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Sample records for rapidly analyze complex

  1. Analyzing Information in Complex Collaborative Tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaad, Lambert; Dick Lenior; Els van der Pool; Thea van der Geest

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a method for analyzing the communication of people who exchange dynamic and complex information to come to a shared understanding of situations and of the actions planned and monitored by one party, but executed remotely by another. To examine this situation, we analyzed

  2. Quantifying and analyzing the network basis of genetic complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan G Thompson

    Full Text Available Genotype-to-phenotype maps exhibit complexity. This genetic complexity is mentioned frequently in the literature, but a consistent and quantitative definition is lacking. Here, we derive such a definition and investigate its consequences for model genetic systems. The definition equates genetic complexity with a surplus of genotypic diversity over phenotypic diversity. Applying this definition to ensembles of Boolean network models, we found that the in-degree distribution and the number of periodic attractors produced determine the relative complexity of different topology classes. We found evidence that networks that are difficult to control, or that exhibit a hierarchical structure, are genetically complex. We analyzed the complexity of the cell cycle network of Sacchoromyces cerevisiae and pinpointed genes and interactions that are most important for its high genetic complexity. The rigorous definition of genetic complexity is a tool for unraveling the structure and properties of genotype-to-phenotype maps by enabling the quantitative comparison of the relative complexities of different genetic systems. The definition also allows the identification of specific network elements and subnetworks that have the greatest effects on genetic complexity. Moreover, it suggests ways to engineer biological systems with desired genetic properties.

  3. Analyzing complex networks evolution through Information Theory quantifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpi, Laura C., E-mail: Laura.Carpi@studentmail.newcastle.edu.a [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Rosso, Osvaldo A., E-mail: rosso@fisica.ufmg.b [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil); Chaos and Biology Group, Instituto de Calculo, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saco, Patricia M., E-mail: Patricia.Saco@newcastle.edu.a [Civil, Surveying and Environmental Engineering, University of Newcastle, University Drive, Callaghan NSW 2308 (Australia); Departamento de Hidraulica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, Rosario (Argentina); Ravetti, Martin Gomez, E-mail: martin.ravetti@dep.ufmg.b [Departamento de Engenharia de Producao, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Belo Horizonte (31270-901), MG (Brazil)

    2011-01-24

    A methodology to analyze dynamical changes in complex networks based on Information Theory quantifiers is proposed. The square root of the Jensen-Shannon divergence, a measure of dissimilarity between two probability distributions, and the MPR Statistical Complexity are used to quantify states in the network evolution process. Three cases are analyzed, the Watts-Strogatz model, a gene network during the progression of Alzheimer's disease and a climate network for the Tropical Pacific region to study the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) dynamic. We find that the proposed quantifiers are able not only to capture changes in the dynamics of the processes but also to quantify and compare states in their evolution.

  4. Rapid Complexation of Aptamers by Their Specific Antidotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Stoll

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nucleic acid ligands, aptamers, harbor the unique characteristics of small molecules and antibodies. The specificity and high affinity of aptamers enable their binding to different targets, such as small molecules, proteins, or cells. Chemical modifications of aptamers allow increased bioavailability. A further great benefit of aptamers is the antidote (AD-mediated controllability of their effect. In this study, the AD-mediated complexation and neutralization of the thrombin binding aptamer NU172 and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9 binding R10-60 aptamer were determined. Thereby, the required time for the generation of aptamer/AD-complexes was analyzed at 37 °C in human serum using gel electrophoresis. Afterwards, the blocking of aptamers’ effects was analyzed by determining the activated clotting time (ACT in the case of the NU172 aptamer, or the expression of immune activation related genes IFN-1β, IL-6, CXCL-10, and IL-1β in the case of the R10-60 aptamer. Gel electrophoresis analyses demonstrated the rapid complexation of the NU172 and R10-60 aptamers by complementary AD binding after just 2 min of incubation in human serum. A rapid neutralization of anticoagulant activity of NU172 was also demonstrated in fresh human whole blood 5 min after addition of AD. Furthermore, the TLR9-mediated activation of PMDC05 cells was interrupted after the addition of the R10-60 AD. Using these two different aptamers, the rapid antagonizability of the aptamers was demonstrated in different environments; whole blood containing numerous proteins, cells, and different small molecules, serum, or cell culture media. Thus, nucleic acid ADs are promising molecules, which offer several possibilities for different in vivo applications, such as antagonizing aptamer-based drugs, immobilization, or delivery of oligonucleotides to defined locations.

  5. Evaluation of the synergistic effects of milk proteins in a rapid viscosity analyzer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephani, Rodrigo; Borges de Souza, Alisson; Leal de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Fernandes de Carvalho, Antônio; Cappa de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    .... Here, using a rapid viscosity analyzer, we observed the rheological changes in the startup viscosities of 5 PS obtained by combining varying proportions of milk protein concentrate and whey protein...

  6. Molecular Analyzer for Complex Refractory Organic-Rich Surfaces (MACROS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; Cook, Jamie E.; Balvin, Manuel; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Li, Xiang; Grubisic, Andrej; Cornish, Timothy; Ferrance, Jerome; Southard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The Molecular Analyzer for Complex Refractory Organic-rich Surfaces, MACROS, is a novel instrument package being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. MACROS enables the in situ characterization of a sample's composition by coupling two powerful techniques into one compact instrument package: (1) laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDMS) for broad detection of inorganic mineral composition and non-volatile organics, and (2) liquid-phase extraction methods to gently isolate the soluble organic and inorganic fraction of a planetary powder for enrichment and detailed analysis by liquid chromatographic separation coupled to LDMS. The LDMS is capable of positive and negative ion detection, precision mass selection, and fragment analysis. Two modes are included for LDMS: single laser LDMS as the broad survey mode and two step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS). The liquid-phase extraction will be done in a newly designed extraction module (EM) prototype, providing selectivity in the analysis of a complex sample. For the sample collection, a diamond drill front end will be used to collect rock/icy powder. With all these components and capabilities together, MACROS offers a versatile analytical instrument for a mission targeting an icy moon, carbonaceous asteroid, or comet, to fully characterize the surface composition and advance our understanding of the chemical inventory present on that body.

  7. Analyzing Complex and Structured Data via Unsupervised Learning Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsterer, Kai Lars; Gieseke, Fabian; Gianniotis, Nikos; Kügler, Dennis

    2015-08-01

    In the last decades more and more dedicated all-sky-surveys created an enormous amount of data which is publicly available on the internet. The resulting datasets contain spatial, spectral, and temporal information which exhibit complex structures in the respective domain. The capability to deal with morphological features, spectral signatures, and complex time series data has become very important but is still a challenging task. A common approach when processing this kind of structured data is to extract representative features and use those for a further analysis. We present unsupervised learning approaches that help to visualize / cluster these complex data sets by e.g. deriving rotation / translation invariant prototypes or capturing the latent dynamics of time series without employing features and using echo-state-networks instead.

  8. Principles of big data preparing, sharing, and analyzing complex information

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Jules J

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Big Data helps readers avoid the common mistakes that endanger all Big Data projects. By stressing simple, fundamental concepts, this book teaches readers how to organize large volumes of complex data, and how to achieve data permanence when the content of the data is constantly changing. General methods for data verification and validation, as specifically applied to Big Data resources, are stressed throughout the book. The book demonstrates how adept analysts can find relationships among data objects held in disparate Big Data resources, when the data objects are endo

  9. Increasing process understanding by analyzing complex interactions in experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naelapaa, Kaisa; Allesø, Morten; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2009-01-01

    of experimental results. In this study, experiments based on mixed factorial design of coating process were performed. Drug release was analyzed by traditional analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalized multiplicative ANOVA (GEMANOVA). GEMANOVA modeling is introduced in this study as a new tool for increased...... understanding of a coating process. It was possible to model the response, that is, the amount of drug released, using both mentioned techniques. However, the ANOVAmodel was difficult to interpret as several interactions between process parameters existed. In contrast to ANOVA, GEMANOVA is especially suited...

  10. Towards a theoretical framework for analyzing complex linguistic networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lücking, Andy; Banisch, Sven; Blanchard, Philippe; Job, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book is to advocate and promote network models of linguistic systems that are both based on thorough mathematical models and substantiated in terms of linguistics. In this way, the book contributes first steps towards establishing a statistical network theory as a theoretical basis of linguistic network analysis the boarder of the natural sciences and the humanities.This book addresses researchers who want to get familiar with theoretical developments, computational models and their empirical evaluation in the field of complex linguistic networks. It is intended to all those who are interested in statisticalmodels of linguistic systems from the point of view of network research. This includes all relevant areas of linguistics ranging from phonological, morphological and lexical networks on the one hand and syntactic, semantic and pragmatic networks on the other. In this sense, the volume concerns readers from many disciplines such as physics, linguistics, computer science and information scien...

  11. Pyridylamination as a means of analyzing complex sugar chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, Sumihiro

    2010-01-01

    Herein, I describe pyridylamination for versatile analysis of sugar chains. The reducing ends of the sugar chains are tagged with 2-aminopyridine and the resultant chemically stable fluorescent derivatives are used for structural/functional analysis. Pyridylamination is an effective “operating system” for increasing sensitivity and simplifying the analytical procedures including mass spectrometry and NMR. Excellent separation of isomers is achieved by reversed-phase HPLC. However, separation is further improved by two-dimensional HPLC, which involves a combination of reversed-phase HPLC and size-fractionation HPLC. Moreover, a two-dimensional HPLC map is also useful for structural analysis. I describe a simple procedure for preparing homogeneous pyridylamino sugar chains that is less laborious than existing techniques and can be used for functional analysis (e.g., sugar-protein interaction). This novel approach was applied and some of the results are described: i) a glucosyl-serine type sugar chain found in blood coagulation factors; ii) discovery of endo-β-mannosidase (EC 3.2.1.152) and a new type plant α1,2-l-fucosidase; and iii) novel substrate specificity of a cytosolic α-mannosidase. Moreover, using homogeneous sugar chains of a size similar to in vivo substrates we were able to analyze interactions between sugar chains and proteins such as enzymes and lectins in detail. Interestingly, our studies reveal that some enzymes recognize a wider region of the substrate than anticipated. PMID:20431262

  12. Rapid characterization of asparagine-linked oligosaccharides isolated from glycoproteins using a carbohydrate analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumula, K R; Taylor, P B

    1991-01-01

    Chromatographic methods were developed for the separation and characterization of acidic (sialylated) and neutral (asialo-complex and high-mannose) oligosaccharides released from glycoproteins with peptide N-glycosidase F. endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F and endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H using a carbohydrate analyzer (Dionex BioLC). All the carbohydrate separations were carried out on a polymeric pellicular anion-exchange column HPIC-AS6/CarboPac PA-1 (Dionex) using only two eluants namely, 0.5 M NaOH and 3% acetic acid/NaOH pH 5.5, which were mixed with water to generate various gradients. Developed conditions for quantitative detection of carbohydrates with pulsed amperometry were necessary to obtain steady baselines at 0.1-0.3 microA output with suitable sensitivity (less than 5 pmol) in separations employing a variety of acidic and alkaline sodium acetate gradients. Oligosaccharides released from heat-denatured and trypsin-treated glycoproteins were purified initially from large-scale digestion (greater than 0.1 g) by extraction of peptide material into phenol/chloroform and finally by ion-exchange chromatography of the acqueous phase. Oligosaccharides isolated from the peptide N-glycosidase digests of bovine fetuin, human transferrin and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein gave multiple peaks in each charge group in separations based on the charge content at pH 5.5. Alkaline sodium acetate gradients were developed to obtain oligosaccharide maps of the glycoproteins within 60 min, in which separated oligosaccharides eluted in the order of neutral, mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-sialylated species based on both charge, size and structure. Baseline separations were obtained with neutral oligosaccharide types but mixtures of high-mannose and complex types were poorly resolved. The high-mannose peaks were eliminated specifically from complex oligosaccharides by digesting with alpha-mannosidase. Treatment with beta-galactosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase and alpha

  13. Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen levels using the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi; Ono, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Asumi; Katabami, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Wada, Takeshi; Yanagida, Yuichiro; Sawamura, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen (Fbg) levels is essential for maintaining homeostasis in patients with massive bleeding during severe trauma and major surgery. This study evaluated the accuracy of fibrinogen levels measured by the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer (A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan) using heparinized blood drawn for blood gas analysis (whole blood-Fbg). A total of 100 matched pairs of heparinized blood samples and citrated blood samples were simultaneously collected from patients in the intensive care unit. Whole blood-Fbg results were compared with those of citrated plasma (standard-Fbg). The whole blood coagulation analyzer measured fibrinogen levels within 2 minutes. Strong correlations between standard-Fbg and whole blood-Fbg were observed (ρ = 0.91, p coagulation analyzer can rapidly measure fibrinogen levels in heparinized blood and could be useful in critical care settings where excessive bleeding is a concern. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Rapid multiplex high resolution melting method to analyze inflammatory related SNPs in preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereyra Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex traits like cancer, diabetes, obesity or schizophrenia arise from an intricate interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Complex disorders often cluster in families without a clear-cut pattern of inheritance. Genomic wide association studies focus on the detection of tens or hundreds individual markers contributing to complex diseases. In order to test if a subset of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from candidate genes are associated to a condition of interest in a particular individual or group of people, new techniques are needed. High-resolution melting (HRM analysis is a new method in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR and mutations scanning are carried out simultaneously in a closed tube, making the procedure fast, inexpensive and easy. Preterm birth (PTB is considered a complex disease, where genetic and environmental factors interact to carry out the delivery of a newborn before 37 weeks of gestation. It is accepted that inflammation plays an important role in pregnancy and PTB. Methods Here, we used real time-PCR followed by HRM analysis to simultaneously identify several gene variations involved in inflammatory pathways on preterm labor. SNPs from TLR4, IL6, IL1 beta and IL12RB genes were analyzed in a case-control study. The results were confirmed either by sequencing or by PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results We were able to simultaneously recognize the variations of four genes with similar accuracy than other methods. In order to obtain non-overlapping melting temperatures, the key step in this strategy was primer design. Genotypic frequencies found for each SNP are in concordance with those previously described in similar populations. None of the studied SNPs were associated with PTB. Conclusions Several gene variations related to the same inflammatory pathway were screened through a new flexible, fast and non expensive method with the purpose of analyzing

  15. Rapid telomere motions in live human cells analyzed by highly time-resolved microscopy

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    Wang Xueying

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomeres cap chromosome ends and protect the genome. We studied individual telomeres in live human cancer cells. In capturing telomere motions using quantitative imaging to acquire complete high-resolution three-dimensional datasets every second for 200 seconds, telomere dynamics were systematically analyzed. Results The motility of individual telomeres within the same cancer cell nucleus was widely heterogeneous. One class of internal heterochromatic regions of chromosomes analyzed moved more uniformly and showed less motion and heterogeneity than telomeres. The single telomere analyses in cancer cells revealed that shorter telomeres showed more motion, and the more rapid telomere motions were energy dependent. Experimentally increasing bulk telomere length dampened telomere motion. In contrast, telomere uncapping, but not a DNA damaging agent, methyl methanesulfonate, significantly increased telomere motion. Conclusion New methods for seconds-scale, four-dimensional, live cell microscopic imaging and data analysis, allowing systematic tracking of individual telomeres in live cells, have defined a previously undescribed form of telomere behavior in human cells, in which the degree of telomere motion was dependent upon telomere length and functionality.

  16. Evaluation of the synergistic effects of milk proteins in a rapid viscosity analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, Rodrigo; Borges de Souza, Alisson; Leal de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Fernandes de Carvalho, Antônio; Cappa de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-12-01

    Protein systems (PS) are routinely used by companies from Brazil and around the globe to improve the texture, yield, and palatability of processed foods. Understanding the synergistic behavior among the different protein structures of these systems during thermal treatment under the influence of pH can help to better define optimum conditions for products and processes. The interpretation of the reactions and interactions that occur simultaneously among the protein constituents of these systems as dispersions during thermal processing is still a major challenge. Here, using a rapid viscosity analyzer, we observed the rheological changes in the startup viscosities of 5 PS obtained by combining varying proportions of milk protein concentrate and whey protein concentrate under different conditions of pH (5.0, 6.5, and 7.0) and heat processing (85°C/15min and 95°C/5min). The solutions were standardized to 25% of total solids and 17% of protein. Ten analytical parameters were used to characterize each of the startup-viscosity ramps for 35 experiments conducted in a 2×3 × 5 mixed planning matrix, using principal component analysis to interpret behavioral similarities. The study showed the clear influence of pH 5.5 in the elevation of the initial temperature of the PS startup viscosity by at least 5°C, as well as the effect of different milk protein concentrate:whey protein concentrate ratios above 15:85 at pH 7.0 on the viscographic profile curves. These results suggested that the primary agent driving the changes was the synergism among the reactions and interactions of casein with whey proteins during processing. This study reinforces the importance of the rapid viscosity analyzer as an analytical tool for the simulation of industrial processes involving PS, and the use of the startup viscosity ramp as a means of interpreting the interactions of system components with respect to changes related to the treatment temperature. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science

  17. Inheritance Analysis and QTL Mapping of Rice Starch Viscosity (Rapid Visco Analyzer Profile Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-feng ZHANG

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The rice starch viscosity characteristics, which can be indicated by Rapid Visco Analyzer profile (RVA profile, have been proved useful for the evaluation of cooking and eating quality in rice breeding program. To study the inheritance of the RVA profile, an F2 population of Wuyujing 3/Aichi 106 was used. The results indicated that the peak viscosity (PKV was a typical quantitative character, and the hot paste viscosity (HPV, cool paste viscosity (CPV, setback viscosity (SBV, breakdown viscosity (BDV, and consistence viscosity (CSV might be controlled by one major gene and several minor genes. To elucidate the genetic basis of the paste viscosity characteristics, a recombinant inbred line (RIL population derived from Nikken 2/Milyang 23 and its genetic linkage map were used to map the QTLs controlling RVA profiles in 2005 and 2006. A total of 34 QTLs distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 were detected, including 19 and 15 QTLs in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Eight QTLs were both detected in the two years, qHPV6, qCPV6, qCSV6, qSBV6, and qBDV6 were located on chromosome 6, while qHPV2, qCSV2, and qCPV2 were on chromosome 2.

  18. A rapid automatic analyzer and its methodology for effective bentonite content based on image recognition technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Long

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast and accurate determination of effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand is very important for selecting the correct mixing ratio and mixing process to obtain high-performance molding sand. Currently, the effective bentonite content is determined by testing the ethylene blue absorbed in used clay bonded sand, which is usually a manual operation with some disadvantages including complicated process, long testing time and low accuracy. A rapid automatic analyzer of the effective bentonite content in used clay bonded sand was developed based on image recognition technology. The instrument consists of auto stirring, auto liquid removal, auto titration, step-rotation and image acquisition components, and processor. The principle of the image recognition method is first to decompose the color images into three-channel gray images based on the photosensitive degree difference of the light blue and dark blue in the three channels of red, green and blue, then to make the gray values subtraction calculation and gray level transformation of the gray images, and finally, to extract the outer circle light blue halo and the inner circle blue spot and calculate their area ratio. The titration process can be judged to reach the end-point while the area ratio is higher than the setting value.

  19. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  20. Rapid Point of Care Analyzer for the Measurement of Cyanide in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Mishra, Santosh K.; Puanngam, Mahitti; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Blackledge, William; Boss, Gerry R.

    2011-01-01

    A simple, sensitive optical analyzer for the rapid determination of cyanide in blood in point of care applications is described. HCN is liberated by the addition of 20% H3PO4 and is absorbed by a paper filter impregnated with borate-buffered (pH 9.0) hydroxoaquocobinamide Hereinafter called cobinamide). Cobinamide on the filter changes color from orange (λmax = 510 nm) to violet (λmax = 583 nm) upon reaction with cyanide. This color change is monitored in the transmission mode by a light emitting diode (LED) with a 583 nm emission maximum and a photodiode detector. The observed rate of color change increases 10x when the cobinamide solution for filter impregnation is prepared in borate-buffer rather than in water. The use of a second LED emitting at 653 nm and alternate pulsing of the LEDs improve the limit of detection by 4x to ~ 0.5 μM for a 1 mL blood sample. Blood cyanide levels of imminent concern (≥ 10 μM) can be accurately measured in ~ 2 min. The response is proportional to the mass of cyanide in the sample – smaller sample volumes can be successfully used with proportionate change in the concentration LODs. Bubbling air through the blood-acid mixture was found effective for mixing of the acid with the sample and the liberation of HCN. A small amount of ethanol added to the top of the blood was found to be the most effective means to prevent frothing during aeration. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for repetitive determination of blood samples containing 9 μM CN was 1.09% (n=5). The technique was compared blind with a standard microdiffusion-spectrophotometric method used for the determination of cyanide in rabbit blood. The results showed good correlation (slope 1.05, r2 0.9257); independent calibration standards were used. PMID:21553921

  1. Highly Sensitive and Rapid Fluorescence Detection with a Portable FRET Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haseong; Han, Gui Hwan; Fu, Yaoyao; Gam, Jongsik; Lee, Seung Goo

    2016-10-01

    Recent improvements in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors have enabled their use to detect various small molecules including ions and amino acids. However, the innate weak signal intensity of FRET sensors is a major challenge that prevents their application in various fields and makes the use of expensive, high-end fluorometers necessary. Previously, we built a cost-effective, high-performance FRET analyzer that can specifically measure the ratio of two emission wavelength bands (530 and 480 nm) to achieve high detection sensitivity. More recently, it was discovered that FRET sensors with bacterial periplasmic binding proteins detect ligands with maximum sensitivity in the critical temperature range of 50 - 55 °C. This report describes a protocol for assessing sugar content in commercially-available beverage samples using our portable FRET analyzer with a temperature-specific FRET sensor. Our results showed that the additional preheating process of the FRET sensor significantly increases the FRET ratio signal, to enable more accurate measurement of sugar content. The custom-made FRET analyzer and sensor were successfully applied to quantify the sugar content in three types of commercial beverages. We anticipate that further size reduction and performance enhancement of the equipment will facilitate the use of hand-held analyzers in environments where high-end equipment is not available.

  2. Electromolecular propulsion (EMP): a rapid, simple method for analyzing dyes used in microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, N

    1998-03-01

    The electrokinetic molecular effect known as electromolecular propulsion (EMP) was used to examine a variety of commonly used dyes that are used as biological stains. The dyes were electrokinetically mobilized using several organic solvent mixtures on a variety of thin layer substrates. Analysis was completed in seconds to minutes. Nearly all dyes tested separated into multiple colored components. The solvents and substrates used were well suited for qualitatively analyzing a broad variety of hydrophilic and lipophilic colorants. Speed, resolving power and operational simplicity of this technique make it convenient for effectively "fingerprinting" for consistency in dye products. EMP may be broadly applied to study quality control of dyes and their stains. Components not ordinarily known to be present can be readily detected using this technology. EMP can complement or offer a versatile alternative to existing analytical methods.

  3. A Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test for analyzing population genetic surveys with complex sample designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonesinghe, Ramal; Yesupriya, Ajay; Chang, Man-Huei; Dowling, Nicole F; Khoury, Muin J; Scott, Alastair J

    2010-04-15

    Testing for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is a widely recommended practice for population-based genetic association studies. However, current methods for this test assume a simple random sample and may not be appropriate for sample surveys with complex survey designs. In this paper, the authors present a test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium that adjusts for the sample weights and correlation of data collected in complex surveys. The authors perform this test by using a simple adjustment to procedures developed to analyze data from complex survey designs available within the SAS statistical software package (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina). Using 90 genetic markers from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the authors found that survey-adjusted and -unadjusted estimates of the disequilibrium coefficient were generally similar within self-reported races/ethnicities. However, estimates of the variance of the disequilibrium coefficient were significantly different between the 2 methods. Because the results of the survey-adjusted tests account for correlation among participants sampled within the same cluster, and the possibility of having related individuals sampled from the same household, the authors recommend use of this test when analyzing genetic data originating from sample surveys with complex survey designs to assess deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  4. Towards Cost-Effective Operational Monitoring Systems for Complex Waters: Analyzing Small-Scale Coastal Processes with Optical Transmissometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Wiegmann, Sonja; Torrecilla, Elena; Bardaji, Raul; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Bracher, Astrid; Piera, Jaume

    2017-01-01

    The detection and prediction of changes in coastal ecosystems require a better understanding of the complex physical, chemical and biological interactions, which involves that observations should be performed continuously. For this reason, there is an increasing demand for small, simple and cost-effective in situ sensors to analyze complex coastal waters at a broad range of scales. In this context, this study seeks to explore the potential of beam attenuation spectra, c(λ), measured in situ with an advanced-technology optical transmissometer, for assessing temporal and spatial patterns in the complex estuarine waters of Alfacs Bay (NW Mediterranean) as a test site. In particular, the information contained in the spectral beam attenuation coefficient was assessed and linked with different biogeochemical variables. The attenuation at λ = 710 nm was used as a proxy for particle concentration, TSM, whereas a novel parameter was adopted as an optical indicator for chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration, based on the local maximum of c(λ) observed at the long-wavelength side of the red band Chl-a absorption peak. In addition, since coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) has an important influence on the beam attenuation spectral shape and complementary measurements of particle size distribution were available, the beam attenuation spectral slope was used to analyze the CDOM content. Results were successfully compared with optical and biogeochemical variables from laboratory analysis of collocated water samples, and statistically significant correlations were found between the attenuation proxies and the biogeochemical variables TSM, Chl-a and CDOM. This outcome depicted the potential of high-frequency beam attenuation measurements as a simple, continuous and cost-effective approach for rapid detection of changes and patterns in biogeochemical properties in complex coastal environments. PMID:28107539

  5. A Comparison of Geographic Information Systems, Complex Networks, and Other Models for Analyzing Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Technical Monitor); Kuby, Michael; Tierney, Sean; Roberts, Tyler; Upchurch, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    This report reviews six classes of models that are used for studying transportation network topologies. The report is motivated by two main questions. First, what can the "new science" of complex networks (scale-free, small-world networks) contribute to our understanding of transport network structure, compared to more traditional methods? Second, how can geographic information systems (GIS) contribute to studying transport networks? The report defines terms that can be used to classify different kinds of models by their function, composition, mechanism, spatial and temporal dimensions, certainty, linearity, and resolution. Six broad classes of models for analyzing transport network topologies are then explored: GIS; static graph theory; complex networks; mathematical programming; simulation; and agent-based modeling. Each class of models is defined and classified according to the attributes introduced earlier. The paper identifies some typical types of research questions about network structure that have been addressed by each class of model in the literature.

  6. Binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer with full control over the complex pupil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Christina; Prieto, Pedro M; Fernández, Enrique J; Artal, Pablo

    2011-12-15

    We present a binocular adaptive optics vision analyzer fully capable of controlling both amplitude and phase of the two complex pupil functions in each eye of the subject. A special feature of the instrument is its comparatively simple setup. A single reflective liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator working in pure phase modulation generates the phase profiles for both pupils simultaneously. In addition, another liquid crystal spatial light modulator working in transmission operates in pure intensity modulation to produce a large variety of pupil masks for each eye. Subjects perform visual tasks through any predefined variations of the complex pupil function for both eyes. As an example of the system efficiency, we recorded images of the stimuli through the system as they were projected at the subject's retina. This instrument proves to be extremely versatile for designing and testing novel ophthalmic elements and simulating visual outcomes, as well as for further research of binocular vision.

  7. Mechanical stability of bivalent transition metal complexes analyzed by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gensler

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Multivalent biomolecular interactions allow for a balanced interplay of mechanical stability and malleability, and nature makes widely use of it. For instance, systems of similar thermal stability may have very different rupture forces. Thus it is of paramount interest to study and understand the mechanical properties of multivalent systems through well-characterized model systems. We analyzed the rupture behavior of three different bivalent pyridine coordination complexes with Cu2+ in aqueous environment by single-molecule force spectroscopy. Those complexes share the same supramolecular interaction leading to similar thermal off-rates in the range of 0.09 and 0.36 s−1, compared to 1.7 s−1 for the monovalent complex. On the other hand, the backbones exhibit different flexibility, and we determined a broad range of rupture lengths between 0.3 and 1.1 nm, with higher most-probable rupture forces for the stiffer backbones. Interestingly, the medium-flexible connection has the highest rupture forces, whereas the ligands with highest and lowest rigidity seem to be prone to consecutive bond rupture. The presented approach allows separating bond and backbone effects in multivalent model systems.

  8. Scopolamine rapidly increases mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling, synaptogenesis, and antidepressant behavioral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Bhavya; Navarria, Andrea; Liu, Rong-Jian; Banasr, Mounira; Li, Nanxin; Terwilliger, Rose; Sanacora, Gerard; Eid, Tore; Aghajanian, George; Duman, Ronald S

    2013-11-15

    Clinical studies report that scopolamine, an acetylcholine muscarinic receptor antagonist, produces rapid antidepressant effects in depressed patients, but the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic response have not been determined. The present study examines the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and synaptogenesis, which have been implicated in the rapid actions of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. The influence of scopolamine on mTORC1 signaling was determined by analysis of the phosphorylated and activated forms of mTORC1 signaling proteins in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The numbers and function of spine synapses were analyzed by whole cell patch clamp recording and two-photon image analysis of PFC neurons. The actions of scopolamine were examined in the forced swim test in the absence or presence of selective mTORC1 and glutamate receptor inhibitors. The results demonstrate that a single, low dose of scopolamine rapidly increases mTORC1 signaling and the number and function of spine synapses in layer V pyramidal neurons in the PFC. Scopolamine administration also produces an antidepressant response in the forced swim test that is blocked by pretreatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor or by a glutamate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonist. Taken together, the results demonstrate that the antidepressant actions of scopolamine require mTORC1 signaling and are associated with increased glutamate transmission, and synaptogenesis, similar to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. These findings provide novel targets for safer and more efficacious rapid-acting antidepressant agents. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

  9. Internet of THings Area Coverage Analyzer (ITHACA for Complex Topographical Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Parada

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of connected devices is increasing worldwide. Not only in contexts like the Smart City, but also in rural areas, to provide advanced features like smart farming or smart logistics. Thus, wireless network technologies to efficiently allocate Internet of Things (IoT and Machine to Machine (M2M communications are necessary. Traditional cellular networks like Global System for Mobile communications (GSM are widely used worldwide for IoT environments. Nevertheless, Low Power Wide Area Networks (LP-WAN are becoming widespread as infrastructure for present and future IoT and M2M applications. Based also on a subscription service, the LP-WAN technology SIGFOXTM may compete with cellular networks in the M2M and IoT communications market, for instance in those projects where deploying the whole communications infrastructure is too complex or expensive. For decision makers to decide the most suitable technology for each specific application, signal coverage is within the key features. Unfortunately, besides simulated coverage maps, decision-makers do not have real coverage maps for SIGFOXTM, as they can be found for cellular networks. Thereby, we propose Internet of THings Area Coverage Analyzer (ITHACA, a signal analyzer prototype to provide automated signal coverage maps and analytics for LP-WAN. Experiments performed in the Gran Canaria Island, Spain (with both urban and complex topographic rural environments, returned a real SIGFOXTM service availability above 97% and above 11% more coverage with respect to the company-provided simulated maps. We expect that ITHACA may help decision makers to deploy the most suitable technologies for future IoT and M2M projects.

  10. How Unstable Are Complex Financial Systems? Analyzing an Inter-bank Network of Credit Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sitabhra; Thess, Maximilian; Markose, Sheri

    The recent worldwide economic crisis of 2007-09 has focused attention on the need to analyze systemic risk in complex financial networks. We investigate the problem of robustness of such systems in the context of the general theory of dynamical stability in complex networks and, in particular, how the topology of connections influence the risk of the failure of a single institution triggering a cascade of successive collapses propagating through the network. We use data on bilateral liabilities (or exposure) in the derivatives market between 202 financial intermediaries based in USA and Europe in the last quarter of 2009 to empirically investigate the network structure of the over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives market. We observe that the network exhibits both heterogeneity in node properties and the existence of communities. It also has a prominent core-periphery organization and can resist large-scale collapse when subjected to individual bank defaults (however, failure of any bank in the core may result in localized collapse of the innermost core with substantial loss of capital) but is vulnerable to system-wide breakdown as a result of an accompanying liquidity crisis.

  11. Rapid monitoring of mercury in air from an organic chemical factory in China using a portable mercury analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Akira; Cheng, Jin Ping; Kiyono, Masako; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Liu, Xiaojie; Miura, Kyoko; Yasuda, Yoshiaki; Mashyanov, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m(3) in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0). Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  12. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  13. Rapid trace detection of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by complexation reactions during desorption electrospray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Chen, Hao; Cooks, R Graham

    2006-03-07

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is used for rapid, specific and sensitive detection of trace amounts of the notorious explosive TATP present on ambient surfaces by alkali metal complexation in a simple spray technique.

  14. Design patterns for instructional materials that foster proficiency at analyzing and interpreting complex geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastens, K. A.; Krumhansl, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards incorporate a stronger emphasis on having students work with data than did prior standards. This emphasis is most obvious in Practice 4: Analyzing and Interpreting Data, but also permeates performance expectations built on Practice 2 when students test models, Practice 6 when students construct explanations, and Practice 7 when student test claims with evidence. To support curriculum developers who wish to guide high school students towards more sophisticated engagement with complex data, we analyzed a well-regarded body of instructional materials designed for use in introductory college courses (http://serc.carleton.edu/integrate/teaching_materials/). Our analysis sought design patterns that can be reused for a variety of topics at the high school or college level. We found five such patterns, each of which was used in at least half of the modules analyzed. We describe each pattern, provide an example, and hypothesize a theory of action that could explain how the sequence of activities leverages known perceptual, cognitive and/or social processes to foster learning from and about data. In order from most to least frequent, the observed design patterns are as follows: In Data Puzzles, students respond to guiding questions about high-value snippets of data pre-selected and sequenced by the curriculum developer to lead to an Aha! inference. In Pooling Data to See the Big Picture, small groups analyze different instances of analogous phenomenon (e.g. different hurricanes, or different divergent plate boundaries) and pool their insights to extract the commonalities that constitute the essence of that phenomenon. In Make a Decision or Recommendation, students combine geoscience data with other factors (such as economic or environmental justice concerns) to make a decision or recommendation about a human or societal action. In Predict-Observe-Explain, students make a prediction about what the Earth will look like under conditions

  15. Use of field-portable XRF analyzers for rapid screening of toxic elements in FDA-regulated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T; Jacobs, Richard; Baker, Peter E; Ferguson, Kelly; Webber, Siri

    2009-04-08

    Analytical instrumentation continues its amazing evolution, especially in regard to generating ever more sensitive, faster, and reliable measurements. Perhaps the most difficult challenges are making these instruments small enough to use in the field, equipping them with well-designed software that facilitates and simplifies their use by nonexperts while preserving enough of their analytical capabilities to render them useful for a wide variety of applications. Perhaps the most impressive and underappreciated example of instruments that meet these criteria are field-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers. In the past, these analyzers have been routinely used for environmental applications (lead in paint and soil, metal particulates in air samples collected onto filters), geology studies (ore and soil analysis, precious metal identification), and recycling industries (alloy identification). However, their use in the analysis of toxic elements in food, food ingredients, dietary supplements, and medicinal and herbal products, especially within the FDA and regulatory environments, has been surprisingly limited to date. Although XRF will not replace atomic spectrometry techniques such as ICP-MS for sub-parts per million level analyses, it offers a number of significant advantages including minimal sample preparation, high sample throughputs, rapid and definitive identification of many toxic elements, and accurate quantitative results. As should be obvious from many recent news reports on elevated levels of toxic elements in children's lunchboxes, toys, and supplements, field-portable XRF analyzers can fill a very important niche and are becoming increasingly popular for a wide variety of elemental analysis applications. This perspective begins with a brief review of the theory of XRF to highlight the underlying principle, instrumentation, and spectra. It includes a discussion of various analytical figures of merit of XRF to illustrate its strengths and limitations

  16. Tsunami landslide source models as a tool for analyzing complex case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, S. T.; Watts, P.; Kirby, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    In tsunami generation, coseismic displacement sources can essentially be considered as having negligible duration (i.e., of a few to a few dozen seconds), as compared to characteristic times of tsunami propagation (i.e., period of at least several minutes). By contrast, submarine landslides, when they occur in or near very deep water areas, may last for a much longer time and thus produce tsunami sources of significant duration as compared to tsunami period. In analyzing data from landslide tsunami case studies, and in particular wave data, it is therefore very important to be able to understand the full history of both landslide and tsunami generation, in order to accurately estimate landslide time of failure based on such data. Recent three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic models developed to simulate tsunami generation by complex landslide scenarios offer such possibilities. Using these models, together with field data, the authors were able to identify both likely types and times of failure in specific case studies, in order to reproduce at best the observations in both the near and far field. To obtain far field results, the modeled 3D tsunami source is used as initial condition in a two-dimensional long wave propagation model. The cases of Skagway, PNG, and Unimak 1946 will be specifically discussed.

  17. A Hybrid DGTD-MNA Scheme for Analyzing Complex Electromagnetic Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Peng

    2015-01-07

    A hybrid electromagnetics (EM)-circuit simulator for analyzing complex systems consisting of EM devices loaded with nonlinear multi-port lumped circuits is described. The proposed scheme splits the computational domain into two subsystems: EM and circuit subsystems, where field interactions are modeled using Maxwell and Kirchhoff equations, respectively. Maxwell equations are discretized using a discontinuous Galerkin time domain (DGTD) scheme while Kirchhoff equations are discretized using a modified nodal analysis (MNA)-based scheme. The coupling between the EM and circuit subsystems is realized at the lumped ports, where related EM fields and circuit voltages and currents are allowed to “interact’’ via numerical flux. To account for nonlinear lumped circuit elements, the standard Newton-Raphson method is applied at every time step. Additionally, a local time-stepping scheme is developed to improve the efficiency of the hybrid solver. Numerical examples consisting of EM systems loaded with single and multiport linear/nonlinear circuit networks are presented to demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and applicability of the proposed solver.

  18. Rapid precision casting for complex thin-walled aluminum alloy parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanpu DONG

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on Vacuum Differential Pressure Casting (VDPC precision forming technology and the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS Rapid Prototyping (RP technology, a rapid manufacturing method called Rapid Precision Casting (RPC process from computer three-dimensional solid models to metallic parts was investigated. The experimental results showed that the main advantage of RPC was not only its ability to cast higher internal quality and more accurate complex thin-walled aluminum alloy parts, but also the greatly-reduced lead time cycle from Selective Laser Sintering(SLS plastic prototyping to metallic parts. The key forming technology of RPC for complex thin-walled metallic parts has been developed for new casting production and Rapid Tooling (RT, and it is possible to rapidly manufacture high-quality and accurate metallic parts by means of RP in foundry industry.

  19. A low cost and palm-size analyzer for rapid and sensitive protein detection by AC electrokinetics capacitive sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaozhu; Cheng, Cheng; Wu, Jayne; Eda, Shigetoshi; Guo, Yongcai

    2017-04-15

    Specific detection of protein biomarkers has a wide range of applications in areas such as medical science, diagnostics, and pharmacology. Quantitative detection of protein biomarkers in biological media, such as serum, is critically important in detecting disease or physiological malfunction, or tracking disease progression. Among various detection methods, electrical detection is particularly well suited for point-of-care (POC) specific protein detection, being of low cost, light weight and small form factor. A portable system for sensitive and quantitative detection of protein biomarkers will be highly valuable in controlling and preventing diseases outbreaks. Recently, an alternating current electrokinetic (ACEK) capacitive sensing method has been reported to demonstrate very promising performance on rapid and sensitive detection of specific protein from serum. In this work, a low cost and portable analyzer with good accuracy is developed to use with ACEK capacitive sensing to produce a true POC technology. The development of a board-level capacitance readout system is presented, as well as the adaption of the protocol for use with ACEK capacitive sensing. Results showed that the developed system could achieve a limit of detection of 10ng/mL, comparable to a sophisticated benchtop instrument. With its small size and light-weight similar to a smart phone, the developed system is ready to be applicable to POC diagnostics. Further, the readout system can be readily expanded for multichannel monitoring and telecommunication capabilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Discretized-Vapnik-Chervonenkis dimension for analyzing complexity of real function classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Bian, Wei; Tao, Dacheng; Lin, Weisi

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the discretized-Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC) dimension for studying the complexity of a real function class, and then analyze properties of real function classes and neural networks. We first prove that a countable traversal set is enough to achieve the VC dimension for a real function class, whereas its classical definition states that the traversal set is the output range of the function class. Based on this result, we propose the discretized-VC dimension defined by using a countable traversal set consisting of rational numbers in the range of a real function class. By using the discretized-VC dimension, we show that if a real function class has a finite VC dimension, only a finite traversal set is needed to achieve the VC dimension. We then point out that the real function classes, which have the infinite VC dimension, can be grouped into two categories: TYPE-A and TYPE-B. Subsequently, based on the obtained results, we discuss the relationship between the VC dimension of an indicator-output network and that of the real-output network, when both networks have the same structure except for the output activation functions. Finally, we present the risk bound based on the discretized-VC dimension for a real function class that has infinite VC dimension and is of TYPE-A. We prove that, with such a function class, the empirical risk minimization (ERM) principle for the function class is still consistent with overwhelming probability. This is a development of the existing knowledge that the ERM learning is consistent if and only if the function class has a finite VC dimension.

  1. Dynamic diagnostic relationism: a new diagnostic paradigm for complex rapidly changing clinical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Decades of large, apparently well-designed clinical trials have failed to generate reproducible results in the investigation of many complex rapidly evolving and changing conditions such as sepsis. One possibility for the failure is that 20th century threshold science may be too simplistic to apply to complex rapidly changing conditions, especially those with unknown times of onset. There is an acute need to reconsider the fundamental validity of the application of simple threshold science in the study of complex rapidly evolving and changing conditions. In this letter, four potential axioms are presented which define a new science which assesses the probability of disease as a function of motion images of all the available clinical data.

  2. Dual-comb spectroscopy for rapid characterization of complex optical properties of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahara, Akifumi; Nishiyama, Akiko; Yoshida, Satoru; Kondo, Ken-Ichi; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Minoshima, Kaoru

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate rapid characterization of complex optical properties of solids via dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) in the near-infrared region. The fine spectral structures in the complex refractive index of an Er:YAG are successfully deduced using the developed system and Fourier analysis. Moreover, simultaneous determination of the refractive index and the thickness is demonstrated for a silicon semiconductor wafer through the use of multireflected echo signals. The results indicate the potential of DCS as a powerful measurement tool for the rapid and full characterization of solid materials.

  3. A novel approach to analyze membrane proteins by laser mass spectrometry: from protein subunits to the integral complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgner, Nina; Kleinschroth, Thomas; Barth, Hans-Dieter; Ludwig, Bernd; Brutschy, Bernhard

    2007-08-01

    A novel laser-based mass spectrometry method termed LILBID (laser-induced liquid bead ion desorption) is applied to analyze large integral membrane protein complexes and their subunits. In this method the ions are IR-laser desorbed from aqueous microdroplets containing the hydrophobic protein complexes solubilized by detergent. The method is highly sensitive, very efficient in sample handling, relatively tolerant to various buffers, and detects the ions in narrow, mainly low-charge state distributions. The crucial experimental parameter determining whether the integral complex or its subunits are observed is the laser intensity: At very low intensity level corresponding to an ultrasoft desorption, the intact complexes, together with few detergent molecules, are transferred into vacuum. Under these conditions the oligomerization state of the complex (i.e., its quaternary structure) may be analyzed. At higher laser intensity, complexes are thermolyzed into subunits, with any residual detergent being stripped off to yield the true mass of the polypeptides. The model complexes studied are derived from the respiratory chain of the soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans and include complexes III (cytochrome bc(1) complex) and IV (cytochrome c oxidase). These are well characterized multi-subunit membrane proteins, with the individual hydrophobic subunits being composed of up to 12 transmembrane helices.

  4. Decomposition of overlapping protein complexes: A graph theoretical method for analyzing static and dynamic protein associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães Katia S

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most cellular processes are carried out by multi-protein complexes, groups of proteins that bind together to perform a specific task. Some proteins form stable complexes, while other proteins form transient associations and are part of several complexes at different stages of a cellular process. A better understanding of this higher-order organization of proteins into overlapping complexes is an important step towards unveiling functional and evolutionary mechanisms behind biological networks. Results We propose a new method for identifying and representing overlapping protein complexes (or larger units called functional groups within a protein interaction network. We develop a graph-theoretical framework that enables automatic construction of such representation. We illustrate the effectiveness of our method by applying it to TNFα/NF-κB and pheromone signaling pathways. Conclusion The proposed representation helps in understanding the transitions between functional groups and allows for tracking a protein's path through a cascade of functional groups. Therefore, depending on the nature of the network, our representation is capable of elucidating temporal relations between functional groups. Our results show that the proposed method opens a new avenue for the analysis of protein interaction networks.

  5. Important considerations when analyzing health survey data collected using a complex sample design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakshaug, Joseph W; West, Brady T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often use survey data to answer important public health policy questions. Examples of common data sources used in public health research include the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the National Health Interview Survey, the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. All these surveys employ a complex sample design to recruit participants into the survey. When performing secondary analyses of complex sample survey data, it is necessary to remind ourselves of the key features of these designs that must be taken into account to produce valid statistical estimates.

  6. An eye-tracking paradigm for analyzing the processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Wendt

    Full Text Available An eye-tracking paradigm was developed for use in audiology in order to enable online analysis of the speech comprehension process. This paradigm should be useful in assessing impediments in speech processing. In this paradigm, two scenes, a target picture and a competitor picture, were presented simultaneously with an aurally presented sentence that corresponded to the target picture. At the same time, eye fixations were recorded using an eye-tracking device. The effect of linguistic complexity on language processing time was assessed from eye fixation information by systematically varying linguistic complexity. This was achieved with a sentence corpus containing seven German sentence structures. A novel data analysis method computed the average tendency to fixate the target picture as a function of time during sentence processing. This allowed identification of the point in time at which the participant understood the sentence, referred to as the decision moment. Systematic differences in processing time were observed as a function of linguistic complexity. These differences in processing time may be used to assess the efficiency of cognitive processes involved in resolving linguistic complexity. Thus, the proposed method enables a temporal analysis of the speech comprehension process and has potential applications in speech audiology and psychoacoustics.

  7. A robust interrupted time series model for analyzing complex health care intervention data

    KAUST Repository

    Cruz, Maricela

    2017-08-29

    Current health policy calls for greater use of evidence-based care delivery services to improve patient quality and safety outcomes. Care delivery is complex, with interacting and interdependent components that challenge traditional statistical analytic techniques, in particular, when modeling a time series of outcomes data that might be

  8. An eye-tracking paradigm for analyzing the processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-01-01

    An eye-tracking paradigm was developed for use in audiology in order to enable online analysis of the speech comprehension process. This paradigm should be useful in assessing impediments in speech processing. In this paradigm, two scenes, a target picture and a competitor picture, were presented simultaneously with an aurally presented sentence that corresponded to the target picture. At the same time, eye fixations were recorded using an eye-tracking device. The effect of linguistic complexity on language processing time was assessed from eye fixation information by systematically varying linguistic complexity. This was achieved with a sentence corpus containing seven German sentence structures. A novel data analysis method computed the average tendency to fixate the target picture as a function of time during sentence processing. This allowed identification of the point in time at which the participant understood the sentence, referred to as the decision moment. Systematic differences in processing time were observed as a function of linguistic complexity. These differences in processing time may be used to assess the efficiency of cognitive processes involved in resolving linguistic complexity. Thus, the proposed method enables a temporal analysis of the speech comprehension process and has potential applications in speech audiology and psychoacoustics.

  9. Using Story-Based Causal Diagrams to Analyze Disagreements about Complex Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Brian P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes procedures for constructing story-based causal diagrams. Discusses the cognitive and pragmatic constraints that govern the tendency to attribute events to incomplete causes. Uses causal diagrams to analyze major disagreements about the 1987 stock market crash. Explores how causal diagrams may mitigate the constraints on causal…

  10. Angiotensin II–Acetylcholine Noncovalent Complexes Analyzed With MALDI–Ion Mobility–TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amina S.; Fuhrer, Katrin; Gonin, Marc; Egan, Tom; Ugarov, Michael; Gillig, Kent J.; Schultz, J. Albert

    2003-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–ion mobility–orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-IM-oTOF MS) is a new technique that allows laser desorbed ions to be preseparated on the basis of their shape prior to mass analysis. Using this instrument, we tested the postulate that addition of a quaternary ammonium compound such as acetylcholine to the model phosphorylated peptide angiotensin II would enhance its detection by MALDI in two ways. First of all, the acetylcholine–peptide complex could ionize more efficiently than the bare phosphopeptide. Furthermore, the ion mobility could separate the complex ion on the basis of its charge/volume from isobaric interferences, which would otherwise limit detection sensitivity. PMID:12901606

  11. Angiotensin II-acetylcholine noncovalent complexes analyzed with MALDI-ion mobility-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amina S; Fuhrer, Katrin; Gonin, Marc; Egan, Tom; Ugarov, Michael; Gillig, Kent J; Schultz, J Albert

    2003-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-ion mobility-orthogonal time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-IM oTOF MS) is a new technique that allows laser desorbed ion to be preseparated on the basis of their shape prior to mas analysis. Using this instrument, we tested the postulate that addition of a quaternary ammonium compound such as acetylcholine to the model phosphorylated peptide angio tensin II would enhance its detection by MALDI in two ways. First of all, the acetylcholine-peptide complex could ionize more efficiently than the bare phosphopeptide. Furthermore the ion mobility could separate the complex ion on the basis of its charge/volume from isobaric interferences, which would otherwise limit detection sensitivity.

  12. Methodological issues in analyzing human communication – the complexities of multimodality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høegh, Tina

    2017-01-01

    This chapter develops a multimodal method for transcribing speech, communication, and performance. The chapter discusses the methodological solutions to the complex translation of speech, language rhythm and gesture in time and space into the two-dimensional format of a piece of paper. The focus...... is on orally performed literature and its pedagogical implications. The chapter thoroughly examines relevant theories and discusses methodological issues of research in language, literature, and cultural performance. Current themes within social semiotics, metrical studies, ethnography of speaking, narratology...

  13. The use of synthetic spectra to test the preparedness to evaluate and analyze complex gamma spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M [Doletom OY (Finland)

    2001-10-01

    This is the report of two exercises that were run under the NKS BOK-1.1 sub-project. In these exercises synthetic gamma spectra were developed to exercise the analysis of difficult spectra typically seen after a severe nuclear accident. The spectra were analyzed twice; first, participants were given short time to give results to resemble an actual emergency preparedness situation, then a longer period of time was allowed to tune the laboratory analysis results for quality assurance purposes. The exercise did prove that it is possible to move measurement data from one laboratory to another if second opinion of the analysis is needed. It was also felt that this kind of exercise would enhance the experience the laboratories have in analyzing accident data. Participants expressed the need for additional exercises of this type, this is inexpensive and an easy way to exercise quick emergency response situations not normally seen in daily laboratory routines. (au)

  14. Analyzing complex wake-terrain interactions and its implications on wind-farm performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib, Mandar; Rasheed, Adil; Fuchs, Franz

    2016-09-01

    Rotating wind turbine blades generate complex wakes involving vortices (helical tip-vortex, root-vortex etc.).These wakes are regions of high velocity deficits and high turbulence intensities and they tend to degrade the performance of down-stream turbines. Hence, a conservative inter-turbine distance of up-to 10 times turbine diameter (10D) is sometimes used in wind-farm layout (particularly in cases of flat terrain). This ensures that wake-effects will not reduce the overall wind-farm performance, but this leads to larger land footprint for establishing a wind-farm. In-case of complex-terrain, within a short distance (say 10D) itself, the nearby terrain can rise in altitude and be high enough to influence the wake dynamics. This wake-terrain interaction can happen either (a) indirectly, through an interaction of wake (both near tip vortex and far wake large-scale vortex) with terrain induced turbulence (especially, smaller eddies generated by small ridges within the terrain) or (b) directly, by obstructing the wake-region partially or fully in its flow-path. Hence, enhanced understanding of wake- development due to wake-terrain interaction will help in wind farm design. To this end the current study involves: (1) understanding the numerics for successful simulation of vortices, (2) understanding fundamental vortex-terrain interaction mechanism through studies devoted to interaction of a single vortex with different terrains, (3) relating influence of vortex-terrain interactions to performance of a wind-farm by studying a multi-turbine wind-farm layout under different terrains. The results on interaction of terrain and vortex has shown a much faster decay of vortex for complex terrain compared to a flatter-terrain. The potential reasons identified explaining the observation are (a) formation of secondary vortices in flow and its interaction with the primary vortex and (b) enhanced vorticity diffusion due to increased terrain-induced turbulence. The implications of

  15. Use of multiple singular value decompositions to analyze complex intracellular calcium ion signals

    KAUST Repository

    Martinez, Josue G.

    2009-12-01

    We compare calcium ion signaling (Ca(2+)) between two exposures; the data are present as movies, or, more prosaically, time series of images. This paper describes novel uses of singular value decompositions (SVD) and weighted versions of them (WSVD) to extract the signals from such movies, in a way that is semi-automatic and tuned closely to the actual data and their many complexities. These complexities include the following. First, the images themselves are of no interest: all interest focuses on the behavior of individual cells across time, and thus, the cells need to be segmented in an automated manner. Second, the cells themselves have 100+ pixels, so that they form 100+ curves measured over time, so that data compression is required to extract the features of these curves. Third, some of the pixels in some of the cells are subject to image saturation due to bit depth limits, and this saturation needs to be accounted for if one is to normalize the images in a reasonably un-biased manner. Finally, the Ca(2+) signals have oscillations or waves that vary with time and these signals need to be extracted. Thus, our aim is to show how to use multiple weighted and standard singular value decompositions to detect, extract and clarify the Ca(2+) signals. Our signal extraction methods then lead to simple although finely focused statistical methods to compare Ca(2+) signals across experimental conditions.

  16. A new theoretical approach to analyze complex processes in cytoskeleton proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B

    2014-03-20

    Cytoskeleton proteins are filament structures that support a large number of important biological processes. These dynamic biopolymers exist in nonequilibrium conditions stimulated by hydrolysis chemical reactions in their monomers. Current theoretical methods provide a comprehensive picture of biochemical and biophysical processes in cytoskeleton proteins. However, the description is only qualitative under biologically relevant conditions because utilized theoretical mean-field models neglect correlations. We develop a new theoretical method to describe dynamic processes in cytoskeleton proteins that takes into account spatial correlations in the chemical composition of these biopolymers. Our approach is based on analysis of probabilities of different clusters of subunits. It allows us to obtain exact analytical expressions for a variety of dynamic properties of cytoskeleton filaments. By comparing theoretical predictions with Monte Carlo computer simulations, it is shown that our method provides a fully quantitative description of complex dynamic phenomena in cytoskeleton proteins under all conditions.

  17. Complex Causal Process Diagrams for Analyzing the Health Impacts of Policy Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Michael; Mindell, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Causal diagrams are rigorous tools for controlling confounding. They also can be used to describe complex causal systems, which is done routinely in communicable disease epidemiology. The use of change diagrams has advantages over static diagrams, because change diagrams are more tractable, relate better to interventions, and have clearer interpretations. Causal diagrams are a useful basis for modeling. They make assumptions explicit, provide a framework for analysis, generate testable predictions, explore the effects of interventions, and identify data gaps. Causal diagrams can be used to integrate different types of information and to facilitate communication both among public health experts and between public health experts and experts in other fields. Causal diagrams allow the use of instrumental variables, which can help control confounding and reverse causation. PMID:16449586

  18. Automated single-ion peak fitting as an efficient approach for analyzing complex chromatographic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Sueper, Donna T; Aikin, Kenneth C; Lerner, Brian M; Gilman, Jessica B; de Gouw, Joost A; Worsnop, Douglas R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2017-12-22

    Chromatography provides important detail on the composition of environmental samples and their chemical processing. However, the complexity of these samples and their tendency to contain many structurally and chemically similar compounds frequently results in convoluted or poorly resolved data. Data reduction from raw chromatograms of complex environmental data into integrated peak areas consequently often requires substantial operator interaction. This difficulty has led to a bottleneck in analysis that increases analysis time, decreases data quality, and will worsen as advances in field-based instrumentation multiply the quantity and informational density of data produced. In this work, we develop and validate an automated approach to fitting chromatographic data within a target retention time window with a combination of multiple idealized peaks (Gaussian peaks either with or without an exponential decay component). We compare this single-ion peak fitting approach to drawn baseline integration methods of more than 70,000 peaks collected by field-based chromatographs spanning across a wide range of volatilities and functionalities. Accuracy of peak fitting under real-world conditions is found to be within 10%. The quantitative parameters describing the fit (e.g. coefficients, fit residuals, etc.) are found to provide valuable information to increase the efficiency of quality control and provide constraints to accurately integrate peaks that are significantly convoluted with neighboring peaks. Implementation of the peak fitting method is shown to yield accurate integration of peaks otherwise too poorly resolved to separate into individual compounds and improved quantitative metrics to determine the fidelity of the data reduction process, while substantially decreasing the time spent by operators on data reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrating high-throughput pyrosequencing and quantitative real-time PCR to analyze complex microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Husen; Parameswaran, Prathap; Badalamenti, Jonathan; Rittmann, Bruce E; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    New high-throughput technologies continue to emerge for studying complex microbial communities. In particular, massively parallel pyrosequencing enables very high numbers of sequences, providing a more complete view of community structures and a more accurate inference of the functions than has been possible just a few years ago. In parallel, quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) allows quantitative monitoring of specific community members over time, space, or different environmental conditions. In this review, we discuss the principles of these two methods and their complementary applications in studying microbial ecology in bioenvironmental systems. We explain parallel sequencing of amplicon libraries and using bar codes to differentiate multiple samples in a pyrosequencing run. We also describe best procedures and chemistries for QPCR amplifications and address advantages of applying automation to increase accuracy. We provide three examples in which we used pyrosequencing and QPCR together to define and quantify members of microbial communities: in the human large intestine, in a methanogenic digester whose sludge was made more bioavailable by a high-voltage pretreatment, and on the biofilm anode of a microbial electrolytic cell. We highlight our key findings in these systems and how both methods were used in concert to achieve those findings. Finally, we supply detailed methods for generating PCR amplicon libraries for pyrosequencing, pyrosequencing data analysis, QPCR methodology, instrumentation, and automation.

  20. Evaluation of a hand-held blood gas analyzer for rapid determination of blood gases, electrolytes and metabolites in intensive care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukkonen, Antti A M; Lehto, Tiina M; Hedberg, Pirjo S M; Vaskivuo, Tommy E

    2016-04-01

    Intensive care units, operating rooms, emergency departments, and neonatology units need rapid measurements of blood gases, electrolytes, and metabolites. These analyses can be performed in a central laboratory or at the clinic with traditional or compact cassette-type blood gas analyzers such as the epoc blood gas testing system for analyzing whole blood samples at the bedside. In this study, the performance and interchangeability of a hand-held epoc blood gas analyzer was evaluated. The analytical performance of the epoc analyzer was evaluated by determining within-and between-run precisions. The accuracy of the epoc analyzer was assessed by comparing patient results from the device with those obtained with the Siemens Rapidlab 1265 and Rapidpoint RP500 and Siemens Dimension Vista and Sysmex XE-2100 analyzers. The following parameters were measured: pH, pCO2, pO2, Hb (calc), Na+, K+, iCa2+, glucose, and lactate. The CV% of the epoc's between-day imprecision for the various parameters varied from 0.4 to 8.6. The within-run imprecision CV% varied from 0.6 to 5.2. The squared regression coefficient (R2) between the epoc and RL1265 varied from 0.94 to 0.99, with the exception of Na+ and Ca2+ (R2≥0.82). The correlation (R2) of Na+ and K+ between epoc and Dimension Vista was 0.73 and 0.89, respectively. The correlation (R2) of Hb between the epoc and the XE-2100 analyzer was 0.94. With most of the measured blood gas parameters, the epoc analyzer correlated well with reference techniques. The epoc analyzer is suitable for rapid measurement of the blood gases, the electrolytes, and the metabolites in the ICU.

  1. Analyzing the spatial patterns and drivers of ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Taihu Lake Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Junyong; Sun, Xiang; Feng, Lan; Li, Yangfan; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Quantifying and mapping the distribution patterns of ecosystem services can help to ascertain which services should be protected and where investments should be directed to improve synergies and reduce tradeoffs. Moreover, the indicators of urbanization that affect the provision of ecosystem services must be identified to determine which approach to adopt in formulating policies related to these services. This paper presents a case study that maps the distribution of multiple ecosystem services and analyzes the ways in which they interact. The relationship between the supply of ecosystem services and the socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin of eastern China is also revealed. Results show a significant negative relationship between crop production and tourism income ( pPopulation density is the most important factor that negatively affects carbon sequestration ( R 2 = 0.447). The findings of this study suggest the potential relevance of ecosystem service dynamics to urbanization management and decision making.

  2. Utility of MPT64 antigen detection for rapid confirmation of mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Arora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rapid differentiation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT is crucial to facilitate early and effective treatment of the patients. Clinical presentation of MTBC and MOTT is not always very clear and routine conventional methods are time consuming. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the MPT64 protein detection-based immunochomatographic test (SD Bioline Kit, Standard Diagnostics, Inc., Korea was compared with the conventional biochemical method. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, and negative predictive values of the SD AgMPT64 kit were found to be 100, 96.4, 98.72, and 100%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results have demonstrated that the SD bioline kit is a rapid, reliable method and it can be used in the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP of India, for the appropriate management of tuberculosis.

  3. An Automated Rapid Iterative Negative Geotaxis Assay for Analyzing Adult Climbing Behavior in a Drosophila Model of Neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenze; Song, Li; Cheng, Jingjing; Yi, Na; Cai, Luyi; Huang, Fu-de; Ho, Margaret

    2017-09-12

    Neurodegenerative diseases are frequently associated with a progressive loss of movement ability, reduced life span, and age-dependent neurodegeneration. To understand the mechanism of these cellular events, and their causal relationships with each other, Drosophila melanogaster, with its sophisticated genetic tools and diverse behavioral features, are used as disease models for assessing neurodegenerative phenotypes. Here we describe a high-throughput method to analyze Drosophila adult negative geotaxis behavior, as an indication for possible motor defects associated with neurodegeneration. An automated machine is designed and developed to drive fly synchronization using an initial electric impulse, later allowing the recording of negative geotaxis behavior over a course of secs to mins. Images from the digitally recorded video are then processed with the self-designed RflyDetection software for statistical data manipulation. Different from the manually controlled negative geotaxis assay based on single fly, this precise, fast, and high-throughput protocol allows data acquisition from more than hundreds of flies simultaneously, providing an efficient approach to advance our understanding in the underlying mechanism of locomotor deficits associated with neurodegeneration.

  4. In silico region of difference (RD) analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from sequence reads using RD-Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faksri, Kiatichai; Xia, Eryu; Tan, Jun Hao; Teo, Yik-Ying; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee

    2016-11-02

    Whole-genome sequencing is increasingly used in clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis and study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). MTC consists of several genetically homogenous mycobacteria species which can cause tuberculosis in humans and animals. Regions of difference (RDs) are commonly regarded as gold standard genetic markers for MTC classification. We develop RD-Analyzer, a tool that can accurately infer the species and lineage of MTC isolates from sequence reads based on the presence and absence of a set of 31 RDs. Applied on a publicly available diverse set of 377 sequenced MTC isolates from known major species and lineages, RD-Analyzer achieved an accuracy of 98.14 % (370/377) in species prediction and a concordance of 98.47 % (257/261) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineage prediction compared to predictions based on single nucleotide polymorphism markers. By comparing respective sequencing read depths on each genomic position between isolates of different sublineages, we were able to identify the known RD markers in different sublineages of Lineage 4 and provide support for six potential delineating markers having high sensitivities and specificities for sublineage prediction. An extended version of RD-Analyzer was thus developed to allow user-defined RDs for lineage prediction. RD-Analyzer is a useful and accurate tool for species, lineage and sublineage prediction using known RDs of MTC from sequence reads and is extendable to accepting user-defined RDs for analysis. RD-Analyzer is written in Python and is freely available at https://github.com/xiaeryu/RD-Analyzer .

  5. A Rapid Convergent Low Complexity Interference Alignment Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lihui; Wu, Zhilu; Ren, Guanghui; Wang, Gangyi; Zhao, Nan

    2015-07-29

    Interference alignment (IA) is a novel technique that can effectively eliminate the interference and approach the sum capacity of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is high, by casting the desired signal and interference into different signal subspaces. The traditional alternating minimization interference leakage (AMIL) algorithm for IA shows good performance in high SNR regimes, however, the complexity of the AMIL algorithm increases dramatically as the number of users and antennas increases, posing limits to its applications in the practical systems. In this paper, a novel IA algorithm, called directional quartic optimal (DQO) algorithm, is proposed to minimize the interference leakage with rapid convergence and low complexity. The properties of the AMIL algorithm are investigated, and it is discovered that the difference between the two consecutive iteration results of the AMIL algorithm will approximately point to the convergence solution when the precoding and decoding matrices obtained from the intermediate iterations are sufficiently close to their convergence values. Based on this important property, the proposed DQO algorithm employs the line search procedure so that it can converge to the destination directly. In addition, the optimal step size can be determined analytically by optimizing a quartic function. Numerical results show that the proposed DQO algorithm can suppress the interference leakage more rapidly than the traditional AMIL algorithm, and can achieve the same level of sum rate as that of AMIL algorithm with far less iterations and execution time.

  6. Rapid Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Method Quantifies Oxygen-Rich Lignin Compound in Complex Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Kelsey S.; Roberts, Michael S.; Vinueza, Nelson R.

    2017-12-01

    Complex mixture analysis is a costly and time-consuming task facing researchers with foci as varied as food science and fuel analysis. When faced with the task of quantifying oxygen-rich bio-oil molecules in a complex diesel mixture, we asked whether complex mixtures could be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed on a single mass spectrometer with mid-range resolving power without the use of lengthy separations. To answer this question, we developed and evaluated a quantitation method that eliminated chromatography steps and expanded the use of quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry from primarily qualitative to quantitative as well. To account for mixture complexity, the method employed an ionization dopant, targeted tandem mass spectrometry, and an internal standard. This combination of three techniques achieved reliable quantitation of oxygen-rich eugenol in diesel from 300 to 2500 ng/mL with sufficient linearity (R2 = 0.97 ± 0.01) and excellent accuracy (percent error = 0% ± 5). To understand the limitations of the method, it was compared to quantitation attained on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, the gold standard for quantitation. The triple quadrupole quantified eugenol from 50 to 2500 ng/mL with stronger linearity (R2 = 0.996 ± 0.003) than the quadrupole-time-of-flight and comparable accuracy (percent error = 4% ± 5). This demonstrates that a quadrupole-time-of-flight can be used for not only qualitative analysis but also targeted quantitation of oxygen-rich lignin molecules in complex mixtures without extensive sample preparation. The rapid and cost-effective method presented here offers new possibilities for bio-oil research, including: (1) allowing for bio-oil studies that demand repetitive analysis as process parameters are changed and (2) making this research accessible to more laboratories. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Rapid spread of complex change: a case study in inpatient palliative care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipski Marta I

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on positive findings from a randomized controlled trial, Kaiser Permanente's national executive leadership group set an expectation that all Kaiser Permanente and partner hospitals would implement a consultative model of interdisciplinary, inpatient-based palliative care (IPC. Within one year, the number of IPC consultations program-wide increased almost tenfold from baseline, and the number of teams nearly doubled. We report here results from a qualitative evaluation of the IPC initiative after a year of implementation; our purpose was to understand factors supporting or impeding the rapid and consistent spread of a complex program. Methods Quality improvement study using a case study design and qualitative analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews with 36 national, regional, and local leaders. Results Compelling evidence of impacts on patient satisfaction and quality of care generated 'pull' among adopters, expressed as a remarkably high degree of conviction about the value of the model. Broad leadership agreement gave rise to sponsorship and support that permeated the organization. A robust social network promoted knowledge exchange and built on an existing network with a strong interest in palliative care. Resource constraints, pre-existing programs of a different model, and ambiguous accountability for implementation impeded spread. Conclusions A complex, hospital-based, interdisciplinary intervention in a large health care organization spread rapidly due to a synergy between organizational 'push' strategies and grassroots-level pull. The combination of push and pull may be especially important when the organizational context or the practice to be spread is complex.

  8. Actin-Sorting Nexin 27 (SNX27)-Retromer Complex Mediates Rapid Parathyroid Hormone Receptor Recycling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Jennifer C.; Xiao, Kunhong; Bowman, Shanna L.; Mamonova, Tatyana; Zhang, Qiangmin; Bisello, Alessandro; Sneddon, W. Bruce; Ardura, Juan A.; Jean-Alphonse, Frederic; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre; Puthenveedu, Manojkumar A.; Friedman, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    The G protein-coupled parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) regulates mineral-ion homeostasis and bone remodeling. Upon parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulation, the PTHR internalizes into early endosomes and subsequently traffics to the retromer complex, a sorting platform on early endosomes that promotes recycling of surface receptors. The C terminus of the PTHR contains a type I PDZ ligand that binds PDZ domain-containing proteins. Mass spectrometry identified sorting nexin 27 (SNX27) in isolated endosomes as a PTHR binding partner. PTH treatment enriched endosomal PTHR. SNX27 contains a PDZ domain and serves as a cargo selector for the retromer complex. VPS26, VPS29, and VPS35 retromer subunits were isolated with PTHR in endosomes from cells stimulated with PTH. Molecular dynamics and protein binding studies establish that PTHR and SNX27 interactions depend on the PDZ recognition motif in PTHR and the PDZ domain of SNX27. Depletion of either SNX27 or VPS35 or actin depolymerization decreased the rate of PTHR recycling following agonist stimulation. Mutating the PDZ ligand of PTHR abolished the interaction with SNX27 but did not affect the overall rate of recycling, suggesting that PTHR may directly engage the retromer complex. Coimmunoprecipitation and overlay experiments show that both intact and mutated PTHR bind retromer through the VPS26 protomer and sequentially assemble a ternary complex with PTHR and SNX27. SNX27-independent recycling may involve N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor, which binds both PDZ intact and mutant PTHRs. We conclude that PTHR recycles rapidly through at least two pathways, one involving the ASRT complex of actin, SNX27, and retromer and another possibly involving N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor. PMID:27008860

  9. Analyzing discourse and text complexity for learning and collaborating a cognitive approach based on natural language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dascălu, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    With the advent and increasing popularity of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) and e-learning technologies, the need of automatic assessment and of teacher/tutor support for the two tightly intertwined activities of comprehension of reading materials and of collaboration among peers has grown significantly. In this context, a polyphonic model of discourse derived from Bakhtin’s work as a paradigm is used for analyzing both general texts and CSCL conversations in a unique framework focused on different facets of textual cohesion. As specificity of our analysis, the individual learning perspective is focused on the identification of reading strategies and on providing a multi-dimensional textual complexity model, whereas the collaborative learning dimension is centered on the evaluation of participants’ involvement, as well as on collaboration assessment. Our approach based on advanced Natural Language Processing techniques provides a qualitative estimation of the learning process and enhance...

  10. Rapid susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhople, Arvind M.

    1994-01-01

    In ominous projections issued by both U.S. Public Health Service and the World Health Organization, the epidemic of HIV infection will continue to rise more rapidly worldwide than predicted earlier. The AIDS patients are susceptible to diseases called opportunistic infections of which tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection are most common. This has created an urgent need to uncover new drugs for the treatment of these infections. In the seventies, NASA scientists at Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, had adopted a biochemical indicator, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), to detect presence of life in extraterrestrial space. We proposed to develop ATP assay technique to determine sensitivity of antibacterial compounds against MAC and M. tuberculosis.

  11. [Automated RNA amplification for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillon, V; Houriez, F; Buze, M; Lagrange, P; Herrmann, J-L

    2006-01-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) directly on clinical respiratory specimens is essential for a correct management of patients suspected of tuberculosis. For this purpose PCR-based kits are available to detect MTB in respiratory specimen but most of them need at least 4 hours to be completed. New methods, based on TRC method (TRC: Transcription Reverse transcription Concerted--TRCRapid M. Tuberculosis--Tosoh Bioscience, Tokyo, Japon) and dedicated monitor have been developed. A new kit (TRC Rapid M. tuberculosis and Real-time monitor TRCRapid-160, Tosoh Corporation, Japan) enabling one step amplification and real-time detection of MTB 16S rRNA by a combination of intercalative dye oxazole yellow-linked DNA probe and isothermal RNA amplification directly on respiratory specimens has been tested in our laboratory. 319 respiratory specimens were tested in this preliminary study and results were compared to smear and culture. Fourteen had a positive culture for MTB. Among theses samples, smear was positive in 11 cases (78.6%) and TRC process was positive in 8 cases (57.1%). Overall sensitivity of TRC compared to smear positive samples is 73%. Theses first results demonstrated that a rapid identification of MTB was possible (less than 2 processing hours for 14 specimens and about 1 hour for 1 specimen) in most cases of smear positive samples using ready to use reagents for real time detection of MTB rRNA in clinical samples. New pretreatment and extraction reagents kits to increase the stability of the sputum RNA and the extraction efficiency are now tested in our laboratory.

  12. After Nearly A Decade Of Rapid Growth, Use And Complexity Of Imaging Declined, 2008-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David C; Parker, Laurence; Palit, Charles D; Rao, Vijay M

    2017-04-01

    Imaging is an important cost driver in health care, and its use grew rapidly in the early 2000s. Several studies toward the end of the decade suggested that a leveling off was beginning to occur. In this study we examined more recent data to determine whether the slowdown had continued. Our data sources were the nationwide Medicare Part B databases for the period 2001-14. We calculated utilization rates per 1,000 enrollees for all advanced imaging modalities. We also calculated professional component relative value unit (RVU) rates per 1,000 beneficiaries for all imaging modalities, as RVU values provide a measure of complexity of imaging services and may in some ways be a better reflection of the amount of work involved in imaging. We found that utilization rates and RVU rates grew substantially until 2008 and 2009, respectively, and then began to drop. The downward trend in both rates persisted through 2014. Federal policies appear to have achieved the desired effect of ending the rapid growth of imaging that had been seen in earlier years. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  13. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts Through Application of Complexity-Based Cost Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of a rapid cost assessment models for evaluation of exploration missions through the application of complexity based cost indices. In Fall of 2004, NASA began developing 13 documents, known as "strategic roadmaps," intended to outline a strategy for space exploration over the next 30 years. The Third Strategic Roadmap, The Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration, focused on strategy for robotic exploration of the Solar System. Development of the Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration led to the investigation of a large variety of missions. However, the necessity of planning around scientific inquiry and budgetary constraints made it necessary for the roadmap development team to evaluate potential missions not only for scientific return but also cost. Performing detailed cost studies for each of the large number of missions was impractical given the time constraints involved and lack of detailed mission studies; so a method of rapid cost assessment was developed by us to allow preliminary analysis. It has been noted that there is a strong correlation between complexity and cost and schedule of planetary missions. While these correlations were made after missions had been built and flown (successfully or otherwise), it seemed likely that a similar approach could provide at least some relative cost ranking. Cost estimation relationships (CERs) have been developed based on subsystem design choices. These CERs required more detailed information than available, forcing the team to adopt a more high level approach. Costing by analogy has been developed for small satellites, however, planetary exploration missions provide such varying spacecraft requirements that there is a lack of adequately comparable missions that can be used for analogy.

  14. A low complexity rapid molecular method for detection of Clostridium difficile in stool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathal J McElgunn

    Full Text Available Here we describe a method for the detection of Clostridium difficile from stool using a novel low-complexity and rapid extraction process called Heat Elution (HE. The HE method is two-step and takes just 10 minutes, no specialist instruments are required and there is minimal hands-on time. A test method using HE was developed in conjunction with Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP combined with the real-time bioluminescent reporter system known as BART targeting the toxin B gene (tcdB. The HE-LAMP-BART method was evaluated in a pilot study on clinical fecal samples (tcdB(+, n = 111; tcdB(-, n= 107. The HE-LAMP-BART method showed 95.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity against a gold standard reference method using cytotoxigenic culture and also a silica-based robotic extraction followed by tcdB PCR to control for storage. From sample to result, the HE-LAMP-BART method typically took 50 minutes, whereas the PCR method took >2.5 hours. In a further study (tcdB(+, n = 47; tcdB(-, n= 28 HE-LAMP-BART was compared to an alternative commercially available LAMP-based method, Illumigene (Meridian Bioscience, OH, and yielded 87.2% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the HE-LAMP-BART method compared to 76.6% and 100%, respectively, for Illumigene against the reference method. A subset of 27 samples (tcdB(+, n = 25; tcdB(-, n= 2 were further compared between HE-LAMP-BART, Illumigene, GeneXpert (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA and RIDA®QUICK C. difficile Toxin A/B lateral flow rapid test (R-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany resulting in sensitivities of HE-LAMP-BART 92%, Illumigene 72% GeneXpert 96% and RIDAQuick 76% against the reference method. The HE-LAMP-BART method offers the advantages of molecular based approaches without the cost and complexity usually associated with molecular tests. Further, the rapid time-to-result and simple protocol means the method can be applied away from the centralized laboratory settings.

  15. Rapid and direct synthesis of complex perovskite oxides through a highly energetic planetary milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Park, Eun-Kwang; Yang, Sun-A.; Park, Jin-Ju; Bu, Sang-Don; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-04-01

    The search for a new and facile synthetic route that is simple, economical and environmentally safe is one of the most challenging issues related to the synthesis of functional complex oxides. Herein, we report the expeditious synthesis of single-phase perovskite oxides by a high-rate mechanochemical reaction, which is generally difficult through conventional milling methods. With the help of a highly energetic planetary ball mill, lead-free piezoelectric perovskite oxides of (Bi, Na)TiO3, (K, Na)NbO3 and their modified complex compositions were directly synthesized with low contamination. The reaction time necessary to fully convert the micron-sized reactant powder mixture into a single-phase perovskite structure was markedly short at only 30-40 min regardless of the chemical composition. The cumulative kinetic energy required to overtake the activation period necessary for predominant formation of perovskite products was ca. 387 kJ/g for (Bi, Na)TiO3 and ca. 580 kJ/g for (K, Na)NbO3. The mechanochemically derived powders, when sintered, showed piezoelectric performance capabilities comparable to those of powders obtained by conventional solid-state reaction processes. The observed mechanochemical synthetic route may lead to the realization of a rapid, one-step preparation method by which to create other promising functional oxides without time-consuming homogenization and high-temperature calcination powder procedures.

  16. Development and operation of an integrated sampling probe and gas analyzer for turbulent mixing studies in complex supersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiswall, John D.

    -temporal characteristic scales of the flow on the resulting time-area-averaged concentration measurements. Two series of experiments were performed to verify the probe's design; the first used Schlieren photography and verified that the probe sampled from the supersonic flowfield isokinetically. The second series involved traversing the probe across a free mixing layer of air and helium, to obtain both mean concentration and high frequency measurements. High-frequency data was statistically analyzed and inspection of the Probability Density Function (PDF) of the hot-film response was instrumental to interpret how well the resulting average mixing measurements represent these types of complex flows. The probe is minimally intrusive, has accuracy comparable to its predecessors, has an improved frequency response for mean concentration measurements, and samples from a very small area in the flowfield.

  17. Rapid prototyping of a complex model for the manufacture of plaster molds for slip casting ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. C. Velazco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer assisted designing (CAD is well known for several decades and employed for ceramic manufacturing almost since the beginning, but usually employed in the first part of the projectual ideation processes, neither in the prototyping nor in the manufacturing stages. The rapid prototyping machines, also known as 3D printers, have the capacity to produce in a few hours real pieces using plastic materials of high resistance, with great precision and similarity with respect to the original, based on unprecedented digital models produced by means of modeling with specific design software or from the digitalization of existing parts using the so-called 3D scanners. The main objective of the work is to develop the methodology used in the entire process of building a part in ceramics from the interrelationship between traditional techniques and new technologies for the manufacture of prototypes. And to take advantage of the benefits that allow us this new reproduction technology. The experience was based on the generation of a complex piece, in digital format, which served as the model. A regular 15 cm icosahedron presented features complex enough not to advise the production of the model by means of the traditional techniques of ceramics (manual or mechanical. From this digital model, a plaster mold was made in the traditional way in order to slip cast clay based slurries, freely dried in air and fired and glazed in the traditional way. This experience has shown the working hypothesis and opens up the possibility of new lines of work to academic and technological levels that will be explored in the near future. This technology provides a wide range of options to address the formal aspect of a part to be performed for the field of design, architecture, industrial design, the traditional pottery, ceramic art, etc., which allow you to amplify the formal possibilities, save time and therefore costs when drafting the necessary and appropriate matrixes

  18. Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Rapid Reversal of Warfarin Anticoagulation to Allow Neuraxial Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Skerritt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Prothrombin Complex Concentrates (PCCs has led to better outcomes in patients receiving emergency reversal of warfarin. However, most published data describes the use of PCCs in the setting of major bleeding or emergent major surgery, with little information on neuraxial blockade. We describe a case of rapid warfarin reversal using PCC and subsequent surgery under spinal anaesthesia in an 87-year-old lady, for whom general anaesthesia was deemed high risk. Her international normalised ratio (INR on the morning of surgery was 1.8, precluding neuraxial blockade; however, it was felt that given, the need for imminent surgery, immediate reversal of the warfarin was indicated. We administered a single dose of 23 units/kg PCC and 5 mg vitamin K. Her INR 1 hour following PCC was 1.2, and spinal anesthetic was administered. The patient then underwent excision of melanoma deposits from her leg and groin dissection. There were no complications, the patient recovered satisfactorily, and there were no thrombotic or hemorrhagic events at 30 days postoperatively. This case study demonstrates a novel use of PCCs; in certain patients, PCCs may be safely used for immediate reversal of warfarin to allow for neuraxial blockade, safer anaesthesia, and better outcomes.

  19. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts through Application of Complexity Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Craig; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap Conmrittee (chartered by NASA to develop the roadmap for Solar System Exploration Missions for the coming decades) found itself posed with the difficult problem of sorting through several mission concepts and determining their relative costs. While detailed mission studies are the normal approach to costing, neither the budget nor schedule allotted to the conmrittee could support such studies. Members of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supporting the conmrittee were given the challenge of developing a semi-quantitative approach that could provide the relative costs of these missions, without requiring an in depth study of the missions. In response to this challenge, a rapid cost assessment methodology based on a set of mission cost/complexity indexes was developed. This methodology also underwent two separate validations, one comparing its results when applied to historical missions, and another comparing its estimates against those of veteran space mission managers. Remarkably good agreement was achieved, suggesting that this approach provides an effective early indication of space mission costs.

  20. Rapid adaptive divergence in new world achillea, an autopolyploid complex of ecological races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Justin; Robertson, Alexander; Husband, Brian

    2008-03-01

    Adaptive evolution is often associated with speciation. In plants, however, ecotypic differentiation is common within widespread species, suggesting that climatic and edaphic specialization can outpace cladogenesis and the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. We used cpDNA sequence (5 noncoding regions, 3.5 kb) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs: 4 primer pairs, 1,013 loci) to evaluate the history of ecological differentiation in the North American Achillea millefolium, an autopolyploid complex of "ecological races" exhibiting morphological, physiological, and life-history adaptations to diverse environments. Phylogenetic analyses reveal North American A. millefolium to be a monophyletic group distinct from its European and Asian relatives. Based on patterns of sequence divergence, as well as fossil and paleoecological data, colonization of North America appears to have occurred via the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene (1.8 MYA to 11,500 years ago). Population genetic analyses indicate negligible structure within North American A. millefolium associated with varietal identity, geographic distribution, or ploidy level. North American populations, moreover, exhibit the signature of demographic expansion. These results affirm the "ecotype" concept of the North American Achillea advocated by classical research and demonstrate the rapid rate of ecological differentiation that sometimes occurs in plants.

  1. Rapid and Specific Detection of the Escherichia coli Sequence Type 648 Complex within Phylogroup F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R; Johnston, Brian D; Gordon, David M

    2017-04-01

    The Escherichia coli sequence type 648 complex (STc648) is an emerging lineage within phylogroup F-formerly included within phylogroup D-that is associated with multidrug resistance. Here, we designed and validated a novel multiplex PCR-based assay for STc648 that took advantage of (i) four distinctive single-nucleotide polymorphisms in icd allele 96 and gyrB allele 87, two of the multilocus sequence typing alleles that define ST648; and (ii) the typical absence within STc648 of uidA, an E. coli-specific gene encoding β-glucuronidase. Within a diverse 212-strain validation set that included 109 STs other than STc648, from phylogroups A, B1, B2, C, D, E, and F, the assay exhibited 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 82% to 100%) and specificity (95% CI, 98% to 100%). It functioned similarly well in two distant laboratories that used boiled lysates or DNAzol-purified DNA as the template DNA. Thus, this novel multiplex PCR-based assay should enable any laboratory equipped for diagnostic PCR to rapidly, accurately, and economically screen E. coli isolates for membership in STc648. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. Rapid and sensitive hormonal profiling of complex plant samples by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Maren

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant hormones play a pivotal role in several physiological processes during a plant's life cycle, from germination to senescence, and the determination of endogenous concentrations of hormones is essential to elucidate the role of a particular hormone in any physiological process. Availability of a sensitive and rapid method to quantify multiple classes of hormones simultaneously will greatly facilitate the investigation of signaling networks in controlling specific developmental pathways and physiological responses. Due to the presence of hormones at very low concentrations in plant tissues (10-9 M to 10-6 M and their different chemistries, the development of a high-throughput and comprehensive method for the determination of hormones is challenging. Results The present work reports a rapid, specific and sensitive method using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS/MS to analyze quantitatively the major hormones found in plant tissues within six minutes, including auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxyic acid (the ethylene precursor, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Sample preparation, extraction procedures and UPLC-MS/MS conditions were optimized for the determination of all plant hormones and are summarized in a schematic extraction diagram for the analysis of small amounts of plant material without time-consuming additional steps such as purification, sample drying or re-suspension. Conclusions This new method is applicable to the analysis of dynamic changes in endogenous concentrations of hormones to study plant developmental processes or plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in complex tissues. An example is shown in which a hormone profiling is obtained from leaves of plants exposed to salt stress in the aromatic plant, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  3. The challenge for genetic epidemiologists: how to analyze large numbers of SNPs in relation to complex diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariman Edwin CM

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetic epidemiologists have taken the challenge to identify genetic polymorphisms involved in the development of diseases. Many have collected data on large numbers of genetic markers but are not familiar with available methods to assess their association with complex diseases. Statistical methods have been developed for analyzing the relation between large numbers of genetic and environmental predictors to disease or disease-related variables in genetic association studies. In this commentary we discuss logistic regression analysis, neural networks, including the parameter decreasing method (PDM and genetic programming optimized neural networks (GPNN and several non-parametric methods, which include the set association approach, combinatorial partitioning method (CPM, restricted partitioning method (RPM, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method and the random forests approach. The relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods are highlighted. Logistic regression and neural networks can handle only a limited number of predictor variables, depending on the number of observations in the dataset. Therefore, they are less useful than the non-parametric methods to approach association studies with large numbers of predictor variables. GPNN on the other hand may be a useful approach to select and model important predictors, but its performance to select the important effects in the presence of large numbers of predictors needs to be examined. Both the set association approach and random forests approach are able to handle a large number of predictors and are useful in reducing these predictors to a subset of predictors with an important contribution to disease. The combinatorial methods give more insight in combination patterns for sets of genetic and/or environmental predictor variables that may be related to the outcome variable. As the non-parametric methods have different strengths and weaknesses we conclude that to approach

  4. Joint Intelligence Analysis Complex: DOD Partially Used Best Practices for Analyzing Alternatives and Should Do So Fully for Future Military Construction Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    JOINT INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS COMPLEX DOD Partially Used Best Practices for Analyzing Alternatives and Should Do So Fully for Future...GAO Found The Department of Defense’s (DOD) decision to consolidate and relocate its Joint Intelligence Analysis Complex (JIAC) to Royal Air Force...processes. GAO continues to believe that its recommendation is valid, as discussed in this report. Page i GAO-16-853 Joint Intelligence Analysis Complex

  5. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for rapid identification of Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seng Fook; Tay, Sun Tee; Sermswan, Rasana; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Chua, Kek Heng; Puthucheary, Savithri D

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a multiplex PCR assay for rapid identification and differentiation of cultures for Burkholderia pseudomallei, Burkholderia thailandensis, Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia cepacia complex. The assay is valuable for use in clinical and veterinary laboratories, and in a deployable laboratory during outbreaks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid Genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Discovery in Soybean and Rice via Deep Resequencing of Reduced Representation Libraries with the Illumina Genome Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Deschamps

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel sequencing platforms have allowed for the rapid discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among related genotypes within a species. We describe the creation of reduced representation libraries (RRLs using an initial digestion of nuclear genomic DNA with a methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease followed by a secondary digestion with the 4bp-restriction endonuclease This strategy allows for the enrichment of hypomethylated genomic DNA, which has been shown to be rich in genic sequences, and the digestion with serves to increase the number of common loci resequenced between individuals. Deep resequencing of these RRLs performed with the Illumina Genome Analyzer led to the identification of 2618 SNPs in rice and 1682 SNPs in soybean for two representative genotypes in each of the species. A subset of these SNPs was validated via Sanger sequencing, exhibiting validation rates of 96.4 and 97.0%, in rice ( and soybean (, respectively. Comparative analysis of the read distribution relative to annotated genes in the reference genome assemblies indicated that the RRL strategy was primarily sampling within genic regions for both species. The massively parallel sequencing of methylation-sensitive RRLs for genome-wide SNP discovery can be applied across a wide range of plant species having sufficient reference genomic sequence.

  7. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  8. MDcons: Intermolecular contact maps as a tool to analyze the interface of protein complexes from molecular dynamics trajectories

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat

    2014-05-06

    Background: Molecular Dynamics ( MD) simulations of protein complexes suffer from the lack of specific tools in the analysis step. Analyses of MD trajectories of protein complexes indeed generally rely on classical measures, such as the RMSD, RMSF and gyration radius, conceived and developed for single macromolecules. As a matter of fact, instead, researchers engaged in simulating the dynamics of a protein complex are mainly interested in characterizing the conservation/variation of its biological interface. Results: On these bases, herein we propose a novel approach to the analysis of MD trajectories or other conformational ensembles of protein complexes, MDcons, which uses the conservation of inter-residue contacts at the interface as a measure of the similarity between different snapshots. A "consensus contact map" is also provided, where the conservation of the different contacts is drawn in a grey scale. Finally, the interface area of the complex is monitored during the simulations. To show its utility, we used this novel approach to study two protein-protein complexes with interfaces of comparable size and both dominated by hydrophilic interactions, but having binding affinities at the extremes of the experimental range. MDcons is demonstrated to be extremely useful to analyse the MD trajectories of the investigated complexes, adding important insight into the dynamic behavior of their biological interface. Conclusions: MDcons specifically allows the user to highlight and characterize the dynamics of the interface in protein complexes and can thus be used as a complementary tool for the analysis of MD simulations of both experimental and predicted structures of protein complexes.

  9. Using eye movements for analyzing the influence of linguistic complexity, noise, and hearing loss on sentence processing time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Müller, Jana; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    High linguistic complexity can reduce speech intelligibility and can increase cognitive effort. A method for detecting the latter was presented by Wendt et al. (2014) using an eye-tracking (ET) paradigm measuring increased processing time for complex sentences. This study evaluates this method...... and compares the ET method to electrooculography (EOG). The processing time of sentences with different linguistic complexity was measured in quiet and in modulated noise using ET and EOG simultaneously. Eleven participants with hearing impairment and five participants with normal hearing participated...... and EOG. The method reveals characteristic consequences of linguistic complexity and noise on sentence processing time which can be used as an indicator of the cognitive effort during sentence comprehension...

  10. Mixing Bandt-Pompe and Lempel-Ziv approaches: another way to analyze the complexity of continuous-state sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zozor, S.; Mateos, D.; Lamberti, P. W.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we propose to mix the approach underlying Bandt-Pompe permutation entropy with Lempel-Ziv complexity, to design what we call Lempel-Ziv permutation complexity. The principle consists of two steps: (i) transformation of a continuous-state series that is intrinsically multivariate or arises from embedding into a sequence of permutation vectors, where the components are the positions of the components of the initial vector when re-arranged; (ii) performing the Lempel-Ziv complexity for this series of `symbols', as part of a discrete finite-size alphabet. On the one hand, the permutation entropy of Bandt-Pompe aims at the study of the entropy of such a sequence; i.e., the entropy of patterns in a sequence (e.g., local increases or decreases). On the other hand, the Lempel-Ziv complexity of a discrete-state sequence aims at the study of the temporal organization of the symbols (i.e., the rate of compressibility of the sequence). Thus, the Lempel-Ziv permutation complexity aims to take advantage of both of these methods. The potential from such a combined approach - of a permutation procedure and a complexity analysis - is evaluated through the illustration of some simulated data and some real data. In both cases, we compare the individual approaches and the combined approach.

  11. Rapid Response to Decision Making for Complex Issues - How Technologies of Cooperation Can Help

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saveri, Andrea; Vian, Kathi; Rheingold, Howard

    2005-01-01

    .... A new capacity for rapid, ad hoc, and distributed decision making is emerging from the intersection of technologies of cooperation and new knowledge about the nature of cooperation and cooperative strategies...

  12. Rapid and accurate tumor-target bio-imaging through specific in vivo biosynthesis of a fluorescent europium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Wang, Jianling; Li, Qiwei; Dong, Xiawei; Ge, Wei; Chen, Yun; Jiang, Xuerui; Liu, Hongde; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Xuemei

    2016-04-01

    A new and facile method for rapidly and accurately achieving tumor targeting fluorescent images has been explored using a specifically biosynthesized europium (Eu) complex in vivo and in vitro. It demonstrated that a fluorescent Eu complex could be bio-synthesized through a spontaneous molecular process in cancerous cells and tumors, but not prepared in normal cells and tissues. In addition, the proteomics analyses show that some biological pathways of metabolism, especially for NADPH production and glutamine metabolism, are remarkably affected during the relevant biosynthesis process, where molecular precursors of europium ions are reduced to fluorescent europium complexes inside cancerous cells or tumor tissues. These results proved that the specific self-biosynthesis of a fluorescent Eu complex by cancer cells or tumor tissues can provide a new strategy for accurate diagnosis and treatment strategies in the early stages of cancers and thus is beneficial for realizing precise surgical intervention based on the relevant cheap and readily available agents.

  13. Beyond roots alone: Novel methodologies for analyzing complex soil and minirhizotron imagery using image processing and GIS tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Justina A.

    Quantifying belowground dynamics is critical to our understanding of plant and ecosystem function and belowground carbon cycling, yet currently available tools for complex belowground image analyses are insufficient. We introduce novel techniques combining digital image processing tools and geographic information systems (GIS) analysis to permit semi-automated analysis of complex root and soil dynamics. We illustrate methodologies with imagery from microcosms, minirhizotrons, and a rhizotron, in upland and peatland soils. We provide guidelines for correct image capture, a method that automatically stitches together numerous minirhizotron images into one seamless image, and image analysis using image segmentation and classification in SPRING or change analysis in ArcMap. These methods facilitate spatial and temporal root and soil interaction studies, providing a framework to expand a more comprehensive understanding of belowground dynamics.

  14. Analyzing the Risk of Fire in a Hospital Complex by “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering”(FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsangi V.* MSc,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims The occurrence of fire in residential buildings, commercial complexes and large and small industries cause physical, environmental and financial damages to many different communities. Fire safety in hospitals is sensitive and it is believed that the society takes the responsibility to care sick people. The goal of this study was to use Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering (FRAME in a hospital complex environment and assess the level of fire risks. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was conducted in Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital in 2013. The FRAME is designed based on the empirical and scientific knowledge and experiment and have acceptable reliability for assessing the building fire risk. Excel software was used to calculate the risk level and finally fire risk (R was calculated separately for different units. Findings Calculated Rs were less than 1for health, autoclave, office of nursing and infection control units. R1s were greater than 1 for all units. R2s were less than 1 for office of nursing and infection control units. Conclusion FRAME is an acceptable tool for assessing the risk of fire in buildings and the fire risk is high in Shahid Beheshti Hospital Complex of Kashan and damages can be intolerable in the case of fire.

  15. Rapid detection of equine influenza virus H3N8 subtype by insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) assay using the POCKIT™ Nucleic Acid Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Lee, Pei-Yu Alison; Tiwari, Ashish; Skillman, Ashley; Nam, Bora; Chambers, Thomas M; Tsai, Yun-Long; Ma, Li-Juan; Yang, Pai-Chun; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Wang, Hwa-Tang Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Equine influenza (EI) is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory disease of equids. Currently, equine influenza virus (EIV) subtype H3N8 continues to be the most important respiratory pathogen of horses in many countries around the world. The need to achieve a rapid diagnosis and to implement effective quarantine and movement restrictions is critical in controlling the spread of EIV. In this study, a novel, inexpensive and user-friendly assay based on an insulated isothermal RT-PCR (iiRT-PCR) method on the POCKIT™, a field-deployable device, was described and validated for point-of-need detection of EIV-H3N8 in clinical samples. The newly established iiRT-PCR assay targeting the EIV HA3 gene was evaluated for its sensitivity using in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNA, as well as ten-fold serial dilutions of RNA extracted from the prototype H3N8 strain A/equine/Miami/1/63. Inclusivity and exclusivity panels were tested for specificity evaluation. Published real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays targeting the NP and HA3 genes were used as the reference standards for comparison of RNA extracted from field strains and from nasal swab samples collected from experimentally infected horses, respectively. Limit of detection with a 95% probability (LoD95%) was estimated to be 11copies of IVT RNA. Clinical sensitivity analysis using RNA prepared from serial dilutions of a prototype EIV (Miami 1/63/H3N8) showed that the iiRT-PCR assay was about 100-fold more sensitive than the rRT-PCR assay targeting the NP gene of EIV subtype H3N8. The iiRT-PCR assay identified accurately fifteen EIV H3N8 strains and two canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N8 strains, and did not cross-react with H6N2, H7N7, H1N1 subtypes or any other equine respiratory viral pathogens. Finally, 100% agreement was found between the iiRT-PCR assay and the universal influenza virus type A rRT-PCR assay in detecting the EIV A/equine/Kentucky/7/07 strain in 56 nasal swab samples collected from experimentally inoculated

  16. Rapid qualitative research methods during complex health emergencies: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ginger A; Vindrola-Padros, Cecilia

    2017-09-01

    The 2013-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa highlighted both the successes and limitations of social science contributions to emergency response operations. An important limitation was the rapid and effective communication of study findings. A systematic review was carried out to explore how rapid qualitative methods have been used during global heath emergencies to understand which methods are commonly used, how they are applied, and the difficulties faced by social science researchers in the field. We also asses their value and benefit for health emergencies. The review findings are used to propose recommendations for qualitative research in this context. Peer-reviewed articles and grey literature were identified through six online databases. An initial search was carried out in July 2016 and updated in February 2017. The PRISMA checklist was used to guide the reporting of methods and findings. The articles were assessed for quality using the MMAT and AACODS checklist. From an initial search yielding 1444 articles, 22 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Thirteen of the articles were qualitative studies and nine used a mixed-methods design. The purpose of the rapid studies included: the identification of causes of the outbreak, and assessment of infrastructure, control strategies, health needs and health facility use. The studies varied in duration (from 4 days to 1 month). The main limitations identified by the authors were: the low quality of the collected data, small sample sizes, and little time for cross-checking facts with other data sources to reduce bias. Rapid qualitative methods were seen as beneficial in highlighting context-specific issues that need to be addressed locally, population-level behaviors influencing health service use, and organizational challenges in response planning and implementation. Recommendations for carrying out rapid qualitative research in this context included the early designation of community leaders as a point of

  17. Rapid, automated, nonradiometric susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex to four first-line antituberculous drugs used in standard short-course chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard; Marjamäki, Merja

    2004-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis necessitates rapid and accurate susceptibility testing. The nonradiometric BACTEC Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube 960 (MGIT) system for susceptibility testing was evaluated on 222 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates...... MGIT system is a rapid and reliable alternative for susceptibility testing of M. tuberculosis complex to first-line drugs....

  18. Rapid and accurate identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and common non-tuberculous mycobacteria by multiplex real-time PCR targeting different housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr Esfahani, Bahram; Rezaei Yazdi, Hadi; Moghim, Sharareh; Ghasemian Safaei, Hajieh; Zarkesh Esfahani, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of mycobacteria isolates from primary culture is important due to timely and appropriate antibiotic therapy. Conventional methods for identification of Mycobacterium species based on biochemical tests needs several weeks and may remain inconclusive. In this study, a novel multiplex real-time PCR was developed for rapid identification of Mycobacterium genus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and the most common non-tuberculosis mycobacteria species including M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and the M. gordonae in three reaction tubes but under same PCR condition. Genetic targets for primer designing included the 16S rDNA gene, the dnaJ gene, the gyrB gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS). Multiplex real-time PCR was setup with reference Mycobacterium strains and was subsequently tested with 66 clinical isolates. Results of multiplex real-time PCR were analyzed with melting curves and melting temperature (T (m)) of Mycobacterium genus, MTC, and each of non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species were determined. Multiplex real-time PCR results were compared with amplification and sequencing of 16S-23S rDNA ITS for identification of Mycobacterium species. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primers were each 100 % for MTC, M. abscessus, M. fortuitum, M. avium complex, M. kansasii, and M. gordonae. Sensitivity and specificity of designed primer for genus Mycobacterium was 96 and 100 %, respectively. According to the obtained results, we conclude that this multiplex real-time PCR with melting curve analysis and these novel primers can be used for rapid and accurate identification of genus Mycobacterium, MTC, and the most common non-tuberculosis Mycobacterium species.

  19. Intelligent bidirectional rapidly-exploring random trees for optimal motion planning in complex cluttered environments

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Ahmed Hussain; Ayaz, Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The sampling based motion planning algorithm known as Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRT) has gained the attention of many researchers due to their computational efficiency and effectiveness. Recently, a variant of RRT called RRT* has been proposed that ensures asymptotic optimality. Subsequently its bidirectional version has also been introduced in the literature known as Bidirectional-RRT* (B-RRT*). We introduce a new variant called Intelligent Bidirectional-RRT* (IB-RRT*) which is an impr...

  20. Perceptual processing of natural scenes at rapid rates: effects of complexity, content, and emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Andreas; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    During rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), the perceptual system is confronted with a rapidly changing array of sensory information demanding resolution. At rapid rates of presentation, previous studies have found an early (e.g., 150-280 ms) negativity over occipital sensors that is enhanced when emotional, as compared with neutral, pictures are viewed, suggesting facilitated perception. In the present study, we explored how picture composition and the presence of people in the image affect perceptual processing of pictures of natural scenes. Using RSVP, pictures that differed in perceptual composition (figure-ground or scenes), content (presence of people or not), and emotional content (emotionally arousing or neutral) were presented in a continuous stream for 330 ms each with no intertrial interval. In both subject and picture analyses, all three variables affected the amplitude of occipital negativity, with the greatest enhancement for figure-ground compositions (as compared with scenes), irrespective of content and emotional arousal, supporting an interpretation that ease of perceptual processing is associated with enhanced occipital negativity. Viewing emotional pictures prompted enhanced negativity only for pictures that depicted people, suggesting that specific features of emotionally arousing images are associated with facilitated perceptual processing, rather than all emotional content.

  1. Harm reduction as a complex adaptive system: A dynamic framework for analyzing Tanzanian policies concerning heroin use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Eric A; Kaduri, Pamela; Masao, Frank; Mbwambo, Jessie K K; McCurdy, Sheryl A

    2016-04-01

    Contrary to popular belief, policies on drug use are not always based on scientific evidence or composed in a rational manner. Rather, decisions concerning drug policies reflect the negotiation of actors' ambitions, values, and facts as they organize in different ways around the perceived problems associated with illicit drug use. Drug policy is thus best represented as a complex adaptive system (CAS) that is dynamic, self-organizing, and coevolving. In this analysis, we use a CAS framework to examine how harm reduction emerged around heroin trafficking and use in Tanzania over the past thirty years (1985-present). This account is an organizational ethnography based on of the observant participation of the authors as actors within this system. We review the dynamic history and self-organizing nature of harm reduction, noting how interactions among system actors and components have coevolved with patterns of heroin us, policing, and treatment activities over time. Using a CAS framework, we describe harm reduction as a complex process where ambitions, values, facts, and technologies interact in the Tanzanian sociopolitical environment. We review the dynamic history and self-organizing nature of heroin policies, noting how the interactions within and between competing prohibitionist and harm reduction policies have changed with patterns of heroin use, policing, and treatment activities over time. Actors learn from their experiences to organize with other actors, align their values and facts, and implement new policies. Using a CAS approach provides researchers and policy actors a better understanding of patterns and intricacies in drug policy. This knowledge of how the system works can help improve the policy process through adaptive action to introduce new actors, different ideas, and avenues for communication into the system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analyzing Katana referral hospital as a complex adaptive system: agents, interactions and adaptation to a changing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karemere, Hermès; Ribesse, Nathalie; Marchal, Bruno; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the adaptation of Katana referral hospital in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo in a changing environment that is affected for more than a decade by intermittent armed conflicts. His objective is to generate theoretical proposals for addressing differently the analysis of hospitals governance in the aims to assess their performance and how to improve that performance. The methodology applied approach uses a case study using mixed methods ( qualitative and quantitative) for data collection. It uses (1) hospital data to measure the output of hospitals, (2) literature review to identify among others, events and interventions recorded in the history of hospital during the study period and (3) information from individual interviews to validate the interpretation of the results of the previous two sources of data and understand the responsiveness of management team referral hospital during times of change. The study brings four theoretical propositions: (1) Interaction between key agents is a positive force driving adaptation if the actors share a same vision, (2) The strength of the interaction between agents is largely based on the nature of institutional arrangements, which in turn are shaped by the actors themselves, (3) The owner and the management team play a decisive role in the implementation of effective institutional arrangements and establishment of positive interactions between agents, (4) The analysis of recipient population's perception of health services provided allow to better tailor and adapt the health services offer to the population's needs and expectations. Research shows that it isn't enough just to provide support (financial and technical), to manage a hospital for operate and adapt to a changing environment but must still animate, considering that it is a complex adaptive system and that this animation is nothing other than the induction of a positive interaction between agents.

  3. Rapid self-assembly of complex biomolecular architectures during mussel byssus biofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemel, Tobias; Degtyar, Elena; Dean, Mason N.; Harrington, Matthew J.

    2017-03-01

    Protein-based biogenic materials provide important inspiration for the development of high-performance polymers. The fibrous mussel byssus, for instance, exhibits exceptional wet adhesion, abrasion resistance, toughness and self-healing capacity-properties that arise from an intricate hierarchical organization formed in minutes from a fluid secretion of over 10 different protein precursors. However, a poor understanding of this dynamic biofabrication process has hindered effective translation of byssus design principles into synthetic materials. Here, we explore mussel byssus assembly in Mytilus edulis using a synergistic combination of histological staining and confocal Raman microspectroscopy, enabling in situ tracking of specific proteins during induced thread formation from soluble precursors to solid fibres. Our findings reveal critical insights into this complex biological manufacturing process, showing that protein precursors spontaneously self-assemble into complex architectures, while maturation proceeds in subsequent regulated steps. Beyond their biological importance, these findings may guide development of advanced materials with biomedical and industrial relevance.

  4. Rapid screening for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical elephant trunk wash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Roberta J; Linke, Lyndsey M; Isaza, Ramiro; Salman, Mo D

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can infect and be transmitted between elephants and humans. In elephants, the 'gold standard' reference test for detection of tuberculosis is culture, which takes a minimum of eight weeks for results and has limited sensitivity. A screening test that is rapid, easily implemented, and accurate is needed to aid in diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants. Ninety-nine clinical trunk wash samples obtained from 33 elephants were utilized to validate three molecular extraction techniques followed by a polymerase chain reaction for detection of M. tuberculosis. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were estimated compared to culture. Kappa coefficients were determined between molecular results and various culture categories and serological test results. An internal amplification control was developed and assessed to monitor for PCR inhibition. One molecular test (the Column method) outperformed the other two, with diagnostic sensitivity and kappa agreement estimates of 100% (CI 57-100) and 0.46 (CI 0.2-0.74), respectively, compared to culture alone. The percentage of molecular-positive/culture-negative samples was 8.4% overall. The molecular extraction technique followed by PCR provides a much-needed rapid screening tool for detection of tuberculosis in elephants. Immediate procedures can be implemented to further assess PCR-positive animals and provide personnel biosecurity. While a positive result is not a definitive test for elephant tuberculosis, the molecular test results can be used to support current diagnostic procedures applied by veterinarians for treatment decisions to prevent the spread of tuberculosis in elephants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Real-time cytotoxicity assay for rapid and sensitive detection of ricin from complex matrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pauly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of a potential bioterrorist attack sensitive and fast detection of functionally active toxins such as ricin from complex matrices is necessary to be able to start timely countermeasures. One of the functional detection methods currently available for ricin is the endpoint cytotoxicity assay, which suffers from a number of technical deficits. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: This work describes a novel online cytotoxicity assay for the detection of active ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin, that is based on a real-time cell electronic sensing system and impedance measurement. Characteristic growth parameters of Vero cells were monitored online and used as standardized viability control. Upon incubation with toxin the cell status and the cytotoxic effect were visualized using a characteristic cell index-time profile. For ricin, tested in concentrations of 0.06 ng/mL or above, a concentration-dependent decrease of cell index correlating with cytotoxicity was recorded between 3.5 h and 60 h. For ricin, sensitive detection was determined after 24 h, with an IC50 of 0.4 ng/mL (for agglutinin, an IC50 of 30 ng/mL was observed. Using functionally blocking antibodies, the specificity for ricin and agglutinin was shown. For detection from complex matrices, ricin was spiked into several food matrices, and an IC50 ranging from 5.6 to 200 ng/mL was observed. Additionally, the assay proved to be useful in detecting active ricin in environmental sample materials, as shown for organic fertilizer containing R. communis material. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The cell-electrode impedance measurement provides a sensitive online detection method for biologically active cytotoxins such as ricin. As the cell status is monitored online, the assay can be standardized more efficiently than previous approaches based on endpoint measurement. More importantly, the real-time cytotoxicity assay provides a fast and easy tool to detect active ricin in complex

  6. Real-time cytotoxicity assay for rapid and sensitive detection of ricin from complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Diana; Worbs, Sylvia; Kirchner, Sebastian; Shatohina, Olena; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2012-01-01

    In the context of a potential bioterrorist attack sensitive and fast detection of functionally active toxins such as ricin from complex matrices is necessary to be able to start timely countermeasures. One of the functional detection methods currently available for ricin is the endpoint cytotoxicity assay, which suffers from a number of technical deficits. This work describes a novel online cytotoxicity assay for the detection of active ricin and Ricinus communis agglutinin, that is based on a real-time cell electronic sensing system and impedance measurement. Characteristic growth parameters of Vero cells were monitored online and used as standardized viability control. Upon incubation with toxin the cell status and the cytotoxic effect were visualized using a characteristic cell index-time profile. For ricin, tested in concentrations of 0.06 ng/mL or above, a concentration-dependent decrease of cell index correlating with cytotoxicity was recorded between 3.5 h and 60 h. For ricin, sensitive detection was determined after 24 h, with an IC50 of 0.4 ng/mL (for agglutinin, an IC50 of 30 ng/mL was observed). Using functionally blocking antibodies, the specificity for ricin and agglutinin was shown. For detection from complex matrices, ricin was spiked into several food matrices, and an IC50 ranging from 5.6 to 200 ng/mL was observed. Additionally, the assay proved to be useful in detecting active ricin in environmental sample materials, as shown for organic fertilizer containing R. communis material. The cell-electrode impedance measurement provides a sensitive online detection method for biologically active cytotoxins such as ricin. As the cell status is monitored online, the assay can be standardized more efficiently than previous approaches based on endpoint measurement. More importantly, the real-time cytotoxicity assay provides a fast and easy tool to detect active ricin in complex sample matrices.

  7. Nile Red fluorescence spectrum decomposition enables rapid screening of large protein aggregates in complex biopharmaceutical formulations like influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Ziya; Akkoc, Senem; Neeleman, Ronald; Haines, Jonathan; Kayser, Veysel

    2017-05-25

    The extensive presence of large (high molecular weight) protein aggregates in biopharmaceutical formulations is a concern for formulation stability and possibly safety. Tests to screen large aggregate content in such bioformulations are therefore needed for rapid and reliable quality control in industrial settings. Herein, non-commercial seasonal influenza split-virus vaccine samples, produced using various strains and extracted from selected industrial processing steps, were used as model complex bioformulations. Orthogonal characterization through transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography and single-radial immunodiffusion revealed that large, amorphous protein aggregates are formed after virus splitting and their presence is linked mainly, albeit not only, to surfactant (Triton X-100) content in a sample. Importantly, the presence of large virus aggregates in purified whole virus samples and large protein aggregates in vaccine samples was found to correlate with broadening/shouldering in Nile Red fluorescence spectra. Accordingly, decomposition of Nile Red spectra into components allowed the development of a novel, rapid, reliable and user-friendly test with high-throughput potential for screening large aggregate content in influenza split-virus vaccines. The test can be adapted for screening other complex biopharmaceutical formulations, provided relevant controls are done for informed decomposition of fluorescence spectra into their components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of influenza A and B viruses with the Sofia analyzer: a novel, rapid immunofluorescence-based in vitro diagnostic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Tamerius, John; Menegus, Marilyn; Olivo, Paul D; Lollar, Ron; Lee-Lewandrowski, Elizabeth

    2013-05-01

    This report describes the clinical evaluation of a novel fluorescent immunoassay (FIA), Sofia Influenza A+B FIA (Quidel, San Diego, CA), for the rapid detection and differentiation of influenza A and B viruses. A total of 2,047 subjects provided nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal swabs or aspirates. The overall sensitivity and specificity for influenza A virus vs virus culture were 94% and 95%, respectively, and for influenza B virus were 89% and 96%, respectively. Fourteen hundred and sixty-one specimens were available for testing with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The sensitivity of the Sofia Influenza A+B FIA for detecting influenza A and B viruses compared with the RT-PCR method was 78% and 86%, respectively. A high percentage of the positive specimens had low cycle threshold values, and almost all of these were positive with the Sofia test. This high level of sensitivity demonstrates that the Sofia influenza A+B FIA could improve the usefulness of rapid influenza virus testing.

  9. A rapid analytical method to quantify complex organohalogen contaminant mixtures in large samples of high lipid mammalian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Eulaers, Igor; Periard, Luke; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J

    2017-06-01

    In vitro investigations of the health impact of individual chemical compounds have traditionally been used in risk assessments. However, humans and wildlife are exposed to a plethora of potentially harmful chemicals, including organohalogen contaminants (OHCs). An alternative exposure approach to individual or simple mixtures of synthetic OHCs is to isolate the complex mixture present in free-ranging wildlife, often non-destructively sampled from lipid rich adipose. High concentration stock volumes required for in vitro investigations do, however, pose a great analytical challenge to extract sufficient amounts of complex OHC cocktails. Here we describe a novel method to easily, rapidly and efficiently extract an environmentally accumulated and therefore relevant contaminant cocktail from large (10-50 g) marine mammal blubber samples. We demonstrate that lipid freeze-filtration with acetonitrile removes up to 97% of blubber lipids, with minimal effect on the efficiency of OHC recovery. Sample extracts after freeze-filtration were further processed to remove residual trace lipids via high-pressure gel permeation chromatography and solid phase extraction. Average recoveries of OHCs from triplicate analysis of killer whale (Orcinus orca), polar bear (Ursus maritimus) and pilot whale (Globicephala spp.) blubber standard reference material (NIST SRM-1945) ranged from 68 to 80%, 54-92% and 58-145%, respectively, for 13C-enriched internal standards of six polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, 16 organochlorine pesticides and four brominated flame retardants. This approach to rapidly generate OHC mixtures shows great potential for experimental exposures using complex contaminant mixtures, research or monitoring driven contaminant quantification in biological samples, as well as the untargeted identification of emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid PCR Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Clonal Complex 398 by Targeting the Restriction-Modification System Carrying sau1-hsdS1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegger, M.; Lindsay, J.A.; Moodley, A.; Skov, R.; Broens, E.M.; Guardabassi, L.

    2011-01-01

    A PCR targeting sau1-hsdS1 was developed for rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (CC398). High sensitivity (100%) and specificity (100%) were shown by evaluating the test on a large strain collection (n = 1,307). We recommend this test for accurate, rapid, and inexpensive

  11. Pulse-Driven Capacitive Lead Ion Detection with Reduced Graphene Oxide Field-Effect Transistor Integrated with an Analyzing Device for Rapid Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arnab; Sui, Xiaoyu; Tarman, Chad R; Pu, Haihui; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Ren, Ren; Mao, Shun; Chen, Junhong

    2017-11-22

    Rapid and real-time detection of heavy metals in water with a portable microsystem is a growing demand in the field of environmental monitoring, food safety, and future cyber-physical infrastructure. Here, we report a novel ultrasensitive pulse-driven capacitance-based lead ion sensor using self-assembled graphene oxide (GO) monolayer deposition strategy to recognize the heavy metal ions in water. The overall field-effect transistor (FET) structure consists of a thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO) channel with a thin layer of Al 2 O 3 passivation as a top gate combined with sputtered gold nanoparticles that link with the glutathione (GSH) probe to attract Pb 2+ ions in water. Using a preprogrammed microcontroller, chemo-capacitance based detection of lead ions has been demonstrated with this FET sensor. With a rapid response (∼1-2 s) and negligible signal drift, a limit of detection (LOD) lead ions 1 order of magnitude higher than that of interfering ions) can be achieved for Pb 2+ measurements. The overall assay time (∼10 s) for background water stabilization followed by lead ion testing and calculation is much shorter than common FET resistance/current measurements (∼minutes) and other conventional methods, such as optical and inductively coupled plasma methods (∼hours). An approximate linear operational range (5-20 ppb) around 15 ppb (the maximum contaminant limit by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for lead in drinking water) makes it especially suitable for drinking water quality monitoring. The validity of the pulse method is confirmed by quantifying Pb 2+ in various real water samples such as tap, lake, and river water with an accuracy ∼75%. This capacitance measurement strategy is promising and can be readily extended to various FET-based sensor devices for other targets.

  12. COMPLEX GAS KINEMATICS IN COMPACT, RAPIDLY ASSEMBLING STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorin, R.; Vilchez, J. M.; Perez-Montero, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia-CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia S/N, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Haegele, G. F.; Firpo, V. [Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad de la Plata, Paseo del Bosque S/N, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Papaderos, P., E-mail: amorin@iaa.es [Centro de Astrofisica and Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-08-01

    Deep, high-resolution spectroscopic observations have been obtained for six compact, strongly star-forming galaxies at redshift z {approx} 0.1-0.3, most of them also known as green peas. Remarkably, these galaxies show complex emission-line profiles in the spectral region including H{alpha}, [N II] {lambda}{lambda}6548, 6584, and [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6717, 6731, consisting of the superposition of different kinematical components on a spatial extent of few kiloparsecs: a very broad line emission underlying more than one narrower component. For at least two of the observed galaxies some of these multiple components are resolved spatially in their two-dimensional spectra, whereas for another one a faint detached H{alpha} blob lacking stellar continuum is detected at the same recessional velocity {approx}7 kpc away from the galaxy. The individual narrower H{alpha} components show high intrinsic velocity dispersion ({sigma} {approx} 30-80 km s{sup -1}), suggesting together with unsharped masking Hubble Space Telescope images that star formation proceeds in an ensemble of several compact and turbulent clumps, with relative velocities of up to {approx}500 km s{sup -1}. The broad underlying H{alpha} components indicate in all cases large expansion velocities (full width zero intensity {>=}1000 km s{sup -1}) and very high luminosities (up to {approx}10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}), probably showing the imprint of energetic outflows from supernovae. These intriguing results underline the importance of green peas for studying the assembly of low-mass galaxies near and far.

  13. Simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of albendazole in pharmaceuticals using iodine and picric acid as CT complexing agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju Swamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, rapid and inexpensive spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of albendazole (ALB in bulk drug and in tablets. The methods are based on charge-transfer (CT complexation reaction involving ALB as n-donor and iodine as σ-acceptor (method A in dichloromethane or picric acid (PA as π-acceptor (method B in chloroform. The absorbance of CT complexes was measured at 380 nm for method A, and 415 nm for method B. The optimization of the experimental conditions is described. Under optimum conditions, Beer's law obeyed over the concentration ranges 8.0-240 and 2.4-42 μg mL-1 for method A and method B, respectively. The apparent molar absorptivity of CT complexes at the respective λmax are calculated to be 1.17×103 and 5.22×103 L mol-1cm-1 respectively, and the corresponding Sandell sensitivity values are 0.2273 and 0.0509 ng cm-2. The limits of detection (LOD and quantification (LOQ are calculated to be (0.69 and 2.08, and (0.10 and 0.30 μg mL-1 with method A, and method B, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy expressed as % RE and precision expressed as % RSD were less than 3%. The methods were applied to the determination of ALB in tablets.

  14. New Statistical Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Landmark Configurations Obtained with Cone-Beam CT: Basic Features and Clinical Application for Rapid Maxillary Expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Jennifer; Lagravere, Manuel O.; Major, Paul W.; Heo, Giseon [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    To describe a statistical method of three-dimensional landmark configuration data and apply it to an orthodontic data set comparing two types of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) treatments. Landmark configurations obtained from cone beam CT scans were used to represent patients in two types (please describe what were two types) of RME groups and a control group over four time points. A method using tools from persistent homology and dimensionality reduction is presented and used to identify variability between the subjects. The analysis was in agreement with previous results using conventional methods, which found significant differences between treatment groups and the control, but no distinction between the types of treatment. Additionally, it was found that second molar eruption varied considerably between the subjects, and this has not been evaluated in previous analyses. This method of analysis allows entire configurations to be considered as a whole, and does not require specific inter-landmark distances or angles to be selected. Sources of variability present themselves, without having to be individually sought after. This method is suggested as an additional tool for the analysis of landmark configuration data.

  15. Versatile, ultra-low sample volume gas analyzer using a rapid, broad-tuning ECQCL and a hollow fiber gas cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriesel, Jason M.; Makarem, Camille N.; Phillips, Mark C.; Moran, James J.; Coleman, Max; Christensen, Lance; Kelly, James F.

    2017-05-05

    We describe a versatile mid-infrared (Mid-IR) spectroscopy system developed to measure the concentration of a wide range of gases with an ultra-low sample size. The system combines a rapidly-swept external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) with a hollow fiber gas cell. The ECQCL has sufficient spectral resolution and reproducibility to measure gases with narrow features (e.g., water, methane, ammonia, etc.), and also the spectral tuning range needed to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs), (e.g., aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons), sulfur compounds, chlorine compounds, etc. The hollow fiber is a capillary tube having an internal reflective coating optimized for transmitting the Mid-IR laser beam to a detector. Sample gas introduced into the fiber (e.g., internal volume = 0.6 ml) interacts strongly with the laser beam, and despite relatively modest path lengths (e.g., L ~ 3 m), the requisite quantity of sample needed for sensitive measurements can be significantly less than what is required using conventional IR laser spectroscopy systems. Example measurements are presented including quantification of VOCs relevant for human breath analysis with a sensitivity of ~2 picomoles at a 1 Hz data rate.

  16. DHPLC/SURVEYOR nuclease: a sensitive, rapid and affordable method to analyze BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilato, Brunella; De Summa, Simona; Danza, Katia; Papadimitriou, Stavros; Zaccagna, Paolo; Paradiso, Angelo; Tommasi, Stefania

    2012-09-01

    Hereditary breast cancer accounts for about 10% of all breast cancers and BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified as validated susceptibility genes for this pathology. Testing for BRCA gene mutations is usually based on a pre-screening approach, such as the partial denaturation DHPLC method, and capillary direct sequencing. However, this approach is time consuming due to the large size of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Recently, a new low cost and time saving DHPLC protocol has been developed to analyze gene mutations by using SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease digestion and DHPLC analysis. A subset of 90 patients, enrolled in the Genetic Counseling Program of the National Cancer Centre of Bari (Italy), was performed to validate this approach. Previous retrospective analysis showed that 9/90 patients (10%) were mutated in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and these data were confirmed by the present approach. DNA samples underwent touchdown PCR and, subsequently, SURVEYOR(®) nuclease digestion. BRCA1 and BRCA2 amplicons were divided into groups depending on amplicon size to allow multiamplicon digestion. The product of this reaction were analyzed on Transgenomic WAVE Nucleic Acid High Sensitivity Fragment Analysis System. The operator who performed the DHPLC surveyor approach did not know the sequencing results at that time. The SURVEYOR(®) Nuclease DHPLC approach was able to detect all alterations with a sensitivity of 95%. Furthermore, in order to save time and reagents, a multiamplicon setting preparation was validated.

  17. A simple and rapid method to identify and quantitatively analyze triterpenoid saponins in Ardisia crenata using ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ling; Li, Wei; Wang, Hanqing; Kuang, Xinzhu; Li, Qin; Wang, Yinghua; Xie, Peng; Koike, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Ardisia plant species have been used in traditional medicines, and their bioactive constituents of 13,28-epoxy triterpenoid saponins have excellent biological activities for new drug development. In this study, a fast and simple method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) was developed to simultaneously identify and quantitatively analyze triterpenoid saponins in Ardisia crenata extracts. In total, 22 triterpenoid saponins, including two new compounds, were identified from A. crenata. The method exhibited good linearity, precision and recovery for the quantitative analysis of eight marker saponins. A relative quantitative method was also developed using one major saponin (ardisiacrispin B) as the standard to break through the choke-point of the lack of standards in phytochemical analysis. The method was successfully applied to quantitatively analyze saponins in commercially available plant samples. This study describes the first systematic analysis of 13,28-epoxy-oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins in the genus Ardisia using LC-ESI-MS. The results can provide the chemical support for further biological studies, phytochemotaxonomical studies and quality control of triterpenoid saponins in medicinal plants of the genus Ardisia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Beam commissioning of the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC was commissioned in October 2007, and successfully accomplished 3 GeV acceleration on October 31. Six run cycles through February 2008 were dedicated to commissioning the RCS, for which the initial machine parameter tuning and various underlying beam studies were completed. Then since May 2008 the RCS beam has been delivered to the downstream facilities for their beam commissioning. In this paper we describe beam tuning and study results following our beam commissioning scenario and a beam performance and operational experience obtained in the first commissioning phase through June 2008.

  19. Dual-harmonic auto voltage control for the rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Tamura

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dual-harmonic operation, in which the accelerating cavities are driven by the superposition of the fundamental and the second harmonic rf voltage, is useful for acceleration of the ultrahigh intensity proton beam in the rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC. However, the precise and fast voltage control of the harmonics is necessary to realize the dual-harmonic acceleration. We developed the dual-harmonic auto voltage control system for the J-PARC RCS. We describe details of the design and the implementation. Various tests of the system are performed with the RCS rf system. Also, a preliminary beam test has been done. We report the test results.

  20. Rapid and visual detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using recombinase polymerase amplification combined with lateral flow strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qinglin; Liu, Houming; Ye, Feidi; Xiang, Guangxin; Shan, Wanshui; Xing, Wanli

    2017-12-01

    To definitively diagnose active pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) bacilli must be identified within clinical specimens from patients. In this study, we introduced a rapid and visual detection method of MTBC using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with lateral flow (LF) strips. The LF-RPA assay, read results with naked eyes, could detect as few as 5 genome copies of M. tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) per reaction and had no cross-reactions with other control bacteria even using excessive amount of template DNA. The system could work well at a broad range of temperature 25-45 °C and reach detectable level even within 5 min. When testing a total of 137 clinical specimens, the sensitivity and specificity of the LF-RPA assay were 100% (95% CI: 95.94%-100%) and 97.92% (95% CI: 88.93%-99.95%), respectively, compared to culture identification method. Therefore, the LF-RPA system we have demonstrated is a rapid, simple, robust method for MTBC detection which, subject to the availability of a suitable sample extraction method, has the potentiality to diagnose TB at the point-of-care testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel method for rapid and reliable detection of complex vertebral malformation and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency in Holstein cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex vertebral malformation (CVM and bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD are two autosomal recessive lethal genetic defects frequently occurring in Holstein cattle, identifiable by single nucleotide polymorphisms. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid and reliable genotyping assay to screen the active Holstein sires and determine the carrier frequency of CVM and BLAD in Chinese dairy cattle population. Results We developed real-time PCR-based assays for discrimination of wild-type and defective alleles, so that carriers can be detected. Only one step was required after the DNA extraction from the sample and time consumption was about 2 hours. A total of 587 Chinese Holstein bulls were assayed, and fifty-six CVM-carriers and eight BLAD-carriers were identified, corresponding to heterozygote carrier frequencies of 9.54% and 1.36%, respectively. The pedigree analysis showed that most of the carriers could be traced back to the common ancestry, Osborndale Ivanhoe for BLAD and Pennstate Ivanhoe Star for CVM. Conclusions These results demonstrate that real-time PCR is a simple, rapid and reliable assay for BLAD and CVM defective allele detection. The high frequency of the CVM allele suggests that implementing a routine testing system is necessary to gradually eradicate the deleterious gene from the Chinese Holstein population.

  2. Assessment by Ames test and comet assay of toxicity potential of polymer used to develop field-capable rapid-detection device to analyze environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Amanda; Bishop, Michelle; Bhattacharyya, Dhiman; Gleason, Karen; Torosian, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    There is need for devices that decrease detection time of food-borne pathogens from days to real-time. In this study, a rapid-detection device is being developed and assessed for potential cytotoxicity. The device is comprised of melt-spun polypropylene coupons coated via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD) with 3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT), for conductivity and 3-Thiopheneethanol (3TE), allowing antibody attachment. The Ames test and comet assay have been used in this study to examine the toxicity potentials of EDOT, 3TE, and polymerized EDOT-co-3TE. For this study, Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1535 was used to assess the mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and the copolymer. The average mutagenic potential of EDOT, 3TE and copolymer was calculated to be 0.86, 0.56, and 0.92, respectively. For mutagenic potential, on a scale from 0 to 1, close to 1 indicates low potential for toxicity, whereas a value of 0 indicates a high potential for toxicity. The comet assay is a single-cell gel electrophoresis technique that is widely used for this purpose. This assay measures toxicity based on the area or intensity of the comet-like shape that DNA fragments produce when DNA damage has occurred. Three cell lines were assessed; FRhK-4, BHK-21, and Vero cells. After averaging the results of all three strains, the tail intensity of the copolymer was 8.8 % and tail moment was 3.0, and is most similar to the untreated control, with average tail intensity of 5.7 % and tail moment of 1.7. The assays conducted in this study provide evidence that the copolymer is non-toxic to humans.

  3. Immortalizing the Complexity of Cancer Metastasis Genetic Features of Lethal Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Obtained from Rapid Autopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embuscado, Erlinda E.; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; de Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G. Steven; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A.

    2009-01-01

    The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and one patient with metastatic colon cancer have undergone a rapid autopsy in association with the GICRMDP. The average time interval achieved for these 21 patients was 8.0 hours, with more than 500 individual samples of matched high quality primary and metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues, peritoneal/pleural fluid and blood obtained so far. For the first four patients in which the autopsy was performed in <6 hours, we have successfully xenografted the primary tumor and/or two to four independent matched metastases from a variety of target organ sites, with a take rate of almost 60% for the first 26 xenografted tumors attempted. In an initial survey of KRAS2, TP53 and DPC4 genetic status in lethal metastatic pancreatic cancers, activating KRAS2 mutations were detected in 82% of cases and inactivating TP53 mutations in 55% of cases, consistent with rates of genetic alteration of these genes in early stage pancreatic cancers. However, DPC4 inactivation was found in 75% of patients analyzed, suggesting that genetic inactivation of the DPC4 tumor suppressor gene continues to be selected for with growth at the primary site and metastatic spread to other organs. The invaluable tissue resources generated by the success of the GICRMDP will provide an unparalleled resource for study of metastatic pancreatic cancer and of the metastatic process in general. PMID:15846069

  4. Immortalizing the complexity of cancer metastasis: genetic features of lethal metastatic pancreatic cancer obtained from rapid autopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embuscado, Erlinda E; Laheru, Daniel; Ricci, Francesca; Yun, Ki Jung; de Boom Witzel, Sten; Seigel, Allison; Flickinger, Katie; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bova, G Steven; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A

    2005-05-01

    The virtual lack of well-characterized metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues for study has limited systematic studies of the metastatic process of this deadly disease. To address this important issue, we have instituted a rapid autopsy protocol for the collection of high quality tissues from patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, called the Gastrointestinal Cancer Rapid Medical Donation Program (GICRMDP). At the time of preparation of this manuscript, 20 patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and one patient with metastatic colon cancer have undergone a rapid autopsy in association with the GICRMDP. The average time interval achieved for these 21 patients was 8.0 hours, with more than 500 individual samples of matched high quality primary and metastatic pancreatic cancer tissues, peritoneal/pleural fluid and blood obtained so far. For the first four patients in which the autopsy was performed in <6 hours, we have successfully xenografted the primary tumor and/or two to four independent matched metastases from a variety of target organ sites, with a take rate of almost 60% for the first 26 xenografted tumors attempted. In an initial survey of KRAS2, TP53 and DPC4 genetic status in lethal metastatic pancreatic cancers, activating KRAS2 mutations were detected in 82% of cases and inactivating TP53 mutations in 55% of cases, consistent with rates of genetic alteration of these genes in early stage pancreatic cancers. However, DPC4 inactivation was found in 75% of patients analyzed, suggesting that genetic inactivation of the DPC4 tumor suppressor gene continues to be selected for with growth at the primary site and metastatic spread to other organs. The invaluable tissue resources generated by the success of the GICRMDP will provide an unparalleled resource for study of metastatic pancreatic cancer and of the metastatic process in general.

  5. Rapid presumptive identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex by radiometric determination of heat stable urease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandy, J.H.; Pruden, E.L.; Cox, F.R.

    1983-12-01

    Simple and rapid Bactec methodologies for the determination of neat (unaltered) and heat stable urease activity of mycobacteria are presented. Clinical isolates (63) and stock cultures (32)--consisting of: M. tuberculosis (19), M. bovis (5), M. kansasii (15), M. marinum (4), M. simiae (3), M. scrofulaceum (16), M. gordonae (6), M. szulgai (6), M. flavescens (1), M. gastri (1), M. intracellulare (6), M. fortuitum-chelonei complex (12), and M. smegmatis (1)--were tested for neat urease activity by Bactec radiometry. Mycobacterial isolates (50-100 mg wet weight) were incubated at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with microCi14C-urea. Urease-positive mycobacteria gave Bactec growth index (GI) values greater than 100 units, whereas urease-negative species gave values less than 10 GI units. Eighty-three isolates possessing neat urease activity were heated at 80 degrees C for 30 minutes followed by incubation at 35 degrees C for 30 minutes with 1 microCi14C-urea. Mycobacterium tuberculosis-bovis complex demonstrated heat-stable urease activity (GI more than 130 units) and could be distinguished from mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT), which gave GI values equal to or less than 40 units.

  6. Rapid extraction and quantitative detection of the herbicide diuron in surface water by a hapten-functionalized carbon nanotubes based electrochemical analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Bhalla, Vijayender; Tuteja, Satish; Kukkar, Manil; Suri, C Raman

    2012-05-21

    A solid phase extraction micro-cartridge containing a non-polar polystyrene absorbent matrix was coupled with an electrochemical immunoassay analyzer (EIA) and used for the ultra-sensitive detection of the phenyl urea herbicide diuron in real samples. The EIA was fabricated by using carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with a hapten molecule (an amine functionalized diuron derivative). Screen printed electrodes (SPE) were modified with these haptenized CNTs and specific in-house generated anti diuron antibodies were used for bio-interface development. The immunodetection was realized in a competitive electrochemical immunoassay format using alkaline phosphatase labeled secondary anti-IgG antibody. The addition of 1-naphthyl phosphate substrate resulted in the production of an electrochemically active product, 1-naphthol, which was monitored by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The assay exhibited excellent sensitivity and specificity having a dynamic response range of 0.01 pg mL(-1) to 10 μg mL(-1) for diuron with a limit of detection of around 0.1 pg mL(-1) (n = 3) in standard water samples. The micro-cartridge coupled hapten-CNTs modified SPE provided an effective and efficient electrochemical immunoassay for the real-time monitoring of pesticides samples with a very high degree of sensitivity.

  7. Rapid 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing of polymicrobial clinical samples for diagnosis of complex bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Salipante

    Full Text Available Classifying individual bacterial species comprising complex, polymicrobial patient specimens remains a challenge for culture-based and molecular microbiology techniques in common clinical use. We therefore adapted practices from metagenomics research to rapidly catalog the bacterial composition of clinical specimens directly from patients, without need for prior culture. We have combined a semiconductor deep sequencing protocol that produces reads spanning 16S ribosomal RNA gene variable regions 1 and 2 (∼360 bp with a de-noising pipeline that significantly improves the fraction of error-free sequences. The resulting sequences can be used to perform accurate genus- or species-level taxonomic assignment. We explore the microbial composition of challenging, heterogeneous clinical specimens by deep sequencing, culture-based strain typing, and Sanger sequencing of bulk PCR product. We report that deep sequencing can catalog bacterial species in mixed specimens from which usable data cannot be obtained by conventional clinical methods. Deep sequencing a collection of sputum samples from cystic fibrosis (CF patients reveals well-described CF pathogens in specimens where they were not detected by standard clinical culture methods, especially for low-prevalence or fastidious bacteria. We also found that sputa submitted for CF diagnostic workup can be divided into a limited number of groups based on the phylogenetic composition of the airway microbiota, suggesting that metagenomic profiling may prove useful as a clinical diagnostic strategy in the future. The described method is sufficiently rapid (theoretically compatible with same-day turnaround times and inexpensive for routine clinical use.

  8. Influence of metal loading and humic acid functional groups on the complexation behavior of trivalent lanthanides analyzed by CE-ICP-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautenburger, Ralf, E-mail: r.kautenburger@mx.uni-saarland.de [Institute of Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 3-5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany); Hein, Christina; Sander, Jonas M. [Institute of Inorganic Solid State Chemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 3-5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany); Beck, Horst P. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Saarland University, Campus Dudweiler, Am Markt Zeile 5, D-66125 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Highlights: • Free and complexed HA-Ln species are separated by CE-ICP-MS. • Weaker and stronger HA-binding sites for Ln-complexation can be detected. • Complexation by original and modified humic acid (HA) with blocked phenolic hydroxyl- and carboxyl-groups is compared. • Stronger HA-binding sites for Ln³⁺ can be assumed as chelating complexes. • Chelates consist of trivalent Ln and a combination of both OH- and COOH-groups. Abstract: The complexation behavior of Aldrich humic acid (AHA) and a modified humic acid (AHA-PB) with blocked phenolic hydroxyl groups for trivalent lanthanides (Ln) is compared, and their influence on the mobility of Ln(III) in an aquifer is analyzed. As speciation technique, capillary electrophoresis (CE) was hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For metal loading experiments 25 mg L⁻¹ of AHA and different concentrations (c Ln(Eu+Gd)} = 100–6000 μg L⁻¹) of Eu(III) and Gd(III) in 10 mM NaClO₄ at pH 5 were applied. By CE-ICP-MS, three Ln-fractions, assumed to be uncomplexed, weakly and strongly AHA-complexed metal can be detected. For the used Ln/AHA-ratios conservative complex stability constants log βLnAHA decrease from 6.33 (100 μg L⁻¹ Ln³⁺) to 4.31 (6000 μg L⁻¹ Ln³⁺) with growing Ln-content. In order to verify the postulated weaker and stronger humic acid binding sites for trivalent Eu and Gd, a modified AHA with blocked functional groups was used. For these experiments 500 μg L⁻¹ Eu and 25 mg L⁻¹ AHA and AHA-PB in 10 mM NaClO₄ at pH-values ranging from 3 to 10 have been applied. With AHA-PB, where 84% of the phenolic OH-groups and 40% of the COOH-groups were blocked, Eu complexation was significantly lower, especially at the strong binding sites. The log β-values decrease from 6.11 (pH 10) to 5.61 at pH 3 (AHA) and for AHA-PB from 6.01 (pH 7) to 3.94 at pH 3. As a potential consequence, particularly humic acids with a high amount of

  9. Crystal Structure of the HLA-DM - HLA-DR1 Complex Defines Mechanisms for Rapid Peptide Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Wouter; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Call, Melissa J.; Schulze, Monika-Sarah E. D.; Anders, Anne-Kathrin; Pyrdol, Jason; Wucherpfennig, Kai W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary HLA-DR molecules bind microbial peptides in an endosomal compartment and present them on the cell surface for CD4 T cell surveillance. HLA-DM plays a critical role in the endosomal peptide selection process. The structure of the HLA-DM – HLA-DR complex shows major rearrangements of the HLA-DR peptide binding groove. Flipping of a tryptophan away from the HLA-DR1 P1 pocket enables major conformational changes that position hydrophobic HLA-DR residues into the P1 pocket. These conformational changes accelerate peptide dissociation and stabilize the empty HLA-DR peptide binding groove. Initially, incoming peptides have access to only part of the HLA-DR groove and need to compete with HLA-DR residues for access to the P2 site and the hydrophobic P1 pocket. This energetic barrier creates a rapid and stringent selection process for the highest-affinity binders. Insertion of peptide residues into the P2 and P1 sites reverses the conformational changes, terminating selection through DM dissociation. PMID:23260142

  10. Transverse effects on the nasomaxillary complex one year after rapid maxillary expansion as the only intervention: A controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Luz Baratieri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT scans the transverse effects on the nasomaxillary complex in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion (RME using Haas expander in comparison to untreated individuals. This prospective controlled clinical study assessed 30 subjects (18 boys and 12 girls with mixed dentition and during pubertal growth. The treated group was submitted to RME with Haas expander, retention for six months and a six-month follow-up after removal. The control group matched the treated group in terms of age and sex distribution. CBCT scans were taken at treatment onset and one year after the expander was activated. Maxillary first molars (U6 width, right and left U6 angulation, maxillary alveolar width, maxillary basal width, palatal alveolar width, palatal base width, right and left alveolar angulation, palatal area, nasal base width, nasal cavity width and inferior nasal cavity area on the posterior, middle and anterior coronal slices were measured with Dolphin Imaging Software(r 11.5, except for the first two variables which were performed only on the posterior slice. All transverse dimensions increased significantly (P 0.05. Results suggest that increase of molar, maxillary, palatal and nasal transverse dimensions was stable in comparison to the control group one year after treatment with RME.

  11. Rapid Isolation and Determination of Flavones in Biological Samples Using Zinc Complexation Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghe Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-type contaminants are commonly encountered in the isolation and determination of flavones of plant aerial plant parts. Heme is also a difficult background substance in whole blood analysis. Both chlorophyll and heme are porphyrin type compounds. In this study, a rapid method for isolating flavones with 5-hydroxyl or ortho-hydroxyl groups from biological samples was developed based on the different solubilities of porphyrin-metal and flavone-metal complexes. It is important that other background substances, e.g., proteins and lipids, are also removed from flavones without an additional processing. The recoveries of scutellarin, baicalin, baicalein, wogonoside and wogonin, which are the primary constituents of Scutellaria baicalensis (skullcaps were 99.65% ± 1.02%, 98.98% ± 0.73%, 99.65% ± 0.03%, 97.59% ± 0.09% and 95.19% ± 0.47%, respectively. As a sample pretreatment procedure, this method was coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with good separation, sensitivity and linearity and was applied to determine the flavone content in different aerial parts of S. baicalensis and in dried blood spot samples.

  12. Health Systems Research in a Complex and Rapidly Changing Context: Ethical Implications of Major Health Systems Change at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Hayley; Bloom, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    This paper discusses health policy and systems research in complex and rapidly changing contexts. It focuses on ethical issues at stake for researchers working with government policy makers to provide evidence to inform major health systems change at scale, particularly when the dynamic nature of the context and ongoing challenges to the health system can result in unpredictable outcomes. We focus on situations where 'country ownership' of HSR is relatively well established and where there is significant involvement of local researchers and close ties and relationships with policy makers are often present. We frame our discussion around two country case studies with which we are familiar, namely China and South Africa and discuss the implications for conducting 'embedded' research. We suggest that reflexivity is an important concept for health system researchers who need to think carefully about positionality and their normative stance and to use such reflection to ensure that they can negotiate to retain autonomy, whilst also contributing evidence for health system change. A research process informed by the notion of reflexive practice and iterative learning will require a longitudinal review at key points in the research timeline. Such review should include the convening of a deliberative process and should involve a range of stakeholders, including those most likely to be affected by the intended and unintended consequences of change. © 2016 The Authors Developing World Bioethics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rapid molecular cytogenetic analysis of X-chromosomal microdeletions: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for complex glycerol kinase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, K.C.; Lindsay, E.A.; McCabe, E.R.B. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-17

    Diagnosis of X-chromosomal microdeletions has relied upon the traditional methods of Southern blotting and DNA amplification, with carrier identification requiring time-consuming and unreliable dosage calculations. In this report, we describe rapid molecular cytogenetic identification of deleted DNA in affected males with the Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome (complex glycerol kinase deficiency, CGKD) and female carriers for this disorder. CGKD deletions involve the genes for glycerol kinase, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and/or adrenal hypoplasia congenita. We report an improved method for diagnosis of deletions in individuals with CGKD and for identification of female carriers within their families using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cosmid marker (cosmid 35) within the glycerol kinase gene. When used in combination with an Xq control probe, affected males demonstrate a single signal from the control probe, while female carriers demonstrate a normal chromosome with two signals, as well as a deleted chromosome with a single signal from the control probe. FISH analysis for CGKD provides the advantages of speed and accuracy for evaluation of submicroscopic X-chromosome deletions, particularly in identification of female carriers. In addition to improving carrier evaluation, FISH will make prenatal diagnosis of CGKD more readily available. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Rapid generation of hydrogen peroxide contributes to the complex cell death induction by the angucycline antibiotic landomycin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, Rostyslav R; Lehka, Lilya V; Terenzi, Alessio; Matselyukh, Bohdan P; Rohr, Jürgen; Jha, Amit K; Downey, Theresa; Kril, Iryna J; Herbacek, Irene; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Heffeter, Petra; Stoika, Rostyslav S; Berger, Walter

    2017-05-01

    Landomycin E (LE) is an angucycline antibiotic produced by Streptomyces globisporus. Previously, we have shown a broad anticancer activity of LE which is, in contrast to the structurally related and clinically used anthracycline doxorubicin (Dx), only mildly affected by multidrug resistance-mediated drug efflux. In the present study, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the anticancer activity of landomycin E towards Jurkat T-cell leukemia cells were dissected focusing on the involvement of radical oxygen species (ROS). LE-induced apoptosis distinctly differed in several aspects from the one induced by Dx. Rapid generation of both extracellular and cell-derived hydrogen peroxide already at one hour drug exposure was observed in case of LE but not found before 24h for Dx. In contrast, Dx but not LE induced production of superoxide radicals. Mitochondrial damage, as revealed by JC-1 staining, was weakly enhanced already at 3h LE treatment and increased significantly with time. Accordingly, activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway initiator caspase-9 was not detectable before 12h exposure. In contrast, cleavage of the down-stream caspase substrate PARP-1 was clearly induced already at the three hour time point. Out of all caspases tested, only activation of effector caspase-7 was induced at this early time points paralleling the LE-induced oxidative burst. Accordingly, this massive cleavage of caspase-7 at early time points was inhibitable by the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Additionally, only simultaneous inhibition of multiple caspases reduced LE-induced apoptosis. Specific scavengers of both H2O2 and OH(•) effectively decreased LE-induced ROS production, but only partially inhibited LE-induced apoptosis. In contrast, NAC efficiently blocked both parameters. Summarizing, rapid H2O2 generation and a complex caspase activation pattern contribute to the antileukemic effects of LE. As superoxide generation is considered as the main

  15. Initial observations of fine plasma structures at the flank magnetopause with the complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 onboard the Interball Tail Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Vaisberg

    Full Text Available The fast plasma analyzer EU-1 of the SCA-1 complex plasma spectrometer is installed onboard the Interball Tail Probe (Interball-1. It provides fast three-dimensional measurements of the ion distribution function on the low-spin-rate Prognoz satellite (about 2min. The EU-1 ion spectrometer with virtual aperture consists of two detectors with 16 E/Q narrow-angle analyzers and electrostatic scanners. This configuration allows one to measure the ion distribution function in three dimensions (over 15 energy steps in 50 eV/Q–5.0 keV/Q energy range in 64 directions in 7.5 s, which makes it independent of the slow rotation speed of the satellite. A description of the instrument and its capabilities is given. We present here the preliminary results of measurements of ions for two cases of the dawn low- and mid-latitude magnetopause crossings. The properties of observed ion structures and their tentative explanation are presented. The 12 September 1995 pass at low latitude at about 90° solar-zenith angle on the dawn side of the magnetosphere is considered in more detail. Dispersive ions are seen at the edge of the magnetopause and at the edges of subsequently observed plasma structures. Changes in ion velocity distribution in plasma structures observed after the first magnetopause crossing suggest that what resembles multiple magnetopause crossings may be plasma blobs penetrating the magnetosphere. Observed variations of plasma parameters near magnetopause structures suggest nonstationary reconnection as the most probable mechanism for observed structures.

  16. Initial observations of fine plasma structures at the flank magnetopause with the complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 onboard the Interball Tail Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Vaisberg

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available The fast plasma analyzer EU-1 of the SCA-1 complex plasma spectrometer is installed onboard the Interball Tail Probe (Interball-1. It provides fast three-dimensional measurements of the ion distribution function on the low-spin-rate Prognoz satellite (about 2min. The EU-1 ion spectrometer with virtual aperture consists of two detectors with 16 E/Q narrow-angle analyzers and electrostatic scanners. This configuration allows one to measure the ion distribution function in three dimensions (over 15 energy steps in 50 eV/Q–5.0 keV/Q energy range in 64 directions in 7.5 s, which makes it independent of the slow rotation speed of the satellite. A description of the instrument and its capabilities is given. We present here the preliminary results of measurements of ions for two cases of the dawn low- and mid-latitude magnetopause crossings. The properties of observed ion structures and their tentative explanation are presented. The 12 September 1995 pass at low latitude at about 90° solar-zenith angle on the dawn side of the magnetosphere is considered in more detail. Dispersive ions are seen at the edge of the magnetopause and at the edges of subsequently observed plasma structures. Changes in ion velocity distribution in plasma structures observed after the first magnetopause crossing suggest that what resembles multiple magnetopause crossings may be plasma blobs penetrating the magnetosphere. Observed variations of plasma parameters near magnetopause structures suggest nonstationary reconnection as the most probable mechanism for observed structures.

  17. Analyzing Clickstreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Giversen, Anders; Jensen, Allan H.

    On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) enables analysts to gain insight into data through fast and interactive access to a variety of possible views on information, organized in a dimensional model. The demand for data integration is rapidly becoming larger as more and more information sources appe......, an integration architecture that allows the logical integration of XML and relational data sources for use by OLAP tools is presented....... in modern enterprises. In the data warehousing pproach, selected information is extracted in advance and stored in a repository. This approach is used because of its high performance. However, in many situations a logical (rather than physical) integration of data is preferable. Previous web-based data...... integration efforts have focused almost exclusively on the logical level of data models, creating a need for techniques focused on the conceptual level. Also, previous integration techniques for web-based data have not addresses the special needs of OLAP tools such as handling dimensions with hierarchies...

  18. A coiled coil trigger site is essential for rapid binding of synaptobrevin to the SNARE acceptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiederhold, Katrin; Kloepper, Tobias H; Walter, Alexander M

    2010-01-01

    Exocytosis from synaptic vesicles is driven by stepwise formation of a tight alpha-helical complex between the fusing membranes. The complex is composed of the three SNAREs: synaptobrevin 2, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 1a. An important step in complex formation is fast binding of vesicular synaptobrevin...

  19. Fusarium keratitis in South India: causative agents, their antifungal susceptibilities and a rapid identification method for the Fusarium solani species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homa, Mónika; Shobana, Coimbatore S; Singh, Yendrembam R B; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Selvam, Kanesan P; Kredics, László; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Galgóczy, László

    2013-09-01

    Seventy Fusarium isolates derived from human keratomycosis were identified based on partial sequences of the β-tubulin (β-TUB) and translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) genes. Most of the isolates were confirmed as members of the F. solani species complex (75.71%), followed by the F. dimerum species complex (8.57%), the F. fujikuroi species complex (8.57%), the F. oxysporum species complex (4.29%) and the F. incarnatum-equiseti species complex (2.86%). A combined phylogenetic tree was estimated including all the 70 isolates. Isolates belonging to different species complexes formed separate clades. In this study, we also report the first isolation of F. napiforme from human keratomycosis. A new method based on a specific EcoRI restriction site in the EF-1α gene was developed for the rapid identification of F. solani. In vitro antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates to seven antifungals were determined by broth microdilution method. Terbinafine, natamycin and amphotericin B proved to be the most effective drugs, followed by voriconazole. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of clotrimazole, econazole and itraconazole were generally high (≥64 μg ml(-1) ). The interactions between the two most effective antifungals (natamycin and terbinafine) were determined by checkerboard microdilution method. Synergism (71.8%) or no interaction (28.2%) was revealed between the two compounds. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Ocular Response Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Sushmita; Pandav, Surinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, corneal biomechanical properties could not be measured in vivo. The ocular response analyzer is a new, noninvasive device that analyses corneal biomechanical properties simply and rapidly. The ORA allows cornea compensated IOP measurements and can estimate corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF). It is designed to improve the accuracy of IOP measurement by using corneal biomechanical data to calculate a biomechanically adjusted estimate of intraocular press...

  1. The "adjuvant effect" of the polymorphic B-G antigens of the chicken major histocompatibility complex analyzed using purified molecules incorporated in liposomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, J; Eriksson, H; Skjødt, K

    1991-01-01

    The polymorphic B-G region of the chicken major histocompatibility complex has previously been shown to mediate an "adjuvant effect" on the humoral response to other erythrocyte alloantigens. We demonstrate here that B-G molecules purified with monoclonal antibodies exert this adjuvant effect...... for the generation of B cell diversity, in the immune systems of birds and other animals. Udgivelsesdato: 1991-Mar...

  2. What is science? Thinking about doctoral Business Administration students’ perceptions analyzed from the perspective of Edgar Morin and the paradigm of Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Dal Bo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about the paradigms that shape science are important in order to promote reflection among researchers as to their role in society. The Cartesian-Newtonian paradigm lies both in the natural and social sciences, both of which initially adopted it, before gradually bringing it into question due to the depletion of its explanatory power for current phenomena. Some authors propose the paradigm of complexity, which would, based on the features exposed in this paper, be better suited to providing a broad understanding of the process of knowledge construction. Through literature review and quantitative research conducted with students of the Doctoral Program in Business Administration at two Higher Education Institutions in Rio Grande do Sul, this paper attempts to identify the prevailing perceptions regarding the epistemological and paradigmatic positions adopted in the sciences and challenge them with the complexity paradigm proposed by Edgar Morin.

  3. Evaluation of the BD MGIT TBc Identification Test (TBc ID), a rapid chromatographic immunoassay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from liquid culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Anandi; Bombeeck, Deirdre; Fissette, Krista; de Rijk, Pim; Hernández-Neuta, Ivan; Del Portillo, Patricia; Palomino, Juan Carlos

    2011-02-01

    The BACTEC MGIT 960 system is increasingly used to culture Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We evaluated the performance of the new immunochromatographic assay BD MGIT TBc Identification Test (TBc ID) for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis complex in clinical samples when performed directly from BACTEC MGIT 960 culture positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). Of 92 cultures evaluated, the sensitivity and specificity of the TBc ID test was 98.5% and 100%, respectively compared to sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. One culture that was TBc ID test negative but that was identified as M. tuberculosis by 16S rRNA sequencing was confirmed to have a mutation in the mpt64 gene. The TBc ID test is an easy and sensitive method for the identification of M. tuberculosis complex in liquid culture medium, does not require a high level of skills, neither any additional specific equipment and gives results in 15 min, which provide a good alternative for the rapid identification of M. tuberculosis complex in liquid medium. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Considering Valproate as a Risk Factor for Rapid Exacerbation of Complex Movement Disorder in Progressed Stages of Late-Infantile CLN2 Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Jessika; Nickel, Miriam; Schulz, Angela; Denecke, Jonas

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2 disease, OMIM 204500) is a rare autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder. It is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in childhood. Symptoms include epilepsy, rapid motor and language regression, dementia, visual loss, and a complex movement disorder in later stages of the disease. We report on two children with genetically confirmed late-infantile CLN2 disease who developed a severe exacerbation of their complex movement disorder leading to hyperthermia, hyper-CK-emia and decreased level of consciousness over several weeks despite different therapeutic approaches. Both patients were on long-term antiepileptic treatment with valproate and only after the withdrawal of valproate, the movement disorder disappeared and level of consciousness improved. These observations emphasize that valproate has to be considered as a possible risk factor in patients in later stages of late-infantile CLN2 disease who develop a rapidly progressive complex movement disorder. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Complex-plane generalization of scalar Levin transforms: A robust, rapidly convergent method to compute potentials and fields in multi-layered media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainath, Kamalesh, E-mail: sainath.1@osu.edu [The Ohio State University, Electroscience Laboratory, 1330 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Teixeira, Fernando L., E-mail: teixeira@ece.osu.edu [The Ohio State University, Electroscience Laboratory, 1330 Kinnear Road, Columbus, OH 43212 (United States); Donderici, Burkay, E-mail: Burkay.Donderici@Halliburton.com [Halliburton, Sensor Physics and Technology, 3000 N. Sam Houston Pkwy E, Houston, TX 77032 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    We propose the complex-plane generalization of a powerful algebraic sequence acceleration algorithm, the method of weighted averages (MWA), to guarantee exponential-cum-algebraic convergence of Fourier and Fourier–Hankel (F–H) integral transforms. This “complex-plane” MWA, effected via a linear-path detour in the complex plane, results in rapid, absolute convergence of field and potential solutions in multi-layered environments regardless of the source-observer geometry and anisotropy/loss of the media present. In this work, we first introduce a new integration path used to evaluate the field contribution arising from the radiation spectra. Subsequently, we (1) exhibit the foundational relations behind the complex-plane extension to a general Levin-type sequence convergence accelerator, (2) specialize this analysis to one member of the Levin transform family (the MWA), (3) address and circumvent restrictions, arising for two-dimensional integrals associated with wave dynamics problems, through minimal complex-plane detour restrictions and a novel partition of the integration domain, (4) develop and compare two formulations based on standard/real-axis MWA variants, and (5) present validation results and convergence characteristics for one of these two formulations.

  6. Rapid functional analysis of computationally complex rare human IRF6 gene variants using a novel zebrafish model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sequencing efforts have captured a rapidly growing catalogue of genetic variations. However, the accurate establishment of gene variant pathogenicity remains a central challenge in translating personal genomics information to clinical decisions. Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6 gene variants are significant genetic contributors to orofacial clefts. Although approximately three hundred IRF6 gene variants have been documented, their effects on protein functions remain difficult to interpret. Here, we demonstrate the protein functions of human IRF6 missense gene variants could be rapidly assessed in detail by their abilities to rescue the irf6 -/- phenotype in zebrafish through variant mRNA microinjections at the one-cell stage. The results revealed many missense variants previously predicted by traditional statistical and computational tools to be loss-of-function and pathogenic retained partial or full protein function and rescued the zebrafish irf6 -/- periderm rupture phenotype. Through mRNA dosage titration and analysis of the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC database, IRF6 missense variants were grouped by their abilities to rescue at various dosages into three functional categories: wild type function, reduced function, and complete loss-of-function. This sensitive and specific biological assay was able to address the nuanced functional significances of IRF6 missense gene variants and overcome many limitations faced by current statistical and computational tools in assigning variant protein function and pathogenicity. Furthermore, it unlocked the possibility for characterizing yet undiscovered human IRF6 missense gene variants from orofacial cleft patients, and illustrated a generalizable functional genomics paradigm in personalized medicine.

  7. Human kallikrein 2 (hK2), but not prostate-specific antigen (PSA), rapidly complexes with protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) released from prostate carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, M S; Zhu, Z; Marker, K; Liu, R S; Carpenter, P M; Rittenhouse, H; Mikolajczyk, S D

    2001-11-01

    Human kallikrein 2 (hK2) is a secreted, trypsin-like protease that shares 80% amino acid sequence identity with prostate-specific antigen (PSA). hK2 has been shown to be a serum marker for prostate cancer and may also play a role in cancer progression and metastasis. We have previously identified a novel complex between human kallikrein 2 (hK2) and protease inhibitor 6 (PI-6) in prostate cancer tissue. PI-6 is an intracellular serine protease inhibitor with both antitrypsin and antichymotrypsin activity. In the current study we have shown that PI-6 forms a rapid in vitro complex with hK2 but does not complex with PSA. Recombinant mammalian cells expressing both hK2 and PI-6 showed hK2-PI-6 complex in the spent media only after cell death and lysis. Similarly, LNCaP cells expressing endogenous hK2 and PI-6 showed extracellular hK2-PI-6 complex formation concurrently with cell death. Immunostaining of prostate cancer tissues with PI-6 monoclonal antibodies showed a marked preferential staining pattern in cancerous epithelial cells compared with noncancerous tissue. These results indicate that the hK2-PI-6 complex may be a naturally occurring marker of tissue damage and necrosis associated with neoplasia. Both hK2 and PI-6 were shed into the lumen of prostate cancer glands as granular material that appeared to be cellular necrotic debris. The differential staining pattern of PI6 in tissues suggests a complex regulation of PI-6 expression that may play a role in other aspects of neoplastic progression. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. CONTRAILS: A tool for rapid identification of transgene integration sites in complex, repetitive genomes using low-coverage paired-end sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambirth, Kevin C.; Whaley, Adam M.; Schlueter, Jessica A.; Bost, Kenneth L.; Piller, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic crops have become a staple in modern agriculture, and are typically characterized using a variety of molecular techniques involving proteomics and metabolomics. Characterization of the transgene insertion site is of great interest, as disruptions, deletions, and genomic location can affect product selection and fitness, and identification of these regions and their integrity is required for regulatory agencies. Here, we present CONTRAILS (Characterization of Transgene Insertion Locations with Sequencing), a straightforward, rapid and reproducible method for the identification of transgene insertion sites in highly complex and repetitive genomes using low coverage paired-end Illumina sequencing and traditional PCR. This pipeline requires little to no troubleshooting and is not restricted to any genome type, allowing use for many molecular applications. Using whole genome sequencing of in-house transgenic Glycine max, a legume with a highly repetitive and complex genome, we used CONTRAILS to successfully identify the location of a single T-DNA insertion to single base resolution. PMID:26697366

  9. Comparison of net CO2 fluxes measured with open- and closed-path infrared gas analyzers in an urban complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvi, L.; Mammarella, I.; Eugster, W.

    2009-01-01

    and their suitability to accurately measure CO2 exchange in such non-ideal landscape. In addition, this study examined the effect of open-path sensor heating on measured fluxes in urban terrain, and these results were compared with similar measurements made above a temperate beech forest in Denmark. The correlation...... improved the performance of the open-path analyzer by reducing discrepancies in NSE at the urban site to 2% and decreasing the difference in NSE from 67% to 7% at the forest site. Overall, the site-specific approach gave the best results at both sites and, if possible, it should be preferred in the sensor...

  10. Rapid Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex by Combining the ESAT-6/CFP-10 Immunochromatographic Assay and Smear Morphology▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Gwan-Han; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Hu, Shiau-Ting; Wu, Kun-Ming; Chen, Jiann-Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Early secretory antigen 6 (ESAT-6) and cell filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are two antigens secreted as a complex by the replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Recently, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) using a monoclonal antibody against the ESAT-6/CFP-10 complex was developed for the purpose of MTC detection. In this study, the efficacy of the assay was tested with 603 BACTEC cultures that were incubated for 3 additional days after positive signals appeared in the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Bacterial isolates were recovered from these 603 BACTEC cultures, and 332 MTC isolates, 270 nontuberculosis mycobacterial isolates, and 1 Nocardia isolate were identified by using standard biochemical assays. The ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay detected 322 MTC cultures, resulting in a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 97.4%. To reduce the false-negative rate and improve the sensitivity, either serpentine cording in an acid-fast bacillus stain of the cultural smear, the ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay, or a combination of both was used for MTC detection. The sensitivity was then increased to 99.1%, and the negative predictive value increased to 98.9%, but the specificity decreased to 94.8% and the positive predictive value decreased to 95.9%. However, a combination of serpentine cording in cultural smears and the positivity of the ICA resulted in the specificity and positive predictive values of 100%. Therefore, BACTEC cultures with both serpentine cording and positivity of the ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay could be reported to contain MTC directly. The ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay may be an alternative of the Capilia assay (MPB64-ICA) as a convenient and cost-effective method for identification of MTC in culture. PMID:21159936

  11. Rapid identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by combining the ESAT-6/CFP-10 immunochromatographic assay and smear morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Gwan-Han; Chiou, Chien-Shun; Hu, Shiau-Ting; Wu, Kun-Ming; Chen, Jiann-Hwa

    2011-03-01

    Early secretory antigen 6 (ESAT-6) and cell filtrate protein 10 (CFP-10) are two antigens secreted as a complex by the replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). Recently, an immunochromatographic assay (ICA) using a monoclonal antibody against the ESAT-6/CFP-10 complex was developed for the purpose of MTC detection. In this study, the efficacy of the assay was tested with 603 BACTEC cultures that were incubated for 3 additional days after positive signals appeared in the BACTEC MGIT 960 system. Bacterial isolates were recovered from these 603 BACTEC cultures, and 332 MTC isolates, 270 nontuberculosis mycobacterial isolates, and 1 Nocardia isolate were identified by using standard biochemical assays. The ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay detected 322 MTC cultures, resulting in a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 97.4%. To reduce the false-negative rate and improve the sensitivity, either serpentine cording in an acid-fast bacillus stain of the cultural smear, the ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay, or a combination of both was used for MTC detection. The sensitivity was then increased to 99.1%, and the negative predictive value increased to 98.9%, but the specificity decreased to 94.8% and the positive predictive value decreased to 95.9%. However, a combination of serpentine cording in cultural smears and the positivity of the ICA resulted in the specificity and positive predictive values of 100%. Therefore, BACTEC cultures with both serpentine cording and positivity of the ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay could be reported to contain MTC directly. The ESAT-6/CFP-10 assay may be an alternative of the Capilia assay (MPB64-ICA) as a convenient and cost-effective method for identification of MTC in culture.

  12. Rapid virtual prototyping of complex photonic integrated circuits using layout-aware schematic-driven design methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingaleev, S.; Richter, A.; Sokolov, E.; Savitzki, S.; Polatynski, A.; Farina, J.; Koltchanov, I.

    2017-02-01

    We present our versatile simulation framework for the schematic-driven and layout-aware design of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) realizing a fast and user-friendly design flow for large-scale PICs comprising passive and active building blocks (BBs). We show how the seamless interaction of circuit simulation with photonic layout design tools allows to specify and utilize directly physical locations and orientations of BBs of standardized process design kits (PDKs). We demonstrate how to combine graphical schematic capture and automated waveguide routing, and discuss by means of typical design applications how an optimized design flow can speed-up the virtual prototyping of complex PICs and optoelectronic applications.

  13. A method for rapid production of heteromultimeric protein complexes in plants: assembly of protective bluetongue virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuenemann, Eva C; Meyers, Ann E; Verwey, Jeanette; Rybicki, Edward P; Lomonossoff, George P

    2013-09-01

    Plant expression systems based on nonreplicating virus-based vectors can be used for the simultaneous expression of multiple genes within the same cell. They therefore have great potential for the production of heteromultimeric protein complexes. This work describes the efficient plant-based production and assembly of Bluetongue virus-like particles (VLPs), requiring the simultaneous expression of four distinct proteins in varying amounts. Such particles have the potential to serve as a safe and effective vaccine against Bluetongue virus (BTV), which causes high mortality rates in ruminants and thus has a severe effect on the livestock trade. Here, VLPs produced and assembled in Nicotiana benthamiana using the cowpea mosaic virus-based HyperTrans (CPMV-HT) and associated pEAQ plant transient expression vector system were shown to elicit a strong antibody response in sheep. Furthermore, they provided protective immunity against a challenge with a South African BTV-8 field isolate. The results show that transient expression can be used to produce immunologically relevant complex heteromultimeric structures in plants in a matter of days. The results have implications beyond the realm of veterinary vaccines and could be applied to the production of VLPs for human use or the coexpression of multiple enzymes for the manipulation of metabolic pathways. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evolutionary genomics reveals lineage-specific gene loss and rapid evolution of a sperm-specific ion channel complex: CatSpers and CatSperbeta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjiang Cai

    Full Text Available The mammalian CatSper ion channel family consists of four sperm-specific voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that are crucial for sperm hyperactivation and male fertility. All four CatSper subunits are believed to assemble into a heteromultimeric channel complex, together with an auxiliary subunit, CatSperbeta. Here, we report a comprehensive comparative genomics study and evolutionary analysis of CatSpers and CatSperbeta, with important correlation to physiological significance of molecular evolution of the CatSper channel complex. The development of the CatSper channel complex with four CatSpers and CatSperbeta originated as early as primitive metazoans such as the Cnidarian Nematostella vectensis. Comparative genomics revealed extensive lineage-specific gene loss of all four CatSpers and CatSperbeta through metazoan evolution, especially in vertebrates. The CatSper channel complex underwent rapid evolution and functional divergence, while distinct evolutionary constraints appear to have acted on different domains and specific sites of the four CatSper genes. These results reveal unique evolutionary characteristics of sperm-specific Ca2+ channels and their adaptation to sperm biology through metazoan evolution.

  15. Preparation of ractopamine-tetraphenylborate complexed nanoparticles used as sensors to rapidly determine ractopamine residues in pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Shao, Xintian; Yue, Jingli; Li, Donghui; Chen, Zhenhua

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we reported a simple, fast, and sensitive determination of ractopamine (RAC) residues in pork by using novel ractopamine-tetraphenylborate complexed nanoparticles (RT NPs) as sensors. The prepared RT NPs exhibited a fast response time of 10 s, a wide linear range from 0.1 to 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L, and a very low detection limit of 7.4 × 10-8 mol/L. The prepared sensor also presents a high selectivity for ractopamine under different pH conditions ranged from 2.85 to 7.18. These results reveal that the fabricated RT NPs can be used as efficient electrochemical sensors to determine ractopamine in animal productions.

  16. A system for measuring complex dielectric properties of thin films at submillimeter wavelengths using an open hemispherical cavity and a vector network analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Rezwanur; Taylor, P. C.; Scales, John A.

    2013-08-01

    Quasi-optical (QO) methods of dielectric spectroscopy are well established in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency bands. These methods exploit standing wave structure in the sample produced by a transmitted Gaussian beam to achieve accurate, low-noise measurement of the complex permittivity of the sample [e.g., J. A. Scales and M. Batzle, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 062906 (2006);, 10.1063/1.2172403 R. N. Clarke and C. B. Rosenberg, J. Phys. E 15, 9 (1982);, 10.1088/0022-3735/15/1/002 T. M. Hirovnen, P. Vainikainen, A. Lozowski, and A. V. Raisanen, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 780 (1996)], 10.1109/19.516996. In effect the sample itself becomes a low-Q cavity. On the other hand, for optically thin samples (films of thickness much less than a wavelength) or extremely low loss samples (loss tangents below 10-5) the QO approach tends to break down due to loss of signal. In such a case it is useful to put the sample in a high-Q cavity and measure the perturbation of the cavity modes. Provided that the average mode frequency divided by the shift in mode frequency is less than the Q (quality factor) of the mode, then the perturbation should be resolvable. Cavity perturbation techniques are not new, but there are technological difficulties in working in the millimeter/submillimeter wave region. In this paper we will show applications of cavity perturbation to the dielectric characterization of semi-conductor thin films of the type used in the manufacture of photovoltaics in the 100 and 350 GHz range. We measured the complex optical constants of hot-wire chemical deposition grown 1-μm thick amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film on borosilicate glass substrate. The real part of the refractive index and dielectric constant of the glass-substrate varies from frequency-independent to linearly frequency-dependent. We also see power-law behavior of the frequency-dependent optical conductivity from 316 GHz (9.48 cm-1) down to 104 GHz (3.12 cm-1).

  17. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects – Part 2: Complex urban VOCs and model PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Jeffries

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the second study in a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOCs, particulate matter (PM, and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber, both in the dark and in sunlight. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of gas-only- and PM-only-biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model living receptors. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. Our exposure systems permit side-by-side, gas-only- and PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure for either gases or PM. In Part 1 (Ebersviller et al., 2012a, we demonstrated the existence of PM "effect modification" (NAS, 2004 for the case of a single gas-phase toxicant and an inherently non-toxic PM (mineral oil aerosol, MOA. That is, in the presence of the single gas-phase toxicant in the dark, the initially non-toxic PM became toxic to lung cells in the PM-only-biological exposure system. In this Part 2 study, we used sunlit-reactive systems to create a large variety of gas-phase toxicants from a complex mixture of oxides of nitrogen and 54 VOCs representative of those measured in US city air. In these mostly day-long experiments, we have designated the period in the dark just after injection (but before sunrise as the "Fresh" condition and the period in the dark after sunset as the "Aged" condition. These two conditions were used to expose cells and to collect chemical characterization samples. We used the same inherently non-toxic PM from the Part 1 study as the target PM

  18. Rapid cooling and exhumation as a consequence of extension and crustal thinning: Inferences from the Late Miocene to Pliocene Palu Metamorphic Complex, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Juliane; Hall, Robert; Forster, Margaret A.; Kohn, Barry P.; Lister, Gordon S.

    2017-08-01

    Metamorphic complexes forming high mountains of 1.5-2 km in Western Sulawesi were previously considered to be Mesozoic or older basement of Gondwana crust. However, many of the metamorphic rocks are much younger than previously thought. Some have Eocene sedimentary protoliths. New geothermobarometric and geochronological data from metamorphic rocks of the Palu Metamorphic Complex (PMC) and associated granitoids provide information on the timing and mechanisms of Neogene metamorphism and contemporaneous rapid exhumation. The metamorphic rocks are strongly deformed and some were partially melted to form migmatites. Schists contain relict andalusite, cordierite, staurolite and Mn-rich garnet which are wrapped by a pervasive fabric. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite, white mica and amphibole from strongly deformed, mylonitic schists and recrystallised amphibolites reveals cooling occurred in the Early Pliocene (c. 5.3-4.8 Ma) in the northern part and during the Late Pliocene (c. 3.1-2.7 Ma) in the southern part of the PMC. U-Pb, 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He analyses of various minerals from PMC metamorphic and S-type magmatic rocks give very similar mid to Late Pliocene ages, indicating very fast cooling and rapid exhumation, and show the high speed at which tectonic processes, including magmatism, exhumation, and reworking into a sediment, must have occurred. The high rates could be unique to this area but we suggest they record the true speed of metamorphic complex exhumation in a very young orogenic belt. Rates in older orogens appear lower because they are averages measured over longer periods of time. Contemporaneous magmatism and deformation are interpreted as a consequence of decompressional melting due to extension and thinning of the crust, promoted by possible detachment faults and normal faulting at the major NW-trending Palu-Koro and Tambarana Faults. In contrast, I-type magmatic rocks, separated from the PMC by the Palu-Koro Fault, were exhumed from upper crustal

  19. Metabolomics beyond spectroscopic databases: a combined MS/NMR strategy for the rapid identification of new metabolites in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingol, Kerem; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Yu, Cao; Somogyi, Arpad; Zhang, Fengli; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2015-04-07

    A novel strategy is introduced that combines high-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) with NMR for the identification of unknown components in complex metabolite mixtures encountered in metabolomics. The approach first identifies the chemical formulas of the mixture components from accurate masses by MS and then generates all feasible structures (structural manifold) that are consistent with these chemical formulas. Next, NMR spectra of each member of the structural manifold are predicted and compared with the experimental NMR spectra in order to identify the molecular structures that match the information obtained from both the MS and NMR techniques. This combined MS/NMR approach was applied to Escherichia coli extract, where the approach correctly identified a wide range of different types of metabolites, including amino acids, nucleic acids, polyamines, nucleosides, and carbohydrate conjugates. This makes this approach, which is termed SUMMIT MS/NMR, well suited for high-throughput applications for the discovery of new metabolites in biological and biomedical mixtures, overcoming the need of experimental MS and NMR metabolite databases.

  20. Rapid response to intravenous vitamin K may obviate the need to transfuse prothrombin complex concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Tanmay; Tavares, Maria F; Sweeney, Joseph D

    2017-08-01

    Patients on warfarin who present with bleeding or who require an urgent procedure are commonly treated with intravenous (IV) vitamin K, which is supplemented with repletion of the vitamin K factors using either plasma or a prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC). In some such cases, use of vitamin K alone could be adequate to achieve acceptable hemostasis. An algorithm emphasizing the use of vitamin K alone in patients presenting with non-life-threatening bleeding was encouraged, with repeat testing of the international normalized ratio (INR) within 5 hours. Depending on the INR result, patients received no factor repletion or plasma or PCC, as judged by the physician. Leftover samples from a separate cohort of patients with supratherapeutic INRs (INR > 4.0) were studied for clotting factor evaluation. A total of 46 pre- and postinfusion INRs were evaluable from 41 patients. Median INR decreased from 5.8 to 2.5, with a median dose of 5 mg after a median time of 4.0 hours postinfusion. A total of 27 of 46 (59%) postinfusion samples showed an INR of 2.5 or less. Samples from patients with the highest INR showed the greatest decline in INR. Samples from supratherapeutic INR patients showed very high Factor VIII:C (200%) and a normal activated partial thromboplastin time in 23 of 50 (46%). Use of IV vitamin K as sole therapy for urgent partial reversal of warfarin for non-life-threatening bleeding may provide adequate hemostasis within 5 hours, avoiding the need for clotting factor repletion. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Bios data analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, H; Sugerman, A; Kovacevic, L; Kauffman, L; Carlson-Sabelli, L; Patel, M; Konecki, J

    2005-10-01

    The Bios Data Analyzer (BDA) is a set of computer programs (CD-ROM, in Sabelli et al., Bios. A Study of Creation, 2005) for new time series analyses that detects and measures creative phenomena, namely diversification, novelty, complexes, nonrandom complexity. We define a process as creative when its time series displays these properties. They are found in heartbeat interval series, the exemplar of bios .just as turbulence is the exemplar of chaos, in many other empirical series (galactic distributions, meteorological, economic and physiological series), in biotic series generated mathematically by the bipolar feedback, and in stochastic noise, but not in chaotic attractors. Differencing, consecutive recurrence and partial autocorrelation indicate nonrandom causation, thereby distinguishing chaos and bios from random and random walk. Embedding plots distinguish causal creative processes (e.g. bios) that include both simple and complex components of variation from stochastic processes (e.g. Brownian noise) that include only complex components, and from chaotic processes that decay from order to randomness as the number of dimensions is increased. Varying bin and dimensionality show that entropy measures symmetry and variety, and that complexity is associated with asymmetry. Trigonometric transformations measure coexisting opposites in time series and demonstrate bipolar, partial, and uncorrelated opposites in empirical processes and bios, supporting the hypothesis that bios is generated by bipolar feedback, a concept which is at variance with standard concepts of polar and complementary opposites.

  2. Role of GenoType(®) Mycobacterium Common Mycobacteria/Additional Species Assay for Rapid Differentiation Between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Different Species of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amresh Kumar; Maurya, Anand Kumar; Umrao, Jyoti; Kant, Surya; Kushwaha, Ram Awadh Singh; Nag, Vijaya Laskshmi; Dhole, Tapan N

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may or may not have same clinical presentations, but the treatment regimens are always different. Laboratory differentiation between MTBC and NTM by routine methods are time consuming and cumbersome to perform. We have evaluated the role of GenoType(®) Mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species (CM/AS) assay for differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM in clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB) cases. A total of 1080 clinical specimens were collected from January 2010 to June 2012. Diagnosis was performed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining followed by culture in BacT/ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, France). A total of 219 culture positive clinical isolates (BacT/ALERT(®) MP cultures) were selected for differentiation by p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) sensitivity test as and BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test considering as the gold standard test. Final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType(®) Mycobacterium CM/AS assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany). Out of 219 BacT/ALERT(®) MP culture positive isolates tested by PNB as 153 MTBC (69.9%) and by GenoType(®) Mycobacterium CM/AS assay as 159 (72.6%) MTBC and remaining 60 (27.4%) were considered as NTM species. The GenoType(®) Mycobacterium CM/AS assay was proved 99.3% sensitive and 98.3% specific for rapid differentiation of MTBC and NTM. The most common NTM species were; Mycobacterium fortuitum 20 (33.3%) among rapid growing mycobacteria and Mycobacterium intracellulare 11 (18.3%) among slow growing mycobacteria. The GenoType(®) Mycobacterium assay makes rapid and accurate identification of NTM species as compared with different phenotypic and molecular diagnostic tool and helps in management of infections caused by different mycobacteria.

  3. Role of genotype® mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species assay for rapid differentiation between Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and different species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amresh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM may or may not have same clinical presentations, but the treatment regimens are always different. Laboratory differentiation between MTBC and NTM by routine methods are time consuming and cumbersome to perform. We have evaluated the role of GenoType® Mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species (CM/AS assay for differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM in clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 1080 clinical specimens were collected from January 2010 to June 2012. Diagnosis was performed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining followed by culture in BacT/ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, France. A total of 219 culture positive clinical isolates (BacT/ALERT® MP cultures were selected for differentiation by p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB sensitivity test as and BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test considering as the gold standard test. Final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany. Results: Out of 219 BacT/ALERT® MP culture positive isolates tested by PNB as 153 MTBC (69.9% and by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay as 159 (72.6% MTBC and remaining 60 (27.4% were considered as NTM species. The GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay was proved 99.3% sensitive and 98.3% specific for rapid differentiation of MTBC and NTM. The most common NTM species were; Mycobacterium fortuitum 20 (33.3% among rapid growing mycobacteria and Mycobacterium intracellulare 11 (18.3% among slow growing mycobacteria. Conclusion: The GenoType® Mycobacterium assay makes rapid and accurate identification of NTM species as compared with different phenotypic and molecular diagnostic tool and helps in management of infections caused by different mycobacteria.

  4. Role of GenoType® Mycobacterium Common Mycobacteria/Additional Species Assay for Rapid Differentiation Between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Different Species of Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amresh Kumar; Maurya, Anand Kumar; Umrao, Jyoti; Kant, Surya; Kushwaha, Ram Awadh Singh; Nag, Vijaya Laskshmi; Dhole, Tapan N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) may or may not have same clinical presentations, but the treatment regimens are always different. Laboratory differentiation between MTBC and NTM by routine methods are time consuming and cumbersome to perform. We have evaluated the role of GenoType® Mycobacterium common mycobacteria/additional species (CM/AS) assay for differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM in clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB) cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 1080 clinical specimens were collected from January 2010 to June 2012. Diagnosis was performed by Ziehl-Neelsen staining followed by culture in BacT/ALERT 3D system (bioMerieux, France). A total of 219 culture positive clinical isolates (BacT/ALERT® MP cultures) were selected for differentiation by p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) sensitivity test as and BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test considering as the gold standard test. Final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany). Results: Out of 219 BacT/ALERT® MP culture positive isolates tested by PNB as 153 MTBC (69.9%) and by GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay as 159 (72.6%) MTBC and remaining 60 (27.4%) were considered as NTM species. The GenoType® Mycobacterium CM/AS assay was proved 99.3% sensitive and 98.3% specific for rapid differentiation of MTBC and NTM. The most common NTM species were; Mycobacterium fortuitum 20 (33.3%) among rapid growing mycobacteria and Mycobacterium intracellulare 11 (18.3%) among slow growing mycobacteria. Conclusion: The GenoType® Mycobacterium assay makes rapid and accurate identification of NTM species as compared with different phenotypic and molecular diagnostic tool and helps in management of infections caused by different mycobacteria. PMID:24701099

  5. MALDI-TOF MS enables the rapid identification of the major molecular types within the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex comprises two sibling species that are divided into eight major molecular types, C. neoformans VNI to VNIV and C. gattii VGI to VGIV. These genotypes differ in host range, epidemiology, virulence, antifungal susceptibility and geographic distribution. The currently used phenotypic and molecular identification methods for the species/molecular types are time consuming and expensive. As Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS offers an effective alternative for the rapid identification of microorganisms, the objective of this study was to examine its potential for the identification of C. neoformans and C. gattii strains at the intra- and inter-species level. METHODOLOGY: Protein extracts obtained via the formic acid extraction method of 164 C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates, including four inter-species hybrids, were studied. RESULTS: The obtained mass spectra correctly identified 100% of all studied isolates, grouped each isolate according to the currently recognized species, C. neoformans and C. gattii, and detected potential hybrids. In addition, all isolates were clearly separated according to their major molecular type, generating greater spectral differences among the C. neoformans molecular types than the C. gattii molecular types, most likely reflecting a closer phylogenetic relationship between the latter. The number of colonies used and the incubation length did not affect the results. No spectra were obtained from intact yeast cells. An extended validated spectral library containing spectra of all eight major molecular types was established. CONCLUSIONS: MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid identification tool for the correct recognition of the two currently recognized human pathogenic Cryptococcus species and offers a simple method for the separation of the eight major molecular types and the detection of hybrid strains within this

  6. Rapid evolution of a few members of nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila: study on two candidate genes, Sod1 and Rpd3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjini, Mysore S; Ramachandra, Nallur B

    2013-05-01

    Drosophila nasuta nasuta (2n = 8) and D. n. albomicans (2n = 6) are morphologically identical, cross fertile and karyotypically dissimilar pair of chromosomal races belonging to nasuta subgroup of immigrans group of Drosophila. Interracial hybridization between these two races yielded karyotypically stabilized newly evolved Cytoraces with new combinations of chromosomes and DNA content, and are called nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila. Along with many other features, striking plasticity in the lifespan has been observed in the karyotypically stabilized members of nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila. These findings provide a strong background to understand any changes at the molecular levels. In view of this, we cloned and characterized Sod1 and Rpd3 in the members of nasuta-albomicans complex of Drosophila. The evolution of Sod1 and Rpd3 in D. n. nasuta and D. n. albomicans is contrasting with the other species of Drosophila, at the level of synonymous mutations, intron variation, InDels and secondary structure changes in protein. In the members of NAC of Drosophila there were synonymous changes, variations in intron sequences of Sod1, whereas, in Rpd3, synonymous, nonsynonymous, intron variation, and secondary structure changes in protein were observed. The contrasting differences in the levels of Rpd3 (and Sir2) proteins were also noticed among short-lived and long-lived Cytoraces. The Cytoraces have exhibited not only specific changes in Sod1 and Rpd3, but also show pronounced changes in the levels of synthesis of these proteins, which indicates rapid evolution of these Cytoraces in laboratory. Further these Cytoraces have become a model system to understand the process of anagenesis.

  7. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Polygalov, Eugene; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri

    2017-03-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions.

  8. In situ investigation on rapid microstructure evolution in extreme complex environment by developing a new AFBP-TVM sparse tomography algorithm from original CS-XPCMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Dong, Bo; Hu, Xiaofang; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Yang

    2017-09-01

    A new sparse tomography method for observing the rapid internal microstructure evolution of material, called the Algebraic Filtered-Back-Projection and Total Variation Minimization (AFBP-TVM) iteration sparse reconstruction algorithm, was proposed in this paper. The new algorithm was developed by combining the two techniques of the Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (ART) and the Filtered-Back-Projection (FBP) on the basis of analysis in linear space. A series of numerical reconstruction experiments were conducted to validate the new algorithm. The results indicated the new algorithm can obtain satisfactory reconstruction images from 1/6 of the projections that were used in traditional algorithms. So the time spent on projection acquisition process can be reduced to 1/6 of that in traditional tomography method. The quality of images reconstructed by new algorithm was better than other algorithms, which was evaluated by three quantitative parameters. The normalized average absolute distance criterion and the normalized mean square criterion, which were used to evaluate the relative error of the reconstruction results (smaller value means better quality of reconstruction), decreased from 0.3758 to 0.1272 and from 0.1832 to 0.0894 respectively. The standardized covariance criterion, which was used to evaluate the similarity level (greater value means higher accuracy of reconstruction), increased from 92.72% to 99.30%. Finally, the new algorithm was validated under actual experimental conditions. The results indicated that the AFBP-TVM algorithm obtained better reconstruction quality than other algorithms. It meant that the AFBP-TVM algorithm may be a suitable method for in situ investigation on material's rapid internal microstructure evolution in extreme complex environment.

  9. Solid-phase microextraction low temperature plasma mass spectrometry for the direct and rapid analysis of chemical warfare simulants in complex mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumlao, Morphy C; Jeffress, Laura E; Gooding, J Justin; Donald, William A

    2016-06-21

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is directly integrated with low temperature plasma ionisation mass spectrometry to rapidly detect organophosphate chemical warfare agent simulants and their hydrolysis products in chemical mixtures, including urine. In this sampling and ionization method, the fibre serves: (i) to extract molecules from their native environment, and (ii) as the ionization electrode that is used to desorb and ionize molecules directly from the SPME surface. By use of a custom fabricated SPME fibre consisting of a stainless steel needle coated with a Linde Type A (LTA) zeolitic microporous material and low temperature plasma mass spectrometry, protonated dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), diethyl ethylphosphonate (DEEP) and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid (PinMPA) can be detected at less than 100 ppb directly in water and urine. Organophosphates were not readily detected by this approach using an uncoated needle in negative control experiments. The use of the LTA coating significantly outperformed the use of a high alumina Zeolite Socony Mobil-5 (ZSM-5) coating of comparable thickness that is significantly less polar than LTA. By conditioning the LTA probe by immersion in an aqueous CuSO4 solution, the ion abundance for protonated DMMP increased by more than 300% compared to that obtained without any conditioning. Sample recovery values were between 96 and 100% for each analyte. The detection of chemical warfare agent analogues and hydrolysis products required less than 2 min per sample. A key advantage of this sampling and ionization method is that analyte ions can be directly and rapidly sampled from chemical mixtures, such as urine and seawater, without sample preparation or chromatography for sensitive detection by mass spectrometry. This ion source should prove beneficial for portable mass spectrometry applications because relatively low detection limits can be obtained without the use of compressed gases, fluid pumps, and lasers. Moreover, the

  10. Combining blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as an effective strategy for analyzing potential membrane protein complexes of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is an infectious bacterial disease in humans caused primarily by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and infects one-third of the world's total population. Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine has been widely used to prevent tuberculosis worldwide since 1921. Membrane proteins play important roles in various cellular processes, and the protein-protein interactions involved in these processes may provide further information about molecular organization and cellular pathways. However, membrane proteins are notoriously under-represented by traditional two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE and little is known about mycobacterial membrane and membrane-associated protein complexes. Here we investigated M. bovis BCG by an alternative proteomic strategy coupling blue native PAGE to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS to characterize potential protein-protein interactions in membrane fractions. Results Using this approach, we analyzed native molecular composition of protein complexes in BCG membrane fractions. As a result, 40 proteins (including 12 integral membrane proteins, which were organized in 9 different gel bands, were unambiguous identified. The proteins identified have been experimentally confirmed using 2-D SDS PAGE. We identified MmpL8 and four neighboring proteins that were involved in lipid transport complexes, and all subunits of ATP synthase complex in their monomeric states. Two phenolpthiocerol synthases and three arabinosyltransferases belonging to individual operons were obtained in different gel bands. Furthermore, two giant multifunctional enzymes, Pks7 and Pks8, and four mycobacterial Hsp family members were determined. Additionally, seven ribosomal proteins involved in polyribosome complex and two subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase complex were also found. Notablely, some proteins with high hydrophobicity or multiple transmembrane

  11. Application of computer-aided three-dimensional skull model with rapid prototyping technique in repair of zygomatico-orbito-maxillary complex fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei Zhong; Zhang, Mei Chao; Li, Shao Ping; Zhang, Lei Tao; Huang, Yu

    2009-06-01

    With the advent of CAD/CAM and rapid prototyping (RP), a technical revolution in oral and maxillofacial trauma was promoted to benefit treatment, repair of maxillofacial fractures and reconstruction of maxillofacial defects. For a patient with zygomatico-facial collapse deformity resulting from a zygomatico-orbito-maxillary complex (ZOMC) fracture, CT scan data were processed by using Mimics 10.0 for three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. The reduction design was aided by 3D virtual imaging and the 3D skull model was reproduced using the RP technique. In line with the design by Mimics, presurgery was performed on the 3D skull model and the semi-coronal incision was taken for reduction of ZOMC fracture, based on the outcome from the presurgery. Postoperative CT and images revealed significantly modified zygomatic collapse and zygomatic arch rise and well-modified facial symmetry. The CAD/CAM and RP technique is a relatively useful tool that can assist surgeons with reconstruction of the maxillofacial skeleton, especially in repairs of ZOMC fracture.

  12. Development and validation of rapid ion-pair RPLC method for simultaneous determination of certain B-complex vitamins along with vitamin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Suyog S; Srivastava, Ashiwini K

    2012-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and accurate ion-pair RPLC method has been developed for simultaneous analysis of vitamin C and major B-complex vitamins. An RP C18 column thermostated at 30 degrees C was used with gradient elution of mobile phase comprising 10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (containing 3 mM sodium hexane-1-sulfonate, adjusted to pH 2.80 with o-phosphoric acid) and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min to achieve the best possible separation and resolution of all vitamins in about 11.00 min. The detection was performed at 274 nm. The method has been implemented successfully for simultaneous determination of vitamins present in 12 multivitamin/multimineral pharmaceutical preparations, as well as in human urine. Typical validation characteristics were evaluated in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Good linearity over the investigated concentration levels was observed. Intraday repeatability was vitamins. The method can be used for assay of these vitamins over a wide concentration range with good precision and accuracy; hence, it would be appropriate for routine QC as well as in clinical analysis.

  13. Beam loss reduction by injection painting in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was commissioned in October 2007. Via the initial beam tuning and a series of underlying beam studies with low-intensity beams, since December 2009, we have intermittently been performing beam tuning experiments with higher-intensity beams including the injection painting technique. By optimizing the injection painting parameters, we have successfully achieved a 420 kW-equivalent output intensity at a low-level intensity loss of less than 1%. Also the corresponding numerical simulation well reproduced the observed painting parameter dependence on the beam loss, and captured a characteristic behavior of the high-intensity beam in the injection painting process. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the course of the RCS beam power ramp-up, especially on the beam loss reduction achieved by employing the injection painting, together with the numerical simulation results.

  14. Disaster response contracting in a post-Katrina world: analyzing current disaster response strategies and exploring alternatives to improve acquisition processes for rapid reaction to large scale disasters within the United States

    OpenAIRE

    King, Jerry A.; McKay, Joshua H.

    2006-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Considerable public scrutiny has been focused on the Federal Governmentb2ss, especially the Federal Emergency Management Agencyb2ss (FEMA) supposed inadequate, misdirected, and slow response to the acquisition needs required for responding to the aftermath of hurricane Katrina. This seemingly failed response quite possibly cost the Federal Government billions in wasted taxpayer dollars and has affected the livelihood of thousands. Analyzing what went wrong and exami...

  15. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites...... for further interrogation. To answer biologically relevant questions from these complex data sets, it becomes essential to apply computational, statistical, and predictive analytical methods. Here we provide an advanced bioinformatic platform termed "PhosphoSiteAnalyzer" to explore large phosphoproteomic data...... an algorithm to retrieve kinase predictions from the public NetworKIN webpage in a semiautomated way and applies hereafter advanced statistics to facilitate a user-tailored in-depth analysis of the phosphoproteomic data sets. The interface of the software provides a high degree of analytical flexibility...

  16. System performance analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, H. R.

    1981-01-01

    The System Performance Analyzer (SPA) designed to provide accurate real time information about the operation of complex systems and developed for use on the Airborne Data Analysis/Monitor System (ADAMS), a ROLM 1666 based system is described. The system uses an external processor to operate an intelligent, simulated control panel. Also provided are functions to trace operations, determine frequency of use of memory areas, and time or count user tasks in a multitask environment. This augments the information available from the standard debugger and control panel, and reduces the time and effort needed by ROLM 1666 users in optimizing their system, as well as providing documentation of the effect of any changes. The operation and state of the system are evaluated.

  17. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  18. Scalable metagenomics alignment research tool (SMART): a scalable, rapid, and complete search heuristic for the classification of metagenomic sequences from complex sequence populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aaron Y; Lee, Cecilia S; Van Gelder, Russell N

    2016-07-28

    Next generation sequencing technology has enabled characterization of metagenomics through massively parallel genomic DNA sequencing. The complexity and diversity of environmental samples such as the human gut microflora, combined with the sustained exponential growth in sequencing capacity, has led to the challenge of identifying microbial organisms by DNA sequence. We sought to validate a Scalable Metagenomics Alignment Research Tool (SMART), a novel searching heuristic for shotgun metagenomics sequencing results. After retrieving all genomic DNA sequences from the NCBI GenBank, over 1 × 10(11) base pairs of 3.3 × 10(6) sequences from 9.25 × 10(5) species were indexed using 4 base pair hashtable shards. A MapReduce searching strategy was used to distribute the search workload in a computing cluster environment. In addition, a one base pair permutation algorithm was used to account for single nucleotide polymorphisms and sequencing errors. Simulated datasets used to evaluate Kraken, a similar metagenomics classification tool, were used to measure and compare precision and accuracy. Finally using a same set of training sequences we compared Kraken, CLARK, and SMART within the same computing environment. Utilizing 12 computational nodes, we completed the classification of all datasets in under 10 min each using exact matching with an average throughput of over 1.95 × 10(6) reads classified per minute. With permutation matching, we achieved sensitivity greater than 83 % and precision greater than 94 % with simulated datasets at the species classification level. We demonstrated the application of this technique applied to conjunctival and gut microbiome metagenomics sequencing results. In our head to head comparison, SMART and CLARK had similar accuracy gains over Kraken at the species classification level, but SMART required approximately half the amount of RAM of CLARK. SMART is the first scalable, efficient, and rapid metagenomics classification algorithm

  19. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  20. N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex as a new fluorescent probe for rapid and visual detection of Pd2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyazagan, Munisamy; Mohandoss, Sonaimuthu; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-12-01

    Inclusion complex between N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was studied by FT-IR, 1H and 2D NMR, XRD, FT-Raman, SEM and DSC techniques. The formation of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex of NPN with β-CD was proposed based on the Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Molecular docking study. The molecular encapsulation of host-guest inclusion complex based on simple chemosensor has high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of Pd2+ ion. Host-guest inclusion complex as a spectroscopic probe is used for the detection of transition metal cation Pd2+. Coordination of this Pd2+ with (NPN/β-CD) inclusion complex exhibited a noticeable color change in the solution state it used for naked-eye detection.

  1. N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine/β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex as a new fluorescent probe for rapid and visual detection of Pd(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyazagan, Munisamy; Mohandoss, Sonaimuthu; Sivakumar, Krishnamoorthy; Stalin, Thambusamy

    2014-12-10

    Inclusion complex between N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was studied by FT-IR, (1)H and 2D NMR, XRD, FT-Raman, SEM and DSC techniques. The formation of 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex of NPN with β-CD was proposed based on the Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Molecular docking study. The molecular encapsulation of host-guest inclusion complex based on simple chemosensor has high selectivity and sensitivity for the determination of Pd(2+) ion. Host-guest inclusion complex as a spectroscopic probe is used for the detection of transition metal cation Pd(2+). Coordination of this Pd(2+) with (NPN/β-CD) inclusion complex exhibited a noticeable color change in the solution state it used for naked-eye detection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Development of a triple hyphenated HPLC-radical scavenging detection-DAD-SPE-NMR system for the rapid identification of antioxidants in complex plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Waard, de P.

    2005-01-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous detection and identification of radical scavenging compounds in plant extracts was developed by combining an HPLC with on-line radical scavenging using DPPH as a model radical and an HPLC¿DAD¿SPE¿NMR system. Using this method a commercial rosemary extract was

  3. The properties of the positively charged loop region in PSI-G are essential for its "spontaneous" insertion into thylakoids and rapid assembly into the photosystem I complex

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zygadlo, Agnieszka; Robinson, Colin; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Mant, Alexandra; Jensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    The PSI-G subunit of photosystem I (PSI) is an 11-kDa membrane protein that plays an important role in electron transport between plastocyanin and PSI and is involved in the stability of the PSI complex...

  4. DOG optical gas analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbukin, A.A.; Buldakov, M.A.; Korolev, B.V.; Korolo' kov, V.A.; Matrosov, I.I. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Optical Monitoring

    2002-01-01

    Stationary gas analyzers for continuous monitoring of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases of electric power plants burning fossil fuels have been developed. The DOG series of gas-analyzers use non-laser UV radiation sources and the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurement technique. Operation of the gas-analyzers at Russian electric power plants showed their high efficiency, reliability, and easiness in operation at lower cost as compared to similar foreign devices. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Universal MOSFET parameter analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klekachev, A. V.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Pikulev, V. B.; Gurtov, V. A.

    2006-05-01

    MOSFET analyzer is developed to extract most important parameters of transistors. Instead of routine DC transfer and output characteristics, analyzer provides an evaluation of interface states density by applying charge pumping technique. There are two features that outperform the analyzer among similar products of other vendors. It is compact (100 × 80 × 50 mm 3 in dimensions) and lightweight (instrument with ultra low power supply (instrument was designed on the base of component parts from CYPRESS and ANALOG DEVICES (USA).

  6. Achievement report for fiscal 1997 on the development of technologies for utilizing biological resources such as complex biosystems. Development of complex biosystem analyzing technology; 1997 nendo fukugo seibutsukei nado seibutsu shigen riyo gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Fukugo seibutsukei kaiseki gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The aim is to utilize the sophisticated functions of complex biosystems. In the research and development of technologies for effectively utilizing unexploited resources and substances such as seeweeds and algae, seaweeds are added to seawater to turn into a microbial suspension after the passage of two weeks, the suspension is next scattered on a carageenan culture medium, and then carageenan decomposing microbes are obtained. In the research and development of technologies for utilizing microbe/fauna-flora complex systems, technologies for exploring and analyzing microbes are studied. For this purpose, 48 kinds of sponges and 300 kinds of bacteria symbiotic with the sponges are sampled in Malaysia. Out of them, 15 exhibit enzyme inhibition and Artemia salina lethality activities. In the development of technologies for analyzing the functions of microbes engaged in the production of useful resources and substances for animals and plants, 150 kinds of micro-algae are subjected to screening using protease and chitinase inhibiting activities as the indexes, and it is found that an extract of Isochrysis galbana displays an intense inhibitory activity. The alga is cultured in quantities, the active component is isolated from 20g of dried alga, and its constitution is determined. (NEDO)

  7. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  8. Gearbox vibration diagnostic analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Gearbox Vibration Diagnostic Analyzer installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center's 500 HP Helicopter Transmission Test Stand to monitor gearbox testing. The vibration of the gearbox is analyzed using diagnostic algorithms to calculate a parameter indicating damaged components.

  9. Analyzing in the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line; Tanggaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    The article presents a notion of “analyzing in the present” as a source of inspiration in analyzing qualitative research materials. The term emerged from extensive listening to interview recordings during everyday commuting to university campus. Paying attention to the way different parts...... of various interviews conveyed diverse significance to the listening researcher at different times became a method of continuously opening up the empirical material in a reflexive, breakdown-oriented process of analysis. We argue that situating analysis in the present of analyzing emphasizes and acknowledges...

  10. A rapid extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II) in environmental samples, alloys, complexes and pharmaceutical samples using 4-[N,N(dimethyl)amino]benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, J; Naik, P Parameshwara; Shetty, A Nityananda

    2011-05-01

    4-[N,N-(Dimethyl)amino]benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (DMABT) is proposed as an analytical reagent for the extractive spectrophotometric determination of copper(II). DMABT forms yellow colored complex with copper(II) in the pH range 4.4-5.4. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration range up to 4.7 μg mL(-1). The optimum concentration range for minimum photometric error as determined by Ringbom plot method is 1.2-3.8 μg mL(-1). The yellowish Cu(II)-DMABT complex shows a maximum absorbance at 420 nm, with molar absorptivity of 1.72 × 10(4)dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1) and Sandell's sensitivity of the complex obtained from Beer's data is 0.0036 μg cm(-2). The composition of the Cu(II)-DMABT complex is found to be 1:2 (M/L). The interference of various cations and anions in the method were studied. Thus the method can be employed for the determination of trace amount of copper(II) in water, alloys and other natural samples of significant importance.

  11. Proton Electrostatic Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    A ,.C 50 5 4i5 Iv T.3 .uqu4. D - LAit DAT&TC I S-P 4# I I T M IT DAY .&A. ADP A,9 J., MAIM 14 _ M .5 4.5 "mRA I74 aA 0 A- 92SPAM IY wI DOD , p M1...range, danger of rapid channeltron aging under high current conditions and the chance of nondetection of anisotropic: fluxes. These features have been

  12. Rapid Construction of Complex Plant RNA Virus Infectious cDNA Clones for Agroinfection Using a Yeast-E. coli-Agrobacterium Shuttle Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Danyang; Liu, Yong; Huang, Changjun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhenghe

    2017-11-07

    The availability of infectious full-length clone is indispensable for reverse genetics studies of virus biology, pathology and construction of viral vectors. However, for RNA viruses with large genome sizes or those exhibiting inherent cloning difficulties, procedure to generate biologically active circular DNA (cDNA) clones can be time-consuming or technically challenging. Here we have constructed a yeast- Escherichia coli - Agrobacterium shuttle vector that enables highly efficient homologous recombination in yeast for assembly of Agrobacterium compatible plant virus clones. Using this vector, we show that infectious cDNA clones of a plant negative-stranded RNA virus, sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus, can be rapidly assembled. In addition, one-step assembly of infectious clones of potato virus Y in yeast, either with or without intron, was readily achieved from as many as eight overlapping DNA fragments. More importantly, the recovered yeast plasmids can be transformed directly into Agrobacterium for inoculation, thereby obviating the E. coli cloning steps and associated toxicity issues. This method is rapid, highly efficient and cost-effective and should be readily applicable to a broad range of plant viruses.

  13. Rapid Construction of Complex Plant RNA Virus Infectious cDNA Clones for Agroinfection Using a Yeast-E. coli-Agrobacterium Shuttle Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The availability of infectious full-length clone is indispensable for reverse genetics studies of virus biology, pathology and construction of viral vectors. However, for RNA viruses with large genome sizes or those exhibiting inherent cloning difficulties, procedure to generate biologically active complementary DNA (cDNA clones can be time-consuming or technically challenging. Here we have constructed a yeast-Escherichia coli-Agrobacterium shuttle vector that enables highly efficient homologous recombination in yeast for assembly of Agrobacterium compatible plant virus clones. Using this vector, we show that infectious cDNA clones of a plant negative-stranded RNA virus, sonchus yellow net rhabdovirus, can be rapidly assembled. In addition, one-step assembly of infectious clones of potato virus Y in yeast, either with or without intron, was readily achieved from as many as eight overlapping DNA fragments. More importantly, the recovered yeast plasmids can be transformed directly into Agrobacterium for inoculation, thereby obviating the E. coli cloning steps and associated toxicity issues. This method is rapid, highly efficient and cost-effective and should be readily applicable to a broad range of plant viruses.

  14. Software Design Analyzer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  15. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  16. RADMAP: Simple probes for rapid assessment of complex reactivity: A method and case studies on the reaction of hydrogen atoms with unsaturated organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew K; Fawcett, Jason A; Clyburne, Jason A C; Pye, Cory C

    2016-03-01

    RADMAP, an open source program, allows for rapid analysis and visualization of the earliest stages of reactions between any molecule and a monoatomic probe (i.e., H*, H(+), H(-), Br*, or any other monoatomic species) using ab initio methods. This program creates non-planar potential energy surfaces of the initial interaction between a molecule of interest and the monoatomic probe. These surfaces can be used to both predict the site of addition as well as provide a qualitative estimate for the relative proportion of the formation of adducts; therefore, it gives insight into both the reactivity and the kinetic stability of a molecule. The program presents a way to quickly predict the number of signals anticipated in transverse field muon spin resonance spectra as well as their relative intensities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rapid detection of Salmonella in meat: Comparative and collaborative validation of a non-complex and cost effective pre-PCR protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, F.; Mansdal, S.

    2011-01-01

    samples using a real-time PCR method. The protocol included incubation in buffered peptone water, centrifugation of an aliquot and a boiling procedure. The validation study included comparative and collaborative trials recommended by the Nordic Organization for Validation of Alternative Methods (Nord......Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective was, for the first time, to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab....../sample for the boiling, magnetic bead-based and NMKL187 methods, respectively. When comparing the boiling method with the magnetic beads, the relative accuracy (AC), relative sensitivity (SE) and relative specificity (SP) were found to be 98%, 102% and 98%, respectively (Cohen’s kappa index 0.95). When comparing results...

  18. Analyzing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    New types of disclosure and reporting are argued to be vital in order to convey a transparent picture of the true state of the company. However, they are unfortunately not without problems as these types of information are somewhat more complex than the information provided in the traditional...

  19. Remote Laser Diffraction PSD Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2000-06-01

    Particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of radioactive slurry samples were obtained using a modified "off-the-shelf" classical laser light scattering particle size analyzer. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model La-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a "hot cell" (gamma radiation) environment. The general details of the modifications to this analyzer are presented in this paper. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not achievable - making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used previously. Remote deployment and utilization of this technology is in an exploratory stage. The risk of malfunction in this radiation environment is countered by gaining of this tremendously useful fundamental engineering data. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  20. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  1. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jackie

    1996-01-01

    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  2. Rapid genome mapping in nanochannel arrays for highly complete and accurate de novo sequence assembly of the complex Aegilops tauschii genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex R Hastie

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies have enabled high-throughput and low-cost generation of sequence data; however, de novo genome assembly remains a great challenge, particularly for large genomes. NGS short reads are often insufficient to create large contigs that span repeat sequences and to facilitate unambiguous assembly. Plant genomes are notorious for containing high quantities of repetitive elements, which combined with huge genome sizes, makes accurate assembly of these large and complex genomes intractable thus far. Using two-color genome mapping of tiling bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC clones on nanochannel arrays, we completed high-confidence assembly of a 2.1-Mb, highly repetitive region in the large and complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum. Genome mapping is based on direct visualization of sequence motifs on single DNA molecules hundreds of kilobases in length. With the genome map as a scaffold, we anchored unplaced sequence contigs, validated the initial draft assembly, and resolved instances of misassembly, some involving contigs <2 kb long, to dramatically improve the assembly from 75% to 95% complete.

  3. Rapid genome mapping in nanochannel arrays for highly complete and accurate de novo sequence assembly of the complex Aegilops tauschii genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastie, Alex R; Dong, Lingli; Smith, Alexis; Finklestein, Jeff; Lam, Ernest T; Huo, Naxin; Cao, Han; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Deal, Karin R; Dvorak, Jan; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong; Xiao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled high-throughput and low-cost generation of sequence data; however, de novo genome assembly remains a great challenge, particularly for large genomes. NGS short reads are often insufficient to create large contigs that span repeat sequences and to facilitate unambiguous assembly. Plant genomes are notorious for containing high quantities of repetitive elements, which combined with huge genome sizes, makes accurate assembly of these large and complex genomes intractable thus far. Using two-color genome mapping of tiling bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) clones on nanochannel arrays, we completed high-confidence assembly of a 2.1-Mb, highly repetitive region in the large and complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome donor of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). Genome mapping is based on direct visualization of sequence motifs on single DNA molecules hundreds of kilobases in length. With the genome map as a scaffold, we anchored unplaced sequence contigs, validated the initial draft assembly, and resolved instances of misassembly, some involving contigs <2 kb long, to dramatically improve the assembly from 75% to 95% complete.

  4. Development of a novel PCR restriction analysis of the hsp65 gene as a rapid method to screen for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and nontuberculous mycobacteria in high-burden countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma-Basil, Mandira; Garima, Kushal; Pathak, Rakesh; Dwivedi, Shailendra Kumar Dhar; Narang, Anshika; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Bose, Mridula

    2013-04-01

    The limitations of conventional methods of identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have led to the development of several nucleic acid amplification techniques which have the advantage of being rapid, sensitive, and specific. However, their expense or the need for technical expertise makes it difficult to use them in regions in which tuberculosis is endemic. A novel PCR restriction analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene was therefore developed for rapid screening of clinical isolates to identify Mycobacterium spp. The restriction enzymes NruI and BamHI were selected to obtain a limited number of restriction patterns to further differentiate between Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Three hundred ten isolates from clinical specimens and 24 reference strains were tested. The assay correctly identified 295 of the 310 culture isolates as MTBC, while the remaining 15 isolates were identified as NTM. Of the isolates tested, 135 MTBC strains and all 15 NTM were also confirmed by PRA using Sau96I and CfoI. Thirty-eight randomly selected MTBC strains and all 15 NTM were further confirmed by sequencing. The NruI/BamHI PRA was simple, as it did not require any elaborate analyses. It was cost-effective, rapid, highly sensitive, and specific and did not require technical expertise. The assay can, therefore, be used as a simple screening test not only to detect Mycobacterium spp. but also to differentiate MTBC from NTM in peripheral laboratories with minimal availability of funds.

  5. Analyzing sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida; Shahzad Khuram; Takala Josu; Bojnec Stefan; Papler Drago; Liu Yang

    2016-01-01

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sens...

  6. A rapid and efficient method for quantitation of genogroups I and II norovirus from oysters and application in other complex environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Jennifer; Vinjé, Jan; Lipp, Erin K

    2009-03-01

    The human health risk associated with the consumption of molluscan shellfish grown in sewage-contaminated waters is well established. Noroviruses are the principal agent of shellfish-related illness. This study describes the evaluation of two silica-based viral RNA extraction protocols as well as two real time RT-PCR assays for norovirus detection in shellfish and plankton. Using a GII RNA transcript, the Qiagen RNeasy method was able to recover 80%, 1.85%, and 0.14% of the RNA copies in seeded oyster, small plankton (63-200microm), and large plankton (>200microm) samples, respectively, whereas a silica-bead based method was able to recover only 0.175%, 0.0044%, and 0.0006% in the same seeded samples. The detection limit of two published TaqMan RT-PCR assays (A and B) evaluated with RNA run-off transcripts established RT-PCR assay A was more sensitive for detecting low copies of GI.3 RNA whereas RT-PCR assay B was more sensitive for detecting GI.4 and GII.4; however, only assay A was able to detect GI and GII in naturally contaminated shellfish whereas only assay B was able to detect GI and GII in naturally contaminated plankton. The combination of a rapid RNA extraction method followed by both TaqMan RT-PCR assays offers significant advantages for development of routine assays for norovirus detection in bivalve shellfish and shows promise for detection in other high inhibitor environmental sources, such as plankton.

  7. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Beaudeau, François; Seegers, Henri; Denis, Martine; Belloc, Catherine

    2011-05-22

    Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli), are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 10² CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 10² CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 10³ CFU/m² for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R² = 0.90 and R² = 0.93 respectively. The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new diagnostic tool for studying the epidemiology of

  8. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Martine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli (C. coli, are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new

  9. Rapid identification and quantification of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni by real-time PCR in pure cultures and in complex samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli), are recognized as the leading human foodborne pathogens in developed countries. Livestock animals carrying Campylobacter pose an important risk for human contamination. Pigs are known to be frequently colonized with Campylobacter, especially C. coli, and to excrete high numbers of this pathogen in their faeces. Molecular tools, notably real-time PCR, provide an effective, rapid, and sensitive alternative to culture-based methods for the detection of C. coli and C. jejuni in various substrates. In order to serve as a diagnostic tool supporting Campylobacter epidemiology, we developed a quantitative real-time PCR method for species-specific detection and quantification of C. coli and C. jejuni directly in faecal, feed, and environmental samples. Results With a sensitivity of 10 genome copies and a linear range of seven to eight orders of magnitude, the C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays allowed a precise quantification of purified DNA from C. coli and C. jejuni. The assays were highly specific and showed a 6-log-linear dynamic range of quantification with a quantitative detection limit of approximately 2.5 × 102 CFU/g of faeces, 1.3 × 102 CFU/g of feed, and 1.0 × 103 CFU/m2 for the environmental samples. Compared to the results obtained by culture, both C. coli and C. jejuni real-time PCR assays exhibited a specificity of 96.2% with a kappa of 0.94 and 0.89 respectively. For faecal samples of experimentally infected pigs, the coefficients of correlation between the C. coli or C. jejuni real-time PCR assay and culture enumeration were R2 = 0.90 and R2 = 0.93 respectively. Conclusion The C. coli and C. jejuni real-time quantitative PCR assays developed in this study provide a method capable of directly detecting and quantifying C. coli and C. jejuni in faeces, feed, and environmental samples. These assays represent a new diagnostic tool for studying

  10. PCR-Based Rapid Identification System Using Bridged Nucleic Acids for Detection of Clarithromycin-Resistant Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare Complex Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Ayako; Egashira, Hiroshi; Kishi, Etsuko; Hagiwara, Koichi; Nakamura, Hidetoshi; Kanazawa, Minoru; Nagata, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause miscellaneous disorders in humans, especially in the lungs, which present with a variety of radiological features. To date, knowledge of the pathogenic role of the Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in the human lung and the definitive criteria for initiating multidrug therapy are still lacking. However, there is little doubt that clarithromycin is the most efficacious drug among the various treatment regimens for lung NTM. In this study, with the use of a bridged nucleic acid (BNA) probe a detection system based on a real-time PCR (BNA-PCR) for the identification of the point mutations at position 2058 or 2059 in domain V of the 23S rRNA gene responsible for clarithromycin resistance was developed and has been assessed using MAC isolates from clinical samples. Out of 199 respiratory specimens, the drug susceptibility test demonstrated 12 strains resistant to clarithromycin, while the BNA-PCR showed 8 strains carrying the point mutation at position 2058 or 2059 of the 23S rRNA gene. This system revealed that there were mycobacterial strains resistant to clarithromycin which do not carry previously identified resistance genes. This paper documents a novel system for detecting clarithromycin-resistant strains and demonstrates that although these mutations are tacitly assumed to account for >90% of the reported resistant mutants, there is a significant fraction of resistant mutants that do not harbor these mutations. Therefore, unknown mechanisms affecting clarithromycin resistance remain to be elucidated. PMID:26739154

  11. A One-Step Rapid Assembly of Thin Film Coating Using Green Coordination Complexes for Enhanced Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants by Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hao; Yao, Zhikan; Yang, Zhe; Ma, Xiaohua; Wang, Jianqiang; Tang, Chuyang Y

    2017-11-07

    We report a fast, simple, and green coating method using the coordination complex of tannic acid (TA) and ferric ion (Fe3+) to enhance the removal of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) by polyamide membranes. The entire coating process can be completed in less than 2 min; quartz crystal microbalance characterization revealed that a TA-Fe thin film formed in merely 10-20 s. Coating this TA-Fe thin film on a commercial nanofiltration membrane (NF270) reduced its effective pore size from 0.44 to 0.40 nm. The TA-Fe-coated NF270 showed significantly increased rejection of both NaCl and trace organic contaminants. In comparison with the more-time-consuming polydopamine coating (e.g., 0.5 h), the TA-Fe coating presented greater resistance to TrOC permeation (i.e., lower permeability of TrOCs). The advantages of the fast coating process, greatly improved rejection performance, and use of green accessible materials make TA-Fe a highly promising coating material for large-scale applications.

  12. PCR Assay Based on the gyrB Gene for Rapid Identification of Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus Complex at Specie Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Aline B; Barin, Juliana; Hermes, Djuli M; Barth, Afonso L; Martins, Andreza F

    2017-05-01

    The genus Acinetobacter sp. comprises more than 50 species, and four are closely related and difficult to be distinguished by either phenotypic or genotypic methods: the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex (ABC). The correct identification at species level is necessary mainly due to the epidemiological aspects. We evaluated a multiplex PCR for gyrB gene to identify the species of the ABC using the sequencing of the ITS 16S-23S fragment as a gold standard. Isolates identified as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii from three hospitals at southern Brazil in 2011 were included in this study. A total of 117 isolates were obtained and 106 (90.6%) were confirmed as A. baumannii, 6 (5.1%) as A. nosocomialis and 4 (3.4%) as A. pittii by PCR for gyrB gene. Only one isolate did not present a product of the PCR for the gyrB gene; this isolate was identified as Acinetobacter genospecie 10 by sequencing of ITS. We also noted that the non-A. baumannii isolates were recovered from respiratory tract (8/72.7%), blood (2/18.2%) and urine (1/9.1%), suggesting that these species can cause serious infection. These findings evidenced that the multiplex PCR of the gyrB is a feasible and simple method to identify isolates of the ABC at the species level. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  14. Ring Image Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  15. Rapid and efficient visible light photocatalytic dye degradation using AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca and Sr) complex oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, T. [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Suriyaraj, S.P.; Selvakumar, R. [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Venkateswaran, R. [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India); Ashok, Anuradha, E-mail: anu@psgias.ac.in [PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore 641004 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Alkaline earth ferrites AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca and Sr) were synthesized by sol–gel method. • Visible light photocatalytic activity of these ferrites were studied using congo red dye degradation. • BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited the best photocatalytic activity under visible light (xenon lamp) irradiation; CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} was the best photocatalyst under natural sun light irradiation. - Abstract: Photocatalytic activity of spinel type complex oxides has been investigated in this study. Alkaline earth ferrites AFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (A = Ba, Ca, Sr) were synthesized by sol–gel method. Structural characterizations reveal that the synthesized ferrites have orthorhombic crystal structures with different space groups and cell dimensions when they have different alkaline earth metals in their A site. All the synthesized ferrites exhibited their bandgap in the range 2.14–2.19 eV. Their photocatalytic activities were studied using congo red dye under sunlight and xenon lamp radiation. The substitution of Ba, Ca and Sr at A site of these ferrites had varying impact on dye degradation process. Under xenon lamp irradiation, BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} exhibited the highest percentage of dye degradation (92% after 75 min). However, CaFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed the fastest degradation of the dye (70% within 15 min). In the absence of irradiation, SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} showed the highest dye adsorption (44% after 75 min).

  16. Trace impurity analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W.J.; Edwards, D. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The desirability for long-term reliability of large scale helium refrigerator systems used on superconducting accelerator magnets has necessitated detection of impurities to levels of a few ppM. An analyzer that measures trace impurity levels of condensable contaminants in concentrations of less than a ppM in 15 atm of He is described. The instrument makes use of the desorption temperature at an indicated pressure of the various impurities to determine the type of contaminant. The pressure rise at that temperature yields a measure of the contaminant level of the impurity. A LN/sub 2/ cryogenic charcoal trap is also employed to measure air impurities (nitrogen and oxygen) to obtain the full range of contaminant possibilities. The results of this detector which will be in use on the research and development helium refrigerator of the ISABELLE First-Cell is described.

  17. Analyzing complicity in risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Jerry

    2008-12-01

    When risks generate anger rather than fear, there is at least someone who regards the imposition of those risks as wrongdoing; and it then makes sense to speak of the involvement in producing those risks as complicity. It is particularly relevant to examine the complicity of risk bearers, because this is likely to have a strong influence on how far other actors should go in providing them with protection. This article makes a case for analyzing complicity explicitly, in parallel with normal processes of risk assessment, and proposes a framework for this analysis. It shows how it can be applied in a case study of maritime transportation, and examines the practical and theoretical difficulties of this kind of analysis. The conclusion is that the analysis has to be formative rather than summative, but that it could provide a useful way of exposing differences in the assumptions of different actors about agency and responsibility.

  18. ROBOT TASK SCENE ANALYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Steven Everett

    2000-08-01

    Environmental restoration and waste management (ER and WM) challenges in the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and around the world, involve radiation or other hazards which will necessitate the use of remote operations to protect human workers from dangerous exposures. Remote operations carry the implication of greater costs since remote work systems are inherently less productive than contact human work due to the inefficiencies/complexities of teleoperation. To reduce costs and improve quality, much attention has been focused on methods to improve the productivity of combined human operator/remote equipment systems; the achievements to date are modest at best. The most promising avenue in the near term is to supplement conventional remote work systems with robotic planning and control techniques borrowed from manufacturing and other domains where robotic automation has been used. Practical combinations of teleoperation and robotic control will yield telerobotic work systems that outperform currently available remote equipment. It is believed that practical telerobotic systems may increase remote work efficiencies significantly. Increases of 30% to 50% have been conservatively estimated for typical remote operations. It is important to recognize that the basic hardware and software features of most modern remote manipulation systems can readily accommodate the functionality required for telerobotics. Further, several of the additional system ingredients necessary to implement telerobotic control--machine vision, 3D object and workspace modeling, automatic tool path generation and collision-free trajectory planning--are existent.

  19. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  20. Analysis of Proteins That Rapidly Change Upon Mechanistic/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Repression Identifies Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7) as a Novel Protein Aberrantly Expressed in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, Farr; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Song, Ehwang; Dilly, Geoffrey A; Schoenhard, Grant; Zemelman, Boris V; Mechref, Yehia; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F

    2016-02-01

    Many biological processes involve the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the challenge of deciphering mTORC1-mediated functions during normal and pathological states in the central nervous system is challenging. Because mTORC1 is at the core of translation, we have investigated mTORC1 function in global and regional protein expression. Activation of mTORC1 has been generally regarded to promote translation. Few but recent works have shown that suppression of mTORC1 can also promote local protein synthesis. Moreover, excessive mTORC1 activation during diseased states represses basal and activity-induced protein synthesis. To determine the role of mTORC1 activation in protein expression, we have used an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach. We provide evidence that a brief repression of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin has little effect globally, yet leads to a significant remodeling of synaptic proteins, in particular those proteins that reside in the postsynaptic density. We have also found that curtailing the activity of mTORC1 bidirectionally alters the expression of proteins associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder-neurological disorders that exhibit elevated mTORC1 activity. Through a protein-protein interaction network analysis, we have identified common proteins shared among these mTORC1-related diseases. One such protein is Parkinson protein 7, which has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, yet not associated with epilepsy, Alzheimers disease, or autism spectrum disorder. To verify our finding, we provide evidence that the protein expression of Parkinson protein 7, including new protein synthesis, is sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. Using a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease that displays both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder phenotypes and has overactive mTORC1 signaling, we show that Parkinson protein 7 protein is elevated in the dendrites and colocalizes

  1. Analysis of Proteins That Rapidly Change Upon Mechanistic/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Repression Identifies Parkinson Protein 7 (PARK7) as a Novel Protein Aberrantly Expressed in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niere, Farr; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Song, Ehwang; Dilly, Geoffrey A.; Schoenhard, Grant; Zemelman, Boris V.; Mechref, Yehia; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    Many biological processes involve the mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the challenge of deciphering mTORC1-mediated functions during normal and pathological states in the central nervous system is challenging. Because mTORC1 is at the core of translation, we have investigated mTORC1 function in global and regional protein expression. Activation of mTORC1 has been generally regarded to promote translation. Few but recent works have shown that suppression of mTORC1 can also promote local protein synthesis. Moreover, excessive mTORC1 activation during diseased states represses basal and activity-induced protein synthesis. To determine the role of mTORC1 activation in protein expression, we have used an unbiased, large-scale proteomic approach. We provide evidence that a brief repression of mTORC1 activity in vivo by rapamycin has little effect globally, yet leads to a significant remodeling of synaptic proteins, in particular those proteins that reside in the postsynaptic density. We have also found that curtailing the activity of mTORC1 bidirectionally alters the expression of proteins associated with epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and autism spectrum disorder—neurological disorders that exhibit elevated mTORC1 activity. Through a protein–protein interaction network analysis, we have identified common proteins shared among these mTORC1-related diseases. One such protein is Parkinson protein 7, which has been implicated in Parkinson's disease, yet not associated with epilepsy, Alzheimers disease, or autism spectrum disorder. To verify our finding, we provide evidence that the protein expression of Parkinson protein 7, including new protein synthesis, is sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition. Using a mouse model of tuberous sclerosis complex, a disease that displays both epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder phenotypes and has overactive mTORC1 signaling, we show that Parkinson protein 7 protein is elevated in the dendrites and

  2. Multicenter Evaluation of Anyplex Plus MTB/NTM MDR-TB Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Multidrug-Resistant Isolates in Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sali, Michela; De Maio, Flavio; Caccuri, Francesca; Campilongo, Federica; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Fiorentini, Simona; Delogu, Giovanni; Giagulli, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are critical for successful public health interventions. Therefore, TB diagnosis requires the availability of diagnostic tools that allow the rapid detection of M. tuberculosis and drug resistance in clinical samples. Here, we performed a multicenter study to evaluate the performance of the Seegene Anyplex MTB/NTM MDR-TB assay, a new molecular method based on a multiplex real-time PCR system, for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), and genetic determinants of drug resistance. In total, the results for 755 samples (534 pulmonary and 221 extrapulmonary samples) were compared with the results of smears and cultures. For pulmonary specimens, the sensitivities of the Anyplex assay and acid-fast bacillus smear testing were 86.4% and 75.0%, respectively, and the specificities were 99% and 99.4%. For extrapulmonary specimens, the sensitivities of the Anyplex assay and acid-fast bacillus smear testing were 83.3% and 50.0%, respectively, and the specificities of both were 100%. The negative and positive predictive values of the Anyplex assay for pulmonary specimens were 97% and 100%, respectively, and those for extrapulmonary specimens were 84.6% and 100%. The sensitivities of the Anyplex assay for detecting isoniazid resistance in MTBC strains from pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens were 83.3% and 50%, respectively, while the specificities were 100% for both specimen types. These results demonstrate that the Anyplex MTB/NTM MDR-TB assay is an efficient and rapid method for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB and the detection of isoniazid resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  4. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  5. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  6. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases

  7. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  8. Innovation Networks New Approaches in Modelling and Analyzing

    CERN Document Server

    Pyka, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The science of graphs and networks has become by now a well-established tool for modelling and analyzing a variety of systems with a large number of interacting components. Starting from the physical sciences, applications have spread rapidly to the natural and social sciences, as well as to economics, and are now further extended, in this volume, to the concept of innovations, viewed broadly. In an abstract, systems-theoretical approach, innovation can be understood as a critical event which destabilizes the current state of the system, and results in a new process of self-organization leading to a new stable state. The contributions to this anthology address different aspects of the relationship between innovation and networks. The various chapters incorporate approaches in evolutionary economics, agent-based modeling, social network analysis and econophysics and explore the epistemic tension between insights into economics and society-related processes, and the insights into new forms of complex dynamics.

  9. Analyzing Consumer Behavior Towards Contemporary Food Retailers

    OpenAIRE

    E.Dursun; M.O. Azabagaoglu

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is analyzing consumer behaviors towards to contemporary food retailers. Food retailing has been changing during recent years in Turkey. Foreign investors captivated with this market potential of food retailing. Retailer‟s format has been changed and featuring large-scale, extended product variety and full service retailers spreading rapidly through the nation-wide. Consumers‟ tend to shop their household needs from contemporary retailers due mainly to urbanism, ...

  10. Development of an automated in situ analyzer based on ferrozine colorimetry and flow injection analysis to analyze iron in freshwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, A. T.; Schwingle, R.; Pullin, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Iron is a common element in the earth crust and also a highly redox active metal in aqueous environments. The chemistry of aqueous iron predominantly involves the common oxidation states of iron, Fe(II) and Fe(III) and their biogeochemical reactions in the oceans, freshwaters, sediments and pore waters. Iron(III) is the thermodynamically stable form of iron in oxic and circumneutral natural waters; however, rapidly hydrolyzes and precipitates and become biologically unavailable. Iron(II) is more soluble and available for many microbial iron uptake strategies but rapidly oxidizes in oxic waters with a half-life in the order of minutes around pH 8. The often rapid interconversion of iron redox states makes in situ analysis preferable. Here we describe the development of an automated in situ iron analyzer based on ferrozine colorimetry and flow injection analysis (FIA) to analyze iron in freshwater systems. Ferrozine selectively reacts with iron(II) in the pH range 4 to 9 to produce a magenta colored 3:1 complex with a maximum absorption at 562 nm. Ferrozine does not react with iron(III) or any of its hydrolytic products. However, total iron determinations can be achieved use reducing agents such as ascorbic acid to reduce iron(III) to iron(II). Ferrozine colorimetry has been used successfully to develop automated iron sensors for marine systems and freshwater systems. Unlike luminol-based chemiluminescence methods, the ferrozine method is not sensitive to the amount of dissolved organic matter present in system or the temperature variations during the analysis. The instrument uses microscale tubing and fittings together with solenoid-based pumps and valves for flow control. Optical detection of the iron(II)-ferrozine complex uses a LED lamp with maximum emission at 560 nm and digital light sensor to avoid the use of complex optics. The instrument analyzes iron(II) and total iron in alternation, with a frequency of 4 minutes.

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for rapid identification and differentiation of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei from each other, Burkholderia thailandensis and several members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; March, J K; Bills, T M; Holt, B C; Wilson, C E; Lowe, W; Tolley, H D; Lee, M L; Robison, R A

    2013-11-01

    To develop a simple gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the detection and differentiation of Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei from each other, Burkholderia thailandensis and several members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. Biomarkers were generated by one-step thermochemolysis (TCM) and analysed using a GC-MS system. Fragments of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyvalerate [poly(3HBA-co-3HVA)] produced by TCM were useful biomarkers. Several cellular fatty acid methyl esters were important in differentiating the various Burkholderia species. A statistical discrimination algorithm was constructed using a combination of biomarkers. The identities of four B. pseudomallei strains, four B. mallei strains and one strain of each near neighbour were confirmed in a statistically designed test using the algorithm. The detection limit for this method was found to be approximately 4000 cells. The method is fast, accurate and easy to use. The algorithm is robust against different growth conditions (medium and temperature). This assay may prove beneficial in a clinical diagnostic setting, where the rapid identification of B. pseudomallei is essential to effective treatment. This method could also be easily employed after a biological attack to confirm the presence of either B. pseudomallei or B. mallei. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss in the low energy region but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering part of beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets during injection. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice superperiodicity, and its resultant deterioration of the betatron motion stability causes significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme for suppressing the extra beam loss, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  13. Analyzing Inverse Infrastructures using a Complex Adaptive Systems Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egyedi, T.M.; Van den Berg, J.

    2012-01-01

    The number of inverse infrastructures (Vree, 2003), that is, user-driven and self-organizing infrastructures, is rising and unsettling policies that are foremost tailored to deal with large-scale and centrally-governed infrastructures (Egyedi et al. 2012). To better understand and address this

  14. Analyzing the Localization of Retail Stores with Complex Systems Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Pablo

    Measuring the spatial distribution of locations of many entities (trees, atoms, economic activities, ...), and, more precisely, the deviations from purely random configurations, is a powerful method to unravel their underlying interactions. I study here the spatial organization of retail commercial activities. From pure location data, network analysis leads to a community structure that closely follows the commercial classification of the US Department of Labor. The interaction network allows to build a ’quality’ index of optimal location niches for stores, which has been empirically tested.

  15. Analyzing the complex machinery of cell wall biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, J.F.P.

    2009-01-01

    The plant cell wall polymers make up most of the plant biomass and provide the raw material for many economically important products including food, feed, bio-materials, chemicals, textiles, and biofuel. This broad range of functions and applications make the biosynthesis of these polysaccharides a

  16. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hui-Min; Ning, Yi-Zi; Ma, Xiaoke; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Zhong-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  17. Effectiveness of rapid rail transit system in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Cheng

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of rapid rail transit system is analyzed using tools of complex network for the first time. We evaluated the effectiveness of the system in Beijing quantitatively from different perspectives, including descriptive statistics analysis, bridging property, centrality property, ability of connecting different part of the system and ability of disease spreading. The results showed that the public transport of Beijing does benefit from the rapid rail transit lines, and the benefit of different regions from RRTS is gradually decreased from the north to the south. The paper concluded with some policy suggestions regarding how to promote the system. This study offered significant insight that can help understand the public transportation better. The methodology can be easily applied to analyze other urban public systems, such as electricity grid, water system, to develop more livable cities.

  18. Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Beijing/W Genotype in Sputum by an Optimized DNA Extraction Protocol and a Novel Multiplex Real-Time PCR ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Eric T. Y.; Zheng, L.; Wong, Rity Y. K.; Chan, Edward W. C.; Au, T. K.; Chan, Raphael C. Y.; Lui, Grace; Lee, Nelson; Ip, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by molecular methods are often limited by the amount and purity of DNA extracted from body fluids. In this study, we evaluated 12 DNA extraction methods and developed a highly sensitive protocol for mycobacterial DNA extraction directly from sputa using surface-coated magnetic particles. We have also developed a novel multiplex real-time PCR for simultaneous identification of M. tuberculosis complex and the Beijing/W genotype (a hypervirulent sublineage of M. tuberculosis) by using multiple fluorogenic probes targeting both the M. tuberculosis IS6110 and the Rv0927c-pstS3 intergenic region. With reference strains and clinical isolates, our real-time PCR accurately identified 20 non-Beijing/W and 20 Beijing/W M. tuberculosis strains from 17 different species of nontuberculosis Mycobacterium (NTM). Further assessment of our DNA extraction protocol and real-time PCR with 335 nonduplicate sputum specimens correctly identified all 74 M. tuberculosis culture-positive specimens. In addition, 15 culture-negative specimens from patients with confirmed tuberculosis were also identified. No cross-reactivity was detected with NTM specimens (n = 31). The detection limit of the assay is 10 M. tuberculosis bacilli, as determined by endpoint dilution analysis. In conclusion, an optimized DNA extraction protocol coupled with a novel multiprobe multiplex real-time PCR for the direct detection of M. tuberculosis, including Beijing/W M. tuberculosis, was found to confer high sensitivity and specificity. The combined procedure has the potential to compensate for the drawbacks of conventional mycobacterial culture in routine clinical laboratory setting, such as the lengthy incubation period and the limitation to viable organisms. PMID:21593264

  19. Beam-based compensation of extracted-beam displacement caused by field ringing of pulsed kicker magnets in the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Hiroyuki; Saha, Pranab Kumar; Tamura, Fumihiko; Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hotchi, Hideaki; Hayashi, Naoki; Kinsho, Michikazu; Hasegawa, Kazuo

    2017-09-01

    Commissioned in October 2007, the 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was designed for a high-intensity output beam power of 1 MW. The RCS extracts 3 GeV proton beams of two bunches by using eight pulsed kicker magnets and three DC septum magnets with 25 Hz repetition. These beams are delivered to a materials and life science experimental facility (MLF) and a 50 GeV main ring synchrotron (MR). However, the flat-top fields of the kicker magnets experience ringing that displaces the position of the extracted beam. This displacement is a major issue from the viewpoint of target integrity at the MLF and emittance growth at MR injection. To understand the flat-top uniformity of the total field of all the kickers, the uniformity was measured as the displacement of the extracted beams by using a shorter bunched beam and scanning the entire trigger timing of the kickers. The beam displacement of the first bunch exceeded the required range. Therefore, we performed beam-based measurements kicker by kicker to understand each field-ringing effect, and then we understood the characteristics (strength and temporal structure) of each ringing field. We managed to cancel out the ringing by using all the beam-based measurement data and optimizing each trigger timing. As a result, the field-ringing effect of the kickers was successfully compensated by optimizing the trigger timing of each kicker without hardware upgrades or improvements to the kicker system. By developing an automatic monitoring and correction system, we now have a higher stability of extracted beams during routine user operation. In this paper, we report our procedure for ringing compensation and present supporting experimental results.

  20. Ntem Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zena

    New ages were obtained from charnockites and tonalites collected in the So'o Group in the Ntem Complex. The rocks were analyzed for their petrography, tectonics and 207Pb/206Pb zircon minimum ages of their zircons as well as .... Owona, Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box.

  1. PM 3655 PHILIPS Logic analyzer

    CERN Multimedia

    A logic analyzer is an electronic instrument that captures and displays multiple signals from a digital system or digital circuit. A logic analyzer may convert the captured data into timing diagrams, protocol decodes, state machine traces, assembly language, or may correlate assembly with source-level software. Logic Analyzers have advanced triggering capabilities, and are useful when a user needs to see the timing relationships between many signals in a digital system.

  2. Analyzing Worms and Network Traffic using Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Wehner, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Internet worms have become a widespread threat to system and network operations. In order to fight them more efficiently, it is necessary to analyze newly discovered worms and attack patterns. This paper shows how techniques based on Kolmogorov Complexity can help in the analysis of internet worms and network traffic. Using compression, different species of worms can be clustered by type. This allows us to determine whether an unknown worm binary could in fact be a later version of an existin...

  3. Analyzing data files in SWAN

    CERN Document Server

    Gajam, Niharika

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally analyzing data happens via batch-processing and interactive work on the terminal. The project aims to provide another way of analyzing data files: A cloud-based approach. It aims to make it a productive and interactive environment through the combination of FCC and SWAN software.

  4. Complex systems biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'ayan, Avi

    2017-01-01

    Complex systems theory is concerned with identifying and characterizing common design elements that are observed across diverse natural, technological and social complex systems. Systems biology, a more holistic approach to study molecules and cells in biology, has advanced rapidly in the past two decades. However, not much appreciation has been granted to the realization that the human cell is an exemplary complex system. Here, I outline general design principles identified in many complex s...

  5. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  6. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  7. Software-Design-Analyzer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    CRISP-90 software-design-analyzer system, update of CRISP-80, is set of computer programs constituting software tool for design and documentation of other software and supporting top-down, hierarchical, modular, structured methodologies for design and programming. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  8. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  9. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  10. Analyzing Student Difficulties in Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    According to this paper, a good reading teacher is able to analyze problems faced by students in reading and remediate that which is necessary. The paper stresses that the reading teacher needs to be a good observer of student reading habits to notice where to intervene to improve the skills and attitudes of the reader. It discusses diagnosis and…

  11. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  12. Analyzing petabytes of data with Hadoop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The open source Apache Hadoop project provides a powerful suite of tools for storing and analyzing petabytes of data using commodity hardware. After several years of production use inside of web companies like Yahoo! and Facebook and nearly a year of commercial support and development by Cloudera, the technology is spreading rapidly through other disciplines, from financial services and government to life sciences and high energy physics. The talk will motivate the design of Hadoop and discuss some key implementation details in depth. It will also cover the major subprojects in the Hadoop ecosystem, go over some example applications, highlight best practices for deploying Hadoop in your environment, discuss plans for the future of the technology, and provide pointers to the many resources available for learning more. In addition to providing more information about the Hadoop platform, a major goal of this talk is to begin a dialogue with the ATLAS research team on how the tools commonly used in t...

  13. AnalyzeHOLE - An Integrated Wellbore Flow Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Conventional interpretation of flow logs assumes that hydraulic conductivity is directly proportional to flow change with depth. However, well construction can significantly alter the expected relation between changes in fluid velocity and hydraulic conductivity. Strong hydraulic conductivity contrasts between lithologic intervals can be masked in continuously screened wells. Alternating intervals of screen and blank casing also can greatly complicate the relation between flow and hydraulic properties. More permeable units are not necessarily associated with rapid fluid-velocity increases. Thin, highly permeable units can be misinterpreted as thick and less permeable intervals or not identified at all. These conditions compromise standard flow-log interpretation because vertical flow fields are induced near the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE, an integrated wellbore analysis tool for simulating flow and transport in wells and aquifer systems, provides a better alternative for simulating and evaluating complex well-aquifer system interaction. A pumping well and adjacent aquifer system are simulated with an axisymmetric, radial geometry in a two-dimensional MODFLOW model. Hydraulic conductivities are distributed by depth and estimated with PEST by minimizing squared differences between simulated and measured flows and drawdowns. Hydraulic conductivity can vary within a lithology but variance is limited with regularization. Transmissivity of the simulated system also can be constrained to estimates from single-well, pumping tests. Water-quality changes in the pumping well are simulated with simple mixing models between zones of differing water quality. These zones are differentiated by backtracking thousands of particles from the well screens with MODPATH. An Excel spreadsheet is used to interface the various components of AnalyzeHOLE by (1) creating model input files, (2) executing MODFLOW, MODPATH, PEST, and supporting FORTRAN routines, and (3) importing and graphically

  14. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa; [Ukendt], editors

    2013-01-01

    new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research......Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  15. Image analyzers for bioscience applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramm, P

    1990-01-01

    Image analysis systems are becoming more sophosticated, less costly, and very common in research laboratories. Therefore, the bioscience researcher is faced with a bewildering array of choices in establishing an image analysis facility. Critical components and characteristics of commercial image analyzers are discussed. State-of-the-art systems feature a graphical user interface, a powerful operating system (e.g., Microsoft OS/2), 1000 line image acquisition, processing and display, true color imaging, and very flexible scanner interfaces. Such systems are best suited to technically difficult applications, such as ratio fluorescence, or to automated analysis of anatomical features, particularly in stained material. Less powerful image analyzers offer medium resolution, and typically work with monochrome data acquired from video cameras. Such systems are suitable for many bioscience applications, including quantitative autoradiography and routine morphometry.

  16. Methods for Analyzing Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Linaa

    2013-01-01

    Social media is becoming increasingly attractive for users. It is a fast way to communicate ideas and a key source of information. It is therefore one of the most influential mediums of communication of our time and an important area for audience research. The growth of social media invites many...... new questions such as: How can we analyze social media? Can we use traditional audience research methods and apply them to online content? Which new research strategies have been developed? Which ethical research issues and controversies do we have to pay attention to? This book focuses on research...... strategies and methods for analyzing social media and will be of interest to researchers and practitioners using social media, as well as those wanting to keep up to date with the subject....

  17. Analyzing Change Management in Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Yonardy, Charles; Mekel, Peggy A.

    2014-01-01

    Every company will be faced a change either business or non-business company. A change will be happened because of technological change, industry change, and institutional rules change. If the company lack in adapt the changing of competition, business cycles, technology and institutional rules the company might face a bankruptcy. Why? To make a successful change there are steps and process of change. Research objectives are to analyze what should company do in order to do change management a...

  18. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, Stephen R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  19. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike W.-L. Cheung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists – and probably the most crucial one – is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  20. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  1. Assessment of the Sperm Quality Analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R C; Clarke, G N; Liu, D Y; Baker, H W

    1995-05-01

    addition, a number of other semen parameters supports the use of the Sperm Quality Analyzer for screening patients and in situations that warrant a rapid verification of semen quality, such as in the IVF or artificial insemination clinic. Further investigation of the Sperm Quality Analyzer in the management of male infertility is warranted.

  2. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  3. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Analyzed in a Dictyostelium discoideum Host System

    OpenAIRE

    Cosson, Pierre; Zulianello, Laurence; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Faurisson, François; Gebbie, Leigh; Benghezal, Mohammed; Van Delden, Christian; Kocjancic Curty, Lasta; Köhler, Thilo

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that produces a variety of cell-associated and secreted virulence factors. P. aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat effectively because of the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. In this study, we analyzed whether the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be used as a simple model system to analyze the virulence of P. aeruginosa strains. The virulent wild-type strain PAO1 was shown to inhibit growth of D. discoide...

  5. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  6. VOSA: A VO SED Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, C.; Bayo, A.; Solano, E.

    2017-03-01

    VOSA (VO Sed Analyzer, http://svo2.cab.inta-csic.es/theory/vosa) is a public web-tool developed by the Spanish Virtual Observatory (http://svo.cab.inta-csic.es/) and designed to help users to (1) build Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) combining private photometric measurements with data available in VO services, (2) obtain relevant properties of these objects (distance, extinction, etc) from VO catalogs, (3) analyze them comparing observed photometry with synthetic photometry from different collections of theoretical models or observational templates, using different techniques (chi-square minimization, Bayesian analysis) to estimate physical parameters of the observed objects (teff, logg, metallicity, stellar radius/distance ratio, infrared excess, etc), and use these results to (4) estimate masses and ages via interpolation of collections of isochrones and evolutionary tracks from the VO. In particular, VOSA offers the advantage of deriving physical parameters using all the available photometric information instead of a restricted subset of colors. The results can be downloaded in different formats or sent to other VO tools using SAMP. We have upgraded VOSA to provide access to Gaia photometry and give a homogeneous estimation of the physical parameters of thousands of objects at a time. This upgrade has required the implementation of a new computation paradigm, including a distributed environment, the capability of submitting and processing jobs in an asynchronous way, the use of parallelized computing to speed up processes (˜ ten times faster) and a new design of the web interface.

  7. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2001-03-01

    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  8. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  9. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Drancourt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  10. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  11. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  12. Analyzing Agricultural Agglomeration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There has been little scholarly research on Chinese agriculture’s geographic pattern of agglomeration and its evolutionary mechanisms, which are essential to sustainable development in China. By calculating the barycenter coordinates, the Gini coefficient, spatial autocorrelation and specialization indices for 11 crops during 1981–2012, we analyze the evolutionary pattern and mechanisms of agricultural agglomeration. We argue that the degree of spatial concentration of Chinese planting has been gradually increasing and that regional specialization and diversification have progressively been strengthened. Furthermore, Chinese crop production is moving from the eastern provinces to the central and western provinces. This is in contrast to Chinese manufacturing growth which has continued to be concentrated in the coastal and southeastern regions. In Northeast China, the Sanjiang and Songnen plains have become agricultural clustering regions, and the earlier domination of aquaculture and rice production in Southeast China has gradually decreased. In summary, this paper provides a political economy framework for understanding the regionalization of Chinese agriculture, focusing on the interaction among the objectives, decisionmaking behavior, path dependencies and spatial effects.

  13. and complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrin Ken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials have a strange propensity to behave as either a complex media or a simple media depending on the precise question being asked. This review paper offers a summary of granular flow rheologies for well-developed or steady-state motion, and seeks to explain this dichotomy through the vast range of complexity intrinsic to these models. A key observation is that to achieve accuracy in predicting flow fields in general geometries, one requires a model that accounts for a number of subtleties, most notably a nonlocal effect to account for cooperativity in the flow as induced by the finite size of grains. On the other hand, forces and tractions that develop on macro-scale, submerged boundaries appear to be minimally affected by grain size and, barring very rapid motions, are well represented by simple rate-independent frictional plasticity models. A major simplification observed in experiments of granular intrusion, which we refer to as the ‘resistive force hypothesis’ of granular Resistive Force Theory, can be shown to arise directly from rate-independent plasticity. Because such plasticity models have so few parameters, and the major rheological parameter is a dimensionless internal friction coefficient, some of these simplifications can be seen as consequences of scaling.

  14. Structural factoring approach for analyzing stochastic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shier, Douglas R.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of finding the distribution of the shortest path length through a stochastic network is investigated. A general algorithm for determining the exact distribution of the shortest path length is developed based on the concept of conditional factoring, in which a directed, stochastic network is decomposed into an equivalent set of smaller, generally less complex subnetworks. Several network constructs are identified and exploited to reduce significantly the computational effort required to solve a network problem relative to complete enumeration. This algorithm can be applied to two important classes of stochastic path problems: determining the critical path distribution for acyclic networks and the exact two-terminal reliability for probabilistic networks. Computational experience with the algorithm was encouraging and allowed the exact solution of networks that have been previously analyzed only by approximation techniques.

  15. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  16. Analyzing Mode Confusion via Model Checking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettgen, Gerald; Carreno, Victor

    1999-01-01

    Mode confusion is one of the most serious problems in aviation safety. Today's complex digital flight decks make it difficult for pilots to maintain awareness of the actual states, or modes, of the flight deck automation. NASA Langley leads an initiative to explore how formal techniques can be used to discover possible sources of mode confusion. As part of this initiative, a flight guidance system was previously specified as a finite Mealy automaton, and the theorem prover PVS was used to reason about it. The objective of the present paper is to investigate whether state-exploration techniques, especially model checking, are better able to achieve this task than theorem proving and also to compare several verification tools for the specific application. The flight guidance system is modeled and analyzed in Murphi, SMV, and Spin. The tools are compared regarding their system description language, their practicality for analyzing mode confusion, and their capabilities for error tracing and for animating diagnostic information. It turns out that their strengths are complementary.

  17. Fiber optic multiple blood gas analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Diane M.; Zimmerman, Donald E.; James, Kenneth A.; Quick, William H.

    1994-07-01

    Blood gas analysis has been shown to be the most critical factor in determining patient survivability in a trauma care environment. Present techniques of non-invasive measurement of blood gases in the trauma care unit such as optical pulse oximetry and transcutaneous electrodes are inadequate due to complexity and inaccuracy. The crux of the solution to this problem is the application of a recent, DOD/NASA developed micro-optic spectrophotometer to perform blood gas analysis via fiber optic transmission. The newly developed blood gas analyzer described here will not only overcome the aforementioned drawbacks but also be highly accurate, durable, and safe in hazardous environments: e.g., oxygen rich environments. This spectrophotometer is driven by a microprocessor based `Kalman filter' algorithm which not only controls the monitoring of all the patients in the care center but also separates the patient's superimposed blood gas spectra into its individual components to allow a number of gases critical for trauma care to be analyzed simultaneously.

  18. ITHNA.SYS: An Integrated Thermal Hydraulic and Neutronic Analyzer SYStem for NUR research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazidi, S., E-mail: samirmazidi@gmail.com [Division Physique et Applications Nucléaires, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria (CRND), BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria); Meftah, B., E-mail: b_meftah@yahoo.com [Division Physique et Applications Nucléaires, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria (CRND), BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria); Belgaid, M., E-mail: belgaidm@yahoo.com [Faculté de Physique, Université Houari Boumediene, USTHB, BP 31, Bab Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Letaim, F., E-mail: fletaim@yahoo.fr [Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université d’El-oued, PO Box 789, El-oued (Algeria); Halilou, A., E-mail: hal_rane@yahoo.fr [Division Réacteur NUR, Centre de Recherche Nucléaire de Draria, BP 43 Sebala, Draria, Alger (Algeria)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We develop a neutronic and thermal hydraulic MTR reactor analyzer. • The analyzer allows a rapid determination of the reactor core parameters. • Some NUR reactor parameters have been analyzed. - Abstract: This paper introduces the Integrated Thermal Hydraulic and Neutronic Analyzer SYStem (ITHNA.SYS) that has been developed for the Algerian research reactor NUR. It is used both as an operating aid tool and as a core physics engineering analysis tool. The system embeds three modules of the MTR-PC software package developed by INVAP SE: the cell calculation code WIMSD, the core calculation code CITVAP and the program TERMIC for thermal hydraulic analysis of a material testing reactor (MTR) core in forced convection. ITHNA.SYS operates both in on-line and off-line modes. In the on-line mode, the system is linked, via the computer parallel port, to the data acquisition console of the reactor control room and allows a real time monitoring of major physical and safety parameters of the NUR core. PC-based ITHNA.SYS provides a viable and convenient way of using an accumulated and often complex reactor physics stock of knowledge and frees the user from the intricacy of adequate reactor core modeling. This guaranties an accurate, though rapid, determination of a variety of neutronic and thermal hydraulic parameters of importance for the operation and safety analysis of the NUR research reactor. Instead of the several hours usually required, the processing time for the determination of such parameters is now reduced to few seconds. Validation of the system was performed with respect to experimental measurements and to calculations using reference codes. ITHNA.SYS can be easily adapted to accommodate other kinds of MTR reactors.

  19. [The development of a computer-based visual field analyzer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Hou, W; Peng, C; Mou, Y

    2000-09-01

    Visual field is one of the important visual functions; it is the extent of the visual field defect that can be employed in judging whether the visual function is impaired. The rapid achievements in computer technologies do provide an impulse for improvement of visual field detection, making possible the automatic, rapid, accurate, detailed and large-scaled visual field detection. This paper gives a thorough description about development of the visual field analyzer, model TEC-2A, which is based on PC windows platform, Visual Basic software developing tool, ISA peripheral circuits, standard Goldmann visual field half-ball and standard stimulus.

  20. Ranking in evolving complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang

    2017-05-01

    Complex networks have emerged as a simple yet powerful framework to represent and analyze a wide range of complex systems. The problem of ranking the nodes and the edges in complex networks is critical for a broad range of real-world problems because it affects how we access online information and products, how success and talent are evaluated in human activities, and how scarce resources are allocated by companies and policymakers, among others. This calls for a deep understanding of how existing ranking algorithms perform, and which are their possible biases that may impair their effectiveness. Many popular ranking algorithms (such as Google's PageRank) are static in nature and, as a consequence, they exhibit important shortcomings when applied to real networks that rapidly evolve in time. At the same time, recent advances in the understanding and modeling of evolving networks have enabled the development of a wide and diverse range of ranking algorithms that take the temporal dimension into account. The aim of this review is to survey the existing ranking algorithms, both static and time-aware, and their applications to evolving networks. We emphasize both the impact of network evolution on well-established static algorithms and the benefits from including the temporal dimension for tasks such as prediction of network traffic, prediction of future links, and identification of significant nodes.

  1. Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Gharibian, Sevag; Huang, Yichen; Landau, Zeph; Shin, Seung Woo

    2014-01-01

    Constraint satisfaction problems are a central pillar of modern computational complexity theory. This survey provides an introduction to the rapidly growing field of Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity, which includes the study of quantum constraint satisfaction problems. Over the past decade and a half, this field has witnessed fundamental breakthroughs, ranging from the establishment of a "Quantum Cook-Levin Theorem" to deep insights into the structure of 1D low-temperature quantum systems via s...

  2. Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART: an integrated approach for analyzing single molecule data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Greenfeld

    Full Text Available Single molecule studies have expanded rapidly over the past decade and have the ability to provide an unprecedented level of understanding of biological systems. A common challenge upon introduction of novel, data-rich approaches is the management, processing, and analysis of the complex data sets that are generated. We provide a standardized approach for analyzing these data in the freely available software package SMART: Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool. SMART provides a format for organizing and easily accessing single molecule data, a general hidden Markov modeling algorithm for fitting an array of possible models specified by the user, a standardized data structure and graphical user interfaces to streamline the analysis and visualization of data. This approach guides experimental design, facilitating acquisition of the maximal information from single molecule experiments. SMART also provides a standardized format to allow dissemination of single molecule data and transparency in the analysis of reported data.

  3. Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool (SMART): an integrated approach for analyzing single molecule data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Max; Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Mabuchi, Hideo; Herschlag, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Single molecule studies have expanded rapidly over the past decade and have the ability to provide an unprecedented level of understanding of biological systems. A common challenge upon introduction of novel, data-rich approaches is the management, processing, and analysis of the complex data sets that are generated. We provide a standardized approach for analyzing these data in the freely available software package SMART: Single Molecule Analysis Research Tool. SMART provides a format for organizing and easily accessing single molecule data, a general hidden Markov modeling algorithm for fitting an array of possible models specified by the user, a standardized data structure and graphical user interfaces to streamline the analysis and visualization of data. This approach guides experimental design, facilitating acquisition of the maximal information from single molecule experiments. SMART also provides a standardized format to allow dissemination of single molecule data and transparency in the analysis of reported data.

  4. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  5. Geochronology of diamond-bearing zircons from garnet peridotite in the North Qaidam UHPM belt, Northern Tibetan Plateau: A record of complex histories from oceanic lithosphere subduction to continental collision [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shuguang; Zhang, Lifei; Niu, Yaoling; Su, Li; Jian, Ping; Liu, Dunyi

    2005-05-01

    We report the results of a comprehensive study of zircons separated from the Lüliangshan peridotite massif within the 400-km-long North Qaidam UHPM belt, northern Tibetan Plateau, NW China. The peridotite massif is dominated by garnet lherzolite with minor amounts of interlayered garnet-bearing dunite and cross-cutting garnet pyroxenite dikes. Most zircons from the garnet lherzolite show rather complex zoning. One diamond and a few graphite inclusions are identified in some zircons by Raman spectroscopy. SHRIMP dating on these zircons show four major age groups: (a) 484-444 Ma (weighted mean age, 457 ± 22 Ma) for cores of most crystals, whose morphology and rare earth element (REE) systematics (i.e., very high [Lu / Sm] CN = 88-230) suggest a magmatic origin, consistent with the protolith being magmatic cumulate; (b) 435-414 Ma with a mean of 423 ± 5 Ma, which, given by mantle portions of zircon crystals, is interpreted to record the event of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (UHPM) at depths greater than 200 km in an Andean-type subduction zone; (c) 402-384 Ma (mean age 397 ± 6 Ma) for near-rim portions of zircon crystals; and (d) 368-349 Ma for outermost rims, which is interpreted as representing some post-orogenic thermal events. Inherited cores in two zircon crystals were identified using CL and found to be Proterozoic. Morphology and CL images show that zircons from dunite and garnet pyroxenite are of metamorphic origin. The mean age of dunite zircons is 420 ± 5 Ma, which overlaps the mantle age of the garnet lherzolite zircon (see (b) above). The mean age of garnet pyroxenite zircons is 399 ± 8 Ma, which overlaps ages of near-rim domains in garnet lherzolite zircons (see (c) above). Some garnet pyroxenite zircons also recorded a retrograde event at 358 ± 7 Ma. All these data suggest that the Lüliangshan garnet peridotite massif is not a fragment of ancient lithospheric mantle, but a peridotite body with long and complex histories from Early Ordovician

  6. Orthopedic surgical analyzer for percutaneous vertebroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Gye Rae; Choi, Hyung Guen; Lim, Do H.; Lee, Sung J.

    2001-05-01

    Since the spine is one of the most complex joint structures in the human body, its surgical treatment requires careful planning and high degree of precision to avoid any unwanted neurological compromises. In addition, comprehensive biomechanical analysis can be very helpful because the spine is subject to a variety of load. In case for the osteoporotic spine in which the structural integrity has been compromised, it brings out the double challenges for a surgeon both clinically and biomechanically. Thus, we have been developing an integrated medical image system that is capable of doing the both. This system is called orthopedic surgical analyzer and it combines the clinical results from image-guided examination and the biomechanical data from finite element analysis. In order to demonstrate its feasibility, this system was applied to percutaneous vertebroplasty. Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a surgical procedure that has been recently introduced for the treatment of compression fracture of the osteoporotic vertebrae. It involves puncturing vertebrae and filling with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). Recent studies have shown that the procedure could provide structural reinforcement for the osteoporotic vertebrae while being minimally invasive and safe with immediate pain relief. However, treatment failures due to excessive PMMA volume injection have been reported as one of complications. It is believed that control of PMMA volume is one of the most critical factors that can reduce the incidence of complications. Since the degree of the osteoporosis can influence the porosity of the cancellous bone in the vertebral body, the injection volume can be different from patient to patient. In this study, the optimal volume of PMMA injection for vertebroplasty was predicted based on the image analysis of a given patient. In addition, biomechanical effects due to the changes in PMMA volume and bone mineral density (BMD) level were investigated by constructing clinically

  7. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  8. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  9. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  10. Analyzing dialect variation in historical speech corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Margaret E L; Olsen, Rachel M

    2017-07-01

    The Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States is an extensive audio corpus of sociolinguistic interviews with 1121 speakers from eight southeastern U.S. states. Complete interviews have never been fully transcribed, leaving a wealth of phonetic information unexplored. This paper details methods for large-scale acoustic analysis of this historical speech corpus, providing a fuller picture of Southern speech than offered by previous impressionistic analyses. Interviews from 10 speakers (∼36 h) in southeast Georgia were transcribed and analyzed for dialectal features associated with the Southern Vowel Shift and African American Vowel Shift, also considering the effects of age, gender, and race. Multiple tokens of common words were annotated (N = 6085), and formant values of their stressed vowels were extracted. The effects of shifting on relative vowel placement were evaluated via Pillai scores, and vowel dynamics were estimated via functional data analysis and modeled with linear mixed-effects regression. Results indicate that European American speakers show features of the Southern Vowel Shift, though certain speakers shift in more ways than others, and African American speakers' productions are consistent with the African American Vowel Shift. Wide variation is apparent, even within this small geographic region, contributing evidence of the complexity of Southern speech.

  11. PSAIA – Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahoviček Kristian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PSAIA (Protein Structure and Interaction Analyzer was developed to compute geometric parameters for large sets of protein structures in order to predict and investigate protein-protein interaction sites. Results In addition to most relevant established algorithms, PSAIA offers a new method PIADA (Protein Interaction Atom Distance Algorithm for the determination of residue interaction pairs. We found that PIADA produced more satisfactory results than comparable algorithms implemented in PSAIA. Particular advantages of PSAIA include its capacity to combine different methods to detect the locations and types of interactions between residues and its ability, without any further automation steps, to handle large numbers of protein structures and complexes. Generally, the integration of a variety of methods enables PSAIA to offer easier automation of analysis and greater reliability of results. PSAIA can be used either via a graphical user interface or from the command-line. Results are generated in either tabular or XML format. Conclusion In a straightforward fashion and for large sets of protein structures, PSAIA enables the calculation of protein geometric parameters and the determination of location and type for protein-protein interaction sites. XML formatted output enables easy conversion of results to various formats suitable for statistic analysis. Results from smaller data sets demonstrated the influence of geometry on protein interaction sites. Comprehensive analysis of properties of large data sets lead to new information useful in the prediction of protein-protein interaction sites.

  12. Analyzing Spatiotemporal Anomalies through Interactive Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.

  13. Rapid determination of capsaicinoids by colorimetric method

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Wang-Kyun; Kim, Hee-Woong; Kim, Geun-Dong; Rhee, Hae-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Capsaicinoids, the pungent component of chili peppers, are generally analyzed by precise analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but these are not practical for the mass analyses of samples. To analyze mass samples rapidly, a colorimetric method was suggested. In this work, pigments and capsaicinoids were efficiently separated from chili pepper extract by sequential solid–liquid extraction and liquid–liquid extraction in test tubes ...

  14. Complexity explained

    CERN Document Server

    Erdi, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This book explains why complex systems research is important in understanding the structure, function and dynamics of complex natural and social phenomena. Readers will learn the basic concepts and methods of complex system research.

  15. Efficacy and safety of a 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for rapid vitamin K antagonist reversal in Japanese patients presenting with major bleeding or requiring urgent surgical or invasive procedures: a prospective, open-label, single-arm phase 3b study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushimoto, Shigeki; Fukuoka, Toshio; Kimura, Akio; Toyoda, Kazunori; Brainsky, Andres; Harman, Amy; Chung, Thomas; Yasaka, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Rapid vitamin K antagonist (VKA) reversal is required in patients experiencing major bleeding or requiring urgent surgery. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC; Beriplex®/Kcentra®) was shown in two large randomized controlled, international phase 3b trials to be an effective alternative to plasma for urgent VKA reversal. In the present prospective, open-label, single-arm phase 3b trial, we evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4F-PCC in Japanese patients. Eleven patients [international normalized ratio (INR) ≥2] requiring rapid VKA reversal owing to major bleeding (n = 6) or before urgent surgical/invasive procedures (n = 5) were administered 4F-PCC dosed based on INR and weight. INR reduction (≤1.3 0.5 h postinfusion; primary endpoint) was achieved in 81.8% of patients (major bleeding, 83.3%; surgical/invasive procedures, 80.0%). Effective hemostasis (main secondary endpoint) was met in 60.0% (major bleeding) and 100% (surgical/invasive procedure) of evaluable patients. Adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs were reported in 90.9 and 45.5% of patients, respectively. Two AEs were considered treatment-related; thromboembolic events rated mild and not clinically relevant by investigators. There were no deaths, fluid overload events, or viral transmission cases. Consistent with the previous results, 4F-PCC may be an effective and well-tolerated treatment for rapid VKA reversal in Japanese patients experiencing major bleeding or requiring urgent surgical/invasive procedures.

  16. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  17. Scalable Parallel Methods for Analyzing Metagenomics Data at Extreme Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, Jeffrey A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The field of bioinformatics and computational biology is currently experiencing a data revolution. The exciting prospect of making fundamental biological discoveries is fueling the rapid development and deployment of numerous cost-effective, high-throughput next-generation sequencing technologies. The result is that the DNA and protein sequence repositories are being bombarded with new sequence information. Databases are continuing to report a Moore’s law-like growth trajectory in their database sizes, roughly doubling every 18 months. In what seems to be a paradigm-shift, individual projects are now capable of generating billions of raw sequence data that need to be analyzed in the presence of already annotated sequence information. While it is clear that data-driven methods, such as sequencing homology detection, are becoming the mainstay in the field of computational life sciences, the algorithmic advancements essential for implementing complex data analytics at scale have mostly lagged behind. Sequence homology detection is central to a number of bioinformatics applications including genome sequencing and protein family characterization. Given millions of sequences, the goal is to identify all pairs of sequences that are highly similar (or “homologous”) on the basis of alignment criteria. While there are optimal alignment algorithms to compute pairwise homology, their deployment for large-scale is currently not feasible; instead, heuristic methods are used at the expense of quality. In this dissertation, we present the design and evaluation of a parallel implementation for conducting optimal homology detection on distributed memory supercomputers. Our approach uses a combination of techniques from asynchronous load balancing (viz. work stealing, dynamic task counters), data replication, and exact-matching filters to achieve homology detection at scale. Results for a collection of 2.56M sequences show parallel efficiencies of ~75-100% on up to 8K cores

  18. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  19. Modeling and Analyzing Academic Researcher Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huu Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper suggests a theoretical framework for analyzing the mechanism of the behavior of academic researchers whose interests are tangled and vary widely in academic factors (the intrinsic satisfaction in conducting research, the improvement in individual research ability, etc. or non-academic factors (career rewards, financial rewards, etc.. Furthermore, each researcher also has his/her different academic stances in their preferences about academic freedom and academic entrepreneurship. Understanding the behavior of academic researchers will contribute to nurture young researchers, to improve the standard of research and education as well as to boost collaboration in academia-industry. In particular, as open innovation is increasingly in need of the involvement of university researchers, to establish a successful approach to entice researchers into enterprises’ research, companies must comprehend the behavior of university researchers who have multiple complex motivations. The paper explores academic researchers' behaviors through optimizing their utility functions, i.e. the satisfaction obtained by their research outputs. This paper characterizes these outputs as the results of researchers' 3C: Competence (the ability to implement the research, Commitment (the effort to do the research, and Contribution (finding meaning in the research. Most of the previous research utilized the empirical methods to study researcher's motivation. Without adopting economic theory into the analysis, the past literature could not offer a deeper understanding of researcher's behavior. Our contribution is important both conceptually and practically because it provides the first theoretical framework to study the mechanism of researcher's behavior. Keywords: Academia-Industry, researcher behavior, ulrich model’s 3C.

  20. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  1. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  2. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  3. Portable Programmable Multifunction Body Fluids Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Liquid Logic proposes to develop a very capable analyzer based on its digital microfluidic technology. Such an analyzer would be:  Capable of both...

  4. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  5. Rapid genotyping using pyrene-perylene locked nucleic acid complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Santhosh T.; Myznikova, Anna; Samokhina, Evgeniya

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an assay for single strand DNA and RNA detection which is based on novel pyrene-perylene FRET pairs attached to short LNA/DNA probes. The assay is based on ratiometric emission upon binding of target DNA/RNA by three combinations of fluorescent LNA/DNA reporter strands. Specific...... is achieved with advantages of large Stokes shift (115 nm), high fluorescence quantum yields and low limit of target detection values (... geometry of the pyrene fluorophore attached to the 2'-amino group of 2'-amino-LNA in position 4 allows for the first time to efficiently utilize dipole-dipole orientation parameter for sensing of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nucleic acid targets by FRET. Using novel probes, SNP detection...

  6. Complex interactions in Lake Michigan’s rapidly changing ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderploeg, Henry A.; Bunnell, David B.; Carrick, Hunter J.; Hook, Tomas O.

    2015-01-01

    For over 30 years, Lake Michigan’s food web has been in a constant state of transition from reductions in nutrient loading and proliferation of invasive species at multiple trophic levels. In particular, there has been concern about impacts from the invasive predatory cercopagids (Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi) and expanding dreissenid mussel and round goby populations. This special issue brings together papers that explore the status of the Lake Michigan food web and the factors responsible for these changes, and suggests research paths that must be taken for understanding and predicting system behavior. This introductory paper describes the special issue origin, presents an overview of the papers, and draws overarching conclusions from the papers.

  7. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  8. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  9. Wind energy system time-domain (WEST) analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, M. E.; Hoffman, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portable analyzer which simulates in real time the complex nonlinear dynamics of horizontal axis wind energy systems was constructed. Math models for an aeroelastic rotor featuring nonlinear aerodynamic and inertial terms were implemented with high speed digital controllers and analog calculation. This model was combined with other math models of elastic supports, control systems, a power train and gimballed rotor kinematics. A stroboscopic display system graphically depicting distributed blade loads, motion, and other aerodynamic functions on a cathode ray tube is included. Limited correlation efforts showed good comparison between the results of this analyzer and other sophisticated digital simulations. The digital simulation results were successfully correlated with test data.

  10. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  11. Technology for collecting and analyzing relational data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. The scientific and educational organizations use traditionally e-mail with Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and Microsoft Word documents for operational data collection. The disadvantages of this approach include the lack of control of the correctness of the data input, the complexity of processing the information received due to non-relational data model, etc. There are online services that enable to organize the collection of data in a relational form. The disadvantages of these systems are: the absence of thesaurus support; a limited set of elements of data input control; the limited control the operation of the input form; most of the systems is shareware, etc. Thus, it is required the development of Internet data collection and analysis technology, which should allow to identify quickly model the data collected and automatically implement data collection in accordance with this model.Materials and methods. The article describes the technology developed and tested for operational data collection and analysis using "Faramant" system. System operation "Faramant" is based on a model document, which includes three components: description of the data structure; visualization; logic of form work. All stages of the technology are performed by the user using the browser. The main stage of the proposed technology is the definition of the data model as a set of relational tables. To create a table within the system it’s required to determine the name and a list of fields. For each field, you must specify its name and use the control to the data input and logic of his work. Controls are used to organize the correct input data depending on the data type. Based on a model system "Faramant" automatically creates a filling form, using which users can enter information. To change the form visualization, you can use the form template. The data can be viewed page by page in a table. For table rows, you can apply different filters. To

  12. Rapid classification of biological components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barrett, Karen B. (Meridian, ID); Key, Diane E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-03-23

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  13. Rapid classification of biological components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2006-01-24

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to the surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to the subject's identity.

  14. Rapid classification of biological components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Barrett, Karen B. (Meridian, ID); Key, Diane E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2010-03-23

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, Cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens of the surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  15. Rapid classification of biological components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Barrett, Karen B.; Key, Diane E.

    2013-10-15

    A method is disclosed for analyzing a biological sample by antibody profiling for identifying forensic samples or for detecting the presence of an analyte. In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, the analyte is a drug, such as marijuana, cocaine (crystalline tropane alkaloid), methamphetamine, methyltestosterone, or mesterolone. The method involves attaching antigens to a surface of a solid support in a preselected pattern to form an array wherein the locations of the antigens are known; contacting the array with the biological sample such that a portion of antibodies in the sample reacts with and binds to antigens in the array, thereby forming immune complexes; washing away antibodies that do not form immune complexes; and detecting the immune complexes, thereby forming an antibody profile. Forensic samples are identified by comparing a sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source. Further, an assay, such as a test for illegal drug use, can be coupled to a test for identity such that the results of the assay can be positively correlated to a subject's identity.

  16. Electrical spectrum & network analyzers a practical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Helfrick, Albert D

    1991-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals and the latest techniques of electrical spectrum analysis. It focuses on instruments and techniques used on spectrum and network analysis, rather than theory. The book covers the use of spectrum analyzers, tracking generators, and network analyzers. Filled with practical examples, the book presents techniques that are widely used in signal processing and communications applications, yet are difficult to find in most literature.Key Features* Presents numerous practical examples, including actual spectrum analyzer circuits* Instruction on how to us

  17. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  18. Complex Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.; Buckland, W.

    2014-01-01

    In the opening chapter, "Complex Narratives," Jan Simons brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. He presents an overview of the different concepts - forking path narratives, mind-game films,

  19. (II) complexes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.

  20. Big and complex data analysis methodologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume conveys some of the surprises, puzzles and success stories in high-dimensional and complex data analysis and related fields. Its peer-reviewed contributions showcase recent advances in variable selection, estimation and prediction strategies for a host of useful models, as well as essential new developments in the field. The continued and rapid advancement of modern technology now allows scientists to collect data of increasingly unprecedented size and complexity. Examples include epigenomic data, genomic data, proteomic data, high-resolution image data, high-frequency financial data, functional and longitudinal data, and network data. Simultaneous variable selection and estimation is one of the key statistical problems involved in analyzing such big and complex data. The purpose of this book is to stimulate research and foster interaction between researchers in the area of high-dimensional data analysis. More concretely, its goals are to: 1) highlight and expand the breadth of existing methods in...

  1. Dynamics of rapid innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, T M A; Palma, R; Farr, R S

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a model of innovation in which products are composed of components and new components are adopted one at a time. We show that the number of products we can make now gives a distorted view of the number we can make in the future: the more complex a product is, the more it gets under-represented. From this complexity discount we derive a strategy for increasing the rate of innovation by choosing components on the basis of long-term growth rather than just short-term gain. We test our model on data from language, gastronomy and technology and predict the best strategy for innovating in each.

  2. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.

    1986-01-01

    An engineering plant analyzer has been developed at BNL for realistically and accurately simulating transients and severe abnormal events in BWR power plants. Simulations are being carried out routinely with high fidelity, high simulation speed, at low cost and with unsurpassed user convenience. The BNL Plant Analyzer is the only operating facility which (a) simulates more than two orders-of-magnitude faster than the CDC-7600 mainframe computer, (b) is accessible and fully operational in on-line interactive mode, remotely from anywhere in the US, from Europe or the Far East (Korea), via widely available IBM-PC compatible personal computers, standard modems and telephone lines, (c) simulates both slow and rapid transients seven times faster than real-time in direct access, and four times faster in remote access modes, (d) achieves high simulation speed without compromising fidelity, and (e) is available to remote access users at the low cost of $160 per hour.

  3. On the Nonequilibrium Interface Kinetics of Rapid Coupled Eutectic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Shan, G. B.; Zhang, Z. R.; Liu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Nonequilibrium interface kinetics (NEIK) is expected to play an important role in coupled growth of eutectic alloys, when solidification velocity is high and intermetallic compound or topologically complex phases form in the crystallized product. In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of NEIK on the rapid coupled eutectic growth, in this work, two nonequilibrium interface kinetic effects, i.e., atom attachment and solute trapping at the solid-liquid interface, were incorporated into the analyses of the coupled eutectic growth under the rapid solidification condition. First, a coupled growth model incorporating the preceding two nonequilibrium kinetic effects was derived. On this basis, an expression of kinetic undercooling (∆ T k), which is used to characterize the NEIK, was defined. The calculations based on the as-derived couple growth model show good agreement with the reported experimental results achieved in rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Sm alloys consisting of a solid solution phase ( α-Al) and an intermetallic compound phase (Al11Sm3). In terms of the definition of ∆ T k defined in this work, the role of NEIK in the coupled growth of the Al-Sm eutectic system was analyzed. The results show that with increasing the coupled growth velocity, ∆ T k increases continuously, and its ratio to the total undercooling reaches 0.32 at the maximum growth velocity for coupled eutectic growth. Parametric analyses on two key alloy parameters that influence ∆ T k, i.e., interface kinetic parameter ( μ i ) and solute distribution coefficient ( k e ), indicate that both μ i and k e influence the NEIK significantly and the decrease of either these two parameters enhances the NEIK effect.

  4. How to Analyze Paired Comparison Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    How to Analyze Paired Comparison Data Kristi Tsukida and Maya R. Gupta Department of Electrical Engineering University of Washington Seattle, WA...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How to Analyze Paired Comparison Data 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  5. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  6. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  7. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  8. The sleeping brain as a complex system.

    OpenAIRE

    Olbrich Eckehard; Achermann Peter; Wennekers Thomas

    2011-01-01

    'Complexity science' is a rapidly developing research direction with applications in a multitude of fields that study complex systems consisting of a number of nonlinear elements with interesting dynamics and mutual interactions. This Theme Issue 'The complexity of sleep' aims at fostering the application of complexity science to sleep research because the brain in its different sleep stages adopts different global states that express distinct activity patterns in large and complex networks o...

  9. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  11. Development and tendency of rapid prototyping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yongnian; Hong, Guodong

    1998-08-01

    The definition of the rapid prototyping is given in this paper. Various RP processes, which build the prototypes with 2.5 or 3 dimensional layers, are introduced. The relative techniques of RP and the differences between RP technique and CNC manufacturing are analyzed. The paper discusses the RP's applied fields and methods and presents the RP development in the world. According to the idea that requirements determine the developing, the RP's tendency is discussed.

  12. Complex networks an algorithmic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Erciyes, Kayhan

    2014-01-01

    Network science is a rapidly emerging field of study that encompasses mathematics, computer science, physics, and engineering. A key issue in the study of complex networks is to understand the collective behavior of the various elements of these networks.Although the results from graph theory have proven to be powerful in investigating the structures of complex networks, few books focus on the algorithmic aspects of complex network analysis. Filling this need, Complex Networks: An Algorithmic Perspective supplies the basic theoretical algorithmic and graph theoretic knowledge needed by every r

  13. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  14. Analyzing machine noise for real time maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Yoji; Fukumoto, Yoshifumi; Kumazaki, Hiroki

    2017-02-01

    Recently, IoT technologies have been progressed and applications of maintenance area are expected. However, IoT maintenance applications are not spread in Japan yet because of one-off solution of sensing and analyzing for each case, high cost to collect sensing data and insufficient maintenance automation. This paper proposes a maintenance platform which analyzes sound data in edges, analyzes only anomaly data in cloud and orders maintenance automatically to resolve existing technology problems. We also implement a sample application and compare related work.

  15. Random Bin for Analyzing Neuron Spike Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Tamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When analyzing neuron spike trains, it is always the problem of how to set the time bin. Bin width affects much to analyzed results of such as periodicity of the spike trains. Many approaches have been proposed to determine the bin setting. However, these bins are fixed through the analysis. In this paper, we propose a randomizing method of bin width and location instead of conventional fixed bin setting. This technique is applied to analyzing periodicity of interspike interval train. Also the sensitivity of the method is presented.

  16. Accessibility in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travençolo, B. A. N.; da F. Costa, L.

    2008-12-01

    This Letter describes a method for the quantification of the diversity of non-linear dynamics in complex networks as a consequence of self-avoiding random walks. The methodology is analyzed in the context of theoretical models and illustrated with respect to the characterization of the accessibility in urban streets.

  17. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. carbene complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Reaction of oligomeric Cu(I) complexes [Cu{µ-S-C(=NR)(O–Ar–CH3)}]n with Lewis acids gave Cu(I) carbene complexes, which were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Cu(I) car- bene complexes could be directly generated from RNCS, Cu(I)–OAr and Lewis acids; this method can be used to ...

  19. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

  20. On-Demand Urine Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this program (through Phase III) is to develop an analyzer that can be integrated into International Space Station (ISS) toilets to measure key...

  1. Analyzing the economic impacts of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of the study is to explore methods, approaches and : analytical software tools for analyzing economic activity that results from largescale : transportation investments in Connecticut. The primary conclusion is that the : transportation...

  2. Ultrasensitive Atmospheric Analyzer for Miniature UAVs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR Phase I effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a highly-accurate, lightweight, low-power gas analyzer for quantification of water vapor...

  3. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this proposed program through Phase III is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation. It will be...

  4. Low Gravity Drug Stability Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this proposed program (through Phase III) is to build a space-worthy Drug Stability Analyzer that can determine the extent of drug degradation....

  5. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  6. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  7. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  8. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  9. Do the eyes scan dream images during rapid eye movement sleep? Evidence from the rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclair-Visonneau, Laurène; Oudiette, Delphine; Gaymard, Bertrand; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Rapid eye movements and complex visual dreams are salient features of human rapid eye movement sleep. However, it remains to be elucidated whether the eyes scan dream images, despite studies that have retrospectively compared the direction of rapid eye movements to the dream recall recorded after having awakened the sleeper. We used the model of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (when patients enact their dreams by persistence of muscle tone) to determine directly whether the eyes move in the same directions as the head and limbs. In 56 patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and 17 healthy matched controls, the eye movements were monitored by electrooculography in four (right, left, up and down) directions, calibrated with a target and synchronized with video and sleep monitoring. The rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-associated behaviours occurred 2.1 times more frequently during rapid eye movement sleep with than without rapid eye movements, and more often during or after rapid eye movements than before. Rapid eye movement density, index and complexity were similar in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and controls. When rapid eye movements accompanied goal-oriented motor behaviour during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (e.g. grabbing a fictive object, hand greetings, climbing a ladder), which happened in 19 sequences, 82% were directed towards the action of the patient (same plane and direction). When restricted to the determinant rapid eye movements, the concordance increased to 90%. Rapid eye movements were absent in 38-42% of behaviours. This directional coherence between limbs, head and eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder suggests that, when present, rapid eye movements imitate the scanning of the dream scene. Since the rapid eye movements are similar in subjects with and without rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, this concordance can be extended

  10. Computational Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tenreiro Machado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems (CS involve many elements that interact at different scales in time and space. The challenges in modeling CS led to the development of novel computational tools with applications in a wide range of scientific areas. The computational problems posed by CS exhibit intrinsic difficulties that are a major concern in Computational Complexity Theory. [...

  11. Complex narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper brings together narratology, game theory, and complexity theory to untangle the intricate nature of complex narratives in contemporary cinema. It interrogates the different terms - forking-path narratives, mind-game films, modular narratives, multiple-draft films, database narratives,

  12. Communication Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jaikumar Radhakrishnan

    Communication complexity. Strategy I. Alice x ∈ {0, 1}n. ⇒. ⇐. Bob y ∈ {0, 1}n. Naive strategy. Alice sends x to Bob. Bob tells Alice if x = y. Cost. Requires n + 1 bits of communication. Jaikumar Radhakrishnan. Communication Complexity ...

  13. Complexity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    A complex system consists of many interacting parts, generates new collective behavior through self organization, and adaptively evolves through time. Many theories have been developed to study complex systems, including chaos, fractals, cellular automata, self organization, stochastic processes, turbulence, and genetic algorithms.

  14. Complex derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Stefano; Caldarelli, Guido; Georg, Co-Pierre; May, Robert; Stiglitz, Joseph

    2013-03-01

    The intrinsic complexity of the financial derivatives market has emerged as both an incentive to engage in it, and a key source of its inherent instability. Regulators now faced with the challenge of taming this beast may find inspiration in the budding science of complex systems.

  15. Triggering HIV polyprotein processing by light using rapid photodegradation of a tight-binding protease inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimer, Jiří; Pávová, Marcela; Anders, Maria; Pachl, Petr; Šácha, Pavel; Cígler, Petr; Weber, Jan; Majer, Pavel; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Müller, Barbara; Konvalinka, Jan

    2015-03-09

    HIV protease (PR) is required for proteolytic maturation in the late phase of HIV replication and represents a prime therapeutic target. The regulation and kinetics of viral polyprotein processing and maturation are currently not understood in detail. Here we design, synthesize, validate and apply a potent, photodegradable HIV PR inhibitor to achieve synchronized induction of proteolysis. The compound exhibits subnanomolar inhibition in vitro. Its photolabile moiety is released on light irradiation, reducing the inhibitory potential by 4 orders of magnitude. We determine the structure of the PR-inhibitor complex, analyze its photolytic products, and show that the enzymatic activity of inhibited PR can be fully restored on inhibitor photolysis. We also demonstrate that proteolysis of immature HIV particles produced in the presence of the inhibitor can be rapidly triggered by light enabling thus to analyze the timing, regulation and spatial requirements of viral processing in real time.

  16. Dependency visualization for complex system understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, J. Allison Cory [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    With the volume of software in production use dramatically increasing, the importance of software maintenance has become strikingly apparent. Techniques now sought and developed for reverse engineering and design extraction and recovery. At present, numerous commercial products and research tools exist which are capable of visualizing a variety of programming languages and software constructs. The list of new tools and services continues to grow rapidly. Although the scope of the existing commercial and academic product set is quite broad, these tools still share a common underlying problem. The ability of each tool to visually organize object representations is increasingly impaired as the number of components and component dependencies within systems increases. Regardless of how objects are defined, complex ``spaghetti`` networks result in nearly all large system cases. While this problem is immediately apparent in modem systems analysis involving large software implementations, it is not new. As will be discussed in Chapter 2, related problems involving the theory of graphs were identified long ago. This important theoretical foundation provides a useful vehicle for representing and analyzing complex system structures. While the utility of directed graph based concepts in software tool design has been demonstrated in literature, these tools still lack the capabilities necessary for large system comprehension. This foundation must therefore be expanded with new organizational and visualization constructs necessary to meet this challenge. This dissertation addresses this need by constructing a conceptual model and a set of methods for interactively exploring, organizing, and understanding the structure of complex software systems.

  17. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  18. Analyzing Grid Log Data with Affinity Propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modena, G.; van Someren, M.W.; Ali, M; Bosse, T.; Hindriks, K.V.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Jonker, C.M; Treur, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an unsupervised learning approach to detect meaningful job traffic patterns in Grid log data. Manual anomaly detection on modern Grid environments is troublesome given their increasing complexity, the distributed, dynamic topology of the network and heterogeneity of the jobs

  19. Visualizing and analyzing the Mona Lisa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgeat, Louis; Godin, Guy; Massicotte, Philippe; Poirier, Guillaume; Blais, François; Beraldin, J Angelo

    2007-01-01

    Size and scale issues present a complexity problem in visualizing detailed 3D models built from sensor data. A model of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, with its thin pictorial layer, illustrates the need for intuitive real-time processing tools that are seamlessly integrated with a multiresolution visualization environment.

  20. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  1. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  2. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  3. Analyzing migration phenomena with spatial autocorrelation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Borruso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In less than one century, Italy has tested a strong intensification of immigration changing from a country originating great migration flows to a country which is the destination of migration flows. The aim of this paper is to examine foreign immigration in Italy distinguishing according to nationality of foreigners. The spatial dimension of migration flows has been analyzed in this paper using Spatial Autocorrelation techniques and more particularly Local Indicators of Spatial Association in order to analyze the highest values of a foreigner group considering the relationship with the surrounding municipalities.

  4. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  5. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  6. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  7. glbase: a framework for combining, analyzing and displaying heterogeneous genomic and high-throughput sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Paul Hutchins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic datasets and the tools to analyze them have proliferated at an astonishing rate. However, such tools are often poorly integrated with each other: each program typically produces its own custom output in a variety of non-standard file formats. Here we present glbase, a framework that uses a flexible set of descriptors that can quickly parse non-binary data files. glbase includes many functions to intersect two lists of data, including operations on genomic interval data and support for the efficient random access to huge genomic data files. Many glbase functions can produce graphical outputs, including scatter plots, heatmaps, boxplots and other common analytical displays of high-throughput data such as RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and microarray expression data. glbase is designed to rapidly bring biological data into a Python-based analytical environment to facilitate analysis and data processing. In summary, glbase is a flexible and multifunctional toolkit that allows the combination and analysis of high-throughput data (especially next-generation sequencing and genome-wide data, and which has been instrumental in the analysis of complex data sets. glbase is freely available at http://bitbucket.org/oaxiom/glbase/.

  8. Analyzing the Control Structure of PEPA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Fan; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    to PEPA programs, the approximating result is very precise. Based on the analysis, we also develop algorithms for validating the deadlock property of PEPA programs. The techniques have been implemented in a tool which is able to analyze processes with a control structure that more than one thousand states....

  9. Construction of an Ion Energy Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Steven; Bellan, Paul

    1999-11-01

    An ion energy analyzer is being constructed and will be used to observe energetic ions emitted by the solar prominence simulation experiment at Caltech. The analyzer contains three stacked grids that are mounted on modular frames from Kimball Physics (eV Parts) followed by a collector plate. The first grid is negatively biased to repel electrons. The second grid is positively biased (discriminator grid) and is varied to filter the velocity distribution and give information about ion energy. The third grid is negatively biased relative to the collector to suppress secondary electrons resulting from ions striking the collector. The collector plate is also negatively biased and the ion flux impinging on it is measured. The electroformed mesh grid has spacings of the order of the Debye length. A bake-out heating element is also incorporated by using small molybdenum wire that can be resistively heated. The entire analyzer is designed for ease of assembly/disassembly and is mounted on a soft, copper tube that can be bent to point in different directions. The analyzer will be located about 1 meter from the main plasma and has a diameter of 3 cm and a length of 2 cm.

  10. 40 CFR 90.313 - Analyzers required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the exhaust gas at the sample probe is below 190 °C, the temperature of the valves, pipe work, and... temperature of the exhaust gas at the sample probe is above 190 °C, the temperature of the valves, pipe work... the HFID analyzer, the detector, oven, and sample-handling components within the oven must be suitable...

  11. Graphic method for analyzing common path interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1998-01-01

    Common path interferometers are widely used for visualizing phase disturbances and fluid flows. They are attractive because of the inherent simplicity and robustness in the setup. A graphic method will be presented for analyzing and optimizing filter parameters in common path interferometers....

  12. Analyzing the Information Economy: Tools and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sherman

    1986-01-01

    Examines methodologies underlying studies which measure the information economy and considers their applicability and limitations for analyzing policy issues concerning libraries and library networks. Two studies provide major focus for discussion: Porat's "The Information Economy: Definition and Measurement" and Machlup's…

  13. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Analyzing and Interpreting Research in Health Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While qualitative research is used when little or nothing is known about the subject, quantitative research is required when there are quantifiable variables to be measured. By implication, health education research is based on phenomenological, ethnographical and/or grounded theoretical approaches that are analyzable ...

  15. Total Cost Management: Analyzing Operational Support Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Hans J.

    1996-01-01

    Total cost management, an innovation useful in higher education, is best implemented in the institution's support services. Total cost management is the practice of analyzing and improving an institution's financial and qualitative performance when producing a particular product or service, paying attention to the complete work process and all…

  16. Analyzing Vessel Behavior Using Process Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, F.M.; Mooij, A.J.; Aalst, W.M.P. van der

    2013-01-01

    In the maritime domain, electronic sensors such as AIS receivers and radars collect large amounts of data about the vessels in a certain geographical area. We investigate the use of process mining techniques for analyzing the behavior of the vessels based on these data. In the context of maritime

  17. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  18. Quantifying the Analyzability of Software Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwers, E.M.; Correia, J.P.; Van Deursen, A.; Visser, J.

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of a software system into components is a major decision in any software architecture, having a strong influence on many of its quality aspects. A system’s analyzability, in particular, is influenced by its decomposition into components. But into how many components should a system

  19. Consideration Regarding Diagnosis Analyze of Corporate Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Ciopi OPREA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis management aims to identify critical situations and positive aspectsof corporate management. An effective diagnosis made by a team with thestatus of independence from the organization’s management is for managers auseful feedback necessary to improve performance. The work presented focuseson the methodology to achieve effective diagnosis, considering multitudecriteria and variables to be analyzed.

  20. A geometric approach to complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Nihat; Olbrich, Eckehard; Bertschinger, Nils; Jost, Jürgen

    2011-09-01

    We develop a geometric approach to complexity based on the principle that complexity requires interactions at different scales of description. Complex systems are more than the sum of their parts of any size and not just more than the sum of their elements. Using information geometry, we therefore analyze the decomposition of a system in terms of an interaction hierarchy. In mathematical terms, we present a theory of complexity measures for finite random fields using the geometric framework of hierarchies of exponential families. Within our framework, previously proposed complexity measures find their natural place and gain a new interpretation.

  1. Designing experiments and analyzing data a model comparison perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Scott E

    2013-01-01

    Through this book's unique model comparison approach, students and researchers are introduced to a set of fundamental principles for analyzing data. After seeing how these principles can be applied in simple designs, students are shown how these same principles also apply in more complicated designs. Drs. Maxwell and Delaney believe that the model comparison approach better prepares students to understand the logic behind a general strategy of data analysis appropriate for various designs; and builds a stronger foundation, which allows for the introduction of more complex topics omitt

  2. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least one of the features listed. Major diagnostic features for Carney Complex Spotty skin pigmentation with ... called large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor (LCCST) Thyroid cancer Psammomatous melanotic schwannoma, meaning tumors that grow on ...

  3. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  4. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  5. Insight into microRNA regulation by analyzing the characteristics of their targets in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zihua

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background microRNAs (miRNAs are believed to regulate their targets through posttranscriptional gene regulation and have the potential to silence gene expression via multiple mechanisms. Despite previous advances on miRNA regulation of gene expression, little has been investigated from a genome scale. Results To gain new insight into miRNA regulation in humans, we used large scale data and carried out a series of studies to compare various features of miRNA target genes to that of non-miRNA target genes. We observed significant differences between miRNA and non-miRNA target genes for a number of characteristics, including higher and broader mRNA expression, faster mRNA decay rate, longer protein half-life, and longer gene structures. Based on these features and by analyzing their relationships we found that miRNA target genes, other than having miRNA repression, were most likely under more complex regulation than non-miRNA target genes, which was evidenced by their higher and broader gene expression but longer gene structures. Our results of higher and broader gene expression but fast mRNA decay rates also provide evidence that miRNA dampening of the output of preexisting transcripts facilitates a more rapid and robust transition to new expression programs. This could be achieved by enhancing mRNA degradation through an additive effect from multiple miRNA targeting. Conclusion Genome-scale analysis on the nature of miRNA target genes has revealed a general mechanism for miRNA regulation of human gene expression. The results of this study also indicate that miRNA target genes, other than having miRNA repression, are under more complex gene regulation than non-miRNA target genes. These findings provide novel insight into miRNA regulation of human gene expression.

  6. AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1) and N-Ras (neuroblastoma ras viral oncogene homolog) coactivation in the mouse liver promotes rapid carcinogenesis by way of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1), FOXM1 (forkhead box M1)/SKP2, and c-Myc pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Coral; Wang, Chunmei; Mattu, Sandra; Destefanis, Giulia; Ladu, Sara; Delogu, Salvatore; Armbruster, Julia; Fan, Lingling; Lee, Susie A; Jiang, Lijie; Dombrowski, Frank; Evert, Matthias; Chen, Xin; Calvisi, Diego F

    2012-03-01

    Activation of v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) and Ras pathways is often implicated in carcinogenesis. However, the oncogenic cooperation between these two cascades in relationship to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development remains undetermined. To investigate this issue, we generated a mouse model characterized by combined overexpression of activated forms of AKT and neuroblastoma Ras viral oncogene homolog (N-Ras) protooncogenes in the liver by way of hydrodynamic gene transfer. The molecular mechanisms underlying crosstalk between AKT and N-Ras were assessed in the mouse model and further evaluated in human and murine HCC cell lines. We found that coexpression of AKT and N-Ras resulted in a dramatic acceleration of liver tumor development when compared with mice overexpressing AKT alone, whereas N-Ras alone did not lead to tumor formation. At the cellular level, concomitant up-regulation of AKT and N-Ras resulted in increased proliferation and microvascularization when compared with AKT-injected mice. Mechanistic studies suggested that accelerated hepatocarcinogenesis driven by AKT and N-Ras resulted from a strong activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, elevated expression of FOXM1/SKP2 and c-Myc also contributed to rapid tumor growth in AKT/Ras mice, yet by way of mTORC1-independent mechanisms. The biological effects of coactivation of AKT and N-Ras were then recapitulated in vitro using HCC cell lines, which supports the functional significance of mTORC1, FOXM1/SKP2, and c-Myc signaling cascades in mediating AKT and N-Ras-induced liver tumor development. Our data demonstrate the in vivo crosstalk between the AKT and Ras pathways in promoting liver tumor development, and the pivotal role of mTORC1-dependent and independent pathways in mediating AKT and Ras induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. CTG Analyzer: A graphical user interface for cardiotocography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrollini, Agnese; Agostinelli, Angela; Burattini, Luca; Morettini, Micaela; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG) is the most commonly used test for establishing the good health of the fetus during pregnancy and labor. CTG consists in the recording of fetal heart rate (FHR; bpm) and maternal uterine contractions (UC; mmHg). FHR is characterized by baseline, baseline variability, tachycardia, bradycardia, acceleration and decelerations. Instead, UC signal is characterized by presence of contractions and contractions period. Such parameters are usually evaluated by visual inspection. However, visual analysis of CTG recordings has a well-demonstrated poor reproducibility, due to the complexity of physiological phenomena affecting fetal heart rhythm and being related to clinician's experience. Computerized tools in support of clinicians represents a possible solution for improving correctness in CTG interpretation. This paper proposes CTG Analyzer as a graphical tool for automatic and objective analysis of CTG tracings. CTG Analyzer was developed under MATLAB®; it is a very intuitive and user friendly graphical user interface. FHR time series and UC signal are represented one under the other, on a grid with reference lines, as usually done for CTG reports printed on paper. Colors help identification of FHR and UC features. Automatic analysis is based on some unchangeable features definitions provided by the FIGO guidelines, and other arbitrary settings whose default values can be changed by the user. Eventually, CTG Analyzer provides a report file listing all the quantitative results of the analysis. Thus, CTG Analyzer represents a potentially useful graphical tool for automatic and objective analysis of CTG tracings.

  8. Micro Electron MicroProbe and Sample Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohara, Harish; Bearman, Gregory; Douglas, Susanne; Bronikowski, Michael; Urgiles, Eduardo; Kowalczyk, Robert; Bryson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    A proposed, low-power, backpack-sized instrument, denoted the micro electron microprobe and sample analyzer (MEMSA), would serve as a means of rapidly performing high-resolution microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) of soil, dust, and rock particles in the field. The MEMSA would be similar to an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) but would be much smaller and designed specifically for field use in studying effects of geological alteration at the micrometer scale. Like an ESEM, the MEMSA could be used to examine uncoated, electrically nonconductive specimens. In addition to the difference in size, other significant differences between the MEMSA and an ESEM lie in the mode of scanning and the nature of the electron source.

  9. Decomposition methods for analyzing changes of industrial water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yizi; Lu, Shibao; Shang, Ling; Li, Xiaofei; Wei, Yongping; Lei, Xiaohui; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    Changes in industrial water use are of the utmost significance in rapidly developing countries. Such countries are experience rapid industrialization, which may stimulate substantial increases in their future industrial water use. Local governments face challenges in formulating industrial policies for sustainable development, particularly in areas that experience severe water shortages. This study addresses the factors driving increased industrial water use and the degrees to which these factors contribute, and determines whether the trend will change in the future. This study explores the options for quantitative analysis that analyzes changes in industrial water use. We adopt both the refined Laspeyres and the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index models to decompose the driving forces of industrial water use. Additionally, we validate the decomposition results through a comparative study using empirical analysis. Using Tianjin, a national water-saving city in China, as a case study, we compare the performance of the two models. In the study, the driving forces of changes in industrial water use are summarized as output, technological, and structural forces. The comparative results indicate that the refined Laspeyres model may be preferable for this case, and further reveal that output and technology have long-term, stable effects on industrial water use. However, structure may have an uncertain influence on industrial water use. The reduced water use may be a consequence of Tianjin's attempts to target water savings in other areas. Therefore, we advise the Tianjin local government to restructure local industries towards water-saving targets.

  10. Gardony Map Drawing Analyzer: Software for quantitative analysis of sketch maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardony, Aaron L; Taylor, Holly A; Brunyé, Tad T

    2016-03-01

    Sketch maps are effective tools for assessing spatial memory. However, despite their widespread use in cognitive science research, sketch map analysis techniques remain unstandardized and carry limitations. In the present article, we present the Gardony Map Drawing Analyzer (GMDA), an open-source software package for sketch map analysis. GMDA combines novel and established analysis techniques into a graphical user interface that permits rapid computational sketch map analysis. GMDA calculates GMDA-unique measures based on pairwise comparisons between landmarks, as well as bidimensional regression parameters (Friedman & Kohler, 2003), which together reflect sketch map quality at two levels: configural and individual landmark. The configural measures assess the overall landmark configuration and provide a whole-map analysis. Individual landmark measures, introduced in GMDA, assess individual landmark placement and indicate how individual landmarks contribute to the configural scores. Together, these measures provide a more complete psychometric picture of sketch map analysis, allowing for comparisons between sketch maps and between landmarks. The calculated measures reflect specific and cognitively relevant aspects of interlandmark spatial relationships, including distance and angular representation. GMDA supports complex environments (up to 48 landmarks) and two software modes that capture aspects of maps not addressed by existing techniques, such as landmark size and shape variation and interlandmark containment relationships. We describe the software and its operation and present a formal specification of calculation procedures for its unique measures. We then validate the software by demonstrating the capabilities and reliability of its measures using simulation and experimental data. The most recent version of GMDA is available at www.aarongardony.com/tools/map-drawing-analyzer.

  11. Calibration of optical particle-size analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechin, William H.; Thacker, Louis H.; Turner, Lloyd J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for the calibration of an optical particle-size analyzer of the light-intercepting type for spherical particles, wherein a rotary wheel or disc is provided with radially-extending wires of differing diameters, each wire corresponding to a particular equivalent spherical particle diameter. These wires are passed at an appropriate frequency between the light source and the light detector of the analyzer. The reduction of light as received at the detector is a measure of the size of the wire, and the electronic signal may then be adjusted to provide the desired signal for corresponding spherical particles. This calibrator may be operated at any time without interrupting other processing.

  12. Simulation of a Hyperbolic Field Energy Analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Lizardo, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Energy analyzers are important plasma diagnostic tools with applications in a broad range of disciplines including molecular spectroscopy, electron microscopy, basic plasma physics, plasma etching, plasma processing, and ion sputtering technology. The Hyperbolic Field Energy Analyzer (HFEA) is a novel device able to determine ion and electron energy spectra and temperatures. The HFEA is well suited for ion temperature and density diagnostics at those situations where ions are scarce. A simulation of the capacities of the HFEA to discriminate particles of a particular energy level, as well as to determine temperature and density is performed in this work. The electric field due the combination of the conical elements, collimator lens, and Faraday cup applied voltage was computed in a well suited three-dimensional grid. The field is later used to compute the trajectory of a set of particles with a predetermined energy distribution. The results include the observation of the particle trajectories inside the sens...

  13. CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-12-01

    Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.

  14. Analyzing negative ties in social networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networks are a source of sharing information and maintaining personal contacts with other people through social interactions and thus forming virtual communities online. Social networks are crowded with positive and negative relations. Positive relations are formed by support, endorsement and friendship and thus, create a network of well-connected users whereas negative relations are a result of opposition, distrust and avoidance creating disconnected networks. Due to increase in illegal activities such as masquerading, conspiring and creating fake profiles on online social networks, exploring and analyzing these negative activities becomes the need of hour. Usually negative ties are treated in same way as positive ties in many theories such as balance theory and blockmodeling analysis. But the standard concepts of social network analysis do not yield same results in respect of each tie. This paper presents a survey on analyzing negative ties in social networks through various types of network analysis techniques that are used for examining ties such as status, centrality and power measures. Due to the difference in characteristics of flow in positive and negative tie networks some of these measures are not applicable on negative ties. This paper also discusses new methods that have been developed specifically for analyzing negative ties such as negative degree, and h∗ measure along with the measures based on mixture of positive and negative ties. The different types of social network analysis approaches have been reviewed and compared to determine the best approach that can appropriately identify the negative ties in online networks. It has been analyzed that only few measures such as Degree and PN centrality are applicable for identifying outsiders in network. For applicability in online networks, the performance of PN measure needs to be verified and further, new measures should be developed based upon negative clique concept.

  15. Statistical network analysis for analyzing policy networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robins, Garry; Lewis, Jenny; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    To analyze social network data using standard statistical approaches is to risk incorrect inference. The dependencies among observations implied in a network conceptualization undermine standard assumptions of the usual general linear models. One of the most quickly expanding areas of social...... and policy network methodology is the development of statistical modeling approaches that can accommodate such dependent data. In this article, we review three network statistical methods commonly used in the current literature: quadratic assignment procedures, exponential random graph models (ERGMs...

  16. Analyzing the Existing Undergraduate Engineering Leadership Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed M. Almalki; Luis Rabelo; Charles Davis; Hammad Usmani; Debra Hollister; Alfonso Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Studying and analyzing the undergraduate engineering students' leadership skills to discover their potential leadership strengths and weaknesses. This study will unveil potential ways to enhance the ways we teach engineering leadership. The research has great insights that might assist engineering programs to improve curricula for the purpose of better engineering preparation to meet industry's demands. Methodology and Findings: 441 undergraduate engineering students have been s...

  17. Monitoring and Analyzing a Game Server Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Jelmert, Stian Opsahl

    2008-01-01

    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon Today, most literature about services in system administration is about conventional services like email servers. How could one monitor and analyze a scenario where the service in question is a game server? As these two services are technologically different, conventional monitoring tools may miss vital information in the context of game servers. This thesis focuses on developing a monitoring system for a game server in order to...

  18. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYZER MYSTEM 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zobnin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large part of the Russian National Corpus has automatic morphological markup. It is based on the morphological analyzer Mystem developed in Yandex with some postprocessing of the results (for example, all indeclinable nouns acquire the tag '0', verbs are divided into separate paradigms by aspect, etc.. Recently a new (third version of Mystem has been released (see https://tech.yandex.ru/mystem/.  In this article we give an overview of its capabilities.

  19. Analyzing Reliability Change in Legal Case

    OpenAIRE

    Jirakunkanok, Pimolluck; Sano, Katsuhiko; Tojo, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    A consideration of the reliability plays a significant role in agent communication. An agent can change her belief about the reliability ordering between the other agents with respect to new incoming information. In order to analyze reliability change of an agent, this paper proposes a logical formalization with two dynamic operators, i.e., downgrade and upgrade operators. The downgrade operator allows an agent to downgrade some specified agents to be less reliable corresponding to the degree...

  20. Upgrade of the mini spectrum analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montebugnoli, Stelio; Bortolotti, Claudio; Buttaccio, Salvo; Cattani, Alessandro; Maccaferri, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Miani, Cristiano; Orfei, Alessandro; Roma, Mauro; Tuccari, Gino; Amico, Nicola D.; Grueff, Gavril

    1997-01-01

    The upgrade of the mini spectrum analyzer, built at the Medicina radiotelescope station laboratories and devoted to the Jupiter-SL9 crash on July 94, is presented. The new version of the spectrometer allows precise spectroscopy measurements and it has just been used for the Comet Hyakutake observations (May 1996) with very promising results. The same system could be used in small SETI activities with a possible future involvement of the Medicina/Noto antennas in this program.

  1. Analyzing Gender Stereotyping in Bollywood Movies

    OpenAIRE

    Madaan, Nishtha; Mehta, Sameep; Agrawaal, Taneea S; Malhotra, Vrinda; Aggarwal, Aditi; Saxena, Mayank

    2017-01-01

    The presence of gender stereotypes in many aspects of society is a well-known phenomenon. In this paper, we focus on studying such stereotypes and bias in Hindi movie industry (Bollywood). We analyze movie plots and posters for all movies released since 1970. The gender bias is detected by semantic modeling of plots at inter-sentence and intra-sentence level. Different features like occupation, introduction of cast in text, associated actions and descriptions are captured to show the pervasiv...

  2. Semantic analyzability in children's understanding of idioms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R W

    1991-06-01

    This study investigated the role of semantic analyzability in children's understanding of idioms. Kindergartners and first, third, and fourth graders listened to idiomatic expressions either alone or at the end of short story contexts. Their task was to explain verbally the intended meanings of these phrases and then to choose their correct idiomatic interpretations. The idioms presented to the children differed in their degree of analyzability. Some idioms were highly analyzable or decomposable, with the meanings of their parts contributing independently to their overall figurative meanings. Other idioms were nondecomposable because it was difficult to see any relation between a phrase's individual components and the idiom's figurative meaning. The results showed that younger children (kindergartners and first graders) understood decomposable idioms better than they did nondecomposable phrases. Older children (third and fourth graders) understood both kinds of idioms equally well in supporting contexts, but were better at interpreting decomposable idioms than they were at understanding nondecomposable idioms without contextual information. These findings demonstrate that young children better understand idiomatic phrases whose individual parts independently contribute to their overall figurative meanings.

  3. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  4. Visual analyzer as anticipatory system (functional organization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirvelis, Dobilas

    2000-05-01

    Hypothetical functional organization of the visual analyzer is presented. The interpretation of visual perception, anatomic and morphological structure of visual systems of animals, neuro-physiological, psychological and psycho-physiological data in the light of a number of the theoretical solutions of image recognition and visual processes simulation enable active information processing. The activities in special areas of cortex are as follows: focused attention, prediction with analysis of visual scenes and synthesis, predictive mental images. In the projection zone of visual cortex Area Streata or V1 a "sensory" screen (SS) and "reconstruction" screen (RS) are supposed to exist. The functional structure of visual analyzer consist of: analysis of visual scenes projected onto SS; "tracing" of images; preliminary recognition; reversive image reconstruction onto RS; comparison of images projected onto SS with images reconstructed onto RS; and "correction" of preliminary recognition. Special attention is paid to the quasiholographical principles of the neuronal organization within the brain, of the image "tracing," and of reverse image reconstruction. Tachistoscopic experiments revealed that the duration of one such hypothesis-testing cycle of the human visual analyzers is about 8-10 milliseconds.

  5. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  6. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  7. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  8. To Internationalize Rapidly from Inception: Crowdsource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosh Kannangara

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurs continuously search for tools to accelerate the internationalization of their startups. For the purpose of internationalizing rapidly from inception, we propose that technology startups use crowdsourcing to internalize the tacit knowledge embodied in members of a crowd distributed across various geographies. For example, a technology startup can outsource to a large crowd the definition of a customer problem that occurs across various geographies, the development of the best solution to the problem, and the identification of attractive business expansion opportunities. In this article, we analyze how three small firms use crowdsourcing, discuss the benefits of crowdsourcing, and offer six recommendations to technology entrepreneurs interested in using crowdsourcing to rapidly internationalize their startups from inception.

  9. Complex chimerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kimberly K.; Petroff, Margaret G.; Coscia, Lisa A.; Armenti, Vincent T.; Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of women with organ transplantation have undergone successful pregnancies, however little is known about how the profound immunologic changes associated with pregnancy might influence tolerance or rejection of the allograft. Pregnant women with a solid organ transplant are complex chimeras with multiple foreign cell populations from the donor organ, fetus, and mother of the pregnant woman. We consider the impact of complex chimerism and pregnancy-associated immunologic changes on tolerance of the allograft both during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Mechanisms of allograft tolerance are likely dynamic during pregnancy and affected by the influx of fetal microchimeric cells, HLA relationships (between the fetus, pregnant woman and/or donor), peripheral T cell tolerance to fetal cells, and fetal minor histocompatibility antigens. Further research is necessary to understand the complex immunology during pregnancy and the postpartum period of women with a solid organ transplant. PMID:23974274

  10. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  11. The chaebol and the US military–industrial complex: Cold War geopolitical economy and South Korean industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Glassman; Young-Jin Choi

    2014-01-01

    Among scholars of East Asia, the role of US military offshore procurement (OSP) and the military–industrial complex (MIC) has been underplayed in explanations of rapid industrial transformation. Yet the foundations of industrialization in places such as South Korea, when analyzed in strongly ‘national–territorial’ and state-centric terms of the predominant, so-called ‘neo-Weberian’ accounts, remain inadequately illuminated. We argue that a geopolitical economy approach focusing on the roles o...

  12. The Effects of Rapid Assessments and Adaptive Restudy Prompts in Multimedia Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkl, Alexander; Skuballa, Irene T.; Schwonke, Rolf; Harr, Nora; Leber, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of rapid assessment tasks and different adaptive restudy prompts in multimedia learning. The adaptivity was based on rapid assessment tasks that were interspersed throughout a multimedia learning environment. In Experiment 1 (N = 52 university students), we analyzed to which extent rapid assessment tasks were reactive…

  13. Air sampling unit for breath analyzers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabra, Dariusz; Prokopiuk, Artur; Mikołajczyk, Janusz; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław; Bielecki, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The paper presents a portable breath sampling unit (BSU) for human breath analyzers. The developed unit can be used to probe air from the upper airway and alveolar for clinical and science studies. The BSU is able to operate as a patient interface device for most types of breath analyzers. Its main task is to separate and to collect the selected phases of the exhaled air. To monitor the so-called I, II, or III phase and to identify the airflow from the upper and lower parts of the human respiratory system, the unit performs measurements of the exhaled CO2 (ECO2) in the concentration range of 0%-20% (0-150 mm Hg). It can work in both on-line and off-line modes according to American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society standards. A Tedlar bag with a volume of 5 dm3 is mounted as a BSU sample container. This volume allows us to collect ca. 1-25 selected breath phases. At the user panel, each step of the unit operation is visualized by LED indicators. This helps us to regulate the natural breathing cycle of the patient. There is also an operator's panel to ensure monitoring and configuration setup of the unit parameters. The operation of the breath sampling unit was preliminarily verified using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) laboratory setup. At this setup, volatile organic compounds were extracted by solid phase microextraction. The tests were performed by the comparison of GC/MS signals from both exhaled nitric oxide and isoprene analyses for three breath phases. The functionality of the unit was proven because there was an observed increase in the signal level in the case of the III phase (approximately 40%). The described work made it possible to construct a prototype of a very efficient breath sampling unit dedicated to breath sample analyzers.

  14. IRISpy: Analyzing IRIS Data in Python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Baruah, Ankit; Timothy, Shelbe; Pereira, Tiago; De Pontieu, Bart

    2017-08-01

    IRISpy is a new community-developed open-source software library for analysing IRIS level 2 data. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language. A wide array of scientific computing software packages have already been developed in Python, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib), to solar-physics-specific data analysis (SunPy). IRISpy is currently under development as a SunPy-affiliated package which means it depends on the SunPy library, follows similar standards and conventions, and is developed with the support of of the SunPy development team. IRISpy’s has two primary data objects, one for analyzing slit-jaw imager data and another for analyzing spectrograph data. Both objects contain basic slicing, indexing, plotting, and animating functionality to allow users to easily inspect, reduce and analyze the data. As part of this functionality the objects can output SunPy Maps, TimeSeries, Spectra, etc. of relevant data slices for easier inspection and analysis. Work is also ongoing to provide additional data analysis functionality including derivation of systematic measurement errors (e.g. readout noise), exposure time correction, residual wavelength calibration, radiometric calibration, and fine scale pointing corrections. IRISpy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate IRISpy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing IRISpy.

  15. Bifocal: A Multifunctional, Next Generation Electrostatic Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreone, G. D.; Halekas, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    We describe the design and initial development of a next generation charged particle analyzer capable of taking both routine survey measurements and targeted high angular resolution measurements of the distribution. Space physics missions are constrained by both mass and power considerations. Each instrument on a spacecraft must maximize its usefulness while minimizing the drain on resources. The proposed Bifocal electrostatic analyzer fulfills this requirement by making both coarse and fine resolution in-situ electron measurements. Bifocal is a modified tophat analyzer with 2 sets of electrostatic deflectors which divide the entrance of the instrument into two distinct apertures. The top aperture makes fine measurements that allow a detailed look at fine-scale features of the plasma such as loss cones. The lower aperture makes coarse measurements. We performed extensive computer simulations to optimize the angular resolution of the Bifocal sensor. Following the optics, transmitted charged particles hit a microchannel plate (MCP) detector. Below the MCP's, Bifocal utilizes multiple imaging anodes to achieve fine azimuthal resolution. To optimize detection efficiency and imaging resolution, we performed simulations varying both voltage and distance between the MCP exit face and the anodes. Minimizing azimuthal resolution of the fine aperture will be achieved using imaging anodes. Each anode is divided into two different sections with multiple wedge electrodes, with each section attached to separate preamplifiers whose signals provide the inputs to a signal divider circuit. Using the normalized signal difference between the two parts of the circuit, Bifocal determines the azimuthal location of incident particles to high accuracy. We describe the results of initial design and testing of the preamplifier and divider circuitry.

  16. Mass spectrometer calibration of Cosmic Dust Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Gupta, Satish C.; Jyoti, G.; Beauchamp, J. L.

    2003-02-01

    The time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer (MS) of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) instrument aboard the Cassini spacecraft is expected to be placed in orbit about Saturn to sample submicrometer-diameter ring particles and impact ejecta from Saturn's satellites. The CDA measures a mass spectrum of each particle that impacts the chemical analyzer sector of the instrument. Particles impact a Rh target plate at velocities of 1-100 km/s and produce some 10-8 to 10-5 times the particle mass of positive valence, single-charged ions. These are analyzed via a TOF MS. Initial tests employed a pulsed N2 laser acting on samples of kamacite, pyrrhotite, serpentine, olivine, and Murchison meteorite induced bursts of ions which were detected with a microchannel plate and a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA). Pulses from the N2 laser (1011 W/cm2) are assumed to simulate particle impact. Using aluminum alloy as a test sample, each pulse produces a charge of ~4.6 pC (mostly Al+1), whereas irradiation of a stainless steel target produces a ~2.8 pC (Fe+1) charge. Thus the present system yields ~10-5% of the laser energy in resulting ions. A CSA signal indicates that at the position of the microchannel plate, the ion detector geometry is such that some 5% of the laser-induced ions are collected in the CDA geometry. Employing a multichannel plate detector in this MS yields for Al-Mg-Cu alloy and kamacite targets well-defined peaks at 24 (Mg+1), 27(Al+1), and 64 (Cu+1) and 56 (Fe+1), 58 (Ni+1), and 60 (Ni+1) dalton, respectively.

  17. Blood Gas Analyzer Accuracy of Glucose Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yafen; Wanderer, Jonathan; Nichols, James H; Klonoff, David; Rice, Mark J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the comparability of glucose levels measured with blood gas analyzers (BGAs) and by central laboratories (CLs). Glucose measurements obtained between June 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center were reviewed. The agreement between CL and BGA results were assessed using Bland-Altman, consensus error grid (CEG), and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses. We further analyzed the BGAs' performance against the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2014 draft guidance and 2016 final guidance for blood glucose monitoring and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 standard. We analyzed 2671 paired glucose measurements, including 50 pairs of hypoglycemic values (1.9%). Bland-Altman analysis yielded a mean bias of -3.1 mg/dL, with 98.1% of paired values meeting the 95% limits of agreement. In the hypoglycemic range, the mean bias was -0.8 mg/dL, with 100% of paired values meeting the 95% limits of agreement. When using CEG analysis, 99.9% of the paired values fell within the no risk zone. Similar results were found using SEG analysis. For the FDA 2014 draft guidance, our data did not meet the target compliance rate. For the FDA 2016 final guidance, our data partially met the target compliance rate. For the ISO standard, our data met the target compliance rate. In this study, the agreement for glucose measurement between common BGAs and CL instruments met the ISO 2013 standard. However, BGA accuracy did not meet the stricter requirements of the FDA 2014 draft guidance or 2016 final guidance. Fortunately, plotting these results on either the CEG or the SEG revealed no results in either the great or extreme clinical risk zones. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Analyzing Dendritic Morphology in Columns and Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chun-Yuan; McQueen, Philip G; Pandya, Nishith; McCreedy, Evan S; McAuliffe, Matthew; Lee, Chi-Hon

    2017-03-23

    In many regions of the central nervous systems, such as the fly optic lobes and the vertebrate cortex, synaptic circuits are organized in layers and columns to facilitate brain wiring during development and information processing in developed animals. Postsynaptic neurons elaborate dendrites in type-specific patterns in specific layers to synapse with appropriate presynaptic terminals. The fly medulla neuropil is composed of 10 layers and about 750 columns; each column is innervated by dendrites of over 38 types of medulla neurons, which match with the axonal terminals of some 7 types of afferents in a type-specific fashion. This report details the procedures to image and analyze dendrites of medulla neurons. The workflow includes three sections: (i) the dual-view imaging section combines two confocal image stacks collected at orthogonal orientations into a high-resolution 3D image of dendrites; (ii) the dendrite tracing and registration section traces dendritic arbors in 3D and registers dendritic traces to the reference column array; (iii) the dendritic analysis section analyzes dendritic patterns with respect to columns and layers, including layer-specific termination and planar projection direction of dendritic arbors, and derives estimates of dendritic branching and termination frequencies. The protocols utilize custom plugins built on the open-source MIPAV (Medical Imaging Processing, Analysis, and Visualization) platform and custom toolboxes in the matrix laboratory language. Together, these protocols provide a complete workflow to analyze the dendritic routing of Drosophila medulla neurons in layers and columns, to identify cell types, and to determine defects in mutants.

  19. Complex Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2009-01-01

    With this second volume, we enter the intriguing world of complex analysis. From the first theorems on, the elegance and sweep of the results is evident. The starting point is the simple idea of extending a function initially given for real values of the argument to one that is defined when the argument is complex. From there, one proceeds to the main properties of holomorphic functions, whose proofs are generally short and quite illuminating: the Cauchy theorems, residues, analytic continuation, the argument principle.With this background, the reader is ready to learn a wealth of additional m

  20. Complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Morrow, James

    2006-01-01

    This book, a revision and organization of lectures given by Kodaira at Stanford University in 1965-66, is an excellent, well-written introduction to the study of abstract complex (analytic) manifolds-a subject that began in the late 1940's and early 1950's. It is largely self-contained, except for some standard results about elliptic partial differential equations, for which complete references are given. -D. C. Spencer, MathSciNet The book under review is the faithful reprint of the original edition of one of the most influential textbooks in modern complex analysis and geometry. The classic

  1. A Conceptual Framework for Analyzing Terrorist Groups,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Libyan 17 18 8 29 63 6 Other Middle East 7 11 17 7 7 6 Other European 6 10 8 7 8 6 Sub-Sahara African 7 25 68 22 12 6 Other 6 7 7 17 12 6 grow to be...VIOLENCE, BY REGION, 1980-1982 Inter- Attacks Total national on Terrorist Group Incidents’ Incidentsb Americans Latin America MIR ( Movimiento de...details. (Use separate entries for each person, Bla, Bib, etc.) 67 ____ 4- 68 A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING TERRORIST GROUPS B2. Names of other key

  2. Analyzing Argumentation In Rich, Natural Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Reznitskaya

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and methodological aspects of research on the development of argument- ation in elementary school children. It presents a theoretical framework detailing psychological mechanisms responsible for the acquisition and transfer of argumentative discourse and demonstrates several applications of the framework, described in sufficient detail to guide future empirical investigations of oral, written, individual, or group argumentation performance. Software programs capable of facilitating data analysis are identified and their uses illustrated. The analytic schemes can be used to analyze large amounts of verbal data with reasonable precision and efficiency. The conclusion addresses more generally the challenges for and possibilities of empirical study of the development of argumentation.

  3. CRISP90 - SOFTWARE DESIGN ANALYZER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  4. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  5. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, A.P. [Pavia Univ. (Italy). Dipt di Informatica e Sistemistica; Worley, P.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  6. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, A.P. [Pavia Univ., (Italy). Dipt. Informatica e Sistemistica; Worley, P.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  7. Timed Automata Semantics for Analyzing Creol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Jaghoori

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We give a real-time semantics for the concurrent, object-oriented modeling language Creol, by mapping Creol processes to a network of timed automata. We can use our semantics to verify real time properties of Creol objects, in particular to see whether processes can be scheduled correctly and meet their end-to-end deadlines. Real-time Creol can be useful for analyzing, for instance, abstract models of multi-core embedded systems. We show how analysis can be done in Uppaal.

  8. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springston, S. R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  9. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  10. Qualitative networks: a symbolic approach to analyze biological signaling networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henzinger Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central goal of Systems Biology is to model and analyze biological signaling pathways that interact with one another to form complex networks. Here we introduce Qualitative networks, an extension of Boolean networks. With this framework, we use formal verification methods to check whether a model is consistent with the laboratory experimental observations on which it is based. If the model does not conform to the data, we suggest a revised model and the new hypotheses are tested in-silico. Results We consider networks in which elements range over a small finite domain allowing more flexibility than Boolean values, and add target functions that allow to model a rich set of behaviors. We propose a symbolic algorithm for analyzing the steady state of these networks, allowing us to scale up to a system consisting of 144 elements and state spaces of approximately 1086 states. We illustrate the usefulness of this approach through a model of the interaction between the Notch and the Wnt signaling pathways in mammalian skin, and its extensive analysis. Conclusion We introduce an approach for constructing computational models of biological systems that extends the framework of Boolean networks and uses formal verification methods for the analysis of the model. This approach can scale to multicellular models of complex pathways, and is therefore a useful tool for the analysis of complex biological systems. The hypotheses formulated during in-silico testing suggest new avenues to explore experimentally. Hence, this approach has the potential to efficiently complement experimental studies in biology.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence analyzed in a Dictyostelium discoideum host system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Pierre; Zulianello, Laurence; Join-Lambert, Olivier; Faurisson, François; Gebbie, Leigh; Benghezal, Mohammed; Van Delden, Christian; Curty, Lasta Kocjancic; Köhler, Thilo

    2002-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen that produces a variety of cell-associated and secreted virulence factors. P. aeruginosa infections are difficult to treat effectively because of the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. In this study, we analyzed whether the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be used as a simple model system to analyze the virulence of P. aeruginosa strains. The virulent wild-type strain PAO1 was shown to inhibit growth of D. discoideum. Isogenic mutants deficient in the las quorum-sensing system were almost as inhibitory as the wild type, while rhl quorum-sensing mutants permitted growth of Dictyostelium cells. Therefore, in this model system, factors controlled by the rhl quorum-sensing system were found to play a central role. Among these, rhamnolipids secreted by the wild-type strain PAO1 could induce fast lysis of D. discoideum cells. By using this simple model system, we predicted that certain antibiotic-resistant mutants of P. aeruginosa should show reduced virulence. This result was confirmed in a rat model of acute pneumonia. Thus, D. discoideum could be used as a simple nonmammalian host system to assess pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa.

  12. Rapid Hepatitis C Virus Divergence among Chronically Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Rivera, Mayra; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Lozano, Daniela; Vergara-Castaneda, Arely; Rivera-Osorio, Pilar; Martinez-Guarneros, Armando; Chacon, Carlos A. Vazquez; Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Vaughan, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    Here, we analyze the viral divergence among hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic cases infected with genotype 1. The intrahost viral evolution was assessed by deep sequencing using the 454 Genome Sequencer platform. The results showed a rapid nucleotide sequence divergence. This notorious short-term viral evolution is of the utmost importance for the study of HCV transmission, because direct links between related samples were virtually lost. Thus, rapid divergence of HCV significantly affects gene...

  13. Basis-neutral Hilbert-space analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lane; Mardani, Davood; Kondakci, H Esat; Larson, Walker D; Shabahang, Soroush; Jahromi, Ali K; Malhotra, Tanya; Vamivakas, A Nick; Atia, George K; Abouraddy, Ayman F

    2017-03-27

    Interferometry is one of the central organizing principles of optics. Key to interferometry is the concept of optical delay, which facilitates spectral analysis in terms of time-harmonics. In contrast, when analyzing a beam in a Hilbert space spanned by spatial modes - a critical task for spatial-mode multiplexing and quantum communication - basis-specific principles are invoked that are altogether distinct from that of 'delay'. Here, we extend the traditional concept of temporal delay to the spatial domain, thereby enabling the analysis of a beam in an arbitrary spatial-mode basis - exemplified using Hermite-Gaussian and radial Laguerre-Gaussian modes. Such generalized delays correspond to optical implementations of fractional transforms; for example, the fractional Hankel transform is the generalized delay associated with the space of Laguerre-Gaussian modes, and an interferometer incorporating such a 'delay' obtains modal weights in the associated Hilbert space. By implementing an inherently stable, reconfigurable spatial-light-modulator-based polarization-interferometer, we have constructed a 'Hilbert-space analyzer' capable of projecting optical beams onto any modal basis.

  14. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. CALIBRATION OF ONLINE ANALYZERS USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajive Ganguli; Daniel E. Walsh; Shaohai Yu

    2003-12-05

    Neural networks were used to calibrate an online ash analyzer at the Usibelli Coal Mine, Healy, Alaska, by relating the Americium and Cesium counts to the ash content. A total of 104 samples were collected from the mine, with 47 being from screened coal, and the rest being from unscreened coal. Each sample corresponded to 20 seconds of coal on the running conveyor belt. Neural network modeling used the quick stop training procedure. Therefore, the samples were split into training, calibration and prediction subsets. Special techniques, using genetic algorithms, were developed to representatively split the sample into the three subsets. Two separate approaches were tried. In one approach, the screened and unscreened coal was modeled separately. In another, a single model was developed for the entire dataset. No advantage was seen from modeling the two subsets separately. The neural network method performed very well on average but not individually, i.e. though each prediction was unreliable, the average of a few predictions was close to the true average. Thus, the method demonstrated that the analyzers were accurate at 2-3 minutes intervals (average of 6-9 samples), but not at 20 seconds (each prediction).

  16. Analyzing Virtual Physics Simulations with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Tom

    2017-12-01

    In the physics teaching community, Tracker is well known as a user-friendly open source video analysis software, authored by Douglas Brown. With this tool, the user can trace markers indicated on a video or on stroboscopic photos and perform kinematic analyses. Tracker also includes a data modeling tool that allows one to fit some theoretical equations of motion onto experimentally obtained data. In the field of particle mechanics, Tracker has been effectively used for learning and teaching about projectile motion, "toss up" and free-fall vertical motion, and to explain the principle of mechanical energy conservation. Also, Tracker has been successfully used in rigid body mechanics to interpret the results of experiments with rolling/slipping cylinders and moving rods. In this work, I propose an original method in which Tracker is used to analyze virtual computer simulations created with a physics-based motion solver, instead of analyzing video recording or stroboscopic photos. This could be an interesting approach to study kinematics and dynamics problems in physics education, in particular when there is no or limited access to physical labs. I demonstrate the working method with a typical (but quite challenging) problem in classical mechanics: a slipping/rolling cylinder on a rough surface.

  17. Analyzing rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Pasceri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rare disease patients too often face common problems, including the lack of access to correct diagnosis, lack of quality information on the disease, lack of scientific knowledge of the disease, inequities and difficulties in access to treatment and care. These things could be changed by implementing a comprehensive approach to rare diseases, increasing international cooperation in scientific research, by gaining and sharing scientific knowledge about and by developing tools for extracting and sharing knowledge. A significant aspect to analyze is the organization of knowledge in the biomedical field for the proper management and recovery of health information. For these purposes, the sources needed have been acquired from the Office of Rare Diseases Research, the National Organization of Rare Disorders and Orphanet, organizations that provide information to patients and physicians and facilitate the exchange of information among different actors involved in this field. The present paper shows the representation of rare diseases terms in biomedical terminologies such as MeSH, ICD-10, SNOMED CT and OMIM, leveraging the fact that these terminologies are integrated in the UMLS. At the first level, it was analyzed the overlap among sources and at a second level, the presence of rare diseases terms in target sources included in UMLS, working at the term and concept level. We found that MeSH has the best representation of rare diseases terms.

  18. Improving respiration measurements with gas exchange analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, R; Ribas-Carbó, M; Del Saz, N F; El Aou-Ouad, H; Berry, J A; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-12-01

    Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO2 differential (ΔCO2) increased two-fold with no change in apparent Rd, when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside. These results showed a clear effect of the position of stomata on ΔCO2. Therefore, it can be concluded that leaf position is important to guarantee the improvement of respiration measurements increasing ΔCO2 without affecting the respiration results by leaf or mass units. This method will help to increase the accuracy of leaf respiration measurements using gas exchange analyzers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  20. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Mohamed M; El-Rasas, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor's organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  1. Digging beneath the Surface: Analyzing the Complexity of Instructors' Participation in Asynchronous Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lane Whitney; Bartholomew, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate instructor participation in asynchronous discussions through an in-depth content analysis of instructors' postings and comments through the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework (Garrison et. al, 2001). We developed an analytical tool based on this framework in order to better understand what instructors…

  2. A Runtime Verification System for Developing, Analyzing and Controlling Complex Safety-Critical Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A comprehensive commercial-grade system for the development of safe parallel and serial programs is developed. The system has the ability to perform efficient...

  3. Modern Organization Theory: Analyzing The Complexity of Coordination and Cooperation in the Modern Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Sirajul Haque; Naveed Rehman

    2014-01-01

    The theory consists of principles that describe relationships observed in association with phenomenon. The primary role of theory is to provide a description as well as explanation of the phenomenon. This means that organization theory can help us in understanding us; what is organizations, how organization behaves in a given environment and how they may behave in a different set of circumstances. The organization theory has been developed as a result of systematic study of organizations. The...

  4. Statistical applications in nutrigenomics : analyzing multiple genes and proteins in relation to complex diseases in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Background The recent advances in technology provide the possibility to obtain large genomic datasets that contain information on large numbers of variables, while the sample sizes are moderate to small. This has lead to statistical challenges in the analysis of multiple genes and proteins in

  5. GUMRAP: A Computer Program for Analyzing Molecular Flow in Complex Enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    molecules. More recently, Cercignani (Ref. 4), Kuscer et al. (Ref. 5), and Wenaas (Ref. 6) have shown that any gas-surface interaction model, in addition...34A Model of the Wall Boundary Condition in Kinetic Theory." AIAA Journal, Vol. 5, No. lO, October 1967, pp. 1797-1800. 4. Cercignani , Carlo

  6. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  7. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  8. phenanthroline complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural analyses. Mass spectral studies of the complexes indicate both the compounds to produce identical cationic species viz., [Co(phen)2Cl2]+ in methanol solution. ... Cobalt(III); X-ray structure; Catecholase activity; DNA cleavage; Anti-cancer activity. 1. ..... necrotic as judged by the staining, nuclear morphology.

  9. Lecithin Complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China). Lecithin from soya bean was a product of. Sangon (Shanghai, China). Methanol of HPLC grade was purchased from Tedia (USA). Other chemicals used were of analytical grade. Preparation of polydatin-lecithin complex. Polydatin (200 mg) and lecithin (400 mg) were dissolved in 50 mL of tetrahydrofuran and stirred.

  10. Complex Criminality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, D.; Abels, D.; van der Wilt, H.

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a collection of essays on the wide diversity of meanings of complex criminality. These essays were written to commemorate a national gathering of PhD candidates, from criminal law departments of different universities, at the University of Amsterdam on the 6th of June 2014.

  11. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  12. peroxo complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    The investigation of dioxygen binding and activation in dinuclear iron complexes has attracted recent interest because of the presence of carboxylate bridged dinuclear iron sites in several biologically important proteins, such as the R2 protein of ribonucleotide reductase, the hydroxylase component of methane ...

  13. carbohydrate complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ferrocene-carbohydrate conjugates38,39 have lead to the design and study of the cytotoxic activity of metal com- plexes containing carbohydrate ligands. Hence, here we present the detailed synthesis and characteriza- tion of the carbohydrate triazole ligands and their Pd- complexes together with the crystal structures of ...

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Thomsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The combined battery capacity in electric vehicles (EVs) is considered an integral part of balancing a smart power grid in the future. In addition, EVs can reduce the usage of fossil fuels in the transport sector because EVs can be charged using electricity from renewable energy sources...... on all aspects of charging EVs, including integration with the electricity prices from a spot market. The proposed data warehouse is fully implemented and currently contains 2.5 years of charging data from 176 EVs. We describe the date warehouse model and the implementation including complex operations...... such as spatially identifying charging station usage patterns. Further, we give examples of novel analyses, e.g., how the free battery capacity in the fleet of EVs changes over the day and how users can save money by charging the EVs when the electricity price is the lowest....

  15. Improving physics instruction by analyzing video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    Video games can be very powerful teaching systems, and game designers have become adept at optimizing player engagement while scaffolding development of complex skills and situated knowledge. One implication is that we might create games to teach physics. Another, which I explore here, is that we might learn to improve classroom physics instruction by studying effective games. James Gee, in his book What Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and Literacy (2007), articulates 36 principles that make good video games highly effective as learning environments. In this theoretical work, I identify 16 themes running through Gee's principles, and explore how these themes and Gee's principles could be applied to the design of an on-campus physics course. I argue that the process pushes us to confront aspects of learning that physics instructors and even physics education researchers generally neglect, and suggest some novel ideas for course design.

  16. Using graph theory to analyze biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Understanding complex systems often requires a bottom-up analysis towards a systems biology approach. The need to investigate a system, not only as individual components but as a whole, emerges. This can be done by examining the elementary constituents individually and then how these are connected. The myriad components of a system and their interactions are best characterized as networks and they are mainly represented as graphs where thousands of nodes are connected with thousands of vertices. In this article we demonstrate approaches, models and methods from the graph theory universe and we discuss ways in which they can be used to reveal hidden properties and features of a network. This network profiling combined with knowledge extraction will help us to better understand the biological significance of the system. PMID:21527005

  17. Complex chemistry with complex compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eichler Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years gas-phase chemical studies assisted by physical pre-separation allowed for the investigation of fragile single molecular species by gas-phase chromatography. The latest success with the heaviest group 6 transactinide seaborgium is highlighted. The formation of a very volatile hexacarbonyl compound Sg(CO6 was observed similarly to its lighter homologues molybdenum and tungsten. The interactions of these gaseous carbonyl complex compounds with quartz surfaces were investigated by thermochromatography. Second-generation experiments are under way to investigate the intramolecular bond between the central metal atom of the complexes and the ligands addressing the influence of relativistic effects in the heaviest compounds. Our contribution comprises some aspects of the ongoing challenging experiments as well as an outlook towards other interesting compounds related to volatile complex compounds in the gas phase.

  18. Rapid Prototyping and its Application in Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. V. Madhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical implants and biological models have three main characteristics: low volume, complex shape, and can be customized. These characteristics suit very well with Rapid Prototyping (RP and Rapid Manufacturing (RM processes. RP/RM processes are fabricated part layer- by-layer until complete shape finished from 3D model. Biocompatible materials, such as Titanium and Titanium alloy, Zirconium, Cobalt Chromium, PEEK, etc, are used for fabrication process. Reverse Engineering (RE technology greatly affects RP/RM processes. RE is used to capture or scan image of the limb, cranium, tooth, and other biological objects. Three common methods to get the image are 3D laser scanning, Computer Tomography (CT, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Main RP/RM techniques used in Dentistry are Stereotype Lithography Apparatus (SLA, Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, and ink jet printing. This article reviews the changing scenario of technology in dentistry with special emphasis on Rapid Prototyping and its various applications in Dentistry.

  19. Analyzing Options for Airborne Emergency Wireless Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Schmitt; Juan Deaton; Curt Papke; Shane Cherry

    2008-03-01

    In the event of large-scale natural or manmade catastrophic events, access to reliable and enduring commercial communication systems is critical. Hurricane Katrina provided a recent example of the need to ensure communications during a national emergency. To ensure that communication demands are met during these critical times, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the guidance of United States Strategic Command has studied infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities associated with an airborne wireless communications capability. Such a capability could provide emergency wireless communications until public/commercial nodes can be systematically restored. This report focuses on the airborne cellular restoration concept; analyzing basic infrastructure requirements; identifying related infrastructure issues, concerns, and vulnerabilities and offers recommended solutions.

  20. Analyzing Demand: Hegemonic Masculinity and Feminine Prostitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ranea Triviño

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is presented an exploratory research in which we analyzed the relationship between the construction of hegemonic masculinity and consumption of female prostitution. We have focused our attention on the experiences, attitudes and perceptions of young heterosexual men who have ever paid for sex. Following with a quantitative method of analysis, we conducted six semi-structured interviews with men between 18 to 35 years old. The analysis of the interviews shows the different demographic characteristics, such as, frequency of payment for sexual services, diversity of motivations, spaces where prostitutes are searched, opinions on prostitution and prostitutes. The main conclusions of this study are that the discourses of the interviewees reproduce gender stereotypes and gender sexual roles. And it is suggested that prostitution can be interpreted as a scenario where these men performance their hegemonic masculinity.

  1. Modeling and analyzing architectural change with alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Ingstrup, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Although adaptivity based on reconfiguration has the potential to improve dependability of systems, the cost of a failed attempt at reconfiguration is prohibitive in precisely the applications where high dependability is required. Existing work on formal modeling and verification of architectural...... reconfigurations partly achieve the goal of ensuring correctness, however the formalisms used often lack tool support and the ensuing models have uncertain relation to a concrete implementation. Thus a practical way to ensure with formal certainty that specific architectural changes are correct remains a barrier...... to the uptake of reconfiguration techniques in industry. Using the Alloy language and associated tool, we propose a practical way to formally model and analyze runtime architectural change expressed as architectural scripts. Our evaluation shows the performance to be acceptable; our experience...

  2. Analyzing, Modelling, and Designing Software Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    the development, implementation, and use of telemedicine services. We initially expand the theory of software ecosystems by contributing to the definition and understanding of software ecosystems, providing means of analyzing existing and designing new ecosystems, and defining and measuring the qualities...... of software ecosystems. We use these contributions to design a software ecosystem in the telemedicine services of Denmark with (i) a common platform that supports and promotes development from different actors, (ii) high software interaction, (iii) strong social network of actors, (iv) robust business....... This thesis documents the groundwork towards addressing the challenges faced by telemedical technologies today and establishing telemedicine as a means of patient diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, it serves as an empirical example of designing a software ecosystem....

  3. Stackable differential mobility analyzer for aerosol measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Chen, Da-Ren

    2007-05-08

    A multi-stage differential mobility analyzer (MDMA) for aerosol measurements includes a first electrode or grid including at least one inlet or injection slit for receiving an aerosol including charged particles for analysis. A second electrode or grid is spaced apart from the first electrode. The second electrode has at least one sampling outlet disposed at a plurality different distances along its length. A volume between the first and the second electrode or grid between the inlet or injection slit and a distal one of the plurality of sampling outlets forms a classifying region, the first and second electrodes for charging to suitable potentials to create an electric field within the classifying region. At least one inlet or injection slit in the second electrode receives a sheath gas flow into an upstream end of the classifying region, wherein each sampling outlet functions as an independent DMA stage and classifies different size ranges of charged particles based on electric mobility simultaneously.

  4. Analyzing DNA replication checkpoint in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustedt, Nicole; Shimada, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Checkpoints are conserved mechanisms that prevent progression into the next phase of the cell cycle when cells are unable to accomplish the previous event properly. Cells also possess a surveillance mechanism called the DNA replication checkpoint, which consists of a conserved kinase cascade that is provoked by insults that block or slow down replication fork progression. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the DNA replication checkpoint controls the timing of S-phase events such as origin firing and spindle elongation. This checkpoint also upregulates dNTP pools and maintains the replication fork structure in order to resume DNA replication after replication block. Many replication checkpoint factors have been found to be tumor suppressors, highlighting the importance of this checkpoint pathway in human health. Here we describe a series of protocols to analyze the DNA replication checkpoint in S. cerevisiae.

  5. ANALYZING COMPLAINTS BY INDONESIAN EFL SPEAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marietta da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The English language competence of an EFL learner can be reflectedin his pragmatic competence. Yet, for language learners and teachers a mastery of the pragmatic competence may unconsciously be neglected. In other words, it may not be taught in line with the grammatical competence since the initial period of learning. The article centers on two problems: (1 the similarities and differences of speech act of complaints among Indonesian EFL learners, Indonesian EFL teachers and American native speakers, and (2 the evidence of any pragmatic transfer in the complaint performance. DCT was used to gather the data, which was then analyzed using Rinnert, Nogami and Iwai?s aspects of complaining (2006. It was found that there were both differences and similarities of complaints performed by both the native and non-native speakers of English when power and social status were involved. Some evidence on pragmatic transfer was also tangible; mainly it was due to cultural differences

  6. Analyzing and forecasting the European social climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses the results of the sample survey Eurobarometer, which has been requested by the European Commission. The social climate index is used to measure the level of perceptions of population by taking into account their personal situation and their perspective at national level. The paper makes an analysis of the evolution of social climate indices for the countries of European Union and offers information about the expectations of population of analyzed countries. The obtained results can be compared with the forecasting of Eurobarometer, on short term of one year and medium term of five years. Modelling the social climate index and its influence factors offers useful information about the efficiency of social protection and inclusion policies.

  7. Statistical models for jointly analyzing multiple allometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Huijiang; Liu, Yongxin; Zhang, Tingting; Yang, Runqing; Yang, Huanmin

    2013-02-07

    As the reciprocal of simple allometry equation, power allometry equation can also be used to define allometry scaling but the scaling exponent has an opposite meaning to that of simple allometry equation. Based on this observation, a joint static allometry scaling model of entire body size on multiple partial body size is established, which can not only simultaneously evaluate allometry scaling of multiple partial body sizes, but also take into account the correlations among multiple partial body sizes, facilitating subsequent statistical inference and practice. Since ontogenetic allometry may be time-dependent, ontogenetic allometry is estimated by jointly analyzing changes of entire and multiple partial body sizes as growth time using multivariate stepwise analysis. Joint analysis of allometry scaling is suitable for multiple biological traits and functions with same property or comparability, which is illustrated by two examples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Data acquisition and analysis system for the ion microprobe mass analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, D.M.; Cristy, S.S.

    1979-02-01

    A computer was interfaced to an ion microprobe mass analyzer for more rapid data acquisition and analysis. The interface is designed to allow data acquisition, independent of the computer. A large data analysis package was developed and implemented. Performance of the computerized system was evaluated and compared to manual operation.

  9. Liver transplantion in a patient with rapid onset parkinsonism-dementia complex induced by manganism secondary to liver failure Transplante hepático em um paciente com complexo parkinsonismo-demência rapidamente progressivo induzido por manganismo devido a insuficiência hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Fabiani

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral and symmetric globus-pallidus hyperintensities are observed on T1-weighted MRI in most of the patients with chronic liver failure, due to manganese accumulation. We report a 53-year-old man, with rapid onset parkinsonism-dementia complex associated with accumulation of manganese in the brain, secondary to liver failure. A brain MRI was performed and a high signal on T1-weighted images was seen on globus-pallidus, as well as on T2-weighted images on the hemispheric white-matter. He was referred to a liver-transplantation. The patient passed away on the seventh postoperative day. Our findings support the concept of the toxic effects of manganese on the globus-pallidus. The treatment of this form of parkinsonism is controversial and liver-transplantation should not be considered as first line treatment but as an alternative one.Hiperintesidades simétricas e bilaterais dos gânglios da base são observadas em imagens de ressonância magnética encefálica (RM ponderadas em T1 na maioria dos pacientes com insuficiência hepática crônica devidas ao acúmulo de manganês. Nós relatamos o caso de um homem, com 53 anos de idade, com um complexo parkinsonismo-demência rapidamente progressivo associado com o acúmulo de manganês no cérebro, secundariamente a insuficiência hepática. Uma RM encefálica foi realizada e foram observadas imagens hiperintensas/hipersinal nas imagens ponderadas em T1 no globo pálido e, também, na substância branca dos hemisférios cerebrais ponderadas em T2. Devido à falta de resposta ao tratamento clinico optamos pelo transplante hepático. O paciente faleceu no 7º dia de PO. Nossos achados corroboram o conceito dos efeitos tóxicos do manganês nos gânglios da base/globo pálido. O tratamento desta forma de parkinsonismo é controverso e o transplante hepático não deverá ser considerada uma opção terapêutica de primeira linha, porém como um tratamento alternativo considerando-se os riscos

  10. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  11. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  12. Complex Questions Promote Complex Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degener, Sophie; Berne, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Intermediate-grade teachers often express concerns about meeting the Common Core State Standards for Reading, primarily because of the emphasis on deep understanding of complex texts. No matter how difficult the text, if teachers demand little of the reading, student meaning making is not challenged. This article offers a tool for teachers to…

  13. [Electromyography Analysis of Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Natsuko; Kinoshita, Fumiya; Takada, Hiroki; Nakayama, Meiho

    2018-01-01

    Polysomnography (PSG), which records physiological phenomena including brain waves, breathing status, and muscle tonus, is useful for the diagnosis of sleep disorders as a gold standard. However, measurement and analysis are complex for several specific sleep disorders, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Usually, brain waves during REM sleep indicate an awakening pattern under relaxed conditions of skeletal and antigravity muscles. However, these muscles are activated during REM sleep when patients suffer from RBD. These activated muscle movements during REM, so-called REM without atonia (RWA) recorded by PSG, may be related to a neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease. Thus, careful analysis of RWA is significant not only physically, but also clinically. Commonly, manual viewing measurement analysis of RWA is time-consuming. Therefore, quantitative studies on RWA are rarely reported. A software program, developed from Microsoft Office Excel ® , was used to semiautomatically analyze the RWA ratio extracted from PSG to compare with manual viewing measurement analysis. In addition, a quantitative muscle tonus study was carried out to evaluate the effect of medication on RBD patients. Using this new software program, we were able to analyze RWA on the same cases in approximately 15 min as compared with 60 min in the manual viewing measurement analysis. This software program can not only quantify RWA easily but also identify RWA waves for either phasic or tonic bursts. We consider that this software program will support physicians and scientists in their future research on RBD. We are planning to offer this software program for free to physicians and scientists.

  14. Plant-bacterium interactions analyzed by proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber eAfroz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the plant immune response has resulted in a highly effective defense system that is able to resist potential attack by microbial pathogens. The primary immune response is referred to as pathogen associated molecular pattern triggered immunity and has evolved to recognize common features of microbial pathogens. In response to the delivery of pathogen effector proteins, plants acquired R proteins to fight against pathogen attack. R-dependent defense response is important in understanding the biochemical and cellular mechanisms and underlying these interactions will enable molecular and transgenic approaches for crops with increased biotic resistance. Proteomic analyses are particularly useful for understanding the mechanisms of host plant against the pathogen attack. Recent advances in the field of proteome analyses have initiated a new research area, i.e the analysis of more complex microbial communities and their interaction with plant. Such areas hold great potential to elucidate, not only the interactions between bacteria and their host plants, but also of bacteria-bacteria interactions between different bacterial taxa, symbiotic, pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria. During biotic stress, plant hormonal signaling pathways prioritizes defense over other cellular functions. Some plant pathogens take advantage of hormone dependent regulatory system by mimicking hormones that interfere with host immune responses to promote virulence. In this review, it is discussed the cross talk that plays important role in response to pathogens attack with different infection strategies using proteomic approaches.

  15. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Hwan Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM is not uncommon, andthe prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult becausethere are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimenfor treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied toexamine their treatments and outcomes.Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using amycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridizationassay. To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculousmycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR.Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization,and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-upwas 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of acombination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developedrecurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring,pigmentation, and disfigurement.Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared tobe effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosagenor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment canprovide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection.

  16. Analyzing Music Services Positioning Through Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cuadrado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information technologies have produced new ways of distributing and consuming music, mainly by youth, in relation to both goods and services. In the case of goods, there has been a dramatic shift from traditional ways of buying and listening to music to new digital platforms. There has also been an evolution in relation to music services. In this sense, live music concerts have been losing their audiences over the past few years, as have music radio stations, in favor of streaming platforms. Curious about this phenomenon, we conducted an exploratory research in order to analyze how all these services, both traditional and new ones were perceived. Specifically, we aimed to study youth´s assessment of the three most relevant music service categories: music radio stations, digital streaming platforms, and pop-rock music festivals. To do so, we used the projective technique of image association to gather information. The population of the study consisted of individuals between 18 and 25 years of age. Our results, after using content analysis, were poor due to spontaneous recall. Therefore, we duplicated the study, but in a more focus-oriented way. Information gathered this time allowed us not only to better know how all these organizations are positioned but also to obtain a list of descriptors to be used in a subsequent descriptive research study.

  17. Glaucoma suspect & Humphrey Field Analyzer a correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma originally meant "clouded", in Greek.The term glaucoma refers to a group of diseases that have in common characteristic optic neuropathy with associated visual field loss for which elevated intraocular pressure is one of the primary risk factor. The purpose of the study is to correlate the clinically diagnosed cases of glaucoma suspect with the Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA. Fifty cases of glaucoma suspect who attended the glaucoma clinic of Nepal Eye Hospital Tripureswor, Kathmandu, Nepal and who meets at least two criteria, among the four types of glaucoma suspects were advised for the HFA for the study. In this study out of 50 patient, 36 (72% patients had normal visual field. 14 (28% patients had thinning of the neural retinal rim (NRR in both eyes. The significant relation with thinning of neural retina rim and glaucomatous hemifield test was found in the study. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal,2012,Vol-8,No-1, 23-28 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i1.6822

  18. Analyzing the Pension System of the USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei V. Pudovkin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article under the title "ANALYSIS OF THE PENSION SYSTEM OF THE USSR" deals with numerous aspects of development of the pension system of the former USSR. Since the improvement of the Russian pension system is presently high on the agenda, the author believes that analyzing the own historical experience in the first line is essential in order to create a sound and efficient pension system in Russia. The study presented in the article aims to execute an in-depth analysis of legislature on the soviet pension system with the view to recreate the architecture of the pension system of the USSR. In addition, the study also reflects on the official statistics for the said period to make a qualified and fundamental conclusion on the efficiency of the soviet pension system. The evolution of the pension system, based on statistical data evidently proves the efficiently of the soviet pension system. It is highly recommended that the positive aspects of the soviet pension system are taken into consideration when reforming the actual pension system of Russian Federation.

  19. A framework to analyze emissions implications of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Future year emissions depend highly on the evolution of the economy, technology and current and future regulatory drivers. A scenario framework was adopted to analyze various technology development pathways and societal change while considering existing regulations and future uncertainty in regulations and evaluate resulting emissions growth patterns. The framework integrates EPA’s energy systems model with an economic Input-Output (I/O) Life Cycle Assessment model. The EPAUS9r MARKAL database is assembled from a set of technologies to represent the U.S. energy system within MARKAL bottom-up technology rich energy modeling framework. The general state of the economy and consequent demands for goods and services from these sectors are taken exogenously in MARKAL. It is important to characterize exogenous inputs about the economy to appropriately represent the industrial sector outlook for each of the scenarios and case studies evaluated. An economic input-output (I/O) model of the US economy is constructed to link up with MARKAL. The I/O model enables user to change input requirements (e.g. energy intensity) for different sectors or the share of consumer income expended on a given good. This gives end-users a mechanism for modeling change in the two dimensions of technological progress and consumer preferences that define the future scenarios. The framework will then be extended to include environmental I/O framework to track life cycle emissions associated

  20. Analyzing the Existing Undergraduate Engineering Leadership Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed M. Almalki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Studying and analyzing the undergraduate engineering students' leadership skills to discover their potential leadership strengths and weaknesses. This study will unveil potential ways to enhance the ways we teach engineering leadership. The research has great insights that might assist engineering programs to improve curricula for the purpose of better engineering preparation to meet industry's demands. Methodology and Findings: 441 undergraduate engineering students have been surveyed in two undergraduate engineering programs to discover their leadership skills. The results in both programs were revealing that undergraduate engineering students are lacking behind in the visionary leadership skills compared to directing, including and cultivating leadership styles. Recommendation: A practical framework has been proposed to enhance the lacking leadership skills by utilizing the Matrix of Change (MOC, and the Balanced Scorecard BSC to capture the best leadership scenarios to design virtual simulation environment as per the lacking leadership skills which is the visionary leadership skills in this case. After that, the virtual simulation will be used to provide an experiential learning by replacing human beings with avatars that can be managed or dramatized by real people to enable the creation of live, practical, measurable, and customizable leadership development programs.

  1. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  2. Photomask pattern viewer and analyzer: HOTSCOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Shogo; Yamasaki, Kiyoshi; Machiya, Yuji; Hayashi, Naoya

    2005-06-01

    Recently, photomask pattern feature have become different from LSI layout pattern feature by the OPC process and CMP DUMMY pattern insertion. And then, photomask pattern data volume is very large compared with LSI layout pattern data volume. Therefore, in the usual JOBDECK pattern viewer software, it is difficult to draw those huge pattern data smoothly and quickly. Moreover, various proposals of RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology) are made from various companies and organizations, and it is discussed by various societies. According to the RET, mask pattern feature and structure have been more complicated than the present pattern, and mask difficulty and mask cost might be going to increase and will have great anxiety. Photomask pattern viewer, HOTSCOPE which we developed isn't an only high speed photomask pattern viewer and analyzer, but also can superpose and observe some other mask format pattern and GDS2 format pattern by changing pattern magnification and mirror processing by itself. And HOTSCOPE is the tool which fully incorporated the function required for mask manufactures, such as a plan of a mask, preparation of JOBDECK, and the mask pattern analysis purpose.

  3. A Method for Analyzing Volunteered Geographic Information ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteered geographic information (VGI) can be used to identify public valuation of ecosystem services in a defined geographic area using photos as a representation of lived experiences. This method can help researchers better survey and report on the values and preferences of stakeholders involved in rehabilitation and revitalization projects. Current research utilizes VGI in the form of geotagged social media photos from three platforms: Flickr, Instagram, and Panaramio. Social media photos have been obtained for the neighborhoods next to the St. Louis River in Duluth, Minnesota, and are being analyzed along several dimensions. These dimensions include the spatial distribution of each platform, the characteristics of the physical environment portrayed in the photos, and finally, the ecosystem service depicted. In this poster, we focus on the photos from the Irving and Fairmount neighborhoods of Duluth, MN to demonstrate the method at the neighborhood scale. This study demonstrates a method for translating the values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially-explicit data to be used in multiple settings, including the City of Duluth’s Comprehensive Planning and community revitalization efforts, habitat restoration in a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and the USEPA’s Office of Research and Development. This poster will demonstrate a method for translating values expressed in social media photos into ecosystem services and spatially

  4. Analyzing organizational practices in local health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, J; Steverson, B; Blais, H N; Goley, E; Richards, T B; Thornton, J N

    1994-01-01

    Few researchers have examined the problem of comparing the performances of local health departments. A contributing factor is the lack of a uniform method for describing the range of public health activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Practice Program Office has identified 10 organizational practices that may be used to assure that the core functions of public health are being carried out at a local health department. The researchers determined the percentage of time devoted to each of the 10 practices by individual employees at a local public health unit in Tampa, FL. They identified the manpower expenditures and hours allocated to each of the 10 practices within the major program divisions of the unit. They found that the largest portion of manpower resources was allocated to implementing programs. A much smaller fraction of agency resources was devoted to analysis of the health needs of the community and to the development of plans and policies. Together, primary care and communicable disease programs accounted for fully three-quarters of the resources, environmental health for 11 percent, and administrative support services for 13 percent. With continuing refinement and modification, the methodology could provide a highly effective basis for describing and analyzing the activities and performances of local health departments.

  5. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  6. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  7. Data driven uncertainty evaluation for complex engineered system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyuan; Huang, Shuangxi; Fan, Wenhui; Xiao, Tianyuan; Humann, James; Lai, Yuyang; Jin, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Complex engineered systems are often difficult to analyze and design due to the tangled interdependencies among their subsystems and components. Conventional design methods often need exact modeling or accurate structure decomposition, which limits their practical application. The rapid expansion of data makes utilizing data to guide and improve system design indispensable in practical engineering. In this paper, a data driven uncertainty evaluation approach is proposed to support the design of complex engineered systems. The core of the approach is a data-mining based uncertainty evaluation method that predicts the uncertainty level of a specific system design by means of analyzing association relations along different system attributes and synthesizing the information entropy of the covered attribute areas, and a quantitative measure of system uncertainty can be obtained accordingly. Monte Carlo simulation is introduced to get the uncertainty extrema, and the possible data distributions under different situations is discussed in detail. The uncertainty values can be normalized using the simulation results and the values can be used to evaluate different system designs. A prototype system is established, and two case studies have been carried out. The case of an inverted pendulum system validates the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the case of an oil sump design shows the practicability when two or more design plans need to be compared. This research can be used to evaluate the uncertainty of complex engineered systems completely relying on data, and is ideally suited for plan selection and performance analysis in system design.

  8. Analyzing temozolomide medication errors: potentially fatal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarte, Nathalie; Gabay, Michael P; Bressler, Linda R; Long, Katie E; Stachnik, Joan M; Villano, J Lee

    2014-10-01

    The EORTC-NCIC regimen for glioblastoma requires different dosing of temozolomide (TMZ) during radiation and maintenance therapy. This complexity is exacerbated by the availability of multiple TMZ capsule strengths. TMZ is an alkylating agent and the major toxicity of this class is dose-related myelosuppression. Inadvertent overdose can be fatal. The websites of the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) MedWatch database were reviewed. We searched the MedWatch database for adverse events associated with TMZ and obtained all reports including hematologic toxicity submitted from 1st November 1997 to 30th May 2012. The ISMP describes errors with TMZ resulting from the positioning of information on the label of the commercial product. The strength and quantity of capsules on the label were in close proximity to each other, and this has been changed by the manufacturer. MedWatch identified 45 medication errors. Patient errors were the most common, accounting for 21 or 47% of errors, followed by dispensing errors, which accounted for 13 or 29%. Seven reports or 16% were errors in the prescribing of TMZ. Reported outcomes ranged from reversible hematological adverse events (13%), to hospitalization for other adverse events (13%) or death (18%). Four error reports lacked detail and could not be categorized. Although the FDA issued a warning in 2003 regarding fatal medication errors and the product label warns of overdosing, errors in TMZ dosing occur for various reasons and involve both healthcare professionals and patients. Overdosing errors can be fatal.

  9. Analyzing stochastic dependence of cognitive processes in multidimensional source recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic dependence among cognitive processes can be modeled in different ways, and the family of multinomial processing tree models provides a flexible framework for analyzing stochastic dependence among discrete cognitive states. This article presents a multinomial model of multidimensional source recognition that specifies stochastic dependence by a parameter for the joint retrieval of multiple source attributes together with parameters for stochastically independent retrieval. The new model is equivalent to a previous multinomial model of multidimensional source memory for a subset of the parameter space. An empirical application illustrates the advantages of the new multinomial model of joint source recognition. The new model allows for a direct comparison of joint source retrieval across conditions, it avoids statistical problems due to inflated confidence intervals and does not imply a conceptual imbalance between source dimensions. Model selection criteria that take model complexity into account corroborate the new model of joint source recognition.

  10. Analyzing high school students’ reasoning about electromagnetic induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Jelicic

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic induction is an important, yet complex, physics topic that is a part of Croatian high school curriculum. Nine Croatian high school students of different abilities in physics were interviewed using six demonstration experiments from electromagnetism (three of them concerned the topic of electromagnetic induction. Students were asked to observe, describe, and explain the experiments. The analysis of students’ explanations indicated the existence of many conceptual and reasoning difficulties with the basic concepts of electromagnetism, and especially with recognizing and explaining the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. Three student mental models of electromagnetic induction, formed during the interviews, which reoccurred among students, are described and analyzed within the knowledge-in-pieces framework.

  11. Developing an Approach for Analyzing and Verifying System Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, William C.; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; Sibol, Deane E.; Godfrey, Sally

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a project for developing an approach for analyzing and verifying the inter system communications. The motivation for the study was that software systems in the aerospace domain are inherently complex, and operate under tight constraints for resources, so that systems of systems must communicate with each other to fulfill the tasks. The systems of systems requires reliable communications. The technical approach was to develop a system, DynSAVE, that detects communication problems among the systems. The project enhanced the proven Software Architecture Visualization and Evaluation (SAVE) tool to create Dynamic SAVE (DynSAVE). The approach monitors and records low level network traffic, converting low level traffic into meaningful messages, and displays the messages in a way the issues can be detected.

  12. Simple and rapid spectrophotometric assay of levocetirizine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simple, rapid, selective and fairly sensitive method is described for the determination of levocetirizine (LCTZ) in pure form and in its dosage forms. The method is based on the formation of intensely colored charge-transfer (CT) complexes between LCTZ as donor with two π acceptors, chloranilic acid (CAA) and 2 ...

  13. Rapid single flux quantum logic in high temperature superconductor technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shunmugavel, K.

    2006-01-01

    A Josephson junction is the basic element of rapid single flux quantum logic (RSFQ) circuits. A high operating speed and low power consumption are the main advantages of RSFQ logic over semiconductor electronic circuits. To realize complex RSFQ circuits in HTS technology one needs a reproducible

  14. A Simple and Rapid Complexometric Determination of Thallium(III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, rapid and selective complexometric method is proposed for the determination of thallium(III), using mercaptoethane(EtSH) as demasking agent. The sample solution containing Tl(III) is first complexed with excess EDTA and the surplus EDTA is removed by titration at pH 5–6 with zinc sulphate solution using ...

  15. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  16. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaar Sadhwani

    Full Text Available Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  17. Novel topological descriptors for analyzing biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varmuza Kurt K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Topological descriptors, other graph measures, and in a broader sense, graph-theoretical methods, have been proven as powerful tools to perform biological network analysis. However, the majority of the developed descriptors and graph-theoretical methods does not have the ability to take vertex- and edge-labels into account, e.g., atom- and bond-types when considering molecular graphs. Indeed, this feature is important to characterize biological networks more meaningfully instead of only considering pure topological information. Results In this paper, we put the emphasis on analyzing a special type of biological networks, namely bio-chemical structures. First, we derive entropic measures to calculate the information content of vertex- and edge-labeled graphs and investigate some useful properties thereof. Second, we apply the mentioned measures combined with other well-known descriptors to supervised machine learning methods for predicting Ames mutagenicity. Moreover, we investigate the influence of our topological descriptors - measures for only unlabeled vs. measures for labeled graphs - on the prediction performance of the underlying graph classification problem. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that the application of entropic measures to molecules representing graphs is useful to characterize such structures meaningfully. For instance, we have found that if one extends the measures for determining the structural information content of unlabeled graphs to labeled graphs, the uniqueness of the resulting indices is higher. Because measures to structurally characterize labeled graphs are clearly underrepresented so far, the further development of such methods might be valuable and fruitful for solving problems within biological network analysis.

  18. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer Web Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Pan, L.; Zhai, C.; Tang, B.; Kubar, T. L.; Li, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, W.

    2015-12-01

    Both the National Research Council Decadal Survey and the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Assessment Report stressed the need for the comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with the synergistic use of global satellite observations in order to improve our weather and climate simulation and prediction capabilities. The abundance of satellite observations for fundamental climate parameters and the availability of coordinated model outputs from CMIP5 for the same parameters offer a great opportunity to understand and diagnose model biases in climate models. In addition, the Obs4MIPs efforts have created several key global observational datasets that are readily usable for model evaluations. However, a model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable comparisons that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computationally- and data-intensive. In response, we have developed a novel methodology to diagnose model biases in contemporary climate models and implementing the methodology as a web-service based, cloud-enabled, provenance-supported climate-model evaluation system. The evaluation system is named Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA), which is the product of the research and technology development investments of several current and past NASA ROSES programs. The current technologies and infrastructure of CMDA are designed and selected to address several technical challenges that the Earth science modeling and model analysis community faces in evaluating and diagnosing climate models. In particular, we have three key technology components: (1) diagnostic analysis methodology; (2) web-service based, cloud-enabled technology; (3) provenance-supported technology. The diagnostic analysis methodology includes random forest feature importance ranking, conditional probability distribution function, conditional sampling, and time-lagged correlation map. We have implemented the

  19. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Flanigan, Francis J

    2010-01-01

    A caution to mathematics professors: Complex Variables does not follow conventional outlines of course material. One reviewer noting its originality wrote: ""A standard text is often preferred [to a superior text like this] because the professor knows the order of topics and the problems, and doesn't really have to pay attention to the text. He can go to class without preparation."" Not so here-Dr. Flanigan treats this most important field of contemporary mathematics in a most unusual way. While all the material for an advanced undergraduate or first-year graduate course is covered, discussion

  20. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Joseph L

    2011-01-01

    The text covers a broad spectrum between basic and advanced complex variables on the one hand and between theoretical and applied or computational material on the other hand. With careful selection of the emphasis put on the various sections, examples, and exercises, the book can be used in a one- or two-semester course for undergraduate mathematics majors, a one-semester course for engineering or physics majors, or a one-semester course for first-year mathematics graduate students. It has been tested in all three settings at the University of Utah. The exposition is clear, concise, and lively