Sample records for rapidly applied accelerations

  1. NIIEFA accelerators for applied purposes (United States)

    Vorogushin, M. F.; Strokach, A. P.; Filatov, O. G.


    Since the foundation of the institute, we have designed and delivered more than three hundred different accelerators to Russia and abroad: cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and neutron generators. The technical characteristics of our equipment makes it competitive on the international market. Here we present the application, main parameters, and status of accelerators manufactured by NIIEFA, as well as prospects for the development of electrophysical systems for applied purposes.

  2. Neuromuscular Control of Rapid Linear Accelerations in Fish (United States)


    fish : Final Report Eric D. Tytell Department of Biology , Tufts University, Abstract In this project, we measured muscle... important aspects of how rapid movements are controlled, but will have to be done using a negative stimulus such as a object accelerating toward the fish ...sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. Animals with flexible bodies, like fishes , face a tradeoff for rapid movements. To produce high forces, they must

  3. Development of small applied accelerator in Tokyo Institute of Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, T


    Interdigital-H(IH) Linac was constructed and applied to materials research in the University. IH Linac uses 1.6 MV small tandem pelletron and accelerates ion (>Q/A=1/4) from 240 KeV to 2.4 MeV. The secondary IH Linac was built and increased the energy to 3.4 MeV/u. In order to apply linac to therapy, IH Linac for PET (Position Emission Tomography), Carbon 6 MeV/u Linac for cancer therapy, APF (Alternating Phase Focus)-IH prototype linac, Carbon 2 MeV/u test APF-IH linac were developed. On application to semiconductor and industry, IHQ type MeV ion implantation device, APF-IH type MeV ion implantation device and high-energy electron accelerator were developed. A bone density measurement instrument was developed and the data was proved better values than ordinary instrument. The problems of prototype small accelerator are summarized. (S.Y.)

  4. RAPIDE 0.0 RHIC Accelerator Physics Intrepid Development Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satogata, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Saltmarsh, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Peggs, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    This document is a guide to the common environmental features of computing in (and around) the RHIC Accelerator Physics.sectio on the 'zoo' cluster of UNJX workstations, in RAPIDE, the RHIC Accelerator Physics Intrepid Development Environment It is hoped tliat later revisions of this document will approach a more professional 'style guide', beyond the convenient collection of pointers and hints presented here. RAP does two kinds of computing, "controls" and "general", addressed in sections 2 and 3 of this document For general computing, efficient system administration requires cooperation in using a common environment There is a much stronger need to define - and adhere to - a commonly agreed set of styles (or rules) in developing controls software. Right now, these rules have been set "de facto". Future improvements to the controls environment, particularly in response to the opinions of users, depends on broad knowledge of what the rules are. There are environmental issues that are basic to both controls and general computing, and that are so fundamental that they are (almost) unarguable. They are described immediately below, in the next section.

  5. Energy considerations in accelerating rapid shear granular flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Pudasaini


    Full Text Available We present a complete expression for the total energy associated with a rapid frictional granular shear flow down an inclined surface. This expression reduces to the often used energy for a non-accelerating flow of an isotropic, ideal fluid in a horizontal channel, or to the energy for a vertically falling mass. We utilize thickness-averaged mass and momentum conservation laws written in a slope-defined coordinate system. Both the enhanced gravity and friction are taken into account in addition to the bulk motion and deformation. The total energy of the flow at a given spatial position and time is defined as the sum of four energy components: the kinetic energy, gravity, pressure and the friction energy. Total energy is conserved for stationary flow, but for non-stationary flow the non-conservative force induced by the free-surface gradient means that energy is not conserved. Simulations and experimental results are used to sketch the total energy of non-stationary flows. Comparison between the total energy and the sum of the kinetic and pressure energy shows that the contribution due to gravity acceleration and frictional resistance can be of the same order of magnitude, and that the geometric deformation plays an important role in the total energy budget of the cascading mass. Relative importance of the different constituents in the total energy expression is explored. We also introduce an extended Froude number that takes into account the apparent potential energy induced by gravity and pressure.

  6. Rapid behavioral maturation accelerates failure of stressed honey bee colonies (United States)

    Perry, Clint J.; Myerscough, Mary R.; Barron, Andrew B.


    Many complex factors have been linked to the recent marked increase in honey bee colony failure, including pests and pathogens, agrochemicals, and nutritional stressors. It remains unclear, however, why colonies frequently react to stressors by losing almost their entire adult bee population in a short time, resulting in a colony population collapse. Here we examine the social dynamics underlying such dramatic colony failure. Bees respond to many stressors by foraging earlier in life. We manipulated the demography of experimental colonies to induce precocious foraging in bees and used radio tag tracking to examine the consequences of precocious foraging for their performance. Precocious foragers completed far fewer foraging trips in their life, and had a higher risk of death in their first flights. We constructed a demographic model to explore how this individual reaction of bees to stress might impact colony performance. In the model, when forager death rates were chronically elevated, an increasingly younger forager force caused a positive feedback that dramatically accelerated terminal population decline in the colony. This resulted in a breakdown in division of labor and loss of the adult population, leaving only brood, food, and few adults in the hive. This study explains the social processes that drive rapid depopulation of a colony, and we explore possible strategies to prevent colony failure. Understanding the process of colony failure helps identify the most effective strategies to improve colony resilience. PMID:25675508

  7. Rapid acceleration of plant speciation during the Anthropocene. (United States)

    Thomas, Chris D


    Speciation rates need to be considered when estimating human impacts on the numbers of species on Earth, given that past mass extinctions have been followed by the accelerated origination of new taxa. Here, I suggest that the Anthropocene is already exhibiting a greatly accelerated plant speciation rate due to agriculture, horticulture, and the human-mediated transport of species, followed by hybridisation. For example, more new plant species have come into existence in Europe over the past three centuries than have been documented as becoming extinct over the same period, even though most new hybrid-origin species are likely to remain undetected. Current speciation rates are unusually high and they could be higher than during or after previous mass extinctions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Can Substorm Particle Acceleration Be Applied to Solar Flares? (United States)

    Birn, J.; Battaglia, M.; Fletcher, L.; Hesse, M.; Neukirch, T.


    Using test particle studies in the electromagnetic fields of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of magnetic reconnection, we study the energization of charged particles in the context of the standard two-ribbon flare picture in analogy to the standard magnetospheric substorm paradigm. In particular, we investigate the effects of the collapsing field (“collapsing magnetic trap”) below a reconnection site, which has been demonstrated to be the major acceleration mechanism that causes energetic particle acceleration and injections observed in Earth’s magnetotail associated with substorms and other impulsive events. We contrast an initially force-free, high-shear field (low beta) with low and moderate shear, finite-pressure (high-beta) arcade structures, where beta represents the ratio between gas (plasma) and magnetic pressure. We demonstrate that the energization affects large numbers of particles, but the acceleration is modest in the presence of a significant shear field. Without incorporating loss mechanisms, the effect on particles at different energies is similar, akin to adiabatic heating, and thus is not a likely mechanism to generate a power-law tail onto a (heated or not heated) Maxwellian velocity distribution.

  9. NASA Applied Sciences Program Rapid Prototyping Results and Conclusions (United States)

    Cox, E. L.


    NASA's Applied Sciences Program seeks to expand the use of Earth science research results to benefit current and future operational systems tasked with making policy and management decisions. The Earth Science Division within the Science Mission Directorate sponsors over 1000 research projects annually to answer the fundamental research question: How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? As research results become available, largely from satellite observations and Earth system model outputs, the Applied Sciences Program works diligently with scientists and researchers (internal and external to NASA) , and other government agency officials (USDA, EPA, CDC, DOE, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, DHS, USAID) to determine useful applications for these results in decision-making, ultimately benefiting society. The complexity of Earth science research results and the breadth of the Applied Sciences Program national priority areas dictate a broad scope and multiple approaches available to implement their use in decision-making. Over the past five years, the Applied Sciences Program has examined scientific and engineering practices and solicited the community for methods and steps that can lead to the enhancement of operational systems (Decision Support Systems - DSS) required for decision-making. In November 2006, the Applied Sciences Program launched an initiative aimed at demonstrating the applicability of NASA data (satellite observations, models, geophysical parameters from data archive centers) being incorporated into decision support systems and their related environments at a low cost and quick turnaround of results., i.e. designed rapid prototyping. Conceptually, an understanding of Earth science research (and results) coupled with decision-making requirements and needs leads to a demonstration (experiment) depicting enhancements or improvements to an operational decisions process through the use of NASA data. Five

  10. Applying Lean: Implementation of a Rapid Triage and Treatment System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murrell, Karen L


    Full Text Available Objective: Emergency department (ED crowding creates issues with patient satisfaction, long wait times and leaving the ED without being seen by a doctor (LWBS. Our objective was to evaluate how applying Lean principles to develop a Rapid Triage and Treatment (RTT system affected ED metrics in our community hospital.Methods: Using Lean principles, we made ED process improvements that led to the RTT system. Using this system, patients undergo a rapid triage with low-acuity patients seen and treated by a physician in the triage area. No changes in staffing, physical space or hospital resources occurred during the study period. We then performed a retrospective, observational study comparing hospital electronic medical record data six months before and six months after implementation of the RTT system.Results: ED census was 30,981 in the six months prior to RTT and 33,926 after. Ambulance arrivals, ED patient acuity and hospital admission rates were unchanged throughout the study periods. Mean ED length of stay was longer in the period before RTT (4.2 hours, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.2-4.3; standard deviation [SD] = 3.9 than after (3.6 hours, 95% CI = 3.6-3.7; SD = 3.7. Mean ED arrival to physician start time was 62.2 minutes (95% CI = 61.5-63.0; SD = 58.9 prior to RTT and 41.9 minutes (95% CI = 41.5-42.4; SD = 30.9 after. The LWBS rate for the six months prior to RTT was 4.5% (95% CI = 3.1-5.5 and 1.5% (95% CI = 0.6-1.8 after RTT initiation.Conclusion: Our experience shows that changes in ED processes using Lean thinking and available resources can improve efficiency. In this community hospital ED, use of an RTT system decreased patient wait times and LWBS rates. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:184-191.

  11. Large-timestep techniques for particle-in-cell simulation of systems with applied fields that vary rapidly in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.


    Under conditions which arise commonly in space-charge-dominated beam applications, the applied focusing, bending, and accelerating fields vary rapidly with axial position, while the self-fields (which are, on average, comparable in strength to the applied fields) vary smoothly. In such cases it is desirable to employ timesteps which advance the particles over distances greater than the characteristic scales over which the applied fields vary. Several related concepts are potentially applicable: sub-cycling of the particle advance relative to the field solution, a higher-order time-advance algorithm, force-averaging by integration along approximate orbits, and orbit-averaging. We report on our investigations into the utility of such techniques for systems typical of those encountered in accelerator studies for heavy-ion beam-driven inertial fusion.

  12. Universality of the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlGendy, Mohammad; Morsink, Sharon M. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada)


    On the surface of a rapidly rotating neutron star, the effective centrifugal force decreases the effective acceleration due to gravity (as measured in the rotating frame) at the equator while increasing the acceleration at the poles due to the centrifugal flattening of the star into an oblate spheroid. We compute the effective gravitational acceleration for relativistic rapidly rotating neutron stars and show that for a star with mass M, equatorial radius R{sub e} , and angular velocity Ω, the deviations of the effective acceleration due to gravity from the nonrotating case take on a universal form that depends only on the compactness ratio M/R{sub e} , the dimensionless square of the angular velocity Ω{sup 2}R{sub e}{sup 3}/GM, and the latitude on the star's surface. This dependence is universal, in that it has very little dependence on the neutron star's equation of state. The effective gravity is expanded in the slow-rotation limit to show the dependence on the effective centrifugal force, oblate shape of the star, and the quadrupole moment of the gravitational field. In addition, an empirical fit and simple formula for the effective gravity is found. We find that the increase in the acceleration due to gravity at the poles is of the same order of magnitude as the decrease in the effective acceleration due to gravity at the equator for all realistic value of mass, radius, and spin. For neutron stars that spin with frequencies near 600 Hz, the difference between the effective gravity at the poles and the equator is about 20%.

  13. Girdling and Applying Chemicals Promote Rapid Rooting of Sycamore Cuttings (United States)

    Robert C. Hare


    Shoots of 6- and 13-year-old sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.) were girdled and treated with rooting powder 4 weeks before cuttings were taken. The powder, which contained auxins, sucrose, and cap tan, was also applied basally to nongirdled cuttings immediately before iwertion in a rooting medium. Thirteen days later, 100 percent of the...

  14. Applying Bayesian belief networks in rapid response situations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, William L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Deborah, Leishman, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Van Eeckhout, Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The authors have developed an enhanced Bayesian analysis tool called the Integrated Knowledge Engine (IKE) for monitoring and surveillance. The enhancements are suited for Rapid Response Situations where decisions must be made based on uncertain and incomplete evidence from many diverse and heterogeneous sources. The enhancements extend the probabilistic results of the traditional Bayesian analysis by (1) better quantifying uncertainty arising from model parameter uncertainty and uncertain evidence, (2) optimizing the collection of evidence to reach conclusions more quickly, and (3) allowing the analyst to determine the influence of the remaining evidence that cannot be obtained in the time allowed. These extended features give the analyst and decision maker a better comprehension of the adequacy of the acquired evidence and hence the quality of the hurried decisions. They also describe two example systems where the above features are highlighted.

  15. Vertical accelerator device to apply loads simulating blast environments in the military to human surrogates. (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Schlick, Michael; Humm, John R; Voo, Liming; Merkle, Andrew; Kleinberger, Michael


    The objective of the study was to develop a simple device, Vertical accelerator (Vertac), to apply vertical impact loads to Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) or dummy surrogates because injuries sustained in military conflicts are associated with this vector; example, under-body blasts from explosive devices/events. The two-part mechanically controlled device consisted of load-application and load-receiving sections connected by a lever arm. The former section incorporated a falling weight to impact one end of the lever arm inducing a reaction at the other/load-receiving end. The "launch-plate" on this end of the arm applied the vertical impact load/acceleration pulse under different initial conditions to biological/physical surrogates, attached to second section. It is possible to induce different acceleration pulses by using varying energy absorbing materials and controlling drop height and weight. The second section of Vertac had the flexibility to accommodate different body regions for vertical loading experiments. The device is simple and inexpensive. It has the ability to control pulses and flexibility to accommodate different sub-systems/components of human surrogates. It has the capability to incorporate preloads and military personal protective equipment (e.g., combat helmet). It can simulate vehicle roofs. The device allows for intermittent specimen evaluations (x-ray and palpation, without changing specimen alignment). The two free but interconnected sections can be used to advance safety to military personnel. Examples demonstrating feasibilities of the Vertac device to apply vertical impact accelerations using PMHS head-neck preparations with helmet and booted Hybrid III dummy lower leg preparations under in-contact and launch-type impact experiments are presented. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Applying one-dimensional fluid thermal elements into a 3D CLIC accelerating strucutre

    CERN Document Server

    Raatikainen, Riku; Österberg, Kenneth; Riddone, Germana; Samoshkin, Alexander; Gudkov, Dmitry


    A finite element modeling method to simplify the analysis of coupled thermal-structural model for the CLIC accelerating structure is presented. In addition, the results of thermal and structural analyses for the accelerating structure are presented. Instead of using a standard 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for solving problems involving fluid dynamics and heat transfer in 3D environment, one-dimensional fluid thermal elements are used. In one-dimensional flow, the governing equations of fluid dynamics are considerably simplified. Thus, it is expected that the computational time for more complex simulations becomes shorter. The method was first applied to several test models, which demonstrated the suitability of the one-dimensional flow modeling. The results show that one-dimensional fluid flow reduces the computation time considerably allowing the modeling for the future larger assemblies with sufficient accuracy.

  17. The Rapid Analysis of Scattering from Periodic Dielectric Structures Using Accelerated Cartesian Expansions (ACE)

    CERN Document Server

    Baczewski, Andrew D; Shanker, Balasubramaniam


    The analysis of fields in periodic dielectric structures arise in numerous applications of recent interest, ranging from photonic bandgap (PBG) structures and plasmonically active nanostructures to metamaterials. To achieve an accurate representation of the fields in these structures using numerical methods, dense spatial discretization is required. This, in turn, affects the cost of analysis, particularly for integral equation based methods, for which traditional iterative methods require O(N^2) operations, N being the number of spatial degrees of freedom. In this paper, we introduce a method for the rapid solution of volumetric electric field integral equations used in the analysis of doubly periodic dielectric structures. The crux of our method is the ACE algorithm, which is used to evaluate the requisite potentials in O(N) cost. Results are provided that corroborate our claims of acceleration without compromising accuracy, as well as the application of our method to a number of compelling photonics applic...

  18. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshihiro; Harada, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Yukio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others


    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable to the high intensity proton accelerator facility. (author)

  19. Human activity accelerating the rapid desertification of the Mu Us Sandy Lands, North China (United States)

    Miao, Yunfa; Jin, Heling; Cui, Jianxin


    Over the past several thousand years, arid and semiarid China has experienced a series of asynchronous desertification events in its semiarid sandy and desert regions, but the precise identification of the driving forces of such events has remained elusive. In this paper we identify two rapid desertification events (RDEs) at ~4.6 ± 0.2 ka BP and ~3.3 ± 0.2 ka BP from the JJ Profile, located in the eastern Mu Us Sandy Lands. These RDEs appear to have occurred immediately following periods marked by persistently frequent and intense fires. We argue that such fire patterns, directly linked to an uncontrolled human use of vegetation as fuel, played a key role in accelerating RDEs by ensuring that the land surface was degraded beyond the threshold required for rapid desertification. This would suggest that the future use of a massive and sustained ecological program of vegetation rehabilitation should reduce the risk of destructive fire. PMID:26961705

  20. Evaluation of energy response of neutron rem monitor applied to high-energy accelerator facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Nakane, Y; Sakamoto, Y


    A neutron rem monitor was newly developed for applying to the high-intensity proton accelerator facility (J-PARC) that is under construction as a joint project between the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization. To measure the dose rate accurately for wide energy range of neutrons from thermal to high-energy region, the neutron rem monitor was fabricated by adding a lead breeder layer to a conventional neutron rem monitor. The energy response of the monitor was evaluated by using neutron transport calculations for the energy range from thermal to 150 MeV. For verifying the results, the response was measured at neutron fields for the energy range from thermal to 65 MeV. The comparisons between the energy response and dose conversion coefficients show that the newly developed neutron rem monitor has a good performance in energy response up to 150 MeV, suggesting that the present study offered prospects of a practical fabrication of the rem monitor applicable...

  1. Rapidly fatal community-acquired pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae complicated with acute myocarditis and accelerated idioventricular rhythm. (United States)

    Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chou-Jui; Lee, Shih-Wei; Chuang, Chun-Pin; Jong, Yuh-Shiun; Chen, Wen-Jone; Hsueh, Po-Ren


    We describe a previously healthy 52-year-old man with rapidly fatal community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The patient developed acute renal dysfunction, accelerated idioventricular rhythm (acute myocarditis), lactic acidosis and septic shock. He died within 15 hours after admission despite intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg daily) and aggressive medical treatment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Dual-harmonic auto voltage control for the rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Tamura


    Full Text Available The dual-harmonic operation, in which the accelerating cavities are driven by the superposition of the fundamental and the second harmonic rf voltage, is useful for acceleration of the ultrahigh intensity proton beam in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. However, the precise and fast voltage control of the harmonics is necessary to realize the dual-harmonic acceleration. We developed the dual-harmonic auto voltage control system for the J-PARC RCS. We describe details of the design and the implementation. Various tests of the system are performed with the RCS rf system. Also, a preliminary beam test has been done. We report the test results.

  3. Accelerating quality improvement within your organization: Applying the Model for Improvement. (United States)

    Crowl, Ashley; Sharma, Anita; Sorge, Lindsay; Sorensen, Todd


    To discuss the fundamentals of the Model for Improvement and how the model can be applied to quality improvement activities associated with medication use, including understanding the three essential questions that guide quality improvement, applying a process for actively testing change within an organization, and measuring the success of these changes on care delivery. PubMed from 1990 through April 2014 using the search terms quality improvement, process improvement, hospitals, and primary care. At the authors' discretion, studies were selected based on their relevance in demonstrating the quality improvement process and tests of change within an organization. Organizations are continuously seeking to enhance quality in patient care services, and much of this work focuses on improving care delivery processes. Yet change in these systems is often slow, which can lead to frustration or apathy among frontline practitioners. Adopting and applying the Model for Improvement as a core strategy for quality improvement efforts can accelerate the process. While the model is frequently well known in hospitals and primary care settings, it is not always familiar to pharmacists. In addition, while some organizations may be familiar with the "plan, do, study, act" (PDSA) cycles-one element of the Model for Improvement-many do not apply it effectively. The goal of the model is to combine a continuous process of small tests of change (PDSA cycles) within an overarching aim with a longitudinal measurement process. This process differs from other forms of improvement work that plan and implement large-scale change over an extended period, followed by months of data collection. In this scenario it may take months or years to determine whether an intervention will have a positive impact. By following the Model for Improvement, frontline practitioners and their organizational leaders quickly identify strategies that make a positive difference and result in a greater degree of

  4. Improvements of the boundary projection acceleration technique applied to the discrete-ordinates transport solver in XYZ geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, E.; Rossi, T. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, DEN/DANS/DM2S/SERMA/LTSD, 91190 Gif sur Yvette, cedex (France)


    In this paper we discuss the latest upgrades of the Boundary Projection Acceleration (BPA) applied to the XYZ transport solver of APOLLO3, namely IDT. The acceleration method is a well-known effective technique for the speed-up of the source iterations of the discrete-ordinates method. The BPA in IDT has been improved in three aspects: the taking into account of the residue on boundary conditions as a boundary source for the acceleration problem, the extension of the method to higher order angular moments in the case of anisotropic scattering and, finally, the application of the method to the multigroup iterations for the acceleration of the fission source and k-effective. The spectrum of the method has been Fourier-analyzed to explore the effectiveness. The 3D mock-up geometry of the ZPPR is presented as final study to test the performances of the acceleration on a realistic whole-core 3D calculation. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of Accelerated Ageing Tests for Metallic and Non-Metallic Graffiti Paints Applied to Stone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sanmartín


    Full Text Available Graffiti are increasingly observed on urban and peri-urban buildings and their removal requires a huge financial outlay by local governments and agencies. Graffiti are not usually removed immediately, but rather over the passage of time, viz. months or even years. In this study, which forms part of a wider research project on graffiti removal, different methods (gravimetric analysis, examination of digital images, colour and infrared measurements were used to evaluate the performance of accelerated ageing tests (involving exposure to humidity, freeze-thawing cycles and NaCl and Na2SO4 salts for graffiti painted on stone. Silver (metallic and black (non-metallic graffiti spray paints were applied to two types of igneous rock (granite and rhyolitic ignimbrite and one sedimentary rock (fossiliferous limestone, i.e., biocalcarenite. The metallic and non-metallic graffiti spray paints acted differently on the stone surfaces, both chemically and physically. Older graffiti were found to be more vulnerable to weathering agents. The ageing test with NaCl and particularly Na2SO4, both applied to granite, proved the most severe on the paints, yielding more detrimental and faster artificial ageing of the type of material under study.

  6. Rapid evaluation of the durability of cortical neural implants using accelerated aging with reactive oxygen species (United States)

    Takmakov, Pavel; Ruda, Kiersten; Phillips, K. Scott; Isayeva, Irada S.; Krauthamer, Victor; Welle, Cristin G.


    Objective. A challenge for implementing high bandwidth cortical brain-machine interface devices in patients is the limited functional lifespan of implanted recording electrodes. Development of implant technology currently requires extensive non-clinical testing to demonstrate device performance. However, testing the durability of the implants in vivo is time-consuming and expensive. Validated in vitro methodologies may reduce the need for extensive testing in animal models. Approach. Here we describe an in vitro platform for rapid evaluation of implant stability. We designed a reactive accelerated aging (RAA) protocol that employs elevated temperature and reactive oxygen species (ROS) to create a harsh aging environment. Commercially available microelectrode arrays (MEAs) were placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide at 87 °C for a period of 7 days. We monitored changes to the implants with scanning electron microscopy and broad spectrum electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (1 Hz-1 MHz) and correlated the physical changes with impedance data to identify markers associated with implant failure. Main results. RAA produced a diverse range of effects on the structural integrity and electrochemical properties of electrodes. Temperature and ROS appeared to have different effects on structural elements, with increased temperature causing insulation loss from the electrode microwires, and ROS concentration correlating with tungsten metal dissolution. All array types experienced impedance declines, consistent with published literature showing chronic (>30 days) declines in array impedance in vivo. Impedance change was greatest at frequencies <10 Hz, and smallest at frequencies 1 kHz and above. Though electrode performance is traditionally characterized by impedance at 1 kHz, our results indicate that an impedance change at 1 kHz is not a reliable predictive marker of implant degradation or failure. Significance. ROS, which are known to be present in vivo, can create

  7. Rapid local acceleration of relativistic radiation-belt electrons by magnetospheric chorus. (United States)

    Thorne, R M; Li, W; Ni, B; Ma, Q; Bortnik, J; Chen, L; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Reeves, G D; Henderson, M G; Kletzing, C A; Kurth, W S; Hospodarsky, G B; Blake, J B; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Kanekal, S G


    Recent analysis of satellite data obtained during the 9 October 2012 geomagnetic storm identified the development of peaks in electron phase space density, which are compelling evidence for local electron acceleration in the heart of the outer radiation belt, but are inconsistent with acceleration by inward radial diffusive transport. However, the precise physical mechanism responsible for the acceleration on 9 October was not identified. Previous modelling has indicated that a magnetospheric electromagnetic emission known as chorus could be a potential candidate for local electron acceleration, but a definitive resolution of the importance of chorus for radiation-belt acceleration was not possible because of limitations in the energy range and resolution of previous electron observations and the lack of a dynamic global wave model. Here we report high-resolution electron observations obtained during the 9 October storm and demonstrate, using a two-dimensional simulation performed with a recently developed time-varying data-driven model, that chorus scattering explains the temporal evolution of both the energy and angular distribution of the observed relativistic electron flux increase. Our detailed modelling demonstrates the remarkable efficiency of wave acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt, and the results presented have potential application to Jupiter, Saturn and other magnetized astrophysical objects.

  8. Sparse-SEMAC: rapid and improved SEMAC metal implant imaging using SPARSE-SENSE acceleration. (United States)

    Otazo, Ricardo; Nittka, Mathias; Bruno, Mary; Raithel, Esther; Geppert, Christian; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Recht, Michael; Rybak, Leon


    To develop an accelerated SEMAC metal implant MRI technique (Sparse-SEMAC) with reduced scan time and improved metal distortion correction. Sparse-SEMAC jointly exploits the inherent sparsity along the additional phase-encoding dimension and multicoil encoding capabilities to significantly accelerate data acquisition. A prototype pulse sequence with pseudorandom ky -kz undersampling and an inline image reconstruction was developed for integration in clinical studies. Three patients with hip implants were imaged using the proposed Sparse-SEMAC with eight-fold acceleration and compared with the standard-SEMAC technique used in clinical studies (three-fold GRAPPA acceleration). Measurements were performed with SEMAC-encoding steps (SES) = 15 for Sparse-SEMAC and SES = 9 for Standard-SEMAC using high spatial resolution Proton Density (PD) and lower-resolution STIR acquisitions. Two expert musculoskeletal (MSK) radiologists performed a consensus reading to score image-quality parameters. Sparse-SEMAC enables up to eight-fold acceleration of data acquisition that results in two-fold scan time reductions, compared with Standard-SEMAC, with improved metal artifact correction for patients with hip implants without degrading spatial resolution. The high acceleration enabled by Sparse-SEMAC would enable clinically feasible examination times with improved correction of metal distortion. Magn Reson Med 78:79-87, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Rapid screening of dioxin-contaminated soil by accelerated solvent extraction/purification followed by immunochemical detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nording, Malin [Umeaa University, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeaa (Sweden); Nichkova, Mikaela; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D. [University of California, Department of Entomology and Cancer Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Spinnel, Erik; Persson, Ylva; Haglund, Peter [Umeaa University, Environmental Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden)


    Since soils at industrial sites might be heavily contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), there is a need for large-scale soil pollution surveys and, thus, for cost-efficient, high-throughput dioxin analyses. However, trace analysis of dioxins in complex matrices requires exhaustive extraction, extensive cleanup, and very sensitive detection methods. Traditionally, this has involved the use of Soxhlet extraction and multistep column cleanup, followed by gas chromatography - high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS), but bioanalytical techniques may allow much more rapid, cost-effective screening. The study presented here explores the possibility of replacing the conventional method with a novel approach based on simultaneous accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and purification, followed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the traditional and the novel cleanup and detection approaches were applied to contaminated soil samples, and the results were compared. ELISA and GC/HRMS results for Soxhlet-extracted samples were linearly correlated, although the ELISA method slightly underestimated the dioxin levels. To avoid an unacceptable rate of false-negative results, the use of a safety factor is recommended. It was also noted that the relative abundance of the PCDDs/PCDFs, evaluated by principal component analysis, had an impact on the ELISA performance. To minimize this effect, the results may be corrected for differences between the ELISA cross-reactivities and the corresponding toxic equivalency factor values. Finally, the GC/HRMS and ELISA results obtained following the two sample preparation methods agreed well; and the ELISA and GC/HRMS results for ASE extracts were strongly correlated (correlation coefficient, 0.90). Hence, the ASE procedure combined with ELISA analysis appears to be an efficient approach for high-throughput screening of PCDD-/PCDF-contaminated soil samples. (orig.)

  10. Highly accelerated lifetime for externally applied bond critical fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) infrastructure materials. (United States)


    This report describes a research project to investigate accelerated aging protocols for fiber-reinforced : polymer (FRP) reinforcement of concrete. This research was conducted in three stages. In the first : stage, various spectroscopic techniques we...

  11. Beam commissioning of the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi


    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC was commissioned in October 2007, and successfully accomplished 3 GeV acceleration on October 31. Six run cycles through February 2008 were dedicated to commissioning the RCS, for which the initial machine parameter tuning and various underlying beam studies were completed. Then since May 2008 the RCS beam has been delivered to the downstream facilities for their beam commissioning. In this paper we describe beam tuning and study results following our beam commissioning scenario and a beam performance and operational experience obtained in the first commissioning phase through June 2008.

  12. Lower Arm Muscle Activation during Indirect-Localized Vibration: The Influence of Skill Levels When Applying Different Acceleration Loads. (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Dello Iacono, Antonio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Migliaccio, Gian M; Grgantov, Zoran; Ardigò, Luca P


    We investigated the electromyographic response to synchronous indirect-localized vibration interventions in international and national table tennis players. Twenty-six male table tennis players, in a standing position, underwent firstly an upper arms maximal voluntary contraction and thereafter two different 30-s vibration interventions in random order: high acceleration load (peak acceleration = 12.8 g, frequency = 40 Hz; peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm), and low acceleration load (peak acceleration = 7.2 g, frequency = 30 Hz, peak-to-peak displacement = 4.0 mm). Surface electromyography root mean square from brachioradialis, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi radialis, and flexor digitorum superficialis recorded during the two vibration interventions was normalized to the maximal voluntary contraction recording. Normalized surface electromyography root mean square was higher in international table tennis players with respect to national ones in all the interactions between muscles and vibration conditions (P 0.05). The difference in normalized surface electromyography root mean square between international table tennis players and national ones increased in all the muscles with high acceleration load (P 0.05). The muscle activation during indirect-localized vibration seems to be both skill level and muscle dependent. These results can optimize the training intervention in table tennis players when applying indirect-localized vibration to lower arm muscles. Future investigations should discriminate between middle- and long-term adaptations in response to specific vibration loads.

  13. Rapid ascent: Rocky Mountain National Park in the Great Acceleration, 1945-present (United States)

    Boxell, Mark

    After the Second World War's conclusion, Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) experienced a massive rise in visitation. Mobilized by an affluent economy and a growing, auto-centric infrastructure, Americans rushed to RMNP in droves, setting off new concerns over the need for infrastructure improvements in the park. National parks across the country experienced similar explosions in visitation, inspiring utilities- and road-building campaigns throughout the park units administered by the National Park Service. The quasi-urbanization of parks like RMNP implicated the United States' public lands in a process of global change, whereby wartime technologies, cheap fossil fuels, and a culture of techno-optimism--epitomized by the Mission 66 development program--helped foster a "Great Acceleration" of human alterations of Earth's natural systems. This transformation culminated in worldwide turns toward mass-urbanization, industrial agriculture, and globalized markets. The Great Acceleration, part of the Anthropocene--a new geologic epoch we have likely entered, which proposes that humans have become a force of geologic change--is used as a conceptual tool for understanding the connections between local and global changes which shaped the park after World War II. The Great Acceleration and its array of novel technologies and hydrocarbon-powered infrastructures produced specific cultures of tourism and management techniques within RMNP. After World War II, the park increasingly became the product and distillation of a fossil fuel-dependent society.

  14. Direction for the Future - Successive Acceleration of Positive and Negative Ions Applied to Space Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Aanesland, A.; Popelier, L.; Chabert, P.


    Electrical space thrusters show important advantages for applications in outer space compared to chemical thrusters, as they allow a longer mission lifetime with lower weight and propellant consumption. Mature technologies on the market today accelerate positive ions to generate thrust. The ion beam is neutralized by electrons downstream, and this need for an additional neutralization system has some drawbacks related to stability, lifetime and total weight and power consumption. Many new concepts, to get rid of the neutralizer, have been proposed, and the PEGASES ion-ion thruster is one of them. This new thruster concept aims at accelerating both positive and negative ions to generate thrust, such that additional neutralization is redundant. This chapter gives an overview of the concept of electric propulsion and the state of the development of this new ion-ion thruster.

  15. A review of trend models applied to sea level data with reference to the "acceleration-deceleration debate" (United States)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; Petersen, Arthur C.


    Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. This has motivated a number of authors to search for already existing accelerations in observations, which would be, if present, vital for coastal protection planning purposes. No scientific consensus has been reached yet as to how a possible acceleration could be separated from intrinsic climate variability in sea level records. This has led to an intensive debate on its existence and, if absent, also on the general validity of current future projections. Here we shed light on the controversial discussion from a methodological point of view. To do so, we provide a comprehensive review of trend methods used in the community so far. This resulted in an overview of 30 methods, each having its individual mathematical formulation, flexibilities, and characteristics. We illustrate that varying trend approaches may lead to contradictory acceleration-deceleration inferences. As for statistics-oriented trend methods, we argue that checks on model assumptions and model selection techniques yield a way out. However, since these selection methods all have implicit assumptions, we show that good modeling practices are of importance too. We conclude at this point that (i) several differently characterized methods should be applied and discussed simultaneously, (ii) uncertainties should be taken into account to prevent biased or wrong conclusions, and (iii) removing internally generated climate variability by incorporating atmospheric or oceanographic information helps to uncover externally forced climate change signals.

  16. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond


    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  17. Rabbit antithymocyte globulin induces rapid expansion of effector memory CD8 T cells without accelerating acute graft versus host disease. (United States)

    Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Rieger, Kathrin; Dziubianau, Mikalai; Herholz, Anne; Mensen, Angela; Blau, Igor Wolfgang; Uharek, Lutz; Dörken, Bernd; Thiel, Andreas; Na, Il-Kang


    Rabbit antithymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin(®)) is commonly used as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) prophylaxis. Since we found similar total CD8 T cell numbers in patients with and without Thymoglobulin(®) therapy within the first six months after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, we have analyzed the reconstitution of the CD8 T cell compartment in detail. After T cell-depletion, higher and more sustained proliferative capacity of memory CD8 T cells resulted in their rapid expansion, whereas the fraction of naive CD8 T cells decreased. Importantly, this shift towards effector memory CD8 T cells did not accelerate the incidence of GvHD.

  18. Oxotremorine delays and scopolamine accelerates sexual exhaustion when applied to the preoptic area in male hamsters. (United States)

    Floody, Owen R


    Acetylcholine (ACh) has not been tested for a role in the development of sexual exhaustion in males. However, male hamsters receiving infusions into the medial preoptic area (MPOA) of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine (OXO) or antagonist scopolamine (SCO) show changes in the postejaculatory interval, one of the measures that changes most consistently as exhaustion approaches. In addition, central SCO treatments cause changes in the patterning of intromissions that resemble those signaling exhaustion. To extend these observations and more thoroughly test the dependence of sexual exhaustion on ACh, male hamsters received MPOA treatments of OXO, SCO or the combination of the two before mating to exhaustion. Relative to placebo, OXO infusions caused small but consistent increases in ejaculation frequency and long intromission latency, delaying the appearance of exhaustion. Scopolamine treatments did the reverse, dramatically accelerating the development of exhaustion. Consistent with and possibly responsible for these changes were effects on the quality of performance prior to exhaustion. These included differences in overall copulatory efficiency (e.g., ejaculations/intromission), which was increased by OXO and decreased by SCO. They also extended to several standard measures of copulatory behavior, including intromission frequency, ejaculation latency and the postejaculatory interval: Most of these were increased by SCO and decreased by OXO. Finally, whereas most or all effects of OXO were counteracted by SCO, most or all of the responses to SCO resisted change by added OXO. This asymmetry in the responses to combined treatment raises the possibility that the effects of these drugs on sexual exhaustion and other elements of male behavior are mediated by distinct muscarinic receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficient combination of acceleration techniques applied to high frequency methods for solving radiation and scattering problems (United States)

    Lozano, Lorena; Algar, Ma Jesús; García, Eliseo; González, Iván; Cátedra, Felipe


    An improved ray-tracing method applied to high-frequency techniques such as the Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) is presented. The main goal is to increase the speed of the analysis of complex structures while considering a vast number of observation directions and taking into account multiple bounces. The method is based on a combination of the Angular Z-Buffer (AZB), the Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP) algorithm and the A∗ heuristic search method to treat multiple bounces. In addition, a Master Point strategy was developed to analyze efficiently a large number of Near-Field points or Far-Field directions. This technique can be applied to electromagnetic radiation problems, scattering analysis, propagation at urban or indoor environments and to the mutual coupling between antennas. Due to its efficiency, its application is suitable to study large antennas radiation patterns and even its interactions with complex environments, including satellites, ships, aircrafts, cities or another complex electrically large bodies. The new technique appears to be extremely efficient at these applications even when considering multiple bounces.

  20. An acceleration technique for the Gauss-Seidel method applied to symmetric linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cajigas


    Full Text Available A preconditioning technique to improve the convergence of the Gauss-Seidel method applied to symmetric linear systems while preserving symmetry is proposed. The preconditioner is of the form I + K and can be applied an arbitrary number of times. It is shown that under certain conditions the application of the preconditioner a finite number of steps reduces the matrix to a diagonal. A series of numerical experiments using matrices from spatial discretizations of partial differential equations demonstrates that both versions of the preconditioner, point and block version, exhibit lower iteration counts than its non-symmetric version. Resumen. Se propone una técnica de precondicionamiento para mejorar la convergencia del método Gauss-Seidel aplicado a sistemas lineales simétricos pero preservando simetría. El precondicionador es de la forma I + K y puede ser aplicado un número arbitrario de veces. Se demuestra que bajo ciertas condiciones la aplicación del precondicionador un número finito de pasos reduce la matriz del sistema precondicionado a una diagonal. Una serie de experimentos con matrices que provienen de la discretización de ecuaciones en derivadas parciales muestra que ambas versiones del precondicionador, por punto y por bloque, muestran un menor número de iteraciones en comparación con la versión que no preserva simetría.

  1. Applying Lean principles and Kaizen rapid improvement events in public health practice. (United States)

    Smith, Gene; Poteat-Godwin, Annah; Harrison, Lisa Macon; Randolph, Greg D


    This case study describes a local home health and hospice agency's effort to implement Lean principles and Kaizen methodology as a rapid improvement approach to quality improvement. The agency created a cross-functional team, followed Lean Kaizen methodology, and made significant improvements in scheduling time for home health nurses that resulted in reduced operational costs, improved working conditions, and multiple organizational efficiencies.

  2. New technologies applied to surgical processes: Virtual Reality and rapid prototyping. (United States)

    Suárez-Mejías, Cristina; Gomez-Ciriza, Gorka; Valverde, Israel; Parra Calderón, Carlos; Gómez-Cía, Tomás


    AYRA is software of virtual reality for training, planning and optimizing surgical procedures. AYRA was developed under a research, development and innovation project financed by the Andalusian Ministry of Health, called VirSSPA. Nowadays AYRA has been successfully used in more than 1160 real cases and after proving its efficiency it has been introduced in the clinical practice at the Virgen del Rocío University Hospital . Furthermore, AYRA allows generating physical 3D biomodels using rapid prototyping technology. They are used for surgical planning support, intraoperative reference or defect reconstruction. In this paper, some of these tools and some real cases are presented.

  3. Rapid identification of bio-molecules applied for detection of biosecurity agents using rolling circle amplification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Göransson

    Full Text Available Detection and identification of pathogens in environmental samples for biosecurity applications are challenging due to the strict requirements on specificity, sensitivity and time. We have developed a concept for quick, specific and sensitive pathogen identification in environmental samples. Target identification is realized by padlock- and proximity probing, and reacted probes are amplified by RCA (rolling-circle amplification. The individual RCA products are labeled by fluorescence and enumerated by an instrument, developed for sensitive and rapid digital analysis. The concept is demonstrated by identification of simili biowarfare agents for bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pantoea agglomerans and spores (Bacillus atrophaeus released in field.

  4. Applying the Averaging Principle to a Logistic Equation with Rapidly Oscillating Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Bykova


    Full Text Available The problem about the local dynamics of the logistic equation with rapidly oscillating time-periodic piecewise constant coefficient of delay was considered. It was shown that the averaged equation is a logistic equation with two delays. The criterion of equilibrium point stability was obtained. Dynamical properties of the original equation was considered provided that the critical case of equilibrium point stability problem was implemented. It was found that an increase of delay coefficient oscillation frequency may lead to an unlimited process of “birth” and “death” steady mode.

  5. RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering (United States)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia


    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

  6. Applying green analytical chemistry for rapid analysis of drugs: Adding health to pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazrul Haq


    Full Text Available Green RP-HPLC method for a rapid analysis of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM in bulk drugs, self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS and marketed tablets was developed and validated in the present investigation. The chromatographic identification was achieved on Lichrosphere 250 × 4.0 mm RP C8 column having a 5 μm packing as a stationary phase using a combination of green solvents ethyl acetate:ethanol (50:50% v/v as a mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV detection at 250 nm. The proposed method was validated for linearity, selectivity, accuracy, precision, reproducibility, robustness, sensitivity and specificity. The utility of the proposed method was verified by an assay of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets. The proposed method was found to be selective, precise, reproducible, accurate, robust, sensitive and specific. The amount of OLM in SMEDDS and commercial tablets was found to be 101.25% and 98.67% respectively. The proposed method successfully resolved OLM peak in the presence of its degradation products which indicated stability-indicating property of the proposed method. These results indicated that the proposed method can be successfully employed for a routine analysis of OLM in bulk drugs and commercial formulations.

  7. A bilinear elastic constitutive model applied for midpalatal suture behavior during rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Carvalho Trojan Serpe

    Full Text Available Introduction : This study aims to evaluate the influence of the biomechanical behavior of the midpalatal suture (MPS during the rapid maxillary expansion (RME when modeled by the Finite Element Method. Methods Four simulation alternatives are discussed and, for each analysis, the suture is considered as a functional unit with a different mechanical behavior: (i without MPS elements, (ii MPS with Young's modulus (E equal to 1 MPa, (ii MPS with E equal to 0.01 MPa and (iv MPS with bilinear elastic behavior. Results The stress analysis showed that, when MPS is not considered in the model, stress peaks are reduced in magnitude and their distribution is restricted to a smaller area when compared to the model with the inclusion of MPS (E=1 MPa. The increased suture stiffness also has a direct influence on MPS displacements after 30 expander activations. Conclusion The consideration of the MPS in RME computer models influences greatly the calculated displacements between the suture bone ends, even as the stress levels in maxillary structures. Furthermore, as proposed for the described model, the elastic bilinear behavior assigned to MPS allows coherent prediction of stresses and displacements results, being a good representation for this suture overall behavior.

  8. Altruism in terminal cancer patients and rapid tissue donation program: does the theory apply? (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Murphy, Devin; Pratt, Christie; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Guerra, Lucy; Schabath, Matthew B; Leon, Marino E; Haura, Eric


    Rapid tissue donation (RTD) is an advancing oncology research procedure for collecting tumors, metastases, and unaffected tissue 2-6 h after death. Researchers can better determine rates of progression, response to treatment, and polymorphic differences among patients. Cancer patients may inquire about posthumous body donation for research to offer a personal contribution to research; however, there are barriers to recruiting for an RTD program. Physicians must reassure the patient that their treatment options and quality of care will not be compromised due to participating in RTD. In this commentary we discuss how theories of altruism may explain cancer patients' desire to participate in an RTD program, the ethical concerns of health care professionals and patients and the use of altruism as a recruitment strategy. We offer recommendations for examining the cultural and ethical climate of the institution prior to initiating such a program such as examining the relationship of healthcare professionals and patients, identifying ethical concerns, and examining ways to promote acceptance and buy-in across professionals, patients, and families.

  9. AO–MW–PLS method applied to rapid quantification of teicoplanin with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiemei Chen


    Full Text Available Teicoplanin (TCP is an important lipoglycopeptide antibiotic produced by fermenting Actinoplanes teichomyceticus. The change in TCP concentration is important to measure in the fermentation process. In this study, a reagent-free and rapid quantification method for TCP in the TCP–Tris–HCl mixture samples was developed using near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy by focusing our attention on the fermentation process for TCP. The absorbance optimization (AO partial least squares (PLS was proposed and integrated with the moving window (MW PLS, which is called AO–MW–PLS method, to select appropriate wavebands. A model set that includes various wavebands that were equivalent to the optimal AO–MW–PLS waveband was proposed based on statistical considerations. The public region of all equivalent wavebands was just one of the equivalent wavebands. The obtained public regions were 1540–1868nm for TCP and 1114–1310nm for Tris. The root-mean-square error and correlation coefficient for leave-one-out cross validation were 0.046mg mL−1 and 0.9998mg mL−1 for TCP, and 0.235mg mL−1 and 0.9986mg mL−1 for Tris, respectively. All the models achieved highly accurate prediction effects, and the selected wavebands provided valuable references for designing specialized spectrometers. This study provided a valuable reference for further application of the proposed methods to TCP fermentation broth and to other spectroscopic analysis fields.

  10. Topically applied methotrexate is rapidly delivered into skin by fractional laser ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudorf, Elisabeth Hjardem; Lerche, Catharina; Vissing, Anne-Cathrine


    /v%) was measured from 0.25 to 24 h through AFXL-processed and intact porcine skin in Franz Cells (n = 46). A 2,940 nm fractional Erbium Yttrium Aluminium Garnet laser generated mid-dermal microchannels at 2.4% density, and 256 mJ/microchannel. HPLC quantified MTX-concentrations in extracts from mid-dermal skin...... sections, donor and receiver compartments. Fluorescence microscopy of UVC-activated MTX-fluorescence and desorption electro-spray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) evaluated MTX biodistribution. Results: AFXL-processed skin facilitated rapid MTX delivery through cone-shaped microchannels...... of 690 µm ablation depth, lined by the 47 µm thermal coagulation zone (CZ). Quantitatively, MTX was detectable by HPLC in mid-dermis after 15 min, significantly exceeded deposition in intact skin after 1.5 h, and saturated skin after 7 h at a 10-fold increased MTX-deposition versus intact skin (3.08 vs 0...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Aranovskiy


    Full Text Available Abstract. A problem of output robust control for a system with power nonlinearity is considered. The considered problem can be rewritten as a stabilization problem for a system with polynomial nonlinearity by introducing the error term. The problem of temperature regulation is considered as application; the rapid thermal processes in vapor deposition processing are studied. Modern industrial equipment uses complex sensors and control systems; these devices are not available for laboratory setups. The limited amount of available sensors and other technical restrictions for laboratory setups make it an actual problem to design simple low-order output control laws. The problem is solved by the consecutive compensator approach. The paper deals with a new type of restriction which is a combination of linear and power restrictions. It is shown that the polynomial nonlinearity satisfies this restriction. Asymptotical stability of the closed-loop system is proved by the Lyapunov functions approach for the considered nonlinear function; this contribution extends previously known results. Numerical simulation of the vapor deposition processing illustrates that the proposed approach results in zero-mean tracking error with standard deviation less than 1K.

  12. Simulation Study of Inertial Micro-Switch as Influenced by Squeeze-Film Damping and Applied Acceleration Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Peng


    Full Text Available Squeeze-film damping and acceleration load are two major issues in the design of inertial micro-switches. In order to deeply and systematically study these two issues, this paper proposes a typical vertically-driven inertial micro-switch, wherein the air and electrode gaps were chosen to design the required damping ratio and threshold value, respectively. The switch was modeled by ANSYS Workbench, and the simulation program was optimized for computational accuracy and speed. Transient analysis was employed to investigate the relationship between the damping ratio, acceleration load, and the natural frequency, and the dynamic properties (including contact bounce, contact time, response time, and threshold acceleration of the switch. The results can be used as a guide in the design of inertial micro-switches to meet various application requirements. For example, increasing the damping ratio can prolong the contact time of the switch activated by short acceleration duration or reduce the contact bounce of the switch activated by long acceleration duration; the threshold value is immune to variations in the damping effect and acceleration duration when the switch is quasi-statically operated; the anti-jamming capability of the switch can be improved by designing the sensing frequency of the switch to be higher than the acceleration duration but much lower than the other order frequencies of the switch.

  13. Criteria of classification applied to licensing of particle accelerators; Criterios de classificacao aplicados ao licenciamento de aceleradores de particulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Evaldo L.C., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Melo, Paulo F.F., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This work aims to bring to discussion the proposal of a new classification model toward to generating ionizing radiation, specifically particle accelerators, considering two parameters: the size of these facilities and the level of energy they operate, emphasizing large accelerators, which typically operate at higher levels of energy. Also motivated by the fact that the Brazilian rules do not provide an adequate standard of licensing for this size of installation, this work will seek to revise the existing classification, where generators of ionizing radiation (including particle accelerators) are considered up to the level of energy of 50 MeV.

  14. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailing Liu


    Full Text Available Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.

  15. Chronic Subdural Hematoma development in Accelerated phase of Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia presenting with seizure and rapid progression course with fatal outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheja Amol


    Full Text Available Occurrence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH in leukemia is rare, and most reported cases occurred in relation with acute myeloid leukaemia; however, occurrence is extremely rare in accelerated phase of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML. Seizure as presentation of SDH development in CML cases is not reported in literature. Authors report an elderly male, who was diagnosed as CML, accelerated phase of developing SDH. Initially presented to local physician with seizure; urgent CT scan head was advised, but ignored and sensorium rapidly worsened over next day and reported to our emergency department in deeply comatose state, where imaging revealed chronic subdural hematoma with hypoxic brain injury with fatal outcome. Seizure, progressive worsening of headache, vomiting and papilloedema are harbinger of intracranial space occupying lesion and requires CT head in emergency medical department for exclusion, who are receiving treatment of haematological malignancy

  16. Comparison of accelerated and rapid schedules for monovalent hepatitis B and combined hepatitis A/B vaccines in children with cancer. (United States)

    Köksal, Yavuz; Varan, Ali; Aydin, G Burca; Sari, Neriman; Yazici, Nalan; Yalcin, Bilgehan; Kutluk, Tezer; Akyuz, Canan; Büyükpamukçu, Münevver


    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of immunization against hepatitis A and B infections with "rapid" or "accelerated" schedules in children with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Fifty-one children were recruited to receive either vaccination schedule, in the "rapid vaccination schedule"; hepatitis B (group I) or combined hepatitis A/B vaccines (group III) were administered at months 0, 1, 2, and 12; in the "accelerated vaccination schedule," hepatitis B (group II) or combined hepatitis A/B (group IV) vaccines were administered on days 0, 7, 21, and 365 intramuscularly. The seroconversion rates at months 1 and 3 were 35.7 and 57.1% in group I and 25 and 18.8% in group II, respectively. Group I developed higher seroconversion rates at month 3. In group III the seroconversion rates for hepatitis B at months 1 and 3 were 54.5 and 60% and in group IV 50 and 70%, respectively. For hepatitis A, the seroconversion rates at months 1 and 3 were 81.8 and 90% in group III and 80 and 88.9% in group IV, respectively. The accelerated vaccination schedule seems to have no advantage in children receiving cancer chemotherapy except for high antibody levels at month 1. In conclusion, the accelerated vaccination schedules are not good choices for cancer patients. The combined hepatitis A/B vaccine is more effective than monovalent vaccine in cancer patients, which probably can be explained by an adjuvant effect of the antigens. The seroconversion of hepatitis A by the combined hepatitis A/B vaccination is very good in cancer patients.

  17. Landscape and soil governance: A rapid vulnerability assessment method applied in a Paramo landscape in Northern Peru (United States)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; Seijmonsbergen, A. C.; Sevink, J.


    The Andean paramo ecosystems constitute geodiversity hotspots of global importance, but also have important ecosystem functions. These include agricultural production (mostly livestock and high altitude crops such potatoes, but also forestry) and deliverance of water to be used for various purposes (drink water, irrigation water, hydroelectric power) in downstream catchments, often hosting major population concentrations and industries. Because of their alpine relief, extreme climate and overall fragile soils, Paramo ecosystems are susceptible to degradation upon land use, particularly under increased human pressure such as by encroaching agriculture, accelerated by climate change posing a further threat to the functioning of remaining more or less conserved or pristine Paramo areas. Throughout the more populated parts of the Andes, where land use has seriously intensified over the past decades, degradation has become rampant with associated losses of the functions mentioned. To this comes an increased worldwide demand for minerals, leading to their exploration and large-scale exploitation in hitherto inaccessible and remote areas, such as the higher parts of the Andes. Not surprising, the mining issue and related environmental hazards are high on the political agenda of most Andean countries, though not always based on scientific knowledge of its potential impacts in specific areas. A rapid assessment methodology is presented for the Las Lagunas region near Cajamarca in Northern Peru. The method includes prefield segmentation and classification of Landsat ETM+ and ASTER imagery, complemented with detailed aerial photo interpretation. The results are stored in a GIS geodatabase and supplemented with data from field surveys. This leads to rapid and sound postfield analyses and vulnerability classifications using simple GIS tools. The results are pointing at four important issues in relation to soil and landscape governance and identification of vulnerability zones

  18. Funnel-shaped surface depressions - Indicator or accelerant of rapid glacier disintegration? A case study in the Tyrolean Alps (United States)

    Stocker-Waldhuber, Martin; Fischer, Andrea; Keller, Lorenz; Morche, David; Kuhn, Michael


    Alpine glaciers have been retreating at extreme and historically unprecedented rates. While the general course of regional retreat rates reflects long-term climatic change, individual extreme events are closely related to the geomorphological settings and processes of the specific glacier. Nevertheless, these extreme events also influence the regional means and might be an important feedback mechanism accelerating the response of glaciers to climate change. In 2009, during the recent disintegration of the terminus of Gepatschferner (46°52‧30″N, 10°45‧25″E), a shallow circular depression appeared at the glacier tongue with a decrease of surface ice flow velocity to almost nil. In 2015 the area was ice-free. During a heavy precipitation event in August 2012, a subglacial sediment layer of > 10 m was flushed out, which accelerated the subsidence of the ice surface. The development of this 15 to 30 m deep depression was monitored with a combination of methods in high detail, including direct ablation measurements and a time series of seven high-resolution airborne laser DEMs, plus recordings of ice flow velocity and surface elevation with DGPS. The thickness of ice and sediment layers was measured with vibroseismic soundings in 2012 and 2013. Similar developments were observed at three other glaciers with extreme retreat rates. Our investigation suggests that this mechanism has a major impact on and can be read as an indicator of a nonlinear increased response of glaciers to climate change.

  19. Applying an improved rapid impact assessment matrix method to strategic environmental assessment of urban planning in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail:; Xie, Yuanbo, E-mail:; Hao, Fanghua, E-mail:


    Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) has become an increasingly important decision-support tool for providing information on the environmental implications of a policy, plan, or program. The goal is to safeguard the environment and promote sustainable development at the strategic level. Despite major progress in implementing SEA practices internationally, developing countries, such as China, often lag behind in applying SEA methodology. Lack of available data and time constraints arising from tight schedules create problems. The rapid impact assessment matrix (RIAM) is a potential resource for breaking through such difficulties. Our analysis of RIAM applications suggested that it could become a tool for evaluating strategic alternatives because of its applicability in interdisciplinary settings, its transparency, and its short implementation timeframe. To make it more suitable for the SEA context, we have developed two major improvements to the conventional RIAM process: assignment of weights to assessment indicators and the development of an integrated environmental assessment score (IES). The improved RIAM process was employed in an SEA of the development plan for the Nansha District in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in China. It was used to assess five alternatives for development in Wanqingsha (WQS), a subunit of Nansha, where important ecological resources are located and where industrial development could impact the air quality in the neighboring Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The evaluation identified WQS-A04 as the preferred alternative. This alternative involved a minimal amount of industrial development – 10% compared with the most intense development alternative – and included important wetland preservation plans. The assessment results have been incorporated into the officially approved development plan for Nansha. The improved RIAM methodology is well adapted to the technical aims of SEA and decision

  20. A technique for rapid source apportionment applied to ambient organic aerosol measurements from a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available We present a rapid method for apportioning the sources of atmospheric organic aerosol composition measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry methods. Here, we specifically apply this new analysis method to data acquired on a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG system. Gas chromatograms are divided by retention time into evenly spaced bins, within which the mass spectra are summed. A previous chromatogram binning method was introduced for the purpose of chromatogram structure deconvolution (e.g., major compound classes (Zhang et al., 2014. Here we extend the method development for the specific purpose of determining aerosol samples' sources. Chromatogram bins are arranged into an input data matrix for positive matrix factorization (PMF, where the sample number is the row dimension and the mass-spectra-resolved eluting time intervals (bins are the column dimension. Then two-dimensional PMF can effectively do three-dimensional factorization on the three-dimensional TAG mass spectra data. The retention time shift of the chromatogram is corrected by applying the median values of the different peaks' shifts. Bin width affects chemical resolution but does not affect PMF retrieval of the sources' time variations for low-factor solutions. A bin width smaller than the maximum retention shift among all samples requires retention time shift correction. A six-factor PMF comparison among aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS, TAG binning, and conventional TAG compound integration methods shows that the TAG binning method performs similarly to the integration method. However, the new binning method incorporates the entirety of the data set and requires significantly less pre-processing of the data than conventional single compound identification and integration. In addition, while a fraction of the most oxygenated aerosol does not elute through an underivatized TAG analysis, the TAG binning method does have the ability to achieve molecular level

  1. Calibration of the ISOLDE acceleration voltage using a high-precision voltage divider and applying collinear fast beam laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Krieger, A.; Catherall, R.; Hochschulz, F.; Kramer, J.; Neugart, R.; Rosendahl, S.; Schipper, J.; Siesling, E.; Weinheimer, Ch.; Yordanov, D.T.; Nortershauser, W.


    A high-voltage divider with accuracy at the ppm level and collinear laser spectroscopy were used to calibrate the highvoltage installation at the radioactive ion beam facility ISOLDE at CERN. The accurate knowledge of this voltage is particularly important for collinear laser spectroscopy measurements. Beam velocity measurements using frequencycomb based collinear laser spectroscopy agree with the new calibration. Applying this, one obtains consistent results for isotope shifts of stable magnesium isotopes measured using collinear spectroscopy and laser spectroscopy on laser-cooled ions in a trap. The long-term stability and the transient behavior during recovery from a voltage dropout were investigated for the different power supplies currently applied at ISOLDE.

  2. The influence of aging and diabetes on heat transfer characteristics of the skin to a rapidly applied heat source. (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Trivedi, Moxi; Hudlikar, Akshay N; Yang, Chia-hao; Goraksh, Neha; Alshammari, Faris; Mohanan, Mitali; Soni, Janhavi; Agilan, Brindha; Pai, Nikhila; Chindam, Tirupathi; Murugesan, Vengatesh; Yim, Jong Eun; Katrak, Vahishta


    Numerous studies have examined the blood flow of the skin at rest and in response to sustained heat and shown that, in older people and people with diabetes, the skin blood flow response to heat is diminished compared to younger people. It is not sustained heat, however, that usually causes burns; it is a more rapid application of heat. Ten younger subjects, 10 older subjects, and 10 subjects with diabetes were examined before and after applying a water-filled thermode to the skin above the quadriceps muscle to observe the changes in skin temperature and skin blood flow and the ability of the skin to absorb heat after a 2-min heat exposure with water at 44°C. Skin temperature rose from 31.2°C at rest to 38.3°C after 2 min of heat application in all subjects (P > 0.05 between groups). The calories required in the younger group of subjects was 2.26 times the calories required in the older group of subjects for the same change in skin temperature and 13.8 times the calories needed to increase skin temperature in the subjects with diabetes. Furthermore, the blood flow at rest was lower in people with diabetes than older subjects and both groups less than that seen in younger subjects. The blood flow response to heat was slower in the subjects with diabetes compared to the older subjects and much slower than that seen in the younger subjects. Reduced skin blood flow of older and subjects with diabetes, decreased thickness of the dermal layer, and increased subcutaneous fat, as well as damage to transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptors, may account for some of the differences between the groups.

  3. Comparison of Dose Distributions With TG-43 and Collapsed Cone Convolution Algorithms Applied to Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Patient Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thrower, Sara L., E-mail: [The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Shaitelman, Simona F.; Bloom, Elizabeth [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Salehpour, Mohammad; Gifford, Kent [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)


    Purpose: To compare the treatment plans for accelerated partial breast irradiation calculated by the new commercially available collapsed cone convolution (CCC) and current standard TG-43–based algorithms for 50 patients treated at our institution with either a Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) or Contura device. Methods and Materials: We recalculated target coverage, volume of highly dosed normal tissue, and dose to organs at risk (ribs, skin, and lung) with each algorithm. For 1 case an artificial air pocket was added to simulate 10% nonconformance. We performed a Wilcoxon signed rank test to determine the median differences in the clinical indices V90, V95, V100, V150, V200, and highest-dosed 0.1 cm{sup 3} and 1.0 cm{sup 3} of rib, skin, and lung between the two algorithms. Results: The CCC algorithm calculated lower values on average for all dose-volume histogram parameters. Across the entire patient cohort, the median difference in the clinical indices calculated by the 2 algorithms was <10% for dose to organs at risk, <5% for target volume coverage (V90, V95, and V100), and <4 cm{sup 3} for dose to normal breast tissue (V150 and V200). No discernable difference was seen in the nonconformance case. Conclusions: We found that on average over our patient population CCC calculated (<10%) lower doses than TG-43. These results should inform clinicians as they prepare for the transition to heterogeneous dose calculation algorithms and determine whether clinical tolerance limits warrant modification.

  4. Fred: a GPU-accelerated fast-Monte Carlo code for rapid treatment plan recalculation in ion beam therapy (United States)

    Schiavi, A.; Senzacqua, M.; Pioli, S.; Mairani, A.; Magro, G.; Molinelli, S.; Ciocca, M.; Battistoni, G.; Patera, V.


    Ion beam therapy is a rapidly growing technique for tumor radiation therapy. Ions allow for a high dose deposition in the tumor region, while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. For this reason, the highest possible accuracy in the calculation of dose and its spatial distribution is required in treatment planning. On one hand, commonly used treatment planning software solutions adopt a simplified beam-body interaction model by remapping pre-calculated dose distributions into a 3D water-equivalent representation of the patient morphology. On the other hand, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which explicitly take into account all the details in the interaction of particles with human tissues, are considered to be the most reliable tool to address the complexity of mixed field irradiation in a heterogeneous environment. However, full MC calculations are not routinely used in clinical practice because they typically demand substantial computational resources. Therefore MC simulations are usually only used to check treatment plans for a restricted number of difficult cases. The advent of general-purpose programming GPU cards prompted the development of trimmed-down MC-based dose engines which can significantly reduce the time needed to recalculate a treatment plan with respect to standard MC codes in CPU hardware. In this work, we report on the development of fred, a new MC simulation platform for treatment planning in ion beam therapy. The code can transport particles through a 3D voxel grid using a class II MC algorithm. Both primary and secondary particles are tracked and their energy deposition is scored along the trajectory. Effective models for particle-medium interaction have been implemented, balancing accuracy in dose deposition with computational cost. Currently, the most refined module is the transport of proton beams in water: single pencil beam dose-depth distributions obtained with fred agree with those produced by standard MC codes within 1-2% of the

  5. The organizational and aromatization hypotheses apply to rapid, nonclassical hormone action: neonatal masculinization eliminates rapid estradiol action in female hippocampal neurons. (United States)

    Meitzen, John; Grove, Danielle D; Mermelstein, Paul G


    Early exposure to the steroid sex hormone testosterone and its estrogen metabolite estradiol masculinize neural tissue during a developmental critical period. Many aspects of neuron anatomy and physiology are permanently altered, including later sensitivity to estradiol. Although it is well established that early hormone exposure alters neuronal responsiveness regarding classical estradiol actions (i.e. acting via nuclear estrogen receptors), it has not yet been determined whether it also alters neuronal processing of nonclassical estrogen receptor signaling, including the actions of membrane-associated estrogen receptors. Hence, we tested whether membrane estrogen receptor regulation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation observed in female (but not male) hippocampal pyramidal neurons is due to the lack of androgen and/or estrogen exposure in females during this critical period. Female rat neonates on postnatal d 0 and 1 were systemically injected with one of four compounds: vehicle, testosterone, the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone, or estradiol. On postnatal d 2, primary hippocampal neuron cultures were generated from these animals. After 8-9 d in culture, we assessed whether estradiol affected CREB phosphorylation. Neurons from female neonates exposed to testosterone lacked estradiol signaling to CREB. In contrast, dihydrotestosterone injections of female neonates did not disrupt estradiol regulation of CREB. Estradiol injections of female neonates, however, eliminated estradiol signaling to CREB. These findings indicate that testosterone aromatization to estradiol leads to a masculinization/defeminization process whereby hippocampal neurons fail to exhibit rapid estradiol signaling to CREB. Broadly, these findings extend the organizational and aromatization hypotheses to rapid, nonclassical hormone action.

  6. Study of a laboratory-scaled new method for the accelerated continuous ageing of wine spirits by applying ultrasound energy. (United States)

    Delgado-González, M J; Sánchez-Guillén, M M; García-Moreno, M V; Rodríguez-Dodero, M C; García-Barroso, C; Guillén-Sánchez, D A


    During the ageing of brandies, many physicochemical processes take place involving the distilled spirit and the wood of the casks. Because of these reactions, the polyphenolic content of brandies and their content of organic acids increase with the ageing. These reactions are slow, and the ageing of high-quality brandies takes several years. In this paper, the development of a system that uses the circulation of the wine distillate through encapsulated American oak chips and the application of ultrasound energy with the aim of producing aged wine spirits has been carried out, and the influences of the operation variables over the characteristics of the produced drink have been measured. With that proposal, the influence of different powers of ultrasound, and also the influence of the movement of the liquor through oak chips, was determined first. This way, the results show that higher powers of ultrasound, of nearly 40W/L, in addition with the movement of the spirit, improve the extraction of phenolic compounds in a 33.94%, after seven days of ageing. Then, applying Youden and Steiner's experimental design, eight experiments of ageing were performed, and the samples obtained by this new method were analysed to obtain information related to their physicochemical and oenological characterisation in order to determine the experimental conditions that produce the best ageing results. This way, the best spirit produced by this new method of ageing is obtained with a high alcoholic strength of the distilled wine and a high quantity of oak chips, and with room temperature and high flow rate. In addition, the presence of oxygen in the sample and the absence of light increase the quality of the produced spirit. Finally, the application of ultrasound energy in large pulses is related with the improvement of two important ageing markers: the intensity of the colour and the TPI. As a last experiment, we applied this ageing method to five varietal spirits. The sensorial

  7. Gram-positive bacteria as an antigen topically applied into gingival sulcus of immunized rat accelerates periodontal destruction. (United States)

    Nagano, F; Kaneko, T; Yoshinaga, Y; Ukai, T; Kuramoto, A; Nakatsu, S; Oshino, K; Ichimura, I; Hara, Y


    Periodontitis is generally accepted to relate to gram-negative bacteria, and the host defense system influences its onset and progression. However, little is known about the relation between gram-positive bacteria and periodontitis. In this study, we topically applied gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial suspensions to the gingival sulcus in rats after immunization, and then histopathologically examined their influence on periodontal destruction. Rats previously immunized with heat-treated and sonicated Staphylococcus aureus or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were used as immunized groups. The non-immunized group received only sterile phosphate-buffered saline. In each animal, S. aureus or A. actinomycetemcomitans suspension was applied topically to the palatal gingival sulcus of first molars every 24 h for 10 d. Blood samples were collected and the serum level of anti-S. aureus or anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The first molar regions were resected and observed histopathologically. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). The formation of immune complexes was confirmed by immunohistological staining of C1qB. Serum levels of anti-S. aureus and anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans IgG antibodies in the immunized groups were significantly higher than those in the non-immunized groups were. The loss of attachment, increase in apical migration of the junctional epithelium, and decreases in alveolar bone level and number of TRAP-positive multinuclear cells in each immunized group were significantly greater than in each non-immunized group. The presence of C1qB was observed in the junctional epithelium and adjacent connective tissue in the immunized groups. Heat-treated and sonicated S. aureus and A. actinomycetemcomitans induced attachment loss in rats immunized with their suspensions. Our results suggest that not only gram-negative but also gram

  8. Applying DTI white matter orientations to finite element head models to examine diffuse TBI under high rotational accelerations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colgan, Niall C


    The in-vivo mechanical response of neural tissue during impact loading of the head is simulated using geometrically accurate finite element (FE) head models. However, current FE models do not account for the anisotropic elastic material behaviour of brain tissue. In soft biological tissue, there is a correlation between internal microscopic structure and macroscopic mechanical properties. Therefore, constitutive equations are important for the numerical analysis of the soft biological tissues. By exploiting diffusion tensor techniques the anisotropic orientation of neural tissue is incorporated into a non-linear viscoelastic material model for brain tissue and implemented in an explicit FE analysis. The viscoelastic material parameters are derived from published data and the viscoelastic model is used to describe the mechanical response of brain tissue. The model is formulated in terms of a large strain viscoelastic framework and considers non-linear viscous deformations in combination with non-linear elastic behaviour. The constitutive model was applied in the University College Dublin brain trauma model (UCDBTM) (i.e. three-dimensional finite element head model) to predict the mechanical response of the intra-cranial contents due to rotational injury.

  9. Effects of Rapid Vaccine Injection Without Aspiration and Applying Manual Pressure Before Vaccination on Pain and Crying Time in Infants. (United States)

    Göl, İlknur; Altuğ Özsoy, Süheyla


    To compare effects of rapid injection without aspiration and 10-second manual pressure before injection on pain severity and crying time in 4- to 6-month-old infants given the vaccine DTaP/IPV/Hib. This is a randomized double-blind controlled study. The study population included all the infants presenting for DTaP/IPV/Hib to two family health centers between April and August in 2015. The study sample included 128 infants based on confidence interval of 95% and statistical power of 80%. The sample was divided into four groups: manual pressure, rapid injection without aspiration, manual pressure combined with rapid injection without aspiration, and control groups. There were 32 infants in each group. Gender was adjusted in all groups. Stratified and block randomizations were used. Pain severity scores and crying time during and after the injections were significantly lower in the three intervention groups than in the control group (p = .001). The lowest increase in the mean heart rate during and after the injections occurred in the rapid injection without aspiration group (p injections was significantly lower in this group than in the other groups (p injection without aspiration group had low oxygen saturation levels starting before the injections. In fact, mean oxygen saturations did not change across time. This suggests that lower oxygen saturation in the rapid injection without aspiration group cannot be due to vaccines or the techniques used. Manual pressure and rapid injection without aspiration are effective and useful in relief of pain and reduction of crying time due to vaccine injections in 4- to 6-month-old infants. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Pressure applied by the healthcare staff on a cricoids cartilage simulator during Sellick's maneuver in rapid sequence intubation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Calvache (Jose Andrés); L.C.B. Sandoval (Luz); W.A. Vargas (William Andres)


    textabstractBackground: Sellick's maneuver or cricoid pressure is a strategy used to prevent bronchoaspiration during the rapid intubation sequence. Several studies have described that the force required for an adequate maneuver is of 2.5-3.5 kg. The purpose of this paper was to determine the force


    A rapid method for extracting DNA from intact, single root tips using a Xanthine solution was developed to handle very large numbers of analyses of ectomycorrhizas. By using an extraction without grinding we have attempted to bias the extraction towards the fungal DNA in the man...

  12. Application of carbon nanoparticles accelerates the rapid recovery of parathyroid function during thyroid carcinoma surgery with central lymph node dissection: A retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Du, Zhi-Peng; Qiu, Nian-Cun; Liu, Miao-E; Liu, Sheng; Jiang, Dao-Zhen; Zhang, Wei; Qiu, Ming


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of carbon nanoparticles in identifying lymph nodes and promoting parathyroid gland function recovery after thyroid carcinoma surgery along with central lymph node dissection. A total of 231 patients who underwent thyroid carcinoma surgery combined with central lymph node dissection were divided into two groups: the CN group (intraoperative carbon nanoparticles injections) and the control group (no injection). Datas were collected respectively on the pre-operative, 1st, 7th and 30th postoperative days and monthly thereafter. While the pathological results (e.g. amount of incidental removed parathyroid glands and lymph nodes dissected), complications (e.g. rates of vocal cord paralysis, the neuromuscular symptoms, hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism), as well as follow-up outcomes of the serum Ca2+ and PTH levels were gathered and measured to be included in. In regard to the results of the pathological tests, the control group had a relatively higher incidence of incidental parathyroidectomy when compared to the CN group (P  0.05). Carbon nanoparticles play a key role in accurately identifying lymph nodes, reducing mistaken excision of parathyroid glands, accelerating rapid recovery of parathyroid function during thyroid carcinoma surgery with central lymph node dissection, without increasing the probability of postoperative complications. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Beam loss reduction by injection painting in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi


    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was commissioned in October 2007. Via the initial beam tuning and a series of underlying beam studies with low-intensity beams, since December 2009, we have intermittently been performing beam tuning experiments with higher-intensity beams including the injection painting technique. By optimizing the injection painting parameters, we have successfully achieved a 420 kW-equivalent output intensity at a low-level intensity loss of less than 1%. Also the corresponding numerical simulation well reproduced the observed painting parameter dependence on the beam loss, and captured a characteristic behavior of the high-intensity beam in the injection painting process. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the course of the RCS beam power ramp-up, especially on the beam loss reduction achieved by employing the injection painting, together with the numerical simulation results.

  14. Rapid Stereomicroscopic Imaging of HER2 Overexpression in Ex Vivo Breast Tissue Using Topically Applied Silica-Based Gold Nanoshells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lissett R. Bickford


    Full Text Available Tumor margin detection for patients undergoing breast conservation surgery primarily occurs postoperatively. Previously, we demonstrated that gold nanoshells rapidly enhance contrast of HER2 overexpression in ex vivo tissue sections. Our ultimate objective, however, is to discern HER2 overexpressing tissue from normal tissue in whole, nonsectioned, specimens to facilitate rapid diagnoses. Here, we use targeted nanoshells to quickly and effectively visualize HER2 receptor expression in intact ex vivo human breast tissue specimens. Punch biopsies of human breast tissue were analyzed after a brief 5-minute incubation with and without HER2-targeted silica-gold nanoshells using two-photon microscopy and stereomicroscopy. Labeling was subsequently verified using reflectance confocal microscopy, darkfield hyperspectral imaging, and immunohistochemistry to confirm levels of HER2 expression. Our results suggest that anti-HER2 nanoshells used in tandem with a near-infrared reflectance confocal microscope and a standard stereomicroscope may potentially be used to discern HER2-overexpressing cancerous tissue from normal tissue in near real time and offer a rapid supplement to current diagnostic techniques.

  15. Rapid response tools and datasets for post-fire hydrological modeling applied to the High Park Fire (United States)

    Dobre, M.; Miller, M. E.; MacDonald, L. H.; Elliot, W. J.; Billmire, M.; Kampf, S. K.; Robichaud, P. R.; Schmeer, S.; Serocki, E.


    Post-fire flooding and erosion can pose a serious threat to life, property and natural resources. Time is critical in post-fire remediation as plans and treatments must be developed and deployed before the first major storms to be effective. We have developed an interactive database for the continental United States to facilitate rapid assessment of runoff and erosion risks from burned watersheds. This interactive database allows modelers to upload earth observations of soil burn severity and quickly download spatially-explicit model inputs at either 10- or 30-m resolution for process-based models, particularly WEPP based models ( Other modeling applications include agriculture, construction, or mining. The online database has allowed post-fire remediation teams in the western U.S. to rapidly predict post-fire erosion and effects of mulching treatments for over a dozen fires ranging in size from 4-540 km2. There is an urgent need for field data to validate these modeling efforts. One of the first fires to utilize this database was the High Park Fire, which burned approximately 330 km2 in northcentral Colorado in June 2012. Beginning in late summer of 2012 rainfall, site characteristics, and sediment production were measured for 21 unmulched and 8 mulched hillslopes. In 2013 sediment yields from unmulched and mulched hillslopes averaged 7.9 and 3.0 Mg ha-1, respectively, and these values dropped by more than an order of magnitude in 2014. Initial comparisons of measured and predicted hillslope sediment yields were poorly correlated, although they are of a similar order of magnitude. The causes of the poor correlation are being evaluated, and include a discrepancy between the small scale of the measured hillslopes and the much larger scale of the modeled hillslopes, problems with some sediment fences overtopping, an exceptionally large and long duration storm in September 2013, and the lack of suspended sediment data. Additional

  16. Applying the polarity rapid assessment method to characterize nitrosamine precursors and to understand their removal by drinking water treatment processes. (United States)

    Liao, Xiaobin; Bei, Er; Li, Shixiang; Ouyang, Yueying; Wang, Jun; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian; Krasner, Stuart W; Suffet, I H Mel


    Some N-nitrosamines (NAs) have been identified as emerging disinfection by-products during water treatment. Thus, it is essential to understand the characteristics of the NA precursors. In this study, the polarity rapid assessment method (PRAM) and the classical resin fractionation method were studied as methods to fractionate the NA precursors during drinking water treatment. The results showed that PRAM has much higher selectivity for NA precursors than the resin approach. The normalized N-nitrosodimethylamine formation potential (NDMA FP) and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) FP of four resin fractions was at the same level as the average yield of the bulk organic matter whereas that of the cationic fraction by PRAM showed 50 times the average. Thus, the cationic fraction was shown to be the most important NDMA precursor contributor. The PRAM method also helped understand which portions of the NA precursor were removed by different water treatment processes. Activated carbon (AC) adsorption removed over 90% of the non-polar PRAM fraction (that sorbs onto the C18 solid phase extraction [SPE] cartridge) of NDMA and NDEA precursors. Bio-treatment removed 80-90% of the cationic fraction of PRAM (that is retained on the cation exchange SPE cartridge) and 40-60% of the non-cationic fractions. Ozonation removed 50-60% of the non-polar PRAM fraction of NA precursors and transformed part of them into the polar fraction. Coagulation and sedimentation had very limited removal of various PRAM fractions of NA precursors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sky view factor as a parameter in applied climatology rapid estimation by the SkyHelios model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Matzarakis


    Full Text Available Graphic processors can be integrated in simulation models computing e.g. three-dimensional flow visualization or radiation estimation. Going a step further it is even possible to use modern graphics hardware as general-purpose array processors. These ideas and approaches use a cheap mass production technology to solve specific problems. This technology can be applied for modelling climate conditions or climate-relevant parameters on the micro-scale or with respect to urban areas. To illustrate this we present the simulation of the continuous sky view factor (SVF, thus the calculation of the SVF for each point of a complex area. Digital elevation models (DEM, data concerning urban obstacles (OBS or other digital files can serve as a data base in order to quantify relevant climatic conditions in urban and complex areas. The following benefits are provided by the new model: (a short computing time (b short development time and (c low costs due to the use of open source frameworks. The application of the developed model will be helpful to estimate radiation fluxes and the mean radiant temperature in urban and complex situations accurately, especially in combination with an urban microclimate model, e.g. the RayMan model.

  18. Laser acceleration (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.


    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  19. Advanced modeling of high intensity accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, R.D.; Habib, S.; Wangler, T.P.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goals of this project were three-fold: (1) to develop a new capability, based on high performance (parallel) computers, to perform large scale simulations of high intensity accelerators; (2) to apply this capability to modeling high intensity accelerators under design at LANL; and (3) to use this new capability to improve the understanding of the physics of intense charge particle beams, especially in regard to the issue of beam halo formation. All of these goals were met. In particular, the authors introduced split-operator methods as a powerful and efficient means to simulate intense beams in the presence of rapidly varying accelerating and focusing fields. They then applied these methods to develop scaleable, parallel beam dynamics codes for modeling intense beams in linacs, and in the process they implemented a new three-dimensional space charge algorithm. They also used the codes to study a number of beam dynamics issues related to the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, and in the process performed the largest simulations to date for any accelerator design project. Finally, they used the new modeling capability to provide direction and validation to beam physics studies, helping to identify beam mismatch as a major source of halo formation in high intensity accelerators. This LDRD project ultimately benefited not only LANL but also the US accelerator community since, by promoting expertise in high performance computing and advancing the state-of-the-art in accelerator simulation, its accomplishments helped lead to approval of a new DOE Grand Challenge in Computational Accelerator Physics.

  20. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilan, N., E-mail:; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX—Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)


    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF{sub 6} instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  1. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices (United States)

    Pilan, N.; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.


    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  2. Applied superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Newhouse, Vernon L


    Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec

  3. Use of a wire scanner for monitoring residual gas ionization in Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility 20 keV∕u proton∕deuteron low energy beam transport beam line. (United States)

    Vainas, B; Eliyahu, I; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D


    The ion source end of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility accelerator consists of a proton∕deuteron ECR ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) beam line. An observed reduction of the radio frequency quadrupole transmission with increase of the LEBT current prompted additional study of the LEBT beam properties. Numerous measurements have been made with the LEBT bream profiler wire biased by a variable voltage. Current-voltage characteristics in presence of the proton beam were measured even when the wire was far out of the beam. The current-voltage characteristic in this case strongly resembles an asymmetric diodelike characteristic, which is typical of Langmuir probes monitoring plasma. The measurement of biased wire currents, outside the beam, enables us to estimate the effective charge density in vacuum.

  4. Confronting Twin Paradox Acceleration (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas W.


    The resolution to the classic twin paradox in special relativity rests on the asymmetry of acceleration. Yet most students are not exposed to a satisfactory analysis of what exactly happens during the acceleration phase that results in the nonaccelerated observer's more rapid aging. The simple treatment presented here offers both graphical and quantitative solutions to the problem, leading to the correct result that the acceleration-induced age gap is 2Lβ years when the one-way distance L is expressed in light-years and velocity β ≡v/c .

  5. Crowdsourced Translation for Rapid Internationalization in Cyberspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Yen; Yonatany, Moshe; Mahnke, Volker


    This paper explores how Facebook effectively used crowdsourced translation to accelerate its rapid internationalization. We apply the learning perspective of internationalization theory to unpack what the firm learned in order to mobilize crowd-based knowledge to facilitate internationalization...... and codified knowledge, rather than the experiential knowledge traditionally suggested in the literature on the process of internationalization, and (2) the firm's success rested on its ability to use virtual learning tools and incentive systems to acquire, articulate and integrate knowledge from communities...... of internationally dispersed users – the “crowd” – to accelerate its internationalization in cyberspace. This empirical study extends internationalization theory regarding knowledge and organizational learning....

  6. Domain decomposition and CMFD acceleration applied to discrete-ordinate methods for the solution of the neutron transport equation in XYZ geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiello, Emiliano; Martin, Brunella; Do, Jean-Michel, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Direction de l' Energie Nucleaire, Service d' Etudes de Reacteurs et de Mathematiques Appliquees, Gif sur Yvette, (France)


    A new development for the IDT solver is presented for large reactor core applications in XYZ geometries. The multigroup discrete-ordinate neutron transport equation is solved using a Domain-Decomposition (DD) method coupled with the Coarse-Mesh Finite Differences (CMFD). The later is used for accelerating the DD convergence rate. In particular, the external power iterations are preconditioned for stabilizing the oscillatory behavior of the DD iterative process. A set of critical 2-D and 3-D numerical tests on a single processor will be presented for the analysis of the performances of the method. The results show that the application of the CMFD to the DD can be a good candidate for large 3D full-core parallel applications. (author)

  7. Rapid selective accelerated solvent extraction and simultaneous determination of herbicide atrazine and its metabolites in fruit by ultra high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Jia, Licong; Su, Ming; Wu, Xingqiang; Sun, Hanwen


    A selective accelerated solvent extraction procedure achieved one step extraction and cleanup for analysis of herbicide atrazine and its metabolites in fruit. Using a BEH C18 analytical column and the gradient mode with 2 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution/acetonitrile as a mobile phase achieved effective chromatographic separation of the five analytes within 4 min. The calibration curves were linear over two orders of magnitude of concentration with correlation coefficients (r) of 0.9996-0.9999. The method limit of quantification was 1, 2, 1.5, 3, and 2 μg/kg for atrazine, desethylatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, desethyldesisopropylatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine, respectively, in the case of atrazine it is at least two orders of magnitude lower than the maximum residue limit (0.25 mg/kg). The intra-day and inter-day precisions of the five analytes were in the range of 2.1-3.5 and 3.1-4.8 %, respectively. The recoveries of the five analytes at three spiked levels varied from 85.9 to 107% with a relative standard deviation of 1.8-4.9% for pear and apple samples. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection method was proved to be fast, inexpensive, selective, sensitive, and accurate for the quantification of the analytes in pear and apple samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Future accelerators (?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Womersley


    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  9. KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Iwashita


    Full Text Available The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  10. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis (United States)

    ... content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Toggle navigation Search form Search Connect Volunteer Donate ... to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  11. Ultrahigh resolution and brilliance laser wakefield accelerator betatron x-ray source for rapid in vivo tomographic microvasculature imaging in small animal models (United States)

    Fourmaux, Sylvain; Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Krol, Andrzej


    We are developing ultrahigh spatial resolution (FWHM microvasculature imaging micro-CT angiography (μCTA) in small animal models using optimized contrast agent. It exploits Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) betatron x-ray emission phenomenon. Ultrashort high-intensity laser pulse interacting with a supersonic gas jet produces an ion cavity ("bubble") in the plasma in the wake of the laser pulse. Electrons that are injected into this bubble gain energy, perform wiggler-like oscillations and generate burst of incoherent x-rays with characteristic duration time comparable to the laser pulse duration, continuous synchrotron-like spectral distribution that might extend to hundreds keV, very high brilliance, very small focal spot and highly directional emission in the cone-beam geometry. Such LWFA betatron x-ray source created in our lab produced 1021 -1023 photonsṡ shot-1ṡmrad-2ṡmm-2/0.1%bw with mean critical energy in the12-30 keV range. X-ray source size for a single laser shot was FWHM=1.7 μm x-ray beam divergence 20-30 mrad, and effective focal spot size for multiple shots FWHM= 2 μm. Projection images of simple phantoms and complex biological objects including insects and mice were obtained in single laser shots. We conclude that ultrahigh spatial resolution μCTA (FWHM 2 μm) requiring thousands of projection images could be accomplished using LWFA betatron x-ray radiation in approximately 40 s with our existing 220 TW laser and sub seconds with next generation of ultrafast lasers and x-ray detectors, as opposed to several hours required using conventional microfocal x-ray tubes. Thus, sub second ultrahigh resolution in vivo microtomographic microvasculature imaging (in both absorption and phase contrast mode) in small animal models of cancer and vascular diseases will be feasible with LWFA betatron x-ray source.

  12. Inferring Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) from observed building damage and EO-derived exposure development to develop rapid loss estimates following the April 2015 Nepal earthquake. (United States)

    Huyck, C. K.


    The April 25th 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal occurred in an area with very few seismic stations. Ground motions were estimated primarily by Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) over a very large region, with a very high degree of uncertainty. Accordingly, initial fatality estimates and their distribution was highly uncertain, with a 65% chance of fatalities ranging from 1,000 to 100,000. With an aim to developing estimates of: 1) the number of buildings damaged by category (slight, moderate, extensive, complete), 2) fatalities and their distribution, and 3) rebuilding costs, researchers at ImageCat have developed a preliminary inferred Peak Ground Acceleration product in %g (PGA). The inferred PGA is determined by using observations of building collapse from the National Geospatial Agency and building exposure estimates derived from EO data to determine the percentage of buildings collapsed in key locations. The percentage of building collapse is adjusted for accuracy and cross referenced with composite building damage functions for 4 development patterns in Nepal: 1) sparsely populated, 2) rural, 3) dense development, and 4) urban development to yield an inferred PGA. Composite damage functions are derived from USGS Pager collapse fragility functions (Jaiswal et al., 2011) and are weighted by building type frequencies developed by ImageCat. The PGA is interpolated to yield a surface. An initial estimate of the fatalities based on ATC 13 (Rojan and Sharpe, 1985) using these PGA yields an estimate of: Extensively damaged or destroyed buildings: 225,000 to 450,000 Fatalities: 8,700 to 22,000, with a mean estimate of 15,700. The total number of displaced persons is estimated between 1 and 2 million. Rebuilding costs for building damage only are estimated to be between 2 and 3 billion USD. The inferred PGA product is recommended for use solely in loss estimation processes.

  13. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Natural Antioxidants in the Seeds of Rhubarb from Different Habitats in China Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn-DPPH Assay. (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Geng, Dan-dan; Hu, Feng-zu; Dong, Qi


    In this study, the 10 accessions of rhubarb seeds from different habitats in China were investigated. Lipids were removed using petroleum ether, and the effective components were then separated using accelerated solvent extraction with 80% aqueous methanol. An off-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging method was used as the marker to evaluate the total antioxidant capability of extracts. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detectors-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) and HPLC-DAD-DPPH assays were developed for rapid identification and quantification of individual free-radical scavengers in extracts of rhubarb seeds. Ten free-radical scavengers from methanolic extracts of the rhubarb seeds were screened, five of which were identified and quantitatively analyzed: epicatechin, myricetin, hyperoside, quercitrin and quercetin. All were identified in rhubarb seeds for the first time and can be regarded as the major potent antioxidants in rhubarb seeds due to representing most of the total free-radical scavenging activity. Preliminary analysis of structures was performed for another five antioxidants. Based on our validation results, the developed method can be used for rapid separation, convenient identification and quantification of the multiple antioxidative constituents in rhubarb seeds, featuring good quantification parameters, accuracy and precision. The results are important to clarify the material basis and therapeutic mechanism of rhubarb seeds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  14. Electrostatic accelerators


    Hinterberger, F.


    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We ...

  15. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F


    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  16. Collaborative Workspaces to Accelerate Discovery (United States)

    Meade, Bernard; Fluke, Christopher; Cooke, Jeff; Andreoni, Igor; Pritchard, Tyler; Curtin, Christopher; Bernard, Stephanie R.; Asher, Albany; Mack, Katherine J.; Murphy, Michael T.; Vohl, Dany; Codoreanu, Alex; Kotuš, Srđan M.; Rumokoy, Fanuel; Horst, Chuck; Reynolds, Tristan


    By applying a display ecology to the Deeper, Wider, Faster proactive, simultaneous telescope observing campaign, we have shown a dramatic reduction in the time taken to inspect DECam CCD images for potential transient candidates and to produce time-critical triggers to standby telescopes. We also show how facilitating rapid corroboration of potential candidates and the exclusion of non-candidates improves the accuracy of detection; and establish that a practical and enjoyable workspace can improve the experience of an otherwise taxing task for astronomers. We provide a critical road test of two advanced displays in a research context-a rare opportunity to demonstrate how they can be used rather than simply discuss how they might be used to accelerate discovery.

  17. Accelerating Value Creation with Accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Eythor Ivar


    accelerator programs. Microsoft runs accelerators in seven different countries. Accelerators have grown out of the infancy stage and are now an accepted approach to develop new ventures based on cutting-edge technology like the internet of things, mobile technology, big data and virtual reality. It is also...... an approach to facilitate implementation and realization of business ideas and is a lucrative approach to transform research into ventures and to revitalize regions and industries in transition. Investors have noticed that the accelerator approach is a way to increase the possibility of success by funnelling...... with the traditional audit and legal universes and industries are examples of emerging potentials both from a research and business point of view to exploit and explore further. The accelerator approach may therefore be an Idea Watch to consider, no matter which industry you are in, because in essence accelerators...

  18. LIBO accelerates

    CERN Multimedia


    The prototype module of LIBO, a linear accelerator project designed for cancer therapy, has passed its first proton-beam acceleration test. In parallel a new version - LIBO-30 - is being developed, which promises to open up even more interesting avenues.

  19. Accelerating Inspire

    CERN Document Server



    CERN has been involved in the dissemination of scientific results since its early days and has continuously updated the distribution channels. Currently, Inspire hosts catalogues of articles, authors, institutions, conferences, jobs, experiments, journals and more. Successful orientation among this amount of data requires comprehensive linking between the content. Inspire has lacked a system for linking experiments and articles together based on which accelerator they were conducted at. The purpose of this project has been to create such a system. Records for 156 accelerators were created and all 2913 experiments on Inspire were given corresponding MARC tags. Records of 18404 accelerator physics related bibliographic entries were also tagged with corresponding accelerator tags. Finally, as a part of the endeavour to broaden CERN's presence on Wikipedia, existing Wikipedia articles of accelerators were updated with short descriptions and links to Inspire. In total, 86 Wikipedia articles were updated. This repo...

  20. Induction accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Takayama, Ken


    A broad class of accelerators rests on the induction principle whereby the accelerating electrical fields are generated by time-varying magnetic fluxes. Particularly suitable for the transport of bright and high-intensity beams of electrons, protons or heavy ions in any geometry (linear or circular) the research and development of induction accelerators is a thriving subfield of accelerator physics. This text is the first comprehensive account of both the fundamentals and the state of the art about the modern conceptual design and implementation of such devices. Accordingly, the first part of the book is devoted to the essential features of and key technologies used for induction accelerators at a level suitable for postgraduate students and newcomers to the field. Subsequent chapters deal with more specialized and advanced topics.

  1. The financial impact of the incorporation of IMRT and RapidArc™ techniques on shielding calculation of a linear accelerator; O impacto financeiro da incorporacao das tecnicas de IMRT e RapidArc™ no calculo de blindagem de um acelerador linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maira R.; Silveira, Thiago B.; Garcia, Paulo L.; Trindade, Cassia; Martins, Lais P.; Batista, Delano V.S., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Given the new methodology introduced in the shielding calculation due to recent modulated techniques in radiotherapy treatment, it became necessary to evaluate the impact of changes in the accelerator routine using such techniques. Based on a group of 30 patients from the National Cancer Institute (INCA) the workload multiplier factors for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT factor) and for RapidArc™ (RA factor) were established. Four different routines in a 6 MV generic accelerator were proposed to estimate the impact of these modified workloads in the building cost of the secondary barriers. The results indicate that if 50% of patients are treating with IMRT, the secondary barrier becomes 14,1% more expensive than the barrier calculated for conformal treatments exclusive. While RA, in the same proportion, leads to a barrier only 3,7% more expensive. Showing that RA can, while reducing treatment time, increase the proportion of patients treated with modulation technique, without increasing the cost of the barrier, when compared with IMRT. (author)

  2. Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi


    Full Text Available In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss in the low energy region but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering part of beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets during injection. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice superperiodicity, and its resultant deterioration of the betatron motion stability causes significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme for suppressing the extra beam loss, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  3. Cosmic Acceleration (United States)

    Bean, Rachel


    In this series of lectures we review observational evidence for, and theoretical investigations into, cosmic acceleration and dark energy. The notes are in four sections. First I review the basic cosmological formalism to describe the expansion history of the universe and how distance measures are defined. The second section covers the evidence for cosmic acceleration from cosmic distance measurements. Section 3 discusses the theoretical avenues being considered to explain the cosmological observations. Section 4 discusses how the growth of inhomogeneities and large scale structure observations might help us pin down the theoretical origin of cosmic acceleration.

  4. Rapid Prototyping of wax foundry models in an incremental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kozik


    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis incremental methods of creating wax founding models. There are two methods of Rapid Prototypingof wax models in an incremental process which are more and more often used in industrial practice and in scientific research.Applying Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of making casts allows for acceleration of work on preparing prototypes. It isespecially important in case of element having complicated shapes. The time of making a wax model depending on the size and the appliedRP method may vary from several to a few dozen hours.

  5. Horizontal Accelerator (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  6. Accelerated construction (United States)


    Accelerated Construction Technology Transfer (ACTT) is a strategic process that uses various innovative techniques, strategies, and technologies to minimize actual construction time, while enhancing quality and safety on today's large, complex multip...

  7. Rapid Assessment of Stakeholder Concerns about Public Health. An Introduction to a Fast and Inexpensive Approach Applied on Health Concerns about Intensive Animal Production Systems (United States)

    van der Ree, Joost; Lebret, Erik


    To effectively manage environmental health risks, stakeholders often need to act collectively. Stakeholders vary in their desire to act due to many factors, such as knowledge, risk perception, interests, and worldviews. Understanding their perceptions of the issues at stake is crucial to support the risk governance process. Even though concern assessment is a pivotal element of risk governance, few tools for rapid assessment are reported in the literature. We tested a rapid and relatively cheap approach, taking the Dutch debate on Intensive Animal Production Systems (IAPS) and health as an example. Dutch policy-oriented publications on IAPS and health and ten semi-structured in-depth interviews with a variety of stakeholders were analyzed to identify stakeholders and concerns involved in the Dutch debate about IAPS and health. Concerns were mapped and a stakeholder network was derived. Three classes of concerns were recognized in the discussions about IAPS and health: concerns related to health risks, concerns regarding the activity causing the risks (IAPS), and concerns about the process to control the risks. The notions of ‘trust’ and ‘scientific uncertainty’ appeared as important themes in the discussions. Argumentation based on concerns directly related to health risks, the activity causing the risk (IAPS), and its risk management can easily become muddled up in a societal debate, limiting the development of effective action perspectives. Acknowledging these multiple stakeholder concerns can clarify the positions taken by stakeholders and allow for more and other action perspectives to develop. PMID:29232902

  8. Applying characteristic fragment filtering for rapid detection and identification of ingredients in rhubarb by HPLC coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Qingqing; Wang, Meiling; Zhao, Huizhen; Liu, Yuehong; Fu, Shuang; Huang, Zhenghai; Xie, Ziye; Yu, Honghong; Zhang, Zhixin; Gao, Xiaoyan


    Chemical characteristic fragment filtering in MSn chromatograms was proposed to detect and identify the components in rhubarb rapidly using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Characteristic fragments consist of diagnostic ions and neutral loss fragments. Characteristic fragment filtering is a postacquisition data mining method for the targeted screening of groups with specific structures, including three steps: first, in order to comprehensively summarize characteristic fragments for global identification of the ingredients in rhubarb, representative authentic standards of dominant chemical categories contained in rhubarb were chosen, from which fragmentation rules and a characteristic fragments schedule were proposed; second, characteristic fragment filtering was used to rapidly recognize analogous skeletons; finally, combined with retention time, accurate mass, characteristic fragments, and previous literature, the structures of the filtered compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. As a result, a total of 271 compounds were detected and identified in rhubarb, including 34 anthraquinones, 83 anthrones, 46 tannins, 17 stilbenes, 24 phenylbutanones, 26 acylglucosides, 26 chromones, and 15 other compounds, 69 of which are potentially new compounds. The proposed characteristic fragment filtering strategy would be a reference for the large-scale detection and identification of the ingredients of herbal medicines. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. LINEAR ACCELERATOR (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.


    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  10. Motion Representation with Acceleration Images


    Kataoka, Hirokatsu; He, Yun; Shirakabe, Soma; Satoh, Yutaka


    Information of time differentiation is extremely important cue for a motion representation. We have applied first-order differential velocity from a positional information, moreover we believe that second-order differential acceleration is also a significant feature in a motion representation. However, an acceleration image based on a typical optical flow includes motion noises. We have not employed the acceleration image because the noises are too strong to catch an effective motion feature ...

  11. Rapid profiling and structural characterization of bioactive compounds and their distribution in different parts of Berberis petiolaris Wall. ex G. Don applying hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques. (United States)

    Singh, A; Bajpai, V; Srivastava, M; Arya, K R; Kumar, B


    Berberis petiolaris Wall. is a lesser known medicinal plant, belonging to the family Berberidaceae. The genus Berberis is known for many biological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheal, etc. There are not many reports of the isolation of components from Berberis petiolaris. This study aims to seek identification, characterization and quantification of components. A method was developed for rapid screening of phytochemicals using high-pressure liquid chromatography hyphenated with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). Suitable collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (CID-MS/MS) methods were developed for structural investigation of alkaloids, flavanoids and other classes of compounds using nine reference standards for authentication. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods were developed for quantitative study of five constituents using triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC/QqLIT-MS/MS). On the basis of HPLC retention behavior and fragmentation pathways obtained by high-resolution MS and MS/MS, 32 compounds were identified and characterized in different parts of Berberis petiolaris. Quantitative studies of chlorogenic acid, magnoflorine, jatrorrhizine, palmatine and berberine were also completed successfully. Rapid and accurate HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS and UPLC/ESI-QqLIT-MS/MS methods were established for identification, characterization and quantification of phytochemicals in the ethanolic extract of Berberis petiolaris. These methods, therefore, can be used for studies on phytochemical variation in different parts of the plant. Principle components analysis (PCA) may be used for plant part discrimination. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Responses of Rapid Viscoanalyzer Profile and Other Rice Grain Qualities to Exogenously Applied Plant Growth Regulators under High Day and High Night Temperatures. (United States)

    Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Saud, Shah; Hassan, Shah; Chauhan, Bhagirath Singh; Khan, Fahad; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Ullah, Abid; Wu, Chao; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharby, Hesham; Amanullah; Nasim, Wajid; Shahzad, Babar; Tanveer, Mohsin; Huang, Jianliang


    High-temperature stress degrades the grain quality of rice; nevertheless, the exogenous application of plant growth regulators (PGRs) might alleviate the negative effects of high temperatures. In the present study, we investigated the responses of rice grain quality to exogenously applied PGRs under high day temperatures (HDT) and high night temperatures (HNT) under controlled conditions. Four different combinations of ascorbic acid (Vc), alpha-tocopherol (Ve), brassinosteroids (Br), methyl jasmonates (MeJA) and triazoles (Tr) were exogenously applied to two rice cultivars (IR-64 and Huanghuazhan) prior to the high-temperature treatment. A Nothing applied Control (NAC) was included for comparison. The results demonstrated that high-temperature stress was detrimental for grain appearance and milling qualities and that both HDT and HNT reduced the grain length, grain width, grain area, head rice percentage and milled rice percentage but increased the chalkiness percentage and percent area of endosperm chalkiness in both cultivars compared with ambient temperature (AT). Significantly higher grain breakdown, set back, consistence viscosity and gelatinization temperature, and significantly lower peak, trough and final viscosities were observed under high-temperature stress compared with AT. Thus, HNT was more devastating for grain quality than HDT. The exogenous application of PGRs ameliorated the adverse effects of high temperature in both rice cultivars, and Vc+Ve+MejA+Br was the best combination for both cultivars under high temperature stress.

  13. Beam-based compensation of extracted-beam displacement caused by field ringing of pulsed kicker magnets in the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Saha, Pranab Kumar; Tamura, Fumihiko; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hotchi, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoki; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hasegawa, Kazuo


    Commissioned in October 2007, the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was designed for a high-intensity output beam power of 1 MW. The RCS extracts 3 GeV proton beams of two bunches by using eight pulsed kicker magnets and three DC septum magnets with 25 Hz repetition. These beams are delivered to a materials and life science experimental facility (MLF) and a 50 GeV main ring synchrotron (MR). However, the flat-top fields of the kicker magnets experience ringing that displaces the position of the extracted beam. This displacement is a major issue from the viewpoint of target integrity at the MLF and emittance growth at MR injection. To understand the flat-top uniformity of the total field of all the kickers, the uniformity was measured as the displacement of the extracted beams by using a shorter bunched beam and scanning the entire trigger timing of the kickers. The beam displacement of the first bunch exceeded the required range. Therefore, we performed beam-based measurements kicker by kicker to understand each field-ringing effect, and then we understood the characteristics (strength and temporal structure) of each ringing field. We managed to cancel out the ringing by using all the beam-based measurement data and optimizing each trigger timing. As a result, the field-ringing effect of the kickers was successfully compensated by optimizing the trigger timing of each kicker without hardware upgrades or improvements to the kicker system. By developing an automatic monitoring and correction system, we now have a higher stability of extracted beams during routine user operation. In this paper, we report our procedure for ringing compensation and present supporting experimental results.

  14. Monoenergetic laser wakefield acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Andreev


    Full Text Available Three dimensional test particle simulations are applied to optimization of the plasma-channeled laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA operating in a weakly nonlinear regime. Electron beam energy spread, emittance, and luminosity depend upon the proportion of the electron bunch size to the plasma wavelength. This proportion tends to improve with the laser wavelength increase. We simulate a prospective two-stage ∼1GeV LWFA with controlled energy spread and emittance. The input parameters correspond to realistic capabilities of the BNL Accelerator Test Facility that features a picosecond-terawatt CO_{2} laser and a high-brightness electron gun.

  15. Modelling and multiparameter control applied to a fast annealing furnace; Modelisation et Commande Multivariable Appliquee a un Four de Recuit Rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardon, B.


    Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP) technology is a delicate field to the control engineer. Its compatibility to single-wafer processing is well suited for performing thermal steps in the state-of-the-art integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. Control of the wafer temperature during the processing is essential. The main problem in the scalar (SISO) approach is due to the steady-state temperature uniformity. A solution to this problem is to vary the spatial energy flux distribution radiating to the wafer. To achieve this requirement, one approach is the use a multivariable (MIMO) control law to manipulate independently the different lamps banks. Thermal process are highly non linear and distributed in nature. Besides, these non-linearities implies process dynamics variations. In this work, after physically describing our process about a reference value of the power and temperature, we present an off-line identification procedure (in the aim of devising a linear multivariable model) using input/output data for different reference values from real experiences and multi-variable least square algorithm. Afterwards, particular attention is devoted to the structure parameter determination of the linear model. Based on the linear model, a multivariable PID controller is designed. The controller coupled with the least mean square identification algorithm is tested under real conditions. The performances of the MIMO adaptive controller is also evaluated in tracking as well as in regulation. (author) refs.

  16. Applying high-frequency surrogate measurements and a wavelet-ANN model to provide early warnings of rapid surface water quality anomalies. (United States)

    Shi, Bin; Wang, Peng; Jiang, Jiping; Liu, Rentao


    It is critical for surface water management systems to provide early warnings of abrupt, large variations in water quality, which likely indicate the occurrence of spill incidents. In this study, a combined approach integrating a wavelet artificial neural network (wavelet-ANN) model and high-frequency surrogate measurements is proposed as a method of water quality anomaly detection and warning provision. High-frequency time series of major water quality indexes (TN, TP, COD, etc.) were produced via a regression-based surrogate model. After wavelet decomposition and denoising, a low-frequency signal was imported into a back-propagation neural network for one-step prediction to identify the major features of water quality variations. The precisely trained site-specific wavelet-ANN outputs the time series of residual errors. A warning is triggered when the actual residual error exceeds a given threshold, i.e., baseline pattern, estimated based on long-term water quality variations. A case study based on the monitoring program applied to the Potomac River Basin in Virginia, USA, was conducted. The integrated approach successfully identified two anomaly events of TP variations at a 15-minute scale from high-frequency online sensors. A storm event and point source inputs likely accounted for these events. The results show that the wavelet-ANN model is slightly more accurate than the ANN for high-frequency surface water quality prediction, and it meets the requirements of anomaly detection. Analyses of the performance at different stations and over different periods illustrated the stability of the proposed method. By combining monitoring instruments and surrogate measures, the presented approach can support timely anomaly identification and be applied to urban aquatic environments for watershed management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of a new possibility to predict the behavior of high - performance anticorrosive protections applied on steel after their exposure in natural aggressive environments, respectively in laboratory accelerated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina POPA


    Full Text Available As a result of the global warming, notable changes in the climatic regime of Romania were observed in the last 40-50 years by increasing of the maximum temperatures and decreasing of the minimum temperatures characteristic for each season. This paper makes reference to an experimental research regarding the actual severity of the Romanian climate and its effects toward some performant anticorrosive coatings applied on steel. Such performant anticorrosive protection systems were exposed in situ – marine and alpine environment - and in parallel, aiming to simulate the severe climatic actions through laboratory accelerated environments - neutral salt fog, condensation and temperature variations. The graphical representation and the interpretation of the adhesion to the steel surface by means of the variation of the class into which the paint was framed after performing the cross-cut test during the exposure provided information concerning a new possibility to predict the evolution of the degradation of the paint, by means of this characteristic experimentally determined.

  18. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticides in Morinda officinalis by GC-ECD with accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion and positive confirmation by GC-MS. (United States)

    Liu, Hongmei; Kong, Weijun; Gong, Bao; Miao, Qing; Qi, Yun; Yang, Meihua


    In this work, 33 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 9 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Morinda officinalis were effectively and selectively extracted and cleaned up by accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (ASE/MSPD) method, followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Carbophenothion was selected as the internal standard and added into the final extracts to improve the precision and accuracy of the method. Parameters for ASE/MSPD procedure including ratio of acetone to n-hexane, temperature and amount of Florisil were optimized to improve the performance of the method through orthogonal experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the average recoveries (six replicates) for all pesticides (spiked at 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) ranged from 69.3% to 112% with RSD less than 14.14%. A wide linear range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) was observed with r values of 0.9963-0.9999. Meanwhile, the method gave high selectivity and sensitivity (LODs<3 μg kg(-1) and LOQs<8.0 μg kg (-1)), good repeatability (RSD of 9.64%, on average) and precision (RSD of 5.48%, averagely) and excellent stability (RSD <9.47%). The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by applying it for preconcentration and determination of OCPs and PYPs in 40 batches of real samples. Four kinds of pesticides (beta-endosulfan, tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene and alpha-BHC) were detected in three batches of samples, which were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. The results indicated that ASE/MSPD is a reliable and half-automated extraction and purification technique, with many advantages over traditional techniques. The combination of ASE/MSPD and GC-ECD could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Accelerators for Cancer Therapy (United States)

    Lennox, Arlene J.


    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy.

  20. Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cook


    Full Text Available A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6 is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the “Q-loss” and “f-dot” loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a “harmonic ratcheting” acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details

  1. Accelerated cross-linking of silicones for liquid-applied sealing of plastic oil pans in the serial production of combustion engines; Beschleunigtes Vernetzen von Silikonen zur Fluessigabdichtung von Oelwannen aus Kunststoff in der Serienproduktion von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preuss, Michael


    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the development of different processes of an accelerated cross-linking of silicones and investigates different sealing concepts for plastic components using a plastic oil pan as an example. Thus, 2K silicones cross-linking at ambient temperature as well as 1K silicones with an accelerated curing due to an additional heat load are developed. The target is an accelerated crosslink of silicones without minimization of the processing period and weakening of the adhesive strength.

  2. Technology and applications of advanced accelerator concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren


    Since its invention in the 1920s, particle accelerators have made tremendous progress in accelerator science, technology and applications. However, the fundamental acceleration principle, namely, to apply an external radiofrequency (RF) electric field to accelerate charged particles, remains unchanged. As this method (either room temperature RF or superconducting RF) is approaching its intrinsic limitation in acceleration gradient (measured in MeV/m), it becomes apparent that new methods with much higher acceleration gradient (measured in GeV/m) must be found for future very high energy accelerators as well as future compact (table-top or room-size) accelerators. This volume introduces a number of advanced accelerator concepts (AAC) — their principles, technologies and potential applications. For the time being, none of them stands out as a definitive direction in which to go. But these novel ideas are in hot pursuit and look promising. Furthermore, some AAC requires a high power laser system. This has the ...

  3. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew


    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  4. accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    On the inside of the cavity there is a layer of niobium. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment.

  5. Proton-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The construction of ever larger and costlier accelerator facilities has a limited future, and new technologies will be needed to push the energy frontier. Plasma wakefield acceleration is a rapidly developing field and is a promising candidate technology for future high energy colliders. We focus on the recently proposed idea of proton-driven plasma wakefield acceleration and describe the current status and plans for this approach.

  6. Adiabatic Non-resonant Acceleration in Magnetic Turbulence and Hard Spectra of Gamma-Ray Bursts (United States)

    Xu, Siyao; Zhang, Bing


    We introduce a non-resonant acceleration mechanism arising from the second adiabatic invariant in magnetic turbulence and apply it to study the prompt emission spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The mechanism contains both the first- and second-order Fermi acceleration, originating from the interacting turbulent reconnection and dynamo processes. It leads to a hard electron energy distribution up to a cutoff energy at the balance between the acceleration and synchrotron cooling. The sufficient acceleration rate ensures a rapid hardening of any initial energy distribution to a power-law distribution with the index p˜ 1, which naturally produces a low-energy photon index α ˜ -1 via the synchrotron radiation. For typical GRB parameters, the synchrotron emission can extend to a characteristic photon energy on the order of ˜100 keV.

  7. Hamiltonian mechanics of stochastic acceleration. (United States)

    Burby, J W; Zhmoginov, A I; Qin, H


    We show how to find the physical Langevin equation describing the trajectories of particles undergoing collisionless stochastic acceleration. These stochastic differential equations retain not only one-, but two-particle statistics, and inherit the Hamiltonian nature of the underlying microscopic equations. This opens the door to using stochastic variational integrators to perform simulations of stochastic interactions such as Fermi acceleration. We illustrate the theory by applying it to two example problems.

  8. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets


    van Nugteren, J.


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is ...

  9. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets


    Van Nugteren, Jeroen; ten Kate, Herman; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet ...

  10. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...... the implementation of a large intervention undertaken in five project-based organizations in Denmark – the Project Half Double where the same project methodology has been applied in five projects, each of them in five distinct organizations in Denmark, as a bold attempt to realize double the benefit in half...

  11. Hardware Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R


    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32 bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain validated solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedra that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester. We show that the hardware accelerated solution is faster than the current technique used by scientists.

  12. Relativity and accelerator engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Schenefeld (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)


    From a geometrical viewpoint, according to the theory of relativity, space and time constitute a four-dimensional continuum with pseudo-Euclidean structure. This has recently begun to be a practically important statement in accelerator physics. An X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) is in fact the best, exciting example of an engineering system where improvements in accelerator technology makes it possible to develop ultrarelativistic macroscopic objects with an internal fine structure, and the theory of relativity plays an essential role in their description. An ultrarelativistic electron bunch modulated at nanometer-scale in XFELs has indeed a macroscopic finite-size of order of 10 μm. Its internal, collective structure is characterized in terms of a wave number vector. Here we will show that a four-dimensional geometrical approach, unusual in accelerator physics, is needed to solve problems involving the emission of radiation from an ultrarelativistic modulated electron beam accelerating along a curved trajectory. We will see that relativistic kinematics enters XFEL physics in a most fundamental way through the so-called Wigner rotation of the modulation wave number vector, which is closely associated to the relativity of simultaneity. If not taken into account, relativistic kinematics effects would lead to a strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiments. In this paper, several examples of relativistic kinematics effects, which are important for current and future XFEL operation, are studied. The theory of relativity is applied by providing details of the clock synchronization procedure within the laboratory frame. This approach, exploited here but unusual in literature, is rather ''practical'', and should be acceptable to accelerator physicists.

  13. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators (United States)

    Bingham, Robert


    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  14. Statistical acceleration of electrons by lower-hybrid turbulence (United States)

    Wu, C. S.; Gaffey, J. D., Jr.; Liberman, B.


    The statistical acceleration of electrons along an ambient magnetic field by large-amplitude lower-hybrid turbulence is discussed. Perturbations driven by a crossfield current and propagating nearly perpendicular to the applied magnetic field are considered. It is assumed that the instability saturates rapidly and that the fluctuating electric field is predominantly electrostatic. If the turbulence is characterized by a spectrum of small parallel wavenumbers, such that the parallel phase velocity of the waves is greater than the electron thermal velocity, then the turbulence can only accelerate electrons moving with large velocities along the magnetic field. The quasi-linear diffusion equation is solved using a Green's function technique, assuming a power law spectral energy density. The time evolution of an initial Maxwellian distribution is given and the time rate of change of the mean electron energy is calculated for various cases.

  15. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution


    Joel Lehman; Risto Miikkulainen


    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. ...

  16. Tutorial on Superconducting Accelerator Magnets (United States)

    Ball, M. J. Penny; Goodzeit, Carl L.


    A multimedia CD-ROM tutorial on the physics and engineering concepts of superconducting magnets for particle accelerators is being developed under a U.S. Dept. of Energy SBIR grant. The tutorial, scheduled for distribution this summer, is targeted to undergraduate junior or senior level science students. However, its unified presentation of the broad range of issues involved in the design of superconducting magnets for accelerators and the extensive detail about the construction process (including animations and video clips) will also be of value to staff of research institutes and industrial concerns with an interest in applied superconductivity or magnet development. The source material, which is based on the world-wide R and D programs to develop superconducting accelerator magnets, is organized in five units with the following themes: Introduction to magnets and accelerators; (2) Superconductors for accelerator magnets; (3) Magnetic design methods for accelerator magnets; (4) Electrical, mechanical, and cryogenic considerations for the final magnet package; (5) Performance characteristics and measurement methods. A detailed outline and examples will be shown.

  17. Electron accelerating unit for streak image tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The distance between the cathode and the mesh is 1.2 mm. The electric field in the cathode-to-mesh region is a self-focusing field, which can reduce the electron beam size. There are three advantages of the accelerating unit. In the pulsed mode, a pulsed voltage is applied to the accelerating electrode. First, the SIT works ...

  18. Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor


    Youn-Sung Kim; Jin-Ho Jo; Mi-Sung Kim; Jae-Kun Lee


    Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for...

  19. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  20. Piezoelectric particle accelerator (United States)

    Kemp, Mark A.; Jongewaard, Erik N.; Haase, Andrew A.; Franzi, Matthew


    A particle accelerator is provided that includes a piezoelectric accelerator element, where the piezoelectric accelerator element includes a hollow cylindrical shape, and an input transducer, where the input transducer is disposed to provide an input signal to the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the input signal induces a mechanical excitation of the piezoelectric accelerator element, where the mechanical excitation is capable of generating a piezoelectric electric field proximal to an axis of the cylindrical shape, where the piezoelectric accelerator is configured to accelerate a charged particle longitudinally along the axis of the cylindrical shape according to the piezoelectric electric field.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhm, Z. Lucas; Zhang, Bing, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)


    Applying our recently developed generalized version of the high-latitude emission theory to the observations of X-ray flares in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), here we present clear observational evidence that the X-ray flare emission region is undergoing rapid bulk acceleration as the photons are emitted. We show that both the observed X-ray flare light curves and the photon index evolution curves can be simultaneously reproduced within a simple physical model invoking synchrotron radiation in an accelerating emission region far from the GRB central engine. Such an acceleration process demands an additional energy dissipation source other than kinetic energy, which points toward a significant Poynting flux in the emission region of X-ray flares. As the X-ray flares are believed to share a similar physical mechanism as the GRB prompt emission, our finding here hints that the GRB prompt emission jets may also carry a significant Poynting flux in their emitting region.

  2. Accelerated Characterization of Polymer Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wroczynski; l. Brewer; D. Buckley; M. Burrell; R. Potyrailo


    This report describes the efforts to develop a suite of microanalysis techniques that can rapidly measure a variety of polymer properties of industrial importance, including thermal, photo-oxidative, and color stability; as well as ductility, viscosity, and mechanical and antistatic properties. Additional goals of the project were to direct the development of these techniques toward simultaneous measurements of multiple polymer samples of small size in real time using non-destructive and/or parallel or rapid sequential measurements, to develop microcompounding techniques for preparing polymers with additives, and to demonstrate that samples prepared in the microcompounder could be analyzed directly or used in rapid off-line measurements. These enabling technologies are the crucial precursors to the development of high-throughput screening (HTS) methodologies for the polymer additives industry whereby the rate of development of new additives and polymer formulations can be greatly accelerated.

  3. Quadrupole magnet for a rapid cycling synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    Rapid Cycling Synchrotrons (RCS) feature interleaved warm and cold dipole magnets; the field of the warm magnets is used to modulate the average bending field depending on the particle energy. It has been shown that RCS can be an attractive option for fast acceleration of particles, for example, muons, which decay quickly. In previous studies it was demonstrated that in principle warm dipole magnets can be designed which can provide the required ramp rates, which are equivalent to frequencies of about 1 kHz. To reduce the losses it is beneficial to employ two separate materials for the yoke; it was also shown that by employing an optimized excitation coil geometry the eddy current losses are acceptable. In this paper we show that the same principles can be applied to quadrupole magnets targeting 30 T/m with a repetition rate of 1kHz and good field quality.

  4. Application of platelet-rich plasma accelerates the wound healing process in acute and chronic ulcers through rapid migration and upregulation of cyclin A and CDK4 in HaCaT cells. (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ae; Ryu, Han-Won; Lee, Kyu-Suk; Cho, Jae-We


    Application of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for chronic wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRP on the wound healing processes of both acute and chronic ulcers and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. We treated 16 patients affected by various acute and chronic ulcers with PRP. We performed molecular studies of cell proliferation, migration assays, immunoblotting and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays in PRP-treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells. PRP treatment induced increased rates of cell proliferation and cell migration of HaCaT cells. In addition, the expression of cyclin A and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4 proteins was markedly increased with a low concentration (0.5%) of PRP treatment in HaCaT cells. In 11 patients with chronic ulcers, including stasis ulcers, diabetic ulcers, venous leg ulcers, livedoid vasculitis, claw foot and traumatic ulcers, 9 patients showed 90-100% epithelization after 15.18 days. In 5 patients with acute ulcers, such as dehiscence, open wound and burn wound, 80-100% epithelization was achieved between 4 to 20 days. Topical application of PRP to acute and chronic skin ulcers significantly accelerated the epithelization process, likely through upregulation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin A and CDK4.

  5. Study of the heat flux generated by accelerated electrons on the components near the plasma; Etude du flux de chaleur dissipe par les electrons rapides sur les composants proches du plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, J. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee


    Experimental data have shown that a heat flux appears on components situated near the wave guide of the lower hybrid antenna of Tore-Supra. This heat flux is due to the energy release during collisions that occur between the component surface and the electrons accelerated by the high frequency field generated by the antenna. Simulations show that the electrons may reach an energy of 2-3 keV and that the heat flux generated in the shield may reach 10 MW/m{sup 2}. In this work a correlation has been established between the local heat flux due to electron impact and the mean electrical field near the antenna: {phi} (W/m{sup 2}) = 4.10{sup -4} x E{sup -6} (10{sup 5} V/m). It is also shown that the ratio of electrons that reach the shield is roughly not dependent on the value of the mean electrical field. In the hypothesis of a Gaussian distribution of electron initial velocities this ratio is 10%. (A.C.)

  6. Applied Gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shiraz Minwalla

    Scattering amplitudes are fundamental observables in quatnum field theories, and are of great interest to high energy phenomenologists, because they are directly measurable in particle accelerators. N = 4 Yang Mills is a theory of massless gluons. Natural question: can one use gravity to compute the S matrix of.

  7. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia


    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at:

  8. Applied mathematics made simple

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Patrick


    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  9. Particle Acceleration in the Heliosphere: Implications for Astrophysics (United States)

    Fisk, L. A.; Gloeckler, G.


    There has been a remarkable discovery concerning particles that are accelerated in the solar wind. At low energies, in the region where the particles are being accelerated, the spectrum of the accelerated particles is always the same: when expressed as a distribution function, the spectrum is a power law in particle speed with a spectral index of -5, and a rollover at higher particle speeds that can often be described as exponential. This common spectral shape cannot be accounted for by any conventional acceleration mechanism, such as diffusive shock acceleration or traditional stochastic acceleration. It has thus been necessary to invent a new acceleration mechanism to account for these observations, a pump mechanism in which particles are pumped up in energy through a series of adiabatic compressions and expansions. The conditions under which the pump acceleration is the dominant acceleration mechanism are quite general and are likely to occur in other astrophysical plasmas. In this paper, the most compelling observations of the -5 spectra are reviewed; the governing equation of the pump acceleration mechanism is derived in detail; the pump acceleration mechanism is applied to acceleration at shocks; and, as an illustration of the potential applicability of the pump acceleration mechanism to other astrophysical plasmas, the pump mechanism is applied to the acceleration of galactic cosmic rays in the interstellar medium.

  10. High Energy Particle Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Audio Productions, Inc, New York


    Film about the different particle accelerators in the US. Nuclear research in the US has developed into a broad and well-balanced program.Tour of accelerator installations, accelerator development work now in progress and a number of typical experiments with high energy particles. Brookhaven, Cosmotron. Univ. Calif. Berkeley, Bevatron. Anti-proton experiment. Negative k meson experiment. Bubble chambers. A section on an electron accelerator. Projection of new accelerators. Princeton/Penn. build proton synchrotron. Argonne National Lab. Brookhaven, PS construction. Cambridge Electron Accelerator; Harvard/MIT. SLAC studying a linear accelerator. Other research at Madison, Wisconsin, Fixed Field Alternate Gradient Focusing. (FFAG) Oakridge, Tenn., cyclotron. Two-beam machine. Comments : Interesting overview of high energy particle accelerators installations in the US in these early years. .

  11. Improved plasma accelerator (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.


    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  12. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia


    Introduction to accelerator physics The CERN Accelerator School: Introduction to Accelerator Physics, which should have taken place in Istanbul, Turkey, later this year has now been relocated to Budapest, Hungary.  Further details regarding the new hotel and dates will be made available as soon as possible on a new Indico site at the end of May.

  13. Accelerators and Dinosaurs

    CERN Multimedia

    Turner, Michael Stanley


    Using naturally occuring particles on which to research might have made accelerators become extinct. But in fact, results from astrophysics have made accelerator physics even more important. Not only are accelerators used in hospitals but they are also being used to understand nature's inner workings by searching for Higgs bosons, CP violation, neutrino mass and dark matter (2 pages)

  14. Rapid transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrin, J.G.


    Solar energy programs are entering a critical transitional period as we move from the initial marketing of solar technologies into a phase of widespread commercialization. We face the dual challenge of trying to get enough solar systems in place fast enough to prove solar is a viable alternative, while trying to ensure the systems are designed and installed properly, proving the energy savings as promised. This is a period of both great opportunity and high risk as the field becomes crowded with new solar cheerleaders and supporters but seldom enough competent players. The status of existing and proposed programs for the accelerated commercialization of solar energy in California is described.

  15. Quantum computing accelerator I/O : LDRD 52750 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Modine, Normand Arthur; Ganti, Anand; Pierson, Lyndon George; Tigges, Christopher P.


    In a superposition of quantum states, a bit can be in both the states '0' and '1' at the same time. This feature of the quantum bit or qubit has no parallel in classical systems. Currently, quantum computers consisting of 4 to 7 qubits in a 'quantum computing register' have been built. Innovative algorithms suited to quantum computing are now beginning to emerge, applicable to sorting and cryptanalysis, and other applications. A framework for overcoming slightly inaccurate quantum gate interactions and for causing quantum states to survive interactions with surrounding environment is emerging, called quantum error correction. Thus there is the potential for rapid advances in this field. Although quantum information processing can be applied to secure communication links (quantum cryptography) and to crack conventional cryptosystems, the first few computing applications will likely involve a 'quantum computing accelerator' similar to a 'floating point arithmetic accelerator' interfaced to a conventional Von Neumann computer architecture. This research is to develop a roadmap for applying Sandia's capabilities to the solution of some of the problems associated with maintaining quantum information, and with getting data into and out of such a 'quantum computing accelerator'. We propose to focus this work on 'quantum I/O technologies' by applying quantum optics on semiconductor nanostructures to leverage Sandia's expertise in semiconductor microelectronic/photonic fabrication techniques, as well as its expertise in information theory, processing, and algorithms. The work will be guided by understanding of practical requirements of computing and communication architectures. This effort will incorporate ongoing collaboration between 9000, 6000 and 1000 and between junior and senior personnel. Follow-on work to fabricate and evaluate appropriate experimental nano/microstructures will be

  16. Acceleration from short-duration blast (United States)

    Ritzel, D. V.; Van Albert, S.; Sajja, V.; Long, J.


    The blast-induced motion of spheres has been studied experimentally where the shock wave is rapidly decaying during the period that quasi-steady acceleration would be developed in the case of a step-function shock wave as considered in most shock-tube studies. The motion of sphere models ranging from 39 to 251 mm in diameter and having a range of densities was assessed using the "free-flight" method in a simulator specially designed to replicate the decaying shock wave profile of spherical blast including negative phase and positive entropy gradient. A standardized blast-wave simulation of 125 kPa and 6-ms positive-phase duration was applied for all experiments. In all cases, there are three phases to the motion: a relatively low "kickoff" velocity from the shock diffraction, acceleration or deceleration during the positive duration, then deceleration through the negative phase and subsequent quiescent air. The unexpected deceleration of larger spheres after their kickoff velocity during the decaying yet high-speed flow of the blast wave seems associated with the persistence of a ring vortex on the downstream side of the sphere. The flow is entirely unsteady with initial forces dominated by the shock diffraction; therefore, the early motion of spheres under such conditions is not governed by quasi-steady drag as in classical aerodynamics. The work will help establish scaling rules for model studies of blast-induced motion relevant to improvised explosive devices, and preliminary results are shown for motion imparted to a human skull surrogate.

  17. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R


    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  18. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Univer...

  19. Industrial Application of Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    At CERN, we are very familiar with large, high energy particle accelerators. However, in the world outside CERN, there are more than 35000 accelerators which are used for applications ranging from treating cancer, through making better electronics to removing harmful micro-organisms from food and water. These are responsible for around $0.5T of commerce each year. Almost all are less than 20 MeV and most use accelerator types that are somewhat different from what is at CERN. These lectures will describe some of the most common applications, some of the newer applications in development and the accelerator technology used for them. It will also show examples of where technology developed for particle physics is now being studied for these applications. Rob Edgecock is a Professor of Accelerator Science, with a particular interest in the medical applications of accelerators. He works jointly for the STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and the International Institute for Accelerator Applications at the Uni...

  20. Mechanism of action of abscission accelerators. [Grossypium hirsutum L. ; Cassia fistula L. ; Coleus blumei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeles, F.B.


    Abscission zone explants of Gossypium hirsutum L., Cassia fistula L., and Coleus blumei Benth. were used to investigate correlations between endogenous rates of ethylene evolution and time of abscission. Additions of 0.1 nl/ml ethylene to the explants markedly accelerated abscission; continuous aeration of the explants, to prevent accumulation of small amounts of endogenously produced ethylene, inhibited abscission compared with that of sealed controls. Substances that stimulated abscission simultaneously accelerated ethylene evolution on all three species and at any position of application. The position effects of auxin are explained as being due to differences in transport in the explant. Thus, distally applied auxin inhibits abscission, regardless of the accelerated rate of ethylene evolution, by being rapidly transported to the abscission zone. Auxin applied proximally stimulates abscission because it is unable to move as rapidly to the abscission zone and the ethylene effect becomes dominant. Ethylene was found to be most effective on aged tissues, and it is concluded that abscission rates are determined by an increase in sensitivity of the tissue to the ethylene that is already being produced.

  1. CERNois wins prestigious accelerator award

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    During the 2nd International Particle Accelerator Conference, CERN’s Rogelio Tomás García became the first Spaniard to receive the Frank Sacherer Prize for his work in particle beam optics.   Rogelio Tomás García at the 2nd International Particle Accelerator Conference. The Frank Sacherer Prize is awarded to physicists who have made a “significant, original contribution to the accelerator field" early on in their career. This year the prize was given to Rogelio Tomás García who, at only 35 years of age, has made important contributions to the optics design, optics measurement, and correction techniques applied at both the LHC and Brookhaven’s RHIC. “Tomás has had a vital impact on CERN’s beam optics studies and has made very impressive achievements in the field of beam optics,” says Oliver Brüning, Head of the Accelerators and Beam Physics...

  2. Experiments on heat pipes submitted to strong accelerations; Experimentation de caloducs soumis a de fortes accelerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuthe, A. [Dassault Aviation, 92 - Saint Cloud (France)


    In order to evaluate the possibility to use heat pipes as efficient heat transfer devices in aircrafts, a study of their behaviour during strong accelerations is necessary. This study has been jointly carried out by the Laboratory of Thermal Studies of Poitiers (France) and Dassault Aviation company. It is based on a series of tests performed with an experimental apparatus that uses the centrifugal effect to simulate the acceleration fields submitted to the heat pipe. Un-priming - priming cycles have been performed under different power and acceleration levels and at various functioning temperatures in order to explore the behaviour of heat pipes: rate of un-priming and re-priming, functioning in blocked mode etc.. This preliminary study demonstrates the rapid re-priming of the tested heat pipes when submitted to favourable acceleration situations and the possibility to use them under thermosyphon conditions despite the brief unfavourable acceleration periods encountered. (J.S.)

  3. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Reactive Hydrocarbon Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, Steven J.


    The research activities in this project consisted of four different sub-projects. Three different accelerated dynamics techniques (parallel replica dynamics, hyperdynamics, and temperature-accelerated dynamics) were applied to the modeling of pyrolysis of hydrocarbons. In addition, parallel replica dynamics was applied to modeling of polymerization.

  4. Concentrated Light for Accelerated Photo Degradation of Polymer Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Tromholt, Thomas; Norrman, Kion


    Concentrated light is used to perform photochemical degradation of polymer solar cell materials with acceleration factors up to 1200. At constant temperature the photon efficiency in regards to photo degradation is constant for 1–150 suns and oxygen diffusion rates are not a limiting factor....... Accelerated degradation by concentrated light thus allows for rapid and precise evaluations of one sun polymer stabilities....

  5. The United States Particle Accelerator School: Educating the next generation of accelerator scientists and engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, William A.; /MIT


    Only a handful of universities in the US offer any formal training in accelerator science. The United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) is National Graduate Educational Program that has developed a highly successful educational paradigm that, over the past twenty-years, has granted more university credit in accelerator / beam science and technology than any university in the world. Sessions are held twice annually, hosted by major US research universities that approve course credit, certify the USPAS faculty, and grant course credit. The USPAS paradigm is readily extensible to other rapidly developing, crossdisciplinary research areas such as high energy density physics.

  6. Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schulze, C


    Full Text Available ) Accelerated rotation with orbital angular momentum modes Christian Schulze,1 Filippus S. Roux,2 Angela Dudley,2 Ronald Rop,3 Michael Duparre´,1 and Andrew Forbes2,4,* 1Institute of Applied Optics, Friedrich Schiller University, Fro¨belstieg 1, 07743 Jena... from the transverse acceleration discussed before. We tailor our “twisted light” (fields carrying orbital angular momentum) to have a nonlinear phase variation with azimuthal angle, which we show is the building block for angular accelerating light...

  7. Applied Macroeconomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.


    This book contains a course in applied macroeconomics. Macroeconomic theory is applied to real world cases. Students are expected to compute model results with the help of a spreadsheet program. To that end the book also contains descriptions of the spreadsheet applications used, such as linear

  8. Particle accelerators unravel Art and Archaeology issues (United States)

    Calligaro, Thomas


    Many analytical techniques are applied to get a better insight on art works and archaeological artefacts and to contribute to their conservation and restoration. Because of the precious and sometimes unique character of these items, non-destructive and non-sampling techniques are preferred. From this standpoint, the analysis with ion beams produced by accelerators (IBA), featuring good analytical performance and non-destructiveness, constitutes one of the best choices. Ion beams analysis techniques (IBA) introduced in 1957 have been constantly adapted to address art and archaeology questions; today the performances obtained directly on the object placed in the atmosphere rival with those achieved in vacuum. Since 20 years, AGLAE, the IBA facility of the Centre for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France located in the Louvre museum has contributed to this progress. The cornerstone of this development is a versatile external nuclear microprobe implementing PIXE, PIGE, RBS, NRA and ERDA methods for rapid expertises of art works and more extensive research works in art history, archaeology and conservation science. After an introduction of the physical principles of IBA, a virtual tour of this unique facility will be provided. The benefit of its use will be illustrated through two case studies, the first one dealing with the determination by PIXE of the provenance of painted works of the Spanish master Murillo and the second one with the authentication study using NRA of a mysterious archaeological rock crystal skull.

  9. Accelerated degradation of methyl iodide by agrochemicals. (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R


    The fumigant methyl iodide (MeI, iodomethane) is considered a promising alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for soil-borne pest control in high-cash-value crops. However, the high vapor pressure of MeI results in emissions of a significant proportion of the applied mass into the ambient air, and this may lead to pollution of the environment. Integrating the application of certain agrochemicals with soil fumigation provides a novel approach to reduce excessive fumigant emissions. This study investigated the potential for several agrochemicals that are commonly used in farming operations, including fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors, to transform MeI in aqueous solution. The pseudo-first-order hydrolysis half-life (t(1/2)) of MeI was approximately 108 d, while the transformation of MeI in aqueous solutions containing selected agrochemicals was more rapid, with t(1/2) nitrification inhibitors). The influence of these agrochemicals on the rate of MeI degradation in soil was also determined. Adsorption to soil apparently reduced the availability of some nitrification inhibitors in the soil aqueous phase and lowered the degradation rate in soil. In contrast, addition of the nitrification inhibitors thiourea and allylthiourea to soil significantly accelerated the degradation of MeI, possibly due to soil surface catalysis. The t(1/2) of MeI was 300 h).

  10. Accelerator and radiation physics

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Samita; Nandy, Maitreyee


    "Accelerator and radiation physics" encompasses radiation shielding design and strategies for hadron therapy accelerators, neutron facilities and laser based accelerators. A fascinating article describes detailed transport theory and its application to radiation transport. Detailed information on planning and design of a very high energy proton accelerator can be obtained from the article on radiological safety of J-PARC. Besides safety for proton accelerators, the book provides information on radiological safety issues for electron synchrotron and prevention and preparedness for radiological emergencies. Different methods for neutron dosimetry including LET based monitoring, time of flight spectrometry, track detectors are documented alongwith newly measured experimental data on radiation interaction with dyes, polymers, bones and other materials. Design of deuteron accelerator, shielding in beam line hutches in synchrotron and 14 MeV neutron generator, various radiation detection methods, their characteriza...

  11. Nonparaxial accelerating Talbot effect

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Belić, Milivoj R; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min


    We demonstrate the Talbot effect of nonpraxial accelerating beams, theoretically and numerically. It is based on the interference of nonparaxial accelerating solutions of the Helmholtz equation in two dimensions. The effect originates from the interference of such solutions that accelerate along concentric semicircular trajectories with different radii. The Talbot images form along certain central angles, which are referred to as the Talbot angles. These angles are inversely proportional to the radial differences between the nearest beams, which are equal and fixed. A single nonparaxial accelerating beam possesses duality - it can be viewed as a Talbot effect of itself with an infinite or zero Talbot angle. By choosing the coefficient for each beam component properly, we also obtain the fractional nonparaxial accelerating Talbot effect. These results improve the understanding of nonparaxial accelerating beams and the Talbot effect among them.

  12. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D


    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  13. Miniaturization Techniques for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James E.


    The possibility of laser driven accelerators [1] suggests the need for new structures based on micromachining and integrated circuit technology because of the comparable scales. Thus, we are exploring fully integrated structures including sources, optics (for both light and particle) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip (AOC). Tests suggest a number of preferred materials and techniques but no technical or fundamental roadblocks at scales of order 1 {micro}m or larger.

  14. Power Converters for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Visintini, R.


    Particle accelerators use a great variety of power converters for energizing their sub-systems; while the total number of power converters usually depends on the size of the accelerator or combination of accelerators (including the experimental setup), the characteristics of power converters depend on their loads and on the particle physics requirements: this paper aims to provide an overview of the magnet power converters in use in several facilities worldwide.

  15. Rapid Prototyping (United States)


    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  16. Hardware-Accelerated Simulated Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, D; Callahan, S; Max, N; Silva, C; Langer, S; Frank, R


    We present the application of hardware accelerated volume rendering algorithms to the simulation of radiographs as an aid to scientists designing experiments, validating simulation codes, and understanding experimental data. The techniques presented take advantage of 32-bit floating point texture capabilities to obtain solutions to the radiative transport equation for X-rays. The hardware accelerated solutions are accurate enough to enable scientists to explore the experimental design space with greater efficiency than the methods currently in use. An unsorted hexahedron projection algorithm is presented for curvilinear hexahedral meshes that produces simulated radiographs in the absorption-only regime. A sorted tetrahedral projection algorithm is presented that simulates radiographs of emissive materials. We apply the tetrahedral projection algorithm to the simulation of experimental diagnostics for inertial confinement fusion experiments on a laser at the University of Rochester.

  17. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators (United States)


    cosmic objects. Notes [1]: The new results are described in a research paper, "Particle Accelerators in the Hot Spots of Radio Galaxy 3C 445, Imaged with the VLT" by M. Almudena Prieto (ESO, Garching, Germany), Gianfranco Brunetti (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy) and Karl-Heinz Mack (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy; ASTRON/NFRA, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands; Radioastronomisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Germany), that recently appeared in the research journal Science (Vol. 298, pp. 193-195). [2]: When electrons - which are electrically charged - move through a magnetic field, they spiral along the lines of force. Electrons of high energy spiral very rapidly, at speeds near the speed of light. Under such conditions, the electrons emit highly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of this radiation is related to the strength of the magnetic field and the number and energy distribution of the electrons caught in this field. Many cosmic radio sources have been found to emit synchrotron radiation - one of the best examples is the famous Crab Nebula, depicted in ESO PR Photo 40f/99. ESO PR Photo 26/02 may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO).

  18. High Gradient Accelerator Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics. Plasma Science and Fusion Center


    The goal of the MIT program of research on high gradient acceleration is the development of advanced acceleration concepts that lead to a practical and affordable next generation linear collider at the TeV energy level. Other applications, which are more near-term, include accelerators for materials processing; medicine; defense; mining; security; and inspection. The specific goals of the MIT program are: • Pioneering theoretical research on advanced structures for high gradient acceleration, including photonic structures and metamaterial structures; evaluation of the wakefields in these advanced structures • Experimental research to demonstrate the properties of advanced structures both in low-power microwave cold test and high-power, high-gradient test at megawatt power levels • Experimental research on microwave breakdown at high gradient including studies of breakdown phenomena induced by RF electric fields and RF magnetic fields; development of new diagnostics of the breakdown process • Theoretical research on the physics and engineering features of RF vacuum breakdown • Maintaining and improving the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator, the highest frequency operational accelerator in the world, a unique facility for accelerator research • Providing the Haimson / MIT 17 GHz accelerator facility as a facility for outside users • Active participation in the US DOE program of High Gradient Collaboration, including joint work with SLAC and with Los Alamos National Laboratory; participation of MIT students in research at the national laboratories • Training the next generation of Ph. D. students in the field of accelerator physics.

  19. Accelerator Review Report 2014


    Tovey, Dan; Appleby, Rob; Bartolini, Riccardo; Bruning, Oliver; Clarke, Jim; Flint, Jonathan; Kilcoyne, Susan H.; Thomason, John; Jamieson, Charlotte; The Accelerator Science and Technology Centre (ASTeC); The Cockcroft Institute (CI); The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science (JAI)


    The panel was created to review the accelerator programme and provide information on the breadth and scope of the STFC’s current accelerator R&D portfolio. The review’s prime driver is to underpin the development of the STFC accelerator landscape and strategy. The panel’s report will go to SB for comment and development of a high-level accelerator strategy, taking into account information from parallel reviews on neutron and photon activities. The ASB will then establish a more detailed accel...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araudo, A. T.; Blundell, K. M. [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bell, A. R. [University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)


    We model the multi-wavelength emission in the southern hotspot of the radio quasar 4C74.26. The synchrotron radio emission is resolved near the shock with the MERLIN radio-interferometer, and the rapid decay of this emission behind the shock is interpreted as the decay of the amplified downstream magnetic field as expected for small scale turbulence. Electrons are accelerated to only 0.3 TeV, consistent with a diffusion coefficient many orders of magnitude greater than in the Bohm regime. If the same diffusion coefficient applies to the protons, their maximum energy is only ∼100 TeV.

  1. Beam Diagnostics for Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Koziol, Heribert


    This introductory course aims at a reasonably complete coverage of beam diagnostic devices used in linear and circular accelerators and in primary beam lines. The weight is on the concepts and the indication of variants, while for technical details the reader is referred to the literature. The present updated version replaces those from previous General Accelerator Physics Courses.

  2. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lach, Joseph; /Fermilab


    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  3. Asia honours accelerator physicists

    CERN Multimedia


    "Steve Meyers of Cern and Jie Wei of Beijing's Tsinghua University are the first recipients of a new prize for particle physics. The pair were honoured for their contributions to numerous particle-accelerator projects - including Cern's Large Hadron Collider - by the Asian Committee for Future Accelerators (ACFA)..." (1 paragraph)

  4. The Atomki accelerator center (United States)

    Vajda, I.; Fülöp, Zs.; Biri, S.


    Particle accelerators are the driving forces of nuclear physics laboratories and MTA Atomki, the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences is no exception. The Atomki Accelerator Center (AAC) incorporates several low-energy charged-particle accelerators, offering the possibility of choosing ions with various charge states, energies and beam intensities. Currently, the AAC has six main facilities: a cyclotron (K=20), two Van de Graaff accelerators (1 MV, 5 MV), an ECR ion source, an electromagnetic isotope separator and a 2 MV Tandetron installed in 2015. The accelerators, spanning a range of beam energies from 50 eV to 27 MeV, have been designed for a broad range of research projects and applications in various fields - mainly in nuclear and atomic physics, materials science, environmental research and archaeology. The structure of the laboratory with a short description of the most important topics, education and outreach activities are presented.

  5. Accelerated oral nanomedicine discovery from miniaturized screening to clinical production exemplified by paediatric HIV nanotherapies (United States)

    Giardiello, Marco; Liptrott, Neill J.; McDonald, Tom O.; Moss, Darren; Siccardi, Marco; Martin, Phil; Smith, Darren; Gurjar, Rohan; Rannard, Steve P.; Owen, Andrew


    Considerable scope exists to vary the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles, with subsequent impact on biological interactions; however, no accelerated process to access large nanoparticle material space is currently available, hampering the development of new nanomedicines. In particular, no clinically available nanotherapies exist for HIV populations and conventional paediatric HIV medicines are poorly available; one current paediatric formulation utilizes high ethanol concentrations to solubilize lopinavir, a poorly soluble antiretroviral. Here we apply accelerated nanomedicine discovery to generate a potential aqueous paediatric HIV nanotherapy, with clinical translation and regulatory approval for human evaluation. Our rapid small-scale screening approach yields large libraries of solid drug nanoparticles (160 individual components) targeting oral dose. Screening uses 1 mg of drug compound per library member and iterative pharmacological and chemical evaluation establishes potential candidates for progression through to clinical manufacture. The wide applicability of our strategy has implications for multiple therapy development programmes.

  6. Unbalance Response Prediction for Accelerating Rotors With Load-Dependent Nonlinear Bearing Stiffness (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Sawicki, Jaezy T.; Poplawski, J. V.


    Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic analysis requires that bearing forces corresponding to the actual bearing deflection be utilized. Previous papers have explored the transient effect of suddenly applied imbalance and the steady-state unbalance response, using bearing forces calculated by the rolling-element bearing analysis code COBRA-AHS. The present work considers the acceleration of a rotor through one or more critical speeds. The rotordynamic analysis showed that for rapid acceleration rates the maximum response amplitude may be considerably less than predicted by steady-state analysis. Above the critical speed, transient vibration at the rotor natural frequency occurs, similar to that predicted for a Jeffcott rotor with constant-stiffness bearings. A moderate amount of damping will markedly reduce the vibration amplitude, but this damping is not inherent in ball bearings.

  7. Operational aspects of experimental accelerator physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, G.A.


    During the normal course of high energy storage ring operations, it is customary for blocks of time to be allotted to something called ``machine studies,`` or more simply, just ``studies.`` It is during these periods of time that observations and measurement of accelerator behavior are actually performed. Almost invariably these studies are performed in support of normal machine operations. The machine physicist is either attempting to improve machine performance, or more often trying to recover previously attained ``good`` operation, for example after an extended machine down period. For the latter activity, a good portion of machine studies time is usually devoted to ``beam tuning`` activities: those standard measurements and adjustments required to recover good operations. Before continuing, please note that this paper is not intended to be comprehensive. It is intended solely to reflect one accelerator physicist`s impressions as to what goes on in an accelerator control room. Many topics are discussed, some in more detail than others, and it is not the intention that the techniques described herein be applied verbatim to any existing accelerator. It is hoped,, however, that by reading through the various sections, scientists, including accelerator physicists, engineers, and accelerator beam users, will come to appreciate the types of operations that are required to make an accelerator work.

  8. Rapid consumer-based sensory characterization of requeijão cremoso, a spreadable processed cheese: Performance of new statistical approaches to evaluate check-all-that-apply data. (United States)

    Torres, F R; Esmerino, E A; Carr, B Thomas; Ferrão, L L; Granato, D; Pimentel, T C; Bolini, H M A; Freitas, M Q; Cruz, A G


    We investigated the performance of multidimensional alignment analysis and multidimensional scaling on phi coefficient values to evaluate check-all-that-apply questionnaire data. We evaluated 6 dairy foods belonging to the category of requeijão cremoso processed cheese (traditional, with starch, or with starch and vegetable fat). We obtained sensory descriptors using trained assessors in descriptive analysis for comparison. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire used with 121 consumers (77 women and 44 men; 18 to 57 yr old) proved to be a suitable alternative for sensory profiling, providing descriptions similar to descriptive analysis and discriminating between products. Multidimensional alignment analysis and multidimensional scaling were efficient and logical approaches for obtaining a deeper understanding of the data, allowing us to clarify the relationships between sensory descriptors and products and contribute to optimizing the different formulations of requeijão cremoso. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Hisham Kamal [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)


    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  10. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni Sayed H.


    Full Text Available A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1 clearance criteria, 2 process knowledge, and 3 measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  11. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  12. Multicavity proton cyclotron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Hirshfield


    Full Text Available A mechanism for acceleration of protons is described, in which energy gain occurs near cyclotron resonance as protons drift through a sequence of rotating-mode TE_{111} cylindrical cavities in a strong nearly uniform axial magnetic field. Cavity resonance frequencies decrease in sequence from one another with a fixed frequency interval Δf between cavities, so that synchronism can be maintained between the rf fields and proton bunches injected at intervals of 1/Δf. An example is presented in which a 122 mA, 1 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 961 MeV using a cascade of eight cavities in an 8.1 T magnetic field, with the first cavity resonant at 120 MHz and with Δf=8 MHz. Average acceleration gradient exceeds 40 MV/m, average effective shunt impedance is 223 MΩ/m, but maximum surface field in the cavities does not exceed 7.2 MV/m. These features occur because protons make many orbital turns in each cavity and thus experience acceleration from each cavity field many times. Longitudinal and transverse stability appear to be intrinsic properties of the acceleration mechanism, and an example to illustrate this is presented. This acceleration concept could be developed into a proton accelerator for a high-power neutron spallation source, such as that required for transmutation of nuclear waste or driving a subcritical fission burner, provided a number of significant practical issues can be addressed.

  13. The Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Increased deployment of new technologies, e.g., renewable generation and electric vehicles, is rapidly transforming electrical power networks by crossing previously distinct spatiotemporal scales and invalidating many traditional approaches for designing, analyzing, and operating power grids. This trend is expected to accelerate over the coming years, bringing the disruptive challenge of complexity, but also opportunities to deliver unprecedented efficiency and reliability. Our Applied Mathematics for Power Systems (AMPS) Center will discover, enable, and solve emerging mathematics challenges arising in power systems and, more generally, in complex engineered networks. We will develop foundational applied mathematics resulting in rigorous algorithms and simulation toolboxes for modern and future engineered networks. The AMPS Center deconstruction/reconstruction approach 'deconstructs' complex networks into sub-problems within non-separable spatiotemporal scales, a missing step in 20th century modeling of engineered networks. These sub-problems are addressed within the appropriate AMPS foundational pillar - complex systems, control theory, and optimization theory - and merged or 'reconstructed' at their boundaries into more general mathematical descriptions of complex engineered networks where important new questions are formulated and attacked. These two steps, iterated multiple times, will bridge the growing chasm between the legacy power grid and its future as a complex engineered network.

  14. Direct Laser Acceleration in Laser Wakefield Accelerators (United States)

    Shaw, J. L.; Froula, D. H.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Lemos, N.


    The direct laser acceleration (DLA) of electrons in a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) has been investigated. We show that when there is a significant overlap between the drive laser and the trapped electrons in a LWFA cavity, the accelerating electrons can gain energy from the DLA mechanism in addition to LWFA. The properties of the electron beams produced in a LWFA, where the electrons are injected by ionization injection, have been investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) code simulations. Particle tracking was used to demonstrate the presence of DLA in LWFA. Further PIC simulations comparing LWFA with and without DLA show that the presence of DLA can lead to electron beams that have maximum energies that exceed the estimates given by the theory for the ideal blowout regime. The magnitude of the contribution of DLA to the energy gained by the electron was found to be on the order of the LWFA contribution. The presence of DLA in a LWFA can also lead to enhanced betatron oscillation amplitudes and increased divergence in the direction of the laser polarization. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wangler, Thomas P


    Thomas P. Wangler received his B.S. degree in physics from Michigan State University, and his Ph.D. degree in physics and astronomy from the University of Wisconsin. After postdoctoral appointments at the University of Wisconsin and Brookhaven National Laboratory, he joined the staff of Argonne National Laboratory in 1966, working in the fields of experimental high-energy physics and accelerator physics. He joined the Accelerator Technology Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1979, where he specialized in high-current beam physics and linear accelerator design and technology. In 2007

  16. Accelerator Production of Radionuclides (United States)

    Schlyer, David J.; Ruth, Thomas J.


    While many radioactive isotopes in use today are found in nature, many more are artificially produced by irradiating target materials with nuclear particles. Two different technologies can provide the energetic particles needed: nuclear reactors, which produce a flux of neutrons, and particle accelerators, which produce a flux of charged particles. This chapter will deal with the important aspects of the production of radionuclides with accelerators, along with some details on their applications, commercially-available accelerator systems used for this purpose, and the size of the equipment business.

  17. Accelerator technical design report for high-intensity proton accelerator facility project, J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents the detail of the technical design of the accelerators for the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility Project, J-PARC. The accelerator complex comprises a 400-MeV room-temperature linac (600-MeV superconducting linac), 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS), and a 50-GeV synchrotron (MR). The 400-MeV beam is injected to the RCS, being accelerated to 3 GEV. The 1-MW beam thus produced is guided to the Materials Life Science Experimental Facility, with both the pulsed spallation neutron source and muon source. A part of the beam is transported to the MR, which provides the 0.75-MW beam to either the Nuclear and Fundamental Particle Experimental Facility or the Neutrino Production Target. On the other hand, the beam accelerated to 600 MeV by the superconducting linac is used for the Nuclear Waster Transmutation Experiment. In this way, this facility is unique, being multipurpose one, including many new inventions and Research and Development Results. This report is based upon the accomplishments made by the Accelerator Group and others of the Project Team, which is organized on the basis of the Agreement between JAERI and KEK on the Construction and Research and Development of the High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Facility. (author)

  18. Neuroscience and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmblad, M N; Buchholz, B A; Hillegonds, D J; Vogel, J S


    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a mass spectrometric method for quantifying rare isotopes. It has had great impact in geochronology and archaeology and is now being applied in biomedicine. AMS measures radioisotopes such as {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl and {sup 41}Ca, with zepto- or attomole sensitivity and high precision and throughput, enabling safe human pharmacokinetic studies involving: microgram doses, agents having low bioavailability, or toxicology studies where administered doses must be kept low (<1 {micro}g/kg). It is used to study long-term pharmacokinetics, to identify biomolecular interactions, to determine chronic and low-dose effects or molecular targets of neurotoxic substances, to quantify transport across the blood-brain barrier and to resolve molecular turnover rates in the human brain on the timescale of decades. We will here review how AMS is applied in neurotoxicology and neuroscience.

  19. Coherent and incoherent nonparaxial self-accelerating Weber beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wen, Feng; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanpeng; Belić, Milivoj R


    We investigate the coherent and incoherent nonparaxial Weber beams, theoretically and numerically. We show that the superposition of coherent self-accelerating Weber beams with transverse displacement cannot display the nonparaxial accelerating Talbot effect. The reason is that their lobes do not accelerate in unison, which is a requirement for the appearance of the effect. While for the incoherent Weber beams, they naturally cannot display the accelerating Talbot effect but can display the nonparaxial accelerating properties, although the transverse coherence length is smaller than the beam width, based on the second-order coherence theory. Our research method directly applies to the nonparaxial Mathieu beams as well, and one will obtain similar conclusions as for the Weber beams, although this is not discussed in the paper. Our investigation identifies families of nonparaxial accelerating beams that do not exhibit the accelerating Talbot effect, and in addition broadens the understanding of coherence proper...

  20. Extinction events can accelerate evolution. (United States)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto


    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific in the long term.

  1. Non-accelerator experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, M.


    This report discusses several topics which can be investigated without the use of accelerators. Topics covered are: (1) proton decay, (2) atmospheric neutrinos, (3) neutrino detection, (4) muons from Cygnus X-3, and (5) the double-beta decay.

  2. Macromolecular ion accelerator. (United States)

    Hsu, Yun-Fei; Lin, Jung-Lee; Lai, Szu-Hsueh; Chu, Ming-Lee; Wang, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsuan


    Presented herein are the development of macromolecular ion accelerator (MIA) and the results obtained by MIA. This new instrument utilizes a consecutive series of planar electrodes for the purpose of facilitating stepwise acceleration. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is employed to generate singly charged macromolecular ions. A regular Z-gap microchannel plate (MCP) detector is mounted at the end of the accelerator to record the ion signals. In this work, we demonstrated the detection of ions with the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio reaching 30,000,000. Moreover, we showed that singly charged biomolecular ions can be accelerated with the voltage approaching 1 MV, offering the evidence that macromolecular ions can possess much higher kinetic energy than ever before.

  3. The next big accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Cramer, J G


    Accelerator physics in the US has been devastated by the cancellation of two high-energy physics colliders facilities. However there are future plans. A suggestion is made to build the new collider in the Australian outback.

  4. Accelerated learning in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Capacci Carneal


    Full Text Available Most accelerated learning (AL programmes are ‘catch up’ initiatives to assist out-of-school youth into formal education. But what happens when adults join and complete AL classes?


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J


    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  6. Rejuvenating CERN's Accelerators

    CERN Multimedia


    In the coming years and especially in 2005, CERN's accelerators are going to receive an extensive renovation programme to ensure they will perform reliably and effectively when the LHC comes into service.

  7. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    View towards the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138.

  8. Linear Accelerator (LINAC) (United States)

    ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media External Beam Therapy (EBT) Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) and Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) Images related to Linear Accelerator Sponsored ...

  9. Joint International Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School


    The CERN and US Particle Accelerator Schools recently organised a Joint International Accelerator School on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection, held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel, Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November 2014. This Joint School was the 13th in a series of such schools, which started in 1985 and also involves the accelerator communities in Japan and Russia.   Photo courtesy of Alfonse Pham, Michigan State University.   The school attracted 58 participants representing 22 different nationalities, with around half from Europe and the other half from Asia and the Americas. The programme comprised 26 lectures, each of 90 minutes, and 13 hours of case study. The students were given homework each day and had an opportunity to sit a final exam, which counted towards university credit. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. Initial dis...

  10. Amps particle accelerator definition study (United States)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.


    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  11. LHCb GPU Acceleration Project

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)744808; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Neufeld, Niko; Vilasis Cardona, Xavier


    The LHCb detector is due to be upgraded for processing high-luminosity collisions, which will increase the load on its computation infrastructure from 100 GB/s to 4 TB/s, encouraging us to look for new ways of accelerating the Online reconstruction. The Coprocessor Manager is our new framework for integrating LHCb’s existing computation pipelines with massively parallel algorithms running on GPUs and other accelerators. This paper describes the system and analyzes its performance.

  12. Accelerating News Issue 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Wildner, E


    In this summer issue we look at how developments in collimator materials could have applications in aerospace and beyond, and how Polish researchers are harnessing accelerators for medical and industrial uses. We see how the LHC luminosity upgrade is linking with European industry and US researchers, and how the neutrino oscillation community is progressing. We find out the mid-term status of TIARA-PP and how it is mapping European accelerator education resources.

  13. Accelerated Evidence Search Report (United States)


    Accelerated Evidence Search Report IMPORTANT INFORMATIVE STATEMENTS Accelerated Multi-Camera Evidence Search and Retrieval CSSP Project #: CSSP -2013...CD-1063 was supported by the Canadian Safety and Security Program ( CSSP ) which is led by Defence Research and Development Canada’s Centre for...Border Technology Division The CSSP is a federally-funded program to strengthen Canada’s ability to anticipate, prevent/mitigate, prepare for, respond to

  14. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren


    -dimensional axes, plus the length of the acceleration vector) are selected for each activity. Each time series is modeled using a Dynamic Linear Model with cyclic components. The classification method, based on a Multi-Process Kalman Filter (MPKF), is applied to a total of 15 times series of 120 observations...

  15. CFT duals for accelerating black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Astorino


    Further generalisation in presence of an external Melvin-like magnetic field, used to regularise the conical singularity characteristic of the C-metrics, shows that the Kerr/CFT correspondence can be applied also for the accelerating and magnetised extremal black holes.

  16. 38 CFR 9.14 - Accelerated Benefits. (United States)


    ... will be paid $50,000 minus the interest reduction. (f) How do you apply for an Accelerated Benefit? (1... Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance, 290 W. Mt. Pleasant Avenue, Livingston, New Jersey 07039; calling the... Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance, 290 W. Mt. Pleasant Avenue, Livingston, New Jersey 07039. (2) As stated on...

  17. Low-Loss Ferroelectric for Accelerator Application

    CERN Document Server

    Kanareykin, Alex; Karmanenko, Sergei F; Nenasheva, Elisaveta; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav P


    Ferroelectric ceramics have an electric field-dependent dielectric permittivity that can be altered by applying a bias voltage. Ferroelectrics have unique intrinsic properties that makes them attractive for high-energy accelerator applications: very small response time of ~ 10-11

  18. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID) (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.


    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  19. Comparison of acceleration techniques forselected low-level bioinformatics operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eLangenkaemper


    Full Text Available Within the recent years clock rates of modern processors stagnated while the demand for computing power continued to grow. This applied particularly for the fields of life sciences and bioinformatics, where new technologies keep on creating rapidly growing piles of raw data with increasing speed. The number of cores per processor increased in an attempt to compensate for slight increments of clock rates. This technological shift demands changes in software development, especially in the field of high performance computing where parallelization techniques are gaining in importance due to the pressing issue of large sized datasets generated by e.g. modern genomics.This paper presents an overview of state-of-the-art manual and automatic acceleration techniques and lists some applications employing these in different areas of sequence informatics. Furthermore we provide examples for automatic acceleration of two use cases to show typical problems and gains of transforming a serial application to a parallel one. The paper should aid the reader in deciding for a certain techniques for the problem at hand.We compare four different state-of-the-art automatic acceleration approaches (OpenMP, PluTo-SICA, PPCG, and OpenACC. Their performance as well as their applicability for selected use cases is discussed. While optimizations targeting the CPU worked better in the complex k-mer use case, optimizers for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs performed better in the matrix multiplication example. But performance is only superior at a certain problem size due to data migration overhead.We show that automatic code parallelization is feasible with current compiler software and yields significant increases in execution speed. Automatic optimizers for CPU are mature and usually

  20. A new rapid and non-destructive method to detect tephra layers and cryptotephras: applying to the first distal tephrostratigraphic record of the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (France). (United States)

    Jouannic, Gwénolé; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Bossuet, Gilles; Delabrousse, Eric; Cubizolle, Hervé


    Tephrostratigraphy has been considerably developed for 30 years, mainly in palaeo-environmental studies. In such studies, distal tephra layers are important chronological markers, but they are also tools to establish or specify record of past eruptions of a volcanic field. Nowadays, development of effective rapid methods to detect tephra layers in sedimentary records of various compositions is a challenge. Many classic methods for detection of tephra layers, like regular sampling or magnetic susceptibility measurements, have shown their limits. Regular sampling takes a long time, and finding tephra layers remains uncertain. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility maesurements, although it is a non-destructive method, is ineffective when tephra layers are made of volcanic glass shards with differentiated magma composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is also a non-destructive method but it takes a very long time to analyze a core with sufficient high resolution, and measurements only concern the surface of the sediment. We propose a new method allows detection of tephra layers with, for the first time, a 3D resolution: the Computed Tomography Scan (CT- Scan). This method, regularly used in medicine, allows there to obtain pictures of materials density on 3D with inframillimetric measurement ranges. Then, it is possible to detect tephras, cryptotephras (invisible by naked eye), reworked tephra layers even when tephra layers don't outcrop at the surface of the sediment (and are therefore undetectable by usual methods like XRF and magnetic susceptibility). This method has been tried out on tephras sedimented in different types of sediments (silicated, carbonated and organic matter). Our results show that this method is very efficient for peaty environment. Used on coring carried out in Forez Mountains (French Massif Central), CT-Scan allows to detect more tephra layers than usual methods (XRF and magnetic susceptibility). Results presented here allow to build the first

  1. Microbial changes linked to the accelerated degradation of the herbicide atrazine in a range of temperate soils. (United States)

    Yale, R L; Sapp, M; Sinclair, C J; Moir, J W B


    Accelerated degradation is the increased breakdown of a pesticide upon its repeated application, which has consequences for the environmental fate of pesticides. The herbicide atrazine was repeatedly applied to soils previously untreated with s-triazines for >5 years. A single application of atrazine, at an agriculturally relevant concentration, was sufficient to induce its rapid dissipation. Soils, with a range of physico-chemical properties and agricultural histories, showed similar degradation kinetics, with the half-life of atrazine decreasing from an average of 25 days after the first application to degrading kinetics, which incorporated the exponential growth of atrazine-degrading organisms. Despite the similar rates of degradation, the repertoire of atrazine-degrading genes varied between soils. Only a small portion of the bacterial community had the capacity for atrazine degradation. Overall, the microbial community was not significantly affected by atrazine treatment. One soil, characterised by low pH, did not exhibit accelerated degradation, and atrazine-degrading genes were not detected. Neutralisation of this soil restored accelerated degradation and the atrazine-degrading genes became detectable. This illustrates the potential for accelerated degradation to manifest when conditions become favourable. Additionally, the occurrence of accelerated degradation under agriculturally relevant concentrations supports the consideration of the phenomena in environmental risk assessments.

  2. A New Paradigm for Flare Particle Acceleration (United States)

    Guidoni, Silvina E.; Karpen, Judith T.; DeVore, C. Richard


    The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed high-energy impulsive emission and its spectra in solar flares is not well understood. Here, we propose a first-principle-based model of particle acceleration that produces energy spectra that closely resemble those derived from hard X-ray observations. Our mechanism uses contracting magnetic islands formed during fast reconnection in solar flares to accelerate electrons, as first proposed by Drake et al. (2006) for kinetic-scale plasmoids. We apply these ideas to MHD-scale islands formed during fast reconnection in a simulated eruptive flare. A simple analytic model based on the particles’ adiabatic invariants is used to calculate the energy gain of particles orbiting field lines in our ultrahigh-resolution, 2.5D, MHD numerical simulation of a solar eruption (flare + coronal mass ejection). Then, we analytically model electrons visiting multiple contracting islands to account for the observed high-energy flare emission. Our acceleration mechanism inherently produces sporadic emission because island formation is intermittent. Moreover, a large number of particles could be accelerated in each macroscopic island, which may explain the inferred rates of energetic-electron production in flares. We conclude that island contraction in the flare current sheet is a promising candidate for electron acceleration in solar eruptions. This work was supported in part by the NASA LWS and H-SR programs..

  3. Real-time multiprocessor architecture for sharing stream processing accelerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekens, B.H.J.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    Stream processing accelerators are often applied in MPSoCs for software defined radios. Sharing of these accelerators between different streams could improve their utilization and reduce thereby the hardware cost but is challenging under real-time constraints. In this paper we introduce entry- and

  4. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Ma’ayeh


    Full Text Available This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient’s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  5. A rapidly enlarging cutaneous hemangioma in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ma'ayeh, Marwan


    This is a case of a rapidly enlarging cutaneous pedunculated tumor on a patient\\'s thumb during her pregnancy. This was excised and identified as a hemangioma. A literature search identified a possible hormonal factor in causing an accelerated growth of this tumor.

  6. Small type accelerator. Try for accelerator driven system

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Y


    FFAG (Fixed-field alternating gradient) accelerator for accelerator driven subcritical reactor, which aims to change from long-lived radioactive waste to short-lived radioactivity, is introduced. It is ring accelerator. The performance needed is proton as accelerator particle, 10MW (total) beam power, about 1GeV beam energy, >30% power efficiency and continuous beam. The feature of FFAG accelerator is constant magnetic field. PoP (Proof-of-principle)-FFAG accelerator, radial type, was run at first in Japan in 2000. The excursion is about some ten cm. In principle, beam can be injected and extracted at any place of ring. The 'multi-fish' acceleration can accelerate beams to 100% duty by repeating acceleration. 150MeV-FFAG accelerator has been started since 2001. It tried to practical use, for example, treatment of cancer. (S.Y.)

  7. Accelerators in Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kailas, S


    Accelerators built for basic research in frontier areas of science have become important and inevitable tools in many areas of science and technology. Accelerators are examples of science driven high technology development. Accelerators are used for a wide ranging applications, besides basic research. Accelerator based multidisciplinary research holds great promise

  8. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, Carl B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  9. Applied Semantic Web Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Sugumaran, Vijayan


    The rapid advancement of semantic web technologies, along with the fact that they are at various levels of maturity, has left many practitioners confused about the current state of these technologies. Focusing on the most mature technologies, Applied Semantic Web Technologies integrates theory with case studies to illustrate the history, current state, and future direction of the semantic web. It maintains an emphasis on real-world applications and examines the technical and practical issues related to the use of semantic technologies in intelligent information management. The book starts with

  10. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut


    Particle Accelerator Physics is an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle accleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are give...

  11. Quasar Jet Acceleration (United States)

    Polito, Nicholas; Hough, David


    We observed radio jets in six lobe-dominated quasars (LDQs) from 1995 to 2008 using the NRAO VLBA at 8.4 and 15 GHz. These observations have tracked jet component positions and velocities over that time period. There is a correlation between apparent jet speed and projected core distance in these LDQs at greater than 99 per cent confidence levels (Hough 2008, Extragalactic Jets, eds: Rector and DeYoung, ASP, p. 274). Four of our sources show this effect particularly strongly. We only tracked single jet components over relatively short distances, but the assumption of a unique velocity profile allows us to study component motion on an effective timescale of approximately 20-50 years. Results for 3C207 and 3C263 show a good fit using a constant acceleration model. The cause of such acceleration is still unknown, though ``magnetic acceleration'' by a gradient in magnetic field pressure is one possibility.

  12. Superconducting Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mess, K H; Wolff, S


    The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...

  13. Accelerating the culture change! (United States)

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J


    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance.

  14. Artificial seismic acceleration (United States)

    Felzer, Karen R.; Page, Morgan T.; Michael, Andrew J.


    In their 2013 paper, Bouchon, Durand, Marsan, Karabulut, 3 and Schmittbuhl (BDMKS) claim to see significant accelerating seismicity before M 6.5 interplate mainshocks, but not before intraplate mainshocks, reflecting a preparatory process before large events. We concur with the finding of BDMKS that their interplate dataset has significantly more fore- shocks than their intraplate dataset; however, we disagree that the foreshocks are predictive of large events in particular. Acceleration in stacked foreshock sequences has been seen before and has been explained by the cascade model, in which earthquakes occasionally trigger aftershocks larger than themselves4. In this model, the time lags between the smaller mainshocks and larger aftershocks follow the inverse power law common to all aftershock sequences, creating an apparent acceleration when stacked (see Supplementary Information).

  15. Microelectromechanical acceleration-sensing apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Robb M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Darren A. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, George E. (Rio Rancho, NM)


    An acceleration-sensing apparatus is disclosed which includes a moveable shuttle (i.e. a suspended mass) and a latch for capturing and holding the shuttle when an acceleration event is sensed above a predetermined threshold level. The acceleration-sensing apparatus provides a switch closure upon sensing the acceleration event and remains latched in place thereafter. Examples of the acceleration-sensing apparatus are provided which are responsive to an acceleration component in a single direction (i.e. a single-sided device) or to two oppositely-directed acceleration components (i.e. a dual-sided device). A two-stage acceleration-sensing apparatus is also disclosed which can sense two acceleration events separated in time. The acceleration-sensing apparatus of the present invention has applications, for example, in an automotive airbag deployment system.

  16. Proton linear accelerators: A theoretical and historical introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapostolle, P.M.


    From the beginning, the development of linear accelerators has followed a number of different directions. This report surveys the basic ideas and general principles of such machines, pointing out the problems that have led to the various improvements, with the hope that it may also aid further progress. After a brief historical survey, the principal aspects of accelerator theory are covered in some detail: phase stability, focusing, radio-frequency accelerating structures, the detailed calculation of particle dynamics, and space-charge effects at high intensities. These developments apply essentially to proton and ion accelerators, and only the last chapter deals with a few aspects relative to electrons. 134 refs.

  17. Shielding high energy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stevenson, Graham Roger


    After introducing the subject of shielding high energy accelerators, point source, line-of-sight models, and in particular the Moyer model. are discussed. Their use in the shielding of proton and electron accelerators is demonstrated and their limitations noted. especially in relation to shielding in the forward direction provided by large, flat walls. The limitations of reducing problems to those using it cylindrical geometry description are stressed. Finally the use of different estimators for predicting dose is discussed. It is suggested that dose calculated from track-length estimators will generally give the most satisfactory estimate. (9 refs).

  18. Accelerating News Issue 4

    CERN Document Server

    Szeberenyi, A; Wildner, E


    In this winter issue, we are very pleased to announce the approval of EuCARD-2 by the European Commission. We look at the conclusions of EUROnu in proposing future neutrino facilities at CERN, a new milestone reached by CLIC and progress on the SPARC upgrade using C-band technology. We also report on recent events: second Joint HiLumi LHC-LARP Annual Meeting and workshop on Superconducting technologies for the Next Generation of Accelerators aiming at closer collaboration with industry. The launch of the Accelerators for Society brochure is also highlighted.

  19. High Temperature Superconductor Accelerator Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079328; de Rijk, Gijs; Dhalle, Marc


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding $20T$. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and development before they can be applied in a practical accelerator magnet. In order to study HTS in detail, a five tesla demonstrator magnet named Feather-M2 is designed and constructed. The magnet is based on ReBCO coated conductor, which is assembled into a $10kA$ class Roebel cable. A new and optimized Aligned Block layout is used, which takes advantage of the anisotropy of the conductor. This is achieved by providing local alignment of the Roebel cable in the coil windings with the magnetic field lines. A new Network Model capable of analyzing transient electro-magnetic and thermal phenomena in coated conductor cables and coils is developed. This model is necessary to solve critical issues in coated conductor ac...

  20. Applications of Particle Accelerators in Medical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cuttone, G


    Particle accelerators are often associated to high energy or nuclear physics. As well pointed out in literature [1] if we kindly analyse the number of installation worldwide we can easily note that about 50% is mainly devoted to medical applications (radiotherapy, medical radioisotopes production, biomedical research). Particle accelerators are also playing an important indirect role considering the improvement of the technical features of medical diagnostic. In fact the use of radionuclide for advanced medical imaging is strongly increasing either in conventional radiography (CT and MRI) and also in nuclear medicine for Spect an PET imaging. In this paper role of particle accelerators for medical applications will be presented together with the main solutions applied.

  1. Electrophysical Systems Based On Charged Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Vorogushin, M F


    The advancement of the charged particle accelerator engineering affects appreciably the modern tendencies of the scientific and technological progress in the world. In a number of advanced countries, this trend is one of the most dynamically progressing in the field of applied science and high-technology production. Such internationally known firms as VARIAN, SIEMENS, PHILIPS, ELECTA, IBA, HITACHI, etc., with an annual budget of milliards of dollars and growth rate of tens of percent may serve as an example. Although nowadays the projects of new large-scale accelerators for physical research are not implemented so quickly and frequently as desired, accelerating facilities are finding ever-widening application in various fields of human activities. The contribution made by Russian scientists into high-energy beams physics is generally known. High scientific and technical potential in this field, qualified personnel with a high creative potential, modern production and test facilities and state-of-the-art techn...

  2. Accelerated cosmos in a nonextensive setup (United States)

    Moradpour, H.; Bonilla, Alexander; Abreu, Everton M. C.; Neto, Jorge Ananias


    Here we consider a flat FRW universe whose horizon entropy meets the Rényi entropy of nonextensive systems. In our model, the ordinary energy-momentum conservation law is not always valid. By applying the Clausius relation as well as the Cai-Kim temperature to the apparent horizon of a flat FRW universe, we obtain modified Friedmann equations. Fitting the model to the observational data on the current accelerated universe, some values for the model parameters are also addressed. Our study shows that the current accelerating phase of universe expansion may be described by a geometrical fluid, originated from the nonextensive aspects of geometry, which models a varying dark energy source interacting with the matter field in the Rastall way. Moreover, our results indicate that the probable nonextensive features of spacetime may also be used to model a varying dark energy source which does not interact with the matter field and is compatible with the current accelerated phase of the Universe.

  3. Delayless acceleration measurement method for motion control applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeliviita, S.; Ovaska, S.J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics


    Delayless and accurate sensing of angular acceleration can improve the performance of motion control in motor drives. Acceleration control is, however, seldom implemented in practical drive systems due to prohibitively high costs or unsatisfactory results of most acceleration measurement methods. In this paper we propose an efficient and accurate acceleration measurement method based on direct differentiation of the corresponding velocity signal. Polynomial predictive filtering is used to smooth the resulting noisy signal without delay. This type of prediction is justified by noticing that a low-degree polynomial can usually be fitted into the primary acceleration curve. No additional hardware is required to implement the procedure if the velocity signal is already available. The performance of the acceleration measurement method is evaluated by applying it to a demanding motion control application. (orig.) 12 refs.

  4. Laser Wakefield Accelerators


    Najmudin, Z.


    The one-dimensional wakefield generation equations are solved for increasing levels of non-linearity, to demonstrate how they contribute to the overall behaviour of a non-linear wakefield in a plasma. The effect of laser guiding is also studied as a way to increase the interaction length of a laser wakefield accelerator.

  5. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia


      Introduction to accelerator physics This course will take place in Istanbul, Turkey, from 18 to 30 September 2016. It is now open for registration, and further information can be found here:

  6. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    See photo 8302397: View from the downstream end of one of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). See 7603195 and 8011289 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138. Giacomo Primadei stands on the left.

  7. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Mobs, Esma Anais


    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  8. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie


    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  9. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre


    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  10. Dissociation by acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, K.; Zamaklar, m.


    We show that mesons, described using rotating relativistic strings in a holographic setup, undergo dissociation when their acceleration 'a' exceeds a value which scales with the angular momentum 'J' as a_max ~ \\sqrt{T_s/J}, where 'T_s' is the string tension.

  11. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    One of the SPS acceleration cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). On the ceiling one sees the coaxial transmission line which feeds the power from the amplifier, located in a surface building above, to the upstream end of the cavity. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8104138, 8302397.

  12. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    One of the SPS accelerating cavities (200 MHz, travelling wave structure). The power that is fed into the upstream end of the cavity is extracted at the downstream end and sent into a dump load. See 7603195 for more details, 7411032 for the travelling wave structure, and also 8011289, 8302397.

  13. The CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia


    Introduction to accelerator physics This course will take place in Budapest, Hungary, from 2 to 14 October 2016. It is now open for registration and further information can be found at: and

  14. Angular Accelerating White Light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available Significant interest has been devoted to tailoring optical fields that transversely accelerate during propagation in the form of Airy, Weber and Mathieu beams. In this work, the authors introduce a new type of optical field that exhibits controlled...

  15. Induction accelerators for the phase rotator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, Lou; Yu, Simon; Vanecek, Dave


    The principle of magnetic induction has been applied to the acceleration of high current beams in betatrons and a variety of induction accelerators. The linear induction accelerator (LIA) consists of a simple nonresonant structure where the drive voltage is applied to an axially symmetric gap that encloses a toroidal ferromagnetic material. The change in flux in the magnetic core induces an axial electric field that provides particle acceleration. This simple nonresonant (low Q) structure acts as a single turn transformer that can accelerate from hundreds of amperes to tens of kiloamperes, basically only limited by the drive impedance. The LIA is typically a low gradient structure that can provide acceleration fields of varying shapes and time durations from tens of nanoseconds to several microseconds. The efficiency of the LIA depends on the beam current and can exceed 50% if the beam current exceeds the magnetization current required by the ferromagnetic material. The acceleration voltage available is simply given by the expression V=A dB/dt. Hence, for a given cross section of material, the beam pulse duration influences the energy gain. Furthermore, a premium is put on minimizing the diameter, which impacts the total weight or cost of the magnetic material. The diameter doubly impacts the cost of the LIA since the power (cost) to drive the cores is proportional to the volume as well. The waveform requirements during the beam pulse makes it necessary to make provisions in the pulsing system to maintain the desired dB/dt during the useful part of the acceleration cycle. This is typically done two ways, by using the final stage of the pulse forming network (PFN) and by the pulse compensation network usually in close proximity of the acceleration cell. The choice of magnetic materials will be made by testing various materials both ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic. These materials will include the nickel-iron, silicon steel amorphous and various types of ferrites not

  16. A Statistical Perspective on Highly Accelerated Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Edward V. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Highly accelerated life testing has been heavily promoted at Sandia (and elsewhere) as a means to rapidly identify product weaknesses caused by flaws in the product's design or manufacturing process. During product development, a small number of units are forced to fail at high stress. The failed units are then examined to determine the root causes of failure. The identification of the root causes of product failures exposed by highly accelerated life testing can instigate changes to the product's design and/or manufacturing process that result in a product with increased reliability. It is widely viewed that this qualitative use of highly accelerated life testing (often associated with the acronym HALT) can be useful. However, highly accelerated life testing has also been proposed as a quantitative means for "demonstrating" the reliability of a product where unreliability is associated with loss of margin via an identified and dominating failure mechanism. It is assumed that the dominant failure mechanism can be accelerated by changing the level of a stress factor that is assumed to be related to the dominant failure mode. In extreme cases, a minimal number of units (often from a pre-production lot) are subjected to a single highly accelerated stress relative to normal use. If no (or, sufficiently few) units fail at this high stress level, some might claim that a certain level of reliability has been demonstrated (relative to normal use conditions). Underlying this claim are assumptions regarding the level of knowledge associated with the relationship between the stress level and the probability of failure. The primary purpose of this document is to discuss (from a statistical perspective) the efficacy of using accelerated life testing protocols (and, in particular, "highly accelerated" protocols) to make quantitative inferences concerning the performance of a product (e.g., reliability) when in fact there is lack-of-knowledge and uncertainty concerning

  17. Tractor accelerated test on test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattetti


    Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.

  18. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging. (United States)

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren


    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  19. Nonlinear dynamics in particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dilão, Rui


    This book is an introductory course to accelerator physics at the level of graduate students. It has been written for a large audience which includes users of accelerator facilities, accelerator physicists and engineers, and undergraduates aiming to learn the basic principles of construction, operation and applications of accelerators.The new concepts of dynamical systems developed in the last twenty years give the theoretical setting to analyse the stability of particle beams in accelerator. In this book a common language to both accelerator physics and dynamical systems is integrated and dev

  20. Accelerator research studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Accelerator Research Studies program at the University of Maryland, sponsored by the Department of Energy under grant number DE-FG05-91ER40642, is currently in the first year of a three-year funding cycle. The program consists of the following three tasks: TASK A, Study of Transport and Longitudinal Compression of Intense, High-Brightness Beams, TASK B, Study of Collective Ion Acceleration by Intense Electron Beams and Pseudospark Produced High Brightness Electron Beams; TASK C, Study of a Gyroklystron High-power Microwave Source for Linear Colliders. In this report we document the progress that has been made during the past year for each of the three tasks.

  1. accelerating cavity from LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    This is an accelerating cavity from LEP, with a layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities are now used in LEP to double the energy of the particle beams.

  2. Acceleration of microparticle

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, H


    A microparticle (dust) ion source has been installed at the high voltage terminal of the 3.75 MV single ended Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator and a beam line for microparticle experiments has been build at High Fluence Irradiation Facility (HIT) of Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo. Microparticle acceleration has been successful in obtaining expected velocities of 1-20 km/s or more for micron or submicron sized particles. Development of in situ dust detectors and analyzers on board satellites and spacecraft in the expected mass and velocity range of micrometeoroids and investigation of hypervelocity impact phenomena by using time of flight mass spectrometry, impact flash or luminescence measurement and scanning electron or laser microscope observation for metals, ceramics, polymers and semiconductors bombarded by micron-sized particles were started three years ago. (author)

  3. Lectures in accelerator theory

    CERN Document Server

    Month, M


    Accelerator theory is a broad area of study involving the behaviour of particle beams. Out of the many categories, the author has chosen to describe three phenomena taken from (1) the theory of single particle motion in nonlinear fields; (2) the theory of high intensity coherent motion and; (3) the theory of current accumulation. He deals with the behaviour of particles in the nonlinear field arising from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding beams. An analysis of the development of traveling waves on particle beams is presented. The situation studied is that of a uniform beam current in a circular accelerator and the excitation for the coherent motion is induced by the resistivity of the vacuum chamber wall. A description of the current accumulation process used at the proton storage rings at CERN (ISR) is given. (0 refs).

  4. Particle accelerator physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedemann, Helmut


    This book by Helmut Wiedemann is a well-established, classic text, providing an in-depth and comprehensive introduction to the field of high-energy particle acceleration and beam dynamics. The present 4th edition has been significantly revised, updated and expanded. The newly conceived Part I is an elementary introduction to the subject matter for undergraduate students. Part II gathers the basic tools in preparation of a more advanced treatment, summarizing the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields. Part III is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed, in Part IV, by an introduction and description of the main beam parameters and including a new chapter on beam emittance and lattice design. Part V is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part VI then discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Parts VII and VIII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and describe very intense bea...

  5. Accelerated plate tectonics. (United States)

    Anderson, D L


    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence.

  6. Accelerating regular polygon beams. (United States)

    Barwick, Shane


    Beams that possess high-intensity peaks that follow curved paths of propagation under linear diffraction have recently been shown to have a multitude of interesting uses. In this Letter, a family of phase-only masks is derived, and each mask gives rise to multiple accelerating intensity maxima. The curved paths of the peaks can be described by the vertices of a regular polygon that is centered on the optic axis and expands with propagation.

  7. Accelerating News Issue 3

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Tanguy, C; Wildner, E


    This summer saw CERN announce to a worldwide audience the discovery of a Higgs-like boson, so this issue takes a look at the machine behind the discovery, the LHC, as well as future plans for a possible Higgs factory in the form of LEP3. Looking ahead too are European strategies for particle physics and accelerator-based neutrino physics. In addition, taking stock of the work so far, HiLumi LHC and EuCARD showcase their latest results.

  8. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation (United States)

    Lopes, José; Rocha, Jorge; Redondo, Luís; Cruz, João


    The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR) at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST) has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+) and proton (H+) beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  9. The Silicon Lattice Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, J


    Previously, the generalized luminosity L was defined and calculated for all incident channels based on an NLC e{sup +}e{sup -} design. Alternatives were then considered to improve the differing beam-beam effects in the e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{gamma} and {gamma}{gamma} channels. One example was tensor beams composed of bunchlets n{sub ijk} implemented with a laser-driven, silicon accelerator based on micromachining techniques. Problems were considered and expressions given for radiative broadening due to bunchlet manipulation near the final focus to optimize luminosity via charge enhancement, neutralization or bunch shaping. Because the results were promising, we explore fully integrated structures that include sources, optics (for both light and particles) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip. Acceptable materials (and wavelengths) must allow velocity synchronism between many laser and electron pulses with optimal efficiency in high radiation environments. There are obvious control and cost advantages that accrue from using silicon structures if radiation effects can be made acceptable and the structures fabricated. Tests related to deep etching, fabrication and radiation effects on candidate amorphous and crystalline materials indicate Si(1.2 < {lambda}{sub L} < 10 {micro}m) and fused c-SiO{sub 2}(0.3 < {lambda}{sub L} < 4 {micro}m) to be ideal.

  10. Acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresnyak, Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The presentation begins with colorful depictions of solar x-ray flares and references to pulsar phenomena. Plasma reconnection is complex, could be x-point dominated or turbulent, field lines could break due to either resistivity or non-ideal effects, such as electron pressure anisotropy. Electron acceleration is sometimes observed, and sometimes not. One way to study this complex problem is to have many examples of the process (reconnection) and compare them; the other way is to simplify and come to something robust. Ideal MHD (E=0) turbulence driven by magnetic energy is assumed, and the first-order acceleration is sought. It is found that dissipation in big (length >100 ion skin depths) current sheets is universal and independent on microscopic resistivity and the mean imposed field; particles are regularly accelerated while experiencing curvature drift in flows driven by magnetic tension. One example of such flow is spontaneous reconnection. This explains hot electrons with a power-law tail in solar flares, as well as ultrashort time variability in some astrophysical sources.

  11. Particle Accelerator Focus Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes José


    Full Text Available The Laboratório de Aceleradores e Tecnologias de Radiação (LATR at the Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, of Instituto Superior Técnico (IST has a horizontal electrostatic particle accelerator based on the Van de Graaff machine which is used for research in the area of material characterization. This machine produces alfa (He+ and proton (H+ beams of some μA currents up to 2 MeV/q energies. Beam focusing is obtained using a cylindrical lens of the Einzel type, assembled near the high voltage terminal. This paper describes the developed system that automatically focuses the ion beam, using a personal computer running the LabVIEW software, a multifunction input/output board and signal conditioning circuits. The focusing procedure consists of a scanning method to find the lens bias voltage which maximizes the beam current measured on a beam stopper target, which is used as feedback for the scanning cycle. This system, as part of a wider start up and shut down automation system built for this particle accelerator, brings great advantages to the operation of the accelerator by turning it faster and easier to operate, requiring less human presence, and adding the possibility of total remote control in safe conditions.

  12. Optimizing accelerator technology

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony


    A new EU-funded research and training network, oPAC, is bringing together 22 universities, research centres and industry partners to optimize particle accelerator technology. CERN is one of the network’s main partners and will host 5 early-stage researchers in the BE department.   A diamond detector that will be used for novel beam diagnostics applications in the oPAC project based at CIVIDEC. (Image courtesy of CIVIDEC.) As one of the largest Marie Curie Initial Training Networks ever funded by the EU – to the tune of €6 million – oPAC extends well beyond the particle physics community. “Accelerator physics has become integral to research in almost every scientific discipline – be it biology and life science, medicine, geology and material science, or fundamental physics,” explains Carsten P. Welsch, oPAC co-ordinator based at the University of Liverpool. “By optimizing the operation of accelerators, all of these...

  13. Highly-Accelerated Real-Time Cardiac Cine MRI Using k-t SPARSE-SENSE (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B.; Lim, Ruth P.; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward VR.; Sodickson, Daniel K.; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel


    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (~2.5mm × 2.5mm) and temporal resolution (~40ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular (LV) function. In this work, we present an 8-fold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our 8-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1–5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both 8-fold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable LV function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function. PMID:22887290

  14. Highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI using k-t SPARSE-SENSE. (United States)

    Feng, Li; Srichai, Monvadi B; Lim, Ruth P; Harrison, Alexis; King, Wilson; Adluru, Ganesh; Dibella, Edward V R; Sodickson, Daniel K; Otazo, Ricardo; Kim, Daniel


    For patients with impaired breath-hold capacity and/or arrhythmias, real-time cine MRI may be more clinically useful than breath-hold cine MRI. However, commercially available real-time cine MRI methods using parallel imaging typically yield relatively poor spatio-temporal resolution due to their low image acquisition speed. We sought to achieve relatively high spatial resolution (∼2.5 × 2.5 mm(2)) and temporal resolution (∼40 ms), to produce high-quality real-time cine MR images that could be applied clinically for wall motion assessment and measurement of left ventricular function. In this work, we present an eightfold accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI pulse sequence using a combination of compressed sensing and parallel imaging (k-t SPARSE-SENSE). Compared with reference, breath-hold cine MRI, our eightfold accelerated real-time cine MRI produced significantly worse qualitative grades (1-5 scale), but its image quality and temporal fidelity scores were above 3.0 (adequate) and artifacts and noise scores were below 3.0 (moderate), suggesting that acceptable diagnostic image quality can be achieved. Additionally, both eightfold accelerated real-time cine and breath-hold cine MRI yielded comparable left ventricular function measurements, with coefficient of variation cine MRI with k-t SPARSE-SENSE is a promising modality for rapid imaging of myocardial function. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Accelerated complete-linearization method for calculating NLTE model stellar atmospheres (United States)

    Hubeny, I.; Lanz, T.


    Two approaches to accelerating the method of complete linearization for calculating NLTE model stellar atmospheres are suggested. The first one, the so-called Kantorovich variant of the Newton-Raphson method, consists of keeping the Jacobi matrix of the system fixed, which allows us to calculate the costly matrix inversions only a few times and then keep them fixed during the subsequent computations. The second method is an application of the Ng acceleration. Both methods are extremely easy to implement with any model atmosphere code based on complete linearization. It is demonstrated that both methods, and especially their combination, yield a rapidly and globally convergent algorithm, which takes 2 to 5 times less computer time, depending on the model at hand and the required accuracy, than the ordinary complete linearization. Generally, the time gain is more significant for more complicated models. The methods were tested for a broad range of atmospheric parameters, and in all cases they exhibited similar behavior. Ng acceleration applied on the Kantorovich variant thus offers a significant improvement of the standard complete-linearization method, and may now be used for calculating relatively involved NLTE model stellar atmospheres.

  16. Introduction to Microwave Linear [Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittum, David H


    The elements of microwave linear accelerators are introduced starting with the principles of acceleration and accelerating structures. Considerations for microwave structure modeling and design are developed from an elementary point of view. Basic elements of microwave electronics are described for application to the accelerator circuit and instrumentation. Concepts of beam physics are explored together with examples of common beamline instruments. Charged particle optics and lattice diagnostics are introduced. Considerations for fixed-target and colliding-beam experimentation are summarized.

  17. FPGA-accelerated simulation of computer systems

    CERN Document Server

    Angepat, Hari; Chung, Eric S; Hoe, James C; Chung, Eric S


    To date, the most common form of simulators of computer systems are software-based running on standard computers. One promising approach to improve simulation performance is to apply hardware, specifically reconfigurable hardware in the form of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). This manuscript describes various approaches of using FPGAs to accelerate software-implemented simulation of computer systems and selected simulators that incorporate those techniques. More precisely, we describe a simulation architecture taxonomy that incorporates a simulation architecture specifically designed f

  18. Spin response formalism in circular accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptitsyn, V.I. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)], E-mail:; Shatunov, Yu.M. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Mane, S.R. [Convergent Computing Inc., P. O. Box 561, Shoreham, NY 11786 (United States)], E-mail:


    We present the principal features of the so-called 'spin response formalism', which is linear response theory applied to the spin dynamics in circular accelerators. The formalism is useful for calculating the resonance strengths of several classes of first-order spin resonances in rings, including those for spin flippers. We describe some of the successful applications of the formalism to various storage rings. We include a brief comparison with other formalisms and indicate topics for future work.

  19. Applied biotechnology in nematology. (United States)

    Caswell-Chen, E P; Williamson, V M; Westerdahl, B B


    During the past two decades, rapid advances in biotechnology and molecular biology have affected the understanding and treatment of human and plant diseases. The human and Caenorhabditis elegans genome-sequencing projects promise further techniques and results useful to applied nematology. Of course, biotechnology is not a panacea for nematological problems, but it provides many powerful tools that have potential use in applied biology and nematode management. The tools will facilitate research on a range of previously intractable problems in nematology, from identification of species and pathotypes to the development of resistant cultivars that have been inaccessible because of technical limitations. However, to those unfamiliar or not directly involved with the new technologies and their extensive terminology, the benefits of the advances in biotechnology may not be readily discerned. The sustainable agriculture of the future will require ecology-based management, and successful integrated nematode management will depend on combinations of control tactics to reduce nematode numbers. In this review we discuss how biotechnology may influence nematode management, define terminology relative to potential applications, and present current and future avenues of research in applied nematology, including species identification, race and pathotype identification, development of resistant cultivars, definition of nematode-host interactions, nematode population dynamics, establishment of optimal rotations, the ecology of biological control and development of useful biological control agents, and the design of novel nematicides.

  20. Research on Acceleration Compensation Strategy of Electric Vehicle Based on Fuzzy Control Theory (United States)

    Zhu, Tianjun; Li, Bin; Zong, Changfu; Wei, Zhicheng


    Nowadays, the driving technology of electric vehicle is developing rapidly. There are many kinds of methods in driving performance control technology. The paper studies the acceleration performance of electric vehicle. Under the premise of energy management, an acceleration power compensation method by fuzzy control theory based on driver intention recognition is proposed, which can meet the driver’s subjective feelings better. It avoids the problem that the pedal opening and power output are single correspondence when the traditional vehicle accelerates. Through the simulation test, this method can significantly improve the performance of acceleration and output torque smoothly in non-emergency acceleration to ensure vehicle comfortable and stable.

  1. UHECR acceleration in dark matter filaments of cosmological structure formation (United States)

    Malkov, M. A.; Sagdeev, R. Z.; Diamond, P. H.


    A mechanism for proton acceleration to ~ 1021 eV is suggested. It may operate in accretion flows onto thin dark matter filaments of cosmic structure formation. The flow compresses the ambient magnetic field to strongly increase and align it with the filament. Particles begin the acceleration by E × B drift with the accretion flow. The energy gain in the drift regime is limited by the conservation of the adiabatic invariant p⊥2/B(r). Upon approaching the filament, the drift turns into the gyro-motion around the filament so that the particle moves parallel to the azimuthal electric field. In this `betatron' regime the acceleration speeds up to rapidly reach the electrodynamic limit cpmax = eBR for an accelerator with magnetic field B and the orbit radius R (Larmor radius). The periodic orbit becomes unstable and the particle slings out of the filament to the region of a weak (uncompressed) magnetic field, which terminates the acceleration. To escape the filament, accelerated particles must have gyro-radii comparable with the filament radius. Therefore, the mechanism requires pre-acceleration that is likely to occur in large scale shocks upstream or nearby the filament accretion flow. Previous studies identify such shocks as efficient proton accelerators, with a firm upper limit ~ 1019.5 eV placed by the catastrophic photo-pion losses. The present mechanism combines explosive energy gain in its final (betatron) phase with prompt particle release from the region of strong magnetic field. It is this combination that allows protons to overcome both the photo-pion and the synchrotron-Compton losses and therefore attain energy ~ 1021 eV. A customary requirement on accelerator power to reach a given Emax, which is placed by the accelerator energy dissipation proptoEmax2/Z0 due to the finite vacuum impedance Z0, is circumvented by the cyclic operation of the accelerator.


    A research project was initiated to address a recurring problem of elevated detection limits above required risk-based concentrations for the determination of semivolatile organic compounds in high moisture content solid samples. This project was initiated, in cooperation with the EPA Region 1 Laboratory, under the Regional Methods Program administered through the ORD Office of Science Policy. The aim of the project was to develop an approach for the rapid removal of water in high moisture content solids (e.g., wetland sediments) in preparation for analysis via Method 8270. Alternative methods for water removal have been investigated to enhance compound solid concentrations and improve extraction efficiency, with the use of pressure filtration providing a high-throughput alternative for removal of the majority of free water in sediments and sludges. In order to eliminate problems with phase separation during extraction of solids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction, a variation of a water-isopropanol extraction method developed at the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory in Denver, CO is being employed. The concentrations of target compounds in water-isopropanol extraction fluids are subsequently analyzed using an automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE)-GC/MS method developed in our laboratory. The coupled approaches for dewatering, extraction, and target compound identification-quantitation provide a useful alternative to enhance sample throughput for Me

  3. Staging and laser acceleration of ions in underdense plasma (United States)

    Ting, Antonio; Hafizi, Bahman; Helle, Michael; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Gordon, Daniel; Kaganovich, Dmitri; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Babzien, Markus; Miao, Chenlong; Dover, Nicholas; Najmudin, Zulfikar; Ettlinger, Oliver


    Accelerating ions from rest in a plasma requires extra considerations because of their heavy mass. Low phase velocity fields or quasi-electrostatic fields are often necessary, either by operating above or near the critical density or by applying other slow wave generating mechanisms. Solid targets have been a favorite and have generated many good results. High density gas targets have also been reported to produce energetic ions. It is interesting to consider acceleration of ions in laser-driven plasma configurations that will potentially allow continuous acceleration in multiple consecutive stages. The plasma will be derived from gaseous targets, producing plasma densities slightly below the critical plasma density (underdense) for the driving laser. Such a plasma is experimentally robust, being repeatable and relatively transparent to externally injected ions from a previous stage. When optimized, multiple stages of this underdense laser plasma acceleration mechanism can progressively accelerate the ions to a high final energy. For a light mass ion such as the proton, relativistic velocities could be reached, making it suitable for further acceleration by high phase velocity plasma accelerators to energies appropriate for High Energy Physics applications. Negatively charged ions such as antiprotons could be similarly accelerated in this multi-staged ion acceleration scheme.

  4. Application of factorial design to accelerate identification of CHO growth factor requirements. (United States)

    Chun, Chung; Heineken, Katy; Szeto, Dongmei; Ryll, Thomas; Chamow, Steve; Chung, John D


    To accelerate recombinant CHO media and process development, we describe a simple approach to integrating multiple tasks associated with these processes including initial media design, serum-free adaptation, stability analysis and first generation scale-up. Factorial design techniques and normal probability chart representation of the results were first applied to identify potent parental CHO cell growth factors in a lean basal medium. These results were then applied to identify a suitable manufacturing medium from a panel of commercial and proprietary media formulations. When this approach was applied to recombinant CHO cell line, rapid adaptation of the cell line to an appropriate production medium occurred during culture expansion in the presence of the identified growth factor(s). This approach allows media component screening to be naturally integrated into the adaptation and scale-up processes since components that have little or no relative effect on cell proliferation are selected against as the "best" cultures are moved forward. The rapidity of the adaptation process allowed cell line stability studies to be initiated relatively early in the development process, thus providing preliminary stability information by the time the "outgrowing" culture could be scaled to 100-L reactors some 30 days after adaptation commenced. The application of full factorial design techniques allowed us to calculate the maximum number of interaction effects, the interpretation of which we believe can provide insights into growth factor biology.

  5. APT accelerator. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D. [comp.] [ed.


    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  6. VLHC accelerator physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Blaskiewicz et al.


    A six-month design study for a future high energy hadron collider was initiated by the Fermilab director in October 2000. The request was to study a staged approach where a large circumference tunnel is built that initially would house a low field ({approx}2 T) collider with center-of-mass energy greater than 30 TeV and a peak (initial) luminosity of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The tunnel was to be scoped, however, to support a future upgrade to a center-of-mass energy greater than 150 TeV with a peak luminosity of 2 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using high field ({approx} 10 T) superconducting magnet technology. In a collaboration with Brookhaven National Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, a report of the Design Study was produced by Fermilab in June 2001. 1 The Design Study focused on a Stage 1, 20 x 20 TeV collider using a 2-in-1 transmission line magnet and leads to a Stage 2, 87.5 x 87.5 TeV collider using 10 T Nb{sub 3}Sn magnet technology. The article that follows is a compilation of accelerator physics designs and computational results which contributed to the Design Study. Many of the parameters found in this report evolved during the study, and thus slight differences between this text and the Design Study report can be found. The present text, however, presents the major accelerator physics issues of the Very Large Hadron Collider as examined by the Design Study collaboration and provides a basis for discussion and further studies of VLHC accelerator parameters and design philosophies.

  7. Accelerated Innovation Pilot (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey


    Opportunities: I. Engage NASA team (examples) a) Research and technology calls . provide suggestions to AES, HRP, OCT. b) Use NASA@Work to solicit other ideas; (possibly before R+D calls). II. Stimulate collaboration (examples) a) NHHPC. b) Wharton Mack Center for Technological Innovation (Feb 2013). c) International ] DLR ] :envihab (July 2013). d) Accelerated research models . NSF, Myelin Repair Foundation. III. Engage public Prizes (open platform: InnoCentive,, NTL; Rice Business Plan, etc.) IV. Use same methods to engage STEM.

  8. Accelerating abelian gauge dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Stephen Louis


    In this paper, we suggest a new acceleration method for Abelian gauge theories based on linear transformations to variables which weight all length scales equally. We measure the autocorrelation time for the Polyakov loop and the plaquette at β=1.0 in the U(1) gauge theory in four dimensions, for the new method and for standard Metropolis updates. We find a dramatic improvement for the new method over the Metropolis method. Computing the critical exponent z for the new method remains an important open issue.

  9. Introduction to Accelerator Dynamics (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen; Satogata, Todd


    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Linear motion; 3. Strong focusing transverse optics; 4. Longitudinal and off-momentum motion; 5. Action and emittance - one particle or many?; 6. Magnets; 7. RF cavities; 8. Linear errors and their correction; 9. Sextupoles, chromaticity and the Hénon map; 10. Octupoles, detuning and slow extraction; 11. Synchrotron radiation - classical damping; 12. Synchrotron radiation - quantum excitation; 13. Linacs - protons and ions; 14. Linacs - electrons; 15. The beam-beam interaction and 1-D resonances; 16. Routes to chaos; Appendix: selected formulae for accelerator design; References; Index.

  10. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools

    CERN Multimedia


    A specialised school on Power Converters will be held in Baden, Switzerland, from 7 to 14 May 2014. Please note that the deadline for applications is 7 FEBRUARY 2014. A course on Introduction to Accelerator Physics will be held in Prague, Czech Republic, from 31 August to 12 September 2014. Applications are now open for this school; the application deadline is 25 APRIL 2014. Further information on these schools and other CAS events can be found on the CAS website and on the Indico page. For further information please contact

  11. Periodic Relativity: Deflection of Light, Acceleration, Rotation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaveri V. H.


    Full Text Available Vectorial analysis relating to derivation of deflection of light is presented. Curvilinear acceleration is distinguished from the Newtonian polar conic acceleration. The dif- ference between the two is due to the curvature term. Lorentz invariant expression for acceleration is derived. A physical theory of rotation curves of galaxies based on second solution to Einstein’s field equation is presented. Theory is applied to Milky Way, M31, NGC3198 and Solar system. Modified Kepler’s third law yields correct orbital periods of stars in a galaxy. Deviation factor in the line element of t he theory happens to be the ratio of the Newtonian gravitational acceleration to th e measured acceleration of the star in the galaxy. Therefore this deviation factor can replace the MOND function.

  12. Accelerator School Success

    CERN Multimedia


    Accelerator specialists don't grow on trees: training them is the job of the CERN Accelerator School (CAS). Group photo during visit to the Daresbury Laboratory. CAS and the CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory jointly organised a specialised school on Power Converters in Warrington, England from 12-18 May 2004. The last CAS Power Converter course was in 1990, so there was plenty of ground to cover. The challenging programme proposed a review of the state of the art and the latest developments in the field, including 30 hours of tuition. The school also included a visit to the CCLRC Daresbury laboratory, a one-day excursion to Liverpool and Chester and a themed (Welsh medieval) dinner at the school's closure. A record attendance of 91 students of more than 20 different nationalities included not only participants from Europe and North America but also from Armenia, Taiwan, India, Turkey, Iran and for the first time, fee-paying students from China and Australia. European industry showed a welcome and solid interest in...

  13. Broadband accelerator control network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, J.; Clifford, T.; Frankel, R.


    A broadband data communications network has been implemented at BNL for control of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AG) proton accelerator, using commercial CATV hardware, dual coaxial cables as the communications medium, and spanning 2.0 km. A 4 MHz bandwidth Digital Control channel using CSMA-CA protocol is provided for digital data transmission, with 8 access nodes available over the length of the RELWAY. Each node consists of an rf modem and a microprocessor-based store-and-forward message handler which interfaces the RELWAY to a branch line implemented in GPIB. A gateway to the RELWAY control channel for the (preexisting) AGS Computerized Accelerator Operating system has been constructed using an LSI-11/23 microprocessor as a device in a GPIB branch line. A multilayer communications protocol has been defined for the Digital Control Channel, based on the ISO Open Systems Interconnect layered model, and a RELWAY Device Language defined as the required universal language for device control on this channel.

  14. Development of High-Gradient Dielectric Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byer, Robert L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Edward L. Ginzton Lab.


    The thrust of Stanford's program is to conduct research on high-gradient dielectric accelerator structures driven with high repetition-rate, tabletop infrared lasers. The close collaboration between Stanford and SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) is critical to the success of this project, because it provides a unique environment where prototype dielectric accelerator structures can be rapidly fabricated and tested with a relativistic electron beam.

  15. Acceleration in Linear and Circular Motion (United States)

    Kellington, S. H.; Docherty, W.


    Describes the construction of a simple accelerometer and explains its use in demonstrating acceleration, deceleration, constant speed, measurement of acceleration, acceleration and the inclined plane and angular and radial acceleration. (GS)

  16. Accelerator Technology: Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Missiaen, D


    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators' of the Chapter '8 Accelerator Technology' with the content: 8.9 Geodesy and Alignment for Particle Accelerators 8.9.1 Introduction 8.9.2 Reference and Co-ordinate Systems 8.9.3 Definition of the Beam Line on the Accelerator Site 8.9.4 Geodetic Network 8.9.5 Tunnel Preliminary Works 8.9.6 The Alignment References 8.9.7 Alignment of Accelerator Components 8.9.8 Permanent Monitoring and Remote Alignment of Low Beta Quadrupoles 8.9.9 Alignment of Detector Components

  17. 2014 Joint International Accelerator School: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection

    CERN Document Server

    JAS - Joint US-CERN-Japan-Russia Accelerator School


    Many particle accelerators operate with very high beam power and very high energy stored in particle beams as well as in magnet systems. In the future, the beam power in high intensity accelerators will further increase. The protection of the accelerator equipment from the consequences of uncontrolled release of the energy is essential. This was the motivation for organizing a first school on beam losses and accelerator protection (in general referred to as machine protection). During the school the methods and technologies to identify, mitigate, monitor and manage the technical risks associated with the operation of accelerators with high-power beams or subsystems with large stored energy were presented. At the completion of the school the participants should have been able to understand the physical phenomena that can damage machine subsystems or interrupt operations and to analyze an accelerator facility to produce a register of technical risks and the corresponding risk mitigation and management strategie...

  18. Arbitrary nonparaxial accelerating periodic beams and spherical shaping of light


    Mathis, Amaury; Courvoisier, François; Giust, Remo; Furfaro, Luca; Jacquot, Maxime; Froehly, Luc; Dudley, John Michael


    We report the observation of arbitrary accelerating beams designed using a non-paraxial description of optical caustics. We use a spatial light modulator-based setup and techniques of Fourier optics to generate circular and Weber beams subtending over 95 degrees of arc. Applying a complementary binary mask also allows the generation of periodic accelerating beams taking the forms of snake-like trajectories, and the application of a rotation to the caustic allows the first experimental synthes...

  19. NIOS II processor-based acceleration of motion compensation techniques (United States)

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Mookherjee, Soumak; Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Meyer-Bäse, Anke


    This paper focuses on the hardware acceleration of motion compensation techniques suitable for the MPEG video compression. A plethora of representative motion estimation search algorithms and the new perspectives are introduced. The methods and designs described here are qualified for medical imaging area where are involved larger images. The structure of the processing systems considered has a good fit for reconfigurable acceleration. The system is based in a platform like FPGA working with the Nios II Microprocessor platform applying C2H acceleration. The paper shows the results in terms of performance and resources needed.

  20. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia


    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of accelerator physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at:

  1. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia


    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of Accelerator Physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at:

  2. Acceleration Modes and Transitions in Pulsed Plasma Accelerators (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Greve, Christine M.


    Pulsed plasma accelerators typically operate by storing energy in a capacitor bank and then discharging this energy through a gas, ionizing and accelerating it through the Lorentz body force. Two plasma accelerator types employing this general scheme have typically been studied: the gas-fed pulsed plasma thruster and the quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) accelerator. The gas-fed pulsed plasma accelerator is generally represented as a completely transient device discharging in approximately 1-10 microseconds. When the capacitor bank is discharged through the gas, a current sheet forms at the breech of the thruster and propagates forward under a j (current density) by B (magnetic field) body force, entraining propellant it encounters. This process is sometimes referred to as detonation-mode acceleration because the current sheet representation approximates that of a strong shock propagating through the gas. Acceleration of the initial current sheet ceases when either the current sheet reaches the end of the device and is ejected or when the current in the circuit reverses, striking a new current sheet at the breech and depriving the initial sheet of additional acceleration. In the quasi-steady MPD accelerator, the pulse is lengthened to approximately 1 millisecond or longer and maintained at an approximately constant level during discharge. The time over which the transient phenomena experienced during startup typically occur is short relative to the overall discharge time, which is now long enough for the plasma to assume a relatively steady-state configuration. The ionized gas flows through a stationary current channel in a manner that is sometimes referred to as the deflagration-mode of operation. The plasma experiences electromagnetic acceleration as it flows through the current channel towards the exit of the device. A device that had a short pulse length but appeared to operate in a plasma acceleration regime different from the gas-fed pulsed plasma

  3. Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver. (United States)

    Horvath, Steve; Erhart, Wiebke; Brosch, Mario; Ammerpohl, Ole; von Schönfels, Witigo; Ahrens, Markus; Heits, Nils; Bell, Jordana T; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Spector, Tim D; Deloukas, Panos; Siebert, Reiner; Sipos, Bence; Becker, Thomas; Röcken, Christoph; Schafmayer, Clemens; Hampe, Jochen


    Because of the dearth of biomarkers of aging, it has been difficult to test the hypothesis that obesity increases tissue age. Here we use a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred to as an "epigenetic clock") to study the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and the DNA methylation ages of human blood, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A significant correlation between BMI and epigenetic age acceleration could only be observed for liver (r = 0.42, P = 6.8 × 10(-4) in dataset 1 and r = 0.42, P = 1.2 × 10(-4) in dataset 2). On average, epigenetic age increased by 3.3 y for each 10 BMI units. The detected age acceleration in liver is not associated with the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score or any of its component traits after adjustment for BMI. The 279 genes that are underexpressed in older liver samples are highly enriched (1.2 × 10(-9)) with nuclear mitochondrial genes that play a role in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport. The epigenetic age acceleration, which is not reversible in the short term after rapid weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, may play a role in liver-related comorbidities of obesity, such as insulin resistance and liver cancer.

  4. Target studies for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.; Reich, M.


    Two new concepts, NIFTI and DISCOS, are described. These concepts enable the efficient production of epithermal neutrons for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) medical treatment, utilizing a low current, low energy proton beam impacting on a lithium target. The NIFTI concept uses an iron layer that strongly impedes the transmission of neutrons with energies above 24 KeV. Lower energy neutrons readily pass through this iron ``filter``, which has a deep ``window`` in its scattering cross section at 24 KeV. The DISCOS concept uses a rapidly rotating, high g disc to create a series of thin ({approximately} 1 micron thickness) liquid lithium targets in the form of continuous films through which the proton beam passes. The average energy lost by a proton as it passes through a single target is small, approximately 10 KeV. Between the targets, the proton beam is reaccelerated by an applied DC electric field. The DISCOS approach enables the accelerator -- target facility to operate with a beam energy only slightly above the threshold value for neutron production -- resulting in an output beam of low-energy epithermal neutrons -- while achieving a high yield of neutrons per milliamp of proton beam current.

  5. Electrostatic accelerators fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server


    Electrostatic accelerators are an important and widespread subgroup within the broad spectrum of modern, large particle acceleration devices. They are specifically designed for applications that require high-quality ion beams in terms of energy stability and emittance at comparatively low energies (a few MeV). Their ability to accelerate virtually any kind of ion over a continuously tunable range of energies make them a highly versatile tool for investigations in many research fields including, but not limited to, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, heavy ion reactions, accelerator mass spectroscopy as well as ion-beam analysis and modification. The book is divided into three parts. The first part concisely introduces the field of accelerator technology and techniques that emphasize their major modern applications. The second part treats the electrostatic accelerator per se: its construction and operational principles as well as its maintenance. The third part covers all relevant applications in which electrosta...

  6. Network acceleration techniques (United States)

    Crowley, Patricia (Inventor); Awrach, James Michael (Inventor); Maccabe, Arthur Barney (Inventor)


    Splintered offloading techniques with receive batch processing are described for network acceleration. Such techniques offload specific functionality to a NIC while maintaining the bulk of the protocol processing in the host operating system ("OS"). The resulting protocol implementation allows the application to bypass the protocol processing of the received data. Such can be accomplished this by moving data from the NIC directly to the application through direct memory access ("DMA") and batch processing the receive headers in the host OS when the host OS is interrupted to perform other work. Batch processing receive headers allows the data path to be separated from the control path. Unlike operating system bypass, however, the operating system still fully manages the network resource and has relevant feedback about traffic and flows. Embodiments of the present disclosure can therefore address the challenges of networks with extreme bandwidth delay products (BWDP).

  7. SPS accelerating cavity

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab


    The SPS started up with 2 accelerating cavities (each consisting of 5 tank sections) in LSS3. They have a 200 MHz travelling wave structure (see 7411032 and 7802190) and 750 kW of power is fed to each of the cavities from a 1 MW tetrode power amplifier, located in a surface building above, via a coaxial transmission line. Clemens Zettler, builder of the SPS RF system, is standing at the side of one of the cavities. In 1978 and 1979 another 2 cavities were added and entered service in 1980. These were part of the intensity improvement programme and served well for the new role of the SPS as proton-antiproton collider. See also 7411032, 8011289, 8104138, 8302397.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Koch, Christian


    By viewing the construction industry as a technological innovation system (TIS) this paper discusses possible initiatives to accelerate nanotechnological innovations. The point of departure is a recent report on the application of nano-technology in the Danish construction industry, which concludes...... that opportunities are generally poorly appreciated by the industry and research communities alike. It is found that the construction industry is characterized by low-tech trajectories where dedicated innovation networks are often too fragile for innovations to stabilize and diffuse. The institutional features...... of the system are furthermore poorly equipped at identifying potentials within high-tech areas. In order to exploit the potentials of nano-technology it is thus argued that an alternative TIS needs to be established. Initiatives should identify and support “incubation rooms” or marked niches in order...

  9. GPU Accelerated Prognostics (United States)

    Gorospe, George E., Jr.; Daigle, Matthew J.; Sankararaman, Shankar; Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Ng, Eley


    Prognostic methods enable operators and maintainers to predict the future performance for critical systems. However, these methods can be computationally expensive and may need to be performed each time new information about the system becomes available. In light of these computational requirements, we have investigated the application of graphics processing units (GPUs) as a computational platform for real-time prognostics. Recent advances in GPU technology have reduced cost and increased the computational capability of these highly parallel processing units, making them more attractive for the deployment of prognostic software. We present a survey of model-based prognostic algorithms with considerations for leveraging the parallel architecture of the GPU and a case study of GPU-accelerated battery prognostics with computational performance results.


    Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.


    An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

  11. ISOLDE - Accelerating Future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) was first developed in Copenhagen in the late 50s. The technique was taken to CERN in the 60s and the CERN facility was given the name ISOLDE. The method is based on energetic protons hitting a solid target. The reaction products produced through spallation, fission and fragmentation are heated out in the form of an electrically neutral gas. In the subsequent steps the gas is ionized, accelerated and magnetically separated to produce isotopically pure beams for experiments in nuclear physics, atomic physics, astrophysics, solid state physics and for medical applications. An overview will be given of the physics at ISOLDE as well as over the techniques used to produce the necessary isotopes. Furthermore, a part of the talk will be dedicated to the future plans at ISOLDE including the proposal to build a next generation radioactive beam facility at CERN. The talk ends with a guided visit to the ISOLDE facility. Prerequisite knowledge: None.

  12. Accelerator based fusion reactor (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu


    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  13. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator (United States)

    Sanders, David M [Livermore, CA; Sampayan, Stephen [Manteca, CA; Slenes, Kirk [Albuquerque, NM; Stoller, H M [Albuquerque, NM


    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  14. Collective accelerator for electron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, R.J.


    A recent concept for collective acceleration and focusing of a high energy electron bunch is discussed, in the context of its possible applicability to large linear colliders in the TeV range. The scheme can be considered to be a member of the general class of two-beam accelerators, where a high current, low voltage beam produces the acceleration fields for a trailing high energy bunch.

  15. Particle Acceleration by MHD Turbulence


    Cho, Jungyeon; Lazarian, A.


    Recent advances in understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence call for revisions in the picture of particle acceleration. We make use of the recently established scaling of slow and fast MHD modes in strong and weak MHD turbulence to provide a systematic study of particle acceleration in magnetic pressure (low-$\\beta$) and gaseous pressure (high-$\\beta$) dominated plasmas. We consider the acceleration by large scale compressions in both slow and fast particle diffusion limits. We c...

  16. Accelerating Topical Anaesthesia Using Microneedles. (United States)

    Davies, Lleucu B; Gateley, Christopher; Holland, Phillip; Coulman, Siôn A; Birchall, James C


    Topical anaesthetics reduce pain during venous access procedures in children. However, clinical use is hindered by a significant anaesthetic onset time. Restricted diffusion of the topical anaesthetic through the stratum corneum barrier is the principal reason for the delayed onset. Microneedles can painlessly pierce the skin. This study evaluated microneedle pre-treatment of ex vivo human skin as a means to increase the rate of tetracaine permeation, in order to accelerate the onset of anaesthesia. Franz-type diffusion cells were used to determine permeation of a commercial tetracaine formulation, Ametop gel, through human skin epidermis. Microneedle-assisted permeation was compared to untreated epidermis. Upon completion of the permeation studies, the epidermal membranes were visually characterised. At 30 min, 5.43 µg/cm2 of tetracaine had permeated through the untreated membrane compared to 12.13 µg/cm2 through the microneedle-treated membrane. Insertion of a hypodermic needle created a large single channel in the epidermis (approx. 4,250 μm2) whilst the punctured surface area following microneedle treatments was estimated to be 75,000 μm2. Pre-treatment of skin with microneedles significantly enhances the permeation of tetracaine. Microneedles have the potential to more than halve the onset time for anaesthesia when applying Ametop gel. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Accelerator mass spectrometry: state of the art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuniz, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)


    Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is the analytical technique of choice for the detection of long-lived radionuclides which cannot be practically analysed with decay counting or conventional mass spectrometry. The main use of AMS has been in the analysis of radiocarbon and other cosmogenic radionuclides for archaeological, geological and environmental applications. In addition, AMS has been recently applied in biomedicine to study exposure of human tissues to chemicals and biomolecules at attomole levels. There is also a world-wide effort to analyse rare nuclides of heavier masses, such as long-lived actinides, with important applications in safeguards and nuclear waste disposal. The use of AMS is limited by the expensive accelerator technology required and there are several attempts to develop smaller and cheaper AMS spectrometers. 5 refs.

  18. Accelerators for research and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, J.R.


    The newest particle accelerators are almost always built for extending the frontiers of research, at the cutting edge of science and technology. Once these machines are operating and these technologies mature, new applications are always found, many of which touch our lives in profound ways. The evolution of accelerator technologies will be discussed, with descriptions of accelerator types and characteristics. The wide range of applications of accelerators will be discussed, in fields such as nuclear science, medicine, astrophysics and space-sciences, power generation, airport security, materials processing and microcircuit fabrication. 13 figs.

  19. Compact accelerator for medical therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Hawkins, Steven A.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Paul, Arthur C.


    A compact accelerator system having an integrated particle generator-linear accelerator with a compact, small-scale construction capable of producing an energetic (.about.70-250 MeV) proton beam or other nuclei and transporting the beam direction to a medical therapy patient without the need for bending magnets or other hardware often required for remote beam transport. The integrated particle generator-accelerator is actuable as a unitary body on a support structure to enable scanning of a particle beam by direction actuation of the particle generator-accelerator.

  20. Superconducting Radiofrequency (SRF) Acceleration Technology (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — SRF cavities enable accelerators to increase particle beam energy levels while minimizing the use of electrical power by all but eliminating electrical resistance....

  1. Einzel lens chopper and behavior of the chopped beam in the KEK digital accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Leo


    Full Text Available The KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA, which is a small-scale rapid-cycle induction synchrotron (IS, has commenced operation. A permanent magnet x-band electron cyclotron resonance ion source serves as the KEK-DA ion source and delivers various ions. A new Einzel lens beam chopper has been developed to provide the necessary pulse width of a few microseconds. The chopper is implemented by applying a rectangular pulse voltage generated by a solid-state Marx generator to the middle electrode of the Einzel lens. Momentum modulation at the bunch head and tail resulting from chopping in longitudinal direction has been observed. This intrinsic property of the chopped pulse has been clearly observed in a long drift (a free run in the circular ring in KEK-DA.

  2. COMP report: CPQR technical quality control guideline for medical linear accelerators and multileaf collimators. (United States)

    Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Angers, Crystal Plume; Zeng, Grace; Barnett, Erin


    The Canadian Organization of Medical Physicists (COMP), in close partnership with the Canadian Partnership for Quality Radiotherapy (CPQR) has developed a series of Technical Quality Control (TQC) guidelines for radiation treatment equipment. These guidelines outline the performance objectives that equipment should meet in order to ensure an acceptable level of radiation treatment quality. The TQC guidelines have been rigorously reviewed and field tested in a variety of Canadian radiation treatment facilities. The development process enables rapid review and update to keep the guidelines current with changes in technology (the most updated version of this guideline can be found on the CPQR website). This particular TQC details recommended quality control testing for medical linear accelerators and multileaf collimators. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  3. MS/MS similarity networking accelerated target profiling of triterpene saponins in Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves. (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Wei; Zhu, Shu; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko


    The targeted mass information of compounds accelerated their discovery in a large volume of untargeted MS data. An MS/MS similarity networking is advanced in clustering the structural analogues, which benefits the collection of mass information of similar compounds. The triterpene saponins extracted from Eleutherococcus senticosus leaves (ESL), a kind of functional tea, have shown promise in the relief of Alzheimer's disease. In this work, a target-precursor list (TPL) generated using MS/MS similarity networking was employed to rapidly trace 106 triterpene saponins from the aqueous extracts of ESL, of which 49 were tentatively identified as potentially new triterpene saponins. Moreover, a compound database of triterpene saponins was established and successfully applied to uncover their distribution features in ESL samples collected from different areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanyu Li


    Full Text Available Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  5. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV. (United States)

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu


    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  6. Short Acceleration Times from Superdiffusive Shock Acceleration in the Heliosphere (United States)

    Perri, S.; Zimbardo, G.


    The analysis of time profiles of particles accelerated at interplanetary shocks allows particle transport properties to be inferred. The frequently observed power-law decay upstream, indeed, implies a superdiffusive particle transport when the level of magnetic field variance does not change as the time interval from the shock front increases. In this context, a superdiffusive shock acceleration (SSA) theory has been developed, allowing us to make predictions of the acceleration times. In this work we estimate for a number of interplanetary shocks, including the solar wind termination shock, the acceleration times for energetic protons in the framework of SSA and we compare the results with the acceleration times predicted by standard diffusive shock acceleration. The acceleration times due to SSA are found to be much shorter than in the classical model, and also shorter than the interplanetary shock lifetimes. This decrease of the acceleration times is due to the scale-free nature of the particle displacements in the framework of superdiffusion. Indeed, very long displacements are possible, increasing the probability for particles far from the front of the shock to return, and short displacements have a high probability of occurrence, increasing the chances for particles close to the front to cross the shock many times.

  7. A Special Chinese Reading Acceleration Training Paradigm: To Enhance the Reading Fluency and Comprehension of Chinese Children with Reading Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai


    Full Text Available According to a number of studies, use of a Reading Acceleration Program as reading intervention training has been demonstrated to improve reading speed and comprehension level effectively in most languages and countries. The objective of the current study was to provide further evidence of the effectiveness of a Reading Acceleration Program for Chinese children with reading disabilities using a distinctive Chinese reading acceleration training paradigm. The reading acceleration training paradigm is divided into a non-accelerated reading paradigm, a Character-accelerated reading paradigm and a Words-accelerated reading paradigm. The results of training Chinese children with reading disabilities indicate that the acceleration reading paradigm applies to children with Chinese-reading disabilities. In addition, compared with other reading acceleration paradigms, Words- accelerated reading training is more effective in helping children with reading disabilities read at a high speed while maintaining superior comprehension levels.

  8. Accelerated C# 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Trey


    C# 2010 offers powerful new features, and this book is the fastest path to mastering them-and the rest of C#-for both experienced C# programmers moving to C# 2010 and programmers moving to C# from another object-oriented language. Many books introduce C#, but very few also explain how to use it optimally with the .NET Common Language Runtime (CLR). This book teaches both core C# language concepts and how to wisely employ C# idioms and object-oriented design patterns to exploit the power of C# and the CLR. This book is both a rapid tutorial and a permanent reference. You'll quickly master C# sy

  9. Thomas Edison Accelerated Elementary School. (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.; Chasin, Gene

    This paper describes early outcomes of a Sacramento, California, elementary school that participated in the Accelerated Schools Project. The school, which serves many minority and poor students, began training for the project in 1992. Accelerated Schools were designed to advance the learning rate of students through a gifted and talented approach,…

  10. COMPASS Accelerator Design Technical Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Emilio; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Neilson, Jeff; /SLAC


    This report is a survey of technical options for generating a MeV-class accelerator for space based science applications. The survey was performed focusing on the primary technical requirements of the accelerator in the context of a satellite environment with its unique challenges of limited electrical power (PE), thermal isolation, dimensions, payload requirement and electrical isolation.

  11. Natural Acceleration: Supporting Creative Trajectories (United States)

    Cohen, LeoNora M.


    "Natural acceleration" happens through an internal fire that burns to learn and may transcend school boundaries. Based on their passionate interests and connections with a domain, children who hunger for domain understandings outside school curricula require different types of acceleration, motivated by these interests. The lifeworks,…

  12. Status report of LNS accelerator complex in 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, H.; Hinode, F.; Kurihara, A.; Mutoh, M.; Nanao, M.; Shibasaki, Y.; Shinto, K.; Takahashi, S. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Lab. of Nuclear Science


    The electron accelerator complex at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University has been operated for various fields of science. A 35-year-old 300 MeV electron linac is still working well. However troubles due to aging is rapidly getting serious. In addition, because of multi-purpose use of the linac many different beam characteristics are requested by the users, so that the operation mode has been complicate. In this report, the operation status of the accelerator complex including major troubles experience in the fiscal year 2001 is described and future plan is shortly discussed by showing the present machine operation. (author)

  13. Status report of LNS accelerator complex in 2001

    CERN Document Server

    Hama, H; Kurihara, A; Mutoh, M; Nanao, M; Shibasaki, Y; Shinto, K; Takahashi, S


    The electron accelerator complex at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University has been operated for various fields of science. A 35-year-old 300 MeV electron linac is still working well. However troubles due to aging is rapidly getting serious. In addition, because of multi-purpose use of the linac many different beam characteristics are requested by the users, so that the operation mode has been complicate. In this report, the operation status of the accelerator complex including major troubles experience in the fiscal year 2001 is described and future plan is shortly discussed by showing the present machine operation. (author)

  14. Industrial accelerators and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hamm, Marianne E


    This unique new book is a comprehensive review of the many current industrial applications of particle accelerators, written by experts in each of these fields. Readers will gain a broad understanding of the principles of these applications, the extent to which they are employed, and the accelerator technology utilized. The book also serves as a thorough introduction to these fields for non-experts and laymen. Due to the increased interest in industrial applications, there is a growing interest among accelerator physicists and many other scientists worldwide in understanding how accelerators are used in various applications. The government agencies that fund scientific research with accelerators are also seeking more information on the many commercial applications that have been or can be developed with the technology developments they are funding. Many industries are also doing more research on how they can improve their products or processes using particle beams.

  15. Accelerators for high intensity beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren


    As particle accelerators strive forever increasing performance, high intensity particle beams become one of the critical demands requested across the board by a majority of accelerator users (proton, electron and ion) and for most applications. Much effort has been made by our community to pursue high intensity accelerator performance on a number of fronts. Recognizing its importance, we devote this volume to Accelerators for High Intensity Beams. High intensity accelerators have become a frontier and a network for innovation. They are responsible for many scientific discoveries and technological breakthroughs that have changed our way of life, often taken for granted. A wide range of topics is covered in the fourteen articles in this volume.

  16. Energy Innovation Acceleration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfson, Johanna [Fraunhofer USA Inc., Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States)


    The Energy Innovation Acceleration Program (IAP) – also called U-Launch – has had a significant impact on early stage clean energy companies in the Northeast and on the clean energy economy in the Northeast, not only during program execution (2010-2014), but continuing into the future. Key results include: Leverage ratio of 105:1; $105M in follow-on funding (upon $1M investment by EERE); At least 19 commercial products launched; At least 17 new industry partnerships formed; At least $6.5M in revenue generated; >140 jobs created; 60% of assisted companies received follow-on funding within 1 year of program completion; In addition to the direct measurable program results summarized above, two primary lessons emerged from our work executing Energy IAP:; Validation and demonstration awards have an outsized, ‘tipping-point’ effect for startups looking to secure investments and strategic partnerships. An ecosystem approach is valuable, but an approach that evaluates the needs of individual companies and then draws from diverse ecosystem resources to fill them, is most valuable of all.

  17. SPS RF Accelerating Cavity

    CERN Multimedia


    This picture shows one of the 2 new cavities installed in 1978-1979. The main RF-system of the SPS comprises four cavities: two of 20 m length and two of 16.5 m length. They are all installed in one long straight section (LSS 3). These cavities are of the travelling-wave type operating at a centre frequency of 200.2 MHz. They are wideband, filling time about 700 ns and untuned. The power amplifiers, using tetrodes are installed in a surface building 200 m from the cavities. Initially only two cavities were installed, a third cavity was installed in 1978 and a forth one in 1979. The number of power amplifiers was also increased: to the first 2 MW plant a second 2 MW plant was added and by end 1979 there were 8 500 kW units combined in pairs to feed each of the 4 cavities with up to about 1 MW RF power, resulting in a total accelerating voltage of about 8 MV. See also 7412016X, 7412017X, 7411048X

  18. LHC Dipoles Accelerate

    CERN Multimedia


    Andrezej Siemko (left), Peter Sievers (centre), and Lucio Rossi (right), have the exciting challenge of preparing and testing 2000 magnets for the LHC. The LHC is going to require a lot of powerful magnets by the time it begins operation in 2006. More specifically, it is going to need 130 special magnets, 400 quadrupoles, and a whopping 1250 dipoles! Preparing and testing these magnets for the conditions they will encounter in the LHC is not an easy task. But evaluation of the most recently received magnet, from the German company Noell, is showing that while the monumental task of receiving and testing nearly 2000 magnets is going to be exhausting, the goals are definitely attainable. At the moment and over the next year, pre-series magnets (the magnets that CERN uses to fine tune performance) are arriving slowly (90 in total will arrive), but by 2003 the rate of series magnet arrival will accelerate to 9 per week, that's over 450 in a single year! And working with these magnets when they arrive is tough. ...

  19. The entangled accelerating universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411-Medellin (Spain)], E-mail:; Robles-Perez, Salvador [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Pedro de Alvarado, 14, 06411-Medellin (Spain)


    Using the known result that the nucleation of baby universes in correlated pairs is equivalent to spacetime squeezing, we show in this Letter that there exists a T-duality symmetry between two-dimensional warp drives, which are physically expressible as localized de Sitter little universes, and two-dimensional Tolman-Hawking and Gidding-Strominger baby universes respectively correlated in pairs, so that the creation of warp drives is also equivalent to spacetime squeezing. Perhaps more importantly, it has been also seen that the nucleation of warp drives entails a violation of the Bell's inequalities, and hence the phenomena of quantum entanglement, complementarity and wave function collapse. These results are generalized to the case of any dynamically accelerating universe filled with dark or phantom energy whose creation is also physically equivalent to spacetime squeezing and to the violation of the Bell's inequalities, so that the universe we are living in should be governed by essential sharp quantum theory laws and must be a quantum entangled system.

  20. Cosmic transparency and acceleration (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Jain, Deepak


    In this paper, by considering an absorption probability independent of photon wavelength, we show that current type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations plus high-redshift measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature support cosmic acceleration regardless of the transparent-universe assumption. Two flat scenarios are considered in our analyses: the Λ CDM model and a kinematic model. We consider τ (z )=2 ln (1 +z )ɛ, where τ (z ) denotes the opacity between an observer at z =0 and a source at z . This choice is equivalent to deforming the cosmic distance duality relation as DLDA-1=(1 +z )2+ɛ and, if the absorption probability is independent of photon wavelength, the CMB temperature evolution law is TCMB(z )=T0(1 +z )1+2 ɛ /3. By marginalizing on the ɛ parameter, our analyses rule out a decelerating universe at 99.99% C.L. for all scenarios considered. Interestingly, by considering only SNe Ia and GRBs observations, we obtain that a decelerated universe—indicated by ΩΛ≤0.33 and q0>0 —is ruled out around 1.5 σ C.L. and 2 σ C.L., respectively, regardless of the transparent-universe assumption.

  1. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01 An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  2. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia


    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  3. CAS CERN Accelerator School 5th General Accelerator Physics Course (United States)

    Turner, S.


    The fifth CERN Accelerator School (CAS) basic course on General Accelerator Physics was given at the University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland, from 7 to 18 September 1992. Its syllabus was based on the previous similar courses held at Gif-sur-Yvette in 1984, Aarhus 1986, Salamanca 1988 and Juelich 1990, and whose proceedings were published as CERN Reports 85-19, 87-10, 89-05 and 91-04, respectively. However, certain topics were treated in a different way, improved or extended, while new subjects were introduced. As far as the proceedings of this school are concerned the opportunity was taken not only to include the lectures presented but also to select and revise the most appropriate chapters from the previous similar schools. In this way the present volumes constitute a rather complete introduction to all aspects of the design and construction of particle accelerators, including optics, emittance, luminosity, longitudinal and transverse beam dynamics, insertions, chromaticity, transfer lines, resonances, accelerating structures, tune shifts, coasting beams, lifetime, synchrotron radiation, radiation damping, beam-beam effects, diagnostics, cooling, ion and positron sources, RF and vacuum systems, injection and extraction, conventional, permanent and superconducting magnets, cyclotrons, RF linear accelerators, microtrons, as well as applications of particle accelerators (including therapy) and the history of accelerators. See hints under the relevant topics.

  4. Applied iterative methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hageman, Louis A


    This graduate-level text examines the practical use of iterative methods in solving large, sparse systems of linear algebraic equations and in resolving multidimensional boundary-value problems. Assuming minimal mathematical background, it profiles the relative merits of several general iterative procedures. Topics include polynomial acceleration of basic iterative methods, Chebyshev and conjugate gradient acceleration procedures applicable to partitioning the linear system into a "red/black" block form, adaptive computational algorithms for the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method, and comp

  5. Polarized e-bunch acceleration at Cornell RCS: Tentative tracking simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ptitsyn, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ranjbar, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rubin, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)


    An option as an injector into eRHIC electron storage ring is a rapid-cyclic synchrotron (RCS). Rapid acceleration of polarized electron bunches has never been done, Cornell synchrotron might lend itself to dedicated tests, which is to be first explored based on numerical investigations. This paper is a very preliminary introduction to the topic.

  6. Workshop Summary -- Accelerator Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex


    As we enter the high energy regime covered by RHIC and HERA, depolarization effects become strong, so that depolarization resonances begin to overlap. As a result, the ''good old days'' of the ZGS and AGS--when techniques for dealing with isolated resonances were sufficient--are now in the past, and a new generation of spin dynamics questions have to be addressed and new techniques have to be developed. Exciting results were presented at this workshop ranging from the recent rapid R&D advances on polarized H- sources to deeper understanding of the subtle spin dynamics involving Siberian snakes. This summary is an attempt to give some of the highlights.

  7. Accelerating plant breeding. (United States)

    De La Fuente, Gerald N; Frei, Ursula K; Lübberstedt, Thomas


    The growing demand for food with limited arable land available necessitates that the yield of major food crops continues to increase over time. Advances in marker technology, predictive statistics, and breeding methodology have allowed for continued increases in crop performance through genetic improvement. However, one major bottleneck is the generation time of plants, which is biologically limited and has not been improved since the introduction of doubled haploid technology. In this opinion article, we propose to implement in vitro nurseries, which could substantially shorten generation time through rapid cycles of meiosis and mitosis. This could prove a useful tool for speeding up future breeding programs with the aim of sustainable food production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization in microsystems. (United States)

    Lei, Kin Fong; Wang, Yun-Hsiang; Chen, Huai-Yi; Sun, Jia-Hong; Cheng, Ji-Yen


    In this work, electrokinetic acceleration of DNA hybridization was investigated by different combinations of frequencies and amplitudes of actuating electric signals. Because the frequencies from low to high can induce different kinds of electrokinetic forces, i.e., electroosmotic to electrothermal forces, this work provides an in-depth investigation of electrokinetic enhanced hybridization. Concentric circular Cr/Au microelectrodes of 350 µm in diameter were fabricated on a glass substrate and probe DNA was immobilized on the electrode surface. Target DNA labeled with fluorescent dyes suspending in solution was then applied to the electrode. Different electrokinetic forces were induced by the application of different electric signals to the circular microelectrodes. Local microfluidic vortexes were generated to increase the collision efficiency between the target DNA suspending in solution and probe DNA immobilized on the electrode surface. DNA hybridization on the electrode surface could be accelerated by the electrokinetic forces. The level of hybridization was represented by the fluorescent signal intensity ratio. Results revealed that such 5-min dynamic hybridization increased 4.5 fold of signal intensity ratio as compared to a 1-h static hybridization. Moreover, dynamic hybridization was found to have better differentiation ability between specific and non-specific target DNA. This study provides a strategy to accelerate DNA hybridization in microsystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Engines of discovery a century of particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sessler, Andrew


    Particle accelerators exploit the cutting edge of every aspect of today's technology and have themselves contributed to many of these technologies. The largest accelerators have been constructed as research tools for nuclear and high energy physics and there is no doubt that it is this field that has sustained their development culminating in the Large Hadron Collider. An earlier book by the same authors, Engines of Discovery: A Century of Particle Accelerators chronicled the development of these large accelerators and colliders, emphasizing the critical discoveries in applied physics and engineering that drove the field. Particular attention was given to the key individuals who contributed, the methods they used to arrive at their particular discoveries and inventions, often recalling how their human strengths and attitudes may have contributed to their achievements. Much of this historical picture is also to be found, little changed, in Part A of this sequel. Since the first book was written it has become ...

  10. Laser and Particle Guiding Micro-Elements for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Plettner, Tomas; Spencer, James; Wisdom, Jeffrey


    Laser driven particle accelerators based on the current generation of lasers will require sub-micron control of the laser field as well as precise beam guiding. Hence the fabrication techniques that allow integrating both elements into an accelerator-on-chip format become critical for the success of such particle accelerators. Micromachining technology for silicon has been shown to be one such feasible technology in PAC2003 but with a variety of complications on the laser side. Fortunately, in recent years the fabrication of transparent ceramics has become an interesting technology that could be applied for laser-particle accelerators in several ways. We discuss this area, its advantages such as the range of materials it provides and various ways to implement it followed by some different test examples that have been considered. One important goal of this approach is an integrated system that could avoid the necessity of having to inject either laser or particle pulses into these structures.

  11. IPSec Database Query Acceleration (United States)

    Ferrante, Alberto; Chandra, Satish; Piuri, Vincenzo

    IPSec is a suite of protocols that adds security to communications at the IP level. Protocols within IPSec make extensive use of two databases, namely the Security Policy Database (SPD) and the Security Association Database (SAD). The ability to query the SPD quickly is fundamental as this operation needs to be done for each incoming or outgoing IP packet, even if no IPSec processing needs to be applied on it. This may easily result in millions of query per second in gigabit networks.

  12. "small ACCELERATORS" 24 May - 2 June 2005

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN Accelerator School and Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI) Groningen, the Netherlands announce a course on "Small Accelerators", Hotel Golden Tulip Drenthe, Zeegse, the Netherlands, 24 May - 2 June 2005. This specialised course is dedicated to the physics and the main applications of small accelerators. The course will review the different accelerator types as well as their specificities in terms of accelerator physics.

  13. Particle acceleration in binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.


    Full Text Available Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV–85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  14. Particle acceleration in binaries (United States)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.


    Cygnus X-3 massive binary system is one of the powerful sources of radio and X-ray emission consisting of an accreting compact object, probably a black hole, with a Wolf-Rayet star companion. Based on the detections of ultra high energy gamma-rays by Kiel and Havera Park, Cygnus X-3 has been proposed to be one of the most powerful sources of charged cosmic ray particles in the Galaxy. The results of long-term observations of the Cyg X-3 binary at energies 800 GeV-85 TeV detected by SHALON in 1995 are presented with images, integral spectra and spectral energy distribution. The identification of source with Cygnus X-3 detected by SHALON was secured by the detection of its 4.8 hour orbital period in TeV gamma-rays. During the whole observation period of Cyg X-3 with SHALON significant flux increases were detected at energies above 0.8 TeV. These TeV flux increases are correlated with flaring activity at a lower energy range of X-ray and/or at observations of Fermi LAT as well as with radio emission from the relativistic jets of Cygnus X-3. The variability of very high-energy gamma-radiation and correlation of radiation activity in the wide energy range can provide essential information on particle mechanism production up to very high energies. Whereas, modulation of very high energy emission connected to the orbital motion of the binary system, provides an understanding of the emission processes, nature and location of particle acceleration.

  15. Accelerated tests of coil coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales, B. M.


    Full Text Available Accelerated laboratory tests on 12 materials in study in the Subgroup 6 of the PATINA Network (CYTED, are discussed for different exposition periods in salt spray, SO2 and Prohesion chambers. International standards used to evaluate failures caused by the different aggressive agents of these laboratory tests are the same as those applied for outdoor expositions. The results exposed contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms occurred in the diverse natural environments, being mentioned the main analogies and differences respect to factors affecting natural tests. They also allowed to evidence the advantages and limitations in the application of these tests during several days, as compared to the years required to attain similar failure magnitudes through outdoor tests.

    En este trabajo se discuten los ensayos de laboratorio acelerados, realizados sobre 12 materiales de estudio en el Subgrupo 6 de la Red PATINA (CYTED, a diferentes periodos de exposición en cámaras de niebla salina, SO2 y Prohesion. Se utilizaron las normas internacionales para evaluar los fallos causados por los diferentes agentes agresivos de estos ensayos de laboratorio, las cuales se aplican también para los ensayos de exposición a la intemperie. Los resultados expuestos contribuyen a una mejor comprensión de los mecanismos ocurridos en los diversos ambientes naturales, mencionándose las principales analogías y diferencias respecto de los factores que afectan los ensayos naturales. También permitieron evidenciar las ventajas y limitaciones en la aplicación de estos ensayos durante varios días, en comparación con los años requeridos para alcanzar magnitudes de fallos similares por medio de ensayos a intemperie.

  16. Acceleration of particles in plasmas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The accelerating fields in radio-frequency accelerators are limited to roughly 100 MV/m due to material breakdown which occurs on the walls of the structure. In contrast, a plasma, being already ionized, can support electric fields in excess of 100 GV/m. Such high accelerating gradients hold the promise of compact particle accelerators. Plasma acceleration has been an emerging and fast growing field of research in the past two decades. In this series of lectures, we will review the principles of plasma acceleration. We will see how relativistic plasma waves can be excited using an ultra-intense laser or using a particle beam. We will see how these plasma waves can be used to accelerate electrons to high energy in short distances. Throughout the lectures, we will also review recent experimental results. Current laser-plasma experiments throughout the world have shown that monoenergetic electron beams from 100 MeV to 1 GeV can be obtained in distances ranging from the millimetre to the centimetre. Experiments a...

  17. Application of electron accelerator worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo [Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    Electron accelerator is an important radiation source for radiation technology, which covers broad fields such as industry, health care, food and environmental protection. There are about 1,000 electron accelerators for radiation processing worldwide. Electron accelerator has advantage over Co-60 irradiator in term of high dose rate and power, assurance of safety, and higher economic performance at larger volume of irradiation. Accelerator generating higher energy in the range of 10 MeV and high power electron beam is now commercially available. There is a trend to use high-energy electron accelerator replacing Co-60 in case of large through-put of medical products. Irradiated foods, in particular species, are on the commercial market in 35 countries. Electron accelerator is used efficiently and economically for production of new or modified polymeric materials through radiation-induced cross-linking, grafting and polymerization reaction. Another important application of electron beam is the curing of surface coatings in the manufacture of products. Electron accelerators of large capacity are used for cleaning exhaust gases in industrial scale. Economic feasibility studies of this electron beam process have shown that this technology is more cost effective than the conventional process. It should be noted that the conventional limestone process produce gypsum as a by-product, which cannot be used in some countries. By contrast, the by-product of the electron beam process is a valuable fertilizer. (Y. Tanaka)

  18. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  19. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection

    CERN Multimedia


    The US-CERN-JAPAN-RUSSIA Joint International Accelerator School is organising a course on Beam Loss and Accelerator Protection to be held in Newport Beach, California, USA from 5-14 November, 2014.    This school is intended for physicists and engineers who are or may be engaged in the design, construction, and/or operation of accelerators with high power photon or particle beams and/or accelerator sub-systems with large stored energy. Application deadlines are 15 August and 4 September. Further information on this Joint School can be found at:

  20. Ion Beam Facilities at the National Centre for Accelerator based Research using a 3 MV Pelletron Accelerator (United States)

    Trivedi, T.; Patel, Shiv P.; Chandra, P.; Bajpai, P. K.

    A 3.0 MV (Pelletron 9 SDH 4, NEC, USA) low energy ion accelerator has been recently installed as the National Centre for Accelerator based Research (NCAR) at the Department of Pure & Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, Bilaspur, India. The facility is aimed to carried out interdisciplinary researches using ion beams with high current TORVIS (for H, He ions) and SNICS (for heavy ions) ion sources. The facility includes two dedicated beam lines, one for ion beam analysis (IBA) and other for ion implantation/ irradiation corresponding to switching magnet at +20 and -10 degree, respectively. Ions with 60 kV energy are injected into the accelerator tank where after stripping positively charged ions are accelerated up to 29 MeV for Au. The installed ion beam analysis techniques include RBS, PIXE, ERDA and channelling.

  1. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, Luca; Yamamoto, Akira; Zlobin, Alexander V


    In this paper we summarize the evolution and contributions of superconducting magnets to particle accelerators as chronicled over the last 50 years of Particle Accelerator Conferences (PAC, NA-PAC and IPAC). We begin with an historical overview based primarily on PAC Proceedings augmented with references to key milestones in the development of superconducting magnets for particle accelerators. We then provide some illustrative examples of applications that have occurred over the past 50 years, focusing on those that have either been realized in practice or provided technical development for other projects, with discussion of possible future applications.

  2. Diffraction Accelerator Of Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, Yu K; Kosarev, A A; Poseryaev, A V; Shvedunov, V I; Vetrov, A A; Zayarniy, D A


    We present the results of theoretical and numerical analysis of the physical processes for laser linear accelerator based on two symmetric resonance diffraction gratings with double-sided accelerating field excitation. Structures parameters optimization provides π-mode field amplitude distribution in neighboring diffraction zone. The maximum energy gradient restricted by ablation processes in grating materials is estimated as 1-3 GeV/m. The numerical analyses and analytical approximation of electric and magnetic field structures are done, longitudinal and transverse electron beam dynamics in accelerating systems are considered, wake fields and focusing properties of diffraction gratings are estimated.

  3. Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Mark P.; Anderson, Lawrence G.; Post, Gordon L.


    Rapidly curable electrically conductive clear coatings are applied to substrates. The electrically conductive clear coating includes to clear layer having a resinous binder with ultrafine non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide particles dispersed therein. The clear coating may be rapidly cured by subjecting the coating to infrared radiation that heats the tungsten oxide particles and surrounding resinous binder. Localized heating increases the temperature of the coating to thereby thermally cure the coating, while avoiding unwanted heating of the underlying substrate.

  4. Recent developments in novel freezing and thawing technologies applied to foods. (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Min; Adhikari, Benu; Sun, Jincai


    This article reviews the recent developments in novel freezing and thawing technologies applied to foods. These novel technologies improve the quality of frozen and thawed foods and are energy efficient. The novel technologies applied to freezing include pulsed electric field pre-treatment, ultra-low temperature, ultra-rapid freezing, ultra-high pressure and ultrasound. The novel technologies applied to thawing include ultra-high pressure, ultrasound, high voltage electrostatic field (HVEF), and radio frequency. Ultra-low temperature and ultra-rapid freezing promote the formation and uniform distribution of small ice crystals throughout frozen foods. Ultra-high pressure and ultrasound assisted freezing are non-thermal methods and shorten the freezing time and improve product quality. Ultra-high pressure and HVEF thawing generate high heat transfer rates and accelerate the thawing process. Ultrasound and radio frequency thawing can facilitate thawing process by volumetrically generating heat within frozen foods. It is anticipated that these novel technologies will be increasingly used in food industries in the future.

  5. Evolution of dispersal and life history interact to drive accelerating spread of an invasive species. (United States)

    Perkins, T Alex; Phillips, Benjamin L; Baskett, Marissa L; Hastings, Alan


    Populations on the edge of an expanding range are subject to unique evolutionary pressures acting on their life-history and dispersal traits. Empirical evidence and theory suggest that traits there can evolve rapidly enough to interact with ecological dynamics, potentially giving rise to accelerating spread. Nevertheless, which of several evolutionary mechanisms drive this interaction between evolution and spread remains an open question. We propose an integrated theoretical framework for partitioning the contributions of different evolutionary mechanisms to accelerating spread, and we apply this model to invasive cane toads in northern Australia. In doing so, we identify a previously unrecognised evolutionary process that involves an interaction between life-history and dispersal evolution during range shift. In roughly equal parts, life-history evolution, dispersal evolution and their interaction led to a doubling of distance spread by cane toads in our model, highlighting the potential importance of multiple evolutionary processes in the dynamics of range expansion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  6. High-efficiency combinatorial approach as an effective tool for accelerating metallic biomaterials research and discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.D. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Zhao, J.-C. [State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 2041 College Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, J.L.; Zheng, F.; Jin, Z.P. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 410083 (China)


    A high-efficiency combinatorial approach has been applied to rapidly build the database of composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems. A diffusion multiple of the Ti–Zr–Ta system was manufactured, then annealed at 1173 K for 1800 h, and water quenched to room temperature. Extensive interdiffusion among Ti, Zr and Ta has taken place. Combining nanoindentation and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), the elastic modulus, hardness as well as composition across the diffusion multiple were determined. The composition/elastic modulus/hardness relationship of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta alloys has been obtained. It was found that the elastic modulus and hardness depend strongly on the Ta and Zr content. The result can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys for different components in implant prosthesis. - Highlights: • High-efficiency diffusion multiple of Ti–Zr–Ta was manufactured. • Composition-dependent elastic modulus and hardness of the Ti–Ta and Ti–Zr–Ta systems have been obtained effectively, • The methodology and the information can be used to accelerate the discovery/development of bio-titanium alloys.

  7. Ion acceleration and plasma jet formation in ultra-thin foils undergoing expansion and relativistic transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, M.; Gray, R.J.; Powell, H.W.; MacLellan, D.A.; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Stockhausen, L.C. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja, s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Hicks, G.S.; Dover, N.P. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Rusby, D.R. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Carroll, D.C. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Padda, H. [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Torres, R. [Centro de Laseres Pulsados (CLPU), Parque Cientifico, Calle del Adaja, s/n. 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Kar, S. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Clarke, R.J.; Musgrave, I.O. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Najmudin, Z. [The John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom); Borghesi, M. [Centre for Plasma Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Neely, D. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); McKenna, P., E-mail: [SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)


    At sufficiently high laser intensities, the rapid heating to relativistic velocities and resulting decompression of plasma electrons in an ultra-thin target foil can result in the target becoming relativistically transparent to the laser light during the interaction. Ion acceleration in this regime is strongly affected by the transition from an opaque to a relativistically transparent plasma. By spatially resolving the laser-accelerated proton beam at near-normal laser incidence and at an incidence angle of 30°, we identify characteristic features both experimentally and in particle-in-cell simulations which are consistent with the onset of three distinct ion acceleration mechanisms: sheath acceleration; radiation pressure acceleration; and transparency-enhanced acceleration. The latter mechanism occurs late in the interaction and is mediated by the formation of a plasma jet extending into the expanding ion population. The effect of laser incident angle on the plasma jet is explored.

  8. Accelerating the Payment of PACE Assessments By Mark Zimring and Merrian Fulle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian


    The 'acceleration' of land-secured assessments allows municipalities to declare the entire value (not just the late payments) of a property owner's outstanding balance payable if a default occurs. State laws vary on whether acceleration is required, permitted, or prohibited. Acceleration can be attractive to bond investors because it strips out non-performing assessments, and may avoid delays in debt service payments to investors. The risk that non-acceleration will negatively impact bond investors is a particular issue in states without a process for rapidly resolving defaults. However, acceleration may also increase the risk to mortgage holders, as the full amount of the outstanding assessment becomes due and traditionally has priority over other lien holders. Acceleration also places a greater burden on the property owner.

  9. SNEAP 80: symposium of Northeastern Accelerator personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billen, J.H. (ed.)


    Reports of operations are presented for twenty-seven facilities, along with reports on accelerators in progress, ion sources, insulating gases, charging systems, stripping foils, accelerating tubes, and upgraded accelerator systems. (GHT)

  10. New frontier of laser particle acceleration: driving protons to 80 MeV by radiation pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, I Jong; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Hyung Taek; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Choi, Il Woo; Singhal, Himanshu; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Seong Ku; Lee, Hwang Woon; Nickles, Peter V; Jeong, Tae Moon; Nam, Chang Hee


    The radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of charged particles has been considered a challenging task in laser particle acceleration. Laser-driven proton/ion acceleration has attracted considerable interests due to its underlying physics and potential for applications such as high-energy density physics, ultrafast radiography, and cancer therapy. Among critical issues to overcome the biggest challenge is to produce energetic protons using an efficient acceleration mechanism. The proton acceleration by radiation pressure is considerably more efficient than the conventional target normal sheath acceleration driven by expanding hot electrons. Here we report the generation of 80-MeV proton beams achieved by applying 30-fs circularly polarized laser pulses with an intensity of 6.1 x 1020 W/cm2 to ultrathin targets. The radiation pressure acceleration was confirmed from the obtained optimal target thickness, quadratic energy scaling, polarization dependence, and 3D-PIC simulations. We expect this fast energy scalin...

  11. Integrating accelerated tryptic digestion into proteomics workflows. (United States)

    Slysz, Gordon W; Schriemer, David C


    An accelerated protein digestion procedure is described that features a microscale trypsin cartridge operated under aqueous-organic conditions. High sequence coverage digestions obtained in seconds with small amounts of enzyme are possible with the approach, which also supports online integration of digestion with reversed-phase protein separation. The construction and operation of effective digestor cartridges for rapid sample processing are described. For workflows involving chromatographic protein separation an easily assembled fluidic system is presented, which inserts the digestion step after column-based separation. Successful integration requires dynamic effluent titration immediately prior to transmission through the digestor. This is achieved through the co-ordination of the column gradient system with an inverse gradient system to produce steady pH and organic solvent levels. System assembly and operation sufficient for achieving digestion and identification of subnanogram levels of protein are described.

  12. Using inverted indices for accelerating LINGO calculations. (United States)

    Kristensen, Thomas G; Nielsen, Jesper; Pedersen, Christian N S


    The ever growing size of chemical databases calls for the development of novel methods for representing and comparing molecules. One such method called LINGO is based on fragmenting the SMILES string representation of molecules. Comparison of molecules can then be performed by calculating the Tanimoto coefficient, which is called LINGOsim when used on LINGO multisets. This paper introduces a verbose representation for storing LINGO multisets, which makes it possible to transform them into sparse fingerprints such that fingerprint data structures and algorithms can be used to accelerate queries. The previous best method for rapidly calculating the LINGOsim similarity matrix required specialized hardware to yield a significant speedup over existing methods. By representing LINGO multisets in the verbose representation and using inverted indices, it is possible to calculate LINGOsim similarity matrices roughly 2.6 times faster than existing methods without relying on specialized hardware.

  13. Ultrafast science using Laser Wakefield Accelerators (United States)

    Thomas, Alec G. R.


    Recent progress in laser wakefield acceleration has led to the emergence of a new generation of electron and X-ray sources that may have considerable benefits for ultrafast science. Laser wakefield acceleration provides radiation pulses that have femtosecond duration and intrinsic synchronisation with the laser source, allowing for pump-probe measurements with unprecedented temporal resolution. These pulses can be used to study ultrafast dynamical phenomena in plasma and dense material, such as transient magnetic fields, rapidly evolving plasma dynamics and crystal lattice oscillations. In this talk, I will review recent experiments in laser wakefield acceleration and energetic photon generation using the laser systems HERCULES and Lambda-Cubed at the University of Michigan and their use for capturing the dynamics of laser-pumped samples. Studies of the electron beam hosing instability and the generation of annular phase space distributions increase X-ray flux while maintaining its femtosecond duration. Single-shot, spectrally resolved absorption measurements in laser pumped foils can be made on ultrafast timescales using this broadband photon source. Ultrafast electron radiography is able to temporally resolve relativistically expanding magnetic fields in high-intensity laser-solid interactions and the evolution of electric fields in low density plasma. Time-resolved electron diffraction captures structural dynamics in crystalline silicon. I will also discuss the technological needs for and potential impact of such revolutionary compact radiation sources for ultrafast science in the future. US Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Award Number FA9550-12-1-0310, the US National Science Foundation Grants No. 1054164, 0935197, 1535628 and 0810979, US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-NA0002372 and Army Research Office Grant No. W911NF1.

  14. High temperature superconductor accelerator magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nugteren, J.


    For future particle accelerators bending dipoles are considered with magnetic fields exceeding 20T. This can only be achieved using high temperature superconductors (HTS). These exhibit different properties from classical low temperature superconductors and still require significant research and

  15. Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) facility will be based on upgrades to the existing NML pulsed SRF facility. ASTA is envisioned to contain 3 to 6...

  16. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto


    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...

  17. Particle accelerator; the Universe machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Yurkewicz, Katie


    "In summer 2008, scientists will switch on one of the largest machines in the world to search for the smallest of particle. CERN's Large Hadron Collider particle accelerator has the potential to chagne our understanding of the Universe."

  18. Rapid communication: K 0

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. A SINGH1 A KUMAR1 R RAJA2 V BHATNAGAR1 V SINGH3. Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India; Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia 50610, USA; Banarus Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India ...

  19. Acceleration of Data Analysis Applications using GPUs (United States)

    Fillmore, D.; Messmer, P.; Mullowney, P.; Amyx, K.


    The vast amount of data collected by present and future scientific instruments, sensors and numerical models requires a significant increase in computing power for analysis. In many cases, processing time on a single workstation becomes impractical. While clusters of commodity processors can be utilized to accelerate some of these tasks, the relatively high software development cost, as well as acquisition and operational costs, make them less attractive for broad use. Over the past few years, another class of architectures has gained some popularity, namely heterogeneous architectures, which consist of general purpose processors connected to specialized processors. One of the most prominent examples are Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which offer a tremendous amount of floating-point processing power due to demand for high-quality graphics in the computer game market. However, in order to harness this processing power, software developers have to develop with a detailed understanding of the underlying hardware. This burden on the developer is often hardly justifiable considering the rapid evolution of the hardware. In this talk, we will introduce GPULib, an open source library that enables scientists to accelerate their data analysis tasks using the GPUs already installed in their system from within high-level languages like IDL or MATLAB, and present examples and possible speedup from real-world data analysis applications. This work is funded through NASA Phase II SBIR Grant NNG06CA13C.

  20. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wawrzynek, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  1. [Accelerated postoperative recovery after colorectal surgery]. (United States)

    Alfonsi, P; Schaack, E


    Accelerated recovery programs are clinical pathways which outline the stages, and streamline the means, and techniques aiming toward the desired end a rapid return of the patient to his pre-operative physical and psychological status. Recovery from colo-rectal surgery may be slowed by the patient's general health, surgical stress, post-surgical pain, and post-operative ileus. Both surgeons and anesthesiologists participate throughout the peri-operative period in a clinical pathway aimed at minimizing these delaying factors. Key elements of this pathway include avoidance of pre-operative colonic cleansing, early enteral feeding, and effective post-operative pain management permitting early ambulation (usually via thoracic epidural anesthesia). Pre-operative information and motivation of the patient is also a key to the success of this accelerated recovery program. Studies of such programs have shown decreased duration of post-operative ileus and hospital stay without an increase in complications or re-admissions. The elements of the clinical pathway must be regularly re-evaluated and updated according to local experience and published data.

  2. Rapid communication: Production from beryllium target using 120 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Singh


    Nov 30, 2017 ... Rapid communication: K. 0. S. Production from beryllium target using 120 GeV/c protons beam interactions at the MIPP experiment. A SINGH1 ,∗. , A KUMAR1, R RAJA2, V BHATNAGAR1 and V SINGH3. 1Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014, India. 2Fermi National Accelerator ...

  3. Experimental setup for rapid crystallization using favoured chemical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The rapid crystallization of KH2PO4 (KDP) from solution is demonstrated at a rate up to ≈7.5 mm/day along [100] and 22 mm/day along [001] in a crystallizer of 5 l capacity, using accelerated crucible rotation technique (ACRT) and simulated platform geometry for controlling the hydrodynamic conditions. On an experimental ...

  4. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator (United States)

    Caporaso, George J [Livermore, CA; Nelson, Scott D [Patterson, CA; Poole, Brian R [Tracy, CA


    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  5. Design acceleration in chemical engineering


    Cortes Robles, Guillermo; Negny, Stéphane; Le Lann, Jean-Marc


    Nowadays, Chemical Engineering has to face a new industrial context with for example: the gradually falling of hydrocarbon reserves after 2020-2030, relocation, emerging of new domains of application (nano-micro technologies) which necessitate new solutions and knowledges… All this tendencies and demands accelerate the need of tool for design and innovation (technically, technologically). In this context, this paper presents a tool to accelerate innovative preliminary design. This model is ba...

  6. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen G [Port Jefferson, NY; Brennan, J Michael [East Northport, NY; Tuozzolo, Joseph E [Sayville, NY; Zaltsman, Alexander [Commack, NY


    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  7. The color changes on varnish layers after accelerated aging through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the color changes of cellulosic, polyurethane and acrylic varnish layers which were applied on the surfaces of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Eastern beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.) wood material after accelerated aging effects through the hot and ...

  8. Measuring Velocity and Acceleration Using Doppler Shift of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Abstract. We describe here as to how the Doppler shift of a source needs to be used to measure its velocity and acceleration. We also apply this method, as an example here, to spectral lines of the blue-shifted jet in micro-quasar SS433 and discuss the intricacies of these measurements.

  9. Gamow on Newton: Another Look at Centripetal Acceleration (United States)

    Corrao, Christian


    Presented here is an adaptation of George Gamow's derivation of the centripetal acceleration formula as it applies to Earth's orbiting Moon. The derivation appears in Gamows short but engaging book "Gravity", first published in 1962, and is essentially a distillation of Newton's work. While "TPT" contributors have offered several insightful…

  10. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  11. High-Intensity Proton Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay L. Hirshfield


    Analysis is presented for an eight-cavity proton cyclotron accelerator that could have advantages as compared with other accelerators because of its potentially high acceleration gradient. The high gradient is possible since protons orbit in a sequence of TE111 rotating mode cavities of equally diminishing frequencies with path lengths during acceleration that greatly exceed the cavity lengths. As the cavities operate at sequential harmonics of a basic repetition frequency, phase synchronism can be maintained over a relatively wide injection phase window without undue beam emittance growth. It is shown that use of radial vanes can allow cavity designs with significantly smaller radii, as compared with simple cylindrical cavities. Preliminary beam transport studies show that acceptable extraction and focusing of a proton beam after cyclic motion in this accelerator should be possible. Progress is also reported on design and tests of a four-cavity electron counterpart accelerator for experiments to study effects on beam quality arising from variations injection phase window width. This device is powered by four 500-MW pulsed amplifiers at 1500, 1800, 2100, and 2400 MHz that provide phase synchronous outputs, since they are driven from a with harmonics derived from a phase-locked 300 MHz source.

  12. Electrodynamics in accelerated frames revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluf, J.W. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Brasilia (Brazil); Ulhoa, S.C. [Instituto de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, UFVJM, Diamantina, MG (Brazil)


    Maxwell's equations are formulated in arbitrary moving frames by means of tetrad fields, which are interpreted as reference frames adapted to observers in space-time. We assume the existence of a general distribution of charges and currents in an inertial frame. Tetrad fields are used to project the electromagnetic fields and sources on accelerated frames. The purpose is to study several configurations of fields and observers that in the literature are understood as paradoxes. For instance, are the two situations, (i) an accelerated charge in an inertial frame, and (ii) a charge at rest in an inertial frame described from the perspective of an accelerated frame, physically equivalent? Is the electromagnetic radiation the same in both frames? Normally in the analysis of these paradoxes the electromagnetic fields are transformed to (uniformly) accelerated frames by means of a coordinate transformation of the Faraday tensor. In the present approach coordinate and frame transformations are disentangled, and the electromagnetic field in the accelerated frame is obtained through a frame (local Lorentz) transformation. Consequently the fields in the inertial and accelerated frames are described in the same coordinate system. This feature allows the investigation of paradoxes such as the one mentioned above. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Characterization of Multicrystalline Silicon Modules with System Bias Voltage Applied in Damp Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacke, P.; Kempe, M.; Terwilliger, K.; Glick, S.; Call, N.; Johnston, S.; Kurtz, S.


    As it is considered economically favorable to serially connect modules to build arrays with high system voltage, it is necessary to explore potential long-term degradation mechanisms the modules may incur under such electrical potential. We performed accelerated lifetime testing of multicrystalline silicon PV modules in 85 degrees C/ 85% relative humidity and 45 degrees C/ 30% relative humidity while placing the active layer in either positive or negative 600 V bias with respect to the grounded module frame. Negative bias applied to the active layer in some cases leads to more rapid and catastrophic module power degradation. This is associated with significant shunting of individual cells as indicated by electroluminescence, thermal imaging, and I-V curves. Mass spectroscopy results support ion migration as one of the causes. Electrolytic corrosion is seen occurring with the silicon nitride antireflective coating and silver gridlines, and there is ionic transport of metallization at the encapsulant interface observed with damp heat and applied bias. Leakage current and module degradation is found to be highly dependent upon the module construction, with factors such as encapsulant and front glass resistivity affecting performance. Measured leakage currents range from about the same seen in published reports of modules deployed in Florida (USA) and is accelerated to up to 100 times higher in the environmental chamber testing.

  14. Rapid prototyping of composite aircraft structures (United States)

    Bennett, George; Rais-Rohani, Masoud; Hall, Kenneth; Holifield, Walt; Sullivan, Rani; Brown, Scott

    The faculty, staff and students of the Raspet Flight Research Laboratory (RFRL) have developed a rapid prototyping capability in a series of research aircraft and unmanned aircraft development projects. There has been a steady change in the technologies used to accomplish these tasks at the RFRL. The most recent development has been the utilization of computer graphics and a 5-axis gantry robot router to accelerate the design, moldmaking and parts trimming tasks. The composite structure fabrication processes at the RFRL have evolved from wet-lay-up to autoclave curve. Currently, the feasibility of the stitched composite material preform and resin transfer molding process is being explored.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kliuchenia


    Full Text Available This paper illustrates rapid prototyping method applied for mobile multimedia systems with L2L (lossless-to-lossy compression scheme. Debug module Xilinx ML-401 based on the FPGA (Filed Programmable Gate Array is taken as the basis. Microblaze soft-processor is used as the main control unit. Proposed DCT-IDCT cores are developed using VHDL hardware description language as FSL (Fast Simples Link coprocessors for Microblaze or standalone PLB (Processor Logical Bus acceleration peripheral. Result of image processing is displayed on the screen connected via VGA interface. Proposed recursive architecture of DCT-IDCT core can be used as a basis of L2L coder.

  16. Davies bar as the reference for impact acceleration metrology (United States)

    Umeda, Akira; Ueda, Kazunaga


    The mass production of silicon accelerometers has clarified that the current acceleration standard is not perfect. The acceleration standard is usually transferred by a reference accelerometer with the so-called back-to-back connection technique. Manufacturers, however do not explain what sort of calibration technique is applied to the reference accelerometer in the impact acceleration range. This paper proposes a novel impact technique for accelerometers calibration. The input acceleration to an accelerometer to be tested is generated by the reflection of an elastic pulse at one end surface of a bar. The bar is called Davies Bar, after Prof. Davies, who measured the dynamic displacement of the end surface of a metal bar by electrodes. The experiment was the comparison between the calibration of RION PV-44A accelerometer by ENDEVCO 2270 and that by NRLM method. The paper concludes that Davies' Bar should be used as the reference for the impact acceleration, ranging from roughly 200 [m/s2] to 1000,000 [m/s2] for mainly following reasons: (1) NRLM method is based on laser interferometer measurement with the reliable accuracy. (2) The frequency bandwidth of the impact acceleration generated using Davies bar is much wider than that of reference accelerometers. (3) Back to back connection does not always enable the comparison between the measurement of the connecting surface motion and the accelerometers' outputs.

  17. Distribution uniformity of laser-accelerated proton beams (United States)

    Zhu, Jun-Gao; Zhu, Kun; Tao, Li; Xu, Xiao-Han; Lin, Chen; Ma, Wen-Jun; Lu, Hai-Yang; Zhao, Yan-Ying; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Chen, Jia-Er; Yan, Xue-Qing


    Compared with conventional accelerators, laser plasma accelerators can generate high energy ions at a greatly reduced scale, due to their TV/m acceleration gradient. A compact laser plasma accelerator (CLAPA) has been built at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics at Peking University. It will be used for applied research like biological irradiation, astrophysics simulations, etc. A beamline system with multiple quadrupoles and an analyzing magnet for laser-accelerated ions is proposed here. Since laser-accelerated ion beams have broad energy spectra and large angular divergence, the parameters (beam waist position in the Y direction, beam line layout, drift distance, magnet angles etc.) of the beamline system are carefully designed and optimised to obtain a radially symmetric proton distribution at the irradiation platform. Requirements of energy selection and differences in focusing or defocusing in application systems greatly influence the evolution of proton distributions. With optimal parameters, radially symmetric proton distributions can be achieved and protons with different energy spread within ±5% have similar transverse areas at the experiment target. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11575011, 61631001) and National Grand Instrument Project (2012YQ030142)

  18. MEMS-based, RF-driven, compact accelerators (United States)

    Persaud, A.; Seidl, P. A.; Ji, Q.; Breinyn, I.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.; Vinayakumar, K. B.; Ni, D.; Lal, A.


    Shrinking existing accelerators in size can reduce their cost by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, by using radio frequency (RF) technology and accelerating ions in several stages, the applied voltages can be kept low paving the way to new ion beam applications. We make use of the concept of a Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator (MEQALAC) and have previously shown the implementation of its basic components using printed circuit boards, thereby reducing the size of earlier MEQALACs by an order of magnitude. We now demonstrate the combined integration of these components to form a basic accelerator structure, including an initial beam-matching section. In this presentation, we will discuss the results from the integrated multi-beam ion accelerator and also ion acceleration using RF voltages generated on-board. Furthermore, we will show results from Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabricated focusing wafers, which can shrink the dimension of the system to the sub-mm regime and lead to cheaper fabrication. Based on these proof-of-concept results we outline a scaling path to high beam power for applications in plasma heating in magnetized target fusion and in neutral beam injectors for future Tokamaks. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy through the ARPA-e ALPHA program under contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  19. A reference accelerator scheme for ADS applications (United States)

    Biarrotte, Jean-Luc; Bousson, Sébastien; Junquera, Tomas; Mueller, Alex C.; Olivier, Aurélia


    Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) for transmutation of nuclear waste typically require 350 MeV-1 GeV accelerators delivering proton fluxes of 5-10 mA for demonstrators, and 20-50 mA for large industrial systems. Thus, such machines belong to the category of the so-called HPPA (High-Power Proton Accelerators), with multi-megawatt beam power. HPPA are presently developed and constructed at great pace for their broad utility in fundamental or applied science. Compared to other HPPA, many features and requirements are similar for the ADS driver. However, there is a need for exceptional reliability: because of the induced thermal stress to the sub-critical core, the number of unwanted "beam-trips" should not exceed a few per year, a requirement that is several orders of magnitude above usual performance. Consecutive to the work of the European Technical Working Group (ETWG) on ADS, the Preliminary Design Study of an Experimental ADS (PDS-XADS) was launched in 2001 as a 5th Framework Program EC project. A special Working Package (WP3) was dedicated to the accelerator design, taking especially into account that the issue of "beam-trips" could be a potential "show-stopper" for ADS technology in general. A reference solution, based on a linear superconducting accelerator with its associated doubly achromatic beam line, has been worked out to some detail. For high reliability, the proposed design is intrinsically fault tolerant, relying on highly modular "de-rated" components associated to a fast digital feedback system. The proposed solution also appears to be robust concerning operational aspects like maintenance and radioprotection. A roadmap for construction as well as the required consolidated budget was elaborated. A program for the remaining R&D, focused on experimental reliability demonstration of prototypical components has been elaborated. This R&D will be performed in the 6th Framework Program EC project EUROTRANS, which presently is just starting. EC Contract No

  20. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  1. CAS Accelerator Physics (RF for Accelerators) in Denmark

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Strasser


    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and Aarhus University jointly organised a specialised course on RF for Accelerators, at the Ebeltoft Strand Hotel, Denmark from 8 to 17 June 2010.   Caption The challenging programme focused on the introduction of the underlying theory, the study and the performance of the different components involved in RF systems, the RF gymnastics and RF measurements and diagnostics. This academic part was supplemented with three afternoons dedicated to practical hands-on exercises. The school was very successful, with 100 participants representing 25 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, praising the expertise and enthusiasm of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and excellent quality of their lectures. In addition to the academic programme, the participants were able to visit a small industrial exhibition organised by Aarhus University and take part in a one-day excursion consisting of a visit of the accelerators operated ...

  2. Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan


    Our piece of cosmic real-estate, the heliosphere, is the domain of all human existence - an astrophysical case-history of the successful evolution of life in a habitable system. By exploring our global heliosphere and its myriad interactions, we develop key physical knowledge of the interstellar interactions that influence exoplanetary habitability as well as the distant history and destiny of our solar system and world. IBEX was the first mission to explore the global heliosphere and in concert with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 is discovering a fundamentally new and uncharted physical domain of the outer heliosphere. In parallel, Cassini/INCA maps the global heliosphere at energies (~5-55 KeV) above those measured by IBEX. The enigmatic IBEX ribbon and the INCA belt were unanticipated discoveries demonstrating that much of what we know or think we understand about the outer heliosphere needs to be revised. The next quantum leap enabled by IMAP will open new windows on the frontier of Heliophysics at a time when the space environment is rapidly evolving. IMAP with 100 times the combined resolution and sensitivity of IBEX and INCA will discover the substructure of the IBEX ribbon and will reveal in unprecedented resolution global maps of our heliosphere. The remarkable synergy between IMAP, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 will remain for at least the next decade as Voyager 1 pushes further into the interstellar domain and Voyager 2 moves through the heliosheath. The "A" in IMAP refers to acceleration of energetic particles. With its combination of highly sensitive pickup and suprathermal ion sensors, IMAP will provide the species and spectral coverage as well as unprecedented temporal resolution to associate emerging suprathermal tails with interplanetary structures and discover underlying physical acceleration processes. These key measurements will provide what has been a critical missing piece of suprathermal seed particles in our understanding of particle acceleration to high

  3. Rapid shallow breathing (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  4. Rapid Strep Test (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  5. To Internationalize Rapidly from Inception: Crowdsource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosh Kannangara


    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurs continuously search for tools to accelerate the internationalization of their startups. For the purpose of internationalizing rapidly from inception, we propose that technology startups use crowdsourcing to internalize the tacit knowledge embodied in members of a crowd distributed across various geographies. For example, a technology startup can outsource to a large crowd the definition of a customer problem that occurs across various geographies, the development of the best solution to the problem, and the identification of attractive business expansion opportunities. In this article, we analyze how three small firms use crowdsourcing, discuss the benefits of crowdsourcing, and offer six recommendations to technology entrepreneurs interested in using crowdsourcing to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception.

  6. RAPID3? Aptly named! (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M


    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  7. Neural Networks for Modeling and Control of Particle Accelerators (United States)

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Chase, B. E.; Edstrom, D.; Milton, S. V.; Stabile, P.


    Particle accelerators are host to myriad nonlinear and complex physical phenomena. They often involve a multitude of interacting systems, are subject to tight performance demands, and should be able to run for extended periods of time with minimal interruptions. Often times, traditional control techniques cannot fully meet these requirements. One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence, particularly in light of recent theoretical and practical advances in these fields. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are particularly well-suited to modeling, control, and diagnostic analysis of complex, nonlinear, and time-varying systems, as well as systems with large parameter spaces. Consequently, the use of neural network-based modeling and control techniques could be of significant benefit to particle accelerators. For the same reasons, particle accelerators are also ideal test-beds for these techniques. Many early attempts to apply neural networks to particle accelerators yielded mixed results due to the relative immaturity of the technology for such tasks. The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce neural networks to the particle accelerator community and report on some work in neural network control that is being conducted as part of a dedicated collaboration between Fermilab and Colorado State University (CSU). We describe some of the challenges of particle accelerator control, highlight recent advances in neural network techniques, discuss some promising avenues for incorporating neural networks into particle accelerator control systems, and describe a neural network-based control system that is being developed for resonance control of an RF electron gun at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility, including initial experimental results from a benchmark controller.

  8. DARHT II Scaled Accelerator Tests on the ETA II Accelerator*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weir, J T; Anaya Jr, E M; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Chen, Y; Falabella, S; Lee, B S; Paul, A C; Raymond, B A; Richardson, R A; Watson, J A; Chan, D; Davis, H A; Day, L A; Scarpetti, R D; Schultze, M E; Hughes, T P


    The DARHT II accelerator at LANL is preparing a series of preliminary tests at the reduced voltage of 7.8 MeV. The transport hardware between the end of the accelerator and the final target magnet was shipped to LLNL and installed on ETA II. Using the ETA II beam at 5.2 MeV we completed a set of experiments designed reduce start up time on the DARHT II experiments and run the equipment in a configuration adapted to the reduced energy. Results of the beam transport using a reduced energy beam, including the kicker and kicker pulser system will be presented.

  9. TeV/m nano-accelerator: Investigation on feasibility of CNT-channeling acceleration at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Y. M. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Thurman-Keup, R. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    The development of high gradient acceleration and tight phase-space control of high power beams is a key element for future lepton and hadron colliders since the increasing demands for higher energy and luminosity significantly raise costs of modern HEP facilities. Atomic channels in crystals are known to consist of 10–100 V/Å potential barriers capable of guiding and collimating a high energy beam providing continuously focused acceleration with exceptionally high gradients (TeV/m). However, channels in natural crystals are only angstrom-size and physically vulnerable to high energy interactions, which has prevented crystals from being applied to high power accelerators. Carbon-based nano-crystals such as carbon-nanotubes (CNTs) and graphenes have a large degree of dimensional flexibility and thermo-mechanical strength, which could be suitable for channeling acceleration of MW beams. Nano-channels of the synthetic crystals can accept a few orders of magnitude larger phase-space volume of channeled particles with much higher thermal tolerance than natural crystals. This study presents the current status of CNT-channeling acceleration research at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) in Fermilab.

  10. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos


    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  11. Rapid indirect trajectory optimization on highly parallel computing architectures (United States)

    Antony, Thomas

    Trajectory optimization is a field which can benefit greatly from the advantages offered by parallel computing. The current state-of-the-art in trajectory optimization focuses on the use of direct optimization methods, such as the pseudo-spectral method. These methods are favored due to their ease of implementation and large convergence regions while indirect methods have largely been ignored in the literature in the past decade except for specific applications in astrodynamics. It has been shown that the shortcomings conventionally associated with indirect methods can be overcome by the use of a continuation method in which complex trajectory solutions are obtained by solving a sequence of progressively difficult optimization problems. High performance computing hardware is trending towards more parallel architectures as opposed to powerful single-core processors. Graphics Processing Units (GPU), which were originally developed for 3D graphics rendering have gained popularity in the past decade as high-performance, programmable parallel processors. The Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) framework, a parallel computing architecture and programming model developed by NVIDIA, is one of the most widely used platforms in GPU computing. GPUs have been applied to a wide range of fields that require the solution of complex, computationally demanding problems. A GPU-accelerated indirect trajectory optimization methodology which uses the multiple shooting method and continuation is developed using the CUDA platform. The various algorithmic optimizations used to exploit the parallelism inherent in the indirect shooting method are described. The resulting rapid optimal control framework enables the construction of high quality optimal trajectories that satisfy problem-specific constraints and fully satisfy the necessary conditions of optimality. The benefits of the framework are highlighted by construction of maximum terminal velocity trajectories for a hypothetical

  12. Accelerator Technology Division annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This paper discusses: accelerator physics and special projects; experiments and injectors; magnetic optics and beam diagnostics; accelerator design and engineering; radio-frequency technology; accelerator theory and simulation; free-electron laser technology; accelerator controls and automation; and high power microwave sources and effects.

  13. Superconducting linear accelerator system for NSC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper reports the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator as a booster to the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi. The LINAC will use superconducting niobium quarter wave resonators as the accelerating element. Construction of the linear accelerator has progressed ...

  14. Accelerating Neuroimage Registration through Parallel Computation of Similarity Metric.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Gang Luo

    Full Text Available Neuroimage registration is crucial for brain morphometric analysis and treatment efficacy evaluation. However, existing advanced registration algorithms such as FLIRT and ANTs are not efficient enough for clinical use. In this paper, a GPU implementation of FLIRT with the correlation ratio (CR as the similarity metric and a GPU accelerated correlation coefficient (CC calculation for the symmetric diffeomorphic registration of ANTs have been developed. The comparison with their corresponding original tools shows that our accelerated algorithms can greatly outperform the original algorithm in terms of computational efficiency. This paper demonstrates the great potential of applying these registration tools in clinical applications.

  15. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A


    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  16. Superconducting Magnets for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, L


    Superconductivity has been the most influential technology in the field of accelerators in the last 30 years. Since the commissioning of the Tevatron, which demonstrated the use and operability of superconductivity on a large scale, superconducting magnets and rf cavities have been at the heart of all new large accelerators. Superconducting magnets have been the invariable choice for large colliders, as well as cyclotrons and large synchrotrons. In spite of the long history of success, superconductivity remains a difficult technology, requires adequate R&D and suitable preparation, and has a relatively high cost. Hence, it is not surprising that the development has also been marked by a few setbacks. This article is a review of the main superconducting accelerator magnet projects; it highlights the main characteristics and main achievements, and gives a perspective on the development of superconducting magnets for the future generation of very high energy colliders.

  17. Niobium LEP 2 accelerating cavities

    CERN Multimedia

    An accelerating cavity from LEP. This could be cut open to show the layer of niobium on the inside. Operating at 4.2 degrees above absolute zero, the niobium is superconducting and carries an accelerating field of 6 million volts per metre with negligible losses. Each cavity has a surface of 6 m2. The niobium layer is only 1.2 microns thick, ten times thinner than a hair. Such a large area had never been coated to such a high accuracy. A speck of dust could ruin the performance of the whole cavity so the work had to be done in an extremely clean environment. These challenging requirements pushed European industry to new achievements. 256 of these cavities were used in an upgrade of the LEP accelerator to double the energy of the particle beams.

  18. A Multibunch Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Kallos, Efthymios; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Kimura, Wayne D; Kusche, Karl; Muggli, Patric; Pavlishin, Igor; Pogorelsky, Igor; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Zhou, Feng


    We investigate a plasma wakefield acceleration scheme where a train of electron microbunches feeds into a high density plasma. When the microbunch train enters such a plasma that has a corresponding plasma wavelength equal to the microbunch separation distance, a strong wakefield is expected to be resonantly driven to an amplitude that is at least one order of magnitude higher than that using an unbunched beam. PIC simulations have been performed using the beamline parameters of the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility operating in the configuration of the STELLA inverse free electron laser (IFEL) experiment. A 65 MeV electron beam is modulated by a 10.6 um CO2 laser beam via an IFEL interaction. This produces a train of ~90 microbunches separated by the laser wavelength. In this paper, we present both a simple theoretical treatment and simulation results that demonstrate promising results for the multibunch technique as a plasma-based accelerator.

  19. Symposium on accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The area of accelerator mass spectrometry has expanded considerably over the past few years and established itself as an independent and interdisciplinary research field. Three years have passed since the first meeting was held at Rochester. A Symposium on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry was held at Argonne on May 11-13, 1981. In attendance were 96 scientists of whom 26 were from outside the United States. The present proceedings document the program and excitement of the field. Papers are arranged according to the original program. A few papers not presented at the meeting have been added to complete the information on the status of accelerator mass spectrometry. Individual papers were prepared separately for the data base.

  20. Accelerator science in medical physics. (United States)

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B


    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future.

  1. Status of the U-70 accelerator at the Institute of High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Troyanov, E F


    A brief history of the development and the present status of the accelerator complex at the Institute of High-Energy Physics are presented. The problems facing this complex, which mainly involve increasing the intensity of the accelerated proton beams, decreasing particle losses, and producing an efficient extraction system for high-intensity beams, are expounded. The possibility of accelerating beams of light nuclei, which are a promising tool for performing fundamental and applied research, is discussed. Attention is focused on the upgrading and reconstruction of the systems in the accelerator complex which are being performed for solving these problems. (23 refs).

  2. Acceleration parameters for fluid physics with accelerating bodies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA


    Full Text Available accelerating bodies, and reference must be made, above all, to the Mach number for transonic effects. Other parameters from the literature on impulsive start-up in wind tunnels are also shown to be useful in delimiting regimes of flow, such as the Freymuth...

  3. State of accelerator for therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Maruhashi, A


    21 facilities carry out particle radiotherapy in the world and 6 facilities will start in the next year. They are shown in the table. 6 facilities of them exist in Japan. Small accelerator for proton therapy is developed. The area of them becomes smaller than 100 m sup 2. 5 makers, form, kinds of accelerator, length of track, beam energy of them are shown. States of particle radiotherapy in 4 facilities in Japan are explained by the kinds of particle, energy, beam intensity, time structure and radiation room. The important problems are reconsideration of building and compact rotating gantry. The problems of radiotherapy are explained. (S.Y.)

  4. OpenMP for Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J C; Stotzer, E J; Hart, A; de Supinski, B R


    OpenMP [13] is the dominant programming model for shared-memory parallelism in C, C++ and Fortran due to its easy-to-use directive-based style, portability and broad support by compiler vendors. Similar characteristics are needed for a programming model for devices such as GPUs and DSPs that are gaining popularity to accelerate compute-intensive application regions. This paper presents extensions to OpenMP that provide that programming model. Our results demonstrate that a high-level programming model can provide accelerated performance comparable to hand-coded implementations in CUDA.

  5. Acceleration effects on atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Dahia, F


    We consider a free massive particle inside a box which is dragged by Rindler observers. Admitting that the particle obeys the Klein-Gordon equation, we find the frequencies of the stationary states of this system. Transitions between the stationary states are employed to set a standard frequency for a toy atomic clock. Comparing the energy spectrum of the accelerated system with the energy spectrum of an identical system in an inertial frame, we determine the influence of the instantaneous acceleration on the rate of atomic clocks. We argue that our result does not violate the clock hypothesis.

  6. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furman, M.A.


    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  7. Seismic response of linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, C; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C


    This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents recent measurements of ground motion in the LHC tunnel at CERN. From these measurements, an update of the ground motion model currently used in accelerator simulations is presented. It contains new features like a model of the lateral motion and the technical noise. In the second part, it is shown how this model can be used to evaluate the seismic response of a linear accelerator in the frequency domain. Then, the approach is validated numerically on a regular lattice, taking the dynamic behavior of the machine alignment stage and the mechanical stabilization of the quadrupoles into account.

  8. Seismic response of linear accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Collette


    Full Text Available This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents recent measurements of ground motion in the LHC tunnel at CERN. From these measurements, an update of the ground motion model currently used in accelerator simulations is presented. It contains new features like a model of the lateral motion and the technical noise. In the second part, it is shown how this model can be used to evaluate the seismic response of a linear accelerator in the frequency domain. Then, the approach is validated numerically on a regular lattice, taking the dynamic behavior of the machine alignment stage and the mechanical stabilization of the quadrupoles into account.

  9. Calorimetry at industrial electron accelerators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Kovacs, A.


    Calorimetry is a convenient way to measure doses at industrial electron accelerators, where high absorbed doses (1-100 kGy) are delivered at dose rates of 102-105 Gy s-1 or even higher. Water calorimeters have been used for this purpose for several years, but recently other materials such as grap......Calorimetry is a convenient way to measure doses at industrial electron accelerators, where high absorbed doses (1-100 kGy) are delivered at dose rates of 102-105 Gy s-1 or even higher. Water calorimeters have been used for this purpose for several years, but recently other materials...

  10. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes. (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David


    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  11. Accelerated hypertension: Treatable yet underdiagnosed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Ish


    Full Text Available Patients who present in young age with accelerated hypertension (HTN should always be evaluated for secondary causes of hypertension. Renal parenchyma and vascular diseases constitute the majority of the etiology. Other causes include endocrine diseases such as pheochromocytoma, pregnancy-related HTN, and sleep apnea. We report a 23-year-old female who presented with palpitations and headache under treatment for anxiety from a tertiary care hospital. She was found to have accelerated HTN and was thoroughly worked up for etiology and treatment.

  12. Einstein, Nobel Prize, and Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Jarlskog, C


    We are celebrating the year of physics thanks to Einstein’s monumental contributions a hundred years ago. Indeed, the current field of accelerator physics is also deeply indebted to him. Why did it take more than a decade and a half for him to be "crowned" in Stockholm by the Nobel Prize? Did he get the Prize for the "wrong" thing? Based on original material from the archives of the Swedish Academy of Sciences, I will discuss how Einstein got the Nobel Prize and will give a short summary of his everlasting impact on the field of accelerator physics.

  13. Hamiltonian theory of stochastic acceleration. (United States)

    Makhnovskii, Yurii A; Pollak, Eli


    Stochastic acceleration, defined in terms of a stochastic equation of motion for the acceleration, is derived from a Hamiltonian model. A free particle is coupled bilinearly to a harmonic bath through the particle's momentum and coordinate. Under appropriate conditions, momentum coupling induces velocity diffusion which is not destroyed by the spatial coupling. Spatial-momentum coupling may induce spatial subdiffusion. The thermodynamic equilibrium theory presented in this paper does not violate the second law of thermodynamics, although the average velocity squared of the particle may increase in time without bound.

  14. Accelerated Learning dalam Proses Pembelajaran dan E-learning sebagai Alat Bantu Pembelajaran


    Vensy Vydia


    The rapid development of learning methods in education has generated many alternative learning methods that are different from the traditional learning methods. Accelerated learning methods has been known as one of the new approaches that uses almost the opposite methods as compared to the traditional ones. Learning IT subjects is usually one of the boring and difficult-to-understand subjects to learn. Therefore,implementing the accelerated learning methods for learning IT subjects would help...

  15. Journal of applied mathematics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    "[The] Journal of Applied Mathematics is a refereed journal devoted to the publication of original research papers and review articles in all areas of applied, computational, and industrial mathematics...

  16. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A


    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  17. Reliable timing systems for computer controlled accelerators (United States)

    Knott, Jürgen; Nettleton, Robert


    Over the past decade the use of computers has set new standards for control systems of accelerators with ever increasing complexity coupled with stringent reliability criteria. In fact, with very slow cycling machines or storage rings any erratic operation or timing pulse will cause the loss of precious particles and waste hours of time and effort of preparation. Thus, for the CERN linac and LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring) timing system reliability becomes a crucial factor in the sense that all components must operate practically without fault for very long periods compared to the effective machine cycle. This has been achieved by careful selection of components and design well below thermal and electrical limits, using error detection and correction where possible, as well as developing "safe" decoding techniques for serial data trains. Further, consistent structuring had to be applied in order to obtain simple and flexible modular configurations with very few components on critical paths and to minimize the exchange of information to synchronize accelerators. In addition, this structuring allows the development of efficient strategies for on-line and off-line fault diagnostics. As a result, the timing system for Linac 2 has, so far, been operating without fault for three years, the one for LEAR more than one year since its final debugging.

  18. The relativistic geoid: redshift and acceleration potential (United States)

    Philipp, Dennis; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Puetzfeld, Dirk; Hackmann, Eva; Perlick, Volker


    We construct a relativistic geoid based on a time-independent redshift potential, which foliates the spacetime into isochronometric surfaces. This relativistic potential coincides with the acceleration potential for isometric congruences. We show that the a- and u- geoid, defined in a post-Newtonian framework, coincide also in a more general setup. Known Newtonian and post-Newtonian results are recovered in the respective limits. Our approach offers a relativistic definition of the Earth's geoid as well as a description of the Earth itself (or observers on its surface) in terms of an isometric congruence. Being fully relativistic, this notion of a geoid can also be applied to other compact objects such as neutron stars. By definition, this relativistic geoid can be determined by a congruence of Killing observers equipped with standard clocks by comparing their frequencies as well as by measuring accelerations of objects that follow the congruence. The redshift potential gives the correct result also for frequency comparison through optical fiber links as long as the fiber is at rest w.r.t. the congruence. We give explicit expressions for the relativistic geoid in the Kerr spacetime and the Weyl class of spacetimes. To investigate the influence of higher order mass multipole moments we compare the results for the Schwarzschild case to those obtained for the Erez-Rosen and q-metric spacetimes.

  19. Theoretical temperature model with experimental validation for CLIC Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2126138; Vamvakas, Alex; Alme, Johan

    Micron level stability of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) components is one of the main requirements to meet the luminosity goal for the future $48 \\,km$ long underground linear accelerator. The radio frequency (RF) power used for beam acceleration causes heat generation within the aligned structures, resulting in mechanical movements and structural deformations. A dedicated control of the air- and water- cooling system in the tunnel is therefore crucial to improve alignment accuracy. This thesis investigates the thermo-mechanical behavior of the CLIC Accelerating Structure (AS). In CLIC, the AS must be aligned to a precision of $10\\,\\mu m$. The thesis shows that a relatively simple theoretical model can be used within reasonable accuracy to predict the temperature response of an AS as a function of the applied RF power. During failure scenarios or maintenance interventions, the RF power is turned off resulting in no heat dissipation and decrease in the overall temperature of the components. The theoretica...

  20. A preliminary design of the collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.; Gai, W.; Doran, S.; Lindberg, R.; Power, J.G.; Strelnikov, N.; Sun, Y.; Trakhtenberg, E.; Vasserman, I. [ANL, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Li, Y. [Euclid Techlabs LLC, Solon, OH 44139 (United States); Gao, Q. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Shchegolkov, D.Y.; Simakov, E.I. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)


    A preliminary design of the multi-meter long collinear dielectric wakefield accelerator that achieves a highly efficient transfer of the drive bunch energy to the wakefields and to the witness bunch is considered. It is made from ~0.5 m long accelerator modules containing a vacuum chamber with dielectric-lined walls, a quadrupole wiggler, an rf coupler, and BPM assembly. The single bunch breakup instability is a major limiting factor for accelerator efficiency, and the BNS damping is applied to obtain the stable multi-meter long propagation of a drive bunch. Numerical simulations using a 6D particle tracking computer code are performed and tolerances to various errors are defined.

  1. Laser and Particle Guiding Micro-Elements for Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plettner, T.; Gaume, R.; Wisdom, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Spencer, J.; /SLAC


    Laser driven particle accelerators require sub-micron control of the laser field as well as precise electron-beam guiding so fabrication techniques that allow integrating both elements into an accelerator-on-chip format become critical for the success of such next generation machines. Micromachining technology for silicon has been shown to be one such feasible technology in PAC2003[1] but with a variety of complications on the laser side. However, fabrication of transparent ceramics has become an interesting technology that could be applied for laser-particle accelerators in several ways. We discuss the advantages such as the range of materials available and ways to implement them followed by some different test examples we been considered. One important goal is an integrated system that avoids having to inject either laser or particle pulses into these structures.

  2. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.


    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  3. Ion Accelerator Merges Several Beams (United States)

    Aston, G.


    Intense ion beam formed by merging multiple ion beamlets into one concentrated beam. Beamlet holes in graphite screen and focusing grids arranged in hexagonal pattern. Merged beam passes through single hole in each of aluminum accelerator and decelerator grids. Ion extraction efficiency, beam intensity, and focusing improved.

  4. Petawatt pulsed-power accelerator (United States)

    Stygar, William A.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Headley, Daniel I.; Ives, Harry C.; Ives, legal representative; Berry Cottrell; Leeper, Ramon J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Olson, Craig L.; Porter, John L.; Wagoner; Tim C.


    A petawatt pulsed-power accelerator can be driven by various types of electrical-pulse generators, including conventional Marx generators and linear-transformer drivers. The pulsed-power accelerator can be configured to drive an electrical load from one- or two-sides. Various types of loads can be driven; for example, the accelerator can be used to drive a high-current z-pinch load. When driven by slow-pulse generators (e.g., conventional Marx generators), the accelerator comprises an oil section comprising at least one pulse-generator level having a plurality of pulse generators; a water section comprising a pulse-forming circuit for each pulse generator and a level of monolithic triplate radial-transmission-line impedance transformers, that have variable impedance profiles, for each pulse-generator level; and a vacuum section comprising triplate magnetically insulated transmission lines that feed an electrical load. When driven by LTD generators or other fast-pulse generators, the need for the pulse-forming circuits in the water section can be eliminated.

  5. High-current electron accelerator (United States)

    Alekseyev, B. V.; Gorelikov, I. M.; Kazurov, V. I.; Mashkov, L. V.; Greshko, A. G.; Soklakov, G. I.; Fedorenko, A. I.; Yurekevich, K. B.


    A high current electron accelerator was developed and built on the basis of computer aided design calculations and electrolytic trough simulation. A 15 stage Arkadyev/Marx pulse voltage generator serves as the primary energy storing device. Each stage consists of two IK-100-0.4 capacitors connected in parallel and all immersed in transformer oil inside a metal container on electrically insulating posts. Each stage is shielded on both the positive and negative potential side. The shields, made of copper foil, not only smooth the electric field in the clearances but also constitute part of the commutating circuit and contribute to reduction of the overall generator size. The pulse voltage generator is triggered by a synchronizer through the conventional firing circuit of a TGI1-350/16 thyratron. To operate the accelerator in the nanosecond mode, the generator discharges into a diode through a twin shaping line. In this mode the accelerator can produce 0.8 MeV to 240 kA electron beams of 0.8 ns duration. To operate in the microsecond mode, the shaping line acts as storing capacitor, and the discharge gaps must be charged with polarity reversal in each stage. In this mode the accelerator can produce 0.5 MeV to 10 kA electron beams of 1 microsecond duration.

  6. CLIC Drive Beam Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Wegner, Rolf


    Travelling structures for accelerating the high-current (4.2 A) CLIC Drive Beam to an energy of 2.37 GeV are presented. The structures are optimised for efficiency (full beam loading operation) and a desired filling time. Higher order modes are studied and are reduced by detuning along the structure and by damping with silicon carbide loads.

  7. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grames, Joseph; Higinbotham, Douglas; Montgomery, Hugh


    The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, USA, is one of ten national laboratories under the aegis of the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). It is managed and operated by Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. The primary facility at Jefferson Lab is the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) as shown in an aerial photograph in Figure 1. Jefferson Lab was created in 1984 as CEBAF and started operations for physics in 1995. The accelerator uses superconducting radio-frequency (srf) techniques to generate high-quality beams of electrons with high-intensity, well-controlled polarization. The technology has enabled ancillary facilities to be created. The CEBAF facility is used by an international user community of more than 1200 physicists for a program of exploration and study of nuclear, hadronic matter, the strong interaction and quantum chromodynamics. Additionally, the exceptional quality of the beams facilitates studies of the fundamental symmetries of nature, which complement those of atomic physics on the one hand and of high-energy particle physics on the other. The facility is in the midst of a project to double the energy of the facility and to enhance and expand its experimental facilities. Studies are also pursued with a Free-Electron Laser produced by an energy-recovering linear accelerator.

  8. Accelerated bridge paint test program. (United States)


    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  9. Accelerator-Based Neutrino Beams


    Hübner, K


    The design principles of accelerator-based neutrino beams are outlined and the beams currently in operation or under construction are briefly described. The concepts and basic features of the different types of advanced neutrino beams which are under study are summarized.

  10. Introduction to RF linear accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Pichoff, N


    After a short introduction to applications of RF linacs and their advantages and drawbacks as opposed to circular accelerators, the model of RF resonant cavities and their excitation by RF sources or beam is introduced. Then beam dynamics notions, essential to linacs, such as transit-time factor, synchronism, r.m.s. properties, matching and mismatching in linear or nonlinear forces, are presented.

  11. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  12. Four decades of European geomagnetic secular variation and acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Korte


    Full Text Available

    Geomagnetic secular variation, the generally slow, continuous change in the core magnetic field, is characterized by occasional rapid variations known as geomagnetic jerks. Recent studies on magnetic data obtained by satellites with a good global coverage suggest that more rapid and smaller scale features than previously thought occur in the field change. We have taken advantage of the comparatively high density of geomagnetic observatories in Europe and have derived a regional model for the detailed study of secular variation and acceleration over the past four decades from 1960 to 2001 by means of improved and regularized spherical cap harmonic analysis. We show the improvements to our regional model over a global model. All the known jerks are seen in our model, but further times with rapid changes in secular variation exist. Moreover, times of zero acceleration in general do not occur simultaneously in all magnetic field components, although this nearly is the case in 1969.6 and 1982.2. Secular variation and acceleration show very dynamic patterns indicating rapid and complex causal processes in the Earth’s fluid core.


  13. Accelerator applications in energy and security

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Weiren


    As accelerator science and technology progressed over the past several decades, the accelerators themselves have undergone major improvements in multiple performance factors: beam energy, beam power, and beam brightness. As a consequence, accelerators have found applications in a wide range of fields in our life and in our society. The current volume is dedicated to applications in energy and security, two of the most important and urgent topics in today's world. This volume makes an effort to provide a review as complete and up to date as possible of this broad and challenging subject. It contains overviews on each of the two topics and a series of articles for in-depth discussions including heavy ion accelerator driven inertial fusion, linear accelerator-based ADS systems, circular accelerator-based ADS systems, accelerator-reactor interface, accelerators for fusion material testing, cargo inspection, proton radiography, compact neutron generators and detectors. It also has a review article on accelerator ...

  14. Electrostatic Energy Exchange in Shock Acceleration (United States)

    Barchas, Joseph A.

    Plasma shocks are very common occurrences, and diffusive shock acceleration is a simple and efficient mechanism for generating cosmic rays. A shock's main effect is turbulent dissipation, which rapidly thermalizes the downstream plasma. Diffusive shock acceleration produces a non-thermal component to the particle distributions (quasi-power-law tails) which translates to non-thermal photon spectra, as seen in supernova remnants, jets in active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. In supernova remnants, X-ray observations show that inferred proton temperatures are considerably cooler than standard shock heating predicts. A cross-shock electrostatic potential, akin to a double layer, is reasoned to exist in certain conditions due to the different inertial gyration scales of the plasma species. It provides a mechanism for energy exchange between species, and should result in a respective heating/cooling of the electrons/ions. It modifies the electron/ion distributions, which couple through radiative processes to the observed X-ray emission. In this thesis, the effects of cross-shock electrostatics are explored using a Monte Carlo simulation, where test particles gyrate and stochastically diffuse in a background fluid pre-defined by MHD jump conditions.A cross-shock electric field is derived from the steady-state spatial distribution of particles via a modified Poisson's equation that includes Debye screening, and the simulation is rerun with this field superimposed on the background magnetic and drift electric fields. This feedback loop continues until a self-consistent solution is obtained. Results show a significant departure of the particle distributions from the usual thermal+power-law form, and clearly demonstrates substantial energy exchange between the electron and ion populations.

  15. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K


    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  16. Rapid Prototyping in PVS (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)


    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  17. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered (United States)

    Desrosier, James


    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  18. Development of a wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration responses. (United States)

    Park, Jong-Woong; Sim, Sung-Han; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Spencer, Billie F


    Displacement measurements are useful information for various engineering applications such as structural health monitoring (SHM), earthquake engineering and system identification. Most existing displacement measurement methods are costly, labor-intensive, and have difficulties particularly when applying to full-scale civil structures because the methods require stationary reference points. Indirect estimation methods converting acceleration to displacement can be a good alternative as acceleration transducers are generally cost-effective, easy to install, and have low noise. However, the application of acceleration-based methods to full-scale civil structures such as long span bridges is challenging due to the need to install cables to connect the sensors to a base station. This article proposes a low-cost wireless displacement measurement system using acceleration. Developed with smart sensors that are low-cost, wireless, and capable of on-board computation, the wireless displacement measurement system has significant potential to impact many applications that need displacement information at multiple locations of a structure. The system implements an FIR-filter type displacement estimation algorithm that can remove low frequency drifts typically caused by numerical integration of discrete acceleration signals. To verify the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed system, laboratory tests are carried out using a shaking table and on a three storey shear building model, experimentally confirming the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  19. Quantification of Head Acceleration during Vestibular Rehabilitation Exercises. (United States)

    Hogan, Anne E; Spindel, Jonathan H; Gray, Lincoln C


    Vestibular rehabilitation exercises have been proven to reduce symptoms and diminish the risk of falls in those with dizziness and balance impairments. The first purpose of this study is to investigate a new method of measuring head movements during habituation vestibular rehabilitation exercises. The second is to explore the relationship between head acceleration measurements during select traditional vestibular rehabilitation exercises and the variables of age, dizziness, and poor balance confidence. A descriptive, cross-sectional study, in a university setting. Fifty-two participants, ranging in age from 20 to 96 yr. All were volunteers, with the majority (34) reporting no history of dizziness or balance confidence. Head accelerations were calculated from linear and angular displacements as measured by magnetometry. Head accelerations decreased with increasing age, dizziness, and low balance confidence during four habituation exercises. Head acceleration varies as a function of age, dizziness, and low balance confidence during head movement-based vestibular and balance rehabilitation therapy (habituation) exercises. The magnetometry measurement method used could be applied across the course of treatment to establish predictive measures based on change in acceleration over time. More diverse participant sampling is needed to create normative data.

  20. Rapid multiphase flow dynamics mapped by single-shot MRI velocimetry. (United States)

    Amar, Andrea; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico


    A new, fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method is described and applied to map flow fields in systems with internal velocities rapidly varying along the streamlines. While conventional MRI techniques encode the velocity information in a preparatory period prior to the imaging acquisition module, our technique repeatedly refreshes the velocity encoding during a single-shot imaging sequence. In this way, the maximum acceleration responsible for velocity variation of the molecules is increased by up to two orders of magnitude compared to standard procedures. Besides being compatible with high acceleration, this pulse sequence is suited to acquiring in a single scan the multiple velocity images required to construct a full velocity vector map. The power of this new methodology is demonstrated by following the internal dynamics of toluene droplets levitating in a counterflow of water during mass transfer of acetone from the water phase into the drop in the presence of surface-active impurities. The dramatic reduction in measurement time allows visualization for the first time of the important impact of even small concentrations of acetone on accumulation of surfactants at the drop's surface.

  1. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Advanced Accelerator Physics Course

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W


    This report presents the proceedings of the Course on Advanced Accelerator Physics organized by the CERN Accelerator School. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway from 18 to 29 August 2013, in collaboration with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Its syllabus was based on previous courses and in particular on the course held in Berlin 2003 whose proceedings were published as CERN Yellow Report CERN- 2006-002. The field has seen significant advances in recent years and some topics were presented in a new way and other topics were added. The lectures were supplemented with tutorials on key topics and 14 hours of hands on courses on Optics Design and Corrections, RF Measurement Techniques and Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics. These courses are a key element of the Advanced Level Course.

  2. Timing and magnitude of accelerated relative sea-level rise in North Carolina (United States)

    Kemp, A. C.; Horton, B. P.; Culver, S. J.; Corbett, D. R.; van de Plassche, O.


    We present a 1000 year, high resolution record of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) from foraminifera preserved in salt-marsh sediments at four sites in North Carolina. Reconstructions of sea level across the region enable us to identify regional trends and spatial variation in the timing and magnitude of RSLR. In the absence of long-term instrumental records in this region, geologically derived estimates of former sea level are necessary to detect changes in the rate of RSLR. Using a foraminifera-based transfer function we show that RSLR increased at the start of the 19th Century from a background rate of 0.8mm/yr ± 0.04mm to 1.5mm/yr ± 0.16mm. We identified a second acceleration around 1900AD to ~4mm/yr. This current rate of RSLR has been reconciled with the available tide gauge data and validates our approach. Contemporary foraminifera were collected from 11 salt marshes in North Carolina representing a wide range of physiographic settings. The strong relationship between foraminifera and elevation in the modern environment was used to develop a regional scale transfer function. We reconstructed RSL by applying this transfer function to assemblages of foraminifera in four cores of salt-marsh peat recovered from sites across the Albemarle - Pamlico Estuarine system. The timing of RSL changes is constrained by age models developed from composite chronologies of conventional, high precision and bomb spike radiocarbon, 210Pb, 137Cs dating and a pollen chrono-horizon (Ambrosia). Recent geological investigations of historic RSL in North America (e.g., Maine and Connecticut) have identified accelerated rates of sea-level rise beginning in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Our study suggests that in North Carolina the onset of rapid RSL change began earlier (around the beginning of the 19th Century) and is comprised of two distinct accelerations. High resolution studies of RSL change and accurate dating of accelerations may be able to provide new information

  3. Fresnel diffraction patterns as accelerating beams

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng


    We demonstrate that beams originating from Fresnel diffraction patterns are self-accelerating in free space. In addition to accelerating and self-healing, they also exhibit parabolic deceleration property, which is in stark contrast to other accelerating beams. We find that the trajectory of Fresnel paraxial accelerating beams is similar to that of nonparaxial Weber beams. Decelerating and accelerating regions are separated by a critical propagation distance, at which no acceleration is present. During deceleration, the Fresnel diffraction beams undergo self-smoothing, in which oscillations of the diffracted waves gradually focus and smooth out at the critical distance.

  4. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; /Argonne; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab


    This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  5. Compact Superconducting Radio-frequency Accelerators and Innovative RF Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kephart, Robert [Fermilab; Chattopadhyay, Swaapan [Northern Illinois U.; Milton, Stephen [Colorado State U.


    We will present several new technical and design breakthroughs that enable the creation of a new class of compact linear electron accelerators for industrial purposes. Use of Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) cavities allow accelerators less than 1.5 M in length to create electron beams beyond 10 MeV and with average beam powers measured in 10’s of KW. These machines can have the capability to vary the output energy dynamically to produce brehmstrahlung x-rays of varying spectral coverage for applications such as rapid scanning of moving cargo for security purposes. Such compact accelerators will also be cost effective for many existing and new industrial applications. Examples include radiation crosslinking of plastics and rubbers, creation of pure materials with surface properties radically altered from the bulk, modification of bulk or surface optical properties of materials, sterilization of medical instruments animal solid or liquid waste, and destruction of organic compounds in industrial waste water effluents. Small enough to be located on a mobile platform, such accelerators will enable new remediation methods for chemical and biological spills and/or in-situ crosslinking of materials. We will describe one current design under development at Fermilab including plans for prototype and value-engineering to reduce costs. We will also describe development of new nano-structured field-emitter arrays as sources of electrons, new methods for fabricating and cooling superconducting RF cavities, and a new novel RF power source based on magnetrons with full phase and amplitude control.

  6. Observation of acceleration and deceleration in gigaelectron-volt-per-metre gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Shea, B D; Andonian, G; Barber, S K; Fitzmorris, K L; Hakimi, S; Harrison, J; Hoang, P D; Hogan, M J; Naranjo, B; Williams, O B; Yakimenko, V; Rosenzweig, J B


    .... To address this need, short wavelength accelerators based on wakefields, where an intense relativistic electron beam radiates the demanded fields directly into the accelerator structure or medium...

  7. Advances in Applied Mechanics



    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  8. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert


    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  9. Applied Neuroscience Laboratory Complex (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located at WPAFB, Ohio, the Applied Neuroscience lab researches and develops technologies to optimize Airmen individual and team performance across all AF domains....

  10. In situ deformations in the immature brain during rapid rotations. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nicole G; Natesh, Rahul; Szczesny, Spencer E; Ryall, Karen; Eucker, Stephanie A; Coats, Brittany; Margulies, Susan S


    Head trauma is the leading cause of death and debilitating injury in children. Computational models are important tools used to understand head injury mechanisms but they must be validated with experimental data. In this communication we present in situ measurements of brain deformation during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in juvenile pigs of different ages. These data will be used to validate computational models identifying age-dependent thresholds of axonal injury. Fresh 5 days (n=3) and 4 weeks (n=2) old piglet heads were transected horizontally and secured in a container. The cut surface of each brain was marked and covered with a transparent, lubricated plate that allowed the brain to move freely in the plane of rotation. For each brain, a rapid (20-28 ms) 65 deg rotation was applied sequentially at 50 rad/s, 75 rad/s, and 75 rad/s. Each rotation was digitally captured at 2500 frames/s (480x320 pixels) and mark locations were tracked and used to compute strain using an in-house program in MATLAB. Peak values of principal strain (E(peak)) were significantly larger during deceleration than during acceleration of the head rotation (p<0.05), and doubled with a 50% increase in velocity. E(peak) was also significantly higher during the second 75 rad/s rotation than during the first 75 rad/s rotation (p<0.0001), suggesting structural alteration at 75 rad/s and the possibility that similar changes may have occurred at 50 rad/s. Analyzing only lower velocity (50 rad/s) rotations, E(peak) significantly increased with age (16.5% versus 12.4%, p<0.003), which was likely due to the larger brain mass and smaller viscoelastic modulus of the 4 weeks old pig brain compared with those of the 5 days old. Strain measurement error for the overall methodology was estimated to be 1%. Brain tissue strain during rapid, nonimpact head rotation in the juvenile pig varies significantly with age. The empirical data presented will be used to validate computational model predictions of

  11. Accelerate! (United States)

    Kotter, John P


    The old ways of setting and implementing strategy are failing us, writes the author of Leading Change, in part because we can no longer keep up with the pace of change. Organizational leaders are torn between trying to stay ahead of increasingly fierce competition and needing to deliver this year's results. Although traditional hierarchies and managerial processes--the components of a company's "operating system"--can meet the daily demands of running an enterprise, they are rarely equipped to identify important hazards quickly, formulate creative strategic initiatives nimbly, and implement them speedily. The solution Kotter offers is a second system--an agile, networklike structure--that operates in concert with the first to create a dual operating system. In such a system the hierarchy can hand off the pursuit of big strategic initiatives to the strategy network, freeing itself to focus on incremental changes to improve efficiency. The network is populated by employees from all levels of the organization, giving it organizational knowledge, relationships, credibility, and influence. It can Liberate information from silos with ease. It has a dynamic structure free of bureaucratic layers, permitting a level of individualism, creativity, and innovation beyond the reach of any hierarchy. The network's core is a guiding coalition that represents each level and department in the hierarchy, with a broad range of skills. Its drivers are members of a "volunteer army" who are energized by and committed to the coalition's vividly formulated, high-stakes vision and strategy. Kotter has helped eight organizations, public and private, build dual operating systems over the past three years. He predicts that such systems will lead to long-term success in the 21st century--for shareholders, customers, employees, and companies themselves.

  12. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design(RAPID) (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.; Bloor, Malcolm I. G.; Wilson, Michael J.; Thomas, Almuttil M.


    An efficient methodology is presented for defining a class of airplane configurations. Inclusive in this definition are surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, vertical tail, horizontal tail, and canard components. The wing, tail, and canard components are manifested by solving a fourth-order partial differential equation subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design variables are incorporated into the boundary conditions, and the solution is expressed as a Fourier series. The fuselage has circular cross section, and the radius is an algebraic function of four design parameters and an independent computational variable. Volume grids are obtained through an application of the Control Point Form method. Grid sensitivity is obtained by applying the automatic differentiation precompiler ADIFOR to software for the grid generation. The computed surface grids, volume grids, and sensitivity derivatives are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation and configuration optimizations.

  13. Elementary principles of linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.


    These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables.

  14. History of hadron therapy accelerators. (United States)

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Amaldi, Ugo


    In the last 60 years, hadron therapy has made great advances passing from a stage of pure research to a well-established treatment modality for solid tumours. In this paper the history of hadron therapy accelerators is reviewed, starting from the first cyclotrons used in the thirties for neutron therapy and passing to more modern and flexible machines used nowadays. The technical developments have been accompanied by clinical studies that allowed the selection of the tumours which are more sensitive to this type of radiotherapy. This paper aims at giving a review of the origin and the present status of hadron therapy accelerators, describing the technological basis and the continuous development of this application to medicine of instruments developed for fundamental science. At the end the present challenges are reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Industrial applications of electron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cleland, M R


    This paper addresses the industrial applications of electron accelerators for modifying the physical, chemical or biological properties of materials and commercial products by treatment with ionizing radiation. Many beneficial effects can be obtained with these methods, which are known as radiation processing. The earliest practical applications occurred during the 1950s, and the business of radiation processing has been expanding since that time. The most prevalent applications are the modification of many different plastic and rubber products and the sterilization of single-use medical devices. Emerging applications are the pasteurization and preservation of foods and the treatment of toxic industrial wastes. Industrial accelerators can now provide electron energies greater than 10 MeV and average beam powers as high as 700 kW. The availability of high-energy, high-power electron beams is stimulating interest in the use of X-rays (bremsstrahlung) as an alternative to gamma rays from radioactive nuclides.

  16. Airbreathing Acceleration Toward Earth Orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J C


    As flight speed increases, aerodynamic drag rises more sharply than the availability of atmospheric oxygen. The ratio of oxygen mass flux to dynamic pressure cannot be improved by changing altitude. The maximum possible speed for airbreathing propulsion is limited by the ratio of air capture area to vehicle drag area, approximately Mach 6 at equal areas. Simulation of vehicle acceleration shows that the use of atmospheric oxygen offers a significant potential for minimizing onboard consumables at low speeds. These fundamental calculations indicate that a practical airbreathing launch vehicle would accelerate to near steady-state speed while consuming only onboard fuel, then transition to rocket propulsion. It is suggested that an aircraft carrying a rocket-propelled vehicle to approximately Mach 5 could be a realistic technical goal toward improving access to orbit.

  17. Greece welcomes CERN Accelerator School

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School


    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of the Aegean jointly organised a course on intermediate-level Accelerator Physics in Chios, Greece, from 19 to 30 September, 2011.   CAS Students pose for a group photo in Chios, Greece. This course followed the established format of the intermediate school, with lectures in the mornings and specialised courses in the afternoons. The latter provided “hands-on” education and experience in three topics: “RF Measurement Techniques”, “Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics” and “Optics Design and Correction”.  Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the school. Guided studies and tutorials on core subjects, seminars and a poster session completed the programme. An excursion included a visit to the Nea Moni monastery, a guided tour of two medieval villages, Pyrgi and Mesta, and finished with a typical Greek me...

  18. The US Muon Accelerator Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torun, Y.; /IIT, Chicago; Kirk, H.; /Brookhaven; Bross, A.; Geer, Steve; Shiltsev, Vladimir; /Fermilab; Zisman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley


    An accelerator complex that can produce ultra-intense beams of muons presents many opportunities to explore new physics. A facility of this type is unique in that, in a relatively straightforward way, it can present a physics program that can be staged and thus move forward incrementally, addressing exciting new physics at each step. At the request of the US Department of Energy's Office of High Energy Physics, the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC) and the Fermilab Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) have recently submitted a proposal to create a Muon Accelerator Program that will have, as a primary goal, to deliver a Design Feasibility Study for an energy-frontier Muon Collider by the end of a 7 year R&D program. This paper presents a description of a Muon Collider facility and gives an overview of the proposal.

  19. Turnbull - Early Detection and Rapid Response Team 2007 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biocontrol agents and chemicals to facilitate the rapid response phase of the project will be purchased and applied and a Washington Service Corps AmeriCorps member...

  20. Rapid pointwise stabilization of vibrating strings and beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Applying a general construction and using former results on the observability we prove, under rather general assumptions, a rapid pointwise stabilization of vibrating strings and beams.

  1. Dynamical Aperture Control in Accelerator Lattices With Multipole Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, I


    We develop tools for symbolic representation of a non-linear accelerator model and analytical methods for description of non-linear dynamics. Information relevant to the dynamic aperture (DA) is then obtained from this model and can be used for indirect DA control or as a complement to direct numerical optimization. We apply two analytical methods and use multipole magnets to satisfy derived analytical constraints. The accelerator model is represented as a product of unperturbed and perturbed exponential operators with the exponent of the perturbed operator given as a power series in the perturbation parameter. Normal forms can be applied to this representation and the lattice parameters are used to control the normal form Hamiltonian and normal form transformation. Hamiltonian control is used to compute a control term or controlled operator. Lattice parameters are then fitted to satisfy the imposed control constraints. Theoretical results, as well as illustrative examples, are presented.

  2. New Developments in the Simulation of Advanced Accelerator Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Cowan, B.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Mullowney, P.J.; Messmer, P.; Esarey, E.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Vay, J.-L.


    Improved computational methods are essential to the diverse and rapidly developing field of advanced accelerator concepts. We present an overview of some computational algorithms for laser-plasma concepts and high-brightness photocathode electron sources. In particular, we discuss algorithms for reduced laser-plasma models that can be orders of magnitude faster than their higher-fidelity counterparts, as well as important on-going efforts to include relevant additional physics that has been previously neglected. As an example of the former, we present 2D laser wakefield accelerator simulations in an optimal Lorentz frame, demonstrating>10 GeV energy gain of externally injected electrons over a 2 m interaction length, showing good agreement with predictions from scaled simulations and theory, with a speedup factor of ~;;2,000 as compared to standard particle-in-cell.

  3. Effect of Accelerator in Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamyar Shameli


    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix. Silver nitrate, gelatin, glucose, and sodium hydroxide have been used as silver precursor, stabilizer, reducing agent, and accelerator reagent, respectively. This study investigated the role of NaOH as the accelerator. The resultant products have been confirmed to be Ag-NPs using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, UV-vis spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The colloidal sols of Ag-NPs obtained at different volumes of NaOH show strong and different surface plasmon resonance (SPR peaks, which can be explained from the TEM images of Ag-NPs and their particle size distribution. Compared with other synthetic methods, this work is green, rapid, and simple to use. The newly prepared Ag-NPs may have many potential applications in chemical and biological industries.

  4. Climate change accelerates growth of urban trees in metropolises worldwide. (United States)

    Pretzsch, Hans; Biber, Peter; Uhl, Enno; Dahlhausen, Jens; Schütze, Gerhard; Perkins, Diana; Rötzer, Thomas; Caldentey, Juan; Koike, Takayoshi; Con, Tran van; Chavanne, Aurélia; Toit, Ben du; Foster, Keith; Lefer, Barry


    Despite the importance of urban trees, their growth reaction to climate change and to the urban heat island effect has not yet been investigated with an international scope. While we are well informed about forest growth under recent conditions, it is unclear if this knowledge can be simply transferred to urban environments. Based on tree ring analyses in ten metropolises worldwide, we show that, in general, urban trees have undergone accelerated growth since the 1960s. In addition, urban trees tend to grow more quickly than their counterparts in the rural surroundings. However, our analysis shows that climate change seems to enhance the growth of rural trees more than that of urban trees. The benefits of growing in an urban environment seem to outweigh known negative effects, however, accelerated growth may also mean more rapid ageing and shortened lifetime. Thus, city planners should adapt to the changed dynamics in order to secure the ecosystem services provided by urban trees.

  5. Accelerated Metals Development by Computation (United States)


    Laboratory (AFRL) “Science and Technology Workforce for the 21st Century ( STW -21)” initiative to shape the AFRL science and engineer workforce by...providing workforce agility and responsiveness to deal with dynamic technical and resource challenges. The goal was to provide the opportunity for...allowed AFRL/RX to augment its staff, facilities, and equipment by leveraging the resources of OSU. This program focused on accelerating materials

  6. Research in accelerator physics (theory) (United States)

    Ohnuma, Shoroku


    This report discusses the following topics: beam-beam interaction in colliders with momentum oscillation; isolated difference resonance and evolution of the particle distribution; study of magnet sorting for the SSC High Energy Booster; development of a discrete HESQ; beam dynamics in compact synchrotrons; theoretical problems in multi-stage FEL for two-beam acceleration; operation of Tevatron near integer tunes; and detailed examination of coupling impedance of various devices in storage rings; impact on beams from the insertion devices.

  7. Accelerating Universe via Spatial Averaging


    Nambu, Yasusada; TANIMOTO, Masayuki


    We present a model of an inhomogeneous universe that leads to accelerated expansion after taking spatial averaging. The model universe is the Tolman-Bondi solution of the Einstein equation and contains both a region with positive spatial curvature and a region with negative spatial curvature. We find that after the region with positive spatial curvature begins to re-collapse, the deceleration parameter of the spatially averaged universe becomes negative and the averaged universe starts accele...

  8. An accelerator worth fighting for

    CERN Multimedia


    Financial pressures from member states have upset the calculations of the European Laboratory for Particle Physics's (CERN) major accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Despite preference for domestic high energy programs, CERN members accord high priority to LHC physics. Converting to a global facility can help spread the high annual cost of subscription. But given the political realities, a revision of the LHC project appears more feasible. CERN's management needs to deploy its skills to overcome the financial obstacles to the facility.

  9. Status of JAERI tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanda, Susumu; Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)


    JAERI Tandem Accelerator had been operated approximately 230 days in fiscal year of 1999. Meanwhile, we had three times of maintenance period with vent. Total operation-times were 5273 hours. We could not carry out the experiment using rare gas, due to malfunction of the RF power supply for the ECR ion source. The type of the RF power supply is peculiar and it is impossible to get spare parts for repair. We are now investigating the backup RF power supply. The power supply for the magnet became unstable due to degradation of insulation in the shunt resistance, which is used for feedback stabilization. Stability was recovered after cleaning. The acrylic resin shaft was cracked. This cracks have a potential for severe accidents. So far bearing of the shaft has no problem. The reason of cracks may be self-destruction by charge accumulation in the shaft. JAERI Tandem Accelerator is approximately 20 years old. There appear requirements on the higher ion currents for additional ion species. Therefore, authors are investigating cost effective improvement plans of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadra-pole) and IH type accelerator based on KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) R and D. As a whole, maintenance services for the control system are increasing due to some changes of computer programs. There are some difficulties to keep skilled personnel for facilities operation. Authors are gradually increasing hired personnel with contract from 1993. However, loads for JAERI permanent staffs are still heavy. It takes much longer time to educate skilled persons especially for safety. (Y. Tanaka)

  10. Accelerator x-ray sources

    CERN Document Server

    Talman, Richard


    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  11. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation


    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell


    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  12. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin


    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  13. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike Klinker

    Full Text Available The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  14. JACoW Decoupling CERN accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dworak, Andrzej


    The accelerator complex at CERN is a living system. Accelerators are being dismantled, upgraded or change their purpose. New accelerators are built. The changes do not happen overnight, but when they happen they may require profound changes across the handling systems. Central timings (CT), responsible for sequencing and synchronization of accelerators, are good examples of such systems. This paper shows how over the past twenty years the changes and new requirements influenced the evolution of the CTs. It describes experience gained from using the Central Beam and Cycle Manager (CBCM) CT model, for strongly coupled accelerators, and how it led to a design of a new Dynamic Beam Negotiation (DBN) model for the AD and ELENA accelerators, which reduces the coupling, increasing accelerator independence. The paper ends with an idea how to merge strong points of both models in order to create a single generic system able to efficiently handle all CERN accelerators and provide more beam time to experiments and LHC.

  15. A Critical Theory Perspective on Accelerated Learning. (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen D.


    Critically analyzes accelerated learning using concepts from Herbert Marcuse (rebellious subjectivity) and Erich Fromm (automaton conformity). Concludes that, by providing distance and separation, accelerated learning has more potential to stimulate critical autonomous thought. (SK)

  16. Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Berkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA) facility (formerly LOASIS) develops advanced accelerators and radiation sources. High gradient (1-100 GV/m) laser-plasma...

  17. Accelerator Technology Division: Annual Report FY 1990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schriber, Stanley


    The Accelerator Technology (AT) Division continued in fiscal year 1990 to fulfill its mission of developing accelerator science and technology for application to research, defense, energy, and other problems of national interest...

  18. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration. (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J; Thomson, Scott L; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T


    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.

  19. LEP superconducting accelerating cavity module

    CERN Multimedia


    With its 27-kilometre circumference, the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider was the largest electron-positron accelerator ever built. The excavation of the LEP tunnel was Europe’s largest civil-engineering project prior to the Channel Tunnel. Three tunnel-boring machines started excavating the tunnel in February 1985 and the ring was completed three years later. In its first phase of operation, LEP consisted of 5176 magnets and 128 accelerating cavities. CERN’s accelerator complex provided the particles and four enormous detectors, ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, observed the collisions. LEP was commissioned in July 1989 and the first beam circulated in the collider on 14 July. The collider's initial energy was chosen to be around 91 GeV, so that Z bosons could be produced. The Z boson and its charged partner the W boson, both discovered at CERN in 1983, are responsible for the weak force, which drives the Sun, for example. Observing the creation and decay of the short-lived Z boson was a critical test of...

  20. Cavitation onset caused by acceleration (United States)

    Pan, Zhao; Kiyama, Akihito; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Daily, David J.; Thomson, Scott L.; Hurd, Randy; Truscott, Tadd T.


    Striking the top of a liquid-filled bottle can shatter the bottom. An intuitive interpretation of this event might label an impulsive force as the culprit in this fracturing phenomenon. However, high-speed photography reveals the formation and collapse of tiny bubbles near the bottom before fracture. This observation indicates that the damaging phenomenon of cavitation is at fault. Cavitation is well known for causing damage in various applications including pipes and ship propellers, making accurate prediction of cavitation onset vital in several industries. However, the conventional cavitation number as a function of velocity incorrectly predicts the cavitation onset caused by acceleration. This unexplained discrepancy leads to the derivation of an alternative dimensionless term from the equation of motion, predicting cavitation as a function of acceleration and fluid depth rather than velocity. Two independent research groups in different countries have tested this theory; separate series of experiments confirm that an alternative cavitation number, presented in this paper, defines the universal criteria for the onset of acceleration-induced cavitation.