic

  20. Monitoring changes in seismic velocity related to an ongoing rapid inflation event at Okmok volcano, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennington, Ninfa; Haney, Matt; De Angelis, Silvio; Thurber, Clifford; Freymueller, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Okmok is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc. In an effort to improve our ability to detect precursory activity leading to eruption at Okmok, we monitor a recent, and possibly ongoing, GPS-inferred rapid inflation event at the volcano using ambient noise interferometry (ANI). Applying this method, we identify changes in seismic velocity outside of Okmok’s caldera, which are related to the hydrologic cycle. Within the caldera, we observe decreases in seismic velocity that are associated with the GPS-inferred rapid inflation event. We also determine temporal changes in waveform decorrelation and show a continual increase in decorrelation rate over the time associated with the rapid inflation event. Themagnitude of relative velocity decreases and decorrelation rate increases are comparable to previous studies at Piton de la Fournaise that associate such changes with increased production of volatiles and/ormagmatic intrusion within the magma reservoir and associated opening of fractures and/or fissures. Notably, the largest decrease in relative velocity occurs along the intrastation path passing nearest to the center of the caldera. This observation, along with equal amplitude relative velocity decreases revealed via analysis of intracaldera autocorrelations, suggests that the inflation sourcemay be located approximately within the center of the caldera and represent recharge of shallow magma storage in this location. Importantly, there is a relative absence of seismicity associated with this and previous rapid inflation events at Okmok. Thus, these ANI results are the first seismic evidence of such rapid inflation at the volcano.

  1. The transition from industrial (traditional to new (information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 20th century a new economy and a new information society emerged, as a result of achieving the third and the transition to the fourth scientific and technological revolution. The basis of this new economy lies in the transition from the industrial production to the production based on information and technology. The new economy contributes to changing the character of the factors of production, the structure of the value produced the motives of production, the workers’ position (robots replacing slaves etc. Besides labor, capital, land and entrepreneurship, information appears to be the fifth and the most important factor of production. The Internet is becoming the foundation of the new economy and contributes to changing the way people learn and do research, as well as to reducing the burden of administration, changing the way of competition, reducing operating costs crossing national borders and leading to the process of globalization of the world economy into an integral entity. Some basic characteristics of this new economy are the following: the information basis of production, rapid changes of products, flexible production systems, network organization of production, integration, services backed by products, skills and knowledge generalization, education, knowledge and talent becoming the most important factor of the socio-economic growth and development, etc. The new economy leads to a number of advantages when compared to the traditional one. However, it also has a number of negative consequences: pollution indebtedness of underdeveloped countries, widening the gap between the development level of regions, countries and individuals, growing inflation unemployment etc. But the new economy is objectively conditioned and the task of each national economy is to determine the most favorable way of its incorporation into this new economy (globalization.

  2. Rapid ecosystem change challenges the adaptive capacity of Local Environmental Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Luz, Ana C; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2015-03-01

    The use of Local Environmental Knowledge has been considered as an important strategy for adaptive management in the face of Global Environmental Change. However, the unprecedented rates at which global change occurs may pose a challenge to the adaptive capacity of local knowledge systems. In this paper, we use the concept of the shifting baseline syndrome to examine the limits in the adaptive capacity of the local knowledge of an indigenous society facing rapid ecosystem change. We conducted semi-structured interviews regarding perceptions of change in wildlife populations and in intergenerational transmission of knowledge amongst the Tsimane', a group of hunter-gatherers of Bolivian Amazonia ( n = 300 adults in 13 villages). We found that the natural baseline against which the Tsimane' measure ecosystem changes might be shifting with every generation as a result of (a) age-related differences in the perception of change and (b) a decrease in the intergenerational sharing of environmental knowledge. Such findings suggest that local knowledge systems might not change at a rate quick enough to adapt to conditions of rapid ecosystem change, hence potentially compromising the adaptive success of the entire social-ecological system. With the current pace of Global Environmental Change, widening the gap between the temporal rates of on-going ecosystem change and the timescale needed for local knowledge systems to adjust to change, efforts to tackle the shifting baseline syndrome are urgent and critical for those who aim to use Local Environmental Knowledge as a tool for adaptive management.

  3. Engaging Chicago residents in climate change action: Results from Rapid Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne M. Westphal; Jennifer. Hirsch

    2010-01-01

    Addressing climate change requires action at all levels of society, from neighborhood to international levels. Using Rapid Ethnography rooted in Asset Based Community Development theory, we investigated climate-friendly attitudes and behaviors in two Chicago neighborhoods in order to assist the City with implementation of its Climate Action Plan. Our research suggests...

  4. Computed tomographic demonstration of rapid changes in fatty infiltration of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashist, B.; Hecht, H.L.; Harely, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    Two alcoholic patients in whom computed tomography (CT) demonstrated reversal of fatty infiltration of the liver are described. The rapid reversibility of fatty infiltration can be useful in monitoring alcoholics with fatty livers. Focal fatty infiltration can mimic focal hepatic lesions and repeat scans can be utilized to assess changes in CT attenuation values when this condition is suspected

  5. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  6. Rapid stress-induced transcriptomic changes in the brain depend on beta-adrenergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowski, Martin; Manuella, Francesca; von Ziegler, Lukas; Durán-Pacheco, Gonzalo; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Bohacek, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Acute exposure to stressful experiences can rapidly increase anxiety and cause neuropsychiatric disorders. The effects of stress result in part from the release of neurotransmitters and hormones, which regulate gene expression in different brain regions. The fast neuroendocrine response to stress is largely mediated by norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), followed by a slower and more sustained release of corticosterone. While corticosterone is an important regulator of gene expression, it is not clear which stress-signals contribute to the rapid regulation of gene expression observed immediately after stress exposure. Here, we demonstrate in mice that 45 min after an acute swim stress challenge, large changes in gene expression occur across the transcriptome in the hippocampus, a region sensitive to the effects of stress. We identify multiple candidate genes that are rapidly and transiently altered in both males and females. Using a pharmacological approach, we show that most of these rapidly induced genes are regulated by NE through β-adrenergic receptor signaling. We find that CRH and corticosterone can also contribute to rapid changes in gene expression, although these effects appear to be restricted to fewer genes. These results newly reveal a widespread impact of NE on the transcriptome and identify novel genes associated with stress and adrenergic signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Value Creation in the Knowledge-Based Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Effective investment strategies help companies form dynamic core organizational capabilities allowing them to adapt and survive in today's rapidly changing knowledge-based economy. This dissertation investigates three valuation issues that challenge managers with respect to developing business-critical investment strategies that can have…

  8. Integrated ocean management as a strategy to meet rapid climate change: the Norwegian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoel, Alf Håkon; Olsen, Erik

    2012-02-01

    The prospects of rapid climate change and the potential existence of tipping points in marine ecosystems where nonlinear change may result from them being overstepped, raises the question of strategies for coping with ecosystem change. There is broad agreement that the combined forces of climate change, pollution and increasing economic activities necessitates more comprehensive approaches to oceans management, centering on the concept of ecosystem-based oceans management. This article addresses the Norwegian experience in introducing integrated, ecosystem-based oceans management, emphasizing how climate change, seen as a major long-term driver of change in ecosystems, is addressed in management plans. Understanding the direct effects of climate variability and change on ecosystems and indirect effects on human activities is essential for adaptive planning to be useful in the long-term management of the marine environment.

  9. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  10. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  11. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  12. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  13. Land use changes in Himalaya and their impacts on environment, society and economy: A study of the Lake Region in Kumaon Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Prakash

    2008-11-01

    The traditional resource use structure in Himalaya has transformed considerably during the recent past, mainly owing to the growth of population and the resultant increased demand of natural resources in the region. This transformation in resource use practices is particularly significant in the densely populated tracts of Himalaya. As a result, cultivated land, forests, pastures and rangelands have been deteriorated and depleted steadily and significantly leading to their conversion into degraded and non-productive lands. These rapid land use changes have not only disrupted the fragile ecological equilibrium in the mountains through indiscriminate deforestation, degradation of land resources and disruption of the hydrological cycle, but also have significant and irreversible adverse impacts on the rural economy, society, livelihood and life quality of mountain communities. It has been observed that the agricultural production has declined, water sources are drying up fast due to decreased ground water recharge and a large number of villages are facing enormous deficit of critical resources, such as food, fodder, firewood and water, mainly due to unabated deforestation. As a result, the rural people, particularly the women, have to travel considerably long distances to collect fodder and firewood and to fetching water. It is therefore highly imperative to evolve a comprehensive and integrated land use framework for the conservation of the biophysical environment and sustainable development of natural resources in Himalaya. The land use policy would help local communities in making use of their natural resources scientifically and judiciously, and thus help in the conservation of the biophysical environment and in the increasing of the productivity of natural resources. The study indicates that conservation of forests and other critical natural resources through community participation, generation of alternative means of livelihood, and employment in rural areas can

  14. Polish country study to address climate change: Strategies of the GHG`s emission reduction and adaptation of the Polish economy to the changed climate. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Polish Country Study Project was initiated in 1992 as a result of the US Country Study Initiative whose objective was to grant the countries -- signatories of the United Nations` Framework Convention on Climate Change -- assistance that will allow them to fulfill their obligations in terms of greenhouse gases (GHG`s) inventory, preparation of strategies for the reduction of their emission, and adapting their economies to the changed climatic conditions. In February 1993, in reply to the offer from the United States Government, the Polish Government expressed interest in participation in this program. The Study proposal, prepared by the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry was presented to the US partner. The program proposal assumed implementation of sixteen elements of the study, encompassing elaboration of scenarios for the strategy of mission reduction in energy sector, industry, municipal management, road transport, forestry, and agriculture, as well as adaptations to be introduced in agriculture, forestry, water management, and coastal management. The entire concept was incorporated in macroeconomic strategy scenarios. A complementary element was the elaboration of a proposal for economic and legal instruments to implement the proposed strategies. An additional element was proposed, namely the preparation of a scenario of adapting the society to the expected climate changes.

  15. A bioinspired color-changing polystyrene microarray as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Weng, Hsueh-Ping; Hsu, Jyun-Jheng; Yu, Hsin Her

    2016-01-01

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and arranged in an array of closely packed, opal-like photonic crystals by slow self-assembly through dip-coating. This periodic array of PS microspheres was then employed as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol. Both solvents could be detected rapidly based on the routes of their reflection coordinates in the chromaticity diagram or directly by the naked eye on the basis of the change in color within 1 min once a solvent sample had been placed on the PS photochromic sensor. This opal-like PS sensor can thus not only be employed as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol but can also be used as a powerful tool for the fast screening of illicit drugs and toxic chemicals during forensic investigations. - Highlights: • Opal-like array of polystyrene (PS) microspheres is synthesized by self-assembly. • This periodic PS array is used as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol. • Solvents are detected by routes of reflection coordinates in chromaticity diagram. • They are also detected directly by naked eye based on change in color of sensor. • The color change is irreversible for methanol but reversible for ethanol.

  16. A bioinspired color-changing polystyrene microarray as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai, E-mail: wkkuo@nfu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Weng, Hsueh-Ping, E-mail: sherry.weng7949@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jyun-Jheng, E-mail: k88520x@gmail.com [Graduate Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: hhyu@nfu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Polystyrene (PS) microspheres were synthesized by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization and arranged in an array of closely packed, opal-like photonic crystals by slow self-assembly through dip-coating. This periodic array of PS microspheres was then employed as a rapid qualitative sensor for methanol and ethanol. Both solvents could be detected rapidly based on the routes of their reflection coordinates in the chromaticity diagram or directly by the naked eye on the basis of the change in color within 1 min once a solvent sample had been placed on the PS photochromic sensor. This opal-like PS sensor can thus not only be employed as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol but can also be used as a powerful tool for the fast screening of illicit drugs and toxic chemicals during forensic investigations. - Highlights: • Opal-like array of polystyrene (PS) microspheres is synthesized by self-assembly. • This periodic PS array is used as a rapid sensor for methanol and ethanol. • Solvents are detected by routes of reflection coordinates in chromaticity diagram. • They are also detected directly by naked eye based on change in color of sensor. • The color change is irreversible for methanol but reversible for ethanol.

  17. Future Job Openings: Australia in the Knowledge Economy. Project 2000-02: Changing Skill Requirements in the Australian Labour Force in a Knowledge Economy. Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chandra; Burke, Gerald

    Forecasts of Australian labor market growth, net replacement needs, and net job openings to 2006 are presented using the nine-way grouping of occupations described by (Maglen and Shah, 1999). Analysis is based on classifying occupations by whether they are advantaged by globalization and technological change, relatively insulated, or vulnerable.…

  18. ECONOMY AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg BOGOMOLOV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Market reforms in the post-socialist countries have brought into sharp focus the problem of interconnection and interaction between the economy and the social environment. The economy is inseparable from politics and the operation of the political system, from the state of the social consciousness, the moral and cultural level of the population and from many other aspects of human life and behavior, in short, from everything that can be described by the concept of social environment. Society in every country is a single organism with closely interconnected and interacting parts and systems. Their conjugation and mutual influence are not always apparent and are often overlooked. It is quite easy to see how changes in policy affect the economy and then trace the feedback effect of the economy on policy. It is more difficult to discern the direct and feedback relationship of the economy with administrative relations, with the state of culture, science, morals and public opinion. Meanwhile, an underestimation of these mutual influences is a frequent cause of failures in socio-economic transformation. It is to be regretted that the reforms in Russia were accompanied by a dangerous disruption not only of the economy, but also of the entire system of social relations. What was primary here and what was secondary? In order to answer this question the paper takes a theoretical look at the problem of interaction between the economy and the social environment.

  19. OIL EXPLOITATION REGULATIONAL FRAMEWORK AND EFFECTS IN THE SECTOR AND ITS RELATION TO THE WHOLE ECONOMY: THE CASE OF BRAZIL’S 1997 CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Emmanuel Santana Borges

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world lives a context of energetic pre-crisis, and Brazil has discovered new big reserves of the “black gold”, which led to changing the regulation framework of its exploitation in the country. This paper focuses on the last change in that framework, in 1997, and tries to evaluate its effects in the production and its links to the rest of Brazilian economy. Using data derived from the I-O matrix in the supply side, and Balance of Payments data, we try to see if there were meaningful changes in the period 1998-2007 from the period 1990-1997 in terms of the oil sector linkage to the rest of the economy, technological modernization, its relation to employment and average earnings , and its impacts in the external insertion of the country (exports and dividends balance.

  20. Car buyers and fuel economy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrentine, Thomas S.; Kurani, Kenneth S.

    2007-01-01

    This research is designed to help researchers and policy makers ground their work in the reality of how US consumers are thinking and behaving with respect to automotive fuel economy. Our data are from semi-structured interviews with 57 households across nine lifestyle 'sectors.' We found no household that analyzed their fuel costs in a systematic way in their automobile or gasoline purchases. Almost none of these households track gasoline costs over time or consider them explicitly in household budgets. These households may know the cost of their last tank of gasoline and the unit price of gasoline on that day, but this accurate information is rapidly forgotten and replaced by typical information. One effect of this lack of knowledge and information is that when consumers buy a vehicle, they do not have the basic building blocks of knowledge assumed by the model of economically rational decision-making, and they make large errors estimating gasoline costs and savings over time. Moreover, we find that consumer value for fuel economy is not only about private cost savings. Fuel economy can be a symbolic value as well, for example among drivers who view resource conservation or thrift as important values to communicate. Consumers also assign non-monetary meaning to fuel prices, for example seeing rising prices as evidence of conspiracy. This research suggests that consumer responses to fuel economy technology and changes in fuel prices are more complex than economic assumptions suggest. The US Department of Energy and the Energy Foundation supported this research. The authors are solely responsible for the content and conclusions presented

  1. Water-ecosystem-economy nexus under human intervention and climate change: a study in the Heihe River Basin (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Tian, Y.; Wu, X.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, "One Belt and One Road" initiative, namely, building the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and "21st Century Maritime Silk Road", has become a global strategy of China and has been discussed as China's "Marshall Plan". The overland route of "One Belt" comes across vast arid lands, where the local population and ecosystem compete keenly for limited water resources. Water and environmental securities represent an important constraint of the "One Belt" development, and therefore understanding the complex water-ecosystem-economy nexus in the arid inland areas is very important. One typical case is Heihe River Basin (HRB), the second largest inland river basin of China, where the croplands in its middle part sucked up the river flow and groundwater, causing serious ecological problems in its lower part (Gobi Desert). We have developed an integrated hydrological-ecological model for the middle and lower HRB (the modeling domain has an area of 90,589 km2), which served as a platform to fuse multi-source data and provided a coherent understanding on the regional water cycle. With this physically based model, we quantitatively investigated how the nexus would be impacted by human intervention, mainly the existing and potential water regulations, and what would be the uncertainty of the nexus under the climate change. In studying the impact of human intervention, simulation-optimization analyses based on surrogate modeling were performed. In studying the uncertainty resulted from the climate change, outputs of multiple GCMs were downscaled for this river basin to drive ecohydrological simulations. Our studies have demonstrated the significant tradeoffs among the crop production in the middle HRB, the water and environmental securities of the middle HRB, and the ecological health of the lower HRB. The underlying mechanisms of the tradeoffs were also systematically addressed. The climate change would cause notable uncertainty of the nexus, which makes the water resources

  2. Rapid Hip Osteoarthritis Development in a Patient with Anterior Acetabular Cyst with Sagittal Alignment Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Homma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly destructive coxarthrosis (RDC is rare and develops unusual clinical course. Recent studies suggest multiple possible mechanisms of the development of RDC. However the exact mechanism of RDC is still not clear. The difficulty of the study on RDC is attributed to its rareness and the fact that the data before the onset of RDC is normally unavailable. In this report, we presented the patient having the radiographic data before the onset who had rapid osteoarthritis (OA development after contralateral THA, which meets the current criteria of RDC. We thought that the increased posterior tilt of the pelvis after THA reinforced the stress concentration at pre-existed anterior acetabular cyst, thereby the destruction of the cyst was occurred. As a result the rapid OA was developed. We think that there is the case of rapid osteoarthritis developing due to alternating load concentration by posterior pelvic tilt on preexisting anterior acetabular cyst such as our patient among the cases diagnosed as RDC without any identifiable etiology. The recognition of sagittal alignment changes and anterior acetabular cyst may play important role in prediction and prevention of the rapid hip osteoarthritis development similar to RDC.

  3. Rapid change of field line connectivity and reconnection in stochastic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yi-Min; Bhattacharjee, A.; Boozer, Allen H.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields without a direction of continuous symmetry have the generic feature that neighboring field lines exponentiate away from each other and become stochastic, and hence the ideal constraint of preserving magnetic field line connectivity becomes exponentially sensitive to small deviations from ideal Ohm's law. The idea of breaking field line connectivity by stochasticity as a mechanism for fast reconnection is tested with numerical simulations based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations with a strong guide field line-tied to two perfectly conducting end plates. Starting from an ideally stable force-free equilibrium, the system is allowed to undergo resistive relaxation. Two distinct phases are found in the process of resistive relaxation. During the quasi-static phase, rapid change of field line connectivity and strong induced flow are found in regions of high field line exponentiation. However, although the field line connectivity of individual field lines can change rapidly, the overall pattern of field line mapping appears to deform gradually. From this perspective, field line exponentiation appears to cause enhanced diffusion rather than reconnection. In some cases, resistive quasi-static evolution can cause the ideally stable initial equilibrium to cross a stability threshold, leading to formation of intense current filaments and rapid change of field line mapping into a qualitatively different pattern. It is in this onset phase that the change of field line connectivity is more appropriately designated as magnetic reconnection. Our results show that rapid change of field line connectivity appears to be a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for fast reconnection.

  4. Monitoring changes in economy-wide energy efficiency: From energy-GDP ratio to composite efficiency index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1973 world oil crisis, monitoring trends in energy efficiency at the economy-wide level has been an important component of energy strategy in many countries. To support this effort, various energy efficiency-related indicators have been developed. We examine some classical indicators which are often found in national and international energy studies in the 1970s and 1980s. We then describe the recent developments in using the index decomposition analysis to give an economy-wide composite energy efficiency index based on a bottom-up approach. This composite index is superior to the classical indicators as an economy-wide energy efficiency measure and has lately been adopted by a growing number of countries for national energy efficiency trend monitoring

  5. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. New type of Piezoresistive Pressure Sensors for Environments with Rapidly Changing Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhan Myroslav

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical aspects of a new type of piezo-resistive pressure sensors for environments with rapidly changing temperatures are presented. The idea is that the sensor has two identical diaphragms which have different coefficients of linear thermal expansion. Therefore, when measuring pressure in environments with variable temperature, the diaphragms will have different deflection. This difference can be used to make appropriate correction of the sensor output signal and, thus, to increase accuracy of measurement. Since physical principles of sensors operation enable fast correction of the output signal, the sensor can be used in environments with rapidly changing temperature, which is its essential advantage. The paper presents practical implementation of the proposed theoretical aspects and the results of testing the developed sensor.

  7. Energy Security and Climate Change Policy in the OECD: The Political Economy of Carbon-Energy Taxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Erick

    Why do countries tax the same fuels at widely different rates, even among similarly situated countries in the global political economy? Given the potentially destabilizing effects of climate change, and the political and economic risks associated with a reliance on geographically concentrated, finite fossil fuels, International Organizations and economists of all political stripes have consistently called for increasing tax rates on fossil-based energy. Despite much enthusiasm among policy experts, however, politicians concerned with distributional consequences, economic performance and competitiveness impacts continue to be wary of raising taxes on carbon-based fuels. In this context, this thesis investigates the political economy of tax rates affecting the price of fossil fuels in advanced capitalist democracies. Through an examination of the political limits of government capacity to implement stricter carbon-energy policy, as well as the identification of the correlates of higher carbon-based energy taxes, it throws new light on the conditions under which carbon-energy tax reform becomes politically possible. Based on recent data collected from the OECD, EEA and IEA, I develop an estimate of the relative size of implicit carbon taxes across OECD member countries on six carbon-based fuels and across the household and industrial sectors. I exploit large cross-national differences in these carbon-energy tax rates in order to identify the correlates of, and constraints on, carbon-energy tax reform. Applying multiple regression analysis to both cross-section and time-series cross-sectional (TSCS) data, this thesis leverages considerable empirical evidence to demonstrate how and why electoral systems matter for energy and environmental tax policy outcomes. In particular, I find considerable empirical evidence to support the claim that systems of proportional representation (PR), in addition to the partisan preferences of the electorate, work together to explain

  8. Environmental impacts of rapid water level changes; Miljoekonsekvenser av raske vannstandsendringer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnekleiv, Jo Vegar; Bakken, Tor Haakon; Bogen, Jim; Boensnes, Truls Erik; Elster, Margrethe; Harby, Atle; Kutznetsova, Yulia; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Sauterleute, Julian; Stickler, Morten; Sundt, Haakon; Tjomsland, Torulv; Ugedal, Ola

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes the state of knowledge of the environmental impacts of power driving and rapid water level changes and describes possible mitigation measures. The report assesses the environmental effects of possible increased power installation in Mauranger and Tonstad power plants, based on existing data and knowledge. At Straumsmo plants in Barduelva there are collected some physical data and the environmental impact of existing power driving is considered. (eb)

  9. Changes in Running Economy, Respiratory Exchange Ratio and VO2max in Runners following a 10-day Altitude Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diebel, Sebastian R; Newhouse, Ian; Thompson, David S; Johnson, Vineet B K

    2017-01-01

    Running economy (RE) and VO 2 max are important predictors of endurance performance for elite and semi-elite endurance athletes, with RE being an appropriate predictor in a homogenous running population. Altitude training has been observed to change RE (mL.kg -1 .min -1 ), and VO 2 max due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study tracked changes in RE and VO 2 max before and after a 10-day altitude training camp at 1828 meters. VO 2 max, RE expressed calorically, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER), were measured below anaerobic threshold (AT) to observe differences between pre-and post-altitude training. Eight varsity cross-country runners between the ages of 18 and 22 years performed an incremental treadmill test, pre- and post-10-day altitude training. Paired samples t-tests were used to statistically analyze the data. Average RE (VO 2 mL.kg -1 .min -1 ) improved following altitude intervention ( M = 56.44 ± 4.28) compared to pre-altitude training (61.30 ± 7.56). These differences were statistically significant t ( 7 )= 2.71, p =.014. RE expressed as kcals.kg -1 .km -1 improved following altitude training (16.73 ± 2.96) compared to (18.44 ± 4.04) pre-altitude training and was statistically significant t( 7 ) =3.08, p = .008. RER taken during the last minute of steady-state was higher (0.97, ± .019) post-altitude training, compared to (0.90 ± .043) pre-altitude. These differences were statistically significant t ( 7 ) -3.62, p =.008. VO 2 max (mL.kg -1 .min -1 ) was lower in 6 out of 8 participants (63.91, ± 8.65) post-altitude compared to (69.90, ± 10.80) pre-altitude and was statistically significant t( 7 ) = 2.33, p =.026. The observed improvements in RE may be beneficial for endurance athletes competing and/or training at moderate altitudes near 1828 meters.

  10. Digital Economy for Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyong Guo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent decades have seen a rapid digital transformation resulting in important and sometimes even crucial changes in business, society and the global economy. After the global crisis of 2008–2009, digital industries have been among the most dynamic and promising in the global economy. Nevertheless, the world lacks equilibrium between benefits and risks in the digital economy, which explains the need for global governance in this sphere. This article analyzes the role and characteristics of the G20 in the introduction of global governance in the digital economy. The authors review what’s meant by the digital economy and define the key characteristics of this sector, as well as highlight the challenges to international cooperation, analyze the digital strategies of G20 countries, study the G20’s participation in the global governance of the digital economy, analyze the potential for the leaders of China and Russia, and make recommendations concerning the participation of the G20 in the global governance of the digital economy. The authors arrive at the following conclusions. First, society has to govern the digital economy properly in order to eliminate disparities between developed and developing countries, as well as address cyber security and other threats, and promote a higher quality of life for all. Second, the G20 has very limited experience in the governing of the digital economy, but as a leader in terms of soft power, and as an organization with limited membership that includes both countries with a developed digital sector and countries that lag behind, it may play a great role in the digital economy’s global governance. Third, the US has historically been a leader in the IT sector and the digital economy. In recent years, China has sufficiently improved its positions, which allows it to aspire to a higher role in global governance. Russia may also play a greater (though not a leading role, taking into account its experience and

  11. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  12. Observation of reversible, rapid changes in drug susceptibility of hypoxic tumor cells in a microfluidic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain, Todd; Ansari, Megan; Pappas, Dimitri, E-mail: d.pappas@ttu.edu

    2016-09-14

    Hypoxia is a major stimulus for increased drug resistance and for survival of tumor cells. Work from our group and others has shown that hypoxia increases resistance to anti-cancer compounds, radiation, and other damage-pathway cytotoxic agents. In this work we utilize a microfluidic culture system capable of rapid switching of local oxygen concentrations to determine changes in drug resistance in prostate cancer cells. We observed rapid adaptation to hypoxia, with drug resistance to 2 μM staurosporine established within 30 min of hypoxia. Annexin-V/Sytox Green apoptosis assays over 9 h showed 78.0% viability, compared to 84.5% viability in control cells (normoxic cells with no staurosporine). Normoxic cells exposed to the same staurosporine concentration had a viability of 48.6% after 9 h. Hypoxia adaptation was rapid and reversible, with Hypoxic cells treated with 20% oxygen for 30 min responding to staurosporine with 51.6% viability after drug treatment for 9 h. Induction of apoptosis through the receptor-mediated pathway, which bypasses anti-apoptosis mechanisms induced by hypoxia, resulted in 39.4 ± 7% cell viability. The rapid reversibility indicates co-treatment of oxygen with anti-cancer compounds may be a potential therapeutic target. - Highlights: • Microfluidic system switches rapidly between normoxia and hypoxia (5 min). • Observation of rapid adaptation of PC3 cells to hypoxia and normoxia (30 min). • Drug susceptibility in tumor cells restored after chip switched to normoxia for 30 min.

  13. RAPID SPECTRAL CHANGES OF CYGNUS X-1 IN THE LOW/HARD STATE WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S.; Makishima, K. [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Negoro, H. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan); Torii, S.; Noda, H. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Mineshige, S. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2013-04-20

    Rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray on a timescale down to {approx}0.1 s are studied by applying a ''shot analysis'' technique to the Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1, performed on 2008 April 18 during the low/hard state. We successfully obtained the shot profiles, covering 10-200 keV with the Suzaku HXD-PIN and HXD-GSO detector. It is notable that the 100-200 keV shot profile is acquired for the first time owing to the HXD-GSO detector. The intensity changes in a time-symmetric way, though the hardness changes in a time-asymmetric way. When the shot-phase-resolved spectra are quantified with the Compton model, the Compton y-parameter and the electron temperature are found to decrease gradually through the rising phase of the shot, while the optical depth appears to increase. All the parameters return to their time-averaged values immediately within 0.1 s past the shot peak. We have not only confirmed this feature previously found in energies below {approx}60 keV, but also found that the spectral change is more prominent in energies above {approx}100 keV, implying the existence of some instant mechanism for direct entropy production. We discuss possible interpretations of the rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray band.

  14. [Developmental changes of rapid automatized naming and Hiragana reading of Japanese in elementary-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoka; Inagaki, Masumi; Gunji, Atsuko; Yatabe, Kiyomi; Kita, Yosuke; Kaga, Makiko; Gotoh, Takaaki; Koike, Toshihide

    2011-11-01

    Two hundred and seven Japanese elementary school children aged from 6 (Grade 1) to 12 (Grade 6) years old were tested for their abilities to name numbers and pictured objects along with reading Hiragana characters and words. These children all showed typical development and their classroom teachers judged that they were not having any problems with reading or writing. The children were randomly divided into two groups, the first group was assigned to two naming tasks;the rapid automatized naming (RAN) of "numbers" and "pictured objects," the second group was assigned to two rapid alternative stimulus (RAS) naming tasks using numbers and pictured objects. All children were asked to perform two reading tasks that were written in Hiragana script: single mora reading task and four syllable word reading task. The total articulation time for naming and reading and performance in terms of accuracy were measured for each task. Developmental changes in these variables were evaluated. The articulation time was significantly longer for the first graders, and it gradually shortened as they moved through to the upper grades in all tasks. The articulation time reached a plateau in the 5th grade for the number naming, while gradual change continued after drastic change in the lower grades for the pictured object naming. The articulation times for the single mora reading and RAN of numbers correlated strongly. The articulation time for the RAS naming was significantly longer compared to that for the RAN, though there were very few errors. The RAS naming showed the highest correlation with the four syllable word reading. This study demonstrated that the performance in rapid automatized naming of numbers and pictures were closely related with performance on reading tasks. Thus Japanese children with reading disorders such as developmental dyslexia should also be evaluated for rapid automatized naming.

  15. Observation of reversible, rapid changes in drug susceptibility of hypoxic tumor cells in a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Todd; Ansari, Megan; Pappas, Dimitri

    2016-09-14

    Hypoxia is a major stimulus for increased drug resistance and for survival of tumor cells. Work from our group and others has shown that hypoxia increases resistance to anti-cancer compounds, radiation, and other damage-pathway cytotoxic agents. In this work we utilize a microfluidic culture system capable of rapid switching of local oxygen concentrations to determine changes in drug resistance in prostate cancer cells. We observed rapid adaptation to hypoxia, with drug resistance to 2 μM staurosporine established within 30 min of hypoxia. Annexin-V/Sytox Green apoptosis assays over 9 h showed 78.0% viability, compared to 84.5% viability in control cells (normoxic cells with no staurosporine). Normoxic cells exposed to the same staurosporine concentration had a viability of 48.6% after 9 h. Hypoxia adaptation was rapid and reversible, with Hypoxic cells treated with 20% oxygen for 30 min responding to staurosporine with 51.6% viability after drug treatment for 9 h. Induction of apoptosis through the receptor-mediated pathway, which bypasses anti-apoptosis mechanisms induced by hypoxia, resulted in 39.4 ± 7% cell viability. The rapid reversibility indicates co-treatment of oxygen with anti-cancer compounds may be a potential therapeutic target. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution under changing climates: climatic niche stasis despite rapid evolution in a non-native plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jake M

    2013-09-22

    A topic of great current interest is the capacity of populations to adapt genetically to rapidly changing climates, for example by evolving the timing of life-history events, but this is challenging to address experimentally. I use a plant invasion as a model system to tackle this question by combining molecular markers, a common garden experiment and climatic niche modelling. This approach reveals that non-native Lactuca serriola originates primarily from Europe, a climatic subset of its native range, with low rates of admixture from Asia. It has rapidly refilled its climatic niche in the new range, associated with the evolution of flowering phenology to produce clines along climate gradients that mirror those across the native range. Consequently, some non-native plants have evolved development times and grow under climates more extreme than those found in Europe, but not among populations from the native range as a whole. This suggests that many plant populations can adapt rapidly to changed climatic conditions that are already within the climatic niche space occupied by the species elsewhere in its range, but that evolution to conditions outside of this range is more difficult. These findings can also help to explain the prevalence of niche conservatism among non-native species.

  17. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  18. More rapid climate change promotes evolutionary rescue through selection for increased dispersal distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeye, Jeroen; Travis, Justin M J; Stoks, Robby; Bonte, Dries

    2013-02-01

    Species can either adapt to new conditions induced by climate change or shift their range in an attempt to track optimal environmental conditions. During current range shifts, species are simultaneously confronted with a second major anthropogenic disturbance, landscape fragmentation. Using individual-based models with a shifting climate window, we examine the effect of different rates of climate change on the evolution of dispersal distances through changes in the genetically determined dispersal kernel. Our results demonstrate that the rate of climate change is positively correlated to the evolved dispersal distances although too fast climate change causes the population to crash. When faced with realistic rates of climate change, greater dispersal distances evolve than those required for the population to keep track of the climate, thereby maximizing population size. Importantly, the greater dispersal distances that evolve when climate change is more rapid, induce evolutionary rescue by facilitating the population in crossing large gaps in the landscape. This could ensure population persistence in case of range shifting in fragmented landscapes. Furthermore, we highlight problems in using invasion speed as a proxy for potential range shifting abilities under climate change.

  19. Rapid area change in pitch-up manoeuvres of small perching birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polet, D T; Rival, D E

    2015-10-26

    Rapid pitch-up has been highlighted as a mechanism to generate large lift and drag during landing manoeuvres. However, pitching rates had not been measured previously in perching birds, and so the direct applicability of computations and experiments to observed behaviour was not known. We measure pitch rates in a small, wild bird (the black-capped chickadee; Poecile atricapillus), and show that these rates are within the parameter range used in experiments. Pitching rates were characterized by the shape change number, a metric comparing the rate of frontal area increase to acceleration. Black-capped chickadees increase the shape change number during perching in direct proportion to their total kinetic and potential energy at the start of the manoeuvre. The linear relationship between dissipated energy and shape change number is in accordance with a simple analytical model developed for two-dimensional pitching and decelerating airfoils. Black-capped chickadees use a wing pitch-up manoeuvre during perching to dissipate energy quickly while maintaining lift and drag through rapid area change. It is suggested that similar pitch-and-decelerate manoeuvres could be used to aid in the controlled, precise landings of small manoeuvrable air vehicles.

  20. Tracking and unpacking rapid Arctic change: Indicators of community health and sustainability in northern Alaska and links to cryospheric change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicken, H.; Sam, J. M.; Mueller-stoffels, M.; Lovecraft, A. L.; Fresco, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    Tracking and responding to rapid Arctic change benefits from time series of indicator variables that describe the state of the system and can inform anticipatory action. A key challenge is to identify and monitor sets of indicators that capture relevant variability, trends, and transitions in social-environmental systems. We present findings from participatory scenarios focused on community health and sustainability in northern Alaska. In a series of workshops in 2015 and 2016 (Kotzebue workshop photo shown below), over 50 experts, mostly local, identified determinants of community health and sustainability by 2040 in the Northwest Arctic and North Slope Boroughs, Alaska. Drawing on further research, an initial set of factors and uncertainties was refined and prioritized into a total of 20 key drivers, ranging from governance issues to socio-economic and environmental factors. The research team then developed sets of future projections that describe plausible outcomes by mid-century for each of these drivers. A plausibility and consistency analysis of all pairwise combinations of these projections (following Mueller-Stoffels and Eicken, In: North by 2020 - Perspectives on Alaska's Changing Social-Ecological Systems, University of Alaska Press, 2011) resulted in the identification of robust scenarios. The latter were further reviewed by workshop participants, and a set of indicator variables, including indicators of relevant cryospheric change, was identified to help track trajectories towards plausible future states. Publically accessible recorded data only exist for a subset of the more than 70 indicators, reaching back a few years to several decades. For several indicators, the sampling rate or time series length are insufficient for tracking of and response to change. A core set of variables has been identified that meets indicator requirements and can serve as a tool for Alaska Arctic communities in adapting to or mitigating rapid change affecting community

  1. Rapidly reversible redox transformation in nanophase manganese oxides at room temperature triggered by changes in hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkner, Nancy; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2014-04-29

    Chemisorption of water onto anhydrous nanophase manganese oxide surfaces promotes rapidly reversible redox phase changes as confirmed by calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and titration for manganese average oxidation state. Surface reduction of bixbyite (Mn2O3) to hausmannite (Mn3O4) occurs in nanoparticles under conditions where no such reactions are seen or expected on grounds of bulk thermodynamics in coarse-grained materials. Additionally, transformation does not occur on nanosurfaces passivated by at least 2% coverage of what is likely an amorphous manganese oxide layer. The transformation is due to thermodynamic control arising from differences in surface energies of the two phases (Mn2O3 and Mn3O4) under wet and dry conditions. Such reversible and rapid transformation near room temperature may affect the behavior of manganese oxides in technological applications and in geologic and environmental settings.

  2. Rapid changes in gene expression direct rapid shifts in intestinal form and function in the Burmese python after feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Audra L.; Card, Daren C.; Ruggiero, Robert P.; Schield, Drew R.; Adams, Richard H.; Pollock, David D.; Secor, Stephen M.; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Snakes provide a unique and valuable model system for studying the extremes of physiological remodeling because of the ability of some species to rapidly upregulate organ form and function upon feeding. The predominant model species used to study such extreme responses has been the Burmese python because of the extreme nature of postfeeding response in this species. We analyzed the Burmese python intestine across a time series, before, during, and after feeding to understand the patterns and ...

  3. An Empirical Study on Key Indicators of Environmental Quality: Green Budgeting - a Catalyst for Sustainable Economy and a Factor for Institutional Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta – Maria Cimpoeru

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the phenomenon of institutional change through the implementation of sustainable strategies of medium-term budgeting, having as an effect the growth of opportunity to attract proper resources for social and environmental programs. The study analyzes green budget practices and suggests several ways to use them in order to ensure consistency in implementing key elements of sustainable economy. Thus, we conducted an empirical study to explain the decisive factors impact (greenhouse gas emissions and national income on health expenditure and we obtained statistically significant positive relationship, suggesting that green budgeting is an important factor for sustainable economy. The reasons behind the introduction of a sustainable perspective for budgeting in any country are important since they will dictate, to a large extent, the way the medium term budgeting will be institutionalized

  4. Oil exploitation regulational framework and effects in the sector and its relation to the whole economy: the case of Brazil’s 1997 change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Emmanuel Santana Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world lives a context of energetic pre-crisis, and Brazil has discovered newbig reserves of the “black gold”, which led to changing the regulation framework of itsexploitation in the country. This paper focuses in analysis, from last years, thechanges in oil production and tries to evaluate its effects in growth of production andits links to the rest of Brazilian economy. Using data derived from the I-O matrix in thesupply side, and Balance of Payments data, we try to see if there were meaningfulchanges in the period 1998-2007 from the period 1990-1997 in terms of the oil sectorlinkage to the rest of the economy, technological modernization, its relation toemployment and average earnings, and its impacts in the external insertion of thecountry (exports and dividends balance.

  5. The human dimensions of climate change: A micro-level assessment of views from the ecological modernization, political economy and human ecology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adua, Lazarus; York, Richard; Schuelke-Leech, Beth-Anne

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the manifold human and physical dimensions of climate change has become an area of great interest to researchers in recent decades. Using a U.S. nationally-representative data set and drawing on the ecological modernization, political economy, and human ecology perspectives, this study examines the impacts of energy efficiency technologies, affluence, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics on residential CO2 emissions. Overall, the study provides mixed support for the ecological modernization perspective. While several findings are consistent with the theory's expectation that modern societies can harness technology to mitigate human impacts on the environment, others directly contradict it. Also, the theory's prediction of an inverted U-shaped relationship between affluence and environmental impacts is contradicted. The evidence is somewhat more supportive of the political economy and human ecology perspectives, with affluence, some indicators of technology, household demographics, and biophysical characteristics emerging as important drivers of residential CO2 emissions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison between response dynamics in transition economies and developed economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Horvatić, Davor; Bajić, Slavica Cosović; Pehlivanović, Bećo; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-10-01

    In developed economies, the sign of the price increment influences the volatility in an asymmetric fashion—negative increments tend to result in larger volatility (increments with larger magnitudes), while positive increments result in smaller volatility. We explore whether this asymmetry extends from developed economies to European transition economies and, if so, how such asymmetry changes over time as these transition economies develop and mature. We analyze eleven European transition economies and compare the results with those obtained by analyzing U.S. market indices. Specifically, we calculate parameters that quantify both the volatility asymmetry and the strength of its dependence on prior increments. We find that, like their developed economy counterparts, almost all transition economy indices exhibit a significant volatility asymmetry, and the parameter γ characterizing asymmetry fluctuates more over time for transition economies. We also investigate how the association between volatility and volatility asymmetry varies by type of market. We test the hypothesis of a negative correlation between volatility and volatility asymmetry. We find that, for developed economies, γ experiences local minima during (i) “Black Monday” on October 19, 1987, (ii) the dot-com bubble crash in 2002, and (iii) the 2007-2009 global crisis while for transition economies, γ experiences local maxima during times of economic crisis.

  7. Selected physical, biological and biogeochemical implications of a rapidly changing Arctic Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, David G.; Hop, Haakon; Mundy, Christopher J.; Else, Brent; Dmitrenko, Igor A.; Tremblay, Jean-Eric; Ehn, Jens K.; Assmy, Philipp; Daase, Malin; Candlish, Lauren M.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2015-12-01

    The Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) of the Arctic Ocean is changing rapidly due to a warming Arctic climate with commensurate reductions in sea ice extent and thickness. This Pan-Arctic review summarizes the main changes in the Arctic ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface, with implications for primary- and secondary producers in the ice and the underlying water column. Changes in the Arctic MIZ were interpreted for the period 1979-2010, based on best-fit regressions for each month. Trends of increasingly open water were statistically significant for each month, with quadratic fit for August-November, illustrating particularly strong seasonal feedbacks in sea-ice formation and decay. Geographic interpretations of physical and biological changes were based on comparison of regions with significant changes in sea ice: (1) The Pacific Sector of the Arctic Ocean including the Canada Basin and the Beaufort, Chukchi and East Siberian seas; (2) The Canadian Arctic Archipelago; (3) Baffin Bay and Hudson Bay; and (4) the Barents and Kara seas. Changes in ice conditions in the Barents sea/Kara sea region appear to be primarily forced by ocean heat fluxes during winter, whereas changes in the other sectors appear to be more summer-autumn related and primarily atmospherically forced. Effects of seasonal and regional changes in OSA-system with regard to increased open water were summarized for photosynthetically available radiation, nutrient delivery to the euphotic zone, primary production of ice algae and phytoplankton, ice-associated fauna and zooplankton, and gas exchange of CO2. Changes in the physical factors varied amongst regions, and showed direct effects on organisms linked to sea ice. Zooplankton species appear to be more flexible and likely able to adapt to variability in the onset of primary production. The major changes identified for the ice-associated ecosystem are with regard to production timing and abundance or biomass of ice flora and fauna, which are related to

  8. ICT Innovation in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; B. Califf, Christopher; Sarker, Saonee

    2013-01-01

    ICT innovation is known to significantly elevate a country’s growth and to enhance productivity. It is now well-acknowledged that emerging economies are beginning to innovate at a rapid rate despite some of the challenges they face. Given that these countries with such economies now comprise...... economies, what needs to be studied, and how they should be studied. We attempt to contribute in this area by: (1) providing a comprehensive framework of existing research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, (2) highlighting the gaps that have been left behind, and (3) providing specific guidelines...... to future researchers, including a research model summarizing the salient issues that need examination. We believe that our study makes an important contribution to research on ICT innovation in emerging economies, and can be a useful resource for future researchers interested in this topic....

  9. The effect of technological changes on unemployment in the beverage sector of the South African economy / A.K. Danso

    OpenAIRE

    Danso, Alex Kwame

    2007-01-01

    The ability of the South African economy to absorb labour has been declining since the 1960's, with the manufacturing sector employment declining since 1990. The decline in manufacturing jobs flies in the face of increased output of the sector. This trend is attributed to the application of technology and sophisticated equipments in the manufacturing process leading to a loss of jobs, particularly for unskilled labour. Unemployment in South Africa has become one of the biggest ...

  10. Exchange Rate Changes and Inflation in Post-Crisis Asian Economies: VAR Analysis of the Exchange Rate Pass-Through

    OpenAIRE

    Takatoshi Ito; Kiyotaka Sato

    2006-01-01

    Macroeconomic consequences of a large currency depreciation among the crisis-hit Asian economies had varied from one country to another. Inflation did not soar in most Asian countries, including Thailand and Korea, after the exchange rate depreciated during the crisis. Indonesia, however, suffered very high inflation following a very large nominal depreciation of the rupiah. As a result, price competitive advantage by the rupiah depreciation was lost in the real exchange rate terms. The objec...

  11. Specific changes in rapidly transported proteins during regeneration of the goldfish optic nerve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benowitz, L.I.; Shashoua, V.E.; Yoon, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    Double labeling methods were used to identify changes in the complement of proteins synthesized in the retinal ganglion cells and transported down the optic nerve during the process of axonal regeneration. Eight to 62 days after goldfish underwent a unilateral optic nerve crush, one eye was labeled with [3H]-, the other with [14C]proline. Control and regenerating optic nerves were dissected out and homogenized together after 5 hr, a time which allowed us to examine selectively membrane-bound components which migrate in the rapid phase of axoplasmic transport. Proteins from the two sides were so-purified and separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the 3H and 14C incorporation patterns along the gels revealed a radical shift away from the normal labeling spectrum during regeneration, with selective changes in labeling at particular molecular weights varying over a 3-fold range. Eight days after crushing the optic nerve, the greatest increases in labeling were seen for material with apparent molecular weights of 24,000 to 27,000, 44,000, and 210,000 daltons. These peaks declined thereafter, and on days 29 to 39, the most prominent increases were at 110,000 to 140,000 daltons. These studies indicate a continuously changing pattern in the synthesis and/or degradation of proteins that are rapidly transported down the optic nerve during regeneration and point to molecular species potential significance in the establishment of the visual map upon the brain

  12. Modulators of mercury risk to wildlife and humans in the context of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Basu, Niladri; Bustamante, Paco; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Hopkins, William A.; Kidd, Karen A.; Nyland, Jennifer F.

    2018-01-01

    Environmental mercury (Hg) contamination is an urgent global health threat. The complexity of Hg in the environment can hinder accurate determination of ecological and human health risks, particularly within the context of the rapid global changes that are altering many ecological processes, socioeconomic patterns, and other factors like infectious disease incidence, which can affect Hg exposures and health outcomes. However, the success of global Hg-reduction efforts depends on accurate assessments of their effectiveness in reducing health risks. In this paper, we examine the role that key extrinsic and intrinsic drivers play on several aspects of Hg risk to humans and organisms in the environment. We do so within three key domains of ecological and human health risk. First, we examine how extrinsic global change drivers influence pathways of Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification through food webs. Next, we describe how extrinsic socioeconomic drivers at a global scale, and intrinsic individual-level drivers, influence human Hg exposure. Finally, we address how the adverse health effects of Hg in humans and wildlife are modulated by a range of extrinsic and intrinsic drivers within the context of rapid global change. Incorporating components of these three domains into research and monitoring will facilitate a more holistic understanding of how ecological and societal drivers interact to influence Hg health risks.

  13. Population and the Colombian economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  14. Neurogenomics and the role of a large mutational target on rapid behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Craig E; Kulathinal, Rob J

    2016-11-08

    Behavior, while complex and dynamic, is among the most diverse, derived, and rapidly evolving traits in animals. The highly labile nature of heritable behavioral change is observed in such evolutionary phenomena as the emergence of converged behaviors in domesticated animals, the rapid evolution of preferences, and the routine development of ethological isolation between diverging populations and species. In fact, it is believed that nervous system development and its potential to evolve a seemingly infinite array of behavioral innovations played a major role in the successful diversification of metazoans, including our own human lineage. However, unlike other rapidly evolving functional systems such as sperm-egg interactions and immune defense, the genetic basis of rapid behavioral change remains elusive. Here we propose that the rapid divergence and widespread novelty of innate and adaptive behavior is primarily a function of its genomic architecture. Specifically, we hypothesize that the broad diversity of behavioral phenotypes present at micro- and macroevolutionary scales is promoted by a disproportionately large mutational target of neurogenic genes. We present evidence that these large neuro-behavioral targets are significant and ubiquitous in animal genomes and suggest that behavior's novelty and rapid emergence are driven by a number of factors including more selection on a larger pool of variants, a greater role of phenotypic plasticity, and/or unique molecular features present in large genes. We briefly discuss the origins of these large neurogenic genes, as they relate to the remarkable diversity of metazoan behaviors, and highlight key consequences on both behavioral traits and neurogenic disease across, respectively, evolutionary and ontogenetic time scales. Current approaches to studying the genetic mechanisms underlying rapid phenotypic change primarily focus on identifying signatures of Darwinian selection in protein-coding regions. In contrast

  15. Experiences of Families Transmitting Values in a Rapidly Changing Society: Implications for Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyil, Yudum; Prouty, Anne; Blanchard, Amy; Lyness, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Intergenerational value transmission affects parent-child relationships and necessitates constant negotiation in families. Families with adolescents from rapidly changing societies face unique challenges in balancing the traditional collectivistic family values that promote harmony with emerging values that promote autonomy. Using modern Turkey as an example of such a culture, the authors examine the transmission process in families that hold more traditional and collectivistic values than their adolescent children. Special consideration is given to generational and cultural differences in the autonomy and relatedness dimensions. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  16. Wiki management a revolutionary new model for a rapidly changing and collaborative world

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Rod

    2013-01-01

    We now live in a "wiki" world where mass collaboration is not only possible-it's often the best solution. Conventional management thought assumes that command-and-control is the most effective way to organize the efforts of large numbers of people, but rapid change and increasing complexity have rendered that model obsolete. As a result, most managers today lack the skills and knowledge needed to succeed in an age when networks are proving smarter and faster than hierarchies. Designing organizations for mass collaboration demands a new and very different model-wiki management.

  17. Tropical vegetation evidence for rapid sea level changes associated with Heinrich Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Catalina; Dupont, Lydie M, E-mail: catalina@uni-bremen.d, E-mail: dupont@uni-bremen.d [MARUM - Centre for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Leobener Strasse, D-28359 Germany (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    A Cariaco Basin pollen record shows the development of tropical salt marshes during marine isotope stage 3. Rapid and abrupt expansions of salt marsh vegetation in tropical South America are associated with north Atlantic Heinrich Events stadials (HE-stadials). Intervals of salt marsh expansion have an internal structure, which consists of a recurrent alternation of species that starts with pollen increments of Chenopodiaceae, that are followed by increments of grasses, and subsequently by increments of Cyperaceae. This pattern suggests a successional process that is determined by the close relationship between sea-level and plant community dynamics. The salt tolerant Chenopodiaceae, indicate hypersaline intertidal environments, which were most likely promoted by extremely dry atmospheric conditions. Rapid sea-level rise characterizes the onset of HE-stadials, causing the continued recruitment of pioneer species, which are the only ones tolerating rapid rates of disturbance. Once sea-level rise decelerates, marsh plants are able to trap and stabilize sediments, favouring the establishment of more competitive species. These results add to the scarce knowledge on the dynamics of tropical salt marsh ecosystems, and provide independent paleoclimatic evidence on sea-level changes following Antarctic climate variability.

  18. Rapid gene expression changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes upon practice of a comprehensive yoga program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Qu

    Full Text Available One of the most common integrative medicine (IM modalities is yoga and related practices. Previous work has shown that yoga may improve wellness in healthy people and have benefits for patients. However, the mechanisms of how yoga may positively affect the mind-body system are largely unknown. Here we have assessed possible rapid changes in global gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in healthy people that practiced either a comprehensive yoga program or a control regimen. The experimental sessions included gentle yoga postures, breathing exercises, and meditation (Sudarshan Kriya and Related Practices--SK&P compared with a control regimen of a nature walk and listening to relaxing music. We show that the SK&P program has a rapid and significantly greater effect on gene expression in PBMCs compared with the control regimen. These data suggest that yoga and related practices result in rapid gene expression alterations which may be the basis for their longer term cell biological and higher level health effects.

  19. Operant Conditioning - Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jacqueline; McBurney, Raymond D.

    Described is an Operant Conditioning-Token Economy Program, teaching patients to be responsible for their own behavior, to make choices, and to be motivated to change. The program was instigated with mentally ill patients in a state hospital and was later used with institutionalized mentally handicapped groups. After two years, only four of the…

  20. Fuel demand on UK roads and dieselisation of fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    Because of high oil prices, and climate change policy, governments are now seeking ways to improve new car fuel economy thus contributing to air quality and energy security. One strategy is to increase dieselisation rates of the vehicle fleet. Recent trends in fuel economy show improvement since 1995, however, efforts need to go further if the EU Voluntary Agreement targets on CO 2 (a greenhouse gas emission standard) are to be achieved. Trends show diesel car sales have accelerated rapidly and that the advantage of new car fuel economy of diesel cars over gasoline ones is narrowing posing a new challenge. We estimate the demand for new car fuel economy in the UK. In the long-run consumers buy fuel economy, but not in the short-run. We found that long-term income and price changes were the main drivers to achieve improvements particularly for diesel cars and that there is no break in the trend of fuel economy induced by the agreement adopted in the 1990s. Policy should target more closely both consumer choice of, and use of, diesel cars.

  1. Analysing Italian Regional Patterns in Green Economy and Climate Change. Can Italy Leverage on Europe 2020 Strategy to Face Sustainable Growth Challenges ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco BONSINETTO

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available European cities and regions are facing the crucial challenge of greening their economy towards more sustainable patterns. Politicians and policy-makers should promote new policies for sustainable growth including renewables, greenhouse gas emissions, energy efficiency and biodiversity. All of these aspects can be considered as a boost for local and regional economy. In this regard, European countries and regions can benefit from the Europe 2020 Strategy which is defined as Europe’s blueprint for a smart, sustainable and inclusive future, providing a ten year roadmap for growth and jobs. EU2020S was designed as a European exit strategy from the global economic and financial crisis in view of new European economic governance. This study discusses the above issues regarding Italy and intends to provide some answers on the perspectives of the new EU2020S. It draws from a research project supported by ESPON, the S.I.E.S.T.A. Project, focused on the territorial dimension of the EU2020S. Therefore, this paper aims at analyzing Italian regional patterns on climate change, green economy and energy within the context of EU2020S and at providing policy recommendations for better achieving the goals of the Strategy.

  2. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  3. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  4. Rapid changes in protein phosphorylation associated with gravity perception in corn roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFadden, J.J.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    A previous paper from this laboratory showed calcium- and calmodulin-dependent in vivo protein phosphorylation in corn root tips. The authors show that rapid changes in calcium-dependent protein phosphorylation are involved in light-dependent graviperception in corn root tips. Corn seedlings (Zea mays L, cv Merit) were grown in the dark for 3 d, then apical root segments were harvested in dim green light to measure in vivo protein phosphorylation. Segments were incubated with 0.5 mCi 32 P for 1 h, then immediately frozen in liquid N 2 or first treated with either 7 min light, or 7 min light plus 1 mM EGTA and 10 μM A23187. Labeled proteins were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and detected by autoradiography. Light caused rapid and specific promotion of phosphorylation of 5 polypeptides. The increases in protein phosphorylation were reversed by treating with EGTA and A23187. The authors postulate that these changes in protein phosphorylation are an essential part of the light-dependent gravity response in Merit roots

  5. The Phenomena Implied by the New Economy from Statistics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giani GRADINARU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapidity of the informational society to transform into an information and knowledge society determines a perspective on the New Economy which would consider the Internet market and the effect of the Internet information on all economic agents, and the effect of knowledge as economic factor, which imposes the recognition of intangible goods, in general, in the making of economic value as well as the requirements for achieving a lasting society, which cannot be possible but inside the knowledge society, and which would impose in the society economy new technologies, and most important, changes in orientation according to the classic economic thinking.

  6. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Potential impacts of electricity price changes on price formation in the economy: a social accounting matrix price modeling analysis for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkemik, K. Ali

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms in the Turkish electricity sector since 2001 aim to introduce a tariff system that reflects costs. This is expected to affect the production and consumer prices of electricity. The changes in electricity prices are then reflected in production costs in other segments of the economy. Subsequently, producer and consumer prices will be affected. The potential impact of the changes in electricity prices that the ongoing electricity reforms in Turkey will bring about may have important implications on the price formation in economic activities and the cost of living for households. This paper evaluates the potential impacts of changes in electricity prices from a social accounting matrix (SAM) price modeling perspective. It is found that based on the estimated price multipliers that prices in the energy-producing sectors, mining, and iron and steel manufacturing sectors would be affected more severely than the remaining sectors of the economy. Consumer prices are affected slightly less than producer prices. - Research Highlights: → The impact of electricity generation costs on prices in other sectors is modeled. → A micro-SAM emphasizing electricity supply is constructed using 2002 I-O tables. → Energy, mining, and steel sectors are more responsive to electricity costs. → Living costs are less responsive to electricity cost changes than producer prices.

  8. Abraham Lincoln and the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormats, Robert D

    2003-08-01

    Abraham Lincoln would have well understood the challenges facing many modern emerging nations. In Lincoln's America, as in many developing nations today, sweeping economic change threatened older industries, traditional ways of living, and social and national cohesion by exposing economies and societies to new and powerful competitive forces. Yet even in the midst of the brutal and expensive American Civil war--and in part because of it--Lincoln and the Republican Congress enacted bold legislation that helped create a huge national market, a strong and unified economy governed by national institutions, and a rising middle class of businessmen and property owners. Figuring out how to maximize the benefits of globalization while minimizing its disruptions is a formidable challenge for policy makers. How do you expand opportunities for the talented and the lucky while making sure the rest of society doesn't fall behind? It may be helpful to look at the principles that informed the policies that Lincoln and the Republican Congress instituted after they came to power in 1861: Facilitate the upward mobility of low- and middle-income groups to give them a significant stake in the country. Emphasize the good of the national economy over regional interests. Affirm the need for sound government institutions to temper the dynamics of the free enterprise system. Tailor policies to the national situation. Realize that a period of turmoil may present a unique opportunity for reform. These principles drove the reforms that helped Americans cope with and benefit from rapid technological advances and the fast integration of the American economy in the nineteenth century. They may be instructive to today's policy makers who are struggling to help their own citizens integrate into the fast-changing global economy of the twenty-first century.

  9. Bridging political economy analysis and critical institutionalism: an approach to help analyse institutional change for rural water services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen David Jones

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that approaches to understanding local institutionsfor natural resource management based on “critical institutionalism” (Cleaver2012, which emphasises the importance of improvisation and adaptationacross different scales, can be placed within broader political economy analysisframeworks for assessing challenges in public services delivery from national tolocal levels. The paper uses such an extended political economy analysis approachto understand the role of the international NGO WaterAid and its partners in Mali inrelation to institutions for financing rural water services, drawing on collaborativeresearch undertaken in 2010 and 2011. The case study shows that WaterAid’sapproach can be understood through elements of both mainstream and criticalinstitutionalist thinking. At local government level, WaterAid primarily promotesformal institutional arrangements, which exhibit the challenge of “reforms assignals” (Andrews 2013, where institutional reforms appear to happen but lackthe intended function. However, the work of WaterAid’s partners at communitylevel supports processes of “institutional bricolage” through which they try togradually work with local actors to find ways of ‘best fit’ for financing rural waterservices which adapt existing local practices into new arrangements.

  10. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  11. Wildlife health in a rapidly changing North: focus on avian disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, Caroline R.; Pearce, John M.; Handel, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Climate-related environmental changes have increasingly been linked to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. The Arctic is facing a major ecological transition that is expected to substantially affect animal and human health. Changes in phenology or environmental conditions that result from climate warming may promote novel species assemblages as host and pathogen ranges expand to previously unoccupied areas. Recent evidence from the Arctic and subarctic suggests an increase in the spread and prevalence of some wildlife diseases, but baseline data necessary to detect and verify such changes are still lacking. Wild birds are undergoing rapid shifts in distribution and have been implicated in the spread of wildlife and zoonotic diseases. Here, we review evidence of current and projected changes in the abundance and distribution of avian diseases and outline strategies for future research. We discuss relevant climatic and environmental factors, emerging host–pathogen contact zones, the relationship between host condition and immune function, and potential wildlife and human health outcomes in northern regions.

  12. Monitoring Forest Change in Landscapes Under-Going Rapid Energy Development: Challenges and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Pickell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accelerated development of energy resources around the world has substantially increased forest change related to oil and gas activities. In some cases, oil and gas activities are the primary catalyst of land-use change in forested landscapes. We discuss the challenges associated with characterizing ecological change related to energy resource development using North America as an exemplar. We synthesize the major impacts of energy development to forested ecosystems and offer new perspectives on how to detect and monitor anthropogenic disturbance during the Anthropocene. The disturbance of North American forests for energy development has resulted in persistent linear corridors, suppression of historical disturbance regimes, novel ecosystems, and the eradication of ecological memory. Characterizing anthropogenic disturbances using conventional patch-based disturbance measures will tend to underestimate the ecological impacts of energy development. Suitable indicators of anthropogenic impacts in forests should be derived from the integration of multi-scalar Earth observations. Relating these indicators to ecosystem condition will be a capstone in the progress toward monitoring forest change in landscapes undergoing rapid energy development.

  13. Rapid landscape change in 6th century northern Jordan: interdisciplinary geoarchaeological perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Landscapes of the ancient fertile crescent are considered affected by soil degradation as result of long-term farming since the Neolithic, and impressive ruins of antiquity led to assumptions that their abandonment must have been conntected with reduced agricultural productivity. In this context, a valley fill near the site of Abila of the Decapolis in northern Jordan was apparently deposited largely during the 6th century AD, and provides evidence for a rapid and intense landscape change during the Late Byzantine period. However, an interdisciplinary case study of land use, soil development, and sediments found that the valley fill cannot be connected with large-scale soil erosion in the vicinity of the site. On the one hand, this is indicated by the distribution of soil development and archaeological material as marker of past land use activity in the past, which suggests that the best soils were and still are used intensively. On the other hand, the sediments seem to point to the occurrence of climatic extremes such as heavy floods, the occurrence of soil creep after water saturation, but also a significant shift to aridity which may have triggered socio-economic changes of subsistence strategies from agriculture to pastoralism. The dates of sediments which are available so far indicate that the climatic change seemingly occurred rapidly within approximately 100 years during the late 6th and early 7th century AD, possibly connected with the "year without sun" or 'Mystery Veil' which the Byzantine historian Procopius described in the year 536 AD. Modern analogies of the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 let it seem possible that a volcanic event, perhaps the outbreak of the Ilopango volcano, was connected with these environmental turbulences. Such events cannot be understood by isolated studies: without a broad interdisciplinary framework, single archives are prone to misinterpretation, and our understanding of the environmental history of Abila is still very limited.

  14. Methodical Approach to Estimation of Energy Efficiency Parameters of the Economy Under the Structural Changes in the Fuel And Energy Balance (on the Example of Baikal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Grigorievich Saneev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider a methodical approach which allows estimating energy efficiency parameters of the region’s economy using a fuel and energy balance (FEB. This approach was tested on the specific case of Baikal region. During the testing process the authors have developed ex ante and ex post FEBs and estimated energy efficiency parameters such as energy-, electro- and heat capacity of GRP, coefficients of useful utilization of fuel and energy resources and a monetary version of FEB. Forecast estimations are based on assumptions and limitations of technologically-intensive development scenario of the region. Authors show that the main factor of structural changes in the fuel and energy balance will be the large-scale development of hydrocarbon resources in Baikal region. It will cause structural changes in the composition of both the debit and credit of FEB (namely the structure of export and final consumption of fuel and energy resources. Authors assume that the forecast structural changes of the region’s FEB will significantly improve energy efficiency parameters of the economy: energy capacity of GRP will decrease by 1,5 times in 2010– 2030, electro and heat capacity – 1,9 times; coefficients of useful utilization of fuel and energy resources will increase by 3–5 p.p. This will save about 20 million tons of fuel equivalent (about 210 billion rubles in 2011 the prices until 2030

  15. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Faming; Huang, Boqiang; Huang, Jinliang; Li, Shenghui

    2018-05-23

    Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A), while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002⁻2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B). Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban sustainability in

  16. Rapid Land Cover Map Updates Using Change Detection and Robust Random Forest Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad J. Wessels

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper evaluated the Landsat Automated Land Cover Update Mapping (LALCUM system designed to rapidly update a land cover map to a desired nominal year using a pre-existing reference land cover map. The system uses the Iteratively Reweighted Multivariate Alteration Detection (IRMAD to identify areas of change and no change. The system then automatically generates large amounts of training samples (n > 1 million in the no-change areas as input to an optimized Random Forest classifier. Experiments were conducted in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa using a reference land cover map from 2008, a change mask between 2008 and 2011 and Landsat ETM+ data for 2011. The entire system took 9.5 h to process. We expected that the use of the change mask would improve classification accuracy by reducing the number of mislabeled training data caused by land cover change between 2008 and 2011. However, this was not the case due to exceptional robustness of Random Forest classifier to mislabeled training samples. The system achieved an overall accuracy of 65%–67% using 22 detailed classes and 72%–74% using 12 aggregated national classes. “Water”, “Plantations”, “Plantations—clearfelled”, “Orchards—trees”, “Sugarcane”, “Built-up/dense settlement”, “Cultivation—Irrigated” and “Forest (indigenous” had user’s accuracies above 70%. Other detailed classes (e.g., “Low density settlements”, “Mines and Quarries”, and “Cultivation, subsistence, drylands” which are required for operational, provincial-scale land use planning and are usually mapped using manual image interpretation, could not be mapped using Landsat spectral data alone. However, the system was able to map the 12 national classes, at a sufficiently high level of accuracy for national scale land cover monitoring. This update approach and the highly automated, scalable LALCUM system can improve the efficiency and update rate of regional land

  17. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  18. Imperatives for an agricultural green economy in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constansia Musvoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, there are social, economic and environmental challenges related to sustainable development; these challenges include climate change, the need to feed a rapidly increasing population, high rates of poverty and environmental degradation. These challenges have forced us to rethink the way in which development takes place, resulting in the emergence of the concept of a �green economy�. A green economy results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing risks to the environment. It is based on principles which integrate social, economic and environmental considerations. South Africa has adopted the principle of green economic growth, and agriculture is one of the sectors that will drive this growth. Agriculture could address some of the sustainable development problems, but there are challenges related to resource availability, environmental impacts of agriculture and climate change. For agriculture to support a green economy it has to be productive, contribute to economic growth and not undermine the environment, social and cultural systems. The information base and policies required to support a green economy in general, and/or an agriculture-supported green economy have not yet been developed, as the green economy is an emerging concept in South Africa as well as globally. The generation of such information requires analysis and synthesis of green economy principles and agricultural imperatives into generic principles and practices for facilitating agriculture�s contribution to the green economy. In this paper, we conduct this analysis and synthesis and highlight the defining aspects of an agricultural green economy.

  19. FROM WAR ECONOMIES TO PEACE ECONOMIES IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    temporary 'interruption' to an ongoing process of development”.4 The second ... indication of the changing nature of world political and economic trends .... (FDI), where war economies cannot, at least not in a positive or legal fashion.24 The.

  20. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dentoskeletal changes after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baka, Zeliha Muge; Akin, Mehmet; Ucar, Faruk Izzet; Ileri, Zehra

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to quantitatively evaluate the changes in arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth after asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion (ARME) and to compare the measurements between the crossbite and the noncrossbite sides with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). From our clinic archives, we selected the CBCT records of 30 patients with unilateral skeletal crossbite (13 boys, 14.2 ± 1.3 years old; 17 girls, 13.8 ± 1.3 years old) who underwent ARME treatment. A modified acrylic bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance including an occlusal locking mechanism was used in all patients. CBCT records had been taken before ARME treatment and after a 3-month retention period. Fourteen angular and 80 linear measurements were taken for the maxilla and the mandible. Frontally clipped CBCT images were used for the evaluation. Paired sample and independent sample t tests were used for statistical comparisons. Comparisons of the before-treatment and after-retention measurements showed that the arch widths and buccolingual inclinations of the posterior teeth increased significantly on the crossbite side of the maxilla and on the noncrossbite side of the mandible (P ARME treatment, the crossbite side of the maxilla and the noncrossbite side of the mandible were more affected than were the opposite sides. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Portable rapid gas content measurement - an opportunity for a step change in the coal industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamish, Basil; Kizil, Mehmet; Gu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The last major advance in gas content measurement for coal seams was the introduction of the quick crush technique in the early 1990s. This is a laboratory test method that has proven very reliable over the years. Recent laboratory testing using a portable quick crushing device, known as the portable gas content analyser, has produced consistent gas content results for a set of core samples obtained from a single borehole that intersected four coal seams. The retained gas content values obtained for the seams show the same increasing gas content pattern and gas composition change with depth as the standard quick crush technique. Use of the portable gas content analyser provides the opportunity to produce rapid, reliable gas content measurement of coal that could be developed for assessing gas compliance cores and outburst-prone conditions at a mine site.

  2. Phase field modeling of rapid crystallization in the phase-change material AIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Boussinot, Guillaume; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Apel, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We carry out phase field modeling as a continuum simulation technique in order to study rapid crystallization processes in the phase-change material AIST (Ag4In3Sb67Te26). In particular, we simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of the crystallization of a molten area of the phase-change material embedded in a layer stack. The simulation model is adapted to the experimental conditions used for recent measurements of crystallization rates by a laser pulse technique. Simulations are performed for substrate temperatures close to the melting temperature of AIST down to low temperatures when an amorphous state is involved. The design of the phase field model using the thin interface limit allows us to retrieve the two limiting regimes of interface controlled (low temperatures) and thermal transport controlled (high temperatures) dynamics. Our simulations show that, generically, the crystallization velocity presents a maximum in the intermediate regime where both the interface mobility and the thermal transport, through the molten area as well as through the layer stack, are important. Simulations reveal the complex interplay of all different contributions. This suggests that the maximum switching velocity depends not only on material properties but also on the precise design of the thin film structure into which the phase-change material is embedded.

  3. Spectroscopic sensitivity of real-time, rapidly induced phytochemical change in response to damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, John J; Serbin, Shawn P; Townsend, Philip A

    2013-04-01

    An ecological consequence of plant-herbivore interactions is the phytochemical induction of defenses in response to insect damage. Here, we used reflectance spectroscopy to characterize the foliar induction profile of cardenolides in Asclepias syriaca in response to damage, tracked in vivo changes and examined the influence of multiple plant traits on cardenolide concentrations. Foliar cardenolide concentrations were measured at specific time points following damage to capture their induction profile. Partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling was employed to calibrate cardenolide concentrations to reflectance spectroscopy. In addition, subsets of plants were either repeatedly sampled to track in vivo changes or modified to reduce latex flow to damaged areas. Cardenolide concentrations and the induction profile of A. syriaca were well predicted using models derived from reflectance spectroscopy, and this held true for repeatedly sampled plants. Correlations between cardenolides and other foliar-related variables were weak or not significant. Plant modification for latex reduction inhibited an induced cardenolide response. Our findings show that reflectance spectroscopy can characterize rapid phytochemical changes in vivo. We used reflectance spectroscopy to identify the mechanisms behind the production of plant secondary metabolites, simultaneously characterizing multiple foliar constituents. In this case, cardenolide induction appears to be largely driven by enhanced latex delivery to leaves following damage. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Changes in the etiology of valvular heart disease in the rapidly aging Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Shin Yi; Ju, Eun-Young; Seo, Su Ra; Choi, Ji Yeon; Park, Sung-Ji; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Park, Seung Woo

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the changes in the causes of valvular heart disease between 2006 and 2011 in Korea. Data were collected from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2006 through 2011. These data consisted of primary diagnoses related to valvular heart disease regardless of other conditions. Valvular heart disease included non-rheumatic mitral valve disorders, non-rheumatic aortic valve disorders, rheumatic mitral valve disorders, and rheumatic aortic valve disorders. Overall, the age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart disease was 70.6 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 110.3 in 2011. This represented an increase from 42.2 to 65.2 in women and from 28.4 to 45.1 in men. In particular, there was a greater increase in prevalence in patients aged 65 years or older compared with groups aged 20-44 years or 45-64 years for both genders. The age-standardized cumulative prevalence of rheumatic valve disease did not change dramatically between 2006 and 2011. The overall age-standardized cumulative prevalence of non-rheumatic valvular heart diseases increased between 2006 and 2011, especially in individuals older than 65 years. These changes should be considered in future designs of cardiovascular healthcare services in countries with a rapidly aging population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Rapid evolution of phenology during range expansion with recent climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenhouwer, Nicky; Wilschut, Rutger A; Williams, Jennifer L; van der Putten, Wim H; Levine, Jonathan M

    2018-02-01

    Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species' current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species' ability to shift their range with climate change may therefore depend on how populations evolve in response to such novel environmental conditions. However, due to the recent nature of thus far observed range expansions, the role of rapid adaptation during climate change migration is only beginning to be understood. Here, we evaluated evolution during the recent native range expansion of the annual plant Dittrichia graveolens, which is spreading northward in Europe from the Mediterranean region. We examined genetically based differentiation between core and edge populations in their phenology, a trait that is likely under selection with shorter growing seasons and greater seasonality at northern latitudes. In parallel common garden experiments at range edges in Switzerland and the Netherlands, we grew plants from Dutch, Swiss, and central and southern French populations. Population genetic analysis following RAD-sequencing of these populations supported the hypothesized central France origins of the Swiss and Dutch range edge populations. We found that in both common gardens, northern plants flowered up to 4 weeks earlier than southern plants. This differentiation in phenology extended from the core of the range to the Netherlands, a region only reached from central France over approximately the last 50 years. Fitness decreased as plants flowered later, supporting the hypothesized benefits of earlier flowering at the range edge. Our results suggest that native range expanding populations can rapidly adapt to novel environmental conditions in the expanded range, potentially promoting their ability to spread. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Net Ecosystem Exchange of CO2 with Rapidly Changing High Arctic Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerton, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    High Arctic landscapes are expansive and changing rapidly. However our understanding of their functional responses and potential to mitigate or enhance anthropogenic climate change is limited by few measurements. We collected eddy covariance measurements to quantify the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 with polar semidesert and meadow wetland landscapes at the highest-latitude location measured to date (82°N). We coupled these rare data with ground and satellite vegetation production measurements (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; NDVI) to evaluate the effectiveness of upscaling local to regional NEE. During the growing season, the dry polar semidesert landscape was a near zero sink of atmospheric CO2 (NEE: -0.3±13.5 g C m-2). A nearby meadow wetland accumulated over two magnitudes more carbon (NEE: -79.3±20.0 g C m-2) than the polar semidesert landscape, and was similar to meadow wetland NEE at much more southern latitudes. Polar semidesert NEE was most influenced by moisture, with wetter surface soils resulting in greater soil respiration and CO2 emissions. At the meadow wetland, soil heating enhanced plant growth, which in turn increased CO2 uptake. Our upscaling assessment found that polar semidesert NDVI measured on site was low (mean: 0.120-0.157) and similar to satellite measurements (mean: 0.155-0.163). However, weak plant growth resulted in poor satellite NDVI-NEE relationships and created challenges for remotely-detecting changes in the cycling of carbon on the polar semidesert landscape. The meadow wetland appeared more suitable to assess plant production and NEE via remote-sensing, however high Arctic wetland extent is constrained by topography to small areas that may be difficult to resolve with large satellite pixels. We predict that until summer precipitation and humidity increases substantially, climate-related changes of dry high Arctic landscapes may be restricted by poor soil moisture retention, and therefore have some inertia against

  7. Surveying Geology Concepts in Education Standards for a Rapidly Changing Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffey, Sarah K.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Schleigh, Sharon P.; Slater, Timothy F.; Heyer, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Internationally much attention is being paid to which of a seemingly endless list of scientific concepts should be taught to schoolchildren to enable them to best participate in the global economy of the 21st Century. In regards to science education, the concepts framing the subject of geology holds exalted status as core scientific principles in…

  8. A decade of rapid change: Biocultural influences on child growth in highland Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oths, Kathryn S; Smith, Hannah N; Stein, Max J; Lazo Landivar, Rodrigo J

    2018-03-01

    In the past decade many areas of Peru have been undergoing extreme environmental, economic, and cultural change. In the highland hamlet of Chugurpampa, La Libertad, climate change has ruined harvests and led to frequent periods of migration to the coast in search of livelihood. This biocultural research examines how the changes could be affecting the growth of children who maintain residence in the highlands. Clinical records from the early 2000s were compared to those from the early 2010s. Charts were randomly selected to record anthropometric data, netting a sample of 75 children ages 0-60 months of age. Analysis of covariance was run to compare mean stature, weight, and BMI between cohorts. Percentage of children who fall below the -2 threshold for z-scores for height and weight were compared by age and cohort. A significant secular trend in growth was found, with children born more recently larger than those born a decade before. The effect is most notable in the first year of life, with the growth advantage attenuated by the age of 3 for height and age 4 for weight. While children were unlikely to be stunted from 0 to 3 years of age, 44% of the later cohort were stunted and 11% were underweight from 4 to 5 years of age. Three possible explanations for the rapid shift are entertained: more time spent on the coast during gestation and early childhood, which may attenuate the effect of hypoxia on child growth; dietary change; and increased use of biomedicine. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Making sense of the green economy

    OpenAIRE

    Caprotti, F; Bailey, I

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Swedish Society for Anthropology and Geography. This special issue editorial explores potential research interfaces between human geography and the rapidly unfolding concept and practices of the "green economy". The article outlines a range of critical issues about the green economy that are particularly pertinent and suited to geographical analysis. The first concerns questions around the construction of the green economy concept and critical questioning of current, largely hegemonic ...

  10. Rapid changes in the level of Kluane Lake in Yukon Territory over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Luckman, Brian H.; Van Dorp, Richard D.; Gilbert, Robert; Froese, Duane; Jensen, Britta J. L.; Reyes, Alberto V.

    2006-09-01

    The level of Kluane Lake, the largest lake in Yukon Territory, was lower than at present during most of the Holocene. The lake rose rapidly in the late seventeenth century to a level 12 m above present, drowning forest and stranding driftwood on a conspicuous high-stand beach, remnants of which are preserved at the south end of the lake. Kluane Lake fell back to near its present level by the end of the eighteenth century and has fluctuated within a range of about 3 m over the last 50 yr. The primary control on historic fluctuations in lake level is the discharge of Slims River, the largest source of water to the lake. We use tree ring and radiocarbon ages, stratigraphy and sub-bottom acoustic data to evaluate two explanations for the dramatic changes in the level of Kluane Lake. Our data support the hypothesis of Hugh Bostock, who suggested in 1969 that the maximum Little Ice Age advance of Kaskawulsh Glacier deposited large amounts of sediment in the Slims River valley and established the present course of Slims River into Kluane Lake. Bostock argued that these events caused the lake to rise and eventually overflow to the north. The overflowing waters incised the Duke River fan at the north end of Kluane Lake and lowered the lake to its present level. This study highlights the potentially dramatic impacts of climate change on regional hydrology during the Little Ice Age in glacierised mountains.

  11. Re-making the global economy of knowledge: do new fields of research change the structure of North-South relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Raewyn; Pearse, Rebecca; Collyer, Fran; Maia, João; Morrell, Robert

    2017-08-17

    How is global-North predominance in the making of organized knowledge affected by the rise of new domains of research? This question is examined empirically in three interdisciplinary areas - climate change, HIV-AIDS, and gender studies - through interviews with 70 researchers in Southern-tier countries Brazil, South Africa and Australia. The study found that the centrality of the North was reinstituted as these domains came into existence, through resource inequalities, workforce mechanisms, and intellectual framing. Yet there are tensions in the global economy of knowledge, around workforce formation, hierarchies of disciplines, neoliberal management strategies, and mismatches with social need. Intellectual workers in the Southern tier have built significant research centres, workforces and some distinctive knowledge projects. These create wider possibilities of change in the global structure of organized knowledge production. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  12. A new oxidation flow reactor for measuring secondary aerosol formation of rapidly changing emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, Pauli; Saukko, Erkka; Karjalainen, Panu; Timonen, Hilkka; Bloss, Matthew; Aakko-Saksa, Päivi; Rönkkö, Topi; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka

    2017-04-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) or environmental chambers can be used to estimate secondary aerosol formation potential of different emission sources. Emissions from anthropogenic sources, such as vehicles, often vary on short timescales. For example, to identify the vehicle driving conditions that lead to high potential secondary aerosol emissions, rapid oxidation of exhaust is needed. However, the residence times in environmental chambers and in most oxidation flow reactors are too long to study these transient effects ( ˜ 100 s in flow reactors and several hours in environmental chambers). Here, we present a new oxidation flow reactor, TSAR (TUT Secondary Aerosol Reactor), which has a short residence time ( ˜ 40 s) and near-laminar flow conditions. These improvements are achieved by reducing the reactor radius and volume. This allows studying, for example, the effect of vehicle driving conditions on the secondary aerosol formation potential of the exhaust. We show that the flow pattern in TSAR is nearly laminar and particle losses are negligible. The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced in TSAR has a similar mass spectrum to the SOA produced in the state-of-the-art reactor, PAM (potential aerosol mass). Both reactors produce the same amount of mass, but TSAR has a higher time resolution. We also show that TSAR is capable of measuring the secondary aerosol formation potential of a vehicle during a transient driving cycle and that the fast response of TSAR reveals how different driving conditions affect the amount of formed secondary aerosol. Thus, TSAR can be used to study rapidly changing emission sources, especially the vehicular emissions during transient driving.

  13. Rapid changes in water hardness and alkalinity: Calcite formation is lethal to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Sarah J; Woodman, Samuel; Steinkey, Dylan; Meays, Cindy; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-07-15

    There is growing concern that freshwater ecosystems may be negatively affected by ever-increasing anthropogenic inputs of extremely hard, highly alkaline effluent containing large quantities of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), CO3(2-), and HCO3(-) ions. In this study, the toxicity of rapid and extreme shifts in water hardness (38-600mg/L as CaCO3) and alkalinity (30-420mg/L as CaCO3) to Daphnia magna was tested, both independently and in combination. Within these ranges, where no precipitation event occurred, shifts in water hardness and/or alkalinity were not toxic to D. magna. In contrast, 98-100% of D. magna died within 96h after exposure to 600mg/L as CaCO3 water hardness and 420mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity (LT50 of 60h with a 95% CI of 54.2-66.0h). In this treatment, a CaCO3 (calcite) precipitate formed in the water column which was ingested by and thoroughly coated the D. magna. Calcite collected from a mining impacted stream contained embedded organisms, suggesting field streams may also experience similar conditions and possibly increased mortality as observed in the lab tests. Although further investigation is required to determine the exact fate of aquatic organisms exposed to rapid calcite precipitation in the field, we caution that negative effects may occur more quickly or at lower concentrations of water hardness and alkalinity in which we observed effects in D. magna, because some species, such as aquatic insects, are more sensitive than cladocerans to changes in ionic strength. Our results provide evidence that both calcite precipitation and the major ion balance of waters should be managed in industrially affected ecosystems and we support the development of a hardness+alkalinity guideline for the protection of aquatic life. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring Land Change in Coastal Zone around a Rapidly Urbanized Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a major cause for eco-degradation in many coastal regions. Understanding urbanization dynamics and underlying driving factors is crucial for urban planning and management. Land-use dynamic degree indices and intensity analysis were used to measure land changes occurred in 1990, 2002, 2009, and 2017 in the coastal zone around Quanzhou bay, which is a rapidly urbanized bay in Southeast China. The comprehensive land-use dynamic degree and interval level intensity analysis both revealed that land change was accelerating across the three time intervals in a three-kilometer-wide zone along the coastal line (zone A, while land change was fastest during the second time interval 2002–2009 in a separate terrestrial area within coastal zone (zone B. Driven by urbanization, built-up gains and cropland losses were active for all time intervals in both zones. Mudflat losses were active except in the first time interval in zone A due to the intensive sea reclamation. The gain of mangrove was active while the loss of mangrove is dormant for all three intervals in zone A. Transition level analysis further revealed the similarities and differences in processes within patterns of land changes for both zones. The transition from cropland to built-up was systematically targeted and stationary while the transition from woodland to built-up was systematically avoiding transition in both zones. Built-up tended to target aquaculture for the second and third time intervals in zone A but avoid Aquaculture for all intervals in zone B. Land change in zone A was more significant than that in zone B during the second and third time intervals at three-level intensity. The application of intensity analysis can enhance our understanding of the patterns and processes in land changes and suitable land development plans in the Quanzhou bay area. This type of investigation is useful to provide information for developing sound land use policy to achieve urban

  15. Cumulative effects of rapid climate and land-use changes on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D. A.; Leibman, M. O.; Forbes, B. C.; Epstein, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Our principal goal is to develop better, more far-looking tools to predict the cumulative effects of resource development, climate-change, and traditional land use. Here we use remote sensing, climate-change analyses, socio-economic analyses, and vegetation-change models to examine the cumulative effects of climate change, gas development, and reindeer herding on the Yamal Peninsula in northwest Siberia as part of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). We find: 1. Direct (planned) impacts of industrial activities on the Yamal Peninsula are currently local and limited in extent, but this is changing rapidly as extensive gas fields are developed and land and sea transportation corridors are developed to get the gas to market. Indirect impacts of the development at Bovanenkovo, the largest gas field, exceed the direct impacts by a factor of three, and the total area of influence of the development on the reindeer pasturelands (e.g., area where migration routes and access to pasturelands is affected) exceeds the direct impacts by a factor of about 40. 2. The trend in land-surface temperatures has co-varied with the trend in sea-ice. Low sea ice in the preceding December-March period is correlated to warmer land temperature the following summer. The sea- ice trends in the Kara Sea-Yamal region are tied to variation in the North Atlantic Oscillation index. 4. Only a small greening response to warming has been detected on the Yamal in comparison with some other areas in the Arctic (e.g. Northern Alaska). The actual effects of climate-change on vegetation are currently hard to document at the ground level because of lack of baseline and long-term ground observations and difficulty of excluding reindeer in these studies. 5. There is high potential for extensive landscape effects due to unstable sandy soils, and extremely ice-rich permafrost near the surface on slopes. 6. Two different vegetation modeling approaches are being used to predict

  16. A hybrid energy-economy model for global integrated assessment of climate change, carbon mitigation and energy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yiyong; Newth, David; Finnigan, John; Gunasekera, Don

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper introduces the design of a hybrid energy-economy model, GTEM-C. • The model offers a unified tool to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. • Results are presented on global energy transformation due to carbon mitigation. • Electrification with renewable energies can contain the spiking of carbon prices. - Abstract: This paper introduces the design of the CSIRO variant of the Global Trade and Environment model (GTEM-C). GTEM-C is a hybrid model that combines the top-down macroeconomic representation of a computable general equilibrium model with the bottom-up engineering details of energy production. The model features detailed accounting for global energy flows that are embedded in traded energy goods, and it offers a unified framework to analyse the energy-carbon-environment nexus. As an illustrative example, we present simulation results on global energy transformation under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s representative carbon pathways 4.5 and 8.5. By testing the model’s sensitivity to the relevant parameter, we find that the pace of electrification will significantly contain the spiking of carbon prices because electricity can be produced from carbon-free or less carbon-intensive technologies. The decoupling of energy use and carbon footprint, due to the uptake of clean electricity technologies, such as nuclear, wind, solar, and carbon capture and storage, allows the world to maintain high level of energy consumption, which is essential to economic growth

  17. Europe's Southeastern Gateway: Responding to Rapidly Changing Patterns of World Shipping. The University's Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World trade and transportation are changing dramatically. Energy prices and transport sustainability concerns are reinvigorating ocean freighter shipping. An ever-increasing portion of trade is in containers, and container ships are getting larger quickly. Many ports, nations and continents are not keeping up with ship size increases putting them at a trade disadvantage. Major canals and seaways must also upgrade or be rendered obsolete, causing a change in the pattern of world trade. Ports have to do more than expand vessel size limits. Port regions must also invest in infrastructure that improves multi-modal access to the port and augments hand-off of containers to smaller seaway ships, trains and trucks. With heightened security and evolving emphasis on flexible and efficient logistics, ports must become high-tech logistics hubs with improved real-time data about port throughput. Constanţa, Romania provides an example of an attempt to respond to this rapid change. Near the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea, Constanţa offers a potential southeastern gateway to Europe for the Black Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Ships from Asia, entering via the Suez Canal can easily access Constanţa, and thus save more than ten days of shipping time for destinations in southeastern Europe compared to shipping through Rotterdam or Hamburg. But Constanţa needs to make all the improvements mentioned above. Universities have several roles in this endeavor, including identifying and forecasting trends, providing the technical knowledge to develop high-tech logistics hubs, pursing publicprivate partnerships for infrastructure development and offering training.

  18. Rapid Environmental Change Drives Increased Land Use by an Arctic Marine Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd C Atwood

    Full Text Available In the Arctic Ocean's southern Beaufort Sea (SB, the length of the sea ice melt season (i.e., period between the onset of sea ice break-up in summer and freeze-up in fall has increased substantially since the late 1990s. Historically, polar bears (Ursus maritimus of the SB have mostly remained on the sea ice year-round (except for those that came ashore to den, but recent changes in the extent and phenology of sea ice habitat have coincided with evidence that use of terrestrial habitat is increasing. We characterized the spatial behavior of polar bears spending summer and fall on land along Alaska's north coast to better understand the nexus between rapid environmental change and increased use of terrestrial habitat. We found that the percentage of radiocollared adult females from the SB subpopulation coming ashore has tripled over 15 years. Moreover, we detected trends of earlier arrival on shore, increased length of stay, and later departure back to sea ice, all of which were related to declines in the availability of sea ice habitat over the continental shelf and changes to sea ice phenology. Since the late 1990s, the mean duration of the open-water season in the SB increased by 36 days, and the mean length of stay on shore increased by 31 days. While on shore, the distribution of polar bears was influenced by the availability of scavenge subsidies in the form of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus remains aggregated at sites along the coast. The declining spatio-temporal availability of sea ice habitat and increased availability of human-provisioned resources are likely to result in increased use of land. Increased residency on land is cause for concern given that, while there, bears may be exposed to a greater array of risk factors including those associated with increased human activities.

  19. Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly Changing Temperature Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant temperature with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input temperatures. However, for most TEG applications, the input temperature gradient changes, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic temperature profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, temperature gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed temperature variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input temperatures and a maximum temperature of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal temperature profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly changing conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different temperature gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG

  20. DNA microarray unravels rapid changes in transcriptome of MK-801 treated rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Kulikova, Sofya P; Shibato, Junko; Rakwal, Randeep; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Pinault, Didier; Masuo, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the impact of MK-801 on gene expression patterns genome wide in rat brain regions. METHODS: Rats were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of MK-801 [0.08 (low-dose) and 0.16 (high-dose) mg/kg] or NaCl (vehicle control). In a first series of experiment, the frontoparietal electrocorticogram was recorded 15 min before and 60 min after injection. In a second series of experiments, the whole brain of each animal was rapidly removed at 40 min post-injection, and different regions were separated: amygdala, cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, midbrain and ventral striatum on ice followed by DNA microarray (4 × 44 K whole rat genome chip) analysis. RESULTS: Spectral analysis revealed that a single systemic injection of MK-801 significantly and selectively augmented the power of baseline gamma frequency (30-80 Hz) oscillations in the frontoparietal electroencephalogram. DNA microarray analysis showed the largest number (up- and down- regulations) of gene expressions in the cerebral cortex (378), midbrain (376), hippocampus (375), ventral striatum (353), amygdala (301), and hypothalamus (201) under low-dose (0.08 mg/kg) of MK-801. Under high-dose (0.16 mg/kg), ventral striatum (811) showed the largest number of gene expression changes. Gene expression changes were functionally categorized to reveal expression of genes and function varies with each brain region. CONCLUSION: Acute MK-801 treatment increases synchrony of baseline gamma oscillations, and causes very early changes in gene expressions in six individual rat brain regions, a first report. PMID:26629322

  1. The role of employee assistance programs in the era of rapid change in the health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumerall, S W; Israel, A R; Brewer, R; Prew, R E

    1999-01-01

    With the rapid changes occurring in the American healthcare system, questions regarding various aspects of care have arisen. These changes have led to the need for individuals working within an Employee Assistance Program (EAP) to respond quickly and effectively to crisis situations. This article summarizes the different roles and responsibilities of EAP workers in the healthcare marketplace.

  2. Changing role of non-timber forest products (NTFP) in rural household economy: the case of Sinharaja World Heritage site in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratne, Athula; Abeygunawardena, Piyasena; Jayatilake, Wijaya

    2003-11-01

    This paper examines the modified patterns of utilizing non-timber forest products (NTFP) and associated behavioral changes around tropical forest areas in the context of conservation-related objectives and other commercially driven objectives. Our study introduces a conceptual framework based on the household production theory and tests empirically the hypotheses drawn at Sinharaja World Heritage in Sri Lanka. The results show that conditions introduced by forest conservation programs and the spread of small-scale commercial tea cultivation are transforming the economy around Sinharaja. The process is an economically rational one where resident communities decide upon their actions based on the opportunity cost of time involved with NTFP in the absence of observable prices. Although the process, overall, has led to a decline in the role of NTFP in the household economy, its impact over different NTFP are not uniform, leaving sustained demand for certain NTFP. This situation calls for a multifaceted approach in forest management programs to address the various household needs fulfilled by NTFP-based activities.

  3. Three dimensional evaluation of alveolar bone changes in response to different rapid palatal expansion activation rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian LaBlonde

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this multi-center retrospective study was to quantify the changes in alveolar bone height and thickness after using two different rapid palatal expansion (RPE activation protocols, and to determine whether a more rapid rate of expansion is likely to cause more adverse effects, such as alveolar tipping, dental tipping, fenestration and dehiscence of anchorage teeth. Methods: The sample consisted of pre- and post-expansion records from 40 subjects (age 8-15 years who underwent RPE using a 4-banded Hyrax appliance as part of their orthodontic treatment to correct posterior buccal crossbites. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their RPE activation rates (0.5 mm/day and 0.8 mm/day; n = 20 each group. Three-dimensional images for all included subjects were evaluated using Dolphin Imaging Software 11.7 Premium. Maxillary base width, buccal and palatal cortical bone thickness, alveolar bone height, and root angulation and length were measured. Significance of the changes in the measurements was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and comparisons between groups were done using ANOVA. Significance was defined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: RPE activation rates of 0.5 mm per day (Group 1 and 0.8 mm per day (Group 2 caused significant increase in arch width following treatment; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Buccal alveolar height and width decreased significantly in both groups. Both treatment protocols resulted in significant increases in buccal-lingual angulation of teeth; however, Group 2 showed greater increases compared to Group 1 (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Both activation rates are associated with significant increase in intra-arch widths. However, 0.8 mm/day resulted in greater increases. The 0.8 mm/day activation rate also resulted in more increased dental tipping and decreased buccal alveolar bone thickness over 0.5 mm/day.

  4. The Decree of the Ministry Economy of the Slovak Republic which changes the decree of Ministry Economy of the Slovak Republic No 15/1998 Collection of Acts on conditions of granting official permission for import and export of commodity and services in the version of later regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic constitutes: The decree of the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic No. 15/1998 Collection of Acts on conditions of granting official permission for import and export of commodity and services in the version of the decree of the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic No. 193/1998 Collection of Acts, o the decree of the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic No. 311/1998 Collection of Acts, of the decree of the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic No. 406/1998 Collection of Acts, and of the decree of the Ministry of Economy of the Slovak Republic No. 163/1999 Collection of Acts changes in this manner: heretofore appendixes A, B, C, D substitutes with new appendixes A, B, C, D. The Appendix A: List of commodity responsible to licensing at import: The Appendix B: List of commodity responsible to licensing at export; The Appendix C: List of commodity responsible to licensing at export to certain states or to group states; The Appendix D, Part II (List of commodity responsible to licensing at import and export) contains radioactive elements and isotopes and compounds other than 284410, 284420 or 284430; alloys, dispersions (cements are included), ceramic ware and mixtures containing these elements, isotopes or compounds; radioactive debris. This decree shall into effect on 1 January 2000

  5. Dental arch changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion: A retrospective model analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivor M D′Souza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Transverse deficiency of the maxilla is a common clinical problem in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics. Transverse maxillary deficiency, isolated or associated with other dentofacial deformities, results in esthetic and functional impairment giving rise to several clinical manifestations such as asymmetrical facial growth, positional and functional mandibular deviations, altered dentofacial esthetics, adverse periodontal responses, unstable dental tipping, and other functional problems. Orthopedic maxillary expansion is the preferred treatment approach to increase the maxillary transverse dimension in young patients by splitting of the mid palatal suture. This orthopedic procedure has lately been subject of renewed interest in orthodontic treatment mechanics because of its potential for increasing arch perimeter to alleviate crowding in the maxillary arch without adversely affecting facial profile. Hence, the present investigation was conducted to establish a correlation between transverse expansion and changes in the arch perimeter, arch width and arch length. Methods: For this purpose, 10 subjects (five males, five females were selected who had been treated by rapid maxillary expansion (RME using hyrax rapid palatal expander followed by fixed mechanotherapy (PEA. Pretreatment (T1, postexpansion (T2, and posttreatment (T3 dental models were compared for dental changes brought about by RME treatment and its stability at the end of fixed mechanotherapy. After model measurements were made, the changes between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were determined for each patient. The mean difference between T1-T2, T2-T3 and T1-T3 were compared to assess the effects of RME on dental arch measurements. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and are compared by repeated measures analysis of variance followed by a post-hoc test. Arch perimeter changes are correlated with changes in arch widths at the canine, premolar and molar

  6. New growth type industries of Japanese Economy <論説>

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihashi, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    This paper's purpose aims to survey and sketch a characteristic of new industrial change of Japanese Economy. The Japanese Economy shifted to export dependence type economy at 1980's because rationalization after an oil crisis at the beginning of 70's had been done. Processing structure industries of export oriented type and new service industries led Japanese Economy from that time to bubble economy period. Firstly, Japanese Economy made a recovery from about 1993 after the collapse ...

  7. Why the New Economy is a Learning Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    In this paper it is shown that the intense focus on the new economy reflected real change as well as 'hype?. The basic reason why new economy-growth could not be seen as sustainable is that introducing advanced technologies can only take place successfully when it is accompanied by organizational...... change and competence-building among employees. Any strategy that gives technology an independent role as problem-solver is doomed to fail. Danish data of a unique character are used to demonstrate that the key to economic performance is to promote learning at different levels of the economy....... In the conclusion it is argued that there is a need for a new type of knowledge and learning oriented Keynesianism in order to get close to the kind of growth rates characterizing the high days of the new economy adventure in the US....

  8. Innovative energy technologies in energy-economy models: assessing economic, energy and environmental impacts of climate policy and technological change in Germany.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, K.

    2007-04-18

    Energy technologies and innovation are considered to play a crucial role in climate change mitigation. Yet, the representation of technologies in energy-economy models, which are used extensively to analyze the economic, energy and environmental impacts of alternative energy and climate policies, is rather limited. This dissertation presents advanced techniques of including technological innovations in energy-economy computable general equilibrium (CGE) models. New methods are explored and applied for improving the realism of energy production and consumption in such top-down models. The dissertation addresses some of the main criticism of general equilibrium models in the field of energy and climate policy analysis: The lack of detailed sectoral and technical disaggregation, the restricted view on innovation and technological change, and the lack of extended greenhouse gas mitigation options. The dissertation reflects on the questions of (1) how to introduce innovation and technological change in a computable general equilibrium model as well as (2) what additional and policy relevant information is gained from using these methodologies. Employing a new hybrid approach of incorporating technology-specific information for electricity generation and iron and steel production in a dynamic multi-sector computable equilibrium model it can be concluded that technology-specific effects are crucial for the economic assessment of climate policy, in particular the effects relating to process shifts and fuel input structure. Additionally, the dissertation shows that learning-by-doing in renewable energy takes place in the renewable electricity sector but is equally important in upstream sectors that produce technologies, i.e. machinery and equipment, for renewable electricity generation. The differentiation of learning effects in export sectors, such as renewable energy technologies, matters for the economic assessment of climate policies because of effects on international

  9. A multiple-proxy approach to understanding rapid Holocene climate change in Southeast Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, S. H.; Bradley, R. S.; Balascio, N. L.; de Wet, G.

    2012-12-01

    The susceptibility of the Arctic to climate change has made it an excellent workshop for paleoclimatological research. Although there have been previous studies concerning climate variability carried out in the Arctic, there remains a critical dearth of knowledge due the limited number of high-resolution Holocene climate-proxy records available from this region. This gap skews our understanding of observed and predicted climate change, and fuels uncertainty both in the realms of science and policy. This study takes a comprehensive approach to tracking Holocene climate variability in the vicinity of Tasiilaq, Southeast Greenland using a ~5.6 m sediment core from Lower Sermilik Lake. An age-depth model for the core has been established using 8 radiocarbon dates, the oldest of which was taken at 4 m down core and has been been dated to approximately 6.2 kyr BP. The bottom meter of the core below the final radiocarbon date contains a transition from cobbles and coarse sand to organic-rich laminations, indicating the termination of direct glacial influence and therefore likely marking the end of the last glacial period in this region. The remainder of the core is similarly organic-rich, with light-to-dark brown laminations ranging from 0.5 -1 cm in thickness and riddled with turbidites. Using this core in tandem with findings from an on-site assessment of the geomorphic history of the locale we attempt to assess and infer the rapid climatic shifts associated with the Holocene on a sub-centennial scale. Such changes include the termination of the last glacial period, the Mid-Holocene Climatic Optimum, the Neoglacial Period, the Medieval Climatic Optimum, and the Little Ice Age. A multiple proxy approach including magnetic susceptibility, bulk organic geochemistry, elemental profiles acquired by XRF scanning, grain-size, and spectral data will be used to characterize the sediment and infer paleoclimate conditions. Additionally, percent biogenic silica by weight has been

  10. Rapid changes in genetic architecture of behavioural syndromes following colonization of a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Green, K; Eroukhmanoff, F; Harris, S; Pettersson, L B; Svensson, E I

    2016-01-01

    Behavioural syndromes, that is correlated behaviours, may be a result from adaptive correlational selection, but in a new environmental setting, the trait correlation might act as an evolutionary constraint. However, knowledge about the quantitative genetic basis of behavioural syndromes, and the stability and evolvability of genetic correlations under different ecological conditions, is limited. We investigated the quantitative genetic basis of correlated behaviours in the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. In some Swedish lakes, A. aquaticus has recently colonized a novel habitat and diverged into two ecotypes, presumably due to habitat-specific selection from predation. Using a common garden approach and animal model analyses, we estimated quantitative genetic parameters for behavioural traits and compared the genetic architecture between the ecotypes. We report that the genetic covariance structure of the behavioural traits has been altered in the novel ecotype, demonstrating divergence in behavioural correlations. Thus, our study confirms that genetic correlations behind behaviours can change rapidly in response to novel selective environments. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. Rapid Temperature Changes and the Early Activity on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alí-Lagoa, V.; Delbo', M.; Libourel, G.

    2015-09-01

    The so-called “early activity” of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko has been observed to originate mostly in parts of the concave region or “neck” between its two lobes. Since activity is driven by the sublimation of volatiles, this is a puzzling result because this area is less exposed to the Sun and is therefore expected to be cooler on average. We used a thermophysical model that takes into account thermal inertia, global self-heating, and shadowing, to compute surface temperatures of the comet. We found that, for every rotation in the 2014 August-December period, some parts of the neck region undergo the fastest temperature variations of the comet’s surface precisely because they are shadowed by their surrounding terrains. Our work suggests that these fast temperature changes are correlated to the early activity of the comet, and we put forward the hypothesis that erosion related to thermal cracking is operating at a high rate on the neck region due to these rapid temperature variations. This may explain why the neck contains some ice—as opposed to most other parts of the surface—and why it is the main source of the comet’s early activity. In a broader context, these results indicate that thermal cracking can operate faster on atmosphereless bodies with significant concavities than implied by currently available estimates.

  12. Rapid modification in the olfactory signal of ants following a change in reproductive status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Renault, Valérie; Peeters, Christian

    2005-02-01

    In insect societies, the presence and condition of egg-layers can be assessed with pheromones. Exocrine secretions are expected to vary in time in order to give up-to-date information on an individual’s reproductive physiology. In the queenless monogynous ant Streblognathus peetersi, we allowed a previously infertile high-ranking worker to accede to the alpha rank, thus triggering the onset of her oogenesis (15 replicates). We then studied her interactions with an established egg-layer from the same colony after different durations, ranging from 20 h to several days. Even though her eggs are only ready to be laid after 30 days, the new alpha was recognised within 1 2 days. Detection occurred at a distance of a few millimetres, suggesting the involvement of a pheromone with low volatility, such as cuticular hydrocarbons. When the new alpha had differentiated for >48 h, she was attacked by the established egg-layer. In all cases, low-ranking workers eventually immobilised one of the two alphas: the new alpha was the target if she had differentiated only recently, suggesting that police workers select the dominant worker with the “less fertile” odour. Using the behaviour of ants as our measure, we demonstrate that a dominant’s olfactory signal changes rapidly with a modification in her social status, and it occurs well before the onset of egg-laying.

  13. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  14. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Changes in soft tissue nasal widths associated with rapid maxillary expansion in prepubertal and postpubertal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bret M; McNamara, James A; Bandeen, Roger L; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate changes in the soft tissue width of the nose induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Data on greater alar cartilage (GAC) and alar base (AB) widths were compared with a normative sample within the same age range. This prospective study consisted of an RME sample of 79 patients treated with an RME protocol. Mean age at the start of RME treatment was 13.5 years; average duration of treatment was 6.7 months. Patients were grouped into prepubertal and postpubertal groups based on their cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stage. AB and GAC widths were determined at three separate time points. The normative sample consisted of 437 orthodontically untreated whites, aged 10-16 years. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine group differences. In addition, independent sample t-tests were used to compare posttreatment nasal width values vs the untreated normative sample. Increases in AB and GAC widths of the nose in the RME sample were less than 1.5 mm. No significant differences were noted in width changes between the prepubertal and postpubertal subgroups. Comparisons of T3 values showed that on average nasal width increases were greater in the RME group than in untreated norms by 1.7 mm for the GAC measure (statistically significant), and by less than 1 mm for the AB measure. RME has no significant clinical effects on the widths of the apical base and the greater alar cartilage of the nose; no differences were observed between the two maturational subgroups.

  16. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  17. Rural electrification, climate change, and local economies: Facilitating communication in development policy and practice on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Christian E.

    . Participatory modeling places a greater emphasis on understanding processes, rather than just focusing on outcomes. The process facilitated the detailed exploration of local realities through the creation and playing of a board game that modeled their local fishing economy. Participants were able to look closely at the causal relations between several potential development interventions such as a cooperative-owned fish businesses and local ice production, gaining insights into possible costs and benefits.

  18. Is Time the Best Metric to Measure Carbon-Related Climate Change Potential and Tune the Economy Toward Reduced Fossil Carbon Extraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroff, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic changes to non-anthropogenic carbon fluxes are a primary driver of climate change. There currently exists no comprehensive metric to measure and value anthropogenic changes in carbon flux between all states of carbon. Focusing on atmospheric carbon emissions as a measure of anthropogenic activity on the environment ignores the fungible characteristics of carbon that are crucial in both the biosphere and the worldwide economy. Focusing on a single form of inorganic carbon as a proxy metric for the plethora of anthropogenic activity and carbon compounds will prove inadequate, convoluted, and unmanageable. A broader, more basic metric is needed to capture the entirety of carbon activity, particularly in an economic, profit-driven environment. We propose a new metric to measure changes in the temporal distance of any form or state of carbon from one state to another. Such a metric would be especially useful to measure the temporal distance of carbon from sinks such as the atmosphere or oceans. The effect of changes in carbon flux as a result of any human activity can be measured by the difference between the anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic temporal distance. The change in the temporal distance is a measure of the climate change potential much like voltage is a measure of electrical potential. The integral of the climate change potential is proportional to the anthropogenic climate change. We also propose a logarithmic vector scale for carbon quality, cq, as a measure of anthropogenic changes in carbon flux. The distance between the cq vector starting and ending temporal distances represents the change in cq. A base-10 logarithmic scale would allow the addition and subtraction of exponents to calculate changes in cq. As anthropogenic activity changes the temporal distance of carbon, the change in cq is measured as: cq = ß ( log10 [mean carbon temporal distance] ) where ß represents the carbon price coefficient for a particular country. For any

  19. From University to Regionality? Knowledge Economy and Regional Development--The Case of Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    From, Jörgen; Olofsson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    New public management and knowledge economy have become watchwords in the governance of higher education. The university's role has rapidly changed toward regional development. The aim of this article is critically to highlight the basic rationale of this reorganization and to examine what this can mean in a Swedish context. This rationale is…

  20. The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Camp

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change and localized anthropogenic stressors are driving rapid declines in coral reef health. In vitro experiments have been fundamental in providing insight into how reef organisms will potentially respond to future climates. However, such experiments are inevitably limited in their ability to reproduce the complex interactions that govern reef systems. Studies examining coral communities that already persist under naturally-occurring extreme and marginal physicochemical conditions have therefore become increasingly popular to advance ecosystem scale predictions of future reef form and function, although no single site provides a perfect analog to future reefs. Here we review the current state of knowledge that exists on the distribution of corals in marginal and extreme environments, and geographic sites at the latitudinal extremes of reef growth, as well as a variety of shallow reef systems and reef-neighboring environments (including upwelling and CO2 vent sites. We also conduct a synthesis of the abiotic data that have been collected at these systems, to provide the first collective assessment on the range of extreme conditions under which corals currently persist. We use the review and data synthesis to increase our understanding of the biological and ecological mechanisms that facilitate survival and success under sub-optimal physicochemical conditions. This comprehensive assessment can begin to: (i highlight the extent of extreme abiotic scenarios under which corals can persist, (ii explore whether there are commonalities in coral taxa able to persist in such extremes, (iii provide evidence for key mechanisms required to support survival and/or persistence under sub-optimal environmental conditions, and (iv evaluate the potential of current sub-optimal coral environments to act as potential refugia under changing environmental conditions. Such a collective approach is critical to better understand the future survival of

  1. Lake ecosystem response to rapid lateglacial climate changes in lake sediments from northern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Zawiska, Izabela; Ott, Florian; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Apolinarska, Karina; Lutyńska, Monika; Michczyńska, Danuta J.; Brauer, Achim; Wulf, Sabine; Skubała, Piotr; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław

    2013-04-01

    During the Late Glacial Period environment changes were triggered by climatic oscillations which in turn controlled processes like, for example, permafrost thawing, vegetation development and ground water circulation. These environmental changes are ideally recorded in lake sediments and thus can be reconstructed applying a multi-poxy approach. Here, we present the results from the Trzechowskie paleolake, located in the northern Polish lowlands (eastern part of the Pomeranian Lakeland). The site is situated on the outwash plain of the Wda River, which was formed during the Pomeranian phase of the Vistulian glaciation ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The depression of the Trzechowskie lake basin formed after melting of a buried ice block during the Allerød (13903±170 cal yrs BP). We reconstructed environmental changes in the Trzechowskie paleolake and its catchment using biotic proxies (macrofossils, pollen, cladocera, diatoms, oribatidae mite) and geochemical proxies (δ18O, δ13C, loss-on-ignition (LOI), CaCO3 content). In addition, we carried out µ-XRF element core scanning. The chronology has been established by means of biostratigraphyAMS14C dating on plant macro remains, varve counting in laminated intervals and the late Allerød Laacher See Tephra isochrone. Our results showed that biogenic accumulation in the lake started during the Bølling. Development of coniferous forest during the Allerød with dominance of Pinus sylvestris lead to leaching of carbonates in the catchment due to low pH increasing the flux of Ca ions into the lake. In consequence calcite precipitating in the lake increased as evidences by increasing CaCO3 contents. Both biotic and physical proxies clearly reflect the rapid decrease in productivity at the onset of the Younger Dryas. We compare the data from the Trzechowskie paleolake with the Meerfelder Maar and Rehwiese lake records based on tephrochronological synchronization using the Laacher See Tephra. This study is a contribution to the

  2. Economy-wide estimates of the implications of climate change: A joint analysis for sea level rise and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigano, A. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy)]|[Ricerche per l' Economia e la Finanza, Milan (Italy); Bosello, F.; Roson, R. [Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Venice (Italy)]|[Ca' Foscari Univ. of Venice (Italy); Tol, R.S.J. [Hamburg Univ. and Centre for Marine and Atmospheric Science, Hamburg (Germay). Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change]|[Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Inst. for Environmental Studies]|[Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Climate change impacts of human life have well defined and different origins. Nevertheless in the determination of their final effects, especially those involving social-economic responses, interactions among impacts are likely to play an important role. This paper is one of the first attempts to disentangle and highlight the role of these interactions. It focuses on the economic assessment of two specific climate change impacts: sea-level rise and changes in tourism flows. By using a CGE model the two impacts categories are first analyzed separately and then jointly. Comparing the results it is shown that, even though qualitatively joint effects follow the outcomes of the disjoint exercises, quantitatively impact interaction do play a significant role. Moreover it has also been possible to disentangle the relative contribution of each single impact category to the final result. In the case under scrutiny demand shocks induced by changes in tourism flows outweigh the supply side shock induced by the loss of coastal land.

  3. The capacity to adapt?: communities in a changing climate, environment, and economy on the northern Andaman coast of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Bennett

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health and productivity of marine ecosystems, habitats, and fisheries are deteriorating on the Andaman coast of Thailand. Because of their high dependence on natural resources and proximity to the ocean, coastal communities are particularly vulnerable to climate-induced changes in the marine environment. These communities must also adapt to the impacts of management interventions and conservation initiatives, including marine protected areas, which have livelihood implications. Further, communities on the Andaman coast are also experiencing a range of new economic opportunities associated in particular with tourism and agriculture. These complex and ongoing changes require integrated assessment of, and deliberate planning to increase, the adaptive capacity of communities so that they may respond to: (1 environmental degradation and fisheries declines through effective management interventions or conservation initiatives, (2 new economic opportunities to reduce dependence on fisheries, and (3 the increasing impacts of climate change. Our results are from a mixed methods study, which used surveys and interviews to examine multiple dimensions of the adaptive capacity of seven island communities near marine protected areas on the Andaman coast of Thailand. Results show that communities had low adaptive capacity with respect to environmental degradation and fisheries declines, and to management and conservation interventions, as well as uneven levels of adaptive capacity to economic opportunities. Though communities and households were experiencing the impacts of climate change, especially storm events, changing seasons and weather patterns, and erosion, they were reacting to these changes with limited knowledge of climate change per se. We recommend interventions, in the form of policies, programs, and actions, at multiple scales for increasing the adaptive capacity of Thailand's coastal communities to change. The analytical and methodological

  4. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modelling with a Focus on Climate Change Issues in Korea : A Proto-type Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, Seung Hun; Dellink, Rob; Nam, Yunmi; Kim, Yong Gun; Song, Yang Hoon [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    In the beginning of the 21st century, climate change is one of hottest issues in arena of both international environment and domestic one. During the COP6 meeting held in The Hague, over 10,000 people got together from the world. This report is a series of policy study on climate change in context of Korea. This study addresses on interactions of economy and environment in a perfect foresight dynamic computable general equilibrium with a focus on greenhouse gas mitigation strategy in Korea. The primary goal of this study is to evaluate greenhouse gas mitigation portfolios of changes in timing and magnitude with a particular focus on developing a methodology to integrate the bottom-up information on technical measures to reduce pollution into a top-down multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium framework. As a non-Annex I country Korea has been under strong pressure to declare GHG reduction commitment. Of particular concern is economic consequences GHG mitigation would accrue to the society. Various economic assessment have been carried out to address on the issue including analyses on cost, ancillary benefit, emission trading, so far. In this vein, this study on GHG mitigation commitment is a timely answer to climate change policy field. Empirical results available next year would be highly demanded in the situation. 62 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  5. Rapid change of ion energy distribution and floating potential at L/H transition in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Y.; Nagashima, K.; Okano, F.

    1994-01-01

    Rapid changes of the main ion energy distribution at transitions from L-to-H, H-to-L and during ELMs are studied with the time of flight neutral measurement in the JFT-2M tokamak. The change of the main ion energy distribution after sawtooth crash during an L-mode phase is also studied. The change of the ion energy distribution just after sawtooth crash is the same as that at L/H-transition. The floating potential measured in the SOL also shows the rapid jump to more positive just after the sawtooth crash (at the same time of the change of an ion energy distribution). This shows the increase of ion outflux in the SOL and might correspond to the change of the ion energy distribution. This may be the reason why most of H-modes are triggered by a sawtooth. (author)

  6. Scale interactions in economics: application to the evaluation of the economic damages of climatic change and of extreme events; Interactions d'echelles en economie: application a l'evaluation des dommages economiques du changement climatique et des evenements extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallegatte, S

    2005-06-15

    Growth models, which neglect economic disequilibria, considered as temporary, are in general used to evaluate the damaging effects generated by climatic change. This work shows, through a series of modeling experiences, the importance of disequilibria and of endogenous variability of economy in the evaluation of damages due to extreme events and climatic change. It demonstrates the impossibility to separate the evaluation of damages from the representation of growth and of economic dynamics: the comfort losses will depend on both the nature and intensity of impacts and on the dynamics and situation of the economy to which they will apply. Thus, the uncertainties about the damaging effects of future climatic changes come from both scientific uncertainties and from uncertainties about the future organization of our economies. (J.S.)

  7. Extremely rapid directional change during Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic polarity reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Scardia, Giancarlo; Giaccio, Biagio; Liddicoat, Joseph C.; Nomade, Sebastien; Renne, Paul R.; Sprain, Courtney J.

    2014-11-01

    We report a palaeomagnetic investigation of the last full geomagnetic field reversal, the Matuyama-Brunhes (M-B) transition, as preserved in a continuous sequence of exposed lacustrine sediments in the Apennines of Central Italy. The palaeomagnetic record provides the most direct evidence for the tempo of transitional field behaviour yet obtained for the M-B transition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of tephra layers bracketing the M-B transition provides high-accuracy age constraints and indicates a mean sediment accumulation rate of about 0.2 mm yr-1 during the transition. Two relative palaeointensity (RPI) minima are present in the M-B transition. During the terminus of the upper RPI minimum, a directional change of about 180 ° occurred at an extremely fast rate, estimated to be less than 2 ° per year, with no intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) documented during the transit from the southern to northern hemisphere. Thus, the entry into the Brunhes Normal Chron as represented by the palaeomagnetic directions and VGPs developed in a time interval comparable to the duration of an average human life, which is an order of magnitude more rapid than suggested by current models. The reported investigation therefore provides high-resolution integrated palaeomagnetic and radioisotopic data that document the fine details of the anatomy and tempo of the M-B transition in Central Italy that in turn are crucial for a better understanding of Earth's magnetic field, and for the development of more sophisticated models that are able to describe its global structure and behaviour.

  8. Diverse multi-decadal changes in streamflow within a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Jeremy E.; Hill, T. Chee; Milligan, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on streamflow depends on a variety of factors (e.g., climate, initial land cover, inter-basin transfers, water withdrawals, wastewater effluent, etc.). The purpose of this study is to examine trends in streamflow from 1986 to 2015 in a range of watersheds within the rapidly urbanizing Atlanta, GA metropolitan area. This study compares eight watersheds over three decades, while minimizing the influence of inter-annual precipitation variability. Population and land-cover data were used to analyze changes over approximately twenty years within the watersheds. Precipitation totals for the watersheds were estimated using precipitation totals at nearby weather stations. Multiple streamflow variables, such as annual streamflow, frequencies of high-flow days (HFDs), flashiness, and precipitation-adjusted streamflow, for the eight streams were calculated using daily streamflow data. Variables were tested for significant trends from 1986 to 2015 and significant differences between 1986-2000 and 2001-2015. Flashiness increased for all streams without municipal water withdrawals, and the four watersheds with the largest increase in developed land had significant increases in flashiness. Significant positive trends in precipitation-adjusted mean annual streamflow and HFDs occurred for the two watersheds (Big Creek and Suwanee Creek) that experienced the largest increases in development, and these were the only watersheds that went from majority forest land in 1986 to majority developed land in 2015. With a disproportionate increase in HFD occurrence during summer, Big Creek and Suwannee Creek also had a reduction in intra-annual variability of HFD occurrence. Watersheds that were already substantially developed at the beginning of the period and did not have wastewater discharge had declining streamflow. The most urbanized watershed (Peachtree Creek) had a significant decrease in streamflow, and a possible cause of the decrease was increasing

  9. Rapid Assessment of Small Changes to Major Gun and Projectile Dynamic Parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erline, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Navy's 5-in 54-cal. (5"/54) gun system Mark (Mk) 45 was subjected to first-order dynamic analysis tools that allowed rapid assessment of ballistic dispersion of a typical naval high explosive projectile...

  10. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  11. Neolithisation of the Aegean and Southeast Europe during the 6600–6000 calBC period of Rapid Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Weninger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In extension of the recently established ‘Rapid Climate Change (RCC Neolithisation Model’ (Clare 2013, in the present paper we demonstrate the existence of a remarkable coincidence between the exact (decadel-scale entry and departure dates of the Neolithic into/from the Aegean (~6600/6050 calBC with begin/end of RCC-conditions.

  12. Isometric pre-conditioning blunts exercise-induced muscle damage but does not attenuate changes in running economy following downhill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Leonardo C R; Bassan, Natália M; Cardozo, Adalgiso C; Gonçalves, Mauro; Greco, Camila C; Denadai, Benedito S

    2018-05-08

    Running economy (RE) is impaired following unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercises that induce muscle damage. It is also known that muscle damage is reduced when maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) are performed at a long muscle length 2-4 days prior to maximal eccentric exercise with the same muscle, a phenomenon that can be described as isometric pre-conditioning (IPC). We tested the hypothesis that IPC could attenuate muscle damage and changes in RE following downhill running. Thirty untrained men were randomly assigned into experimental or control groups and ran downhill on a treadmill (-15%) for 30 min. Participants in the experimental group completed 10 MVIC in a leg press machine two days prior to downhill running, while participants in the control group did not perform IPC. The magnitude of changes in muscle soreness determined 48 h after downhill running was greater for the control group (122 ± 28 mm) than for the experimental group (92 ± 38 mm). Isometric peak torque recovered faster in the experimental group compared with the control group (3 days vs. no full recovery, respectively). No significant effect of IPC was found for countermovement jump height, serum creatine kinase activity or any parameters associated with RE. These results supported the hypothesis that IPC attenuates changes in markers of muscle damage. The hypothesis that IPC attenuates changes in RE was not supported by our data. It appears that the mechanisms involved in changes in markers of muscle damage and parameters associated with RE following downhill running are not completely shared. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Engineering education in the period with rapid change; Henkakuki no kogaku kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Y. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-01-05

    The Accreditation Examination Committee of engineering education was established in 1997 in the Japan Engineering Education Society, and the International Universal Engineer Review Board was established in the Japan Engineering Education Society and the Japan Engineering Society in 1998. A series of the activities was connected to the establishment of 'Japan Accreditation Board for Engineering Education' (JABEE). To adapt to the movements, the Educational Program Review Board in the Engineering was installed in 1997 mainly composed of directors of engineering departments of 8 national universities. This Board arranges the contents of engineering education in the orders as follows, and studies on this base are being promoted. (1) Static (engineering basic knowledge, engineering special knowledge, expert skill), (2) Dynamic (search, design, analysis and application, synthesis and comprehension), (3) Mental 1 (External: Negotiation ability, persuasion linguistic ability, language ability, positiveness cooperativeness, etc.), (4) Mental 2 (world view, engineering ethics, sense of responsibility, self-development, economy sense, international sense, etc.). (NEDO)

  14. Economy of Standards: European Association of Urology Guideline Changes Influence Treatment Costs in Stage I Testicular Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Axel; Baumgart, André; Worst, Thomas; Heinzelbecker, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to calculate direct medical costs (DMC) during the first year of diagnosis and to evaluate the impact of guideline changes on treatment costs in clinical stage (CS) I testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) patients in a German healthcare system. Healthcare expenditures as DMC during the first year of diagnosis for 307 TGCT patients in CS I treated at our institution from 1987 to 2013 were calculated from the statutory health insurance perspective using patient level data. Three periods were defined referring to the first European Association of Urology (EAU) guideline in 2001 as well as to subsequent major guideline changes in 2005 and 2010. Data source for cost calculations were the German Diagnosis Related Groups system for inpatient stays (version 2014) and the German system for reimbursement of outpatient care (EBM - Einheitlicher Bewertungsmaßstab, edition 2014). During our 25 years of study period, mean DMC in the first year after diagnosis for the entire cohort of TGCT patients in CS I almost halved from EUR 13.000 to EUR 6.900 (p < 0.001). From 1987 to 2001, DMC for CS I seminomatous germ cell tumor (SGCT) patients were EUR 13.790 ± 4.700. From 2002 to 2010, mean costs were EUR 10.900 ± 5.990, and from 2011 to 2013, mean costs were EUR 5.190 ± 3.700. For CS I non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) patients, from 1987 to 2001, mean DMC were EUR 11.650 ± 5.690. From 2002 to 2010, mean costs were EUR 11.230 ± 5.990, and from 2011 to 2013, mean costs were EUR 11.170 ± 7.390. Follow-up examinations became less frequent over time, which caused a significant cost reduction for NSGCT (p = 0.042) while costs remained stable for SGCT. When adding costs of relapse treatment, active surveillance (AS) was the most cost-effective adjuvant treatment option in CS I NSGCT whereas one course carboplatin or AS caused similar expenditures in SGCT patients. The introduction of the EAU guidelines in 2001 caused a decrease in DMC in CS I seminoma patients

  15. Ocean warming expands habitat of a rich natural resource and benefits a national economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Post, Søren Lorenzen; Kristiansen, Trond

    2016-01-01

    Geographic redistribution of living natural resources changes access and thereby harvesting opportunities between countries. Internationally shared fish resources can be sensitive to shifts in the marine environment and this may have great impact on the economies of countries and regions that rely...... northwest in the Atlantic. This change in migration pattern was followed by a rapid development of a large-scale fishery of substantial importance for the national economy of Greenland (23% of Greenland's export value of all goods in 2014). A pelagic trawl survey was conducted in mid-summer 2014...

  16. Developing adaptive capacity for responding to environmental change in the Arab Gulf States: Uncertainties to linking ecosystem conservation, sustainable development and society in authoritarian rentier economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, Andy

    2008-12-01

    The recent assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has emphasized that understanding the institutional context in which policies are made and implemented is critical to define sustainable development paths from a climate change perspective. Nevertheless, while the importance of social, political and cultural factors is getting more recognition in some parts of the world, little is known about the human dimensions or the contexts in which they operate in the affluent oil economies of the Arabian Peninsula. Policies that implicitly subsidize or support a wasteful and environmentally destructive use of resources are still pervasive, while noteworthy environmental improvements still face formidable political and institutional constraints to the adaptation of the necessary far reaching and multisectoral approach. The principal aim of this paper is to identify some of the major shortcomings within the special context of the Arab Gulf states' socio-cultural environment in support of appropriate development pathways. Conclusions highlight that past and current policy recommendations for mitigating environmental threats are likely to be ineffective. This is because they are based on the unverified assumption that Western-derived standards of conduct, specifically the normative concept of "good governance" and "democracy", will be adopted in non-Western politico-cultural contexts.

  17. Rapid fluvial aggradation in response to climate change in northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew; Schildgen, Taylor; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    River channels near the edge of the northwestern Argentine Andes are rapidly aggrading at present, with preliminary estimates suggesting rates of ~20 cm yr-1. This mirrors cycles of extensive aggradation over the past 100,000 years that formed pronounced fill terraces along regional valley networks and record periods in which in which climate-driven sediment supply overcame uplift-driven river incision (Robinson et al, 2005). Here we use the new SedFlow model (Heimann et al., 2014) to help us understand the causes and spread of aggradation across these basins in the modern system, with the additional eventual goal to better interpret the geologic record. We provide field-derived grain-size distributions, field-measured and remotely-sensed channel widths and valley slopes, and a variety of possible sediment source locations and amounts as inputs to SedFlow, which routes sediment through the fluvial channel network to produce time-evolving predictions of aggradation and incision. We compare these predictions against changes in topography measured by IceSAT (Zwally et al., 2014) and field surveys. We initially test the system response to a series of isolated sediment inputs to observe interactions between tributary systems and the mainstem river. Recent observations indicate that debris-flow induced landslides are important contributors to aggradation in these rivers (Cencetti and Rivelli, 2011). These and other sediment production and transport processes are likely driven by variations in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (Bookhagen and Strecker, 2009). Therefore, we then run SedFlow with sediment inputs distributed across the landscape based on locations where ENSO influences may trigger enhanced landsliding. These model experiments help us towards our end goal of providing a more quantitative basis to interpret field observations of landscape response to changing patterns of precipitation. References: Bookhagen, B. and Strecker, M.: Amazonia: Landscape and

  18. We really need to talk: adapting FDA processes to rapid change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykken, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly evolving realm of modern commerce strains traditional regulatory paradigms. This paper traces the historical evolution of FDA crisis-response regulation and provides examples of ways in which the definitions and procedures resulting from that past continue to be challenged by new products as market entrants, some in good faith and others not, take actions that create disconnects between actual product and marketing controls and those that consumers might expect. The paper then explores some of the techniques used by other federal agencies that have faced similar challenges in environments characterized by rapid innovation, and draws from this analysis suggestions for improvement of the FDA's warning letter system.

  19. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  20. Historical Improvement in Speed Skating Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhof, Dionne A; van Tok, Elmy; Joosten, Florentine S J G M; Hettinga, Florentina J; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Foster, Carl; de Koning, Jos J

    2017-02-01

    Half the improvement in 1500-m speed-skating world records can be explained by technological innovations and the other half by athletic improvement. It is hypothesized that improved skating economy is accountable for much of the athletic improvement. To determine skating economy in contemporary athletes and to evaluate the change in economy over the years. Contemporary skaters of the Dutch national junior team (n = 8) skated 3 bouts of 6 laps at submaximal velocity, from which skating economy was calculated (in mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ). A literature search provided historic data on skating velocity and submaximal V̇O 2 (in mL ・ kg -1 ・ min -1 ), from which skating economy was determined. The association between year and skating economy was determined using linear-regression analysis. Correcting the change in economy for technological innovations resulted in an estimate of the association between year and economy due to athletic improvement. A mean (± SD) skating economy of 73.4 ± 6.4 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 was found in contemporary athletes. Skating economy improved significantly over the historical time frame (-0.57 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ・ y -1 , 95% confidence interval [-0.84, -0.31]). In the final regression model for the klapskate era, with altitude as confounder, skating economy improved with a nonsignificant -0.58 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 ・ y -1 ([-1.19, 0.035]). Skating economy was 73.4 ± 6.4 mL O 2 ・ kg -1 ・ km -1 in contemporary athletes and improved over the past ~50 y. The association between year and skating economy due to athletic improvement, for the klapskate era, approached significance, suggesting a possible improvement in economy over these years.

  1. Beyond naturalness: Adapting wilderness stewardship to an era of rapid global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole

    2012-01-01

    Climate change and its effects are writ large across wilderness landscapes. They always have been and always will be (see Figure 1). But contemporary change is different. For the first time, the pace and direction of climate change appear to be driven significantly by human activities (IPCC 2007), and this change is playing out across landscapes already affected by...

  2. Foreword. The Knowledge Economy: The Present Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Bratianu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available All the statistics and evaluations show that the Knowledge Economy is our future. However, a close look at the developed economies demonstrates that the Knowledge Economy is already here, shaping our present time. Although there are many definitions of this new economic framework, their core content stresses the importance of data, information, and knowledge in the production of goods and delivering services in creating value for society. For instance, Powell and Snellman (2004, p.1999 define the knowledge economy as “production and services based on knowledge-intensive activities that contribute to an accelerated pace of technical and scientific advance, as well as a rapid obsolescence. The key component of the knowledge economy is a greater reliance on intellectual capabilities than on physical inputs or natural resources”. In the knowledge economy, knowledge becomes a strategic resource (Davenport & Prusak, 2000; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995 and knowledge strategies contribute directly to the competitive advantage (Bratianu & Bolisani, 2015. In this new economy, data, information, and knowledge are the driving forces of development and the knowledge economy is the engine of the global economy growth...

  3. Automatic change detection in RapidEye data using the combined MAD and kernel MAF methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hecheltjen, Antje; Thonfeld, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The IR-MAD components show changes for a large part of the entire subset. Especially phenological changes in the agricultural fields surrounding the open pit are predominant. As opposed to this, kMAF components focus more on changes in the open-cast mine (and changes due to the two clouds...... and their shadows, not visible in the zoom). Ground data were available from bucket-wheel excavators on the extraction side (to the northwest in the open pit) in terms of elevation data for both dates. No ground data were available for changes due to backfill (southeastern part of the open pit) or changes due...

  4. THE NEW ECONOMY AND THE ECONOMY OF TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRELA MAZILU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Together with the Internet, e-business and the new economy era, in general, fundamental transformation of the social and economic structure take place. In parallel, the assaults on the standard economic science amplify, in the sense of some conceptual reformulations and of some reinterpretations of the economic phenomena and laws. Besides the classical factors of production, work and capital, information is added, either as a distinct factor or as a detached one of the two mentioned. Also, the empiric findings regarding the so-called tertiarisation of the economy or the increase of the share of the services sector in the total of the national economy, as well as the so-called intangible investments in the total of the investment funds, have lead to numerous attempts of redefining what we call today a "modern economy". Other factors with major influence, regarding the adjustment of the economic science to the new trends from the real economy, refer to the following: the liberalisation of the international exchanges and the globalisation; the growth of the importance of the so-called free time (including here the household activities and the ones unfolded in the interest of the community, entertainment, but also the time destined to the development of the degree of culture and education on one's own and the fluidisation of the limits of differentiation between this and the work activity in the formal sector as well as the informal one; the more rapid dynamic of the financial and banking markets than the so-called classic productive sector of the economy; the extension of the use of computers and of the means and techniques of communication, in the activity of the companies as well as in the households, and the impact on the structure of the time and the financial budget of the population etc. All these have an impact on the tourism unfolding.

  5. Analysis of economic values of land use and land cover changes in crisis territories by satellite data: models of socio-economy and population dynamics in war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyuchenko, Yuriy V.; Yuschenko, Maxim; Movchan, Dmytro; Kopachevsky, Ivan

    2017-10-01

    Problem of remote sensing data harnessing for decision making in conflict territories is considered. Approach for analysis of socio-economic and demographic parameters with a limited set of data and deep uncertainty is described. Number of interlinked techniques to estimate a population and economy in crisis territories are proposed. Stochastic method to assessment of population dynamics using multi-source data using remote sensing data is proposed. Adaptive Markov's chain based method to study of land-use changes using satellite data is proposed. Proposed approach is applied to analysis of socio-economic situation in Donbas (East Ukraine) territory of conflict in 2014-2015. Land-use and landcover patterns for different periods were analyzed using the Landsat and MODIS data . The land-use classification scheme includes the following categories: (1) urban or built-up land, (2) barren land, (3) cropland, (4) horticulture farms, (5) livestock farms, (6) forest, and (7) water. It was demonstrated, that during the period 2014-2015 was not detected drastic changes in land-use structure of study area. Heterogeneously distributed decreasing of horticulture farms (4-6%), livestock farms (5-6%), croplands (3-4%), and increasing of barren land (6-7%) have been observed. Way to analyze land-cover productivity variations using satellite data is proposed. Algorithm is based on analysis of time-series of NDVI and NDWI distributions. Drastic changes of crop area and its productivity were detected. Set of indirect indicators, such as night light intensity, is also considered. Using the approach proposed, using the data utilized, the local and regional GDP, local population, and its dynamics are estimated.

  6. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  7. Rapidly changing treatment options adding burden to the management of typhoid fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever continues to be a global public health problem. It is caused by the facultative intracellular organisms Salmonella enteric serotype Typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Antimicrobial therapy is the mainstay for treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole had been in use for decades for treating enteric fever. But the emergence and rapid spread of drug resistance has resulted in rapid shift of treatment options from chloramphenicol to fluoroquinolones to third generation cephalosporins to azithromycin with tigecycline and carbapenems in line, thus adding burden to the health-care sector in developing countries. Rational and judicious antibiotic prescribing practices by health professionals are necessary to prevent further development of drug resistance and help in re-emergence of sensitive strains.

  8. Methoxychlor and Vinclozolin Induce Rapid Changes in Intercellular and Intracellular Signaling in Liver Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babica, Pavel; Zurabian, Rimma; Kumar, Esha R; Chopra, Rajus; Mianecki, Maxwell J; Park, Joon-Suk; Jaša, Libor; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-09-01

    Methoxychlor (MXC) and vinclozolin (VIN) are well-recognized endocrine disrupting chemicals known to alter epigenetic regulations and transgenerational inheritance; however, non-endocrine disruption endpoints are also important. Thus, we determined the effects of MXC and VIN on the dysregulation of gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in WB-F344 rat liver epithelial cells. Both chemicals induced a rapid dysregulation of GJIC at non-cytotoxic doses, with 30 min EC50 values for GJIC inhibition being 10 µM for MXC and 126 µM for VIN. MXC inhibited GJIC for at least 24 h, while VIN effects were transient and GJIC recovered after 4 h. VIN induced rapid hyperphosphorylation and internalization of gap junction protein connexin43, and both chemicals also activated MAPK ERK1/2 and p38. Effects on GJIC were not prevented by MEK1/2 inhibitor, but by an inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC), resveratrol, and in the case of VIN, also, by a p38 inhibitor. Estrogen (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) modulators (estradiol, ICI 182,780, HPTE, testosterone, flutamide, VIN M2) did not attenuate MXC or VIN effects on GJIC. Our data also indicate that the effects were elicited by the parental compounds of MXC and VIN. Our study provides new evidence that MXC and VIN dysregulate GJIC via mechanisms involving rapid activation of PC-PLC occurring independently of ER- or AR-dependent genomic signaling. Such alterations of rapid intercellular and intracellular signaling events involved in regulations of gene expression, tissue development, function and homeostasis, could also contribute to transgenerational epigenetic effects of endocrine disruptors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Land use change monitoring in Maryland using a probabilistic sample and rapid photointerpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya Lister; Andrew Lister; Eunice Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. state of Maryland needs to monitor land use change in order to address land management objectives. This paper presents a change detection method that, through automation and standard geographic information system (GIS) techniques, facilitates the estimation of landscape change via photointerpretation. Using the protocols developed, we show a net loss of forest...

  10. Rapid lung MRI in children with pulmonary infections: Time to change our diagnostic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Singh, Meenu; Agarwal, Ritesh; Bhatia, Anmol; Lee, Edward Y

    2016-05-01

    To determine the diagnostic utility of a new rapid MRI protocol, as compared with computed tomography (CT) for the detection of various pulmonary and mediastinal abnormalities in children with suspected pulmonary infections. Seventy-five children (age range of 5 to 15 years) with clinically suspected pulmonary infections were enrolled in this prospective study, which was approved by the institutional ethics committee. All patients underwent thoracic MRI (1.5T) and CT (64 detector) scan within 48 h of each other. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of MRI were evaluated with CT as a standard of reference. Inter-observer agreement was measured with the kappa coefficient. MRI with a new rapid MRI protocol demonstrated sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 100% for detecting pulmonary consolidation, nodules (>3 mm), cyst/cavity, hyperinflation, pleural effusion, and lymph nodes. The kappa-test showed almost perfect agreement between MRI and multidetector CT (MDCT) in detecting thoracic abnormalities (k = 0.9). No statistically significant difference was observed between MRI and MDCT for detecting thoracic abnormalities by the McNemar test (P = 0.125). Rapid lung MRI was found to be comparable to MDCT for detecting thoracic abnormalities in pediatric patients with clinically suspected pulmonary infections. It has a great potential as the first line cross-sectional imaging modality of choice in this patient population. However, further studies will be helpful for confirmation of our findings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The shadow economy in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik H. Enste

    2015-01-01

    The shadow (underground) economy plays a major role in many countries. People evade taxes and regulations by working in the shadow economy or by employing people illegally. On the one hand, this unregulated economic activity can result in reduced tax revenue and public goods and services, lower tax morale and less tax compliance, higher control costs, and lower economic growth rates. But on the other hand, the shadow economy can be a powerful force for advancing institutional change and can b...

  12. A green economy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus Simons

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth has become a fetish, as it is believed to yield many benefits to society. It has its origins in the Enlightenment ideal of progress through science, technology and a free market economy. J.W. Goethe anticipated the problems of such progress in his poem Faust, especially its second part. Binswanger interprets Goethe’s view on the modern economy as a form of alchemy, an attempt to master time through the invention of monetary capital. Keynes’s views on progress and liquidity are compatible with this analysis. The problems, evoked by the uncritical application of scientific technology so as to increase material welfare, have given rise to a dialectic between business seeking growth and those concerned about its effects, especially on ecology. Sustainable development is an outcome of this dialectic, without abandoning it. Others, particularly those advocating décroissance [de-growth], reject the concepts underlying growth. The ideology underlying this is a combination of technicism and economism. A spiritual revolution is called for to break the hold of this ideology on society, with a change from the metaphor of the world as a machine to that of a garden-city. It is suggested that working groups should analyse the various proposals for change from the perspective of the garden-city metaphor.

  13. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien

    2016-01-01

    to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies......Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out innatural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response...... associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionaryresponse to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into modelspredicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change...

  14. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  15. The economy of the soviet Tuva: achievements, challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Begzi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Soviet period (1944-1991, the economy of Tuva was rapidly developing. Massive state investment helped create enterprises and whole branches of industry, which in turn outlined the areas of economy Tuva could specialize in. Indicators of regional economic development were higher than the national average. The industrial infrastructure created over the period, including transport, power engineering and technologies, has been since used for several decades without major renovations. However, the smooth function of the regional economy could be guaranteed only under directive planning and stringent control over prices, flows of resources, goods and other assets of planned Socialist economy. Together with other specific features of its economy, this made the economy of the region highly volatile. A breakdown of both economic achievements of the Soviet Tuva and the problems it faced will help us learn the lessons to be accounted for while developing new long-term development programs. Although the programmatic documents adopted in early 2000s (such as the Strategy of social and economic development of the Republic of Tuva to the year 2020, passed in 2007 have not yet expired, the economic situation and the configuration of the main economic actors have seriously changed, which calls for a radical overhaul of the long-term strategy of social and economic development. Some problems which have been around since the Soviet times have grown more acute, while others were replaced by their opposites. The revenue section of the region’s consolidated budget, just as it was in the Soviet period, cannot fully provide the required social expenditures. At the same time, the majority of Soviet mechanisms of economic development are now totally dysfunctional, which calls for the use of new organizational and financial instruments. The article was based on the data from official statistical collections of the Republic of Tuva, and the information found in

  16. Information and communication technologies and gender in climate change and green economy: Situating women’s opportunities and challenges in Zambian policies and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Namukombo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia’s 2012 report on the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO +20 identifies existing opportunities on the country’s transitioning to green economy. The RIO +20 conference of 2012 has resulted in new momentum in addressing problems of sustainable development. However, this article argues that there are practical challenges that require paying attention to, especially those involving women. The article addressed one key question: To what extent can women participate in the transitioning process to green economy in Zambia and what opportunities and challenges exists? The study used document analysis to answer the above question. National policy documents were reviewed to understand interventions on environmental management. Whilst going through the documents, the study used gender analysis frameworks (education, skills, roles in family and society, access to infrastructure to bring out qualitative and quantitative information on women. Using suggested green economy interventions in the literature as benchmark, qualitative analysis was used to project possible participation of women in green economy activities and possible challenges to be faced. The study found that participation of women will be limited despite existing opportunities because of challenges of access to information and communication technology infrastructures, low educational levels and skills and financial constraints. As Zambia undergoes a transitioning process, these limitations should be addressed in planned green economy policies and interventions to maximise benefits. Keywords: Green economy; Gender; Policies; Strategies; ICT; Zambia

  17. Baumol's disease and dematerialization of the economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kander, Astrid [Department of Economic History, Box 7083, 220 07 Lund (Sweden)

    2005-10-05

    This paper argues that there is reason to be skeptical about the idea that the transition to a service economy will bring about dematerialization of production and consequent environmental improvement. This is because the shift to a service economy is an illusion in terms of real production, but is instead generated by the fall in the price of manufacturing goods relative to services, which is in turn caused by more rapid productivity growth in manufacturing than in services. This argument relies on the insights Baumol provided on the nature of the service economy and uses Swedish long-term data on relative sectoral development as an empirical illustration. On the other hand, the paper argues that there is reason to be cautiously optimistic that structural change may bring about a greening of growth, namely the changes in growth patterns sometimes labeled the third industrial revolution, which is connected to the emergence of microelectronics. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions show a decline after 1970, which is mainly explained by a politically driven change in the mix of energy carriers, but is also related to the stabilization of energy consumption. This energy stabilization was caused by slow growth of the economy in conjunction with substantial declines in energy intensity within industrial sectors and an absence of relative growth of the heavy sectors, a growth that had marked the economy between 1870 and 1970. Microelectronics have contributed to permanently transforming the Swedish industrial sector in a lighter direction, reducing energy losses in heavy industries and stabilizing household energy consumption. So it appears as if there may be some environmental gains from this development that was initiated in the 1970s, but not from relatively more production in the service sector.

  18. Strategic Islands in Economic Games: Isolating Economies From Better Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Harré

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many of the issues we face as a society are made more problematic by the rapidly changing context in which important decisions are made. For example buying a petrol powered car is most advantageous when there are many petrol pumps providing cheap petrol whereas buying an electric car is most advantageous when there are many electrical recharge points or high capacity batteries available. Such collective decision-making is often studied using economic game theory where the focus is on how individuals might reach an agreement regarding the supply and demand for the different energy types. But even if the two parties find a mutually agreeable strategy, as technology and costs change over time, for example through cheaper and more efficient batteries and a more accurate pricing of the total cost of oil consumption, so too do the incentives for the choices buyers and sellers make, the result of which can be the stranding of an industry or even a whole economy on an island of inefficient outcomes. In this article we consider the issue of how changes in the underlying incentives can move us from an optimal economy to a sub-optimal economy while at the same time making it impossible to collectively navigate our way to a better strategy without forcing us to pass through a socially undesirable “tipping point”. We show that different perturbations to underlying incentives results in the creation or destruction of “strategic islands” isolated by disruptive transitions between strategies. The significant result in this work is the illustration that an economy that remains strategically stationary can over time become stranded in a suboptimal outcome from which there is no easy way to put the economy on a path to better outcomes without going through an economic tipping point.

  19. Rapid change in the defense of flightless young by a mourning dove parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdeen, James; Otis, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    We report that an adult-sized Zenaida macroura (Mourning Dove), presumably a parent, rapidly decreased risk taken in defense of a juvenile as the likelihood of predation to the juvenile increased. We attribute this decrease in risk taken to (1) the parent's perception that the risk of predation had increased to the extent that a continuation of defensive behaviors would not prevent the death of the juvenile, and (2) its attempt to minimize its own risk of death. It may be that there is a threshold beyond which Mourning Dove parents will forgo the risk of additional defense of offspring in favor of making another reproductive attempt.

  20. Operational research leading to rapid national policy change: tuberculosis-diabetes collaboration in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A M V; Satyanarayana, S; Wilson, N C; Chadha, S S; Gupta, D; Nair, S; Zachariah, R; Kapur, A; Harries, A D

    2014-06-21

    In 2011, bi-directional screening for tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) was recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), although how best to implement the activity was not clear. In India, with early engagement of national programme managers and all important stakeholders, a countrywide, multicentre operational research (OR) project was designed in October 2011 and completed in 2012. The results led to a rapid national policy decision to routinely screen all TB patients for DM in September 2012. The process, experience and enablers of implementing this unique and successful collaborative model of operational research are presented.

  1. An Economy of Grace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Tan Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted from a plenary talk the author gave at the “Growing Apart: The Implications of Economic Inequality” interdisciplinary conference at Boston College on 9 April 2016, as well as portions of his book Cut Loose: Jobless and Hopeless in an Unfair Economy, a sociological ethnography based on interviews and observations of unemployed autoworkers in Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Canada, during and after the Great Recession. The essay discusses four themes from this research. First, it provides a sociological understanding of how long-term unemployment and economic inequality are experienced by today’s less advantaged workers. Second, it illustrates how social policy can improve their circumstances. Third, it examines the limits of policy, and how dealing with inequality also requires changing the broader culture. Fourth, it makes the case for one possible approach to bring about that cultural change: a morality of grace.

  2. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  3. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  4. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  5. Rapid forest change in the interior west presents analysis opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2007-01-01

    A recent drought has caused compositional and structural changes in Interior West forests. Recent periodic and annual inventory data provide an opportunity to analyze forest changes on a grand scale. This "natural experiment" also provides opportunities to test the effectiveness of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) methodologies. It also presents some...

  6. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Rapid transformation of two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Terrie R; Holmes, Kristi L

    2017-07-01

    Two new directors were each charged by their institutions to catalyze transformational change in their libraries and to develop dynamic and evolving information ecosystems ready for the information challenges of the future. The directors approached this transformational change using a strategic, forward-looking approach. This paper presents examples of actions that served as catalysts for change at the two libraries using Kotter's Eight Steps of Change as a framework. Small and large changes are critical for successfully transforming library services, resources, and personnel. Libraries are faced with incredible pressure to adapt to meet emerging and intensifying information needs on today's academic medical campuses. These pressures offer an opportunity for libraries to accelerate their evolution at the micro and macro levels. This commentary reports the expansion of new services and areas of support, enhancement of professional visibility of the libraries on their campuses, and overall, a more positive and productive environment at the respective institutions.

  8. Systemic range shift lags among a pollinator species assemblage following rapid climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedford, Felicity E.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Kerr, Jeremy T.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary climate change is driving widespread geographical range shifts among many species. If species are tracking changing climate successfully, then leading populations should experience similar climatic conditions through time as new populations establish beyond historical range margins....... Here, we investigate geographical range shifts relative to changing climatic conditions among a particularly well-sampled assemblage of butterflies in Canada. We assembled observations of 81 species and measured their latitudinal displacement between two periods: 1960–1975 (a period of little climate...... change) and 1990–2005 (a period with large climate change). We find an unexpected trend for species’ northern borders to shift progressively less relative to increasing minimum winter temperatures in northern Canada. This study demonstrates a novel, systemic latitudinal gradient in lags among a large...

  9. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares

  10. Influences of sex and activity level on physiological changes in individual adult sockeye salmon during rapid senescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Kimberly A; Hinch, Scott G; Healey, Michael C; Patterson, David A; Larsson, Stefan; Farrell, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    A noninvasive biopsy protocol was used to sample plasma and gill tissue in individual sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during the critical life stage associated with spawning-arrival at a spawning channel through senescence to death several days later. Our main objective was to characterize the physiological changes associated with rapid senescence in terms of the physiological stress/cortisol hypersecretion model and the energy exhaustion model. Salmon lived an average of 5 d in the spawning channel, during which time there were three major physiological trends that were independent of sexual status: a large increase in plasma indicators of stress and exercise (i.e., lactate and cortisol), a decrease in the major plasma ions (i.e., Cl(-) and Na(+)) and osmolality, and a decrease in gross somatic energy reserves. Contrary to a generalized stress response, plasma glucose decreased in approximately 2/3 of the fish after arrival, as opposed to increasing. Furthermore, plasma cortisol levels at spawning-ground arrival were not correlated with the degree of ionoregulatory changes during rapid senescence. One mechanism of mortality in some fish may involve the exhaustion of energy reserves, resulting in the inability to mobilize plasma glucose. Sex had a significant modulating effect on the degree of physiological change. Females exhibited a greater magnitude of change for gross somatic energy, osmolality, and plasma concentrations of Cl(-), Na(+), cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone, 17,20beta-progesterone, and estradiol. The activity level of an individual on the spawning grounds appeared to influence the degree of some physiological changes during senescence. For example, males that received a greater frequency of attacks exhibited larger net decreases in plasma 11-ketotestosterone while on the spawning grounds. These results suggest that rapid senescence on spawning grounds is influenced by multiple physiological processes and perhaps behavior. This study

  11. Metal footprint linked to economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Paul J.

    2018-04-01

    The annual quantity of metal being used by humans has been on the rise. A new analysis of 43 major economies reveals the extent to which year-to-year fluctuations in metal footprints have been in lockstep with countries' economic growth and changes in investment spending.

  12. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, Sophie; Vaujour, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  13. Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between media exposure and risk behavior among youth is established at a population level, the specific psychological and social mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of media on youth remain poorly understood. This study reports on an investigation of the impact of the introduction of television to a rural community in Western Fiji on adolescent ethnic Fijian girls in a setting of rapid social and economic change. Narrative data were collected from 30 purposively selected ethnic Fijian secondary school girls via semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were conducted in 1998, 3 years after television was first broadcast to this region of Fiji. Narrative data were analyzed for content relating to response to television and mechanisms that mediate self and body image in Fijian adolescents. Data in this sample suggest that media imagery is used in both creative and destructive ways by adolescent Fijian girls to navigate opportunities and conflicts posed by the rapidly changing social environment. Study respondents indicated their explicit modeling of the perceived positive attributes of characters presented in television dramas, but also the beginnings of weight and body shape preoccupation, purging behavior to control weight, and body disparagement. Response to television appeared to be shaped by a desire for competitive social positioning during a period of rapid social transition. Understanding vulnerability to images and values imported with media will be critical to preventing disordered eating and, potentially, other youth risk behaviors in this population, as well as other populations at risk.

  14. Culture as a Caveat Towards Circular Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrieri, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Circular economy represents an economic and political challenge, as well as a cultural one, requiring a massive transformation on all levels of society. But why is cultural change so important to understanding today’s economy and how can the circular model be considered a truly cross-cultural...

  15. Methodology for benzodiazepine receptor binding assays at physiological temperature. Rapid change in equilibrium with falling temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors of rat cerebellum were assayed with [ 3 H]-labeled flunitrazepam at 37 0 C, and assays were terminated by filtration in a cold room according to one of three protocols: keeping each sample at 37 degrees C until ready for filtration, taking the batch of samples (30) into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 1-30, and taking the batch of 30 samples into the cold room and filtering sequentially in the order 30-1. the results for each protocol were substantially different from each other, indicating that rapid disruption of equilibrium occurred as the samples cooled in the cold room while waiting to be filtered. Positive or negative cooperativity of binding was apparent, and misleading effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on the affinity of diazepam were observed, unless each sample was kept at 37 0 C until just prior to filtration

  16. Rapid estimation of the moment magnitude of large earthquake from static strain changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaba, S.

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, of moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0, occurred on March 11, 2011. Based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9, and it was considerably smaller than an actual value. On the other hand, using nine borehole strainmeters of Geological Survey of Japan, AIST, we estimated a fault model with Mw 8.7 for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. This model can be estimated about seven minutes after the origin time, and five minute after wave arrival. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami (e.g., Ohta et al., 2012). Our simple method of using strain steps is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of great earthquakes.

  17. Rapid spread of complex change: a case study in inpatient palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipski Marta I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on positive findings from a randomized controlled trial, Kaiser Permanente's national executive leadership group set an expectation that all Kaiser Permanente and partner hospitals would implement a consultative model of interdisciplinary, inpatient-based palliative care (IPC. Within one year, the number of IPC consultations program-wide increased almost tenfold from baseline, and the number of teams nearly doubled. We report here results from a qualitative evaluation of the IPC initiative after a year of implementation; our purpose was to understand factors supporting or impeding the rapid and consistent spread of a complex program. Methods Quality improvement study using a case study design and qualitative analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 36 national, regional, and local leaders. Results Compelling evidence of impacts on patient satisfaction and quality of care generated 'pull' among adopters, expressed as a remarkably high degree of conviction about the value of the model. Broad leadership agreement gave rise to sponsorship and support that permeated the organization. A robust social network promoted knowledge exchange and built on an existing network with a strong interest in palliative care. Resource constraints, pre-existing programs of a different model, and ambiguous accountability for implementation impeded spread. Conclusions A complex, hospital-based, interdisciplinary intervention in a large health care organization spread rapidly due to a synergy between organizational 'push' strategies and grassroots-level pull. The combination of push and pull may be especially important when the organizational context or the practice to be spread is complex.

  18. Examination of rapid phase change in copper wires to improve material models and understanding of burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olles, Joseph; Garasi, Christopher; Ball, J. Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Electrically-pulsed wires undergo multiple phase changes including a postulated metastable phase resulting in explosive wire growth. Simulations using the MHD approximation attempt to account for the governing physics, but lack the material properties (equations-of-state and electrical conductivity) to accurately predict the phase evolution of the exploding (bursting) wire. To explore the dynamics of an exploding copper wire (in water), we employ a digital micro-Schlieren streak photography technique. This imaging quantifies wire expansion and shock waves emitted from the wire during phase changes. Using differential voltage probes, a Rogowski coil, and timing fiducials, the phase change of the wire is aligned with electrical power and energy deposition. Time-correlated electrical diagnostics and imaging allow for detailed validation of MHD simulations, comparing observed phases with phase change details found in the material property descriptions. In addition to streak imaging, a long exposure image is taken to capture axial striations along the length of the wire. These images are used to compare with results from 3D MHD simulations which propose that these perturbations impact the rate of wire expansion and temporal change in phases. If successful, the experimental data will identify areas for improvement in the material property models, and modeling results will provide insight into the details of phase change in the wire with correlation to variations in the electrical signals.

  19. Working in the informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, T

    2000-07-01

    Informal ways of working are widespread and central to the economy and markets. This paper explores what informal economy is and how it could be more valuable for men and women. The informal economy is a mix of the following activities: 1) subsistence work which includes agriculture, marginal economic projects, and unpaid work in the home; 2) informal work which includes unregistered businesses, and illegal or criminal activities; 3) casual production, a sub-contracted or ¿off-the-books¿ work which deprives workers of the benefits tied to recognized employment; and 4) community work and barter. It is shown that more women, when compared to men, work and live on the border between the household and the market economy. Usually men do more technical or mechanized production while women tend to do activities within traditional women's roles. Men and women often have different understanding of what work is. Men consistently underestimate the women's contribution to the household income. To improve this critical issue of gender differences, rules, norms, and laws that cause problems must be identified, and then work can begin with both men and women to change laws and policies, as well as ideas and beliefs about women's contribution to the economy.

  20. Rapid shifts in Atta cephalotes fungus-garden enzyme activity after a change in fungal substrate (Attini, Formicidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, P W; Schiøtt, M; Boomsma, J J

    2011-01-01

    Fungus gardens of the basidiomycete Leucocoprinus gongylophorus sustain large colonies of leaf-cutting ants by degrading the plant material collected by the ants. Recent studies have shown that enzyme activity in these gardens is primarily targeted toward starch, proteins and the pectin matrix......, we measured the changes in enzyme activity after a controlled shift in fungal substrate offered to six laboratory colonies of Atta cephalotes. An ant diet consisting exclusively of grains of parboiled rice rapidly increased the activity of endo-proteinases and some of the pectinases attacking...... from the rice diet, relative to the leaf diet controls. Enzyme activity in the older, bottom sections of fungus gardens decreased, indicating a faster processing of the rice substrate compared to the leaf diet. These results suggest that leaf-cutting ant fungus gardens can rapidly adjust enzyme...

  1. Human adaptation responses to a rapidly changing Arctic: A research context for building system resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, T.; Brinkman, T. J.

    2016-12-01

    Although human behavior accounts for more uncertainty in future trajectories in climate change than do biophysical processes, most climate-change research fails to include human actions in research design and implementation. This is well-illustrated in the Arctic. At the global scale, arctic processes strongly influence the strength of biophysical feedbacks between global human emissions and the rate of climate warming. However, most human actions in the arctic have little effect on these feedbacks, so research can contribute most effectively to reduction in arctic warming through improved understanding of the strength of arctic-global biophysical feedbacks, as in NASA's ABoVE program, and its effective communication to policy makers and the public. In contrast, at the local to regional scale within the arctic, human actions may influence the ecological and societal consequences of arctic warming, so research benefits from active stakeholder engagement in research design and implementation. Human communities and other stakeholders (government and NGOs) respond heterogeneously to socioeconomic and environmental change, so research that documents the range of historical and current adaptive responses to change provides insights on the resilience (flexibility of future options) of social-ecological processes in the arctic. Alaskan communities have attempted a range of adaptive responses to coastal erosion (e.g., seasonal migration, protection in place, relocation), wildfire (fire suppression to use of fire to manage wildlife habitat or landscape heterogeneity), declining sea ice (e.g., new hunting technology, sea ice observations and predictions), and changes in wildlife and fish availability (e.g., switch to harvest of alternative species, harvest times, or harvest locations). Research that draws on both traditional and western knowledge facilitates adaptation and predictions of the likely societal consequences of climate change in the Arctic. Effective inclusion of

  2. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthélemy, Dorothy; Alain, S; Grey, Michael James

    2012-01-01

    measured changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before, during, and after subjects adapted to a force field applied to the ankle joint during treadmill walking. When the force field assisted dorsiflexion during...... the swing phase of the step cycle, subjects adapted by decreasing TA EMG activity. In contrast, when the force field resisted dorsiflexion, they increased TA EMG activity. After the force field was removed, normal EMG activity gradually returned over the next 5 min of walking. TA MEPs elicited in the early...... be explained by changes in background TA EMG activity. These effects seemed specific to walking, as similar changes in TA MEP were not seen when seated subjects were tested during static dorsiflexion. These observations suggest that the corticospinal tract contributes to the adaptation of walking...

  3. Implications of rapid environmental change for polar bear behavior and sociality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Todd C.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, the Arctic sea ice has functioned as a structural barrier that has limited the nature and extent of interactions between humans and polar bears (Ursus maritimus). However, declining sea ice extent, brought about by global climate change, is increasing the potential for human-polar bear interactions. Loss of sea ice habitat is driving changes to both human and polar bear behavior—it is facilitating increases in human activities (e.g., offshore oil and gas exploration and extraction, trans-Arctic shipping, recreation), while also causing the displacement of bears from preferred foraging habitat (i.e., sea ice over biologically productive shallow) to land in some portions of their range. The end result of these changes is that polar bears are spending greater amounts of time in close proximity to people. Coexistence between humans and polar bears will require imposing mechanisms to manage further development, as well as mitigation strategies that reduce the burden to local communities.

  4. Effects of institutional changes on land use: agricultural land abandonment during the transition from state-command to market-driven economies in post-Soviet Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prishchepov, Alexander V; Müller, Daniel; Radeloff, Volker C; Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Institutional settings play a key role in shaping land cover and land use. Our goal was to understand the effects of institutional changes on agricultural land abandonment in different countries of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union after the collapse of socialism. We studied ∼273 800 km 2 (eight Landsat footprints) within one agro-ecological zone stretching across Poland, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania and European Russia. Multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM + satellite images centered on 1990 (the end of socialism) and 2000 (one decade after the end of socialism) were used to classify agricultural land abandonment using support vector machines. The results revealed marked differences in the abandonment rates between countries. The highest rates of land abandonment were observed in Latvia (42% of all agricultural land in 1990 was abandoned by 2000), followed by Russia (31%), Lithuania (28%), Poland (14%) and Belarus (13%). Cross-border comparisons revealed striking differences; for example, in the Belarus–Russia cross-border area there was a great difference between the rates of abandonment of the two countries (10% versus 47% of abandonment). Our results highlight the importance of institutions and policies for land-use trajectories and demonstrate that radically different combinations of institutional change of strong institutions during the transition can reduce the rate of agricultural land abandonment (e.g., in Belarus and in Poland). Inversely, our results demonstrate higher abandonment rates for countries where the institutions that regulate land use changed and where the institutions took more time to establish (e.g., Latvia, Lithuania and Russia). Better knowledge regarding the effects of such broad-scale change is essential for understanding land-use change and for designing effective land-use policies. This information is particularly relevant for Northern Eurasia, where rapid land-use change offers vast opportunities for carbon balance and

  5. Unbounded boundaries and shifting baselines: Estuaries and coastal seas in a rapidly changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S.; Spencer, K. L.; Schuttelaars, H. M.; Millward, G. E.; Elliott, M.

    2017-11-01

    This Special Issue of Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science presents contributions from ECSA 55; an international symposium organised by the Estuarine and Coastal Sciences Association (ECSA) and Elsevier on the broad theme of estuaries and coastal seas in times of intense change. The objectives of the SI are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the impacts of global change on estuaries and coastal seas through learning lessons from the past, discussing the current and forecasting for the future. It is highlighted here that establishing impacts and assigning cause to the many pressures of global change is and will continue to be a formidable challenge in estuaries and coastal seas, due in part to: (1) their complexity and unbounded nature; (2) difficulties distinguishing between human-induced changes and natural variations and; (3) multiple pressures and effects. The contributing authors have explored a number of these issues over a range of disciplines. The complexity and connectivity of estuaries and coastal seas have been investigated through studies of physicochemical and ecological components, whilst the human imprint on the environment has been identified through a series of predictive, contemporary, historical and palaeo approaches. The impact of human activities has been shown to occur over a range of spatial and temporal scales, requiring the development of integrated management approaches. These 30 articles provide an important contribution to our understanding and assessment of the impacts of global change. The authors highlight methods for essential management/mitigation of the consequences of global change and provide a set of directions, ideas and observations for future work. These include the need to consider: (1) the cumulative, synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple pressures; (2) the importance of unbounded boundaries and connectivity across the aquatic continuum; (3) the value of combining cross-disciplinary palaeo, contemporary and

  6. Rapid morphological changes and loss of collagen following experimental acute colonic obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Peter-Martin; Rehn, Martin; Sand-Dejmek, Janna

    2013-01-01

    Anastomosis of an acutely obstructed colon is associated with an increased risk of dehiscence. In experimental models, acute obstruction decreases collagen in the colonic wall, but the time course and propagation along the colon of the biochemical changes are unknown. Furthermore, there is a pauc......Anastomosis of an acutely obstructed colon is associated with an increased risk of dehiscence. In experimental models, acute obstruction decreases collagen in the colonic wall, but the time course and propagation along the colon of the biochemical changes are unknown. Furthermore...

  7. Long-distance gene flow and adaptation of forest trees to rapid climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine; Ronce, Ophélie; Robledo-Arnuncio, Juan J; Guillaume, Frédéric; Bohrer, Gil; Nathan, Ran; Bridle, Jon R; Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Klein, Etienne K; Ritland, Kermit; Kuparinen, Anna; Gerber, Sophie; Schueler, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Forest trees are the dominant species in many parts of the world and predicting how they might respond to climate change is a vital global concern. Trees are capable of long-distance gene flow, which can promote adaptive evolution in novel environments by increasing genetic variation for fitness. It is unclear, however, if this can compensate for maladaptive effects of gene flow and for the long-generation times of trees. We critically review data on the extent of long-distance gene flow and summarise theory that allows us to predict evolutionary responses of trees to climate change. Estimates of long-distance gene flow based both on direct observations and on genetic methods provide evidence that genes can move over spatial scales larger than habitat shifts predicted under climate change within one generation. Both theoretical and empirical data suggest that the positive effects of gene flow on adaptation may dominate in many instances. The balance of positive to negative consequences of gene flow may, however, differ for leading edge, core and rear sections of forest distributions. We propose future experimental and theoretical research that would better integrate dispersal biology with evolutionary quantitative genetics and improve predictions of tree responses to climate change. PMID:22372546

  8. Evolution and behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Ferrari, Maud C O; Harris, David J

    2011-03-01

    Almost all organisms live in environments that have been altered, to some degree, by human activities. Because behaviour mediates interactions between an individual and its environment, the ability of organisms to behave appropriately under these new conditions is crucial for determining their immediate success or failure in these modified environments. While hundreds of species are suffering dramatically from these environmental changes, others, such as urbanized and pest species, are doing better than ever. Our goal is to provide insights into explaining such variation. We first summarize the responses of some species to novel situations, including novel risks and resources, habitat loss/fragmentation, pollutants and climate change. Using a sensory ecology approach, we present a mechanistic framework for predicting variation in behavioural responses to environmental change, drawing from models of decision-making processes and an understanding of the selective background against which they evolved. Where immediate behavioural responses are inadequate, learning or evolutionary adaptation may prove useful, although these mechanisms are also constrained by evolutionary history. Although predicting the responses of species to environmental change is difficult, we highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of evolutionary history in shaping individuals' responses to their environment and provide suggestion for future work.

  9. Are plant species able to keep pace with the rapidly changing climate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Cunze

    Full Text Available Future climate change is predicted to advance faster than the postglacial warming. Migration may therefore become a key driver for future development of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. For 140 European plant species we computed past range shifts since the last glacial maximum and future range shifts for a variety of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC scenarios and global circulation models (GCMs. Range shift rates were estimated by means of species distribution modelling (SDM. With process-based seed dispersal models we estimated species-specific migration rates for 27 dispersal modes addressing dispersal by wind (anemochory for different wind conditions, as well as dispersal by mammals (dispersal on animal's coat - epizoochory and dispersal by animals after feeding and digestion - endozoochory considering different animal species. Our process-based modelled migration rates generally exceeded the postglacial range shift rates indicating that the process-based models we used are capable of predicting migration rates that are in accordance with realized past migration. For most of the considered species, the modelled migration rates were considerably lower than the expected future climate change induced range shift rates. This implies that most plant species will not entirely be able to follow future climate-change-induced range shifts due to dispersal limitation. Animals with large day- and home-ranges are highly important for achieving high migration rates for many plant species, whereas anemochory is relevant for only few species.

  10. Rapid pacing results in changes in atrial but not in ventricular refractoriness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonderwoerd, BA; Van Gelder, IC; Tieleman, RG; Bel, KJ; Crijns, HJGM

    It is well known that atrial tachycardia causes atrial electrical remodeling, characterized by shortening of atrial effective refractory periods (AERPs) and loss of physiological adaptation of AERP to rate. However, the nature and time course of changes in ventricular effective refractory periods

  11. Linguistic Mechanisms Cause Rapid Behavior Change. Part Two: How Linguistic Frames Affect Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Joseph; Sommer, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Written and spoken language contains inherent mechanisms driving motivation. Accessing and modifying psycholinguistic mechanisms, links language frames to changes in behavior within the context of motivational profiling. For example, holding an object like an imported apple feels safe until one is informed it was grown in a toxic waste dump.…

  12. Exposure science in an age of rapidly changing climate: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaKind, Judy S; Overpeck, Jonathan; Breysse, Patrick N; Backer, Lorrie; Richardson, Susan D; Sobus, Jon; Sapkota, Amir; Upperman, Crystal R; Jiang, Chengsheng; Beard, C Ben; Brunkard, J M; Bell, Jesse E; Harris, Ryan; Chretien, Jean-Paul; Peltier, Richard E; Chew, Ginger L; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to alter the production, use, release, and fate of environmental chemicals, likely leading to increased uncertainty in exposure and human health risk predictions. Exposure science provides a key connection between changes in climate and associated health outcomes. The theme of the 2015 Annual Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Science—Exposures in an Evolving Environment—brought this issue to the fore. By directing attention to questions that may affect society in profound ways, exposure scientists have an opportunity to conduct “consequential science”—doing science that matters, using our tools for the greater good and to answer key policy questions, and identifying causes leading to implementation of solutions. Understanding the implications of changing exposures on public health may be one of the most consequential areas of study in which exposure scientists could currently be engaged. In this paper, we use a series of case studies to identify exposure data gaps and research paths that will enable us to capture the information necessary for understanding climate change-related human exposures and consequent health impacts. We hope that paper will focus attention on under-developed areas of exposure science that will likely have broad implications for public health. PMID:27485992

  13. Challenge and Response, Strategies for Survival in a Rapidly Changing Forest Products Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Schuler; Craig Adair; Paul Winistorfer

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. has long been the world's largest market for wood and wood products, fueled by its demand for wood-frame housing. But forest product markets are changing, both in terns of where the products originate (domestically or abroad),and what products are being produced and consumed.

  14. Rapid species responses to changes in climate require stringent climate protection targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van A.J.H.; Leemans, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change book consolidates the scientific findings of the Exeter conference and gives an account of the most recent developments on critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, emission pathways and

  15. Rapid evolution of phenology during range expansion with recent climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lustenhouwer, N.; Wilschut, R.A.; Williams, J.L.; van der Putten, W.H.; Levine, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Although climate warming is expected to make habitat beyond species’ current cold range edge suitable for future colonization, this new habitat may present an array of biotic or abiotic conditions not experienced within the current range. Species’ ability to shift their range with climate change may

  16. Long-term process of reforming the economy of Republic of Serbia in order to achieve macroeconomic stabilization: From transient changes to the activist approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In today's economy, which is burdened by problems such as non-productive economy, high unemployment rates, constant inflationary pressures, great attention is paid to the interaction of monetary and fiscal policies in order to achieve macroeconomic stability. There is no universal model of economic policy even in countries around the world, nor in the Serbian economy, and policy makers are looking for the optimal design of monetary and fiscal strategies and their synchronization with other non-negligible specific economic policy objectives (in terms of balance of payments, objectives related to foreign currency course, the distribution of income, implemented stage of market reforms of the nineties, and then phase of reforms in the first decade of the 21st century. How good coordination of monetary and fiscal measures can be no qualitative basis, or as it is not possible to reconstruct and degrade previous economic structure, and that there is no definition of the new strategy, and continued the process of reforming and in the period from the time of deepening global financial crisis in 2008 . The Republic of Serbia, a country whose economy in the long process of reforming, seeks better use of comparative advantages, encouraging production and employment, adequate planning and allocation of available resources of its own and charge, absorption of new technologies, intensifying exports, encouraging investment, and with a constant potential danger which increase the vulnerability of small economies. The solid foundations of macroeconomic stability and discipline must be in production, proper allocation of resources, which will run the economy, and then increase the employment rate, and therefore national income. of crucial importance of good projections of macroeconomic aggregates, because of them depend on public revenue and public expenditure.

  17. Rapid characterisation of vegetation structure to predict refugia and climate change impacts across a global biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius G T Schut

    Full Text Available Identification of refugia is an increasingly important adaptation strategy in conservation planning under rapid anthropogenic climate change. Granite outcrops (GOs provide extraordinary diversity, including a wide range of taxa, vegetation types and habitats in the Southwest Australian Floristic Region (SWAFR. However, poor characterization of GOs limits the capacity of conservation planning for refugia under climate change. A novel means for the rapid identification of potential refugia is presented, based on the assessment of local-scale environment and vegetation structure in a wider region. This approach was tested on GOs across the SWAFR. Airborne discrete return Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR data and Red Green and Blue (RGB imagery were acquired. Vertical vegetation profiles were used to derive 54 structural classes. Structural vegetation types were described in three areas for supervised classification of a further 13 GOs across the region. Habitat descriptions based on 494 vegetation plots on and around these GOs were used to quantify relationships between environmental variables, ground cover and canopy height. The vegetation surrounding GOs is strongly related to structural vegetation types (Kappa = 0.8 and to its spatial context. Water gaining sites around GOs are characterized by taller and denser vegetation in all areas. The strong relationship between rainfall, soil-depth, and vegetation structure (R(2 of 0.8-0.9 allowed comparisons of vegetation structure between current and future climate. Significant shifts in vegetation structural types were predicted and mapped for future climates. Water gaining areas below granite outcrops were identified as important putative refugia. A reduction in rainfall may be offset by the occurrence of deeper soil elsewhere on the outcrop. However, climate change interactions with fire and water table declines may render our conclusions conservative. The LiDAR-based mapping approach presented

  18. Strain on the san andreas fault near palmdale, california: rapid, aseismic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J C; Prescott, W H; Lisowski, M; King, N E

    1981-01-02

    Frequently repeated strain measurements near Palmdale, California, during the period from 1971 through 1980 indicate that, in addition to a uniform accumulation of right-lateral shear strain (engineering shear, 0.35 microradian per year) across the San Andreas fault, a 1-microstrain contraction perpendicular to the fault that accumulated gradually during the interval 1974 through 1978 was aseismically released between February and November 1979. Subsequently (November 1979 to March 1980), about half of the contraction was recovered. This sequence of strain changes can be explained in terms of south-southwestward migration of a slip event consisting of the south-southwestward movement of the upper crust on a horizontal detachment surface at a depth of 10 to 30 kilometers. The large strain change in 1979 corresponds to the passage of the slip event beneath the San Andreas fault.

  19. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Bruyn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ. This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  20. Currency and Competence of Occupational Therapists and Consumers with Rapidly Changing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Steel, Emily J.; Buchanan, Ricky; Layton, Natasha; Wilson, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Assistive technology was once a specialised field of practice, involving products designed for populations with specific impairments or functional goals. In Australia, occupational therapists have, at times, functioned as gatekeepers to public funding, prescribing products from a predefined list. An expanding range of accessible mainstream products available via international and online markets has changed the meaning and application of assistive technology for many people with disability. In...

  1. Symptoms and Mucosal Changes Stable During Rapid Increase of Pediatric Celiac Disease in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitnes, Ann-Christin R; Vikskjold, Florin B; Jóhannesdóttir, Gróa B; Perminow, Gøri; Olbjørn, Christine; Andersen, Solveig N; Bentsen, Beint S; Rugtveit, Jarle; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to study whether the incidence of pediatric celiac disease (CD) in South-Eastern Norway changed from 2000 to 2010. We also examined whether there was a change in symptoms and histopathological morphology in the duodenal biopsies during the same period. In 3 hospitals in South-Eastern Norway, records from pediatric patients (0-14.9 years) diagnosed with CD during two 3-year periods (2000-2002 and 2008-2010) were reviewed. Only cases with a duodenal biopsy diagnosis of CD classified as Marsh grade 2 and 3a-c were included. Frequencies of symptoms, anthropometric data, and laboratory results were compared, in addition to re-examinations of histological sections from one of the hospitals. A total of 400 cases were diagnosed with a female to male ratio of 1.5:1. The incidence rate for 2000 to 2002 was 15.9 cases per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval 12.8-19.4), compared with 45.5 cases per 100,000 person-years during 2008 to 2010 (95% confidence interval 40.5-50.9), P symptoms and the distribution of histopathological changes were similar in the 2 periods, whereas weight z scores and hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in the first period. We found a 3-fold increase in the incidence rate for CD in the Norwegian pediatric population during the decade 2000 to 2010. Slightly higher weight and hemoglobin levels at diagnosis in the latter period may be due to improved CD awareness. Unaltered relative frequencies of symptoms and histopathological changes in the gut, however, suggest a true increase of CD in Norwegian children.

  2. Historical legacies accumulate to shape future biodiversity in an era of rapid global change

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Essl, F.; Dullinger, S.; Rabitsch, W.; Hulme, P. E.; Pyšek, Petr; Wilson, J. R. U.; Richardson, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 5 (2015), s. 534-547 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1002 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biological invasions * global change * time lags Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.566, year: 2015

  3. Rapid response of a marine mammal species to holocene climate and habitat change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruyn, Mark; Hall, Brenda L; Chauke, Lucas F; Baroni, Carlo; Koch, Paul L; Hoelzel, A Rus

    2009-07-01

    Environmental change drives demographic and evolutionary processes that determine diversity within and among species. Tracking these processes during periods of change reveals mechanisms for the establishment of populations and provides predictive data on response to potential future impacts, including those caused by anthropogenic climate change. Here we show how a highly mobile marine species responded to the gain and loss of new breeding habitat. Southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, remains were found along the Victoria Land Coast (VLC) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, 2,500 km from the nearest extant breeding site on Macquarie Island (MQ). This habitat was released after retreat of the grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea Embayment 7,500-8,000 cal YBP, and is within the range of modern foraging excursions from the MQ colony. Using ancient mtDNA and coalescent models, we tracked the population dynamics of the now extinct VLC colony and the connectivity between this and extant breeding sites. We found a clear expansion signal in the VLC population approximately 8,000 YBP, followed by directional migration away from VLC and the loss of diversity at approximately 1,000 YBP, when sea ice is thought to have expanded. Our data suggest that VLC seals came initially from MQ and that some returned there once the VLC habitat was lost, approximately 7,000 years later. We track the founder-extinction dynamics of a population from inception to extinction in the context of Holocene climate change and present evidence that an unexpectedly diverse, differentiated breeding population was founded from a distant source population soon after habitat became available.

  4. Next Generation of Renewable Electricity Policy: How Rapid Change is Breaking Down Conventional Policy Categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Jacobs, D. [International Energy Transition (IET), Boston, MA (United States); Rickerson, W. [Meister Consultants Group, Boston, MA (United States); Healey, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A number of policies have been used historically in order to stimulate the growth of the renewable electricity sector. This paper examines four of these policy instruments: competitive tendering, sometimes called renewable electricity auctions, feed-in tariffs, net metering and net billing, and tradable renewable energy certificates. In recent years, however, a number of changes to both market circumstances and to policy priorities have resulted in numerous policy innovations, including the emergence of policy hybrids. With no common language for these evolving policy mechanisms, policymakers have generally continued to use the same traditional policy labels, occasionally generating confusion as many of these new policies no longer look, or act, like their traditional predecessors. In reviewing these changes, this paper makes two separate but related claims: first, policy labels themselves are breaking down and evolving. As a result, policy comparisons that rely on the conventional labels may no longer be appropriate, or advisable. Second, as policymakers continue to adapt, we are in effect witnessing the emergence of the next generation of renewable electricity policies, a change that could have significant impacts on investment, as well as on market growth in both developed and developing countries.

  5. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  6. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management. - Graphical abstract: Fig. Threshold models and resilience management for water quality. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Coupling urbanization and water environmental system. • Developing threshold models of the coupled land-water systems. • Nonlinear relations between water quality variables and landscape metrics. • Enhancing resilience management of coastal rapid urbanization. - We develop environmental threshold models and provide their implications on resilience management for a coupled land-water system with rapid urbanization.

  7. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes associated with bonded rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Dogra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: To evaluate skeletal changes in maxilla and its surrounding structures, changes in the maxillary dentition and maxillary alveolar bone changes produced by bonded rapid maxillary expansion (RME using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 10 patients (6 males and 4 females with age range 12 to 15 years treated with bonded RME. CBCT scans were performed at T1 (pretreatment and at T2 (immediately after expansion to evaluate the dental, skeletal, and alveolar bone changes. Results: RME treatment increased the overall skeletal parameters such as interorbital, zygomatic, nasal, and maxillary widths. Significant increases in buccal maxillary width was observed at first premolar, second premolar, and first molar level. There was a significant increase in arch width both on the palatal side and on the buccal side. Significant tipping of right and left maxillary first molars was seen. There were significant reductions in buccal bone plate thickness and increase in palatal bone plate thickness. Conclusions: Total expansion achieved with RME was a combination of dental, skeletal and alveolar bone changes. At the first molar level, 28.45% orthopedic, 16.03% alveolar bone bending, and 55.5% orthodontic changes were observed.

  8. Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Leads to Rapid Heart Rate Variability Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Riediker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heart Rate Variability (HRV reflects the adaptability of the heart to internal and external stimuli. Reduced HRV is a predictor of post-infarction mortality. We previously found in road maintenance workers HRV-increases several hours after exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5. This seemed to conflict with studies where PM-exposure acutely reduced HRV. We therefore assessed whether time from exposure to HRV-assessment could explain the differences observed.Methods: On five non-consecutive days, workers carried nephelometers providing 1-min-interval PM2.5-exposure. Five-min HRV-intervals of SDNN (Standard Deviation of Normal to Normal beat intervals and pNN50 (Percentage of the interval differences exceeding 50 ms were extracted from 24-h electrocardiograms (ECGs. Following 60 min PM2.5-exposure, changes in HRV-parameters were assessed during 120-min visually and by regression analysis with control for time at work, at home, and during the night using autoregressive integrating moving average (ARIMA models to account for autocorrelation of the time-series. Additional controls included changing the time windows and including body mass index (BMI and age in the models.Result: Pattern analysis of 12,669 data points showed high modulation of mean, standard deviation (SD, and time trend of HRV (SDNN and pNN50 at low, and much reduced modulation at high PM2.5-exposures. The time trend following exposure was highly symmetrical, resembling a funnel plot. Regression analysis showed significant associations of decreasing SDNN and pNN50 (average, SD, and absolute value of time trend with increasing PM2.5-exposure, which remained significant when controlling for activity phases. Changing time windows did not change the pattern of response. Including BMI and age did not change the results.Conclusions: The reduced modulation of HRV following PM2.5-exposure is striking. It suggests strong interference with homeostatic controls. Such an

  9. Rapid behavioural gregarization in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria entails synchronous changes in both activity and attraction to conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephen M; Cullen, Darron A; Anstey, Michael L; Burrows, Malcolm; Despland, Emma; Dodgson, Tim; Matheson, Tom; Ott, Swidbert R; Stettin, Katja; Sword, Gregory A; Simpson, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Desert Locusts can change reversibly between solitarious and gregarious phases, which differ considerably in behaviour, morphology and physiology. The two phases show many behavioural differences including both overall levels of activity and the degree to which they are attracted or repulsed by conspecifics. Solitarious locusts perform infrequent bouts of locomotion characterised by a slow walking pace, groom infrequently and actively avoid other locusts. Gregarious locusts are highly active with a rapid walking pace, groom frequently and are attracted to conspecifics forming cohesive migratory bands as nymphs and/or flying swarms as adults. The sole factor driving the onset of gregarization is the presence of conspecifics. In several previous studies concerned with the mechanism underlying this transformation we have used an aggregate measure of behavioural phase state, Pgreg, derived from logistic regression analysis, which combines and weights several behavioural variables to characterise solitarious and gregarious behaviour. Using this approach we have analysed the time course of behavioural change, the stimuli that induce gregarization and the key role of serotonin in mediating the transformation. Following a recent critique that suggested that using Pgreg may confound changes in general activity with genuine gregarization we have performed a meta-analysis examining the time course of change in the individual behaviours that we use to generate Pgreg. We show that the forced crowding of solitarious locusts, tactile stimulation of the hind femora, and the short-term application of serotonin each induce concerted changes in not only locomotion-related variables but also grooming frequency and attraction to other locusts towards those characteristic of long-term gregarious locusts. This extensive meta-analysis supports and extends our previous conclusions that solitarious locusts undergo a rapid behavioural gregarization upon receiving appropriate stimulation for

  10. An Interaction of Economy and Environment in Dynamic Computable General Equilibrium Modeling with a Focus on Climate Change Issue in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joh, S.H.; Chang, K.G.; Kim, Y.G.; Kang, S.I. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea); Rob, D. [Wageningen University, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    In this study, the economic cost; of carbon taxes imposed on fossil fuels associated with climate change issue in Korea were analyzed based on the model of a small open-economy forward-looking dynamic CGE over the years 1998-2047. As a primary policy instrument, carbon taxes are imposed on coal, oil, and gas from year 2013 through 2047 from 100,000 Korean Won/ton of Carbon (TC) to KW400,000. The primary findings through this study are as follows: First, the primary economic indicators reflecting the results of sensitivity analysis through the study estimated that in the year 2025 at a carbon tax rate of 100,000KW/TC, the EVs span from -0.217% to -0.167% and the GDP changes from -0.195% to -0.432%, while the results from a rate of 400,000KW/TC were found to be -0.472% to -0.575% for EVs and -0.708% to - 1.525% for GDPs. Second, the reduction of emissions attributed to carbon tax rates of 100,000KW/TC equal 17(25) million TC which is 1.19(1.78) times the 2000 level in the year 2015(2035). In terms of GDP, the corresponding economic costs of the abatement are 1,261 billion Korean Won in 2015 and 4,551 KW in 2035. Third, the changes in GDP, resulting from sensitivity analysis, are almost identical with a tax rate of 100,000KW/TC and annual growth rate or 2{approx}3%. Thus, the change in GDP with a 3%(2%) growth rate were calculated to be -0.025%(-0.023%) in 2005, -0.176%(-0.176%) in 2015, -0.292%(-0.294%) in 2025, -0.347%(-0.350%) in 2035, and -0.371%(-0.374%) in 2045. In comparison to other Korean studies on carbon tax simulations, the results of this study found that there was no significant difference of the economic cost assessments in terms of GDP loss, overall; however, with increasing tax rates, the reduction in emissions in the present study were found to be less than those of previous ones. The following policy recommendations are suggested based on the results from this study: First, the carbon tax approach should be utilized to a limited extent. In the

  11. The Boltysh crater record of rapid vegetation change during the Dan-C2 hyperthermal event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, D. W.; Daly, R.; Gilmour, I.; Gilmour, M.; Kelley, S. P.

    2012-04-01

    Analysis of a cored borehole drilled through the sedimentary fill of the 24km wide Boltysh meteorite crater, Ukraine has yielded a unique, high resolution record spanning algae records. These records reflect environmental change from the K/Pg1 to the post Dan-C2 Danian. Leading into the CIE, warm temperate gymnosperm - angiosperm - fern communities are replaced by precipitation limited (winterwet) plant communities within the negative CIE. Winterwet plant communities dominate the negative CIE, but are replaced within the isotope recovery stage by warm temperate floras. These in turn give way to cooler temperate floras in the post positive CIE section of the uppermost crater fill. The distribution of temperate taxa about the negative CIE represents the broadest scale of oscillatory variation in the palynofloras. Shorter frequency oscillations are evident from diversity and botanical group distributions reflecting changes in moisture availability over several thousand years. Detailed analysis of variability within one of these oscillations records plant community cyclicity across the inception of the negative CIE. This short term cyclicity provides evidence that the replacement of warm termperate by winterwet floras occurred in a stepwise manner at the negative CIE suggesting cumulative atmospheric forcing. At <1mm scale, lamination within the negative CIE showed no obvious lithological or colour differences, and are not seasonal couplets. However, palynofloral analysis of laminations from within the negative CIE has yielded evidence of annual variation identifying the potential for recoding changes in 'paleoweather' across a major hyperthermal event. [1] Jolley, D. W. et al. (2010) Geology 38, 835-838.

  12. High Resolution Topography of Age-Related Changes in Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Sprecher

    Full Text Available Sleeping brain activity reflects brain anatomy and physiology. The aim of this study was to use high density (256 channel electroencephalography (EEG during sleep to characterize topographic changes in sleep EEG power across normal aging, with high spatial resolution. Sleep was evaluated in 92 healthy adults aged 18-65 years old using full polysomnography and high density EEG. After artifact removal, spectral power density was calculated for standard frequency bands for all channels, averaged across the NREM periods of the first 3 sleep cycles. To quantify topographic changes with age, maps were generated of the Pearson's coefficient of the correlation between power and age at each electrode. Significant correlations were determined by statistical non-parametric mapping. Absolute slow wave power declined significantly with increasing age across the entire scalp, whereas declines in theta and sigma power were significant only in frontal regions. Power in fast spindle frequencies declined significantly with increasing age frontally, whereas absolute power of slow spindle frequencies showed no significant change with age. When EEG power was normalized across the scalp, a left centro-parietal region showed significantly less age-related decline in power than the rest of the scalp. This partial preservation was particularly significant in the slow wave and sigma bands. The effect of age on sleep EEG varies substantially by region and frequency band. This non-uniformity should inform the design of future investigations of aging and sleep. This study provides normative data on the effect of age on sleep EEG topography, and provides a basis from which to explore the mechanisms of normal aging as well as neurodegenerative disorders for which age is a risk factor.

  13. Coastal regime shifts: rapid responses of coastal wetlands to changes in mangrove cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Weaver, Carolyn; Charles, Sean P; Whitt, Ashley; Dastidar, Sayantani; D'Odorico, Paolo; Fuentes, Jose D; Kominoski, John S; Armitage, Anna R; Pennings, Steven C

    2017-03-01

    Global changes are causing broad-scale shifts in vegetation communities worldwide, including coastal habitats where the borders between mangroves and salt marsh are in flux. Coastal habitats provide numerous ecosystem services of high economic value, but the consequences of variation in mangrove cover are poorly known. We experimentally manipulated mangrove cover in large plots to test a set of linked hypotheses regarding the effects of changes in mangrove cover. We found that changes in mangrove cover had strong effects on microclimate, plant community, sediment accretion, soil organic content, and bird abundance within 2 yr. At higher mangrove cover, wind speed declined and light interception by vegetation increased. Air and soil temperatures had hump-shaped relationships with mangrove cover. The cover of salt marsh plants decreased at higher mangrove cover. Wrack cover, the distance that wrack was distributed from the water's edge, and sediment accretion decreased at higher mangrove cover. Soil organic content increased with mangrove cover. Wading bird abundance decreased at higher mangrove cover. Many of these relationships were non-linear, with the greatest effects when mangrove cover varied from zero to intermediate values, and lesser effects when mangrove cover varied from intermediate to high values. Temporal and spatial variation in measured variables often peaked at intermediate mangrove cover, with ecological consequences that are largely unexplored. Because different processes varied in different ways with mangrove cover, the "optimum" cover of mangroves from a societal point of view will depend on which ecosystem services are most desired. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Alveolar bone changes after rapid maxillary expansion with tooth-born appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, Antonino; Barbato, Ersilia; Cosentino, Leandro; Ferraro, Claudia Maria; Leonardi, Rosalia

    2017-08-10

    During rapid maxillary expansion (RME), heavy forces are transmitted to the maxilla by the anchored teeth causing buccal inclination and buccal bone loss of posterior teeth. To systematically review the literature in order to investigate whether RME causes periodontal sequelae, assessed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Fifteen electronic databases and reference lists of studies were searched up to March 2017. To be included in the systematic review, articles must be human studies on growing subjects, with transversal maxillary deficiency treated with RME and with assessment of buccal bone loss by CBCT images. Only randomized and non-randomized trials were included. Two authors independently performed study selection, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment. Study characteristics (study design, sample size, age, sex, skeletal maturity, type of appliance, daily activation, evaluated linear measurements, observation period, CBCT settings), and study outcomes (loss of buccal bone thickness and marginal bone) were reported according to the PRISMA statement. On the basis of the applied inclusion criteria, only six articles, three randomized clinical trials and three controlled clinical trials were included. An individual analysis of the selected articles was undertaken. The risks of bias of the six trials were scored as medium to low. The results of the present systematic review are based on a limited number of studies and only one study included a control group. In all considered studies, significant loss of buccal bone thickness and marginal bone level were observed in anchored teeth, following RME. Further prospective studies correlating the radiological data of bone loss to the periodontal soft tissues reaction after RME are required. A preliminary evaluation of the patient-related risk factors for RR may be advisable when considering to administering RME. This systematic review was registered in the National Institute of Health Research database with an

  15. The System Dynamics of U.S. Automobile Fuel Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd K. BenDor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics of U.S. automobile gasoline consumption since 1975. Using background literature on the history of domestic fuel economy and energy policy, I establish a conceptual model that explains historical trends in adoption of increased fuel economy. I then create a system dynamics simulation model to understand the relationship between increased fuel economy standards and potential changes to gas tax policies. The model suggests that when increases in mandated fuel economy are not conducted in an environment with rising fuel costs, fuel economy improvements may be directly counteracted by shifting tastes of consumers towards larger automobiles with lower fuel economy.

  16. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  17. Currency and Competence of Occupational Therapists and Consumers with Rapidly Changing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Steel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive technology was once a specialised field of practice, involving products designed for populations with specific impairments or functional goals. In Australia, occupational therapists have, at times, functioned as gatekeepers to public funding, prescribing products from a predefined list. An expanding range of accessible mainstream products available via international and online markets has changed the meaning and application of assistive technology for many people with disability. In the policy context of consumer choice and cost-effectiveness, have occupational therapists been left behind? This paper describes the change in context for access to assistive technology resulting in expanded possibilities for participation and inclusion. A case study of environmental control systems is used to explore the overlap of mainstream and assistive products and the funding and services to support their uptake. The analysis describes a future policy and practice context in which assistive technology includes a spectrum of products decoupled from access to independent advice and support services. A broader scope of occupational therapy practice has potential to enhance the occupational rights of people with disability and the efficiency and effectiveness of assistive technology provision.

  18. Changes to dryland rainfall result in rapid moss mortality and altered soil fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sasha C.; Coe, Kirsten K.; Sparks, Jed P.; Housman, David C.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Belnap, Jayne

    2012-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems cover ~40% of Earth’s terrestrial surface, but we know little about how climate change will affect these widespread landscapes. Like many drylands, the Colorado Plateau in southwestern United States is predicted to experience elevated temperatures and alterations to the timing and amount of annual precipitation. We used a factorial warming and supplemental rainfall experiment on the Colorado Plateau to show that altered precipitation resulted in pronounced mortality of the widespread moss Syntrichia caninervis. Increased frequency of 1.2 mm summer rainfall events reduced moss cover from ~25% of total surface cover to fertility. Mosses are important members in many dryland ecosystems and the community changes observed here reveal how subtle modifications to climate can affect ecosystem structure and function on unexpectedly short timescales. Moreover, mortality resulted from increased precipitation through smaller, more frequent events, underscoring the importance of precipitation event size and timing, and highlighting our inadequate understanding of relationships between climate and ecosystem function in drylands.

  19. Tensile behavior change depending on the microstructure of a Fe-Cu alloy produced from rapidly solidified powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakisawa, Hideki; Minagawa, Kazumi; Halada, Kohmei

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between consolidating temperature and the tensile behavior of iron alloy produced from Fe-Cu rapidly solidified powder is investigated. Fe-Cu powder fabricated by high-pressure water atomization was consolidated by heavy rolling at 873-1273 K. Microstructural changes were observed and tensile behavior was examined. Tensile behavior varies as the consolidating temperature changes, and these temperature-dependent differences depend on the morphology of the microstructure on the order of micrometers. The sample consolidated at 873 K shows a good strength/elongation balance because the powder microstructure and primary powder boundaries are maintained. The samples consolidated at the higher temperatures have a microstructure of recrystallized grains, and these recrystallized samples show the conventional relationship between tensile behavior and grain size in ordinal bulk materials

  20. The role of the Asian winter monsoon in the rapid propagation of abrupt climate changes during the last deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Guoqiang; Sun, Qing; Zhu, Qingzeng; Shan, Yabing; Shang, Wenyu; Ling, Yuan; Su, Youliang; Xie, Manman; Wang, Xishen; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution temperature records spanning the last deglaciation from low latitudes are scarce; however, they are important for understanding the rapid propagation of abrupt climate events throughout the Northern Hemisphere and the tropics. Here, we present a branched GDGTs-based temperature reconstruction from the sediments of Maar Lake Huguangyan in tropical China. The record reveals that the mean temperature during the Oldest Dryas was 17.8 °C, which was followed by a two-step increase of 2-3 °C to the Bølling-Allerød, a decrease to 19.8 °C during the Younger Dryas, and a rapid warming at the onset of the Holocene. The Oldest Dryas was about 2 °C warmer than the Younger Dryas. The reconstructed temperature was weighted towards the wintertime since the lake is monomictic and the mixing process in winter supplies nutrients from the lake bottom to the entire water column, greatly promoting biological productivity. In addition, the winter-biased temperature changes observed in the study are more distinctive than the summer-biased temperature records from extra-tropical regions of East Asia. This implies that the temperature decreases during abrupt climatic events were mainly a winter phenomenon. Within the limits of the dating uncertainties, the broadly similar pattern of winter-weighted temperature change observed in both tropical Lake Huguangyan and in Greenland ice cores indicates the occurrence of tightly-coupled interactions between high latitude ice sheets and land areas in the tropics. We suggest that the winter monsoon (especially cold surges) could play an important role in the rapid transmission of the temperature signal from the Arctic to the tropics.

  1. Rapid changes in ice core gas records - Part 1: On the accuracy of methane synchronisation of ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, P.

    2010-08-01

    Methane synchronisation is a concept to align ice core records during rapid climate changes of the Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events onto a common age scale. However, atmospheric gases are recorded in ice cores with a log-normal-shaped age distribution probability density function, whose exact shape depends mainly on the accumulation rate on the drilling site. This age distribution effectively shifts the mid-transition points of rapid changes in CH4 measured in situ in ice by about 58% of the width of the age distribution with respect to the atmospheric signal. A minimum dating uncertainty, or artefact, in the CH4 synchronisation is therefore embedded in the concept itself, which was not accounted for in previous error estimates. This synchronisation artefact between Greenland and Antarctic ice cores is for GRIP and Byrd less than 40 years, well within the dating uncertainty of CH4, and therefore does not calls the overall concept of the bipolar seesaw into question. However, if the EPICA Dome C ice core is aligned via CH4 to NGRIP this synchronisation artefact is in the most recent unified ice core age scale (Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010) for LGM climate conditions of the order of three centuries and might need consideration in future gas chronologies.

  2. Rapid breeding and varietal replacement are critical to adaptation of cropping systems in the developing world to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlin, Gary N; Cairns, Jill E; Das, Biswanath

    2017-03-01

    Plant breeding is a key mechanism for adaptation of cropping systems to climate change. Much discussion of breeding for climate change focuses on genes with large effects on heat and drought tolerance, but phenology and stress tolerance are highly polygenic. Adaptation will therefore mainly result from continually adjusting allele frequencies at many loci through rapid-cycle breeding that delivers a steady stream of incrementally improved cultivars. This will require access to elite germplasm from other regions, shortened breeding cycles, and multi-location testing systems that adequately sample the target population of environments. The objective of breeding and seed systems serving smallholder farmers should be to ensure that they use varieties developed in the last 10 years. Rapid varietal turnover must be supported by active dissemination of new varieties, and active withdrawal of obsolete ones. Commercial seed systems in temperate regions achieve this through competitive seed markets, but in the developing world, most crops are not served by competitive commercial seed systems, and many varieties date from the end of the Green Revolution (the late 1970s, when the second generation of modern rice and wheat varieties had been widely adopted). These obsolete varieties were developed in a climate different than today's, placing farmers at risk. To reduce this risk, a strengthened breeding system is needed, with freer international exchange of elite varieties, short breeding cycles, high selection intensity, wide-scale phenotyping, and accurate selection supported by genomic technology. Governments need to incentivize varietal release and dissemination systems to continuously replace obsolete varieties.

  3. Structural Changes in Stx1 Engineering Monoclonal Antibody Improves Its Functionality as Diagnostic Tool for a Rapid Latex Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Stx1 toxin is one of the AB5 toxins of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC responsible for foodborne intoxication during outbreaks. The single-chain variable fragment (scFv is the most common recombinant antibody format; it consists of both variable chains connected by a peptide linker with conserved specificity and affinity for antigen. The drawbacks of scFv production in bacteria are the heterologous expression, conformation and stability of the molecule, which could change the affinity for the antigen. In this work, we obtained a stable and functional scFv-Stx1 in bacteria, starting from IgG produced by hybridoma cells. After structural modifications, i.e., change in protein orientation, vector and linker, its solubility for expression in bacteria was increased as well as the affinity for its antigen, demonstrated by a scFv dissociation constant (KD of 2.26 × 10−7 M. Also, it was able to recognize purified Stx1 and cross-reacted with Stx2 toxin by ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, and detected 88% of Stx1-producing strains using a rapid latex agglutination test. Thus, the scFv fragment obtained in the present work is a bacteria-produced tool for use in a rapid diagnosis test, providing an alternative for STEC diagnosis.

  4. Post-bleaching coral community change on southern Maldivian reefs: is there potential for rapid recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, C. T.; Morgan, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Given the severity of the 2016 global bleaching event, there are major questions about how quickly reef communities will recover. Here, we explore the ecological and physical structural changes that occurred across five atoll interior reefs in the southern Maldives using data collected at 6 and 12 months post-bleaching. Following initial severe coral mortality, further minor coral mortality had occurred by 12 months post-bleaching, and coral cover is now low (transitions to rubble-dominated states will occur in the near future. Juvenile coral densities in shallow fore-reef habitats are also exceptionally low (<6 individuals m-2), well below those measured 9-12 months following the 1998 bleaching event, and below recovery thresholds identified on other Indian Ocean reefs. Our findings suggest that the physical structure of these reefs will need to decline further before effective recruitment and recovery can begin.

  5. Modification of a whole room indirect calorimeter for measurement of rapid changes in energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Reed, G W; Hill, J O

    1994-06-01

    Whole room indirect calorimeters are among the most accurate devices for measurement of human energy expenditure and have provided useful data about determinants of total daily energy expenditure. However, a limitation of whole room indirect calorimeters has been the inability to detect acute (usually calorimeter (respiratory chamber) to allow accurate measurement of energy expenditure over time periods as short as 1 min. The modifications involve changes in the system design and use of signal processing techniques. With these modifications, we can measure energy expenditure in 1-min intervals throughout the day. This allows accurate study of the acute effects of food, exercise, or drugs on energy expenditure in subjects moving freely inside the respiratory chamber. The ability to use respiratory chambers for these types of studies should improve our understanding of how body weight is regulated.

  6. Fluvial response to the last Holocene rapid climate change in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeai, Jean-Philippe; Devillers, Benoît; Blanchemanche, Philippe; Dezileau, Laurent; Oueslati, Hamza; Tillier, Margaux; Bohbot, Hervé

    2017-05-01

    The variability of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastal lowlands and its relationship with modes of climate change were analysed from the late 9th to the 18th centuries CE. Geochemical analyses were undertaken from a lagoonal sequence and surrounding sediments in order to track the fluvial inputs into the lagoon. An index based on the K/S and Rb/S ratios was used to evidence the main periods of fluvial activity. This index reveals that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) was a drier period characterized by a lower fluvial activity, while the Little Ice Age (LIA) was a wetter period with an increase of the river dynamics. Three periods of higher than average fluvial activity were evidenced at the end of the first millennium CE (ca. 900-950 cal yr CE), in the first half of the second millennium CE (ca. 1150-1550 cal yr CE), and during the 1600s-1700s CE (ca. 1650-1800 cal yr CE). The comparison of these fluvial periods with other records of riverine or lacustrine floods in Spain, Italy, and South of France seems to indicate a general increase in fluvial and flood patterns in the Northwestern Mediterranean in response to the climate change from the MCA to the LIA, although some episodes of flooding are not found in all records. Besides, the phases of higher than average fluvial dynamics are in good agreement with the North Atlantic cold events evidenced from records of ice-rafted debris. The evolution of fluvial activity in the Northwestern Mediterranean coastlands during the last millennium could have been driven by atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns.

  7. Logarithmic superposition of force response with rapid length changes in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijpma, G; Al-Jumaily, A M; Cairns, S P; Sieck, G C

    2010-12-01

    We present a systematic quantitative analysis of power-law force relaxation and investigate logarithmic superposition of force response in relaxed porcine airway smooth muscle (ASM) strips in vitro. The term logarithmic superposition describes linear superposition on a logarithmic scale, which is equivalent to multiplication on a linear scale. Additionally, we examine whether the dynamic response of contracted and relaxed muscles is dominated by cross-bridge cycling or passive dynamics. The study shows the following main findings. For relaxed ASM, the force response to length steps of varying amplitude (0.25-4% of reference length, both lengthening and shortening) are well-fitted with power-law functions over several decades of time (10⁻² to 10³ s), and the force response after consecutive length changes is more accurately fitted assuming logarithmic superposition rather than linear superposition. Furthermore, for sinusoidal length oscillations in contracted and relaxed muscles, increasing the oscillation amplitude induces greater hysteresivity and asymmetry of force-length relationships, whereas increasing the frequency dampens hysteresivity but increases asymmetry. We conclude that logarithmic superposition is an important feature of relaxed ASM, which may facilitate a more accurate prediction of force responses in the continuous dynamic environment of the respiratory system. In addition, the single power-function response to length changes shows that the dynamics of cross-bridge cycling can be ignored in relaxed muscle. The similarity in response between relaxed and contracted states implies that the investigated passive dynamics play an important role in both states and should be taken into account.

  8. Long-Term Soil Experiments: A Key to Managing Earth's Rapidly Changing Critical Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, D., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    In a few decades, managers of Earth's Critical Zones (biota, humans, land, and water) will be challenged to double food and fiber production and diminish adverse effects of management on the wider environment. To meet these challenges, an array of scientific approaches is being used to increase understanding of Critical Zone functioning and evolution, and one amongst these approaches needs to be long-term soil field studies to move us beyond black boxing the belowground Critical Zone, i.e., to further understanding of processes driving changes in the soil environment. Long-term soil experiments (LTSEs) provide direct observations of soil change and functioning across time scales of decades, data critical for biological, biogeochemical, and environmental assessments of sustainability; for predictions of soil fertility, productivity, and soil-environment interactions; and for developing models at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Unfortunately, LTSEs globally are not in a good state, and they take years to mature, are vulnerable to loss, and even today remain to be fully inventoried. Of the 250 LTSEs in a web-based network, results demonstrate that soils and belowground Critical Zones are highly dynamic and responsive to human management. The objective of this study is to review the contemporary state of LTSEs and consider how they contribute to three open questions: (1) can soils sustain a doubling of food production in the coming decades without further impinging on the wider environment, (2) how do soils interact with the global C cycle, and (3) how can soil management establish greater control over nutrient cycling. While LTSEs produce significant data and perspectives for all three questions, there is on-going need and opportunity for reviews of the long-term soil-research base, for establishment of an efficiently run network of LTSEs aimed at sustainability and improving management control over C and nutrient cycling, and for research teams that

  9. Rapid realist review of the evidence: achieving lasting change when mental health rehabilitation staff undertake recovery-oriented training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Bhanbhro, Sadiq; Cook, Sarah; Killaspy, Helen

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to lasting change in practice following a recovery-based training intervention for inpatient mental health rehabilitation staff. Staff training may help nurses and other staff groups in inpatient mental health rehabilitative settings to increase their recovery-oriented practice. There are no published reviews on the effectiveness of such training and few long-term evaluations. This review informed a realist evaluation of a specific intervention (GetREAL). Rapid realist review methodology was used to generate and prioritize programme theories. ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science and grey literature searches were performed in September 2014-March 2015 with no date restrictions. Stakeholders suggested further documents. GetREAL project documentation was consulted. Programme theory development took place iteratively with literature identification. Stakeholders validated and prioritized emerging programme theories and the prioritized theories were refined using literature case studies. Fifty-one relevant documents fed into 49 programme theories articulating seven mechanisms for lasting change. Prioritized mechanisms were: staff receptiveness to change; and staff feeling encouraged, motivated and supported by colleagues and management to change. Seven programme theories were prioritized and refined using data from four case studies. Lasting change can be facilitated by collaborative action planning, regular collaborative meetings, appointing a change agent, explicit management endorsement and prioritization and modifying organizational structures. Conversely, a challenging organizational climate, or a prevalence of 'change fatigue', may block change. Pre-intervention exploration may help identify any potential barriers to embedding recovery in the organizational culture. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rapid environmental change over the past decade revealed by isotopic analysis of the California mussel in the northeast Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine A Pfister

    Full Text Available The anthropogenic input of fossil fuel carbon into the atmosphere results in increased carbon dioxide (CO(2 into the oceans, a process that lowers seawater pH, decreases alkalinity and can inhibit the production of shell material. Corrosive water has recently been documented in the northeast Pacific, along with a rapid decline in seawater pH over the past decade. A lack of instrumentation prior to the 1990s means that we have no indication whether these carbon cycle changes have precedence or are a response to recent anthropogenic CO(2 inputs. We analyzed stable carbon and oxygen isotopes (δ(13C, δ(18O of decade-old California mussel shells (Mytilus californianus in the context of an instrumental seawater record of the same length. We further compared modern shells to shells from 1000 to 1340 years BP and from the 1960s to the present and show declines in the δ(13C of modern shells that have no historical precedent. Our finding of decline in another shelled mollusk (limpet and our extensive environmental data show that these δ(13C declines are unexplained by changes to the coastal food web, upwelling regime, or local circulation. Our observed decline in shell δ(13C parallels other signs of rapid changes to the nearshore carbon cycle in the Pacific, including a decline in pH that is an order of magnitude greater than predicted by an equilibrium response to rising atmospheric CO(2, the presence of low pH water throughout the region, and a record of a similarly steep decline in δ(13C in algae in the Gulf of Alaska. These unprecedented changes and the lack of a clear causal variable underscores the need for better quantifying carbon dynamics in nearshore environments.

  11. Economy and Grace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2015-01-01

    Luther develops his idea the grace of God in tandem with his idea of economy, and a society characterized by ethical and social values such as love of neighbour and caring for the poor. Hence, the reformer's search for a gracious God is developed along with his criticism of the current indulgence...... doctrine and the emerging 'oeconomia moderna'. Thus, building on a simul gratia et oeconomia, grace and economy simultaneously, Luther's reformation theology can be perceived as te intersection of an economy of grace and a horizontal social economy (works of love) in quotidian life that together constitute...

  12. The impacts of climate change on poverty in 2030, and the potential from rapid, inclusive and climate-informed development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, J.; Hallegatte, S.

    2016-12-01

    There is a consensus on the fact that poor people are more vulnerable to climate change than the rest of the population, but, until recently, few quantified estimates had been proposed and few frameworks existed to design policies for addressing the issue. In this paper, we analyze the impacts of climate change on poverty using micro-simulation approaches. We start from household surveys that describe the current distribution of income and occupations, we project these households into the future and we look at the impacts of climate change on people's income. To project households into the future, we explore a large range of assumptions on future demographic changes (including on education), technological changes, and socio-economic trends (including redistribution policies). This approach allows us to identify the main combination of factors that lead to fast poverty reduction, and the ones that lead to high climate change impacts on the poor. Identifying these factors is critical for designing efficient policies to protect the poorest from climate change impacts and making economic growth more inclusive. Conclusions are twofold. First, by 2030 climate change can have a large impact on poverty, with between 3 and 122 million more people in poverty, but climate change remains a secondary driver of poverty trends within this time horizon. Climate change impacts do not only affect the poorest: in 2030, the bottom 40 percent lose more than 4 percent of income in many countries. The regional hotspots are Sub-Saharan Africa and - to a lesser extent - India and the rest of South Asia. The most important channel through which climate change increases poverty is through agricultural income and food prices. Second, by 2030 and in the absence of surprises on climate impacts, inclusive climate-informed development can prevent most of (but not all) the impacts on poverty. In a scenario with rapid, inclusive and climate-proof development, climate change impact on poverty is

  13. Ecoregional-scale monitoring within conservation areas, in a rapidly changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of ecological systems can prove invaluable for resource management and conservation. Such monitoring can: (1) detect instances of long-term trend (either improvement or deterioration) in monitored resources, thus providing an early-warning indication of system change to resource managers; (2) inform management decisions and help assess the effects of management actions, as well as anthropogenic and natural disturbances; and (3) provide the grist for supplemental research on mechanisms of system dynamics and cause-effect relationships (Fancy et al., 2009). Such monitoring additionally provides a snapshot of the status of monitored resources during each sampling cycle, and helps assess whether legal standards and regulations are being met. Until the last 1-2 decades, tracking and understanding changes in condition of natural resources across broad spatial extents have been infrequently attempted. Several factors, however, are facilitating the achievement of such broad-scale investigation and monitoring. These include increasing awareness of the importance of landscape context, greater prevalence of regional and global environmental stressors, and the rise of landscape-scale programs designed to manage and monitor biological systems. Such programs include the US Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program (Moser et al., 2008), Canada's National Forest Inventory, the 3Q Programme for monitoring agricultural landscapes of Norway (Dramstad et al., 2002), and the emerging (US) Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (USDOI Secretarial Order 3289, 2009; Anonymous, 2011). This Special Section explores the underlying design considerations, as well as many pragmatic aspects associated with program implementation and interpretation of results from broad-scale monitoring systems, particularly within the constraints of high-latitude contexts (e.g., low road density, short field season, dramatic fluctuations in temperature). Although Alaska is

  14. Discussion and Conclusion: A Global Perspective on the World Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hague, Douglas

    1983-01-01

    Important changes are taking place in the world economy which are not adequately dealt with by either Keynesian or monetarist theories. Too much emphasis placed on what is happening in the American and western European economies can blind us to important developments in such nonwestern economies as the OPEC nations. (IS)

  15. Globalisation, Knowledge and the Myth of the Magnet Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phillip; Lauder, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the dominant view of the changing relationship between education, jobs and rewards in the global knowledge economy. This asserts that the developed economies can resolve issues of individual aspirations, economic efficiency and social justice through the creation of a high-skills, high-wage "magnet" economy. Here…

  16. Analysis of changes in water cycle across Northern Eurasia with Rapid Integrated Mapping and Analysis System (RIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A.; Prusevich, A.

    2012-04-01

    Historical and contemporary changes in various components of the hydrological cycle across the Northern Eurasia have been investigated using multiple observational and modeled data compiled in Rapid Integrated Mapping and Analysis System (RIMS) for North Eurasian Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI). To evaluate potential future patterns of change in the Northern Eurasian water cycle we have used climate change projections simulated by several coupled Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AO GCMs). Future changes in hydrological regime were assessed using the UNH Water Balance and Water Transport Models (WBM/WTM) which take into account water management including irrigation and reservoir regulation. We found significant shifts in the regional hydrology and quantified potential natural and anthropogenic causes of these changes. The results of our historical and future analysis have demonstrated an intensification of hydrological cycle in many regions of the Northern Eurasia observed over 50-60 year period with accelerated rate during the last decade. Based on climate projections we can expect that the current rate of changes to continue over the course of XXI century. A significant part of the analysis and quantitative estimates of water cycle trends in Northern Eurasia has been done using RIMS online and offline data analysis tools. RIMS has been developed by the Water Systems Analysis Group at the University of New Hampshire, USA for the NEESPI program. Presently, the RIMS data pool is composed of a variety of themes including climate, hydrology, land cover, human dimension, and others. It comprises over five thousand single layer (e.g. soil type) and time series (e.g. daily runoff) raster GIS coverages, and a number of climate and hydrology station/point network datasets. The system streamlines data mining, management and model feeds in the computational environment of large and diverse data holdings. In this presentation we want to demonstrate

  17. Real economy versus virtual economy - New challenges for nowadays society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Associates Professon Dr. Veronica Adriana Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper Real Economy versus Virtual Economy – New Challenges for Nowadays Society our goal is to present the importance of both real economy and virtual economy.At the begging of our research, we have presented the main views of some specialists concerning both virtual and real economy. After that we have compared the two types of economies and we have stressed the most important aspects connected to them. The main reason why we have decided to approach this complex subject is due to the increasing interest in the virtual economy matters and the relation that this particular type of economy develops with the real economy.

  18. Policy Reforms in Indonesia: A Political Economy Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Abu N. M. Wahid; Mohamad Ikhsan

    1996-01-01

    During the 1970s the Indonesian economy grew at a rapid rate. This growth was primarily attributable to the government’s oil revenue and massive expansion of public sector in Indonesia. However, the decline in oil price of the 1980s adversely affected the growth and stability of the economy. The government clearly recognized the fact that a restructuring of the economy was imperative. The present paper is a critical analysis of this restructuring effort. The paper argues that the restructurin...

  19. Rapid changes in the light/dark cycle disrupt memory of conditioned fear in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn H Loh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms govern many aspects of physiology and behavior including cognitive processes. Components of neural circuits involved in learning and memory, e.g., the amygdala and the hippocampus, exhibit circadian rhythms in gene expression and signaling pathways. The functional significance of these rhythms is still not understood. In the present study, we sought to determine the impact of transiently disrupting the circadian system by shifting the light/dark (LD cycle. Such "jet lag" treatments alter daily rhythms of gene expression that underlie circadian oscillations as well as disrupt the synchrony between the multiple oscillators found within the body. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We subjected adult male C57Bl/6 mice to a contextual fear conditioning protocol either before or after acute phase shifts of the LD cycle. As part of this study, we examined the impact of phase advances and phase delays, and the effects of different magnitudes of phase shifts. Under all conditions tested, we found that recall of fear conditioned behavior was specifically affected by the jet lag. We found that phase shifts potentiated the stress-evoked corticosterone response without altering baseline levels of this hormone. The jet lag treatment did not result in overall sleep deprivation, but altered the temporal distribution of sleep. Finally, we found that prior experience of jet lag helps to compensate for the reduced recall due to acute phase shifts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute changes to the LD cycle affect the recall of fear-conditioned behavior. This suggests that a synchronized circadian system may be broadly important for normal cognition and that the consolidation of memories may be particularly sensitive to disruptions of circadian timing.

  20. Mandibular dental arch short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes after slow or rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur César de Medeiros Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes of the mandibular dental arch after slow (SME or rapid (RME maxillary expansion in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. Methods: An electronic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for article selection included randomized controlled trials and prospective studies written in English, with no restriction of year of publication, involving patients who underwent SME or RME during the mixed or early permanent dentitions. A double-blind search of articles was performed by two reviewers. Initially, the title and the abstract of the studies were read, and their references were also hand-searched for possible missing studies. A methodological quality scoring scale was used to analyze the selected articles. Results: The search retrieved 373 articles, but only 6 were selected for review after application of the eligibility and exclusion criteria. Non-clinically significant spontaneous dentoalveolar changes of approximately 1mm were found in the mandibular dental arch in the short and long-term, after slow or rapid maxillary expansions. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between treated and control groups. Conclusions: There is enough evidence to conclude that negligible short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes tend to occur in the mandibular dental arch after SME or RME in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. More randomized studies with appropriate control group are required to better evaluate this issue.

  1. Changes in Indirect Markers of Muscle Damage and Tendons After Daily Drop Jumping Exercise with Rapid Load Increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Paleckis, Mantas Mickevičius, Audrius Snieckus, Vytautas Streckis, Mati Pääsuke, Saulius Rutkauskas, Rasa Steponavičiūtė, Albertas Skurvydas, Sigitas Kamandulis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and type I collagen degradation, as well as, patellar and Achilles tendon morphological differences during nine daily drop-jumps sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load to test the hypothesis that frequent drop-jump training results in negative muscular and tendon adaptation. Young men (n = 9 performed daily drop jump workouts with progression every 3 days in terms of number of jumps, platform height and squat amplitude. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor torque, muscle soreness, blood plasma creatine kinase (CK activity and carboxyterminal cross-linked telopeptide (ICTP, patellar and Achilles tendon thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA were assessed at different time points during the training period and again on days 1, 3, 10 and 17 after the training. The findings were as follows: (1 steady decline in maximal muscle strength with major recovery within 24 hours after the first six daily training sessions; (2 larger decline in electrically induced muscle torque and prolonged recovery during last three training sessions; (3 increase in patellar and Achilles tendons CSA without change in thickness towards the end of training period; (4 increase in jump height but not in muscle strength after whole training period. Our findings suggest that frequent drop-jump sessions with constant load alternated with rapid increases in load do not induce severe muscle damage or major changes in tendons, nonetheless, this type of loading is not advisable for muscle strength improvement.

  2. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    transboundary aquifer that extends far beyond the study area, over about 150 000 km2. It is also heterogeneous. Like surface flows, but at a different scale, groundwater flows are marked by a strong endorheism. For example the Dantiandou closed piezometric depression extends over about approximately 5000 km2. These natural closed depressions are explained only by evapotranspiration uptake, weak in absolute terms (a few mm.a-1) but with a very high impact on hydrodynamics because of poor permeability and porosity. Both density of observations and hydraulic continuity of the CT3 aquifer give a fine idea of groundwater changes in the whole area. Human activities, continuously adapting in this poor rural area, add another complexity to the hydrological diversity in surface and ground water. The replacement of the natural vegetation with millet fields and fallow increased the surface runoff, and consequently water accumulation in temporary pools and then CT3 recharge. In the SE part of the study area, the water table has risen up to outcropping in the lowest valley bottoms. These new permanent ponds reflect groundwater while temporary ponds still reflect surface dynamics. This new component of the hydrological landscape induces several consequences, in physical and human dimensions. Evaporation strongly affects the permanent water and increases its salinity while the natural mineralization of groundwater is very low. The easier access to water resources allows a significant development of local gardening, which modifies the social functioning of villages (e.g. land rights between villages and within a village, diversification of crops and sources of income, new sales channels). Different physically based models (for surface and ground water) were built, with a significant discrepancy between their respective quantification of water flows at the region scale. Extrapolation of surface fluxes from the few instrumented catchments to a much larger mosaic of non-instrumented catchments is

  3. Does the New Economy Create Higher Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    2002-01-01

    The rapid and continuous growth in the US in the 1990s and the simultaneous boom in the IT industry created the concept "The New Economy". What connects the two phenomena is that the IT industry alone is considered productive, and increased productivity in other industries, as a result of increased...

  4. From Enclave to Linkage Economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael W.

    as the enclave economy par excellence, moving in with fully integrated value chains, extracting resources and exporting them as commodities having virtually no linkages to the local economy. However, new opportunities for promoting linkages are offered by changing business strategies of local African enterprises...... as well as foreign multinational corporations (MNCs). MNCs in extractives are increasingly seeking local linkages as part of their efficiency, risk, and asset-seeking strategies, and linkage programmes are becoming integral elements in many MNCs’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities....... At the same time, local African enterprises are eager to, and increasingly capable of, linking up to the foreign investors in order to expand their activities and acquire technology, skills and market access. The changing strategies of MNCs and the improving capabilities of African enterprises offer new...

  5. Economy Profile of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Argentina. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Arge...

  6. Economy Profile of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Estonia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Estonia ...

  7. Economy Profile of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Australia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Aust...

  8. Economy Profile of Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2017-01-01

    Doing Business 2018 is the 15th in a series of annual reports investigating the regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it. This economy profile presents the Doing Business indicators for Bolivia. Doing Business presents quantitative indicators on business regulation and the protection of property rights that can be compared across 190 economies; for 2018 Bolivia ...

  9. Free variable economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    Several authors have recently argued that semantic interpretation is subject to economy constraints. In particular, Fox (1999) argued that the interpretation of pronouns is subject to BINDING ECONOMY, which favors local binding over non-local binding. The present paper points out a problem for

  10. Toward a mechanistic understanding of human-induced rapid environmental change: A case study linking energy development, avian nest predation, and predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Chalfoun, Anna D.

    2015-01-01

    Demographic consequences of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) have been widely documented for many populations. The mechanisms underlying such patterns, however, are rarely investigated and yet are critical to understand for effective conservation and management.

  11. The Political Economy of State Governance in Global Production Networks:Change, Crisis and Contestation in the South African Fruit Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Nicola Jane; Alford, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Within the global value chain (GVC) and global production network (GPN) literatures, one of the most vibrant areas of debate focuses on dynamics of governance. However, the evolution of these debates has been underpinned by a persistent firm-centrism, with insufficient attention paid to states, public authority and politics. Building on a renewed interest in these themes in the recent literature, we contribute to a growing demand for a more robust political economy of governance in GVC/GPN de...

  12. Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fuel Economy Label and CAFE Data asset contains measured summary fuel economy estimates and test data for light-duty vehicle manufacturers by model for certification as required under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA) and The Energy Independent Security Act of 2007 (EISA) to collect vehicle fuel economy estimates for the creation of Economy Labels and for the calculation of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE). Manufacturers submit data on an annual basis, or as needed to document vehicle model changes.The EPA performs targeted fuel economy confirmatory tests on approximately 15% of vehicles submitted for validation. Confirmatory data on vehicles is associated with its corresponding submission data to verify the accuracy of manufacturer submissions beyond standard business rules. Submitted data comes in XML format or as documents, with the majority of submissions being sent in XML, and includes descriptive information on the vehicle itself, fuel economy information, and the manufacturer's testing approach. This data may contain proprietary information (CBI) such as information on estimated sales or other data elements indicated by the submitter as confidential. CBI data is not publically available; however, within the EPA data can accessed under the restrictions of the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) CBI policy [RCS Link]. Datasets are segmented by vehicle model/manufacturer and/or year with corresponding fuel economy, te

  13. A fibre optic oxygen sensor that detects rapid PO2 changes under simulated conditions of cyclical atelectasis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Federico; Chen, Rongsheng; McPeak, Hanne; Matejovic, Martin; Farmery, Andrew D; Hahn, Clive E W

    2014-01-15

    Two challenges in the management of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome are the difficulty in diagnosing cyclical atelectasis, and in individualising mechanical ventilation therapy in real-time. Commercial optical oxygen sensors can detect [Formula: see text] oscillations associated with cyclical atelectasis, but are not accurate at saturation levels below 90%, and contain a toxic fluorophore. We present a computer-controlled test rig, together with an in-house constructed ultra-rapid sensor to test the limitations of these sensors when exposed to rapidly changing [Formula: see text] in blood in vitro. We tested the sensors' responses to simulated respiratory rates between 10 and 60 breaths per minute. Our sensor was able to detect the whole amplitude of the imposed [Formula: see text] oscillations, even at the highest respiratory rate. We also examined our sensor's resistance to clot formation by continuous in vivo deployment in non-heparinised flowing animal blood for 24h, after which no adsorption of organic material on the sensor's surface was detectable by scanning electron microscopy. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Threshold and resilience management of coupled urbanization and water environmental system in the rapidly changing coastal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangfan; Li, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The concept of thresholds shows important implications for environmental and resource management. Here we derived potential landscape thresholds which indicated abrupt changes in water quality or the dividing points between exceeding and failing to meet national surface water quality standards for a rapidly urbanizing city on the Eastern Coast in China. The analysis of landscape thresholds was based on regression models linking each of the seven water quality variables to each of the six landscape metrics for this coupled land-water system. We found substantial and accelerating urban sprawl at the suburban areas between 2000 and 2008, and detected significant nonlinear relations between water quality and landscape pattern. This research demonstrated that a simple modeling technique could provide insights on environmental thresholds to support more-informed decision making in land use, water environmental and resilience management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The importance of the sampling frequency in determining short-time-averaged irradiance and illuminance for rapidly changing cloud cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, J.J.; Rommel, M.; Geisler, J.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling interval is an important parameter which must be chosen carefully, if measurements of the direct, global, and diffuse irradiance or illuminance are carried out to determine their averages over a given period. Using measurements from a day with rapidly moving clouds, we investigated the influence of the sampling interval on the uncertainly of the calculated 15-min averages. We conclude, for this averaging period, that the sampling interval should not exceed 60 s and 10 s for measurement of the diffuse and global components respectively, to reduce the influence of the sampling interval below 2%. For the direct component, even a 5 s sampling interval is too long to reach this influence level for days with extremely quickly changing insolation conditions. (author)

  16. Dryland responses to global change suggest the potential for rapid non-linear responses to some changes but resilience to others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S.; Ferrenberg, S.; Tucker, C.; Rutherford, W. A.; Wertin, T. M.; McHugh, T. A.; Morrissey, E.; Kuske, C.; Belnap, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drylands represent our planet's largest terrestrial biome, making up over 35% of Earth's land surface. In the context of this vast areal extent, it is no surprise that recent research suggests dryland inter-annual variability and responses to change have the potential to drive biogeochemical cycles and climate at the global-scale. Further, the data we do have suggest drylands can respond rapidly and non-linearly to change. Nevertheless, our understanding of the cross-system consistency of and mechanisms behind dryland responses to a changed environment remains relatively poor. This poor understanding hinders not only our larger understanding of terrestrial ecosystem function, but also our capacity to forecast future global biogeochemical cycles and climate. Here we present data from a series of Colorado Plateau manipulation experiments - including climate, land use, and nitrogen deposition manipulations - to explore how vascular plants, microbial communities, and biological soil crusts (a community of mosses, lichens, and/or cyanobacteria living in the interspace among vascular plants in arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide) respond to a host of environmental changes. These responses include not only assessments of community composition, but of their function as well. We will explore photosynthesis, net soil CO2 exchange, soil carbon stocks and chemistry, albedo, and nutrient cycling. The experiments were begun with independent questions and cover a range of environmental change drivers and scientific approaches, but together offer a relatively holistic picture of how some drylands can change their structure and function in response to change. In particular, the data show very high ecosystem vulnerability to particular drivers, but surprising resilience to others, suggesting a multi-faceted response of these diverse systems.

  17. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems. PMID:19707620

  18. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2009-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A+PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems.

  19. Multi-generational responses of a marine polychaete to a rapid change in seawater pCO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Jarrold, Michael D; Massamba-N'Siala, Gloria; Spicer, John I; Calosi, Piero

    2016-10-01

    Little is known of the capacity that marine metazoans have to evolve under rapid p CO 2 changes. Consequently, we reared a marine polychaete, Ophryotrocha labronica , previously cultured for approximately 33 generations under a low/variable pH regime, under elevated and low p CO 2 for six generations. The strain used was found to be tolerant to elevated p CO 2 conditions. In generations F1 and F2 females' fecundity was significantly lower in the low p CO 2 treatment. However, from generation F3 onwards there were no differences between p CO 2 treatments, indicating that trans-generational effects enabled the restoration and maintenance of reproductive output. Whilst the initial fitness recovery was likely driven by trans-generational plasticity (TGP), the results from reciprocal transplant assays, performed using F7 individuals, made it difficult to disentangle between whether TGP had persisted across multiple generations, or if evolutionary adaptation had occurred. Nonetheless, both are important mechanisms for persistence under climate change. Overall, our study highlights the importance of multi-generational experiments in more accurately determining marine metazoans' responses to changes in p CO 2 , and strengthens the case for exploring their use in conservation, by creating specific p CO 2 tolerant strains of keystone ecosystem species.

  20. Specialists meeting on design and assessment of instrumentation and control systems in NPP coping with rapid technological change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    A transition from analogue to computer based I and C (instrumentation and control) systems in nuclear power plants enabled the industry not only to make use of advantages of computers for the control of technological processes, but also transferred the unusual short innovation cycles in computer technology to become a constraint on the process I and C. This situation led the IAEA to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of the problems and organize a Specialists` Meeting in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation. The basic objective was to elaborate the management, engineering and economic problems arising from rapid technological changes, to point out solutions and to discuss the future trends in the field. The Year 2000 Issue was also inside the scope of the Meeting. Typical problems were technology changes provoking major I and C concept changes, spare part availability, compatibility in refurbishment processes. The present document contains the papers presented by national delegates, each with an abstract, and the conclusions drawn from the final discussion Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Specialists meeting on design and assessment of instrumentation and control systems in NPP coping with rapid technological change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    A transition from analogue to computer based I and C (instrumentation and control) systems in nuclear power plants enabled the industry not only to make use of advantages of computers for the control of technological processes, but also transferred the unusual short innovation cycles in computer technology to become a constraint on the process I and C. This situation led the IAEA to provide an international forum for the presentation and discussion of the problems and organize a Specialists' Meeting in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation. The basic objective was to elaborate the management, engineering and economic problems arising from rapid technological changes, to point out solutions and to discuss the future trends in the field. The Year 2000 Issue was also inside the scope of the Meeting. Typical problems were technology changes provoking major I and C concept changes, spare part availability, compatibility in refurbishment processes. The present document contains the papers presented by national delegates, each with an abstract, and the conclusions drawn from the final discussion

  2. Ecological ethics in captivity: balancing values and responsibilities in zoo and aquarium research under rapid global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2013-01-01

    Ethical obligations to animals in conservation research and management are manifold and often conflicting. Animal welfare concerns often clash with the ethical imperative to understand and conserve a population or ecosystem through research and management intervention. The accelerating pace and impact of global environmental change, especially climate change, complicates our understanding of these obligations. One example is the blurring of the distinction between ex situ (zoo- and aquarium-based) conservation and in situ (field-based) approaches as zoos and aquariums become more active in field conservation work and as researchers and managers consider more intensive interventions in wild populations and ecosystems to meet key conservation goals. These shifts, in turn, have consequences for our traditional understanding of the ethics of wildlife research and management, including our relative weighting of animal welfare and conservation commitments across rapidly evolving ex situ and in situ contexts. Although this changing landscape in many ways supports the increased use of captive wildlife in conservation-relevant research, it raises significant ethical concerns about human intervention in populations and ecosystems, including the proper role of zoos and aquariums as centers for animal research and conservation in the coming decades. Working through these concerns requires a pragmatic approach to ethical analysis, one that is able to make trade-offs among the many goods at stake (e.g., animal welfare, species viability, and ecological integrity) as we strive to protect species from further decline and extinction in this century.

  3. Influence of rapid changes in cytosolic pH on oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle: theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Bernard; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2002-07-01

    Cytosolic pH in skeletal muscle may vary significantly because of proton production/consumption by creatine kinase and/or proton production by anaerobic glycolysis. A computer model of oxidative phosphorylation in intact skeletal muscle developed previously was used to study the kinetic effect of these variations on the oxidative phosphorylation system. Two kinds of influence were analysed: (i) via the change in pH across the inner mitochondrial membrane and (ii) via the shift in the equilibrium of the creatine kinase-catalysed reaction. Our simulations suggest that cytosolic pH has essentially no impact on the steady-state fluxes and most metabolite concentrations. On the other hand, rapid acidification/alkalization of cytosol causes a transient decrease/increase in the respiration rate. Furthermore, changes in pH seem to affect significantly the kinetic properties of transition between resting state and active state. An increase in pH brought about by proton consumption by creatine kinase at the onset of exercise lengthens the transition time. At intensive exercise levels this pH increase could lead to loss of the stability of the system, if not compensated by glycolytic H+ production. Thus our theoretical results stress the importance of processes/mechanisms that buffer/compensate for changes in cytosolic proton concentration. In particular, we suggest that the second main role of anaerobic glycolysis, apart from additional ATP supply, may be maintaining the stability of the system at intensive exercise.

  4. Fertility and the economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G S

    1992-08-01

    Fertility and the economy is examined in the context of the Malthusian question about the links between family choices and longterm economic growth. Micro level differences are not included not are a comprehensive range of economic or determinant variables. Specific attention is paid to income and price effects, the quality of children, overlapping generations, mortality effects, uncertainty, and economic growth. Fertility and the demand for children in linked to parental incomes and the cost of rearing children, which is affected by public policies that change the costs. Demand is also related to child and adult mortality, and uncertainty about sex of the child. Fertility in one generation affects fertility in the next. Malthusian and neoclassical models do not capture the current model of modern economies with rising income/capita and human and physical capital, extensive involvement of married women in the labor force, and declining fertility to very low levels. In spite of the present advances in firm knowledge about the relationships between fertility and economic and social variables, there is still much greater ignorance of the interactions. The Malthusian utility function that says fertility rises and falls with income did hold up to 2 centuries of scrutiny, and the Malthusian inclusion of the shifting tastes in his analysis could be translated in the modern context to include price of children. The inclusion of net cost has significant consequences, i.e., rural fertility can be higher because the cost of rearing when children contribute work to maintaining the farm is lower than in the city. An income tax deduction for children in the US reduces cost. Economic growth raises the cost of children due the time spent on child care becoming more valuable. The modern context has changed from Malthusian time, and the cost of education, training, and medical care is relevant. The implication is that a rise in income could reduce the demand for children when

  5. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  6. Rapid structural and compositional change in an old-growth subtropical forest: using plant traits to identify probable drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malizia, Agustina; Easdale, Tomás A; Grau, H Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown directional changes in old-growth tropical forests, but changes are complex and diverse, and their drivers unclear. Here, we report rapid net structural and compositional changes in an old-growth subtropical forest and we assess the functional nature of these changes to test hypothetical drivers including recovery from past disturbances, reduction in ungulate browsing, CO2 fertilization, and increases in rainfall and temperature. The study relies on 15 years of demographic monitoring within 8 ha of subtropical montane forest in Argentina. Between 1992 and 2007, stem density markedly increased by 50% (12 stems ha(-1) y(-1)) and basal area by 6% (0.13 m(2) ha(-1) y(-1)). Increased stem density resulted from enhanced recruitment of understory treelets (Piper tucumanum, Eugenia uniflora, Allophylus edulis) into small size classes. Among 27 common tree species, net population growth was negatively correlated with maximum tree size and longevity, and positively correlated with leaf size and leaf nutrient content, especially so when initial population size was controlled for. Changes were inconsistent with predictions derived from past disturbances (no increase in shade-tolerant or long-lived late-succesional species), rainfall or temperature increase (no increase in evergreen or deciduous species, respectively). However, the increase in nutrient-rich soft-leaved species was consistent with exclusion of large herbivores two decades before monitoring started; and CO2 fertilization could help explain the disproportionate increase in small stems. Reductions in populations of large vertebrates have been observed in many otherwise undisturbed tropical forests, and our results suggest they can have important structural and functional repercussions in these forests.

  7. Changes in occlusal relationships in mixed dentition patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion. A prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, James A; Sigler, Lauren M; Franchi, Lorenzo; Guest, Susan S; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-03-01

    To prospectively measure occlusal changes in mixed dentition patients who underwent a standardized early expansion protocol. The treatment sample consisted of 500 patients who were assigned to three groups according to molar relationship: Class I (n = 204), end-to-end (n = 166), and Class II (n = 130). All patients were treated with a bonded rapid maxillary expander (RME) followed by a removable maintenance plate and a transpalatal arch. Mean age at the start of treatment was 8.8 years (T(1)), with a pre-phase 2 treatment cephalogram (T(2)) taken 3.7 years later. The control sample consisted of the cephalometric records of 188 untreated subjects (Class 1, n = 79; end-to-end, n = 51; Class II, n = 58). The largest change in molar relationship was noted when the Class II treatment group (1.8 mm) was compared with the matched control group (0.3 mm). A positive change was seen in 81% of the Class II treatment group, with almost half of the group improving by > or = 2.0 mm. The end-to-end treatment group had a positive change of 1.4 mm, compared with a control value of 0.6 mm, and the Class I group of about 1 mm compared with controls, who remained unchanged (0.1 mm). Skeletal changes were not significant when any of the groups were compared with controls. The expansion protocol had a significantly favorable effect on the sagittal occlusal relationships of Class II, end-to-end, and Class I patients treated in the early mixed dentition.

  8. The North Korean Economy: Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-26

    rapid growth and trade liberalization to China, Thailand, Malaysia and other Asian nations. The “Stalinist” North Korean economy can be...2006. processing done under contract) by North Koreans.119 The companies included Daewoo (jackets, bags), Samsung Electronics (communications

  9. The Care Economy, Women's Economic Empowerment, and China's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past three decades, China's economy has grown rapidly, creating ... of care work on women's labour market outcomes and economic empowerment; ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all ...

  10. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  11. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  12. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  13. Niche tracking and rapid establishment of distributional equilibrium in the house sparrow show potential responsiveness of species to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B Monahan

    Full Text Available The ability of species to respond to novel future climates is determined in part by their physiological capacity to tolerate climate change and the degree to which they have reached and continue to maintain distributional equilibrium with the environment. While broad-scale correlative climatic measurements of a species' niche are often described as estimating the fundamental niche, it is unclear how well these occupied portions actually approximate the fundamental niche per se, versus the fundamental niche that exists in environmental space, and what fitness values bounding the niche are necessary to maintain distributional equilibrium. Here, we investigate these questions by comparing physiological and correlative estimates of the thermal niche in the introduced North American house sparrow (Passer domesticus. Our results indicate that occupied portions of the fundamental niche derived from temperature correlations closely approximate the centroid of the existing fundamental niche calculated on a fitness threshold of 50% population mortality. Using these niche measures, a 75-year time series analysis (1930-2004 further shows that: (i existing fundamental and occupied niche centroids did not undergo directional change, (ii interannual changes in the two niche centroids were correlated, (iii temperatures in North America moved through niche space in a net centripetal fashion, and consequently, (iv most areas throughout the range of the house sparrow tracked the existing fundamental niche centroid with respect to at least one temperature gradient. Following introduction to a new continent, the house sparrow rapidly tracked its thermal niche and established continent-wide distributional equilibrium with respect to major temperature gradients. These dynamics were mediated in large part by the species' broad thermal physiological tolerances, high dispersal potential, competitive advantage in human-dominated landscapes, and climatically induced

  14. Optimization models in a transition economy

    CERN Document Server

    Sergienko, Ivan V; Koshlai, Ludmilla

    2014-01-01

    This book opens new avenues in understanding mathematical models within the context of a  transition economy. The exposition lays out the methods for combining different mathematical structures and tools to effectively build the next model that will accurately reflect real world economic processes. Mathematical modeling of weather phenomena allows us to forecast certain essential weather parameters without any possibility of changing them. By contrast, modeling of transition economies gives us the freedom to not only predict changes in important indexes of all types of economies, but also to influence them more effectively in the desired direction. Simply put: any economy, including a transitional one, can be controlled. This book is useful to anyone who wants to increase profits within their business, or improve the quality of their family life and the economic area they live in. It is beneficial for undergraduate and graduate students specializing in the fields of Economic Informatics, Economic Cybernetic...

  15. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Pourazari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field. The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N economy of two genetically modified (GM potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%, N uptake efficiency (+53%, tuber N content (+20%, and N accumulation (+120% compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly

  16. Altered Tuber Yield in Genetically Modified High-Amylose and Oil Potato Lines Is Associated With Changed Whole-Plant Nitrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazari, Fereshteh; Andersson, Mariette; Weih, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Breeding for improved crop quality traits can affect non-target traits related to growth and resource use, and these effects may vary in different cultivation conditions (e. g., greenhouse vs. field). The objectives of this study are to investigate the growth and whole-plant nitrogen (N) economy of two genetically modified (GM) potato lines compared to their non-GM parental varieties and when grown in different cultivation conditions. A high-amylose GM potato line and its parent were grown under field and greenhouse conditions for one growing season in Sweden; and a GM oil potato line and its parent were grown in greenhouse conditions only. Tuber yield, above ground biomass, N uptake efficiency and other plant N economy traits were assessed. In both cultivation conditions, the GM lines produced between 1.5 and two times more tubers as compared with their parents. In the greenhouse, fresh tuber yield and N uptake efficiency were unaffected by the genetic modifications, but the GM-lines produced less tuber biomass per plant-internal N compared to their parents. In the field, the fresh tuber yield was 40% greater in the high-amylose line as compared with its parent; the greater fresh tuber yield in the high-amylose GM line was accomplished by higher water allocation to the harvested tubers, and associated with increased N recovery from soil (+20%), N uptake efficiency (+53%), tuber N content (+20%), and N accumulation (+120%) compared with the non-GM parent. The cultivation conditions influenced the yield and N economy. For example, the final fresh above-ground plant biomass and N pool were considerably higher in the greenhouse conditions, whilst the tuber yield was higher in the field conditions. In conclusion, the genetic modification inducing high accumulation of amylose in potato tubers affected several non-target traits related to plant N economy, and increased the plant N uptake and accumulation efficiency of the field-grown plants. Due to strongly increased

  17. Entrepreneurship in Virtual Economy: the Case of Currency One SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Badzińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The scientifc purpose of the study is an attempted synthesis of interpretation of “the virtual economy” and “the virtual environment” in the Polish and foreign literature on the subject. The cognitive purpose thereof is to offer an identifcation and a qualitative analysis of the factors that determine the development of e-entrepreneurship using an example of business practice. Methodology: The theoretical basis of the study is a scientifc research of leading scholars on the theory of entrepreneurship in the context of virtual economy. An exploratory, qualitative case study methodology has been applied for the purpose thereof. The research has been conducted using the example of Currency One SA, operating on the currency exchange market in virtual economy. The application of the empirical method of a case study has made it possible to characterize the essence of e-entrepreneurship and present the studied phenomenon in business practice. Findings: Research results reveal an existence of interdependencies between the intellectual potential of staff members and the market success of a company. Explanation of the critical success factors, showing the implementation of innovative ICT solutions and stages of company development, illustrates how the existing theory is experienced by practitioners in virtual economy. Furthermore, the paper confrms the positive impact of e-entrepreneurship on the effectiveness of the company subject to analysis, and presents virtual economy as a completely new sphere through which it is possible to offer new products and services. Research implications: The rationale for conducting research on case studies is the need to orient the practice towards a better understanding of modern economic reality. The study may provide a starting point for empirical quantitative research, as well as act as a contribution to the discussion on entrepreneurship in the rapidly changing virtual economy. Originality: This

  18. The Arctic Report Card: Communicating the State of the Rapidly Changing Arctic to a Diverse Audience via the Worldwide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, M. O.; Richter-Menge, J.; Overland, J. E.; Soreide, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid change is occurring throughout the Arctic environmental system. The goal of the Arctic Report Card is to communicate the nature of the many changes to a diverse audience via the Worldwide Web. First published in 2006, the Arctic Report Card is a peer-reviewed publication containing clear, reliable and concise scientific information on the current state of the Arctic environment relative to observational records. Available only online, it is intended to be an authoritative source for scientists, teachers, students, decision-makers, policy-makers and the general public interested in the Arctic environment and science. The Arctic Report Card is organized into five sections: Atmosphere; Sea Ice & Ocean; Marine Ecosystem; Terrestrial Ecosystem; Terrestrial Cryosphere. Arctic Report Card 2012, the sixth annual update, comprised 20 essays on physical and biological topics prepared by an international team of 141 scientists from 15 different countries. For those who want a quick summary, the Arctic Report Card home page provides highlights of key events and findings, and a short video that is also available on YouTube. The release of the Report Card each autumn is preceded by a NOAA press release followed by a press conference, when the Web site is made public. The release of Arctic Report Card 2012 at an AGU Fall Meeting press conference on 5 December 2012 was subsequently reported by leading media organizations. The NOAA Arctic Web site, of which the Report Card is a part, is consistently at the top of Google search results for the keyword 'arctic', and the Arctic Report Card Web site tops search results for keyword "arctic report" - pragmatic indications of a Web site's importance and popularity. As another indication of the Web site's impact, in December 2012, the month when the 2012 update was released, the Arctic Report Card Web site was accessed by 19,851 unique sites in 105 countries, and 4765 Web site URLs referred to the Arctic Report Card. The 2012 Arctic

  19. The greenhouse effect economy: a review of international commitments for the struggle against climate change; L'economie de l'effet de serre: point sur les engagements internationaux de lutte contre le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieillefosse, A

    2008-07-01

    After a description of climate change as a physical phenomenon, a review of assessments of costs associated to climate change and to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and a discussion about the decision in a context of uncertainty, the author discusses political challenges, stressing the need for an international coordination, discussing the issue of property rights, the need to build a mutually beneficial agreement between states, and reviewing the different positions and beliefs in various countries. Then, she describes the system implemented by the Kyoto protocol, proposes an assessment of this protocol at the present time, highlights the qualities of this protocol, proposes pathways to improve it, and attempts to draw some perspectives. In a last part, she examines and comments the U.S. posture, questioning the high level of EU's ambitions in front of a lack of action of the United States, questioning also the negotiation framework, the place given to developing countries in this negotiation, and the possibility of taking up transatlantic negotiations again.

  20. A 1200-Year Record of Rapid Climate Changes Across the Tropical Americas Identified from Lake Sediments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M.; Rodbell, D. T.; Stansell, N.; Bird, B. W.; Vuille, M.

    2009-12-01

    Well-dated, highly resolved lake sediment stratigraphies from similar catchments across the tropical Americas provide a means to investigate the timing, rate and direction of climate variability as well as providing a way to evaluate whether rapid changes occur synchronously in both hemispheres. This presentation focuses on the last 1500 years from three new high-resolution stable isotope records including Yuraicocha (12°32'S, 75°29'W), Pumacocha (10°41'S, 76° 3'36W), and Gancho (8°27'N, 80°51'W). These lakes are all sensitive to changes in P/E and the sediment records respond at subdecadal timescales. Additionally, the results from these sites are compared with lake level records from Titicaca (16°14'S, 68°37'W) and Blanca (8°19'N, 71°46'W) as well as other lake core and speleothem records from the region. The results show that in general conditions are dry across South America from ~800 AD until ~1300 AD with wetter conditions in Central America and the Caribbean. This pattern of dry conditions in tropical South America and wet conditions in the north reverses after ~1300 when conditions become wetter in South America, and drier in Central America and the Carrabin.