WorldWideScience

Sample records for rapidly advancing area

  1. Rapid medical advances challenge the tooling industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, B

    2008-01-01

    The requirement for greater performance in smaller spaces has increased demands for product and process innovation in tubing and other medical products. In turn, these developments have placed greater demands on the producers of the advanced tooling for these products. Tooling manufacturers must now continuously design equipment with much tighter tolerances for more sophisticated coextrusions and for newer generations of multilumen and multilayer tubing.

  2. Rapid Set Materials for Advanced Spall Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, and the coefficient of thermal expansion. pavement , spall repair, airfield damage repair...expediency and quality. Rapid repairs extend the life of a pavement using more forgiving methods than those used in traditional repairs, but...cement-based polymer -cement mortar and concrete • Magnesium-ammonium-phosphate-cement mortar and concrete • Polymer -based mortar and concrete

  3. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  4. Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS)

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Robert; Casillas, Jose; Scales, Gregory; Green, Robert; Niehoff, Mellissa; Fitzgerald, David; Ouellette, David

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Navy requires a capability for effective and efficient entry control for restricted areas that house critical assets. This thesis describes an Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (ARAECS) to meet this requirement. System requirements were obtained from existing governing documentation as well as stakeholder inputs. A functional architecture was developed and then modeled using the Imagine That Inc. ExtendSim tool. Factors...

  5. Rapid Assessment of Protected area Pressures and Threats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regular evaluation of protected area operations can enable policy makers develop strategic responses to pervasive management problems. Pressures and threats in seven National Parks of the National Park Service (NPS) were therefore assessed using the Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area ...

  6. Advancing Methods for Estimating Cropland Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.; Hansen, M.; Stehman, S. V.; Adusei, B.; Potapov, P.; Krylov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Measurement and monitoring of complex and dynamic agricultural land systems is essential with increasing demands on food, feed, fuel and fiber production from growing human populations, rising consumption per capita, the expansion of crops oils in industrial products, and the encouraged emphasis on crop biofuels as an alternative energy source. Soybean is an important global commodity crop, and the area of land cultivated for soybean has risen dramatically over the past 60 years, occupying more than 5% of all global croplands (Monfreda et al 2008). Escalating demands for soy over the next twenty years are anticipated to be met by an increase of 1.5 times the current global production, resulting in expansion of soybean cultivated land area by nearly the same amount (Masuda and Goldsmith 2009). Soybean cropland area is estimated with the use of a sampling strategy and supervised non-linear hierarchical decision tree classification for the United States, Argentina and Brazil as the prototype in development of a new methodology for crop specific agricultural area estimation. Comparison of our 30 m2 Landsat soy classification with the National Agricultural Statistical Services Cropland Data Layer (CDL) soy map shows a strong agreement in the United States for 2011, 2012, and 2013. RapidEye 5m2 imagery was also classified for soy presence and absence and used at the field scale for validation and accuracy assessment of the Landsat soy maps, describing a nearly 1 to 1 relationship in the United States, Argentina and Brazil. The strong correlation found between all products suggests high accuracy and precision of the prototype and has proven to be a successful and efficient way to assess soybean cultivated area at the sub-national and national scale for the United States with great potential for application elsewhere.

  7. Dynamic changes at the rapidly advancing Yahtse Glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, William J.; Bartholomaus, Timothy C.; Willis, Michael J.; Pritchard, Matthew E.

    2017-03-01

    Since 1990, Yahtse Glacier in southern Alaska has advanced at an average rate of ˜100 m/yr despite of a negative mass balance, widespread thinning in its accumulation area, and a low accumulation-area ratio. To better understand the interannual and seasonal changes at Yahtse and the processes driving these changes, we construct velocity and ice surface elevation time series spanning the years 1985-2014 and 2000-2014, respectively, using satellite optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. In terms of seasonal changes, we find contrasting dynamics above and below a steep (up to 18% slope) icefall located approximately 6 km from the terminus. Above the icefall, speeds peak in May and reach minima in October synchronous with the development of a calving embayment at the terminus. This may be caused by an efficient, channelized subglacial drainage system that focuses subglacial discharge into a plume, resulting in a local increase in calving and submarine melting. However, velocities near the terminus are fastest in the winter, following terminus retreat, possibly off of a terminal moraine resulting in decreased backstress. Between 1996-2014 the terminus decelerated by ˜40% at an average rate of ˜0.4 m/day/yr , transitioned from tensile to compressive longitudinal strain rates, and dynamically thickened at rates of 1-6 m/yr , which we hypothesize is in response to the development and advance of a terminal moraine. The described interannual changes decay significantly upstream of the icefall, indicating that the icefall may inhibit the upstream transmission of stress perturbations. We suggest that diminished stress transmission across the icefall could allow Yahtse’s upper basin to remain in a state of mass drawdown despite of moraine-enabled terminus advance. Our work highlights the importance of glacier geometry in controlling tidewater glacier re-advance, particularly in a climate favoring increasing equilibrium line altitudes.

  8. Advances in rapid cooling treatment for heat stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-jia ZHAO

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Heat stroke is a life-threatening disease characterized clinically by central nervous system dysfunction and severe hyperthermia (core temperature rises to higher than 40℃. The unchecked rise of body core temperature overwhelms intrinsic or extrinsic heat generation mechanism, thus overwhelms homoeostatic thermoregulation. Hyperthermia causes cellular and organ dysfunction with progressive exacerbation resulting in multi-organ failure and death. Rapid cooling to reduce core temperature as quickly as possible is the primary and most effective treatment, as it has been shown that the major determinant of outcome in heatstroke is the degree and duration of hyperthermia. If suppression of body temperature is delayed, the fatality rate will be elevated. Several cooling methods are available, including physical cooling by conduction, convection and evaporation with ice/cold water immersion, internal cooling by invasive methods such as hemofiltration, intravascular cooling, cold water gastric and rectal lavage, and cooling with drugs. It is crucial to formulate a scientific and reasonable strategy for the subsequent treatment in accordance with the patient's physical condition, the condition of cooling equipment, and the manipulator's proficiency in cooling methods and equipment usage. This article reviews the domestic and international advances in study of rapid and efficient cooling measures for heat stroke. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.10.17

  9. Rapid shape detection signals in area V4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Katherine F; Ghose, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Vision in foveate animals is an active process that requires rapid and constant decision-making. For example, when a new object appears in the visual field, we can quickly decide to inspect it by directing our eyes to the object's location. We studied the contribution of primate area V4 to these types of rapid foveation decisions. Animals performed a reaction time task that required them to report when any shape appeared within a peripherally-located noisy stimulus by making a saccade to the stimulus location. We found that about half of the randomly sampled V4 neurons not only rapidly and precisely represented the appearance of this shape, but they were also predictive of the animal's saccades. A neuron's ability to predict the animal's saccades was not related to the specificity with which the cell represented a single type of shape but rather to its ability to signal whether any shape was present. This relationship between sensory sensitivity and behavioral predictiveness was not due to global effects such as alertness, as it was equally likely to be observed for cells with increases and decreases in firing rate. Careful analysis of the timescales of reliability in these neurons implies that they reflect both feedforward and feedback shape detecting processes. In approximately 7% of our recorded sample, individual neurons were able to predict both the delay and precision of the animal's shape detection performance. This suggests that a subset of V4 neurons may have been directly and causally contributing to task performance and that area V4 likely plays a critical role in guiding rapid, form-based foveation decisions.

  10. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  11. Population coding in area V4 during rapid shape detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Katherine F.

    2015-01-01

    While previous studies have suggested that neuronal correlations are common in visual cortex over a range of timescales, the effect of correlations on rapid visually based decisions has received little attention. We trained Macaca mulatta to saccade to a peripherally presented shape embedded in dynamic noise as soon as the shape appeared. While the monkeys performed the task, we recorded from neuronal populations (5–29 cells) using a microelectrode array implanted in area V4, a visual area thought to be involved in form perception. While modest correlations were present between cells during visual stimulation, their magnitude did not change significantly subsequent to the appearance of a shape. We quantified the reliability and temporal precision with which neuronal populations signaled the appearance of the shape and predicted the animals' choices using mutual information analyses. To study the impact of correlations, we shuffled the activity from each cell across observations while retaining stimulus-dependent modulations in firing rate. We found that removing correlations by shuffling across trials minimally affected the reliability or timing with which pairs, or larger groups of cells, signaled the presence of a shape. To assess the downstream impact of correlations, we also studied how shuffling affected the ability of V4 populations to predict behavioral choices. Surprisingly, shuffling created a modest increase in the accuracy of such predictions, suggesting that the reliability of downstream neurons is slightly compromised by activity correlations. Our findings are consistent with neuronal correlations having a minimal effect on the reliability and timing of rapid perceptual decisions. PMID:25787961

  12. Rapid detection of flooded areas after Tohoku March 2011 tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruolo, M.; Coviello, I.; Falconieri, A.; Lacava, T.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    In the recent years there has been a continuous increase of natural disasters affecting the world. Their catastrophic consequences generally have extreme impacts both from an economic and social point of view. The effects are the more severe the higher are the population density and concentration of industrial facilities and infrastructures in disaster-affected areas. Systems able to provide timely information about the affected areas may help in supporting decision makers to manage the crisis. In this context, satellite data may give a useful and effectively support. The devastating earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 off the Japan coasts produced a huge tsunami which strongly affected the municipality of Miyagi, where more than two millions of inhabitants were used to live. In this paper, the Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach was used to detect areas affected by the flood due to such a tsunami. RST have been already applied with satisfactory results for the detection and monitoring of flooded area by using data acquired both from polar (NOAA-AVHRR and EOS-MODIS) and geostationary (MSG-SEVIRI) system. The potential of such data acquired in the visible and infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum has already been verified, allowing the development of an all-day detection and monitoring system of flooded areas. In particular, the potential of RST when implemented on optical data acquired by the Japan geostationary MT-SAT series satellites for rapid detection of flooded areas within Sendai district will be investigated in this study. MT-SAT, guaranteeing a temporal resolution of 30 minutes and a spatial resolution of up to 1km in the visible channel, together with the high sensitivity to detecting changes, offered by RST approach, should assure the capability for a prompt and effective detection, allowing for a near real time identification of the dynamics and the evolution of the disaster. Results and main achievements of this study will be

  13. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aluminum alloys containing 10 to 11.5 wt. pct. of iron and 1.5 to 3 wt. pct. of chromium using the technique of rapid solidification powder metallurgy were studied. Alloys were prepared as thin ribbons (.002 inch thick) rapidly solidified at uniform rate of 10(6) C/second by the melt spinning process. The melt spun ribbons were pulverized into powders (-60 to 400 mesh) by a rotating hammer mill. The powders were consolidated by hot extrusion at a high reduction ratio of 50:1. The powder extrusion temperature was varied to determine the range of desirable processing conditions necessary to yield useful properties. Powders and consolidated alloys were characterized by SEM and optical metallography. The consolidated alloys were evaluated for (1) thermal stability, (2) tensile properties in the range, room temperature to 450 F, and (3) notch toughness in the range, room temperature to 450 F.

  14. Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) For The Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    This Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Manufacturing Development Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project was conducted in two phases as a CRADA with Local Motors Inc. Phase 1 was previously reported as Advanced Manufacturing of Complex Cyber Mechanical Devices through Community Engagement and Micro-manufacturing and demonstrated the integration of components onto a prototype body part for a vehicle. Phase 2 was reported as Utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for the Rapid Manufacture of Customized Electric Vehicles and demonstrated the high profile live printing of an all-electric vehicle using ONRL s Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology. This demonstration generated considerable national attention and successfully demonstrated the capabilities of the BAAM system as developed by ORNL and Cincinnati, Inc. and the feasibility of additive manufacturing of a full scale electric vehicle as envisioned by the CRADA partner Local Motors, Inc.

  15. Advanced Large Area Plastic Scintillator Project (ALPS): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, David V.; Reeder, Paul L.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Warren, Glen A.; McCormick, Kathleen R.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Alzheimer, James M.; Crowell, Shannon L.; Sliger, William A.

    2008-02-05

    The advanced Large-Area Plastic Scintillator (ALPS) Project at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigated possible technological avenues for substantially advancing the state-of-the-art in gamma-ray detection via large-area plastic scintillators. The three predominant themes of these investigations comprised the following: * Maximizing light collection efficiency from a single large-area sheet of plastic scintillator, and optimizing hardware event trigger definition to retain detection efficiency while exploiting the power of coincidence to suppress single-PMT "dark current" background; * Utilizing anti-Compton vetoing and supplementary spectral information from a co-located secondary, or "Back" detector, to both (1) minimize Compton background in the low-energy portion of the "Front" scintillator's pulse-height spectrum, and (2) sharpen the statistical accuracy of the front detector's low-energy response prediction as impelmented in suitable energy-windowing algorithms; and * Investigating alternative materials to enhance the intrinsic gamma-ray detection efficiency of plastic-based sensors.

  16. GOES-R Rapid Refresh Imagery Advancements for the Earth and Space Weather Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Schmit, T. J.; Lindsey, D. T.; Denig, W. F.

    2014-12-01

    The next generation of GOES, the GOES-R series, with planned launch in early 2016 offers improved spacecraft and instrument technology to provide more accurate, detailed and timely detection of high impact environmental phenomena, and at the same time significant opportunities and challenges in quickly creating, updating, and disseminating data and products in near real-time to produce more accurate forecasts and warnings. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) will provide three times more spectral information, four times the spatial resolution, and more than five times faster temporal coverage than the current system with rapid scan imagery of severe storms, tropical cyclones, volcanic eruptions, and fires potentially as often as every thirty seconds in mesoscale mode and at least every 5 min or 15 min (as opposed to the 7.5, 15 or 30 min data from today's imager). Additional advancements over current GOES capabilities include continuous total lightning detection and mapping of in-cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes from the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) with only twenty second latency or less, and increased dynamic range, resolution, and sensitivity imaging solar activity with the Solar UV Imager (SUVI) every ten seconds. The total lightning is very useful for identifying hazardous and severe thunderstorms, monitoring storm intensification and tracking evolution. Used in tandem with radar, visible satellite, and surface observations, total lightning data has great potential to increase lead time for severe storm warnings and improve public safety. The space weather instruments provide more detailed observations of coronal mass ejection, solar flares, and energetic particles to produce more accurate forecasts and warnings of solar storms. The data from the ABI, GLM and space weather instruments will have a wide-range of uses and multiple societal benefits in areas such as severe weather, energy, transportation, and commerce. This presentation will highlight the

  17. Rapid recovery from aphasia after infarction of Wernicke’s area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melodie Yen

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative analysis of connected speech samples and language testing following infarction of Wernicke’s area revealed rapid improvements in almost all speech/language measures, spanning phonological, syntactic and semantic domains. The greatest changes occurred early, with recovery slowing over time, and the data were well fit by logarithmic recovery curves. Despite the importance of Wernicke’s area, the rapidity and extent of recovery observed suggest that other brain regions can be rapidly recruited to support many of the functions of Wernicke’s area (Weiller et al., 1995.

  18. Advances in a rapidly emerging field of hair follicle stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokos, Zrinka Bukvić; Mosler, Elvira Lazić

    2014-03-01

    Human skin maintains the ability to regenerate during adulthood, as it constantly renews itself throughout adult life, and the hair follicle (HF) undergoes a perpetual cycle of growth and degeneration. The study of stem cells (SCs) in the epidermis and skin tissue engineering is a rapidly emerging field, where advances have been made in both basic and clinical research. Advances in basic science include the ability to assay SCs of the epidermis in vivo, identification of an independent interfollicular epidermal SC, and improved ability to analyze individual SCs divisions, as well as the recent hair organ regeneration via the bioengineered hair follicular unit transplantation (FUT) in mice. Advances in the clinic include recognition of the importance of SCs for wound repair and for gene therapy in inherited skin diseases, for example epidermolysis bullosa. The study of the HF stem cells (HFSCs) started by identification of epidermal SC in the HF bulge as quiescent "label retaining cells". The research of these cells emerged rapidly after the identification of bulge cell molecular markers, such as keratin 15 (K15) and CD34 in mice and CD200 in humans, which allowed the isolation and characterization of bulge cells from follicles. This paper provides an overview of the current knowledge on epidermal SCs in the HF describing their essential characteristics and the control of follicle SCs fate, their role in alopecia, as well as their use in tissue engineering.

  19. Urban area disadvantage and under-5 mortality in Nigeria: the effect of rapid urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai, Diddy; Moradi, Tahereh

    2010-06-01

    Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children stress the need for further studies on community-level determinants of under-5 mortality in disadvantaged urban areas.

  20. Advanced Visualization and Interactive Display Rapid Innovation and Discovery Evaluation Research (VISRIDER) Program Task 6: Point Cloud Visualization Techniques for Desktop and Web Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    ADVANCED VISUALIZATION AND INTERACTIVE DISPLAY RAPID INNOVATION AND DISCOVERY EVALUATION RESEARCH (VISRIDER) PROGRAM TASK 6: POINT CLOUD...To) OCT 2013 – SEP 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADVANCED VISUALIZATION AND INTERACTIVE DISPLAY RAPID INNOVATION AND DISCOVERY EVALUATION RESEARCH

  1. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  2. Area law for fixed points of rapidly mixing dissipative quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L. [Quantum Architectures and Computation Group, Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States); Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Cubitt, Toby S. [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Lucia, Angelo, E-mail: anlucia@ucm.es [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Michalakis, Spyridon [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, Caltech, California 91125 (United States); Perez-Garcia, David [Departamento de Análisis Matemático, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); IMI, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); ICMAT, C/Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    We prove an area law with a logarithmic correction for the mutual information for fixed points of local dissipative quantum system satisfying a rapid mixing condition, under either of the following assumptions: the fixed point is pure or the system is frustration free.

  3. [Large trade clusters as areas of intensified occurrences of states of rapid health worsening in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Michał; Zuzańska-Żyśko, Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    In the modern world, people gather more increasingly in large clusters such as shopping centres, markets, cinema centres, operas, ferries, liners, recreation areas and resorts. Such clusters predispose to intensified occurrences of states of rapid health worsening and health hazard. The main aim is to indicate that in trade space, especially in municipal markets, states of rapid health worsening and health hazard appear, as well as to characterize the individual incidents and types of medical interventions. The empirical material originates from the sheets of records of first-aid concerning life-saving actions, the nurse work register, as well as the security agency reports. Records of first-aid of events taking place during one selected weekend day, for 6 hours of highest population density, underwent a retrospective analysis. The analysis of the material was carried out in terms of reasons of interventions, in states of rapid health worsening and health hazard, as well as the frequency of calls of medical first-aid service. During 2011, there were approximately 100 such states in the municipal markets which underwent the study. In shopping centres there were 95% of such states. In each of the three analysed areas, the internal factors responsible for rapid health worsening constitute over 60%. Among interventions caused by a disease, states related to circulatory system and nervous system occurred most frequently. Big municipal market themselves are potential areas of an increased occurrence of states of rapid health worsening and health hazard. They can be compared to religious ceremonies described in the subject bibliography. Large trade spaces, especially municipal markets in city centres, generate a high risk of occurrences of states of rapid health worsening and health hazard, in comparison to shopping malls. The risk increases with the age of customers. The incidences related to sicknesses are the majority of interventions in trade areas.

  4. Tibial tuberosity advancement in small-breed dogs using TTA Rapid implants: complications and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyall, B; Schmökel, H

    2017-06-01

    To assess the perioperative complications and the outcome when treating small-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency with tibial tuberosity advancement using the TTA Rapid implant. 40 dogs (48 stifles) with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency and body weight of 15 kg or less. Diagnosis was confirmed by arthroscopy or arthrotomy, followed by tibial tuberosity advancement surgery. Six weeks after surgery, the dogs were re-evaluated with clinical examination and radiography. Mid- to long-term outcome was assessed using client questionnaire. Intraoperative complications consisted of four osteotomy-related fissures through the cranial cortex; two complete fissures were stabilised with a screw, the others healed without intervention. After surgery there were two tibial fractures and two incisional complications. Six weeks postoperatively, limb function was good to excellent in 43 dogs (94%). Two late meniscal injuries occurred. The overall major complication rate was 7/48 14·6%). Mid- to long-term follow-up information was available for 43 stifles: 34 stifles (79%) were free of lameness at a median of 72 weeks postoperatively. The outcome was rated excellent by 88% of the clients and good by 7%. The use of TTA Rapid implants is an alternative for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency in small-breed dogs, with complication rates comparable to those recorded in larger breeds and to other techniques, and with a high degree of owner satisfaction. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop, 19-22 May 1997: Rapid Method for Monitoring the Environment for Biological Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-22

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop met for the purpose of bringing to light rapid methods for monitoring the environment for biological hazards such as biological warfare agents, naturally occurring diseases, detection and identification of different biological threats in the environment , dormancy in non-sporulating bacteria and bioluminescence techniques with respect to the rapid detection of microbes in air, water and food.

  6. Apomorphine: a rapid rescue agent for the management of motor fluctuations in advanced Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolls, Brad J; Stacy, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases in the United States, and the number of late stage patients is rising. In advance-stage disease, fluctuations in motor function, variability in response to dopaminergic therapy, and dyskinesias related to increasing doses of dopamine agonists and levodopa, present a variety of challenges to a managing physician. Traditional methods of treatment have concentrated on therapies to anticipate or prevent states of poor motor function. With the approval of apomorphine as a rapid-acting, subcutaneous injectable anti-Parkinson disease therapy, these off periods may now be treated with apomorphine as a "rescue" medication when they occur. This article reviews the pharmacology of apomorphine, the clinical data that support its use and suggest dosing and methods for initiating therapy in this challenging population of patients with Parkinson disease.

  7. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nachalida Yukalang; Beverley Clarke; Kirstin Ross

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management w...

  8. Urban Area Disadvantage and Under-5 Mortality in Nigeria: The Effect of Rapid Urbanization

    OpenAIRE

    Antai, D.; Moradi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas is associated with increased -childhood mortality risks. As city living becomes the predominant social context in low- and middle-income countries, the resulting rapid urbanization together with the poor economic circumstances of these countries greatly increases the risks of mortality for children < 5 years of age (under-5 mortality). Objective: In this study we examined the trends in urban population growth and urban under-5 mortal...

  9. App Factory: A flexible approach to rehabilitation engineering in an era of rapid technology advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael; Mueller, James; Morris, John

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a flexible and effective approach to research and development in an era of rapid technological advancement. The approach relies on secondary dispersal of grant funds to commercial developers through a competitive selection process. This "App Factory" model balances the practical reliance on multi-year funding needed to sustain a rehabilitation engineering research center (RERC), with the need for agility and adaptability of development efforts undertaken in a rapidly changing technology environment. This approach also allows us to take advantage of technical expertise needed to accomplish a particular development task, and provides incentives to deliver successful products in a cost-effective manner. In this article, we describe the App Factory structure, process, and results achieved to date; and we discuss the lessons learned and the potential relevance of this approach for other grant-funded research and development efforts. Data presented on the direct costs and number of downloads of the 16 app development projects funded in the App Factory's first 3 years show that it can be an effective means for supporting focused, short-term assistive technology development projects.

  10. A parametric study of rate of advance and area coverage rate performance of synthetic aperture radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hensley, Jr., William H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, Bryan L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The linear ground distance per unit time and ground area covered per unit time of producing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, termed rate of advance (ROA) and area coverage rate (ACR), are important metrics for platform and radar performance in surveillance applications. These metrics depend on many parameters of a SAR system such as wavelength, aircraft velocity, resolution, antenna beamwidth, imaging mode, and geometry. Often the effects of these parameters on rate of advance and area coverage rate are non-linear. This report addresses the impact of different parameter spaces as they relate to rate of advance and area coverage rate performance.

  11. The rapidly evolving therapies for advanced melanoma--Towards immunotherapy, molecular targeted therapy, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziqiang; Liu, Wei; Gotlieb, Vladimir

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of melanoma in both males and females continues to rise during the past 40 years despite the stable or declining trends for most cancer types. Due to the tremendous advance in immunobiology and molecular biology, breakthroughs in both immunotherapies and molecular targeted therapies have recently revolutionized the standard of care for patients with advanced melanoma. In 2011, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) antibody for metastatic melanoma therapy. Since then, novel drugs including antibodies to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab (both approved in 2014), selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib (approved in 2011), dabrafenib (approved in 2013); and MEK inhibitor trametinib (approved in 2013), have greatly extended the potential of immunotherapy and molecular targeted therapy for advanced melanoma. All of which have been demonstrated a significant increase in overall survival rate, and long-term benefits in multiple large clinical trials. Several new agents and novel therapies are currently under phase III clinical trials with the hope of being approved in the near future. We already entered a golden era in oncology that are providing significant survival improvement. In the meantime, new challenges for clinicians also started to emerge. In this review, we presented the existing evidence for the newest treatments for advanced melanoma, including CTLA-4, PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors and BRAF, MEK inhibitors. We also discussed the strengths, limitations and challenges of using these novel therapies, and potential solutions as well as highlighted the areas requiring further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid fabrication of large-area, corrosion-resistant superhydrophobic Mg alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenji; Song, Jinlong; Sun, Jing; Lu, Yao; Yu, Ziyuan

    2011-11-01

    A superhydrophobic magnesium (Mg) alloy surface was successfully fabricated via a facile electrochemical machining process, and subsequently covered with a fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) film. The surface morphologies and chemical compositions were investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results show hierarchal rough structures and an FAS film with a low surface energy on the Mg alloy surfaces, which confers good superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 165.2° and a water tilting angle of approximately 2°. The processing conditions, such as the processing time and removal rate per unit area at a constant removal mass per unit area, were investigated to determine their effects on the superhydrophobicity. Interestingly, when the removal mass per unit area is constant at approximately 11.10 mg/cm(2), the superhydrophobicity does not change with the removal rate per unit area. Therefore, a superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface can be rapidly fabricated based on this property. A large-area superhydrophobic Mg alloy surface was also fabricated for the first time using a small-area moving cathode. The corrosion resistance and durability of the superhydrophobic surfaces were also examined.

  13. Large-area sheet task advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The thermal models used for analyzing dendritic web growth and calculating the thermal stress were reexamined to establish the validity limits imposed by the assumptions of the models. Also, the effects of thermal conduction through the gas phase were evaluated and found to be small. New growth designs, both static and dynamic, were generated using the modeling results. Residual stress effects in dendritic web were examined. In the laboratory, new techniques for the control of temperature distributions in three dimensions were developed. A new maximum undeformed web width of 5.8 cm was achieved. A 58% increase in growth velocity of 150 micrometers thickness was achieved with dynamic hardware. The area throughput goals for transient growth of 30 and 35 sq cm/min were exceeded.

  14. Pools and rapids as spawning and nursery areas for fish in a river stretch without floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine de Ávila-Simas

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of two environments situated in the main channel of the Peixe River (a tributary of the upper Uruguay River on fish reproduction and initial growth. Ichthyoplankton, macrozooplankton, and zoobenthos collections were taken on a monthly basis from October 2011 to March 2012, sampling a rapids and a pool environment. The instrument used for the capture of the ichthyoplankton in both environments was a light trap. In total, 795 eggs and 274 larvae were captured. The species that presented higher abundance and occurrence frequency out of the total captured in both environments were Leporinus obtusidens, Bryconamericus iheringii, and Bryconamericus stramineus. The evaluation of the feeding activity reveals a major repletion degree of the larvae in more advanced stages in the pool. The pool environment presented a higher abundance of larvae in more advanced development stages. We conclude that the channel of the Peixe River is important for the reproduction and initial growth of fish and that each river environment seems to fulfill a different role in the life cycle of the ichthyoplankton community.

  15. Effects of high latitude protected areas on bird communities under rapid climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2017-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming one of the main threats to biodiversity, along with other threats triggered by human-driven land-use change. Species are already responding to climate change by shifting their distributions polewards. This shift may create a spatial mismatch between dynamic species distributions and static protected areas (PAs). As protected areas represent one of the main pillars for preserving biodiversity today and in the future, it is important to assess their contribution in sheltering the biodiversity communities, they were designated to protect. A recent development to investigate climate-driven impacts on biological communities is represented by the community temperature index (CTI). CTI provides a measure of the relative temperature average of a community in a specific assemblage. CTI value will be higher for assemblages dominated by warm species compared with those dominated by cold-dwelling species. We here model changes in the CTI of Finnish bird assemblages, as well as changes in species densities, within and outside of PAs during the past four decades in a large boreal landscape under rapid change. We show that CTI has markedly increased over time across Finland, with this change being similar within and outside PAs and five to seven times slower than the temperature increase. Moreover, CTI has been constantly lower within than outside of PAs, and PAs still support communities, which show colder thermal index than those outside of PAs in the 1970s and 1980s. This result can be explained by the higher relative density of northern species within PAs than outside. Overall, our results provide some, albeit inconclusive, evidence that PAs may play a role in supporting the community of northern species. Results also suggest that communities are, however, shifting rapidly, both inside and outside of PAs, highlighting the need for adjusting conservation measures before it is too late. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas. PMID:28869572

  17. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachalida Yukalang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  18. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-09-04

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  19. Rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Clinical results in 178 advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Demange, L.; Froissart, D.; Panis, X.; Loirette, M.

    1985-07-01

    The authors present a series of 178 patients with Stage III or IV squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck treated by rapid irradiation using multiple and small fractions per day. An initial group of 91 patients (G1) received a total dose of 72 Gy in 80 sessions and 10 days, according to the following split course schedule: J1 to J5, 36 Gy in 40 sessions, eight daily fractions of .9 Gy separated by 2 hours; J6 to J20, rest period; J21 to J25, same as in J1 except that the spinal cord was shielded. This protocol was altered for the following 87 patients (G2) by lessening the total dose to 60 to 66 Gy and the number of fractions to 60. The rest period was lengthened to 4 weeks. All patients but five completed the whole program and the minimal follow-up period was 24 months. At the end of irradiation, 121 patients achieved a total remission, but local recurrences occurred in 56%. Moreover, acute intolerance was considered as severe in 34% of G1 patients, and included extensive mucosal necrosis and bleeding. Although this rate was significantly reduced in G2 patients, late complications were observed in 20 of the 25 survivors, and included trismus, cervical sclerosis, and recurrent laryngeal edema. The crude survival rate is 13% at 2 years. Although this study was not randomized, this particular type of accelerated and hyperfractionated combination of irradiation did not really improve the clinical results in advanced carcinoma of the head and neck. Other schedules and probably other tumors, less extended, should be tested.

  20. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel A Neugarten

    Full Text Available The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES, the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower, regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection, and cultural (nature tourism ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF. Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions.

  1. Rapid Assessment of Ecosystem Service Co-Benefits of Biodiversity Priority Areas in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamaro, Luciano; Cano, Carlos Andres; Grantham, Hedley S.; Hole, David; Juhn, Daniel; McKinnon, Madeleine; Rasolohery, Andriambolantsoa; Steininger, Marc; Wright, Timothy Max

    2016-01-01

    The importance of ecosystems for supporting human well-being is increasingly recognized by both the conservation and development sectors. Our ability to conserve ecosystems that people rely on is often limited by a lack of spatially explicit data on the location and distribution of ecosystem services (ES), the benefits provided by nature to people. Thus there is a need to map ES to guide conservation investments, to ensure these co-benefits are maintained. To target conservation investments most effectively, ES assessments must be rigorous enough to support conservation planning, rapid enough to respond to decision-making timelines, and often must rely on existing data. We developed a framework for rapid spatial assessment of ES that relies on expert and stakeholder consultation, available data, and spatial analyses in order to rapidly identify sites providing multiple benefits. We applied the framework in Madagascar, a country with globally significant biodiversity and a high level of human dependence on ecosystems. Our objective was to identify the ES co-benefits of biodiversity priority areas in order to guide the investment strategy of a global conservation fund. We assessed key provisioning (fisheries, hunting and non-timber forest products, and water for domestic use, agriculture, and hydropower), regulating (climate mitigation, flood risk reduction and coastal protection), and cultural (nature tourism) ES. We also conducted multi-criteria analyses to identify sites providing multiple benefits. While our approach has limitations, including the reliance on proximity-based indicators for several ES, the results were useful for targeting conservation investments by the Critical Ecosystem Partnership Fund (CEPF). Because our approach relies on available data, standardized methods for linking ES provision to ES use, and expert validation, it has the potential to quickly guide conservation planning and investment decisions in other data-poor regions. PMID:28006005

  2. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Modular Rapidly Manufactured SmallSat Element

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rapidly fabricated, modular and integrated small satellite subsystems will be developed from digital fabrication workflows. The following are planned modular...

  3. Particulate Matter Concentrations in San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) Train Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, L.; Macias, S.; Romero, N.; Lockett, N.; Polar, J.; Madrigal, C.; Lopez, F.; Sanchez, R.; Webster, D.; Torio, M.; Rios, V.; Marks-Block, T.; Toli, F.

    2012-12-01

    As part of a general effort to assess air quality in different regions of the San Francisco Bay Area, we collected Particulate Matter (PM) data within passenger train cars along multiple commuter train lines simultaneously during the summer and fall of 2012. We visited numerous Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system stations, including those along the Fremont, Pittsburg and SF/Daly City lines. In conducting this study we used a Dustrak 8530 aerosol sensor equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to measure PM size 2.5 μm concentrations every second. Of all the BART stations we visited, average PM concentration levels at the Embarcadero station in San Francisco were the highest during multiple visits, with a value of 104.95 μg/m3. We also noted that high levels of PM 2.5 were released when the cloth seats on the trains were struck, which resulted in significant, temporary increases of hazardous PM levels of up to 3000 μg/m3! Embarcadero station's high PM concentration correlates to past research in other underground train stations throughout the world, where PM produced through the abrasive interaction of train wheels and tracks or brake pads becomes trapped. Compared to levels measured at outdoor stations (average of 8.52μg/m3) and other underground stations, levels detected at the Embarcadero station are particularly alarming. We believe this is due to the fact that this station is located at one end of a long, underground and underwater transbay tunnel that connects the East San Francisco Bay area to San Francisco to the west. To reduce PM exposure risk to BART employees and passengers, we suggest increasing and/or installing filtration and ventilation systems, which should substantially reduce PM concentrations at Embarcadero station.

  4. Impact of advanced water conservation features and new copper pipe on rapid chloramine decay and microbial regrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Caroline; Elfland, Carolyn; Edwards, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Taste and odor issues occurring in new buildings were attributed to rapid loss of chloramine residual, high levels of microbes in the potable water system, and high water age due to use of advanced water conservation devices. Laboratory experiments confirmed that chloramine could decay rapidly in the presence of new copper pipe, providing a possible explanation for the rapid disinfectant loss in the new buildings. Higher temperature and lower pH also accelerated the rate of chloramine decay in copper pipes. The reaction was slowed by the addition of phosphate inhibitor or aluminum, which presumably formed barriers between the pipe wall and the chloramine in the bulk water. Additional research is needed to better understand how to maintain high quality water in buildings while also conserving water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Rapid Aeroelastic/Aeroservoelastic Modeling, Analysis and Optimization System for Advanced Flight Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Stirling Dynamics Inc and the University of Washington propose to develop a MATLAB toolbox for rapid aeroelastic (AE) and aeroservoelastic (ASE) modeling, analysis...

  6. Rapid health assessments of evacuation centres in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Alma Ramos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Typhoon Haiyan caused thousands of deaths and catastrophic destruction, leaving many homeless in Region 8 of the Philippines. A team from the Philippine Field Epidemiology Training Program conducted a rapid health assessment survey of evacuation centres severely affected by Haiyan. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted whereby a convenience sample of evacuation centres were assessed on the number of toilets per evacuee, sanitation, drinking-water, food supply source and medical services. Results: Of the 20 evacuation centres assessed, none had a designated manager. Most were located in schools (70% with the estimated number of evacuees ranging from 15 to 5000 per centre. Only four (20% met the World Health Organization standard for number of toilets per evacuee; none of the large evacuation centres had even half the recommended number of toilets. All of the evacuation centres had available drinking-water. None of the evacuation centres had garbage collection, vector control activities or standby medical teams. Fourteen (70% evacuation centres had onsite vaccination activities for measles, tetanus and polio virus. Many evacuation centres were overcrowded. Conclusion: Evacuation centres are needed in almost every disaster. They should be safely located and equipped with the required amenities. In disaster-prone areas such as the Philippines, schools and community centres should not be designated as evacuation centres unless they are equipped with adequate sanitation services.

  7. [Rapid ecological assessment of tropical fish communities in a gold mine area of Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Mendiola, Mario

    2008-12-01

    Gold mining impacts have generated a great concern regarding aquatic systems and habitat fragmentation. Anthropogenic disturbances on the structure and heterogeneity of a system can have an important effect on aquatic community stability. Ecological rapid assessments (1996, 2002, and 2007) were employed to determine the structure, composition and distribution of tropical fish communities in several rivers and smaller creeks from a gold mining area in Cerro Crucitas, Costa Rica. In addition, species composition and relative abundance were related with habitat structure. A total of 35 species were registered, among which sardine Astyanax aeneus (Characidae) and livebearer Alfaro cultratus (Poeciliidae) were the most abundant fish (71%). The highest species richness was observed in Caño Crucitas (s=19) and Minas Creek (s=18). Significant differences in fish communities structure and composition from Infiernillo river and Minas creek were observed (lamda = 0.0, F(132, 66) = 2.24, p < 0.001). Presence and/or absence of certain species such as Dormitor gobiomorus, Rhamdia nicaraguensis, Parachromis loiseillei and Atractosteus tropicus explained most of the spatial variation among sites. Habitat structure also contributed to explain differences among sites (lamda = 0.004, F(60.183) = 5.52, p < 0.001). Substratum (soft and hard bottom types) and habitat attributes (elevation, width and depth) explained most of the variability observed in Infiernillo River, Caño Crucitas and Tamagá Creek. In addition, a significant association between fish species and habitat structure was observed. This study reveals a high complexity in tropical fish communities that inhabit a gold mine area. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in fish community dynamics. The loss and degradation of aquatic systems in Cerro Crucitas can have a strong negative effect on fish community structure and composition of local species. A better understanding of the use of specific

  8. Self-organized spectrum chunk selection algorithm for Local Area LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Wang, Yuanye; Marchetti, Nicola

    2010-01-01

    in Local Area (LA) deployment of the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) systems, where the HeNBs are expected to be deployed randomly and without coordination in distributed manner. The result shows that the proposed algorithm effectively improves the system throughput performance with very limited...

  9. Rapid Prototyping by 3D Printing for Advanced Radio Communications at 80 GHz and Above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar, Adrian Ruiz; Rommel, Simon; Anufriyev, Eldar

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential of 3D printing for the manufacturing of spiral phase plates for the generation of radio vortex beams for advanced radio communications. The design and prototyping of a number of phase plates for communications at 80GHz with radio vortex beams is discussed...

  10. Rapid point of care diagnostic tests for viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections--needs, advances, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Enne, Virve I; Kidd, Mike; Drosten, Christian; Breuer, Judy; Muller, Marcel A; Hui, David; Maeurer, Markus; Bates, Matthew; Mwaba, Peter; Al-Hakeem, Rafaat; Gray, Gregory; Gautret, Philippe; Al-Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Memish, Ziad A; Gant, Vanya

    2014-11-01

    Respiratory tract infections rank second as causes of adult and paediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide. Respiratory tract infections are caused by many different bacteria (including mycobacteria) and viruses, and rapid detection of pathogens in individual cases is crucial in achieving the best clinical management, public health surveillance, and control outcomes. Further challenges in improving management outcomes for respiratory tract infections exist: rapid identification of drug resistant pathogens; more widespread surveillance of infections, locally and internationally; and global responses to infections with pandemic potential. Developments in genome amplification have led to the discovery of several new respiratory pathogens, and sensitive PCR methods for the diagnostic work-up of these are available. Advances in technology have allowed for development of single and multiplexed PCR techniques that provide rapid detection of respiratory viruses in clinical specimens. Microarray-based multiplexing and nucleic-acid-based deep-sequencing methods allow simultaneous detection of pathogen nucleic acid and multiple antibiotic resistance, providing further hope in revolutionising rapid point of care respiratory tract infection diagnostics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Peculiar features of boron distribution in high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant nickel alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulga, A. V., E-mail: avshulga@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    This article comprises the results of comprehensive study of the structure and distribution in the high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant superalloy of grade EP741NP after tensile tests. The structure and boron distribution in the fracture area are studied in detail by means of direct track autoradiography in combination with metallography of macro- and microstructure. A rather extensive region of microcracks generation and intensive boron redistribution is detected in the high temperature fracture area of rapidly quenched nickel superalloy of grade EP741NP. A significant decrease in boron content in the fracture area and formation of elliptically arranged boride precipitates are revealed. The mechanism of intense boron migration and stability violation of the structural and phase state in the fracture area of rapidly quenched heat-resistant nickel superalloy of grade EP741NP is proposed on the basis of accounting for deformation occurring in the fracture area and analysis of the stressed state near a crack.

  12. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US); Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  13. 77 FR 31831 - Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration....S.C. 71-87k. Alan R. Christian, Acting Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  14. Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazards (ARIA-MH) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a service-oriented hazard/disaster monitoring data system enabling both science and decision-support communities to monitor ground motion in areas of...

  15. Advanced and rapidly progressing head and neck cancer: good palliation following intralesional bleomycin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quintyne, Keith Ian

    2011-09-01

    The authors herein report the case of a 61-year-old man undergoing adjuvant therapy for locally advanced laryngeal cancer, who developed parastomal recurrence in his radiation field around his tracheotomy site, while he was undergoing radiation therapy, and compromised the secure placement of his tracheotomy tube and maintenance of his upper airway. MRI restaging and biopsy confirmed recurrence and progressive disease in his mediastinum. He underwent local therapy with intralesional bleomycin with good palliation, and ability to maintain the patency of his upper airway.

  16. Factors associated with false-positive results from fingerstick OraQuick ADVANCE rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Samara B; Owens, Lauren E; Greenwald, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    Identify factors associated with false-positive rapid HIV antibody tests. This retrospective cohort study with nested case-controls involved patients tested for HIV by Boston Medical Center (BMC) affiliates. Cases had a reactive fingerstick OraQuick ADVANCE rapid HIV 1/2 antibody test and a negative Western blot. Controls had nonreactive rapid tests. We compared the prevalence of HIV risk factors between cases and the total nonreactive population and the prevalence of other clinical factors between cases and controls. Of the 15 094 tests, 14 937 (98.9%) were negative and 11 (0.07%) were false positives (specificity of 99.9%). Cases were more likely to have had an HIV-infected sex partner and to be tested at certain sites compared to true negatives. More cases than controls had O-negative blood type. O-negative blood type and sex with an HIV-infected person may increase false-positive HIV fingerstick results. More targeted studies should examine these risk factors.

  17. Analysis of late complications after rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Panis, X.; Froissart, D.; Legros, M.; Coninx, P.; Loirette, M.

    1988-01-01

    Late effects were analyzed in a series of 39 patients with a 2-year minimal follow-up who were treated by rapid hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The total dose was 66-72 Gy delivered in two series of 33-36 Gy separated by a 2-4 week rest interval. The number of daily fractions ranged from 8 to 6 and the interval between each fraction was 2 hr. Late complications consisted of cervical fibrosis, mucosal necrosis, bone necrosis, trismus, and laryngeal edema. Seventy percent of patients experienced late complications, and in 54% of cases, these reactions were considered severe, causing death in 13% of patients. No relationship was found between field sizes, dosimetric data and type and frequency of late effects. It is therefore suggested that the interval between two daily sessions in any multifractionated protocol may be of critical importance.

  18. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brian N.; Mahaffee, Walter F.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field.

  19. Advanced pond system: performance with high rate ponds of different depths and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craggs, R J; Davies-Colley, R J; Tanner, C C; Sukias, J P

    2003-01-01

    Many domestic Wastewater Stabilisation Ponds (WSPs) or oxidation ponds in New Zealand require upgrading to reduce pollution of receiving waters. Advanced Pond Systems (APS) consisting of an Advanced Facultative Pond, High Rate Pond, Algae Settling Pond and Maturation Pond may provide a cost effective upgrade option. This paper presents the results of a 2-year study of the performance of two pilot APS systems with High Rate Ponds of different depths and areas. The HRPs of the APS systems both had the same flow rate (5 m3 d(-1)), volume (37.5 m3) and thus hydraulic retention time (7.5 d). However, the East HRP had an operating depth of 0.30 m and a surface area of 128 m2, and the West HRP had an operating depth of 0.45 m and a surface area of 85 m2. APS system performance was compared in terms of improvement of water quality. For nearly all parameters measured, there was little difference in performance between the two systems suggesting that the system with the smaller area could be used without affecting treatment. Comparison of final effluent with typical effluent of New Zealand WSPs showed that APS effluent was of higher quality and much less variable over time.

  20. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys via rapid solidification technology, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ranjan; Jha, Sunil C.

    1987-01-01

    Marko's rapid solidification technology was applied to processing high strength aluminum alloys. Four classes of alloys, namely, Al-Li based (class 1), 2124 type (class 2), high temperature Al-Fe-Mo (class 3), and PM X7091 type (class 4) alloy, were produced as melt-spun ribbons. The ribbons were pulverized, cold compacted, hot-degassed, and consolidated through single or double stage extrusion. The mechanical properties of all four classes of alloys were measured at room and elevated temperatures and their microstructures were investigated optically and through electron microscopy. The microstructure of class 1 Al-Li-Mg alloy was predominantly unrecrystallized due to Zr addition. Yield strengths to the order of 50 Ksi were obtained, but tensile elongation in most cases remained below 2 percent. The class 2 alloys were modified composition of 2124 aluminum alloy, through addition of 0.6 weight percent Zr and 1 weight percent Ni. Nickel addition gave rise to a fine dispersion of intermetallic particles resisting coarsening during elevated temperature exposure. The class 2 alloy showed good combination of tensile strength and ductility and retained high strength after 1000 hour exposure at 177 C. The class 3 Al-Fe-Mo alloy showed high strength and good ductility both at room and high temperatures. The yield and tensile strength of class 4 alloy exceeded those of the commercial 7075 aluminum alloy.

  1. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  2. KIC 3749404: a heartbeat star with rapid apsidal advance indicative of a tertiary component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambleton, K.; Kurtz, D. W.; Prša, A.; Quinn, S. N.; Fuller, J.; Murphy, S. J.; Thompson, S. E.; Latham, D. W.; Shporer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Heartbeat stars are eccentric (e > 0.2) ellipsoidal variables whose light curves resemble a cardiogram. We present the observations and corresponding model of KIC 3749404, a highly eccentric (e = 0.66), short period (P = 20.3 d) heartbeat star with tidally induced pulsations. A binary star model was created using PHOEBE, which we modified to include tidally induced pulsations and Doppler boosting. The morphology of the photometric periastron variation (heartbeat) depends strongly on the eccentricity, inclination and argument of periastron. We show that the inclusion of tidally induced pulsations in the model significantly changes the parameter values, specifically the inclination and those parameters dependent on it. Furthermore, we determine the rate of apsidal advance by modelling the periastron variation at the beginning and end of the 4-yr Kepler data set and dividing by the elapsed time. We compare the model with the theoretical expectations for classical and general relativistic apsidal motion and find the observed rate to be two orders of magnitude greater than the theoretical rate. We find that the observed rate cannot be explained by tidally induced pulsations alone and consequently hypothesize the presence of a third body in the system.

  3. Rapid Modelling of Urban Mission Areas Using Ground-Based Imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Son, R. van; Kuijper, F.; Heuvel, F. van den

    2007-01-01

    Current modelling techniques for urban mission areas are mainly based on the use of data which is not specific or detailed enough to accurately model an existing area. Consequently, additional (manual) effort and time are required to perform data acquisition and to model the environment. The

  4. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  5. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  6. Computer applications making rapid advances in high throughput microbial proteomics (HTMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Balakrishna; Haga, Steve W; Wu, Hui-Fen

    2014-02-01

    The last few decades have seen the rise of widely-available proteomics tools. From new data acquisition devices, such as MALDI-MS and 2DE to new database searching softwares, these new products have paved the way for high throughput microbial proteomics (HTMP). These tools are enabling researchers to gain new insights into microbial metabolism, and are opening up new areas of study, such as protein-protein interactions (interactomics) discovery. Computer software is a key part of these emerging fields. This current review considers: 1) software tools for identifying the proteome, such as MASCOT or PDQuest, 2) online databases of proteomes, such as SWISS-PROT, Proteome Web, or the Proteomics Facility of the Pathogen Functional Genomics Resource Center, and 3) software tools for applying proteomic data, such as PSI-BLAST or VESPA. These tools allow for research in network biology, protein identification, functional annotation, target identification/validation, protein expression, protein structural analysis, metabolic pathway engineering and drug discovery.

  7. A rapid decision-making method for the evaluation of pollution-sensitive coastal areas in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Michael O; Kamizoulis, George

    2005-06-01

    Places of natural beauty and/or cultural value in the Mediterranean Sea are presenting adverse effects due to pollution. These environmental threats caused by point and nonpoint sources are mainly the reason why these areas represent "pollution-sensitive areas," where the risk of deterioration is immediate. However, the risk will decrease and eventually disappear if protective measures are applied. In the present article, a multicriteria decision-making method is proposed for the prioritization of the Mediterranean sensitive coastal areas, taking into consideration criteria of pollution risk such as impact on human health, aquatic ecosystems, and socioeconomic value of the area. Weighting factors were then attributed to the different criteria according to their regional priorities, and a total pollution risk score was calculated for every sensitive area. However, some sensitive areas are more vulnerable than others because of their natural characteristics. Therefore, the total pollution risk score was then multiplied by a vulnerability weighting factor and a Total Sensitivity Score was calculated for every sensitive area. With this method, Mediterranean sensitive areas in coastal zones can be ranked on a priority list and then categorized according to their "sensitivity," in a way that decision-makers can select the most urgent cases to direct their attention for the effective protection of the Mediterranean marine environment. The method is rapid and practicable and has already been used with existing data and information in several Mediterranean countries.

  8. Prospective Validation of Rapid Plasma Genotyping for the Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutations in Advanced Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, Adrian G; Paweletz, Cloud; Dahlberg, Suzanne E; Alden, Ryan S; O'Connell, Allison; Feeney, Nora; Mach, Stacy L; Jänne, Pasi A; Oxnard, Geoffrey R

    2016-08-01

    Plasma genotyping of cell-free DNA has the potential to allow for rapid noninvasive genotyping while avoiding the inherent shortcomings of tissue genotyping and repeat biopsies. To prospectively validate plasma droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for the rapid detection of common epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations, as well as the EGFR T790M acquired resistance mutation. Patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who either (1) had a new diagnosis and were planned for initial therapy or (2) had developed acquired resistance to an EGFR kinase inhibitor and were planned for rebiopsy underwent initial blood sampling and immediate plasma ddPCR for EGFR exon 19 del, L858R, T790M, and/or KRAS G12X between July 3, 2014, and June 30, 2015, at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. All patients underwent biopsy for tissue genotyping, which was used as the reference standard for comparison; rebiopsy was required for patients with acquired resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors. Test turnaround time (TAT) was measured in business days from blood sampling until test reporting. Plasma ddPCR assay sensitivity, specificity, and TAT. Of 180 patients with advanced NSCLC (62% female; median [range] age, 62 [37-93] years), 120 cases were newly diagnosed; 60 had acquired resistance. Tumor genotype included 80 EGFR exon 19/L858R mutants, 35 EGFR T790M, and 25 KRAS G12X mutants. Median (range) TAT for plasma ddPCR was 3 (1-7) days. Tissue genotyping median (range) TAT was 12 (1-54) days for patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC and 27 (1-146) days for patients with acquired resistance. Plasma ddPCR exhibited a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 91%-100%) for EGFR 19 del, 100% (95% CI, 85%-100%) for L858R, and 100% (95% CI, 79%-100%) for KRAS, but lower for T790M at 79% (95% CI, 62%-91%). The sensitivity of plasma ddPCR was 82% (95% CI, 69%-91%) for EGFR 19 del, 74% (95% CI, 55%-88%) for L858R, and 77% (95% CI, 60

  9. Improvement of Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System (ASAPS) on Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Gyun; Jee, Joon-Bum

    2017-04-01

    Dangerous weather such as severe rain, heavy snow, drought and heat wave caused by climate change make more damage in the urban area that dense populated and industry areas. Urban areas, unlike the rural area, have big population and transportation, dense the buildings and fuel consumption. Anthropogenic factors such as road energy balance, the flow of air in the urban is unique meteorological phenomena. However several researches are in process about prediction of urban meteorology. ASAPS (Advanced Storm-scale Analysis and Prediction System) predicts a severe weather with very short range (prediction with 6 hour) and high resolution (every hour with time and 1 km with space) on Seoul metropolitan area based on KLAPS (Korea Local Analysis and Prediction System) from KMA (Korea Meteorological Administration). This system configured three parts that make a background field (SUF5), analysis field (SU01) with observation and forecast field with high resolution (SUF1). In this study, we improve a high-resolution ASAPS model and perform a sensitivity test for the rainfall case. The improvement of ASAPS include model domain configuration, high resolution topographic data and data assimilation with WISE observation data.

  10. [Brazilian technological output in the area of nursing: advances and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerich, Micheline Henrique Araujo da Luz; Vieira, Raquel Heloisa Guedes; Silva, Daniela Eda; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Meirelles, Betina Horner Shlindwein

    2011-12-01

    This article aims to analyze the patents registered in the nursing area, since these patents may be used as an indicator of the technological development in the area. It presents and discusses national technological productions, tracked through the "nursing" keyword, patented in the period from 1990-2009. This is a retrospective documental research, using, as a source, data from the National Industrial Property Institute (INPI). The information gathered is discussed in relation to the appropriation of the technologies, the incentive to develop them and register them as a source of knowledge in the nursing field, aiming the practice of care. Light and light hard technology productions are increasing in the nursing field. However, these are not registered and patented. The technological advance in the nursing field is emergent and needs policies for its development.

  11. Apparatus and method for rapid cooling of large area substrates in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Kurt L.; Enzenroth, Robert A.; Sampath, Walajabad S.

    2010-09-28

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for rapid cooling of a large substrate in a vacuum environment. A first cooled plate is brought into close proximity with one surface of a flat substrate. The spatial volume between the first cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and brought to a higher pressure than the surrounding vacuum level to increase the cooling efficiency. A second cooled plate is brought into close proximity with the opposite surface of the flat substrate. A second spatial volume between the second cooling plate and the substrate is sealed and the gas pressure is equalized to the gas pressure in the first spatial volume. The equalization of the gas pressure on both sides of the flat substrate eliminates deflection of the substrate and bending stress in the substrate.

  12. Large area super-resolution chemical imaging via rapid dithering of a nanoprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Languirand, Eric R.; Cullum, Brian M.

    2015-05-01

    Super-resolution chemical imaging via Raman spectroscopy provides a significant ability to simultaneously or pseudosimultaneously monitor numerous label-free analytes while elucidating their spatial distribution on the surface of the sample. However, spontaneous Raman is an inherently weak phenomenon making trace detection and thus superresolution imaging extremely difficult, if not impossible. To circumvent this and allow for trace detection of the few chemical species present in any sub-diffraction limited resolution element of an image, we have developed a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) coherent fiber-optic imaging bundle probe consisting of 30,000 individual fiber elements. When the probes are tapered, etched and coated with metal, they provide circular Raman chemical images of a sample with a field of view of approximately 20μm (i.e. diameter) via the array of 30,000 individual 50 nm fiber elements. An acousto-optic tunable filter is used to rapidly scan or select discrete frequencies for multi- or hyperspectral analysis. Although the 50nm fiber element dimensions of this probe inherently provide spatial resolutions of approximately 100nm, further increases in the spatial resolution can be achieved by using a rapid dithering process. Using this process, additional images are obtained one-half fiber diameter translations in the x- and y- planes. A piezostage drives the movement, providing the accurate and reproducible shifts required for dithering. Optimal probability algorithms are then used to deconvolute the related images producing a final image with a three-fold increase in spatial resolution. This paper describes super-resolution chemical imaging using these probes and the dithering method as well as its potential applications in label-free imaging of lipid rafts and other applications within biology and forensics.

  13. Designing a hosting area as an advanced nursing care strategy in a pediatric nursing ward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pino A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important comfort needs for caregivers are related to improving their hospital stay conditions, with more comfortable waiting rooms, a place to sleep, a toilette with shower, food and a safe place where to leave their belongings. Objective: To implement a hosting area that meets the comfort needs of parents who do not have their own accommodations during the hospitalization of their children. Methodology: Innovative strategies in providing advanced nursing care based on the theoretical model of Kolcaba, which allows us to bring the discipline of nursing care into practice, in direct benefit of patients. Results: We expect an increase in comfort perception of parents during hospitalization, which will lead to increased alertness of parents, effective participation in child care, improved response to educational interventions and effective linkages with the caring team. Conclusions: A hosting area for parents of hospitalized children, designed to meet the most important comfort needs reported in the literature and contextualized according to Kolcaba’s theory, can contribute to implement advanced nursing care, recovering the essence of nursing at the Pediatrics Service of the UC Hospital.

  14. Pilot production and advanced development of large-area picosecond photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minot, Michael J.; Adams, Bernhard W.; Aviles, Melvin; Bond, Justin L.; Craven, Christopher A.; Cremer, Till; Foley, Michael R.; Lyashenko, Alexey; Popecki, Mark A.; Stochaj, Michael E.; Worstell, William A.; Mane, Anil U.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Ertley, Camden; Frisch, Henry; Elagin, Andrey

    2016-09-01

    We report pilot production and advanced development performance results achieved for Large Area Picosecond Photodetectors (LAPPD). The LAPPD is a microchannel plate (MCP) based photodetector, capable of imaging with single-photon sensitivity at high spatial and temporal resolutions in a hermetic package with an active area of 400 square centimeters. In December 2015, Incom Inc. completed installation of equipment and facilities for demonstration of early stage pilot production of LAPPD. Initial fabrication trials commenced in January 2016. The "baseline" LAPPD employs an all-glass hermetic package with top and bottom plates and sidewalls made of borosilicate float glass. Signals are generated by a bi-alkali Na2KSb photocathode and amplified with a stacked chevron pair of "next generation" MCPs produced by applying resistive and emissive atomic layer deposition coatings to borosilicate glass capillary array (GCA) substrates. Signals are collected on RF strip-line anodes applied to the bottom plates which exit the detector via pinfree hermetic seals under the side walls. Prior tests show that LAPPDs have electron gains greater than 107, submillimeter space resolution for large pulses and several mm for single photons, time resolutions of 50 picoseconds for single photons, predicted resolution of less than 5 picoseconds for large pulses, high stability versus charge extraction, and good uniformity. LAPPD performance results for product produced during the first half of 2016 will be reviewed. Recent advances in the development of LAPPD will also be reviewed, as the baseline design is adapted to meet the requirements for a wide range of emerging application. These include a novel ceramic package design, ALD coated MCPs optimized to have a low temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and further advances to adapt the LAPPD for cryogenic applications using Liquid Argon (LAr). These developments will meet the needs for DOE-supported RD for the Deep Underground Neutrino

  15. Our results of large area mitomycin C application trabeculectomy in cases with advanced glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutlu Cihan Dağlıoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate large area Mitomycin-C (MMCapplied trabeculectomy results in advanced glaucomapatients in which targeted intraocular pressure (IOP cannot be achieved with maximum medical therapy.Methods: 41 eyes of 35 advanced glaucoma patientsthat can not be controlled with medical treatment were includedto the study. Large area MMC application was appliedfor 2 minutes in 0.2 mg/ml concentration. The meanfollow-up period was 28 months (24-36. All of the caseswere advanced glaucoma patients and 21mmHg IOP levelcould not be achieved in spite of maximum treatmentwith three drugs.Results: Of the 35 patients that were included to study,19 were male and 16 were female and the mean age was52.5±1.8 years (range, 45-73. Twenty-seven of eyeswere primary open angle glaucoma, 11 was pseudoexfoliativeglaucoma, 3 were angle closure glaucoma. In 5eyes (12.1% there were early hypotonia. Additional suturationwas made in 2 eyes with hypotonia. Two eyes weretreated with tight patching. Suture addition was made in1 eye with choroid effusion. Cataract was developed in4 eyes. There were 3 cystic bleb (7.3% and they weretreated with needle application. Thin avascular bleb wasdeveloped in 10 eyes (24.4%. In other eyes (68.3%there were thin diffuse bleb formations. When targetedIOP was considered as 15 mmHg, targeted IOP wasachieved in 36 (87.8% eyes.Conclusion: We suggest that trabeculectomy with largearea MMC application is an effective choice in advancedglaucoma patients in which targeted IOP can not beachieved with maximum medical treatment.Key words: Mitomycin-C, trabeculectomy, bleb

  16. Lung Cancer in a Rural Area of China: Rapid Rise in Incidence and Poor Improvement in Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Ding, Lu-Lu; Kensler, Thomas W; Chen, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has been a major health problem in developed countries for several decades, and has emerged recently as the leading cause of cancer death in many developing countries. The incidence of lung cancer appears to be increasing more rapidly in rural than in urban areas of China. This paper presents the trends of lung cancer incidence and survival derived from a 40-year population-based cancer monitoring program in a rural area, Qidong, China. The Qidong cancer registration data of 1972- 2011 were used to calculate the crude rate, age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR), birth cohort rates, and other descriptive features. Active and passive methods were used to construct the data set, with a deadline of the latest follow-up of April 30, 2012. The total number of lung cancer cases was 15,340, accounting for 16.5% of all sites combined. The crude incidence rate, CASR and WASR of this cancer were 34.1, 15.7 and 25.4 per 100,000, respectively. Males had higher crude rates than females (49.7 vs 19.0). Rapidly increasing trends were found in annual percent change resulting in lung cancer being a number one cancer site after year 2010 in Qidong. Birth cohort analysis showed incidence rates have increased for all age groups over 24 years old. The 5 year observed survival rates were 3.55% in 1973-1977, 3.92 in 1983-1987, 3.69% in 1993-1997, and 6.32% in 2003-2007. Males experienced poorer survival than did females. Lung cancer has become a major cancer-related health problem in this rural area. The rapid increases in incidence likely result from an increased cigarette smoking rate and evolving environmental risk factors. Lung cancer survival, while showing some improvement in prognosis, still remains well below that observed in the developed areas of the world.

  17. Nanotechnological Advances in Catalytic Thin Films for Green Large-Area Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Biran Ay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-area catalytic thin films offer great potential for green technology applications in order to save energy, combat pollution, and reduce global warming. These films, either embedded with nanoparticles, shaped with nanostructuring techniques, hybridized with other systems, or functionalized with bionanotechnological methods, can include many different surface properties including photocatalytic, antifouling, abrasion resistant and mechanically resistive, self-cleaning, antibacterial, hydrophobic, and oleophobic features. Thus, surface functionalization with such advanced structuring methods is of significance to increase the performance and wide usage of large-area thin film coatings specifically for environmental remediation. In this review, we focus on methods to increase the efficiency of catalytic reactions in thin film and hence improve the performance in relevant applications while eliminating high cost with the purpose of widespread usage. However, we also include the most recent hybrid architectures, which have potential to make a transformational change in surface applications as soon as high quality and large area production techniques are available. Hence, we present and discuss research studies regarding both organic and inorganic methods that are used to structure thin films that have potential for large-area and eco-friendly coatings.

  18. Rapid broad area search and detection of Chinese surface-to-air missile sites using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Richard A.; Davis, Curt H.; Scott, Grant J.; Nivin, Tyler W.

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated how deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) could assist in the labor-intensive process of human visual searches for objects of interest in high-resolution imagery over large areas of the Earth's surface. Various DCNN were trained and tested using fewer than 100 positive training examples (China only) from a worldwide surface-to-air-missile (SAM) site dataset. A ResNet-101 DCNN achieved a 98.2% average accuracy for the China SAM site data. The ResNet-101 DCNN was used to process ˜19.6 M image chips over a large study area in southeastern China. DCNN chip detections (˜9300) were postprocessed with a spatial clustering algorithm to produce a ranked list of ˜2100 candidate SAM site locations. The combination of DCNN processing and spatial clustering effectively reduced the search area by ˜660X (0.15% of the DCNN-processed land area). An efficient web interface was used to facilitate a rapid serial human review of the candidate SAM sites in the China study area. Four novice imagery analysts with no prior imagery analysis experience were able to complete a DCNN-assisted SAM site search in an average time of ˜42 min. This search was ˜81X faster than a traditional visual search over an equivalent land area of ˜88,640 km2 while achieving nearly identical statistical accuracy (˜90% F1).

  19. Rapid tumor necrosis and massive hemorrhage induced by bevacizumab and paclitaxel combination therapy in a case of advanced breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mayu Ono, Tokiko Ito, Toshiharu Kanai, Koichi Murayama, Hiroshi Koyama, Kazuma Maeno, Yasuhiro Mochizuki, Asumi Iesato, Toru Hanamura, Toshihiro Okada, Takayuki Watanabe, Ken-ichi ItoDivision of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Department of Surgery (II, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, JapanAbstract: Bevacizumab when combined with chemotherapy exerts significant activity against many solid tumors through tumor angiogenesis inhibition; however, it can induce severe side effects. We report the rare case of a 27-year-old premenopausal woman with locally advanced breast cancer that was marked by rapid tumor necrosis followed by massive hemorrhage shortly after bevacizumab and paclitaxel administration. On the basis of histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen and computed tomography findings, she was diagnosed with stage IV estrogen and progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-positive breast cancer with multiple organ metastases when she had entered gestational week 24. Cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin®, fluorouracil therapy was initiated, but multiple liver metastases continued to progress. A healthy fetus was delivered by induced delivery and trastuzumab-based treatment was initiated. Although the multiple liver metastases were controlled successfully by trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel, the primary tumor continued to expand even after subsequent administration of three other treatment regimens including anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 agents and cytotoxic drugs. To inhibit primary tumor growth, a combination therapy with paclitaxel and bevacizumab was subsequently initiated. Following therapy initiation, however, the large tumor occupying the patient's entire left breast became necrotic and ulcerated rapidly. Furthermore, massive hemorrhage from the tumor occurred 5 weeks after bevacizumab-based therapy initiation. Although hemostasis was achieved by manual

  20. Superimposing various biophysical and social scales in a rapidly changing rural area (SW Niger)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Christian; Massuel, Sylvain; Favreau, Guillaume; Cappelaere, Bernard; Leblanc, Marc; Bachir, Salifou; Ousmane, Boureïma

    2014-05-01

    In SW Niger, close to Niamey, a detailed hydrological survey has been developed for the last 20 years (international experiments HAPEX-SAHEL and later AMMA), investigating the distribution of water in atmosphere, surface, soil and aquifers. It covers an area of about 10 000 km2, with a series of imbricated scales of instrumentation, in time and space. This dense long term field observation led to many major scientific results. Among them, one of the most original and paradoxical is the continuous rise of the water table, even during the severe droughts of the 1970s and 1980s (about 3 m in the last 30 years). In spite of a large apparent homogeneity of the biophysical environment throughout the region, numerous heterogeneities exist at different scales, complicating the hydrological analysis. On the surface, the hydrological system was, ~6000 years ago, a structured drainage network leading to the Niger River. It was later broken into much smaller elements by aeolian dunes deposited during arid episodes and the study area now appears as a juxtaposition of hundreds of small endorheic catchments (most often 1 to 20 km2) where the surface runoff finally ends in temporary ponds. During most violent rainy events, erosion can be locally very severe and modify durably the size of the catchment and the local hydrology. Conversely, during smaller rainy events, surface runoff may never reach the ponds because it infiltrates in more permeable zones at mid-slope. The actual surface area of the catchment contributing to the surface runoff thus varies considerably with time. Because of their great number, only a few catchments are instrumented and extrapolation of measurements to ungauged catchments is an additional difficulty. Most of water temporarily stored in ponds infiltrates and recharges groundwater. The Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer system is made of three independent layers, of which the upper one (CT3) is only considered here. The CT aquifer systems is a

  1. Objective rapid delineation of areas at risk from block-and-ash pyroclastic flows and surges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiwijayanti, C.; Voight, B.; Hidayat, D.; Schilling, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    Assessments of pyroclastic flow (PF) hazards are commonly based on mapping of PF and surge deposits and estimations of inundation limits, and/or computer models of varying degrees of sophistication. In volcanic crises a PF hazard map may be sorely needed, but limited time, exposures, or safety aspects may preclude fieldwork, and insufficient time or baseline data may be available for reliable dynamic simulations. We have developed a statistically constrained simulation model for block-and-ash type PFs to estimate potential areas of inundation by adapting methodology from Iverson et al. (Geol Soc America Bull 110:972-984, (1998) for lahars. The predictive equations for block-and-ash PFs are calibrated with data from several volcanoes and given by A = (0.05 to 0.1) V2/3, B = (35 to 40) V2/3, where A is cross-sectional area of inundation, B is planimetric area and V is deposit volume. The proportionality coefficients were obtained from regression analyses and comparison of simulations to mapped deposits. The method embeds the predictive equations in a GIS program coupled with DEM topography, using the LAHARZ program of Schilling (1998). Although the method is objective and reproducible, any PF hazard zone so computed should be considered as an approximate guide only, due to uncertainties on the coefficients applicable to individual PFs, the authenticity of DEM details, and the volume of future collapses. The statistical uncertainty of the predictive equations, which imply a factor of two or more in predicting A or B for a specified V, is superposed on the uncertainty of forecasting V for the next PF to descend a particular valley. Multiple inundation zones, produced by simulations using a selected range of volumes, partly accommodate these uncertainties. The resulting maps show graphically that PF inundation potentials are highest nearest volcano sources and along valley thalwegs, and diminish with distance from source and lateral distance from thalweg. The model does

  2. Using rapid-cycle quality improvement methodology to reduce feeding tubes in patients with advanced dementia: before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleoni, Carol; Clark, Elizabeth

    2004-08-28

    Despite lack of evidence that enteral feeding tubes benefit patients with dementia, and often contrary to the wishes of patient and family, patients with dementia who have difficulty swallowing or reduced food intake often receive feeding tubes when hospitalised for an acute illness. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes between March and September 2002. QI interventions including a palliative care consulting service and educational programmes were instituted. We conducted a second chart review for all patients receiving feeding tubes between March and September 2003. 652 bed urban acute care hospital. We measured the number of feeding tubes placed in patients with dementia, the number of feeding tubes placed in patients with dementia capable of taking food by mouth, and the number of feeding tubes placed in patients with dementia with an advance directive stating the wish to forgo artificial nutrition and hydration. Medical and allied health staff received educational programmes on end of life care and on feeding management of patients with dementia. A palliative care consulting team was established. After the interventions, the number of feeding tubes placed in all patients and in patients with dementia was greatly reduced. Multidisciplinary involvement, including participation by the administration, was essential to effect change in practice. The intensive focus on a particular issue and rapid change led to "culture shift" within the hospital community. The need to establish unified goals of care for each patient was highlighted. A growing body of research over the past decade has questioned the utility of placing feeding tubes (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or jejunostomy) in patients with advanced dementia. Studies have found no evidence that feeding tubes in this population prevent aspiration, prolong life, improve overall function, or reduce pressure sores

  3. Boom and bust: rapid feedback responses between insect outbreak dynamics and canopy leaf area impacted by rainfall and CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlenda, Andrew N; Esveld, Jessica L; Hall, Aidan A G; Duursma, Remko A; Riegler, Markus

    2016-11-01

    Frequency and severity of insect outbreaks in forest ecosystems are predicted to increase with climate change. How this will impact canopy leaf area in future climates is rarely tested. Here, we document function of insect outbreaks that fortuitously and rapidly occurred in an ecosystem under free-air CO2 enrichment. Over the first 2 years of CO2 fumigation of a naturally established mature Eucalyptus woodland, we continuously assessed population responses of three sap-feeding insect species of the psyllid genera Cardiaspina, Glycaspis and Spondyliaspis for up to ten consecutive generations. Concurrently, we quantified changes in the canopy leaf area index (LAI). Large and rapid shifts in psyllid community composition were recorded between species with either flush (Glycaspis) or senescence-inducing (Cardiaspina, Spondyliaspis) feeding strategies. Within the second year, two psyllid species experienced significant and rapid population build-up resulting in two consecutive outbreaks: first, rainfall stimulated Eucalyptus leaf production increasing LAI, which supported population growth of flush-feeding Glycaspis without impacting LAI. Glycaspis numbers then crashed and were followed by the outbreak of senescence-feeding Cardiaspina fiscella that led to significant defoliation and reduction in LAI. For all three psyllid species, the abundance of lerps, protective coverings excreted by the sessile nymphs, decreased at e[CO2 ]. Higher lerp weight at e[CO2 ] for Glycaspis but not the other psyllid species provided evidence for compensatory feeding by the flush feeder but not the two senescence feeders. Our study demonstrates that rainfall drives leaf phenology, facilitating the rapid boom-and-bust succession of psyllid species, eventually leading to significant defoliation due to the second but not the first outbreaking psyllid species. In contrast, e[CO2 ] may impact psyllid abundance and feeding behaviour, with psyllid species-specific outcomes for defoliation

  4. Hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater contamination in the rapid urban development areas of Coimbatore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Selvakumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Singanallur Sub-basin is one of the major waterways and it supplies water to the Coimbatore city. Currently, it is vulnerable to pollution due to an increase of unplanned urban developments, industrial, and agricultural activities that compromise both the quality and quantity. In the present study three major hydrochemical facies were identified (mixed Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-Cl, and Ca-HCO3. Irrigation suitability indexes are specifies that the groundwater in the areas has very high salinity hazard and low to medium alkali hazard. The mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry originally regulated by the evaporation process is dominated by reason of arid condition and anthropogenic activities existing throughout the region. The multivariate statistical analysis (Correlation analysis (CA, principal component analysis (PCA and Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA indicates, most of the variations are elucidated by the anthropogenic pollutant predominantly due to population growth, industrial effluents, and irrigation water return flow. This study demonstrates enhanced information of evolution of groundwater quality by integrating hydrochemical data and multivariate statistical methods are used to understand the factors influencing contamination due to natural and anthropogenic impacts.

  5. Sources of heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils of a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghua; Zhao, Yongcun; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yudong; Deng, Wenjing

    2014-10-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, 230 surface soil samples (0-20cm) were collected from agricultural areas of Jiaxing, a rapidly industrializing area in the Yangtze Delta of China. Sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS) and multivariate factorial kriging analysis (FKA) were used to identify and explore the sources of heavy metal pollution for eight metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg and As). Localized hot-spots of pollution were identified for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd with area percentages of 0.48 percent, 0.58 percent, 2.84 percent, 2.41 percent, 0.74 percent, and 0.68 percent, respectively. The areas with Hg pollution covered approximately 38 percent whereas no potential pollution risk was found for As. The soil parent material and point sources of pollution had significant influences on Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd levels, except for the influence of agricultural management practices also accounted for micro-scale variations (nugget effect) for Cu and Zn pollution. Short-range (4km) diffusion processes had a significant influence on Cu levels, although they did not appear to be the dominant sources of Zn and Cd variation. The short-range diffusion pollution arising from current and historic industrial emissions and urbanization, and long-range (33km) variations in soil parent materials and/or diffusion jointly determined the current concentrations of soil Pb. The sources of Hg pollution risk may be attributed to the atmosphere deposition of industrial emission and historical use of Hg-containing pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid large- and site scale RPAS mission planning for remote sensing of rock falls and landslides in alpine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräupl, Thomas; Pschernig, Elias; Rokitansky, Carl-Herbert; Oleire-Oltmanns, Sebastian; Zobl, Fritz

    2014-05-01

    Since landslides and rock falls are complex phenomena involving a multitude of factors, current and historic surface data play besides geologic conditions and others an important role in analyzing hazard situation and efficient site-specific remediation actions. Especially in displacement acceleration phases which are frequently linked to bad weather conditions, data acquisition remains difficult. Therefore RPAS with their small ground sampling distance and correspondingly high resolution open up possibilities for surveying ground situations not only for visual inspection but also for geodetic data acquisition. Both, visual and geodetic data provide valuable information for geologists and related decision makers. Slides or rock falls in alpine areas pose special challenges due to mostly acute and unforeseen displacements on the one hand and geographic conditions of narrow valleys along with steep slopes on the other hand. Rapid RPAS mission planning and mission adaption for individual requirements according to different project stages (initial investigation, repeat measurements, identification of hazard zones for urgent remediation actions, etc.) is therefore of particular importance. Here we present a computer-simulation supported approach to RPAS mission planning taking the identified thematic and remote sensing targets, the relevant terrain and obstacle databases, legal restrictions, aircraft performance, sensor characteristics, and communication ranges into account in order to produce a safe and mission-optimized flight route. For the RPAS mission planning, we combine and adapt tools developed at University of Salzburg, namely a flight track generator taking into account a 3D-model of the earth surface with both, focus on large area coverage (e.g. Austria) and the highest available resolution (e.g. sub-meter for specific areas), available obstacle data bases for the mission area (e.g. cable car lines, power lines, buildings, slope stabilization constructions

  7. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Jennifer E.; Rassweiler, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott L.; Warner, Robert R.

    2015-09-01

    Oceans currently face a variety of threats, requiring ecosystem-based approaches to management such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluated changes in fish biomass on temperate rocky reefs over the decade following implementation of a network of MPAs in the northern Channel Islands, California. We found that the biomass of targeted (i.e. fished) species has increased consistently inside all MPAs in the network, with an effect of geography on the strength of the response. More interesting, biomass of targeted fish species also increased outside MPAs, although only 27% as rapidly as in the protected areas, indicating that redistribution of fishing effort has not severely affected unprotected populations. Whether the increase outside of MPAs is due to changes in fishing pressure, fisheries management actions, adult spillover, favorable environmental conditions, or a combination of all four remains unknown. We evaluated methods of controlling for biogeographic or environmental variation across networks of protected areas and found similar performance of models incorporating empirical sea surface temperature versus a simple geographic blocking term based on assemblage structure. The patterns observed are promising indicators of the success of this network, but more work is needed to understand how ecological and physical contexts affect MPA performance.

  8. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselle, Jennifer E; Rassweiler, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott L; Warner, Robert R

    2015-09-16

    Oceans currently face a variety of threats, requiring ecosystem-based approaches to management such as networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). We evaluated changes in fish biomass on temperate rocky reefs over the decade following implementation of a network of MPAs in the northern Channel Islands, California. We found that the biomass of targeted (i.e. fished) species has increased consistently inside all MPAs in the network, with an effect of geography on the strength of the response. More interesting, biomass of targeted fish species also increased outside MPAs, although only 27% as rapidly as in the protected areas, indicating that redistribution of fishing effort has not severely affected unprotected populations. Whether the increase outside of MPAs is due to changes in fishing pressure, fisheries management actions, adult spillover, favorable environmental conditions, or a combination of all four remains unknown. We evaluated methods of controlling for biogeographic or environmental variation across networks of protected areas and found similar performance of models incorporating empirical sea surface temperature versus a simple geographic blocking term based on assemblage structure. The patterns observed are promising indicators of the success of this network, but more work is needed to understand how ecological and physical contexts affect MPA performance.

  9. Dallas area rapid transit impact study: A framework for assessing land use and development impacts. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, P.J.; Euritt, M.A.; Walton, C.M.

    1993-05-01

    Seven transit system impact reports were reviewed in an effort to identify strategies for measuring land-use impacts for Dallas Area Rapid Transit's (DART) light rail starter line. These systems were selected on the basis of impact study quality, system characteristics (type, size, and age), and city demographics. From these existing studies some commonly used techniques are identified and then used to form the basis for the land use component of the DART impact study design. The report concludes that DART's success in fostering economic growth will depend on many factors, including interagency coordination and, perhaps most importantly, how public/private opportunities are promoted. Other variables range from the tangible (ridership, on-time performance, operating efficiency) to the abstract (civic pride, world-class-city status, desirable urban form).

  10. Thermoplastic elastomer with advanced hydrophilization and bonding performances for rapid (30 s) and easy molding of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachaux, Julie; Alcaine, Clara; Gómez-Escoda, Blanca; Perrault, Cécile M; Duplan, David Olea; Wu, Pei-Yun Jenny; Ochoa, Iñaki; Fernandez, Luis; Mercier, Olaf; Coudreuse, Damien; Roy, Emmanuel

    2017-07-25

    One of the most important areas of research on microfluidic technologies focuses on the identification and characterisation of novel materials with enhanced properties and versatility. Here we present a fast, easy and inexpensive microstructuration method for the fabrication of novel, flexible, transparent and biocompatible microfluidic devices. Using a simple hot press, we demonstrate the rapid (30 s) production of various microfluidic prototypes embossed in a commercially available soft thermoplastic elastomer (sTPE). This styrenic block copolymer (BCP) material is as flexible as PDMS and as thermoformable as classical thermoplastics. It exhibits high fidelity of replication using SU-8 and epoxy master molds in a highly convenient low-isobar (0.4 bar) and iso-thermal process. Microfluidic devices can then be easily sealed using either a simple hot plate or even a room-temperature assembly, allowing them to sustain liquid pressures of 2 and 0.6 bar, respectively. The excellent sorption and biocompatibility properties of the microchips were validated via a standard rhodamine dye assay as well as a sensitive yeast cell-based assay. The morphology and composition of the surface area after plasma treatment for hydrophilization purposes are stable and show constant and homogenous distribution of block nanodomains (∼22° after 4 days). These domains, which are evenly distributed on the nanoscale, therefore account for the uniform and convenient surface of a "microfluidic scale device". To our knowledge, this is the first thermoplastic elastomer material that can be used for fast and reliable fabrication and assembly of microdevices while maintaining a high and stable hydrophilicity.

  11. Validation and comparison of Advanced Differential Interferometry Techniques: Murcia metropolitan area case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, G.; Tomás, R.; Lopez-Sanchez, J. M.; Delgado, J.; Vicente, F.; Mulas, J.; Cooksley, G.; Sanchez, M.; Duro, J.; Arnaud, A.; Blanco, P.; Duque, S.; Mallorqui, J. J.; De la Vega-Panizo, R.; Monserrat, O.

    This paper is focused on the analysis of the performance of Stable Point Network (SPN) and Coherent Pixel Technique (CPT), which are Advanced Differential Interferometry Techniques (A-DInSAR) that estimate, among other results, mean deformation velocity maps of the ground surface and displacement time series from a SAR dataset. The test site is the metropolitan area of the city of Murcia (Spain) where a moderate slow subsidence induced by the overexploitation of aquifers is present. SAR data acquired between July 1995 and August 2005 from ERS and ENVISAT sensors have been processed by the SPN and CPT techniques and compared with in situ instrumental measurements assumed as reference. Experimental results have shown that both SPN and CPT techniques provide estimates of the deformation evolution in time with an absolute difference below 6 mm consistently in all comparisons: SPN vs extensometer, CPT vs extensometer and SPN vs CPT. The proposed validation and comparison experiment between both A-DInSAR techniques has been useful to observe their differences and complementarities.

  12. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  13. Rapid Regression of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Elevation of Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin after Short-Term Treatment with Sorafenib – A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Nakazawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sorafenib is the first molecular-targeted agent that is effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, with prolongation of survival. However, a complete response is very rare, and rapid regression of HCC after short-term treatment with sorafenib has not been reported previously. Case Reports: We describe 2 patients with advanced multiple HCC who received sorafenib for short periods of 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Longer treatment was precluded by the development of hepatic failure as an adverse event of sorafenib. Results: HCC rapidly regressed, and both patients had a partial response (PR, despite short-term treatment. Furthermore, an early elevation of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP was temporarily seen in both patients, with no elevation of alpha-fetoprotein. Conclusions: Sorafenib can induce rapid regression of advanced HCC even after short-term treatment, and the initial response of HCC was identical in both patients. Since early elevation of DCP was observed in our patients with PR, DCP might be a predictive biomarker of anti-tumor response. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of sorafenib, including the alteration of DCP.

  14. The use of rapid dengue diagnostic tests in a routine clinical setting in a dengue-endemic area of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyda Osorio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is insufficient evidence of the usefulness of dengue diagnostic tests under routine conditions. We sought to analyse how physicians are using dengue diagnostics to inform research and development. Subjects attending 14 health institutions in an endemic area of Colombia with either a clinical diagnosis of dengue or for whom a dengue test was ordered were included in the study. Patterns of test-use are described herein. Factors associated with the ordering of dengue diagnostic tests were identified using contingency tables, nonparametric tests and logistic regression. A total of 778 subjects were diagnosed with dengue by the treating physician, of whom 386 (49.5% were tested for dengue. Another 491 dengue tests were ordered in subjects whose primary diagnosis was not dengue. Severe dengue classification [odds ratio (OR 2.2; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.1-4.5], emergency consultation (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and month of the year (OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.7-5.5 were independently associated with ordering of dengue tests. Dengue tests were used both to rule in and rule out diagnosis. The latter use is not justified by the sensitivity of current rapid dengue diagnostic tests. Ordering of dengue tests appear to depend on a combination of factors, including physician and institutional preferences, as well as other patient and epidemiological factors.

  15. Assessing degradation across a land-use gradient in the Kruger National Park area using advanced remote sensing modalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Aardt, JAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Onmental Change in SOuth afriCa98 RANGELANDS Assessing degradation across a land-use gradient in the Kruger National Park area using advanced remote sensing modalities Jan A.N. van Aardt Renaud Mathieu Moses Cho Konrad J. Wessels Barend Erasmus Gregory... of contrasting land uses on ecosystems along a land-use gradient, from the Kruger National Park (conserved area) to private game reserves (managed for eco-tourism) and former homeland areas (subsistence livelihoods) in the Lowveld (Figure 3.29). Local...

  16. Advances in quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, John R

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features detailed reviews written by leading international researchers. This volume focuses on the theory of heavy ion physics in medicine.Advances in Quantum Chemistry presents surveys of current topics in this rapidly developing field that has emerged at the cross section of the historically established areas of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. It features

  17. Emerging areas of science: Recommendations for Nursing Science Education from the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science Idea Festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henly, Susan J; McCarthy, Donna O; Wyman, Jean F; Heitkemper, Margaret M; Redeker, Nancy S; Titler, Marita G; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Stone, Patricia W; Moore, Shirley M; Alt-White, Anna C; Conley, Yvette P; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science aims to "facilitate and recognize life-long nursing science career development" as an important part of its mission. In light of fast-paced advances in science and technology that are inspiring new questions and methods of investigation in the health sciences, the Council for the Advancement of Nursing Science convened the Idea Festival for Nursing Science Education and appointed the Idea Festival Advisory Committee (IFAC) to stimulate dialogue about linking PhD education with a renewed vision for preparation of the next generation of nursing scientists. Building on the 2005 National Research Council report Advancing The Nation's Health Needs and the 2010 American Association of Colleges of Nursing Position Statement on the Research-Focused Doctorate Pathways to Excellence, the IFAC specifically addressed the capacity of PhD programs to prepare nursing scientists to conduct cutting-edge research in the following key emerging and priority areas of health sciences research: omics and the microbiome; health behavior, behavior change, and biobehavioral science; patient-reported outcomes; big data, e-science, and informatics; quantitative sciences; translation science; and health economics. The purpose of this article is to (a) describe IFAC activities, (b) summarize 2014 discussions hosted as part of the Idea Festival, and (c) present IFAC recommendations for incorporating these emerging areas of science and technology into research-focused doctoral programs committed to preparing graduates for lifelong, competitive careers in nursing science. The recommendations address clearer articulation of program focus areas; inclusion of foundational knowledge in emerging areas of science in core courses on nursing science and research methods; faculty composition; prerequisite student knowledge and skills; and in-depth, interdisciplinary training in supporting area of science content and methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  18. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular advancement on upper airways in Marfan's syndrome children: a home sleep study and cephalometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei, M; Alkhamis, N; Tagariello, T; D'Alessandro, G; Mariucci, E M; Piana, G

    2015-12-01

    Evaluation of the effects of rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular advancement using Propulsor Universal Light appliance on the upper airways in Marfan's syndrome children through home sleep studies, Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire, and cephalometric analysis of the upper airways on lateral radiographs. The study sample consisted of 30 children with Marfan's syndrome, and the control group consisted of 30 untreated and matched children. For Marfan subjects, data were taken at different time points compared to treatment: at T0 (before treatment), T1 (after rapid maxillary expansion), and T2 (after mandibular advancement). For control subjects, data were taken at similar intervals, at three follow-up visits: at T0 (as a starting screening tool), T1 (after approximately 2 years), and T2 (in proximity of the peak skeletal growth). Apnea-hypopnea and oxygen desaturations were significantly higher in the study group at T0 and T1 compared with control children. At T2, the values were not significant (p value 0.442 for both apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI)). Horizontal airway dimensions were significantly reduced, and vertical airway values were significantly increased in Marfan's syndrome at T0 and T1 but not at T2 (p values at T2: 0.071 for Phw1-Psp, 0.106 for Phw1-Psp', 0.101 for Phw2-Tb, 0.559 for UAL in male and 0.560 for UAL in female). Early rapid maxillary expansion and mandibular advancement using Propulsor Universal Light appliance significantly improved airway patency of Marfan's syndrome children and are strongly encouraged as a routine treatment for both correction of class II malocclusions and prevention of obstructive sleep apnea.

  19. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Howland, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  20. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Kingman, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  1. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Wake, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  2. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Johnston, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  3. CRED Rapid Ecological Assessment Line Point Intercept Survey of Benthic Parameter Assessments at Palmyra, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Line point intercept (LPI) surveys and benthic composition assessments were conducted during Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) as part of the Pacific Reef...

  4. Advanced Development of Antiviral Prophylactics and Therapeutics (ADAPT) - Research Area 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-17

    Reno ( Vero ) cell lines and the average plasma level for the 1 0-day PK trough samples. Aim 4: Perform studies to characterize host protein target(s...assembly inhibition in its proprietary VEEV cell -free synthesis screen. From these 268 analogs, the analogs that showed initial promising inhibition...profiles in the cell -free screening were advanced for both assessment against infectious virus in cell culture (studies conducted by Pamela Glass, Ph.D

  5. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning to Address Rapid Change: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caves, J. K.; Bodner, G.; Simms, K.; Fisher, L.; Robertson, T.

    2012-12-01

    There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision-making and adaptive management (CAM) have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We present the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA), a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: 1) shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; 2) mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision-making; 3) efforts to make information increasingly relevant and reliable; and 4) shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. Yet the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control—including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets—with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. While CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: 1) Creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives which may be crucial from those which may hinder a flexible response to climate change, and 2) Incorporating scenario planning into CAM

  6. Multicultural considerations for the advanced practice nurse anesthetist in the preoperative teaching area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, K

    1997-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of multiculturism and diversity on the ability of the preoperative certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) educator to convey effective information to the culturally diverse surgical patient. It looks at the importance of preoperative instruction across all populations in relation to hospital length of stay, need for postoperative pain medication, ambulation, and postoperative urinary retention. The article extrapolates these data to the culturally diverse population and gives a concrete plan of care for the advanced practice CRNA to modify teaching methods to facilitate the teaching-learning encounter in the culturally diverse population.

  7. Consumption of Advanced Internet Services in the Enterprises Sector: the Spread of Telework in the Metropolitan Area of Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos MACÍA ARCE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the pillars of the technological revolution that began in the seventies was the development of the Internet. This network has evolved in such a way that it now forms a complex structure that radically changed the social and economic dynamics at the end of century XX. Nowadays, new technologies allow anything from communication and information exchange to the realization of complex financial transactions, all from anywhere in the world and almost instantaneously. In spite of the widespread use of the Internet, there are still territories and inhabitants, mostly emplaced in remote rural areas, who live outside of this technological revolution. By contrast, urban areas enjoy a privileged position in the dissemination of the information society by concentrating most of the telecommunications infrastructure and monopolize the most qualified people. But there are many disparities in terms of diffusion of new technologies and these will transfer, in turn, to the enterprise sector which is the subject of this research. The differences in the use of new technologies and more specifically the use of advanced services on the Internet are related to the sector where the population is employed and its level of training. One of the advanced services offered by the Network is teleworking. Nowadays there are companies that offer their employees the opportunity to develop their professional activities outside their headquarters, using their homes as an alternative or call centers enabled with computers and Internet access. The purpose of this research is the study of the consumption of Internet advanced services by companies in the metropolitan area of Madrid, analyzing the spread of telework in more detail,a potential offered by new technologies and which may modify the current pattern of mobility in the main urban areas because it is from here where big companies are guiding the global economy.

  8. [Use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological research: experience in Spain and advancement opportunities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Esnaola, Santiago; Prieto-Salceda, María Dolores; Duque, Ignacio; Rodrigo, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    To determine the use of area-level socioeconomic indicators in epidemiological studies in Spain. We included studies analyzing the association of area-level socioeconomic indicators and health indicators in Spain published in peer-reviewed journals. An electronic search was conducted in PubMed-Medline, SCI-Expanded, SSCI, Embase, and the Spanish Medical Index (until December 31, 2012). A manual search was also conducted of the references of the selected studies. Each of the articles initially selected on the basis of the title and abstract was reviewed by two investigators. Information was obtained on the publication and methodology (design and study areas, information sources, health and socioeconomic indicators, and statistical analysis). We included 142 studies published since 1988 (58.4% since 2005). More than half (59.9%) were in English. The level of analysis was ecological in 73.2% and multilevel in 19.0%. The areas most frequently analyzed were census tracts (35 studies), especially within cities or autonomous regions, followed by the provinces (30 studies), mostly concerning Spain overall. The dependent variable most frequently analyzed was mortality and the socioeconomic dimension most commonly used was employment (71.1%). In the last decade in Spain, there has been an increase in the number of studies examining the association of area-level socioeconomic and health indicators, as well as in the complexity of design and analysis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid phase adjustment of melatonin and core body temperature rhythms following a 6-h advance of the light/dark cycle in the horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Erin L

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid displacement across multiple time zones results in a conflict between the new cycle of light and dark and the previously entrained program of the internal circadian clock, a phenomenon known as jet lag. In humans, jet lag is often characterized by malaise, appetite loss, fatigue, disturbed sleep and performance deficit, the consequences of which are of particular concern to athletes hoping to perform optimally at an international destination. As a species renowned for its capacity for athletic performance, the consequences of jet lag are also relevant for the horse. However, the duration and severity of jet lag related circadian disruption is presently unknown in this species. We investigated the rates of re-entrainment of serum melatonin and core body temperature (BT rhythms following an abrupt 6-h phase advance of the LD cycle in the horse. Methods Six healthy, 2 yr old mares entrained to a 12 h light/12 h dark (LD 12:12 natural photoperiod were housed in a light-proofed barn under a lighting schedule that mimicked the external LD cycle. Following baseline sampling on Day 0, an advance shift of the LD cycle was accomplished by ending the subsequent dark period 6 h early. Blood sampling for serum melatonin analysis and BT readings were taken at 3-h intervals for 24 h on alternate days for 11 days. Disturbances to the subsequent melatonin and BT 24-h rhythms were assessed using repeated measures ANOVA and analysis of Cosine curve fitting parameters. Results We demonstrate that the equine melatonin rhythm re-entrains rapidly to a 6-h phase advance of an LD12:12 photocycle. The phase shift in melatonin was fully complete on the first day of the new schedule and rhythm phase and waveform were stable thereafter. In comparison, the advance in the BT rhythm was achieved by the third day, however BT rhythm waveform, especially its mesor, was altered for many days following the LD shift. Conclusion Aside from the temperature

  10. Land subsidence phenomena in urbanized areas of Attica observed by applying advanced DinSAR techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitantzian, A.; Parcharidis, I.; Loupasakis, C.

    2017-09-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (SAR) technology has been enabled to investigate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of displacements occurring at the areas due to land subsidence related hazards. Land motion mapping data, produced by hybrid interferometric technique (Singular Value Decomposition algorithm) and PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) analysis, revealed vertical displacements affecting the Thriassio basin and the region of Moschato. The outcomes of these techniques provided important information about the spatial extent and time series of the surface deformation that should be evaluated considering the geological, hydrogeological, morphological and tectonic settings of the areas to assess land subsidence hazard mechanism.

  11. Notch stress intensity factors under mixed mode loadings: an overview of recent advanced methods for rapid calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peron

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently some methods for the rapid calculation of notch stress intensity factors (NSIFs have been developed and three of them are compared in this work. First, the criteria proposed by Lazzarin et al. and Treifi et al. have been reviewed. The former is based on the calculation of the mean value of SED on two different control volume (characterized by two different radius values centred at the stress singularity point, whereas the latter takes advantage of the strain energy density averaged within two control volumes (semi-circular sector centred at the notch tip. Then, a new method based on the evaluation of the total and deviatoric SED averaged in a single control volume has been proposed. Finally, plate specimens weakened by different notch geometries have been subjected to the application of the above mentioned methods and the obtained values of the NSIFs have been compared with those derived according to Gross and Mendelson

  12. HomeSpace:Maputo Dwelling Processes in ten Rapidly Expanding Peri-Urban Areas of an African City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da

    2013-01-01

    This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...

  13. Rapid regulation of leaf photosynthesis, carbohydrate status and leaf area expansion to maintain growth in irregular light environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    to maintain carbohydrate status and growth in unpredictable light environments. Our recent results show rapid regulation of photosynthesis and leaf carbohydrate status to maintain growth and light interception in dynamic light environments when campanula, rose and chrysanthemum were grown in a cost...

  14. Advanced Wireless Local Area Networks in the Unlicensed Sub-1GHz ISM-bands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aust, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the challenges of wireless local area networks (WLANs) that operate in the unlicensed sub-1GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band. Frequencies in the 900MHz spectrum enable a wider coverage due to the longer propagation characteristics of the radio waves. To

  15. Ifosfamide in advanced adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or oesophageal-gastric junction area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Kok (Tjebbe); A. van der Gaast (Ate); T.A.W. Splinter (Ted); H.W. Tilanus (Hugo)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract 25 previously untreated patients with inoperable or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus or oesophageal-gastric junction area were treated with ifosfamide 6 g/m2 over 48 hours, combined with mesna 6 g/m2. 1 complete response and 1 partial response were seen among

  16. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, F.; Zaw, Khin; Meffre, Sebastien; Yui, Tzen-Fui; Thu, Kyaw

    2014-01-01

    Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method) and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination). The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and ...

  17. Agreement between personally generated areas of quality of life concern and standard outcome measures in people with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburub, Ala' S; Gagnon, B; Rodríguez, A M; Mayo, Nancy E

    2016-09-01

    People with advanced cancer experience different sequelae which have unique effects on quality of life (QOL). The patient-generated index (PGI) is a personalized measure that allows patients to nominate, rate, and value areas that have the most impact on QOL. Fatigue, pain, and aspects of physical function are among the top 10 areas with QOL impact. An area of validation that is lacking for the PGI is the extent to which spontaneously nominated areas of QOL that patients are concerned with, agree with ratings obtained from standard patient reported outcomes (PROs). Data from 192 patients were used to compare ratings on fatigue, pain, and physical function obtained from PGI to those from standard outcome measures. Within one severity rating, agreement ranged from 32.1 to 76.9 % within the fatigue domain, 34.2 to 95.24 % for pain, and between 84.2 and 94.7 % for physical function. Of the 10 items where the PGI had the highest agreement, 7 came from the RAND-36. At the domain level, people nominating an area scored in the more impaired range on standard measures than people who did not. PGI gives comparable information as do standard measures. PGI provides important information to guide clinical care of the patient and also produces a legitimate total score suitable for research.

  18. Rapid comparison of a candidate biosimilar to an innovator monoclonal antibody with advanced liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongwei; Chakraborty, Asish; Ahn, Joomi; Yu, Ying Qing; Dakshinamoorthy, Deepalakshmi P; Gilar, Martin; Chen, Weibin; Skilton, St John; Mazzeo, Jeffery R

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that state-of-the-art liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) can be used for rapid verification of identity and characterization of sequence variants and posttranslational modifications (PTMs) for antibody products. A candidate biosimilar IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) was compared in detail to a commercially available innovator product. Intact protein mass, primary sequence, PTMs, and the micro-differences between the two mAbs were identified and quantified simultaneously. Although very similar in terms of sequences and modifications, a mass difference observed by LC-MS intact mass measurements indicated that they were not identical. Peptide mapping, performed with data independent acquisition LC-MS using an alternating low and elevated collision energy scan mode (LC-MS(E)), located the mass difference between the biosimilar and the innovator to a two amino acid residue variance in the heavy chain sequences. The peptide mapping technique was also used to comprehensively catalogue and compare the differences in PTMs of the biosimilar and innovator mAbs. Comprehensive glycosylation profiling confirmed that the proportion of individual glycans was different between the biosimilar and the innovator, although the number and identity of glycans were the same. These results demonstrate that the combination of accurate intact mass measurement, released glycan profiling, and LC-MS(E) peptide mapping provides a set of routine tools that can be used to comprehensively compare a candidate biosimilar and an innovator mAb.

  19. Application of Advanced Wide Area Early Warning Systems with Adaptive Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumstein, Carl [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Cibulka, Lloyd [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Thorp, James [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Centeno, Virgilio [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); King, Roger [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Reeves, Kari [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Ashrafi, Frank [Southern California Edison Co., Rosemead, CA (United States); Madani, Vahid [Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Recent blackouts of power systems in North America and throughout the world have shown how critical a reliable power system is to modern societies, and the enormous economic and societal damage a blackout can cause. It has been noted that unanticipated operation of protection systems can contribute to cascading phenomena and, ultimately, blackouts. This project developed and field-tested two methods of Adaptive Protection systems utilizing synchrophasor data. One method detects conditions of system stress that can lead to unintended relay operation, and initiates a supervisory signal to modify relay response in real time to avoid false trips. The second method detects the possibility of false trips of impedance relays as stable system swings “encroach” on the relays’ impedance zones, and produces an early warning so that relay engineers can re-evaluate relay settings. In addition, real-time synchrophasor data produced by this project was used to develop advanced visualization techniques for display of synchrophasor data to utility operators and engineers.

  20. Rapid response of hypercortisolism to vandetanib treatment in a patient with advanced medullary thyroid cancer and ectopic Cushing syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitoia Fabian; Bueno, Fernanda; Schmidt, Angelica; Lucas, Sabrina; Cross, Graciela, E-mail: fpitoia@intramed.net [Division de Endocrinologia, Hospital de Clinicas, Universidad de Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-08-15

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may rarely present with paraneoplastic syndromes. Among the most frequent ones are the appearance of diarrhea and ectopic Cushing syndrome (ECS). The ECS in the context of MTC is usually present in patients with distant metastatic disease. The use of drugs such as ketoconazole, metyrapone, somatostatin analogs and etomidate have been ineffective alternatives to control hypercortisolism in these patients. Bilateral adrenalectomy is often required to manage this situation. Recently, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been shown to be a useful tool to achieve eucortisolism in patients with metastatic MTC and ECS. We present a patient with sporadic advanced persistent and progressive MTC with lymph node and liver metastases, which after 16 years of followup developed an ECS. After one month of 300 mg/day vandetanib treatment, a biochemical and clinical response of the ECS was achieved but it did not result in significant reduction of tumor burden. However the patient reached criteria for stable disease according to response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST 1.1) after 8 months of follow-up. (author)

  1. Recent advances in the source term area within the SARNET European severe accident research network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E., E-mail: luisen.herranz@ciemat.es [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medio Ambientales y Tecnologica, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Haste, T. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN, BP 3, F-13115 St Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Kärkelä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT Espoo (Finland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Main achievements of source term research in SARNET are given. • Emphasis on the radiologically important iodine and ruthenium fission products. • Conclusions on FP release, transport in the RCS and containment behaviour. • Significance of large-scale integral experiments to validate the analyses used. • A thorough list of the most recent references on source term research results. - Abstract: Source Term has been one of the main research areas addressed within the SARNET network during the 7th EC Framework Programme of EURATOM. The entire source term domain was split into three major areas: oxidising impact on source term, iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system and containment and data and code assessment. The present paper synthesises the main technical outcome stemming from the SARNET FWP7 project in the area of source term and includes an extensive list of references in which deeper insights on specific issues may be found. Besides, based on the analysis of the current state of the art, an outlook of future source term research is outlined, where major changes in research environment are discussed (i.e., the end of the Phébus FP project; the end of the SARNET projects; and the launch of HORIZON 2020). Most probably research projects will be streamlined towards: release and transport under oxidising conditions, containment chemistry, existing and innovative filtered venting systems and others. These will be in addition to a number of projects that have been completed or are ongoing under different national and international frameworks, like VERDON, CHIP and EPICUR started under the International Source Term Programme (ISTP), the OECD/CSNI programmes BIP, BIP2, STEM, THAI and THAI2, and the French national programme MIRE. The experimental PASSAM project under the 7th EC Framework programme, focused on source term mitigation systems, is highlighted as a good example of a project addressing potential enhancement of safety systems

  2. Large area sheet task. Advanced dendritic web growth development. [silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Frantti, E.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of a silicon dendritic web growth machine is discussed. Several refinements to the sensing and control equipment for melt replenishment during web growth are described and several areas for cost reduction in the components of the prototype automated web growth furnace are identified. A circuit designed to eliminate the sensitivity of the detector signal to the intensity of the reflected laser beam used to measure melt level is also described. A variable speed motor for the silicon feeder is discussed which allows pellet feeding to be accomplished at a rate programmed to match exactly the silicon removed by web growth.

  3. Advanced Research on the Electrode Area of a Low Pressure Hg-Ar Discharge Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianou

    The phenomenon of electrical discharge in low pressure Hg-Ar vapor has been under continuous investigation since it was first discovered. Because much work has been done in the positive column, it is, therefore, that the electrode area of the lamp is the main focus of this thesis. To simulate the interface phenomena on a electrode surface, samples, with optically smooth tungsten-barium interfaces were fired in a high vacuum furnace at different temperatures. Measurements were made using surface characterization techniques. It is found that no Ba_3WO _6 is formed on the surface as previously reported in the powder mixing experiments, and the interface consists mainly of BaWO_4. It was discovered in the early 1950's that vaporization of the barium from the cathode in a fluorescent lamp could be reduced tremendously with the addition of 5% of ZrO _2 to the coating mix. However, the reason for this is poorly understood. A possible explanation has been found, and number of tests have been completed to simulate the formation of BaZO_3 under different lamp operating conditions. The measurements and simulation of barium atom and ion number densities are presented. Barium emitted from the electrode surface has a strong interaction with the local plasma. The number density distributions depend mainly on the discharge conditions. A Monte Carlo computer simulation for the barium ion number density is described and the results from the simulation compared to the experimental results obtained by absorption method. It is clear that the ion distribution and phosphor contamination in the electrode area are two closely related issues. XPS is used to measure the chemical composition on the phosphor surface of the lamp. A discussion of calibration methods and the possible compounds forming on the phosphors is then presented. A number of questions have been raised concerning the safety of the lamp and its affects on health related to radiation generated in the electrode area. Typically

  4. An advanced open-path atmospheric pollution monitor for large areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L. [Westinghouse Science & Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Large amounts of toxic waste materials, generated in manufacturing fuel for nuclear reactors, are stored in tanks buried over large areas at DOE sites. Flammable and hazardous gases are continually generated by chemical reactions in the waste materials. To prevent explosive concentrations of these gases, the gases are automatically vented to the atmosphere when the pressure exceeds a preset value. Real-time monitoring of the atmosphere above the tanks with automatic alarming is needed to prevent exposing workers to unsafe conditions when venting occurs. This report describes the development of a monitor which can measure concentrations of hazardous gases over ranges as long as 4km. The system consists of a carbon dioxide laser combined with an acousto-optic tunable filter.

  5. 77 FR 33388 - Designation for the Topeka, KS; Cedar Rapids, IA; Minot, ND; and Cincinnati, OH Areas; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Areas; Correction AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  6. The European Higher Education Area: An interesting opportunity to contribute to global advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agueda Benito

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Universidad Europea de Madrid, along with other universities and the support of the Agency for Quality Assurance, Accreditation and Prospects for the Community of Madrid (ACAP– Agencia de Calidad, Acreditación y Prospectiva de las Universidades de Madrid, developed a tool to measure progress in the construction of the European Higher Education Area. In addition to being able to determine the level of adoption of the Bologna principles, it became an essential tool for the improvement of quality throughout the University. ------- El Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior: Una interesante oportunidad de contribución al progreso global Resumen La Universidad Europea de Madrid, junto con algunas otras universidades y el apoyo de la Agencia de Calidad, Acreditación y Prospectiva de la Comunidad de Madrid (ACAP, desarrolló una herramienta de medición de los avances en materia de construcción del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, que más allá de permitir determinar el nivel de adopción de los principios de Bolonia constituyó una herramienta esencial en la mejora de la calidad de la Universidad. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v2i3.77   PDF document contains both the original in Spanish and an English translation.

  7. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  8. Advances in Trace Element “Fingerprinting” of Gem Corundum, Ruby and Sapphire, Mogok Area, Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lin Sutherland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mogok gem corundum samples from twelve localities were analyzed for trace element signatures (LA-ICP-MS method and oxygen isotope values (δ18O, by laser fluorination. The study augmented earlier findings on Mogok gem suites that suggested the Mogok tract forms a high vanadium gem corundum area and also identified rare alluvial ruby and sapphire grains characterised by unusually high silicon, calcium and gallium, presence of noticeable boron, tin and niobium and very low iron, titanium and magnesium contents. Oxygen isotope values (δ18O for the ruby and high Si-Ca-Ga corundum (20‰–25‰ and for sapphire (10‰–20‰ indicate typical crustal values, with values >20‰ being typical of carbonate genesis. The high Si-Ca-Ga ruby has high chromium (up to 3.2 wt % Cr and gallium (up to 0. 08 wt % Ga compared to most Mogok ruby (<2 wt % Cr; <0.02 wt % Ga. In trace element ratio plots the Si-Ca-Ga-rich corundum falls into separate fields from the typical Mogok metamorphic fields. The high Ga/Mg ratios (46–521 lie well within the magmatic range (>6, and with other features suggest a potential skarn-like, carbonate-related genesis with a high degree of magmatic fluid input The overall trace element results widen the range of different signatures identified within Mogok gem corundum suites and indicate complex genesis. The expanded geochemical platform, related to a variety of metamorphic, metasomatic and magmatic sources, now provides a wider base for geographic typing of Mogok gem corundum suites. It allows more detailed comparisons with suites from other deposits and will assist identification of Mogok gem corundum sources used in jewelry.

  9. Grid-based mapping: A method for rapidly determining the spatial distributions of small features over very large areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdale, Jason D.; Balme, Matthew R.; Conway, Susan J.; Gallagher, Colman; van Gasselt, Stephan A.; Hauber, Ernst; Orgel, Csilla; Séjourné, Antoine; Skinner, James A.; Costard, Francois; Johnsson, Andreas; Losiak, Anna; Reiss, Dennis; Swirad, Zuzanna M.; Kereszturi, Akos; Smith, Isaac B.; Platz, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The increased volume, spatial resolution, and areal coverage of high-resolution images of Mars over the past 15 years have led to an increased quantity and variety of small-scale landform identifications. Though many such landforms are too small to represent individually on regional-scale maps, determining their presence or absence across large areas helps form the observational basis for developing hypotheses on the geological nature and environmental history of a study area. The combination of improved spatial resolution and near-continuous coverage significantly increases the time required to analyse the data. This becomes problematic when attempting regional or global-scale studies of metre and decametre-scale landforms. Here, we describe an approach for mapping small features (from decimetre to kilometre scale) across large areas, formulated for a project to study the northern plains of Mars, and provide context on how this method was developed and how it can be implemented. Rather than ;mapping; with points and polygons, grid-based mapping uses a ;tick box; approach to efficiently record the locations of specific landforms (we use an example suite of glacial landforms; including viscous flow features, the latitude dependant mantle and polygonised ground). A grid of squares (e.g. 20 km by 20 km) is created over the mapping area. Then the basemap data are systematically examined, grid-square by grid-square at full resolution, in order to identify the landforms while recording the presence or absence of selected landforms in each grid-square to determine spatial distributions. The result is a series of grids recording the distribution of all the mapped landforms across the study area. In some ways, these are equivalent to raster images, as they show a continuous distribution-field of the various landforms across a defined (rectangular, in most cases) area. When overlain on context maps, these form a coarse, digital landform map. We find that grid-based mapping

  10. Glutaraldehyde test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an area with high tuberculosis incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ben Hadj Hassine; Manel, Marzouk; Mohamed, Dhaou; Jalel, Boukadida

    2017-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary method for controlling TB is the rapid and accurate identification of infected individuals. Immune response exploitation represents one of the main methods used for early TB diagnosis; however, few studies have reported that whole blood originating from TB-infected patients gels faster in the presence of aldehyde than blood originating from healthy subjects, which is the focus of the current study. The study objectives are to determine the diagnostic value of a glutaraldehyde test (GT) in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) and to assess its performance compared with light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM). This study included 272 specimens (176 suspected PTB specimens and 96 suspected EPTB specimens). Of the 272 patients, 98 patients had TB infection confirmed by culture (64 PTB cases and 34 EPTB cases), and 174 patients had no TB infection. The gold standard technique (culture) was used as reference to verify the GT's performance. The GT showed a high sensitivity (96.9%) and specificity (82.1%) for PTB with a good positive predictive value (PPV = 75.6%) and negative predictive value (NPV = 97.9%). For EPTB, the GT showed a sensitivity of 91.2% and a specificity of 77.4%, with PPV = 68.9% and NPV = 94.1%. LED-FM had lower sensitivities for PTB (65.6%) and EPTB (42.1%) and an excellent specificity of 100%, with PPV = 100% and NPV = 100%. We concluded that GT is rapid, easy, simple and cost-effective and does not require qualified personnel with a specific background or sophisticated equipment like molecular biology or mycobacterium-specific genotyping techniques. These qualities make the GT attractive for use in low- and high-income countries in addition to other conventional methods, particularly culture, which continues to be the gold standard.

  11. Qu'Appelle River Dam, dam break analysis using advanced GIS tools for rapid modelling and inundation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, D. [Hatch Energy, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Campbell, C. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Moose Jaw, SK (Canada); Groeneveld, J. [Hatch Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The South Saskatchewan River Project (SSRP) comprises a multi-purpose reservoir that provides water for conservation and irrigation, flood control, power generation, recreation, and municipal and industrial water supply. In addition to the 64 m high Gardiner Dam, the 27 m high Qu'Appelle River Dam and the 22 km long Lake Diefenbaker Reservoir, the SSRP also includes ancillary works. The Qu'Appelle River valley extends for 458 km before connecting to the Assiniboine River. The valley is incised up to 90 m in depth and is a popular cottaging and recreational area with several major communities located in the flood plain. In the event of a breach of the Qu'Appelle Dam, the discharge will increase from a normal maximum discharge of under 60 m{sup 3} per second to over 50,000 m{sup 3} per second. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority (SWA) is responsible for ensuring safe development of the Province's water resources, without affecting reservoir or lake operations, and preventing damage from flooding, erosion or land slides. It is in the process of developing Hazard Assessments and emergency preparedness plans for each of their dams in accordance with the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines. Studies using GIS technology and the hydrodynamic routing model HEC-RAS have been completed to evaluate the potential inundation that may result in the event of failure of the Qu'Appelle River Dam. These studies involved the development of a breach parameter model using a breach data set revised to better reflect the Qu'Appelle River Dam; the development of a dam break model for the Qu'Appelle River Dam and downstream river and flood plain; and, the use of this model to simulate two potential dam failure scenarios for the Qu'Appelle River Dam, notably failure during passage of the PMF and failure during fair weather conditions. Inundation maps have been prepared for the downstream Qu'Appelle River valley for each of the above events. 3 refs., 4

  12. Determinação da área foliar em videira cultivar Niagara Rosada Rapid estimation of leaf area in grape, cv. Niagara Rosada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário José Pedro Júnior

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a relação entre a área foliar (AF e a largura da folha (L em videira do cultivar Niagara Rosada. A área foliar pode ser estimada pelo uso de um coeficiente que corrige a área do círculo, considerando seu diâmetro igual à largura da folha, mediante a fórmula: AF = 0,85 pi (L/2².Width of leaf blade was closely correlated with leaf area in leaves of grapes cv. Niagara Rosada. It was found that the shape of any leaf was similar to a circle. A short-cut procedure for estimating easily, rapidly and precisely the leaf area was developed. The equation relating leaf area (AF to width of leaf blade (L was: AF = 0.85 pi (L/2².

  13. Glutaraldehyde test for the rapid diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in an area with high tuberculosis incidence

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    Ben Hadj Hassine Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary method for controlling TB is the rapid and accurate identification of infected individuals. Immune response exploitation represents one of the main methods used for early TB diagnosis; however, few studies have reported that whole blood originating from TB-infected patients gels faster in the presence of aldehyde than blood originating from healthy subjects, which is the focus of the current study. OBJECTIVES The study objectives are to determine the diagnostic value of a glutaraldehyde test (GT in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB and to assess its performance compared with light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study included 272 specimens (176 suspected PTB specimens and 96 suspected EPTB specimens. Of the 272 patients, 98 patients had TB infection confirmed by culture (64 PTB cases and 34 EPTB cases, and 174 patients had no TB infection. The gold standard technique (culture was used as reference to verify the GT's performance. RESULTS The GT showed a high sensitivity (96.9% and specificity (82.1% for PTB with a good positive predictive value (PPV = 75.6% and negative predictive value (NPV = 97.9%. For EPTB, the GT showed a sensitivity of 91.2% and a specificity of 77.4%, with PPV = 68.9% and NPV = 94.1%. LED-FM had lower sensitivities for PTB (65.6% and EPTB (42.1% and an excellent specificity of 100%, with PPV = 100% and NPV = 100%. CONCLUSION We concluded that GT is rapid, easy, simple and cost-effective and does not require qualified personnel with a specific background or sophisticated equipment like molecular biology or mycobacterium-specific genotyping techniques. These qualities make the GT attractive for use in low- and high-income countries in addition to other conventional methods, particularly culture, which continues to be the gold standard.

  14. Rapid Response to a Typhoon-Induced Flood with an SAR-Derived Map of Inundated Areas: Case Study and Validation

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    Hsiao-Wei Chung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the successful case of a rapid response to a flash flood in I-Lan County of Taiwan with a map of inundated areas derived from COSMO-SkyMed 1 radar satellite imagery within 24 hours. The flood was caused by the intensive precipitation brought by Typhoon Soulik in July 2013. Based on the ensemble forecasts of trajectory, an urgent request of spaceborne SAR imagery was made 24 hours before Typhoon Soulik made landfall. Two COSMO-SkyMed images were successfully acquired when the center of Typhoon Soulik had just crossed the northern part of Taiwan. The standard level-1b product (radiometric-corrected, geometric-calibrated and orthorectified image was generated by using the off-the-shelf SARscape software. Following the same approach used with the Expert Landslide and Shadow Area Delineating System, the regional threshold of each tile image was determined to delineate still water surface and quasi-inundated areas in a fully-automatic manner. The results were overlaid on a digital elevation model, and the same tile was visually compared to an optical image taken by Formosat-2 before this event. With this ancillary information, the inundated areas were accurately and quickly identified. The SAR-derived map of inundated areas was published on a web-based platform powered by Google Earth within 24 hours, with the aim of supporting the decision-making process of disaster prevention and mitigation. A detailed validation was made afterwards by comparing the map with in situ data of the water levels at 17 stations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly responding to a typhoon-induced flood with a spaceborne SAR-derived map of inundated areas. A standard operating procedure was derived from this work and followed by the Water Hazard Mitigation Center of the Water Resources Agency, Taiwan, in subsequent typhoon seasons, such as Typhoon Trami (August, 2013 and Typhoon Soudelor (August, 2015.

  15. The learning curve is rapid in medical termination of pregnancy--first-year results from the Helsinki area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Tikka, Marja; Haukkamaa, Maija

    2003-03-01

    Medical termination of pregnancy by means of mifepristone and prostaglandin became available in Finland in May 2000. We summarize the first year results of medical abortion in a large tertiary care unit in Helsinki. A regimen of 200 mg of mifepristone followed by 0.4 mg vaginally administered misoprostol 2 days later was used. The maximum duration of pregnancy was 56 days. Four hundred and seventeen women, 47% of those with a pregnancy duration of up to 56 days, chose medical instead of surgical abortion. The monthly percentage of medical abortions varied from 27% to 63%. The percentage of complete terminations increased from 92% among the first quarter of the subjects to 97% among the fourth quarter, the overall success rate being 95%. Subject satisfaction, duration and self-estimated amount of bleeding, as well as analgesia needs were similar to those reported elsewhere. Most subjects (61%) chose combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills for future contraception; 75% of the COCs were started around the day of misoprostol administration. The reported amounts and duration of bleeding were not influenced by the immediate start of oral contraceptives. Intrauterine contraception was planned for 28% of the subjects, and 16% of them chose a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device. We conclude that the learning curve in medical termination of pregnancy is rapid, and results comparable to those in centers with extensive experience with the method can be reached within the first year.

  16. Rapid Identification of Cortical Motor Areas in Rodents by High-Frequency Automatic Cortical Stimulation and Novel Motor Threshold Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemi, Mitsuaki; Castagnola, Elisa; Ansaldo, Alberto; Ricci, Davide; Fadiga, Luciano; Taoka, Miki; Iriki, Atsushi; Ushiba, Junichi

    2017-01-01

    Cortical stimulation mapping is a valuable tool to test the functional organization of the motor cortex in both basic neurophysiology (e.g., elucidating the process of motor plasticity) and clinical practice (e.g., before resecting brain tumors involving the motor cortex). However, compilation of motor maps based on the motor threshold (MT) requires a large number of cortical stimulations and is therefore time consuming. Shortening the time for mapping may reduce stress on the subjects and unveil short-term plasticity mechanisms. In this study, we aimed to establish a cortical stimulation mapping procedure in which the time needed to identify a motor area is reduced to the order of minutes without compromising reliability. We developed an automatic motor mapping system that applies epidural cortical surface stimulations (CSSs) through one-by-one of 32 micro-electrocorticographic electrodes while examining the muscles represented in a cortical region. The next stimulus intensity was selected according to previously evoked electromyographic responses in a closed-loop fashion. CSS was repeated at 4 Hz and electromyographic responses were submitted to a newly proposed algorithm estimating the MT with smaller number of stimuli with respect to traditional approaches. The results showed that in all tested rats (n = 12) the motor area maps identified by our novel mapping procedure (novel MT algorithm and 4-Hz CSS) significantly correlated with the maps achieved by the conventional MT algorithm with 1-Hz CSS. The reliability of the both mapping methods was very high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≧0.8), while the time needed for the mapping was one-twelfth shorter with the novel method. Furthermore, the motor maps assessed by intracortical microstimulation and the novel CSS mapping procedure in two rats were compared and were also significantly correlated. Our novel mapping procedure that determined a cortical motor area within a few minutes could help to study the

  17. EEG Bands of Wakeful Rest, Slow-Wave and Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep at Different Brain Areas in Rats

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    Jing Wei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidences have revealed that neuronal oscillations with various frequency bands in the brain have different physiological functions. However, the frequency band divisions in rats were typically based on empirical spectral distribution from limited channels information. In the present study, functionally relevant frequency bands across vigilance states and brain regions were identified using factor analysis based on 9 channels EEG signals recorded from multiple brain areas in rats. We found that frequency band divisions varied both across vigilance states and brain regions. In particular, theta oscillations during REM sleep were subdivided into two bands, 5-7 and 8-11 Hz corresponding to the tonic and phasic stages, respectively. The spindle activities of SWS are different along the anterior-posterior axis, lower oscillations (~16 Hz in frontal regions and higher in parietal (~21 Hz. The delta and theta activities were co-varied in the visual and auditory cortex during wakeful rest. In addition, power spectra of beta oscillations were significantly decreased in association cortex. These results provide us some new insights into understand the brain oscillations across vigilance states, and also indicate that the spatial factor should not be ignored when considering the frequency band divisions in rats.

  18. Rapid and sustained clearance of circulating lymphoma cells after chemotherapy plus rituximab: clinical significance of quantitative t(14;18) PCR monitoring in advanced stage follicular lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirt, Carsten; Schüler, Frank; Kiefer, Thomas; Schwenke, Cornelia; Haas, Antje; Niederwieser, Dietger; Neser, Sabine; Assmann, Michael; Srock, Stefanie; Rohrberg, Robert; Dachselt, Klaus; Leithäuser, Malte; Rabkin, Charles S; Herold, Michael; Dölken, Gottfried

    2008-05-01

    This study of first-line treatment in advanced-stage follicular lymphoma patients analysed the effects of MCP (mitoxantrone, chlorambucil and prednisolone) chemotherapy alone or in combination with rituximab (R-MCP) on circulating lymphoma cells (CLC) and assessed the prognostic value of a quantitative monitoring of CLC. CLC numbers were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the t(14;18)-translocation or by allele-specific PCR for rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain genes. We analysed blood samples from 43 patients treated in a randomized trial comparing eight cycles of MCP versus R-MCP. Clearance of CLC at the end of therapy was achieved in 21/25 patients (84%) treated with R-MCP compared with 0/18 after MCP alone (P or = 2 log CLC reduction was associated with a favourable clinical response (P = 0.0004) and prolonged event-free survival (P = 0.02). In R-MCP patients, stable CLC numbers or consistently PCR-negative blood samples were associated with a continuing clinical remission whereas in two patients a relapse was preceded by a > or = 2 log CLC increase. This study demonstrated that R-MCP led to a rapid and sustained eradication of CLC and a > or = 2 log CLC reduction was associated with a superior quality and duration of the clinical response.

  19. Role of the Wnt-Frizzled system in cardiac pathophysiology: a rapidly developing, poorly understood area with enormous potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Kristin; Aflaki, Mona; Nattel, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    The Wnt-Frizzled (Fzd) G-protein-coupled receptor system, involving 19 distinct Wnt ligands and 10 Fzd receptors, plays key roles in the development and functioning of many organ systems. There is increasing evidence that Wnt-Fzd signalling is important in regulating cardiac function. Wnt-Fzd signalling primarily involves a canonical pathway, with dishevelled-1-dependent nuclear translocation of β-catenin that derepresses Wnt-sensitive gene transcription, but can also include non-canonical pathways via phospholipase-C/Ca2+ mobilization and dishevelled-protein activation of small GTPases. Wnt-Fzd effects vary with specific ligand/receptor interactions and associated downstream pathways. This paper reviews the biochemistry and physiology of the Wnt-Fzd complex, and presents current knowledge of Wnt signalling in cardiac remodelling processes such as hypertrophy and fibrosis, as well as disease states such as myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure and arrhythmias. Wnt signalling is activated during hypertrophy; inhibiting Wnt signalling by activating glycogen synthase kinase attenuates the hypertrophic response. Wnt signalling has complex and time-dependent actions post-MI, so that either beneficial or harmful effects might result from Wnt-directed interventions. Stem cell biology, a promising area for therapeutic intervention, is highly regulated by Wnt signalling. The Wnt system regulates fibroblast function, and is prominently altered in arrhythmogenic ventricular cardiomyopathy, a familial disease involving excess deposition of fibroadipose tissue. Wnt signalling controls connexin43 expression, thereby contributing to the regulation of cardiac electrical stability and arrhythmia generation. Although much has been learned about Wnt-Fzd signalling in hypertrophy and infarction, its role is poorly understood for a broad range of other heart disorders. Much more needs to be learned for its contributions to be fully appreciated, and to permit more effective

  20. Geoscience Education Opportunities: Partnerships to Advance TeacHing and Scholarship (GEOPATHS) in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, T. M.; Adegoke, J.; Stoddard, E.; Odom, L.; Ketchum, D.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOPATHS project is a partnership between the University of Missouri Kansas City (UMKC) and the Kansas City Missouri School District (KCMSD). The goal of GEOPATHS is to raise enrollment in the Geosciences, especially among populations that are traditionally underrepresented in the discipline. We are addressing this goal by expanding dual-credit and Advanced Placement (AP) opportunities for high school students and also by serving teachers through enhancing their understanding of geoscience content and inquiry teaching methods using GLOBE resources and protocols. Our focus in the first two years of the project is to increase the number of teachers that are certified to teach AP Environmental Science by offering specially designed professional development workshops for high school teachers in the Kansas City Metropolitan Area. The structure of the workshop for each year is divided into two weeks of content knowledge exploration using the learning cycle and concept mapping, and one week of inquiry-based experiments, field projects, and exercises. We are also supporting teachers in their use of these best-practice methods by providing materials and supplies along with lesson plans for inquiry investigations for their classes. The lesson plans include activities and experiments that are inquiry-based. The last two years of the project will include direct engagement/recruiting of promising minority high school students via paid summer research internships and scholarship offers.

  1. Estimation and Validation of RapidEye-Based Time-Series of Leaf Area Index for Winter Wheat in the Rur Catchment (Germany

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    Muhammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf Area Index (LAI is an important variable for numerous processes in various disciplines of bio- and geosciences. In situ measurements are the most accurate source of LAI among the LAI measuring methods, but the in situ measurements have the limitation of being labor intensive and site specific. For spatial-explicit applications (from regional to continental scales, satellite remote sensing is a promising source for obtaining LAI with different spatial resolutions. However, satellite-derived LAI measurements using empirical models require calibration and validation with the in situ measurements. In this study, we attempted to validate a direct LAI retrieval method from remotely sensed images (RapidEye with in situ LAI (LAIdestr. Remote sensing LAI (LAIrapideye were derived using different vegetation indices, namely SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Additionally, applicability of the newly available red-edge band (RE was also analyzed through Normalized Difference Red-Edge index (NDRE and Soil Adjusted Red-Edge index (SARE. The LAIrapideye obtained from vegetation indices with red-edge band showed better correlation with LAIdestr (r = 0.88 and Root Mean Square Devation, RMSD = 1.01 & 0.92. This study also investigated the need to apply radiometric/atmospheric correction methods to the time-series of RapidEye Level 3A data prior to LAI estimation. Analysis of the the RapidEye Level 3A data set showed that application of the radiometric/atmospheric correction did not improve correlation of the estimated LAI with in situ LAI.

  2. Rapid Genotyping of the Human Renin (REN Gene by the LightCycler® Instrument: Identification of Unexpected Nucleotide Substitutions within the Selected Hybridization Probe Area

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    Line Wee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a serious disorder affecting nearly 3% of all in the Western world. It is associated with hypertension and proteinuria, and several lines of evidence suggest that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS may be involved in the development of hypertension at different stages of a preeclamptic pregnancy. In this study, we developed rapid genotyping assays on the LightCycler® instrument to allow the detection of genetic variants in the renin gene (REN that may predispose to preeclampsia. The method is based on real-time PCR and allele-specific hybridization probes, followed by fluorescent melting curve analysis to expose a change in melting temperature (Tm. Ninety-two mother-father-child triads (n=276 from preeclamptic pregnancies were genotyped for three haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (htSNPs in REN. All three htSNPs (rs5705, rs1464816 and rs3795575 were successfully genotyped. Furthermore, two unexpected nucleotide substitutions (rs11571084 and rs61757041 were identified within the selected hybridization probe area of rs1464816 and rs3795575 due to aberrant melting peaks. In conclusion, genotyping on the LightCycler® instrument proved to be rapid and highly reproducible. The ability to uncover additional nucleotide substitutions is particularly important in that it allows the identification of potentially etiological variants that might otherwise be overlooked by other genotyping methods.

  3. A Large-Area Nanoplasmonic Sensor Fabricated by Rapid Thermal Annealing Treatment for Label-Free and Multi-Point Immunoglobulin Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hana Tzu-Han; Yang, Chuan-Kai; Lin, Chi-Chen; Wu, Albert Meng-Hsin; Wang, Lon A; Huang, Nien-Tsu

    2017-05-02

    Immunoglobulins are important biomarkers to evaluate the immune status or development of infectious diseases. To provide timely clinical treatments, it is important to continuously monitor the level of multiple immunoglobulins. Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)-based nanoplasmonic sensors have been demonstrated for multiplex immunoglobulins detection. However, the sensor fabrication process is usually slow and complicated, so it is not accessible for large-area and batch fabrication. Herein, we report a large-area (2 cm × 2 cm) nanofabrication method using physical vapor deposition followed by a rapid thermal annealing treatment. To optimize the sensor performance, we systematically characterized three fabrication conditions, including (1) the deposition thickness; (2) the maximum annealing temperature, and (3) the annealing time. The corresponding absorbance spectrum profile and surface morphology of the nanostructures were observed by a UV-VIS spectrometer and atomic force microscopy. We then tested the sensitivity of the sensor using a glucose solution at different concentrations. The results showed that the sensor with 10 nm gold deposition thickness under 5-min 900 °C rapid thermal annealing can achieve the highest sensitivity (189 nm RIU-1). Finally, we integrated this nanoplasmonic sensor with a microchannel and a motorized stage to perform a 10-spot immunoglobulin detection in 50 min. Based on its real-time, dynamic and multi-point analyte detection capability, the nanoplasmonic sensor has the potential to be applied in high-throughput or multiplex immunoassay analysis, which would be beneficial for disease diagnosis or biomedical research in a simple and cost-effective platform.

  4. Comparing the Dry Season In-Situ Leaf Area Index (LAI Derived from High-Resolution RapidEye Imagery with MODIS LAI in a Namibian Savanna

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    Manuel J. Mayr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Leaf Area Index (LAI is one of the most frequently applied measures to characterize vegetation and its dynamics and functions with remote sensing. Satellite missions, such as NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operationally produce global datasets of LAI. Due to their role as an input to large-scale modeling activities, evaluation and verification of such datasets are of high importance. In this context, savannas appear to be underrepresented with regards to their heterogeneous appearance (e.g., tree/grass-ratio, seasonality. Here, we aim to examine the LAI in a heterogeneous savanna ecosystem located in Namibia’s Owamboland during the dry season. Ground measurements of LAI are used to derive a high-resolution LAI model with RapidEye satellite data. This model is related to the corresponding MODIS LAI/FPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation scene (MOD15A2 in order to evaluate its performance at the intended annual minimum during the dry season. Based on a field survey we first assessed vegetation patterns from species composition and elevation for 109 sites. Secondly, we measured in situ LAI to quantitatively estimate the available vegetation (mean = 0.28. Green LAI samples were then empirically modeled (LAImodel with high resolution RapidEye imagery derived Difference Vegetation Index (DVI using a linear regression (R2 = 0.71. As indicated by several measures of model performance, the comparison with MOD15A2 revealed moderate consistency mostly due to overestimation by the aggregated LAImodel. Model constraints aside, this study may point to important issues for MOD15A2 in savannas concerning the underlying MODIS Land Cover product (MCD12Q1 and a potential adjustment by means of the MODIS Burned Area product (MCD45A1.

  5. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) in a malaria endemic area in Ghana, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Gyasi, Dennis; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Newton, Sam; Dosoo, David; Amoako, Sabastina; Adjei, George; Amoako, Nicholas; Ankrah, Love; Tchum, Samuel Kofi; Mahama, Emmanuel; Agyemang, Veronica; Kayan, Kingsley; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most widespread enzyme defect that can result in red cell breakdown under oxidative stress when exposed to certain medicines including antimalarials. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) as a point-of-care tool for screening G6PD deficiency. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 randomly selected and consented participants from a group with known G6PD deficiency status between February 2013 and June 2013. A maximum of 1.6ml of capillary blood samples were used for G6PD deficiency screening using CareStart G6PD RDT and Trinity qualitative with Trinity quantitative methods as the "gold standard". Samples were also screened for the presence of malaria parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using Microsoft Access 2010 and Stata Software version 12. Kintampo Health Research Centre Institutional Ethics Committee granted ethical approval. The sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) of CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT was 100% and 72.1% compared to Trinity quantitative method respectively and was 98.9% and 96.2% compared to Trinity qualitative method. Malaria infection status had no significant (P=0.199) change on the performance of the G6PD RDT test kit compared to the "gold standard". The outcome of this study suggests that the diagnostic performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit was high and it is acceptable at determining the G6PD deficiency status in a high malaria endemic area in Ghana. The RDT kit presents as an attractive tool for point-of-care G6PD deficiency for rapid testing in areas with high temperatures and less expertise. The CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit could be used to screen malaria patients before administration of the fixed dose primaquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  6. Advanced Engine Cycles Analyzed for Turbofans With Variable-Area Fan Nozzles Actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced, large commercial turbofan engines using low-fan-pressure-ratio, very high bypass ratio thermodynamic cycles can offer significant fuel savings over engines currently in operation. Several technological challenges must be addressed, however, before these engines can be designed. To name a few, the high-diameter fans associated with these engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge, and a large, heavy gearbox is often necessary to address the differences in ideal operating speeds between the fan and the low-pressure turbine. Also, the large nacelles contribute aerodynamic drag penalties and require long, heavy landing gear when mounted on conventional, low wing aircraft. Nevertheless, the reduced fuel consumption rates of these engines are a compelling economic incentive, and fans designed with low pressure ratios and low tip speeds offer attractive noise-reduction benefits. Another complication associated with low-pressure-ratio fans is their need for variable flow-path geometry. As the design fan pressure ratio is reduced below about 1.4, an operational disparity is set up in the fan between high and low flight speeds. In other words, between takeoff and cruise there is too large a swing in several key fan parameters-- such as speed, flow, and pressure--for a fan to accommodate. One solution to this problem is to make use of a variable-area fan nozzle (VAFN). However, conventional, hydraulically actuated variable nozzles have weight, cost, maintenance, and reliability issues that discourage their use with low-fan-pressure-ratio engine cycles. United Technologies Research, in cooperation with NASA, is developing a revolutionary, lightweight, and reliable shape memory alloy actuator system that can change the on-demand nozzle exit area by up to 20 percent. This "smart material" actuation technology, being studied under NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program and Revolutionary Concepts in Aeronautics (Rev

  7. Promoting environmental public health in rapidly urbanizing areas of less-developed countries in Africa: a collaborative interdisciplinary training in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendell, Derek G; Ana, Godson R E E

    2011-01-01

    Globally, urbanization has been occurring more rapidly in small-to-medium-sized cities in less-developed countries of Africa and Asia. Studies have suggested associations between traffic and industry-related air pollutants and adverse health outcomes. These chemical and physical exposure agents have also received increased attention for environmental quality concerns like global climate change. Most research to date, however, was conducted in larger industrialized country urban centers. Ibadan, Nigeria, is a historic city characterized by urban sprawl and increasing modernization as an academic and medical training center but is lacking in the implementation of environmental laws. The authors conducted their first training in Ibadan, Nigeria, May 19-23, 2008, based on initial collaborative work during 2006-2008 as well as a trip in mid-March 2007. They describe the rationale for and components of the training, likely one of the first of its kind in Africa. The title of the training was "Advances in Community Outdoor and Indoor Air and Environmental Quality Monitoring and Exposure Assessment." Content was multimedia and interdisciplinary. The authors included lectures, group discussions, field experiences at community and industrial sites with cross-sectional environmental monitoring, and planned pilot studies including master's thesis projects based on real-time, grant-funded monitoring equipment provided to the University of Ibadan, including protocol development demonstrations.

  8. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  9. Evaluating the influence of the Red Edge band from RapidEye sensor in quantifying leaf area index for hydrological applications specifically focussing on plant canopy interception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Timothy; Mutanga, Onisimo; Sibanda, Mbulisi; Shoko, Cletah; Chemura, Abel

    2017-08-01

    Reliable and accurate quantification of plant Leaf Area Index (LAI) is critical in understanding its role in reducing runoff. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of the Red Edge (RE) band derived from RapidEye in estimating LAI for applications in quantifying canopy interception at landscape scale. To achieve this objective, the study also compares the predictive power of two machine learning algorithms (Random Forest-RF and Stochastic Gradient Boosting-SGB) in estimating LAI. Comparatively, the results of the study have demonstrated that the inclusion of spectral information derived from the Red Edge band yields high accurate LAI estimates, when compared to the use of traditional traditional Red, Green, Blue and Near Infra-Red (traditional RGBNIR) spectral information. The results indicate that the use of the four traditional RGBNIR bands yielded comparatively lower R2 values and high Root Mean Squares, Mean Absolute Error (Pinus taeda: R2 of 0.60; the lowest RMSE (0.35 m2/m2) and MAE of 28); whereas the use of integration of traditional RGBNIR + RE in more accurate LAI estimates (Pinus taeda: R2 = 0.65; RMSE = 0.30 m2/m2) and the lowest MAE of 0.23). These findings therefore underscores the importance of new generation multispectral sensors with strategically-position bands and machine learning algorithms in estimating LAI for quantifying canopy interception, especially in resource-poor areas.

  10. Evaluation of opening pattern and bone neoformation at median palatal suture area in patients submitted to surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME through cone beam computed tomography

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    Daniel Gomes SALGUEIRO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSurgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion (SARME is the treatment of choice to adult patients even with severe transversal maxillary discrepancies. However, the adequate retention period to achieve the bone remodeling, thus assuring treatment stability, is controversial.Objective To evaluate the opening pattern and bone neoformation process at the midpalatal suture in patients submitted to surgically assisted (SARME through cone beam computed tomography (CBCT.Material and Methods Fourteen patients were submitted to SARME through subtotal Le Fort I osteotomy. Both the opening pattern and the mean bone density at midpalatal suture area to evaluate bone formation were assessed pre- and post-operatively (15, 60 and 180 days through CBCT.Results Type I opening pattern (from anterior to posterior nasal spine occurred in 12 subjects while type II opening pattern (from anterior nasal spine to transverse palatine suture occurred in 2 individuals. The 180-day postoperative mean (PO 180 of bone density value was 49.9% of the preoperative mean (Pre value.Conclusions The opening pattern of midpalatal suture is more related to patients’ age (23.9 years in type I and 33.5 years in type II and surgical technique. It was not possible to observe complete bone formation at midpalatal suture area at the ending of the retention period studied (180 days.

  11. Using SAR and GPS for Hazard Management and Response: Progress and Examples from the Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Simons, M.; Hua, H.; Yun, S. H.; Agram, P. S.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Webb, F.; Rosen, P. A.; Lundgren, P.; Milillo, G.; Manipon, G. J. M.; Moore, A. W.; Liu, Z.; Polet, J.; Cruz, J.

    2014-12-01

    ARIA is a joint JPL/Caltech project to automate synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and GPS imaging capabilities for scientific understanding, hazard response, and societal benefit. We have built a prototype SAR and GPS data system that forms the foundation for hazard monitoring and response capability, as well as providing imaging capabilities important for science studies. Together, InSAR and GPS have the ability to capture surface deformation in high spatial and temporal resolution. For earthquakes, this deformation provides information that is complementary to seismic data on location, geometry and magnitude of earthquakes. Accurate location information is critical for understanding the regions affected by damaging shaking. Regular surface deformation measurements from SAR and GPS are useful for monitoring changes related to many processes that are important for hazard and resource management such as volcanic deformation, groundwater withdrawal, and landsliding. Observations of SAR coherence change have a demonstrated use for damage assessment for hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions. These damage assessment maps can be made from imagery taken day or night and are not affected by clouds, making them valuable complements to optical imagery. The coherence change caused by the damage from hazards (building collapse, flooding, ash fall) is also detectable with intelligent algorithms, allowing for rapid generation of damage assessment maps over large areas at fine resolution, down to the spatial scale of single family homes. We will present the progress and results we have made on automating the analysis of SAR data for hazard monitoring and response using data from the Italian Space Agency's (ASI) COSMO-SkyMed constellation of X-band SAR satellites. Since the beginning of our project with ASI, our team has imaged deformation and coherence change caused by many natural hazard events around the world. We will present progress on our

  12. Smashing the Stovepipe: Leveraging the GMSEC Open Architecture and Advanced IT Automation to Rapidly Prototype, Develop and Deploy Next-Generation Multi-Mission Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Satellite/Payload Ground Systems - Typically highly-customized to a specific mission's use cases - Utilize hundreds (or thousands!) of specialized point-to-point interfaces for data flows / file transfers Documentation and tracking of these complex interfaces requires extensive time to develop and extremely high staffing costs Implementation and testing of these interfaces are even more cost-prohibitive, and documentation often lags behind implementation resulting in inconsistencies down the road With expanding threat vectors, IT Security, Information Assurance and Operational Security have become key Ground System architecture drivers New Federal security-related directives are generated on a daily basis, imposing new requirements on current / existing ground systems - These mandated activities and data calls typically carry little or no additional funding for implementation As a result, Ground System Sustaining Engineering groups and Information Technology staff continually struggle to keep up with the rolling tide of security Advancing security concerns and shrinking budgets are pushing these large stove-piped ground systems to begin sharing resources - I.e. Operational / SysAdmin staff, IT security baselines, architecture decisions or even networks / hosting infrastructure Refactoring these existing ground systems into multi-mission assets proves extremely challenging due to what is typically very tight coupling between legacy components As a result, many "Multi-Mission" ops. environments end up simply sharing compute resources and networks due to the difficulty of refactoring into true multi-mission systems Utilizing continuous integration / rapid system deployment technologies in conjunction with an open architecture messaging approach allows System Engineers and Architects to worry less about the low-level details of interfaces between components and configuration of systems GMSEC messaging is inherently designed to support multi-mission requirements, and

  13. Changes in Underlying Determinants Explain Rapid Increases in Child Linear Growth in Alive & Thrive Study Areas between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Headey, Derek; Frongillo, Edward A; Tran, Lan Mai; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-03-01

    nutritional change in intervention and comparison areas. Improvements in underlying determinants explained rapid improvements in HAZs between 2010 and 2014 in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

  14. Toward mechanistic understanding of nuclear reprocessing chemistries by quantifying lanthanide solvent extraction kinetics via microfluidics with constant interfacial area and rapid mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Kevin P; Pompano, Rebecca R; Li, Liang; Gelis, Artem V; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2011-10-05

    The closing of the nuclear fuel cycle is an unsolved problem of great importance. Separating radionuclides produced in a nuclear reactor is useful both for the storage of nuclear waste and for recycling of nuclear fuel. These separations can be performed by designing appropriate chelation chemistries and liquid-liquid extraction schemes, such as in the TALSPEAK process (Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes). However, there are no approved methods for the industrial scale reprocessing of civilian nuclear fuel in the United States. One bottleneck in the design of next-generation solvent extraction-based nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes is a lack of interfacial mass transfer rate constants obtained under well-controlled conditions for lanthanide and actinide ligand complexes; such rate constants are a prerequisite for mechanistic understanding of the extraction chemistries involved and are of great assistance in the design of new chemistries. In addition, rate constants obtained under conditions of known interfacial area have immediate, practical utility in models required for the scaling-up of laboratory-scale demonstrations to industrial-scale solutions. Existing experimental techniques for determining these rate constants suffer from two key drawbacks: either slow mixing or unknown interfacial area. The volume of waste produced by traditional methods is an additional, practical concern in experiments involving radioactive elements, both from disposal cost and experimenter safety standpoints. In this paper, we test a plug-based microfluidic system that uses flowing plugs (droplets) in microfluidic channels to determine absolute interfacial mass transfer rate constants under conditions of both rapid mixing and controlled interfacial area. We utilize this system to determine, for the first time, the rate constants for interfacial transfer of all lanthanides, minus promethium, plus yttrium, under TALSPEAK

  15. A system for rapid large-area monitoring of gamma dose rates in the environment based on MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) TL detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzanowski, M; Olko, P; Ryba, E; Woźnicka, U

    2002-01-01

    One lesson learned from the Chernobyl accident was that the spatial distribution of far-field contamination was strongly non-uniform due to local variation of atmospheric conditions, such as wind direction, rain etc. An environmental monitoring system using highly sensitive thermoluminescent LiF:Mg,Cu,P (MCP-N) detectors has been completed and field-tested. The system consists of 3000 MCP-N detectors in 1000 TLD cards (three TLDs per card), two Mikrolab automatic TL readers, heating ovens, and specially developed software which includes a database for rapid evaluation of results. The main dosimetric parameters of MCP-N dosemeters, such as thermally-induced fading, light sensitivity, minimum detectable dose, self-dose, zero-dose, energy response up to 6-7 MeV, influence of annealing and readout conditions on detector stability, have been tested. About 100 locations over an area of about 15,000 km2 in the south of Poland were selected for measurements lasting from 4 days to 3 months. The kerma rates measured over a 4 day screening period agree well with kerma rates determined over a 75 day monitoring period. Results from short- and long-term exposure periods agree well with those performed using MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) over southern Poland in 1985, before the Chernobyl accident. Thus, using the system based on MCP-N detectors, one is able simultaneously to monitor environmental radiation kerma rates at a large number of locations over periods of four days or less. Provided natural background kerma rates at selected monitoring points are available prior to the accident, the system can be applied to assess kerma rates rapidly in the environment, following a nuclear accident.

  16. Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT in a malaria endemic area in Ghana, Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Adu-Gyasi

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most widespread enzyme defect that can result in red cell breakdown under oxidative stress when exposed to certain medicines including antimalarials. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of CareStart G6PD deficiency Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT as a point-of-care tool for screening G6PD deficiency.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 206 randomly selected and consented participants from a group with known G6PD deficiency status between February 2013 and June 2013. A maximum of 1.6ml of capillary blood samples were used for G6PD deficiency screening using CareStart G6PD RDT and Trinity qualitative with Trinity quantitative methods as the "gold standard". Samples were also screened for the presence of malaria parasites. Data entry and analysis were done using Microsoft Access 2010 and Stata Software version 12. Kintampo Health Research Centre Institutional Ethics Committee granted ethical approval.The sensitivity (SE and specificity (SP of CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT was 100% and 72.1% compared to Trinity quantitative method respectively and was 98.9% and 96.2% compared to Trinity qualitative method. Malaria infection status had no significant (P=0.199 change on the performance of the G6PD RDT test kit compared to the "gold standard".The outcome of this study suggests that the diagnostic performance of the CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit was high and it is acceptable at determining the G6PD deficiency status in a high malaria endemic area in Ghana. The RDT kit presents as an attractive tool for point-of-care G6PD deficiency for rapid testing in areas with high temperatures and less expertise. The CareStart G6PD deficiency RDT kit could be used to screen malaria patients before administration of the fixed dose primaquine with artemisinin-based combination therapy.

  17. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  18. Implementation of rapid diagnostics with antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minejima, Emi; Wong-Beringer, Annie

    2016-11-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship (ASP) is an intervention-based program to improve patient outcomes to infection while limiting spread of resistance and unintended consequences. Many rapid diagnostic tools are now FDA cleared for clinical use, with three evaluated across multiple settings: Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry, Verigene, and FilmArray. Areas covered: This review will focus on studies published that evaluated ASP intervention with rapid diagnostic implementation on outcomes of infection. A description of the key ASP personnel, rapid diagnostic notification methods, hours of notification, and scope of ASP intervention is summarized. Expert commentary: It is critical that ASPs continually re-evaluate and evolve with technological advances. Rapid diagnostic tools are powerful in their ability to identify organisms quickly. A trained clinician is needed to evaluate the results and interact with the providers to educate them on result interpretation and optimal antimicrobial selection to maximize treatment success.

  19. High-sensitive and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by IFN-γ release assay among HIV-infected individuals in BCG-vaccinated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Weimin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ response. Tuberculin skin test (TST was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32, group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46 and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22. In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST P 85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ≥200/μl, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.

  20. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO{sub 2} Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1999-02-03

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the third year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO2.

  1. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of CO2 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Bill; Schechter, David S.

    2002-07-26

    The goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in west Texas. This objective was accomplished through research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interactions in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This provides results of the final year of the six-year project for each of the four areas.

  2. Design, development, and manufacturing of highly advanced and cost effective aluminium sputtering plant for large area telescopic mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Rajeev R.; Sanjith K., K.; Mohanachandran, K.; Sakhamuri, Nagarjun; Shukla, Vishal; Gupta, Alok

    2012-09-01

    The design, development and manufacturing of a fully automated and cost effective aluminum sputtering unit for the deposition of aluminum on large area telescopic mirrors (maximum diameter of 3600mm) is presented here. The unit employs DC planar magnetron sputtering for the deposition process. A large area glow discharge unit is also designed for the pre-cleaning of the mirrors prior to aluminum coating. A special kinematic support structure with rotation is designed to support heavy mirrors of large area to minimize the deflection of the mirrors during deposition process. A custom designed 'mask' is employed in the magnetron system to improve the thickness uniformity within plant. Special fixtures have been designed for the system to accommodate smaller mirrors and studies have been conducted for the coatings and reported in the paper. The unit was successfully tested at HHV facility in Bangalore and will be installed at the ARIES Facility, Nainital.

  3. Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Recent Advances in Bio-inorganic Chemistry. FOREWORD. Bio-inorganic chemistry has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of laboratories in India have made significant contributions to this area. The motivation in bringing out this special issue on Bio-inorganic. Chemistry is to highlight the recent work emerging ...

  4. Willingness to use a rapid diagnostic test for malaria in a rural area of central Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoé, Colombe Coffie; Ouattara, Allassane F; Raso, Giovanna; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2012-12-18

    Malaria mortality is mainly a direct consequence of inadequate and/or delayed diagnosis and case management. Some important control interventions (e.g. long-lasting insecticidal nests) have contributed to reduce malaria morbidity and mortality in different parts of the world. Moreover, the development and effective use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) hold promise to further enhance the control and elimination of malaria, particularly in areas where health services are deficient. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs in relation to RDTs for malaria in rural Côte d'Ivoire. One hundred individuals from Bozi and Yoho who sought care at the health centre in Bozi and were offered an RDT for malaria were interviewed in April 2010 using a pre-tested questionnaire on practice and perceptions in relation to RDTs for malaria. The relationships between acceptance of RDTs and factors related to opinions were identified, using generalized linear mixed models. Qualitative data from open-ended questions complemented the quantitative analysis. Only 34 out of 100 patients who were offered an RDT for malaria were willing to undergo the test. People who perceived blood as a sacred body fluid were less likely to comply with an RDT. The concurrent availability and use of RDTs for HIV and malaria was associated with an unwilling attitude towards RDTs for malaria (Fisher's exact test, p malaria testing with RDTs was significantly related to general fear and wanting to know malaria infection status. For further and regular use of RDTs, a strong relationship was observed between acceptance and the idea that an RDT is a pretext used by health worker to know HIV status (odds ratio (OR) = 16.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-268.5). Those thinking that blood samples were useful for medical diagnoses were 8.31-times (95% CI = 2.22-31.1) more likely to undergo an RDT compared to those rejecting blood sampling as a diagnostic strategy. Socio

  5. Phylogeography of the Red Algal Laurencia Complex in the Macaronesia Region and Nearby Coastal Areas: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Machín-Sánchez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since the conception of the genus Laurencia by Lamouroux in 1813, several red macroalgal species have been included in it. In recent decades, the development of modern molecular tools has resulted in multiple taxonomic modifications, and presently, eight related genera are recognized in the so-called Laurencia complex. In the Macaronesian Region (Central East Atlantic Ocean, species from the Laurencia complex are keystone elements of the benthic communities, especially in the intertidal zone. In this review, we consolidate the existing knowledge about the Laurencia complex within the Macaronesian archipelagos and nearby areas. Morphological descriptions and phylogeographic remarks of the 16 currently accepted species—whose records were molecular or morphologically confirmed—are included together with an identification key for the Macaronesian Region. The phylogeographic data allowed us to re-visit the role of the Macaronesian archipelagos as a bridge area for the marine flora of the Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas (remnants of the former Thetyan Sea or contemplate their marine flora as the result of successive processes of recolonization after the Quaternary glaciations from those donor areas. Finally, some comments about the frontiers of the research in the Laurencia complex in the Macaronesian Region and nearby coastal areas are included.

  6. USGS ecosystem research for the next decade: advancing discovery and application in parks and protected areas through collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Charles; Nichols, James D.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Cloern, James E.; Jacobson, Robert B.; White, Robin P.; McGuire, Anthony David; Williams, Byron K.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems within parks and protected areas in the United States and throughout the world are being transformed at an unprecedented rate. Changes associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, food, land, energy and mineral resources are placing urgency on sound decision making that will help sustain our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). In recognition of the importance of science in making these decisions, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2007 identified ecosystem science as one of six science directions included in a comprehensive decadal strategy (USGS 2007). The Ecosystems Mission Area was identified as essential for integrating activity within the USGS and as a key to enhanced integration with other Federal and private sector research and management organizations (Myers at al., 2007). This paper focuses on benefits to parks and protected areas from the USGS Ecosystems Mission Area plan that expanded the scope of the original 2007 science strategy, to identify the Bureau’s work in ecosystem science over the next decade (Williams et al., 2013). The plan describes a framework that encompasses both basic and applied science and allows the USGS to continue to contribute meaningfully to conservation and management issues related to the Nation’s parks and ecological resources. This framework relies on maintaining long-standing, collaborative relationships with partners in both conducting science and applying scientific results. Here we summarize the major components of the USGS Ecosystems Science Strategy, articulating the vision, goals and strategic approaches, then outlining some of the proposed actions that will ultimately prove useful to those managing parks and protected areas. We end with a discussion on the future of ecosystem science for the USGS and how it can be used to evaluate ecosystem change and the associated consequences to management of our

  7. Advances in natural language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschberg, Julia; Manning, Christopher D

    2015-07-17

    Natural language processing employs computational techniques for the purpose of learning, understanding, and producing human language content. Early computational approaches to language research focused on automating the analysis of the linguistic structure of language and developing basic technologies such as machine translation, speech recognition, and speech synthesis. Today's researchers refine and make use of such tools in real-world applications, creating spoken dialogue systems and speech-to-speech translation engines, mining social media for information about health or finance, and identifying sentiment and emotion toward products and services. We describe successes and challenges in this rapidly advancing area. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Evaluation of C02 Gravity Drainage in the Naturally Fractured Sprayberry Trend Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    1998-04-30

    The objective is to assess the economic feasibility of CO2 flooding of the naturally fractured Straberry Trend Area in west Texas. Research is being conducted in the extensive characterization of the reservoirs, the experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, the analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and the experimental investigations on CO2 gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores.

  9. Advancing Environmental Noise Pollution Analysis in Urban Areas by Considering the Variation of Population Exposure in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, S.; Gomes, N.

    2013-05-01

    Ambient noise is a subtle form of pollution in large urban areas, degrading human health and well-being. In Europe, directives require that urban environmental noise be measured and mapped for the main periods of the daily cycle. Subsequent analyses of human exposure to noise in those periods is usually conducted using resident (i.e., nighttime) population from the census and assuming constant densities within the enumeration units. However, population distribution and densities vary considerably from night to day in metropolitan areas, and disregard for that process results in gross misestimation of exposure to ambient noise in the daytime period. This study considers the spatio-temporal variation of population distribution in assessing exposure to ambient noise in a major urban area, the city of Lisbon, Portugal. Detailed and compatible day- and nighttime population distribution maps were used, developed by means of "intelligent dasymetric mapping". After categorizing noise levels in existing maps in each period, classified according to current legislation, human exposure to ambient noise was assessed with temporally matching population surfaces. Population exposure to noise in 2000 and 2009 was compared and further analyzed in regards to main source of noise, i.e. road traffic vs. aircraft.. Results show that human exposure to noise shifts substantially in time and space, with a significant increase in exposed population from the nighttime to daytime period, especially in the higher noise levels. This is due to the combined effects of the daily variation of noise patterns and population distribution.

  10. [ADVANCE: America`s economic Development Venture for Area Neighborhoods, Communities, and Enterprises]. Quarterly progress report -- Year two

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDavid, R.A.

    1998-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a mission to foster a secure and reliable energy system that is environmentally and economically sustainable, to be a responsible steward of the Nation`s nuclear weapons, to clean up decommissioned facilities, and to support continued US leadership in science and technology. To effectively utilize and integrate its mission, DOE has created the Regional Environmental Technology and Business Development Office (RETBDO) serving as a Community Reuse Organization, a stakeholder organization, which represents interests and economic concerns of communities surrounding DOE sites that are being closed or reconfigured. RETBDO is a branch office of ADVANCE, a 501(c) (3) non-profit organization established in 1994. The mission of RETBDO is to diversify the economy by creating an environment conductive to improve the representation of minorities and small businesses in the region and to assure fair business participation in major environmental decision-making, technology based start-ups, expansion management, and the attractive of new ventures to the Southwest region, including, bu not limited to, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. This report describes the RETBDO program and its implementation.

  11. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  12. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  13. Advances in rapid identification and susceptibility testing of bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory: implications for patient care and antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian P. Maurer

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Early availability of information on bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of key importance for the management of infectious diseases patients. Currently, using traditional approaches, it usually takes at least 48 hours for identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the slowness of diagnostic procedures drives prolongation of empiric, potentially inappropriate, antibacterial therapies. Over the last couple of years, the improvement of available techniques (e.g. for susceptibility testing, DNA amplification assays, and introduction of novel technologies (e.g. MALDI-TOF has fundamentally changed approaches towards pathogen identification and characterization. Importantly, these techniques offer increased diagnostic resolution while at the same time shorten the time-to-result, and are thus of obvious importance for antimicrobial stewardship. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in medical microbiology with special emphasis on the impact of novel techniques on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  14. Advances in Rapid Identification and Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: Implications for Patient Care and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Florian P; Christner, Martin; Hentschke, Moritz; Rohde, Holger

    2017-03-30

    Early availability of information on bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility is of key importance for the management of infectious diseases patients. Currently, using traditional approaches, it usually takes at least 48 hours for identification and susceptibility testing of bacterial pathogens. Therefore, the slowness of diagnostic procedures drives prolongation of empiric, potentially inappropriate, antibacterial therapies. Over the last couple of years, the improvement of available techniques (e.g. for susceptibility testing, DNA amplification assays), and introduction of novel technologies (e.g. MALDI-TOF) has fundamentally changed approaches towards pathogen identification and characterization. Importantly, these techniques offer increased diagnostic resolution while at the same time shorten the time-to-result, and are thus of obvious importance for antimicrobial stewardship. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in medical microbiology with special emphasis on the impact of novel techniques on antimicrobial stewardship programs.

  15. Large-area sheet task: advanced dendritic web growth development. Quarterly report, October 23-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; McHugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Frantti, E.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-31

    Silicon dendritic web is a single crystal ribbon form of silicon capable of fabrication into solar cells with AM1 conversion efficiency in excess of 15%. Progress on a study to demonstrate the technology readiness of the web process to meet the national goals for low cost photovoltaic power is reported. Several refinements were introduced into the sensing and control equipment for melt replenishment during web growth and also several areas were identified for cost reduction in the components of the prototype automated web growth furnace. A new circuit has been designed, assembled and tested to eliminate the sensitivity of the detector signal to the intensity of the reflected laser beam used to measure melt level. Noise due to vibrations on the silicon melt surface has also been eliminated. A new variable speed motor has been identified for the silicon feeder. Pellet feeding will be accomplished at a rate programmed to match exactly the silicon removed by web growth. A system to program the initiation of web growth automatically has been designed and first tests initiated. This should eventually result in reduced labor content and improved process reproducibility. Potential cost reductions in the furnace chamber and storage reel have been identified. A furnace controller providing a functional capability similar to our experimental hardware but at about one third the cost will shortly be tested.

  16. Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. Laurance; D.C. Useche; J. Rendeiro; and others NO-VALUE; Ariel Lugo

    2012-01-01

    The rapid disruption of tropical forests probably imperils global biodiversity more than any other contemporary phenomenon1–3. With deforestation advancing quickly, protected areas are increasingly becoming final refuges for threatened species and natural ecosystem processes. However, many protected areas in the tropics are themselves vulnerable to human encroachment...

  17. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Management Question E1: Where are the areas that have been changed by wildfire between 1999 and 2009?

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This map shows areas that have experienced fire between 1999 and 2010, including fire severity information where available. Determination of "change" due to fire is...

  18. Untethered Operations: Rapid Mobility and Forward Basing Are Keys to Airpower’s Success in the Antiaccess/Area-Denial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Alaska, the most recent exercise having taken place at Andersen AFB, Guam. Al- though Rapid Raptor’s goal was to load everything into a single C-17, the...library/article/19970/nato-jets -fly-training-missions-in-baltic-region. 24. SHAPE Public Affairs Office, “NATO Military Experts ‘War Game ’ VJTF [Very... game -vjtf-implementation-.aspx. May–June 2015 | 27 Senior Leader Perspective Maj Gen Charles Q. Brown, Jr., USAF Major General Brown (BS, Texas Tech

  19. Propulsion and Power Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) Support. Delivery Order 0011: Advanced Propulsion Fuels R&D Subtask: Advanced Propulsion Fuels Research and Development Support to AFRL/RQTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    axial direction. Figure A-2 shows a cross-section drawing of the principal component of the test rig. A stainless steel shaft machined to highly...Base Right) Figure D-32 shows the left cam follower under crown and the contact area with the high pressure plunger head. Figure D-33 shows the...left hand high pressure plunger. Note the similar contact markings where it contacts the follower under crown . Polishing at this interface was

  20. Remote Sensing Application to Land Use Classification in a Rapidly Changing Agricultural/Urban Area: City of Virginia Beach, Virginia. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenyo, V. A. O.

    1975-01-01

    Remote sensing data on computer-compatible tapes of LANDSAT 1 multispectral scanner imager were analyzed to generate a land use map of the City of Virginia Beach. All four bands were used in both the supervised and unsupervised approaches with the LAYSYS software system. Color IR imagery of a U-2 flight of the same area was also digitized and two sample areas were analyzed via the unsupervised approach. The relationships between the mapped land use and the soils of the area were investigated. A land use land cover map at a scale of 1:24,000 was obtained from the supervised analysis of LANDSAT 1 data. It was concluded that machine analysis of remote sensing data to produce land use maps was feasible; that the LAYSYS software system was usable for this purpose; and that the machine analysis was capable of extracting detailed information from the relatively small scale LANDSAT data in a much shorter time without compromising accuracy.

  1. An evaluation of the performance of OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Test in a high-risk population attending genitourinary medicine clinics in East London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelin, J; Garrett, N; Saunders, J; Warburton, F; Anderson, J; Moir, K; Symonds, M; Estcourt, C

    2008-10-01

    To date, no data have been published on the use of OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Test (OraQuick) in the UK. We report preliminary findings of an ongoing evaluation of OraQuick in UK genitourinary (GU) medicine clinics. A total of 820 samples from patients in high-risk groups for HIV were tested with OraQuick and results were compared with standard HIV antibody testing. HIV prevalence (enzyme immunoassay [EIA]) was 5.73%, sensitivity of OraQuick was 93.64% (95% CI 82.46-98.66%), specificity 99.87% (99.28-100%), positive predictive value 97.78% (88.27-99.94%) and negative predictive value 99.61% (98.87-99.92%). This includes three false-negatives considered to be due to observer error and now rectified by further training. This has increased test sensitivity to 100%. Our observed test performance of OraQuick compares well with EIA and with other rapid tests. We believe that simple, non-invasive antibody detection tests such as OraQuick can increase HIV testing and diagnosis in UK GU medicine and community settings.

  2. Rapid prototype and test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  3. Three-Dimensional Joint Geophysical Imaging Using an Advanced Multivariate Inversion Technique: the Method and its Application to the Utah area, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haijiang; Maceira, Monica; Benson, Thomas; Nafi Toksoz, M.

    2010-05-01

    We present an advanced multivariate inversion technique to generate a realistic, comprehensive, and high-resolution 3D model of the seismic structure of the crust and upper mantle. The model satisfies several independent geophysical datasets including seismic surface wave dispersion measurements, gravity, and seismic arrival time. The joint inversion method takes advantage of strengths of individual data sets and is able to better constrain the seismic velocity models from shallower to greater depths. To combine different geophysical datasets into a common system, we design an optimal weighting scheme that is based on relative uncertainties of individual observations, their sensitivities to model parameters, and the trade-off of different data fitting. We apply this joint inversion method to determine the 3D Vp and Vs models of the Utah area. The seismic body wave arrival times are assembled from waveform data recorded by the University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) regional network and the EarthScope/USArray network. The surface wave dispersion measurements are obtained from the ambient noise tomography study by the University of Colorado group using EarthScope/USArray stations. The gravity data for the Utah area is extracted from the North American Gravity Database managed by the University of Texas at El Paso. The joint inversions using two individual data sets such as seismic arrival time and gravity data, as well as seismic surface wave and gravity data indicate strong low velocity anomalies in middle crust beneath some known geothermal sites in Utah. The joint inversion of all three data sets will be presented and is expected to produce a reasonably well-constrained velocity structure of the Utah area, which is helpful for characterizing and exploring existing and potential geothermal reservoirs.

  4. Evaluation of gefitinib efficacy according to body mass index, body surface area, and body weight in patients with EGFR-mutated advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hisao; Kuwako, Tomohito; Kaira, Kyoichi; Masuda, Tomomi; Miura, Yosuke; Seki, Kaori; Sakurai, Reiko; Utsugi, Mitsuyoshi; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Sunaga, Noriaki; Tomizawa, Yoshio; Ishihara, Shinichi; Ishizuka, Takao; Mogi, Akira; Hisada, Takeshi; Minato, Koichi; Takise, Atsushi; Saito, Ryusei; Yamada, Masanobu

    2017-03-01

    In patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated, advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), common gefitinib-sensitive EGFR mutations that predict a greater response to therapy include the exon 19 deletion and L858R point mutation. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether body surface area (BSA), body weight (BW), and body mass index (BMI) affect gefitinib efficacy in such patients. The medical charts of 138 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations, who underwent gefitinib treatment, were reviewed. The median BSA and BW were used as cutoff values to evaluate their impact on gefitinib efficacy. BMI was categorized as underweight (<18.5 kg/m2), normal (18.5-25 kg/m2), and overweight (≥25 kg/m2). The median BSA and BW were 1.48 m2 and 53 kg, respectively. The overall response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) were 65.2%, 12.2, and 24.2 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes according to BSA, BW, or BMI alone. Subgroup analysis based on the mutation type and BSA revealed no significant differences in PFS between the groups; however, the median OS in those with exon 19 deletion combined with low BSA was significantly favorable compared with the other groups. Gefitinib efficacy in patients with NSCLC harboring sensitive EGFR mutations did not differ according to BSA, BW, and BMI. However, OS was superior in patients with both the exon 19 deletion and low BSA.

  5. Development and testing of a new framework for rapidly assessing legal and managerial protection afforded by marine protected areas: Mediterranean Sea case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, D; Rodríguez, J; Abdul Malak, D

    2016-02-01

    The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) states the need to effectively conserve at least 10% of coastal and marine areas of particular importance for biodiversity by 2020. Here, a new indicator-based methodological framework to assess biodiversity protection afforded by marine protected areas' (MPA) was developed as a quick surrogate for MPAs' potential conservation effectiveness: the Marine Protected Area Protection Assessment Framework (MaPAF). The MaPAF consists of a limited number of headline indicators that are integrated in two indexes: Legal protection and Management effort, which eventually integrate in the overall MPA Protection super-index. The MaPAF was then tested in the Mediterranean MPA network as a case study. Spatial analyses were performed at three meaningful scales: the whole Mediterranean Sea, Mediterranean ecoregions and countries. The results of this study suggest that: 1) The MaPAF can serve as a useful tool for consistent, adaptive, quick and cost-effective MPA effectiveness assessments of MPAs and MPA networks in virtually any marine region, as the headline indicators used are commonly compiled and easy to retrieve; 2) The MaPAF proved usable and potentially relevant in the Mediterranean Sea where most indicators in the framework can be publicly accessed through the MAPAMED database and are planned to be regularly updated; 3) Protection afforded by MPAs is low across the whole Mediterranean, with only few MPAs having relatively high legal and managerial protection; and 4) Most Mediterranean countries need to devote substantially more work to improve MPA effectiveness mainly through increased management effort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Aureococcus anophagefferens by qPCR Method (Taqman) in the Qinhuangdao Coastal Area: A Region for Recurrent Brown Tide Breakout in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Lei, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Since 2009, Aureococcus anophagefferens has caused brown tide to occur recurrently in Qinhuangdao coastal area, China. Because the algal cells of A. anophagefferens are so tiny (~3 µm) that it is very hard to identify exactly under a microscope for natural water samples, it is very urgent to develop a method for efficient and continuous monitoring. Here specific primers and Taqman probe are designed to develop a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for identification and quantification continually. The algal community and cell abundance of A. anophagefferens in the study area (E 119°20'-119°50' and N 39°30'-39°50') from April to October in 2013 are detected by pyrosequencing, and are used to validate the specification and precision of qPCR method for natural samples. Both pyrosequencing and qPCR shows that the targeted cells are present only in May, June and July, and the cell abundance are July > June > May. Although there are various algal species including dinoflagellata, diatom, Cryptomonadales, Chrysophyceae and Chlorophyta living in the natural seawater simultaneously, no disturbance happens to qPCR method. This qPCR method could detect as few as 10 targeted cells, indicating it is able to detect the algal cells at pre-bloom levels. Therefore, qPCR with Taqman probe provides a powerful and sensitive method to monitor the brown tide continually in Qinhuangdao coastal area, China. The results provide a necessary technology support for forecasting the brown tide initiation, in China.

  7. An Empirical Method Permitting Rapid Determination of the Area, Rate and Distribution of Water-Drop Impingement on an Airfoil of Arbitrary Section at Subsonic Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergrun, N. R.

    1951-01-01

    An empirical method for the determination of the area, rate, and distribution of water-drop impingement on airfoils of arbitrary section is presented. The procedure represents an initial step toward the development of a method which is generally applicable in the design of thermal ice-prevention equipment for airplane wing and tail surfaces. Results given by the proposed empirical method are expected to be sufficiently accurate for the purpose of heated-wing design, and can be obtained from a few numerical computations once the velocity distribution over the airfoil has been determined. The empirical method presented for incompressible flow is based on results of extensive water-drop. trajectory computations for five airfoil cases which consisted of 15-percent-thick airfoils encompassing a moderate lift-coefficient range. The differential equations pertaining to the paths of the drops were solved by a differential analyzer. The method developed for incompressible flow is extended to the calculation of area and rate of impingement on straight wings in subsonic compressible flow to indicate the probable effects of compressibility for airfoils at low subsonic Mach numbers.

  8. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advisors, and committees that coordinate research activities Research Areas Overview of NIDDK activities in each major research area, including research advances, research coordination, and health information ...

  9. "Picking up the pieces" - Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2015-01-01

    Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness) is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients' strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context.

  10. “Picking up the pieces”—Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devik, Siri Andreassen; Hellzen, Ove; Enmarker, Ingela

    2015-01-01

    Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness) is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients’ strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context. PMID:26362533

  11. “Picking up the pieces”—Meanings of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri Andreassen Devik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural home nursing care is a neglected area in the research of palliative care offered to older cancer patients. Because access to specialized services is hampered by long distances and fragmented infrastructure, palliative care is often provided through standard home nursing services and delivered by general district nurses. This study aimed to illuminate the lived experience and to interpret the meaning of receiving home nursing care when being old and living with advanced cancer in a rural area in Norway. Narrative interviews were conducted with nine older persons, and a phenomenological hermeneutic approach was used to interpret the meaning of the lived experience. The analysis revealed three themes, each with subthemes: being content with what one gets, falling into place, and losing one's place. The phrase picking up the pieces was found useful to sum up the meaning of this lived experience. The three respective themes refer to how the pieces symbolize the remaining parts of life or available services in their environment, and how the older persons may see themselves as pieces or bricks in a puzzle. A strong place attachment (physical insideness, social insideness, and autobiographical insideness is demonstrated by the informants in this study and suggests that the rural context may provide an advantageous healthcare environment. Its potential to be a source of comfort, security, and identity concurs with cancer patients’ strong desire for being seen as unique persons. The study shows that district nurses play an essential role in the provision of palliative care for older rural patients. However, the therapeutic value of being in one's familiar landscape seems to depend on how homecare nurses manage to locate it and use it in a more or less person-centred manner. Communication skills and attentiveness to psychosocial aspects of patient care stand out as important attributes for nursing in this context.

  12. Space communication link propagation data for selected cities within the multiple beam and steerable antenna coverage areas of the advanced communications technology satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Rain attenuation propagation data for 68 cities within the coverage area of the multiple beam and steerable antennas of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) are presented. These data provide the necessary data base for purposes of communication link power budgeting and rain attenuation mitigation controller design. These propagation parameters are derived by applying the ACTS Rain Attenuation Prediction Model to these 68 locations. The propagation parameters enumerated in tabular form for each location are as follows: (1) physical description of the link and location (e.g., latitude, longitude, antenna elevation angle, etc.), link availability versus attenuation margin (also in graphical form), fading time across fade depths of 3, 5, 8, and 15 dB versus fade duration, and required fade control response time for controller availabilities of 99.999, 99.99, 99.9, and 99 percent versus sub-threshold attenuation levels. The data for these specific locations can be taken to be representative of regions near these locations.

  13. Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid Detection of Diphtheria Toxin: Description and Multicenter Evaluation in Areas of Low and High Prevalence of Diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, K. H.; Efstratiou, A.; Norn, D.; Kozlov, R. S.; Selga, I.; Glushkevich, T. G.; Tam, M.; Melnikov, V. G.; Mazurova, I. K.; Kim, V. E.; Tseneva, G. Y.; Titov, L. P.; George, R. C.

    2002-01-01

    An immunochromatographic strip (ICS) test was developed for the detection of diphtheria toxin by using an equine polyclonal antibody as the capture antibody and colloidal gold-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific for fragment A of the diphtheria toxin molecule as the detection antibody. The ICS test has been fully optimized for the detection of toxin from bacterial cultures; the limit of detection was approximately 0.5 ng of diphtheria toxin per ml within 10 min. In a comparative study with 915 pure clinical isolates of Corynebacterium spp., the results of the ICS test were in complete agreement with those of the conventional Elek test. The ICS test was also evaluated for its ability to detect toxigenicity from clinical specimens (throat swabs) in two field studies conducted within areas of the former USSR where diphtheria is epidemic. Eight hundred fifty throat swabs were examined by conventional culture and by use of directly inoculated broth cultures for the ICS test. The results showed 99% concordance (848 of 850 specimens), and the sensitivity and specificity of the ICS test were 98% (95% confidence interval, 91 to 99%) and 99% (95% confidence interval, 99 to 100%), respectively. PMID:11773096

  14. Rapid assessment of oxidation via middle-down LCMS correlates with methionine side-chain solvent-accessible surface area for 121 clinical stage monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Jain, Tushar; Lynaugh, Heather; Nobrega, R Paul; Lu, Xiaojun; Boland, Todd; Burnina, Irina; Sun, Tingwan; Caffry, Isabelle; Brown, Michael; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Lilov, Asparouh; Xu, Yingda

    Susceptibility of methionine to oxidation is an important concern for chemical stability during the development of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutic. To minimize downstream risks, leading candidates are usually screened under forced oxidation conditions to identify oxidation-labile molecules. Here we report results of forced oxidation on a large set of in-house expressed and purified mAbs with variable region sequences corresponding to 121 clinical stage mAbs. These mAb samples were treated with 0.1% H2O2 for 24 hours before enzymatic cleavage below the hinge, followed by reduction of inter-chain disulfide bonds for the detection of the light chain, Fab portion of heavy chain (Fd) and Fc by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This high-throughput, middle-down approach allows detection of oxidation site(s) at the resolution of 3 distinct segments. The experimental oxidation data correlates well with theoretical predictions based on the solvent-accessible surface area of the methionine side-chains within these segments. These results validate the use of upstream computational modeling to predict mAb oxidation susceptibility at the sequence level.

  15. How quickly do High Arctic coastal environments respond to rapid deglaciation and the paraglacial transformation of proglacial areas? - Answers from Spitsbergen, Svalbard Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, Matt; Long, Antony; Lloyd, Jerry; Zagórski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The coastal zone is one of the most important storage systems for sediments that are eroded and transported by rivers, wind and slope processes from deglacierised valleys and proglacial areas before reaching their final sediment sink (fjords or the open sea. The Svalbard archipelago provides an excellent location to quantify how High Arctic coasts are responding to climate warming and the associated paraglacial landscape transformations. In this paper we summarize the results of several coastal surveys carried out by our research teams along the paraglacial coasts of Spitsbergen during the last decade. We reconstruct the post-Little Ice Age development of selected coastlines in Spitsbergen to illustrate the variable coastal response to paraglacial and periglacial processes activated following the recent retreat of glaciers. Our surveys use aerial photogrammetric and GIS analyses, sedimentological classification of coastal deposits and field-based geomorphological mapping in Kongsfjorden, Billefjorden, Bellsund, Hornsund and Sørkappland. Our results document dramatic changes in sediment flux and coastal response under intervals characterized by a warming climate, retreating local ice masses, a shortened winter sea-ice season and thawing permafrost. The study highlights the need for a greater understanding of the controls on High Arctic coastal geomorphology, especially given the potential for future accelerated warming and sea-level rise.

  16. Advances in Games Technology: Software, Models, and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Edmond; Brindle, Geoff; Jones, Kevin; Zhou, Suiping; Chaudhari, Narendra S.; Wong, Kok-Wai

    2009-01-01

    Games technology has undergone tremendous development. In this article, the authors report the rapid advancement that has been observed in the way games software is being developed, as well as in the development of games content using game engines. One area that has gained special attention is modeling the game environment such as terrain and…

  17. Advanced method for large-scale 3D anisotropic inversion of marine EM data and its application in the Barents Sea survey area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanov, M. S.; Endo, M.; Mattsson, J.

    2016-12-01

    3D inversion of the large-scale EM survey data is very challenging, because the problem is ill-posed and its solution requires huge computational resources. This paper presents a new approach to the solution of the large-scale inverse problem for marine EM data, which consists of 1) unconstrained inversions of EM data in order to determine the background geoelectrical structure, 2) constrained inversion of EM data in order to reduce the non-uniqueness of the inverse problem by incorporating known information, such as seismic horizons and well-logging data, and 3) application of the concept of moving sensitivity domain to reduce the computational cost. The developed method is based on the contraction integral equation method with the inhomogeneous background. It takes into account the resistivity variations of the sea-water, the bathymetry, and anisotropy of the sea-bottom formations. We have applied our advanced method to large-scale 3D anisotropic inversion of towed streamer EM data collected by PGS in Barents Sea in the area of more than 3,700 sq. km. The towed streamer EM survey was conducted using an 800 m long bi-pole electric current source towed at a depth of 10 m, and the streamer cable which measured in-line electric fields with offsets from 0 to 7733 m in a frequency range from 0.2 to 9.8 Hz at a depth of 100 m from the sea surface. The survey consisted of more than 10,000 line-km of the towed streamer EM data. The inversion domain was 84 km in the x direction 44 km in the y direction and 3 km in the z direction, and it was discretized into 63 M cells. The cells were 50 m x 50 m in the horizontal directions, and from 12.5 m to 200 m (total 43 layers) in the vertical direction. The inversion produced a geoelectrical model that agreed well with the general geological structures in the survey area and, at the same time, revealed some interesting resistivity anomalies which may be used for location of the HC deposits in the survey area.

  18. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Ju Lan; Gang-Shan Fu; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Jeff J.S. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile tech...

  19. Utility of dengue NS1 antigen rapid diagnostic test for use in difficult to reach areas and its comparison with dengue NS1 ELISA and qRT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Mohan K; Singh, Neeru; Sharma, Ravendra K; Barde, Pradip V

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the utility of dengue virus (DENV) non structural protein 1 (NS1) based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for use in tribal and difficult to reach areas for early dengue (DEN) diagnosis in acute phase patients and evaluate its sensitivity and specificity against DENV NS1 enzyme linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The DENV NS1 RDT was used for preliminary diagnosis during outbreaks in difficult to reach rural and tribal areas. The diagnosis was confirmed by DENV NS1 ELISA in the laboratory. The samples were also tested and serotyped by qRT-PCR. The results were evaluated using statistical tests. The DENV NS1 RDT showed 99.2% sensitivity and 96.0% specificity when analyzed using DENV NS1 ELISA as standard. The specificity and sensitivity of the RDT when compared with qRT-PCR was 93.6% and 91.1%, respectively. The serotype specific evaluation showed more than 90% sensitivity and specificity for DENV-1, 2, and 3. The RDT proved a good diagnostic tool in difficult to reach rural and tribal areas. Further evaluation studies with different commercially available RDTs in different field conditions are essential, that will help clinicians and patients for treatment and programme managers for timely intervention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Rapid Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  1. RAPID3? Aptly named!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, J-M

    2014-01-01

    The RAPID3 score is the sum of three 0-10 patient self-report scores: pain, functional impairment on MDHAQ, and patient global estimate. It requires 5 seconds for scoring and can be used in all rheumatologic conditions, although it has mostly been used in rheumatoid arthritis where cutoffs for low disease activity (12/30) have been set. A RAPID3 score of ≤ 3/30 with 1 or 0 swollen joints (RAPID3 ≤ 3 + ≤ SJ1) provides remission criteria comparable to Boolean, SDAI, CDAI, and DAS28 remission criteria, in far less time than a formal joint count. RAPID3 performs as well as the DAS28 in separating active drugs from placebos in clinical trials. RAPID3 also predicts subsequent structural disease progression. RAPID3 can be determined at short intervals at home, allowing the determination of the area under the curve of disease activity between two visits and flare detection. However, RAPID3 should not be seen as a substitute for DAS28 and face to face visits in routine care. Monitoring patient status with only self-report information without a rheumatologist's advice (including joints and physical examination, and consideration of imaging and laboratory tests) may indeed be as undesirable for most patients than joint examination without a patient questionnaire. Conversely, combining the RAPID3 and the DAS28 may consist in faster or more sensitive confirmation that a medication is effective. Similarly, better enquiring of most important concerns of patients (pain, functional status and overall opinion on their disorder) should reinforces patients' confidence in their rheumatologist and treatments.

  2. Advancing mangrove macroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Osland, Michael J.; Day, John W.; Ray, Santanu; Rovai, Andre S.; Day, Richard H.; Mukherjee, Joyita; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Lee, Shing Yip; Kristensen, Erik; Twilley, Robert R.

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests provide a wide range of ecosystem services to society, yet they are among the most anthropogenically impacted coastal ecosystems in the world. In this chapter, we discuss and provide examples for how macroecology can advance our understanding of mangrove ecosystems. Macroecology is broadly defined as a discipline that uses statistical analyses to investigate large-scale, universal patterns in the distribution, abundance, diversity, and organization of species and ecosystems, including the scaling of ecological processes and structural and functional relationships. Macroecological methods can be used to advance our understanding of how non-linear responses in natural systems can be triggered by human impacts at local, regional, and global scales. Although macroecology has the potential to gain knowledge on universal patterns and processes that govern mangrove ecosystems, the application of macroecological methods to mangroves has historically been limited by constraints in data quality and availability. Here we provide examples that include evaluations of the variation in mangrove forest ecosystem structure and function in relation to macroclimatic drivers (e.g., temperature and rainfall regimes) and climate change. Additional examples include work focused upon the continental distribution of aboveground net primary productivity and carbon storage, which are rapidly advancing research areas. These examples demonstrate the value of a macroecological perspective for the understanding of global- and regional-scale effects of both changing environmental conditions and management actions on ecosystem structure, function, and the supply of goods and services. We also present current trends in mangrove modeling approaches and their potential utility to test hypotheses about mangrove structural and functional properties. Given the gap in relevant experimental work at the regional scale, we also discuss the potential use of mangrove restoration and

  3. High FDG uptake areas on pre-radiotherapy PET/CT identify preferential sites of local relapse after chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced oesophageal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calais, Jeremie; Lemarignier, Charles; Vera, Pierre [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Dubray, Bernard [University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Nkhali, Lamyaa; Thureau, Sebastien; Modzelewski, Romain; Gardin, Isabelle [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rouen (France); University of Rouen, QuantIF-LITIS (Equipe d' Accueil 4108-FR CNRS 3638), Faculty of Medicine, Rouen (France); Centre Henri Becquerel and Rouen University Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy and Medical Physics, Rouen (France); Di Fiore, Frederic [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France); Rouen University Hospital, Department of Oncology, Henri Becquerel Cancer Center, IRON, Rouen (France); Michel, Pierre [Rouen University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Rouen (France)

    2015-05-01

    The high failure rates in the radiotherapy (RT) target volume suggest that patients with locally advanced oesophageal cancer (LAOC) would benefit from increased total RT doses. High 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) uptake (hotspot) on pre-RT FDG positron emission tomography (PET)/CT has been reported to identify intra-tumour sites at increased risk of relapse after RT in non-small cell lung cancer and in rectal cancer. Our aim was to confirm these observations in patients with LAOC and to determine the optimal maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) threshold to delineate smaller RT target volumes that would facilitate RT dose escalation without impaired tolerance. The study included 98 consecutive patients with LAOC treated by chemoradiotherapy (CRT). All patients underwent FDG PET/CT at initial staging and during systematic follow-up in a single institution. FDG PET/CT acquisitions were coregistered on the initial CT scan. Various subvolumes within the initial tumour (30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) and in the subsequent local recurrence (LR, 40 and 90 % SUV{sub max} thresholds) were pasted on the initial CT scan and compared[Dice, Jaccard, overlap fraction (OF), common volume/baseline volume, common volume/recurrent volume]. Thirty-five patients had LR. The initial metabolic tumour volume was significantly higher in LR tumours than in the locally controlled tumours (mean 25.4 vs 14.2 cc; p = 0.002). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good agreement with the recurrent volume at 40 % SUV{sub max} (OF = 0.60-0.80). The subvolumes delineated on initial PET/CT with a 30-60 % SUV{sub max} threshold were in good to excellent agreement with the core volume (90 % SUV{sub max}) of the relapse (common volume/recurrent volume and OF indices 0.61-0.89). High FDG uptake on pretreatment PET/CT identifies tumour subvolumes that are at greater risk of recurrence after CRT in

  4. Appropriate targeting of artemisinin-based combination therapy by community health workers using malaria rapid diagnostic tests: findings from randomized trials in two contrasting areas of high and low malaria transmission in south-western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Magnussen, Pascal; Lal, Sham; Hansen, Kristian; Clarke, Siân E

    2016-09-01

    To compare the impact of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs), used by community health workers (CHWs), on the proportion of children decisions by CHWs were validated by microscopy on a reference blood slide collected at the time of consultation, to compare the proportion of children <5 years receiving appropriately targeted ACT treatment, defined as patients with microscopically-confirmed presence of parasites in a peripheral blood smear receiving artemether-lumefantrine or rectal artesunate, and patients with no malaria parasites not given ACT. In the moderate-to-high transmission area, ACT treatment was appropriately targeted in 79.3% (520/656) of children seen by CHWs using mRDTs to diagnose malaria, vs. 30.8% (215/699) of children seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). In the low transmission area, 90.1% (363/403) children seen by CHWs using mRDTs received appropriately targeted ACT treatment vs. 7.8% (64/817) seen by CHWs using presumptive diagnosis (P < 0.001). Low mRDT sensitivity in children with low-density parasitaemia (<200 parasites/μl) was identified as a potential concern. When equipped with mRDTs, ACT treatments delivered by CHWs are more accurately targeted to children with malaria parasites. mRDT use could play an important role in reducing overdiagnosis of malaria and improving fever case management within iCCM, in both moderate-to-high and low transmission areas. Nonetheless, missed treatments due to the low sensitivity of current mRDTs in patients with low parasite density are a concern. For community-based treatment in areas of low transmission and/or non-immune populations, presumptive treatment of all fevers as malaria may be advisable, until more sensitive diagnostic assays, suitable for routine use by CHWs in remote settings, become available. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya

    2009-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics.

  6. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  7. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  8. Normal-pressure microwave rapid synthesis of hierarchical SnO₂@rGO nanostructures with superhigh surface areas as high-quality gas-sensing and electrochemical active materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Chen, Deliang; Cui, Xue; Ge, Lianfang; Yang, Jing; Yu, Lanlan; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Rui; Shao, Guosheng

    2014-11-21

    Hierarchical SnO2@rGO nanostructures with superhigh surface areas are synthesized via a simple redox reaction between Sn(2+) ions and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets under microwave irradiation. XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, TG-DTA and N2 adsorption-desorption are used to characterize the compositions and microstructures of the SnO2@rGO samples obtained. The SnO2@rGO nanostructures are used as gas-sensing and electroactive materials to evaluate their property-microstructure relationship. The results show that SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with particle sizes of 3-5 nm are uniformly anchored on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets through a heteronucleation and growth process. The as-obtained SnO2@rGO sample with a hierarchically sesame cake-like microstructure and a superhigh specific surface area of 2110.9 m(2) g(-1) consists of 92 mass% SnO2 NPs and ∼8 mass% rGO nanosheets. The sensitivity of the SnO2@rGO sensor upon exposure to 10 ppm H2S is up to 78 at the optimal operating temperature of 100 °C, and its response time is as short as 7 s. Compared with SnO2 nanocrystals (5-10 nm), the hierarchical SnO2@rGO nanostructures have enhanced gas-sensing behaviors (i.e., high sensitivity, rapid response and good selectivity). The SnO2@rGO nanostructures also show excellent electroactivity in detecting sunset yellow (SY) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH = 2.0). The enhancement in gas-sensing and electroactive performance is mainly attributed to the unique hierarchical microstructure, high surface areas and the synergistic effect of SnO2 NPs and rGO nanosheets.

  9. Normal-pressure microwave rapid synthesis of hierarchical SnO2@rGO nanostructures with superhigh surface areas as high-quality gas-sensing and electrochemical active materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li; Chen, Deliang; Cui, Xue; Ge, Lianfang; Yang, Jing; Yu, Lanlan; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Rui; Shao, Guosheng

    2014-10-01

    Hierarchical SnO2@rGO nanostructures with superhigh surface areas are synthesized via a simple redox reaction between Sn2+ ions and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets under microwave irradiation. XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, TG-DTA and N2 adsorption-desorption are used to characterize the compositions and microstructures of the SnO2@rGO samples obtained. The SnO2@rGO nanostructures are used as gas-sensing and electroactive materials to evaluate their property-microstructure relationship. The results show that SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with particle sizes of 3-5 nm are uniformly anchored on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets through a heteronucleation and growth process. The as-obtained SnO2@rGO sample with a hierarchically sesame cake-like microstructure and a superhigh specific surface area of 2110.9 m2 g-1 consists of 92 mass% SnO2 NPs and ~8 mass% rGO nanosheets. The sensitivity of the SnO2@rGO sensor upon exposure to 10 ppm H2S is up to 78 at the optimal operating temperature of 100 °C, and its response time is as short as 7 s. Compared with SnO2 nanocrystals (5-10 nm), the hierarchical SnO2@rGO nanostructures have enhanced gas-sensing behaviors (i.e., high sensitivity, rapid response and good selectivity). The SnO2@rGO nanostructures also show excellent electroactivity in detecting sunset yellow (SY) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH = 2.0). The enhancement in gas-sensing and electroactive performance is mainly attributed to the unique hierarchical microstructure, high surface areas and the synergistic effect of SnO2 NPs and rGO nanosheets.

  10. Beyond breeding area management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lykke; Thorup, Kasper; Tøttrup, Anders P.

    Every year, billions of songbirds migrate thousands of kilometres between their European breeding grounds and African overwintering area. As migratory birds are dependent on resources at a number of sites varying in both space and time, they are likely to be more vulnerable to environmental change....... Perhaps as a consequence, long-distance migratory songbirds are declining rapidly compared to their sedentary counterparts. To understand what is driving these declines in European-Afrotropical migratory bird populations we need to understand the full annual migration cycle of these birds. Recent...... technological advances are currently enabling us to track yet smaller songbirds throughout their migration cycle providing valuable insight into the life cycle of individual birds. However, direct tracking of migratory birds has so far mainly been conducted on single populations and our understanding of entire...

  11. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1997-12-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  12. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Quarterly technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, David S.

    1998-07-07

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth quarter of 1997 in the fourth area.

  13. Left ventricular apical akinetic aneurysmatic area associated with permanent right ventricular apical pacing for advanced atrioventricular block: clinical characteristics and long-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Kai-Hang; Siu, Chung-Wah; Zhang, Xue-Hua; Wang, Mei; Lee, Kathy L F; Lau, Chu-Pak; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2011-04-01

    Right ventricular apical (RVA) pacing can induce left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony and dysfunction. In this article, we describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcome in a subset of patients with unrecognized LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area associated with permanent RVA pacing as potential causes of heart failure (HF) and/or ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT). We retrospectively studied 220 patients with permanent RVA pacing and no pre-existing structural heart disease in our follow-up clinic for high-degree atrioventricular block. Patients who presented with new-onset HF, chest pain, or VT following RVA pacing were evaluated by echocardiogram and cardiac catheterization. RVA pacing-induced LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area was diagnosed in the absence of significant coronary artery disease by left ventriculogram. After a mean 8.8 ± 6.3 years, eight patients (3.6%) had LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area. Of those with LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area, four patients presented with or died of VT. There was no evidence of LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area on echocardiogram or left ventriculogram in the remaining 212 patients. The four patients with LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area and HF underwent cardiac resynchronization therapy: in all cases LV ejection fraction improved (from 33 ± 6 to 47 ± 10%, P = 0.03), and LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area resolved in two. Permanent RVA pacing for high-degree atrioventricular block is associated with LV apical akinetic aneurysmatic area. This condition was associated with a high incidence of VT and cardiovascular complication, but was possibly reversible with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  14. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  15. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  16. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  17. 3D Printing for the Rapid Prototyping of Structural Electronics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Macdonald, Eric; Salas, Rudy; Espalin, David; Perez, Mireya; Aguilera, Efrain; Muse, Dan; Wicker, Ryan B

    2014-01-01

    .... The use of advanced 3D printing technology enhanced with component placement and electrical interconnect deposition can provide electronic prototypes that now can be rapidly fabricated in comparable...

  18. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, Tracy; Schechter, David S.

    2000-04-11

    The overall goal of this project was to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective was accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the fourth year of the five-year project for each of the four areas including a status report of field activities leading up to injection of CO{sub 2}.

  19. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. Annual report, September 1, 1996--August 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1998-07-01

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) reservoir performance analysis, and (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the second year of the five-year project for each of the four areas. In the first area, the author has completed the reservoir characterization, which includes matrix description and detection (from core-log integration) and fracture characterization. This information is found in Section 1. In the second area, the author has completed extensive inhibition experiments that strongly indicate that the weakly water-wet behavior of the reservoir rock may be responsible for poor waterflood response observed in many Spraberry fields. In the third area, the author has made significant progress in analytical and numerical simulation of performance in Spraberry reservoirs as seen in Section 3. In the fourth area, the author has completed several suites of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry and Berea whole cores at reservoir conditions and reported in Section 4. The results of these experiments have been useful in developing a model for free-fall gravity drainage and have validated the premise that CO{sub 2} will recover oil from tight, unconfined Spraberry matrix. The final three years of this project involves implementation of the CO{sub 2} pilot. Up to twelve new wells are planned in the pilot area; water injection wells to contain the CO{sub 2}, three production wells to monitor performance of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} injection wells including one horizontal injection well and logging observation wells to monitor CO{sub 2} flood fronts. Results of drilling

  20. EPA provides $145K to the Cut Bank Area Chamber of Commerce to advance the cleanup and revitalization of the Public Drug Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    (Denver, Colo. - May 28, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has awarded the Cut Bank Area Chamber of Commerce $145K in Brownfields grant funding to clean up and redevelop the Public Drug Building on Main Street in Cut Bank, Montana. Today

  1. Advanced DInSAR analysis for building damage assessment in large urban areas: an application to the city of Roma, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aranno, Peppe J. V.; Marsella, Maria; Scifoni, Silvia; Scutti, Marianna; Sonnessa, Alberico; Bonano, Manuela

    2015-10-01

    Remote sensing data play an important role for the environmental monitoring because they allow to provide systematic information on very large areas and for a long period of time. Such information must be analyzed, validated and incorporated into proper modeling tools in order to become useful for performing risk assessment analysis. These approaches has been already applied in the field of natural hazard evaluation (i.e. for monitoring seismic, volcanic areas and landslides). However, not enough attention has been devoted to the development of validated methods for implementing quantitative analysis on civil structures. This work is dedicated to the comprehensive utilization of ERS / ENVISAT data store ESA SAR used to detect deformation trends and perform back-analysis of the investigated structures useful to calibrate the damage assessment models. After this preliminary analysis, SAR data of the new satellite mission (ie Cosmo SkyMed) were adopted to monitor the evolution of existent surface deformation processes and to detect new occurrence. The specific objective was to set up a data processing and data analysis chain tailored on a service that sustains the safe maintenance of the built-up environment, including critical construction such as public (schools, hospital, etc), strategic (dam, highways, etc) and also the cultural heritage sites. The analysis of the test area, in the southeastern sector of Roma, has provided three different levels and sub-levels of products from metropolitan area scale (territorial analysis), settlement scale (aggregated analysis) to single structure scale (damage degree associated to the structure).

  2. Vegetation management in sensitive areas of the Lake Tahoe Basin: A workshop to evaluate risks and advance existing strategies and practices [Independent review panel report

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Elliot; Wally Miller; Bruce Hartsough; Scott Stephens

    2009-01-01

    Elected officials, agency representatives and stakeholders representing many segments of the Lake Tahoe Basin community have all raised concerns over the limited progress in reducing excess vegetation biomass in Stream Environment Zones (SEZ) and on steep slopes (collectively referred to as sensitive areas) in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Limited access, the potential for...

  3. Editorial: Advanced learning technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ju Lan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent rapid development of advanced information technology brings high expectations of its potential to improvement and innovations in learning. This special issue is devoted to using some of the emerging technologies issues related to the topic of education and knowledge sharing, involving several cutting edge research outcomes from recent advancement of learning technologies. Advanced learning technologies are the composition of various related technologies and concepts such as mobile technologies and social media towards learner centered learning. This editorial note provides an overview of relevant issues discussed in this special issue.

  4. PIGC™ - A low cost fugitive emissions and methane detection system using advanced gas filter correlation techniques for local and wide area monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, R. L.; Gordley, L. L.; Marshall, B. T.; Fisher, J.; Paxton, G.; Gubeli, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Currently there is no efficient and affordable way to monitor gas releases over small to large areas. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately measure key greenhouse and pollutant gasses with low cost solar observations using the breakthrough sensor technology called the "Pupil Imaging Gas Correlation", PIGC™, which provides size and complexity reduction while providing exceptional resolution and coverage for various gas sensing applications. It is a practical implementation of the well-known Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry (GFCR) technique used for the HALOE and MOPITT satellite instruments that were flown on successful NASA missions in the early 2000s. This strong space heritage brings performance and reliability to the ground instrument design. A methane (CH4) abundance sensitivity of 0.5% or better of ambient column with uncooled microbolometers has been demonstrated with 1 second direct solar observations. These under $10 k sensors can be deployed in precisely balanced autonomous grids to monitor the flow of chosen gasses, and infer their source locations. Measureable gases include CH4, 13CO2, N2O, NO, NH3, CO, H2S, HCN, HCl, HF, HDO and others. A single instrument operates in a dual operation mode, at no additional cost, for continuous (real-time 24/7) local area perimeter monitoring for the detection of leaks for safety & security needs, looking at an artificial light source (for example a simple 60 W light bulb placed 100 m away), while simultaneously allowing solar observation for quasi-continuous wide area total atmospheric column scanning (3-D) for environmental monitoring (fixed and mobile configurations). The second mode of operation continuously quantifies the concentration and flux of specific gases over different ground locations, determined the amount of targeted gas being released from the area or getting into the area from outside locations, allowing better tracking of plumes and identification of sources. This paper reviews the

  5. Hierarchical zeolites: Enhanced utilisation of microporous crystals in catalysis by advances in materials design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez-Ramirez, Javier; Christensen, Claus H.; Egeblad, Kresten

    2008-01-01

    in these materials often imposes intracrystalline diffusion limitations, rendering low utilisation of the zeolite active volume in catalysed reactions. This critical review examines recent advances in the rapidly evolving area of zeolites with improved accessibility and molecular transport. Strategies to enhance...

  6. Advances in Applied Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Applied Mechanics draws together recent significant advances in various topics in applied mechanics. Published since 1948, Advances in Applied Mechanics aims to provide authoritative review articles on topics in the mechanical sciences, primarily of interest to scientists and engineers working in the various branches of mechanics, but also of interest to the many who use the results of investigations in mechanics in various application areas, such as aerospace, chemical, civil, en...

  7. Advances in oriental document analysis and recognition techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Whan

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, rapid progress has been made in computer processing of oriental languages, and the research developments in this area have resulted in tremendous changes in handwriting processing, printed oriental character recognition, document analysis and recognition, automatic input methodologies for oriental languages, etc. Advances in computer processing of oriental languages can also be seen in multimedia computing and the World Wide Web. Many of the results in those domains are presented in this book.

  8. Large-Area Landslides Monitoring Using Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Technique over the Giant Panda Habitat, Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The region near Dujiangyan City and Wenchuan County, Sichuan China, including significant giant panda habitats, was severely impacted by the Wenchuan earthquake. Large-area landslides occurred and seriously threatened the lives of people and giant pandas. In this paper, we report the development of an enhanced multi-temporal interferometric synthetic aperture radar (MTInSAR methodology to monitor potential post-seismic landslides by analyzing coherent scatterers (CS and distributed scatterers (DS points extracted from multi-temporal l-band ALOS/PALSAR data in an integrated manner. Through the integration of phase optimization and mitigation of the orbit and topography-related phase errors, surface deformations in the study area were derived: the rates in the line of sight (LOS direction ranged from −7 to 1.5 cm/a. Dozens of potential landslides, distributed mainly along the Minjiang River, Longmenshan Fault, and in other the high-altitude areas were detected. These findings matched the distribution of previous landslides. InSAR-derived results demonstrated that some previous landslides were still active; many unstable slopes have developed, and there are significant probabilities of future massive failures. The impact of landslides on the giant panda habitat, however ranged from low to moderate, would continue to be a concern for conservationists for some time in the future.

  9. Advance Identification (ADID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advance identification of disposal areas (ADID), a planning process used to identify wetlands and other waters that are generally suitable or unsuitable for the discharge of dredged and fill material.

  10. Advances in Male Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephanie T.; Amory, John K.; Bremner, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant advances in contraceptive options for women over the last 50 yr, world population continues to grow rapidly. Scientists and activists alike point to the devastating environmental impacts that population pressures have caused, including global warming from the developed world and hunger and disease in less developed areas. Moreover, almost half of all pregnancies are still unwanted or unplanned. Clearly, there is a need for expanded, reversible, contraceptive options. Multicultural surveys demonstrate the willingness of men to participate in contraception and their female partners to trust them to do so. Notwithstanding their paucity of options, male methods including vasectomy and condoms account for almost one third of contraceptive use in the United States and other countries. Recent international clinical research efforts have demonstrated high efficacy rates (90–95%) for hormonally based male contraceptives. Current barriers to expanded use include limited delivery methods and perceived regulatory obstacles, which stymie introduction to the marketplace. However, advances in oral and injectable androgen delivery are cause for optimism that these hurdles may be overcome. Nonhormonal methods, such as compounds that target sperm motility, are attractive in their theoretical promise of specificity for the reproductive tract. Gene and protein array technologies continue to identify potential targets for this approach. Such nonhormonal agents will likely reach clinical trials in the near future. Great strides have been made in understanding male reproductive physiology; the combined efforts of scientists, clinicians, industry and governmental funding agencies could make an effective, reversible, male contraceptive an option for family planning over the next decade. PMID:18436704

  11. Advanced nail surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart Haneke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Six techniques not yet widely known or used in the dermatologic surgery of the nails are briefly described. Small-to-medium-sized tumours of the proximal nail fold (PNF can be excised and the defect repaired with advancement or rotation flaps. A superficial biopsy technique of the matrix for the diagnosis of longitudinal brown streaks in the nail, which allows rapid histological diagnosis of the melanocyte focus to be performed, is described here. Because the excision is very shallow and leaves the morphogenetic connective tissue of the matrix intact, the defect heals without scarring. Laterally positioned nail tumours can be excised in the manner of a wide lateral longitudinal nail biopsy. The defect repair is performed with a bipedicled flap from the lateral aspect of the distal phalanx. Malignant tumours of the nail organ often require its complete ablation. These defects can be covered by a full-thickness skin graft, reversed dermal graft, or cross-finger flap. The surgical correction of a split nail is often difficult. The cicatricial tissue of the matrix and PNF have to be excised and the re-attachment of these wounds prevented. The matrix defect has to be excised and sutured or covered with a free matrix graft taken either from the neighbouring area or from the big toe nail.

  12. Polypyrrole/carbon nanotube supercapacitors: Technological advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Adeel; Abuilaiwi, Faraj A.; Habib, Amir; Awais, Muhammad; Waje, Samaila B.; Atieh, Muataz A.

    2017-06-01

    The supercapacitors are advanced electrochemical energy storage devices having characteristics such as high storage capacity, rapid delivery of charge, and long cycle life. Polypyrrole (PPy) - an electronically conducting polymer, and carbon nanotubes (CNT) with high surface area and exceptional electrical and mechanical properties are among the most frequently studied advanced electrode materials for supercapacitors. The asymmetric supercapacitors composed of PPy/CNT composite electrodes offer complementary benefits to improve the specific capacitance, energy density, and stability. This article presents an overview of the recent technological advances in PPy/CNT composite supercapacitors and their limitations. Various strategies for synthesis and fabrication of PPy/CNT composites are discussed along with the factors that influence their ultimate electrochemical performance. The drawbacks and challenges of modern PPy/CNT composite supercapacitors are also reviewed, and potential areas of concern are identified for future research and development.

  13. Field evaluation of a PfHRP-2/pLDH rapid diagnostic test and light microscopy for diagnosis and screening of falciparum malaria during the peak seasonal transmission in an endemic area in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alareqi, Lina M Q; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lau, Yee-Ling; Fong, Mun-Yik; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad; Ali, Arwa A; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Tawfek, Rehab; Mahmud, Rohela

    2016-01-28

    Malaria is a public health threat in Yemen, with 149,451 cases being reported in 2013. Of these, Plasmodium falciparum represents 99%. Prompt diagnosis by light microscopy (LM) and rapid diagnostic tests (RTDs) is a key element in the national strategy of malaria control. The heterogeneous epidemiology of malaria in the country necessitates the field evaluation of the current diagnostic strategies, especially RDTs. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate LM and an RDT, combining both P. falciparum histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2) and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH), for falciparum malaria diagnosis and survey in a malaria-endemic area during the transmission season against nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as the reference method. A household-based, cross-sectional malaria survey was conducted in Mawza District, a malaria-endemic area in Taiz governorate. A total of 488 participants were screened using LM and PfHRP-2/pLDH RDT. Positive samples (160) and randomly selected negative samples (52) by both RDT and LM were further analysed using 18S rRNA-based nested PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the RDT were 96.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 90.9-98.3), 56.0% (95% CI: 44.7-66.8), 76.3% (95% CI: 69.0-82.3), and 90.4% (95% CI: 78.8-96.8), respectively. On the other hand, LM showed sensitivity of 37.6% (95% CI: 29.6-46.3), specificity of 97.6% (95% CI: 91.7-99.7), PPV of 95.9% (95% CI: 86.3-98.9), and NPV of 51.3% (95% CI: 43.2-59.2). The sensitivity of LM dropped to 8.5% for detecting asymptomatic malaria. Malaria prevalence was 32.8% (32.1 and 37.5% for ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with the RDT compared with 10.7% (10.8 and 9.4% for age groups of ≥10 and <10 years, respectively) with LM. Among asymptomatic malaria individuals, LM and RDT-based prevalence rates were 1.6 and 25.6%, respectively. However, rates of 88.2 and 94.1% of infection with P. falciparum were found

  14. Advancing the climate data driven crop-modeling studies in the dry areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon: An important first step for assessing impact of future climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Prakash N., E-mail: p.dixit@cgiar.org; Telleria, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Inter-annual and seasonal variability in climatic parameters, most importantly rainfall, have potential to cause climate-induced risk in long-term crop production. Short-term field studies do not capture the full nature of such risk and the extent to which modifications to crop, soil and water management recommendations may be made to mitigate the extent of such risk. Crop modeling studies driven by long-term daily weather data can predict the impact of climate-induced risk on crop growth and yield however, the availability of long-term daily weather data can present serious constraints to the use of crop models. To tackle this constraint, two weather generators namely, LARS-WG and MarkSim, were evaluated in order to assess their capabilities of reproducing frequency distributions, means, variances, dry spell and wet chains of observed daily precipitation, maximum and minimum temperature, and solar radiation for the eight locations across cropping areas of Northern Syria and Lebanon. Further, the application of generated long-term daily weather data, with both weather generators, in simulating barley growth and yield was also evaluated. We found that overall LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters and in 50 years continuous simulation of barley growth and yield. Our findings suggest that LARS-WG does not necessarily require long-term e.g., > 30 years observed weather data for calibration as generated results proved to be satisfactory with > 10 years of observed data except in area with higher altitude. Evaluating these weather generators and the ability of generated weather data to perform long-term simulation of crop growth and yield is an important first step to assess the impact of future climate on yields, and to identify promising technologies to make agricultural systems more resilient in the given region. - Highlights: • LARS-WG performed better than MarkSim in generating daily weather parameters. • LARS-WG can serve

  15. Rapid Response Research and Development (R&D) for the Aerospace Systems Directorate. Delivery Order 0021: Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels, Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    release; distribution unlimited. 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report contains test results for the CT7/T700 Bio Fuel Low Lubricity Endurance Test...pass/fail criterion for a 400-hour low lubricity test. 2.3 Test Parameters 2.3.1 Test Procedure Bio Fuel Low Lubricity Endurance testing was...Engineering Research and Technical Analyses of Advanced Airbreathing Propulsion Fuels Subtask: T700 Biofuel Low Lubricity Endurance Jeff Sympson

  16. Development of a Large Area Advanced Fast RICH Detector for Particle Identification at the Large Hadron Collider Operated with Heavy Ions

    CERN Multimedia

    Piuz, F; Braem, A; Van beelen, J B; Lion, G; Gandi, A

    2002-01-01

    %RD26 %title\\\\ \\\\During the past two years, RD26 groups have focused their activities on the production of CsI-RICH prototypes of large area, up to a square meter, to demonstrate their application in High Energy experiments. Many large CsI-photocathodes (up to 40) were produced following the processing techniques furthermore developped in the collaboration. Taking the Quantum Efficiency (QE) measured at 180 nm as a comparative figure of merit of a CsI-PC. Figure 1 shows the increase of the performance while improvements were successively implemented in the PC processing sequence. Most efficient were the use of substrates made of nickel, the heat treatment and handling of the PCs under inert gas. Actually, three large systems based on CsI-RICH have got approval in the following HEP experiments: HADES at GSI, COMPASS/NA58 at CERN and HMPID/ALICE at LHC implying up to 14 square metres of CsI-PC. In addition, several CsI-RICH detectors have been successfully operated in the Threshold Imaging Detector at NA44 and ...

  17. Problems of rapid growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  18. Toxicity assessment of the water used for human consumption from the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area prior/after the combined electrochemical treatment/advanced oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajski, Goran; Oreščanin, Višnja; Gerić, Marko; Kollar, Robert; Lovrenčić Mikelić, Ivanka; Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was detailed physicochemical, radiological, and toxicological characterization of the composite sample of water intended for human consumption in the Cameron/Tuba City abandoned uranium mining area before and after a combined electrochemical/advanced oxidation treatment. Toxicological characterization was conducted on human lymphocytes using a battery of bioassays. On the bases of the tested parameters, it could be concluded that water used for drinking from the tested water sources must be strictly forbidden for human and/or animal consumption since it is extremely cytogenotoxic, with high oxidative stress potential. A combined electrochemical treatment and posttreatment with ozone and UV light decreased the level of all physicochemical and radiological parameters below the regulated values. Consequently, the purified sample was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic, indicating that the presented method could be used for the improvement of water quality from the sites highly contaminated with the mixture of heavy metals and radionuclides.

  19. Advances in radiation therapy dosimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliwal Bhudatt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been an explosion of new radiation therapy planning and delivery tools. We went through a rapid transition from conventional three-dimensional (3D conformal radiation therapy to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT treatments, and additional new techniques for motion-adaptive radiation therapy are being introduced. These advances push the frontiers in our effort to provide better patient care; and with the addition of IMRT, temporal dimensions are major challenges for the radiotherapy patient dosimetry and delivery verification. Advanced techniques are less tolerant to poor implementation than are standard techniques. Mis-administrations are more difficult to detect and can possibly lead to poor outcomes for some patients. Instead of presenting a manual on quality assurance for radiation therapy, this manuscript provides an overview of dosimetry verification tools and a focused discussion on breath holding, respiratory gating and the applications of four-dimensional computed tomography in motion management. Some of the major challenges in the above areas are discussed.

  20. Intra-and-Inter Species Biomass Prediction in a Plantation Forest: Testing the Utility of High Spatial Resolution Spaceborne Multispectral RapidEye Sensor and Advanced Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Dube

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The quantification of aboveground biomass using remote sensing is critical for better understanding the role of forests in carbon sequestration and for informed sustainable management. Although remote sensing techniques have been proven useful in assessing forest biomass in general, more is required to investigate their capabilities in predicting intra-and-inter species biomass which are mainly characterised by non-linear relationships. In this study, we tested two machine learning algorithms, Stochastic Gradient Boosting (SGB and Random Forest (RF regression trees to predict intra-and-inter species biomass using high resolution RapidEye reflectance bands as well as the derived vegetation indices in a commercial plantation. The results showed that the SGB algorithm yielded the best performance for intra-and-inter species biomass prediction; using all the predictor variables as well as based on the most important selected variables. For example using the most important variables the algorithm produced an R2 of 0.80 and RMSE of 16.93 t·ha−1 for E. grandis; R2 of 0.79, RMSE of 17.27 t·ha−1 for P. taeda and R2 of 0.61, RMSE of 43.39 t·ha−1 for the combined species data sets. Comparatively, RF yielded plausible results only for E. dunii (R2 of 0.79; RMSE of 7.18 t·ha−1. We demonstrated that although the two statistical methods were able to predict biomass accurately, RF produced weaker results as compared to SGB when applied to combined species dataset. The result underscores the relevance of stochastic models in predicting biomass drawn from different species and genera using the new generation high resolution RapidEye sensor with strategically positioned bands.

  1. The impact of commercial rapid respiratory virus diagnostic tests on patient outcomes and health system utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fiona; Drews, Steven J

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections due to influenza A/B and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are major causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Rapid tests for detection of these pathogens include antigen detection point of care tests (POC) and newer easy to use molecular tests. From experience, these assays improve both laboratory workflow and assay interpretation issues. However, the question of the benefits of using rapid test technology compared to routine laboratory testing for respiratory viral pathogens is still often asked. Areas covered: Specifically, this review aims to; 1) identify clinical/patient indicators that can be measured prior to and following the implementation of rapid diagnostic test for influenza and RSV, 2) provide multiple perspectives on the extent of impact of a rapid diagnostic test, including direct and indirect outcomes, and 3) identify the technological advancements in the development of rapid testing, demonstrating a timeline that transitions from antigen-based assays to molecular assays. Expert commentary: Key benefits to the use of either antigen-based or molecular rapid tests for patient care, patient flow within institutions, as well as laboratory utilization are identified. Due to improved test characteristics, the authors feel that rapid molecular tests have greater benefits than antigen-based detection methods.

  2. Advanced Restricted Area Entry Control System (Araecs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Table 19. Technology Readiness Level Maturity Assessment 2. Biometric Modalities a. Iris Recognition (1) Overview. The Iris is the colored part of an...data derived from measurement of a part of a person’s anatomy. Examples of physiological biometrics include fingerprint, hand, face, iris and retina. A... biometrics that can be used with a smart identification card include: fingerprint, hand geometry, facial recognition, iris and retina scan, and voice and

  3. Graduate education for advanced practice public health nursing: at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Pamela F; Cary, Ann H; Kulbok, Pamela; Leffers, Jeanne; Molle, Mary; Polivka, Barbara J

    2008-01-01

    The complexity of public health problems and advancement of science framing public health demand an expansion of traditional educational approaches and curriculum to prepare a futuristic advanced practice public health nursing (APPHN) workforce. This position paper sponsored by the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators challenges nurse educators to apply innovative strategies in preparing public health nursing (PHN) professionals and to expand curriculum paradigms to promote PHN's ecological approach to solving problems. To meet the challenges of ensuring public health in the 21st century, advanced practice public health nurses must have greater foundational knowledge in critical content areas discussed in this document. Competence in these areas will enable advanced practice public health nurses to address future health care challenges such as rapidly changing social structures, escalating knowledge explosion, globalization, and growth of new technologies. This education will prepare nurses to forge new knowledge and establish health care teams to create effective solutions.

  4. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Large-Area Stationary Point Count Surveys (SPC) in the Pacific Ocean from 2000-09-09 to 2007-06-08 (NCEI Accession 0162466)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large-area stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  5. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Rapid Ecological Assessments of Fish Large-Area Stationary Point Count Surveys (SPC) at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Ocean from 2000 to 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The large-area stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific...

  6. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Andrew H; Duncan, Gordon W; Firbank, Michael J; Yarnall, Alison J; Khoo, Tien K; Burn, David J; O'Brien, John T

    2013-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder has poor prognostic implications for Parkinson's disease. The authors recruited 124 patients with early Parkinson's disease to compare clinical and neuroimaging findings based on the presence of this sleep disorder. The presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was assessed with the Mayo Sleep Questionnaire. Magnetic resonance imaging sequences were obtained for voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. Patients with sleep disorder had more advanced disease, but groups had similar clinical characteristics and cognitive performance. Those with sleep disorder had areas of reduced cortical grey matter volume and white matter changes compared with those who did not have sleep disorder. However, differences were slight and were not significant when the analyses were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder was associated with subtle changes in white matter integrity and grey matter volume in patients with early Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Performance of a lateral flow immunochromatography test for the rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis in a large multicentre study in areas with different clinical settings and tuberculosis exposure levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Selene; Perales, Rocio; Reaño, Maria; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Amicosante, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) continues to cause an outsized burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide, still missing efficient and largely accessible diagnostic tools determining an appropriate control of the disease. Serological tests have the potentially to impact TB diagnosis, in particular in extreme clinical settings. The diagnostic performances of the TB-XT HEMA EXPRESS (HEMA-EXPRESS) immunochromatographic rapid test for active TB diagnosis, based on use of multiple Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) specific antigens, have been evaluated in a large study multicentre TB case-finding study, in populations with different exposure level to TB. A total of 1,386 subjects were enrolled in the six participating centres in Peru: 290 active-TB and 1,096 unaffected subjects. The TB prevalence (overall 20.5%) varied between 4.0% and 41.1% in the different study groups. Overall, the HEMA-EXPRESS test had 30.6% sensitivity (range 3.9-77.9%) and 84.6% specificity (range 51.6-97.3%). A significant inverse correlation between test accuracy (overall 73.5%, range 40.4-96.4%) and TB prevalence in the various study populations was observed (Pearson's r=-0.7985; P=0.05). HEMA-EXPRESS, is rapid and relatively inexpensive test suitable for routine use in TB diagnosis. In low TB prevalence conditions, test performance appears in line with WHO Target Product Profile for TB diagnostics. Performances appear suboptimal in high TB prevalence settings. Appropriate set-up in operative clinical settings has to be considered for novel serological tests for TB diagnosis, particularly for formats suitable for point-of-care use.

  8. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  9. Advances in Computer Entertainment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Romão, T.; Reidsma, Dennis; Unknown, [Unknown

    2012-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment ACE 2012). ACE has become the leading scientific forum for dissemination of cutting-edge research results in the area of entertainment computing. Interactive entertainment is one of the most vibrant

  10. Advances in Environmental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Nasar, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    When Plenum stopped publishing its edited series—Human Behavior and Environment and Advances in Environment, Behavior and Design—the field of environmental psychology suffered a loss. Scholars could go to one of the edited Plenum books to find state-of-the-art reviews on existing and emerging areas of research. [...

  11. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  12. Virtual Prototyping, Advanced Electric Systems, and Controls for Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dougal, Roger A

    2004-01-01

    .... 1) New capabilities for virtual prototyping of advanced electric systems were developed, with emphasis on simulation of uncertain systems, tools for rapid model development, realtime and distributed...

  13. Thermotropic liquid crystals recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2007-01-01

    This book covers developments in the field of thermotropic liquid crystals and their functional importance. It also presents advances related to different sub-areas pertinent to this interdisciplinary area of research. This text brings together research from synthetic scientists and spectroscopists and attempts to bridge the gaps between these areas. New physical techniques that are powerful in characterizing these materials are discussed.

  14. Advances in chemical physics advances in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya; Vij, Jagdish K

    2009-01-01

    Prigogine and Rice's highly acclaimed series, Advances in Chemical Physics, provides a forum for critical, authoritative reviews of current topics in every area of chemical physics. Edited by J.K. Vij, this volume focuses on recent advances in liquid crystals with significant, up-to-date chapters authored by internationally recognized researchers in the field.

  15. Advanced nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Razali

    2012-01-01

    While theories based on classical physics have been very successful in helping experimentalists design microelectronic devices, new approaches based on quantum mechanics are required to accurately model nanoscale transistors and to predict their characteristics even before they are fabricated. Advanced Nanoelectronics provides research information on advanced nanoelectronics concepts, with a focus on modeling and simulation. Featuring contributions by researchers actively engaged in nanoelectronics research, it develops and applies analytical formulations to investigate nanoscale devices. The

  16. AdvancED Flex 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Shashank; Schulze, Charlie

    2010-01-01

    AdvancED Flex 4 makes advanced Flex 4 concepts and techniques easy. Ajax, RIA, Web 2.0, mashups, mobile applications, the most sophisticated web tools, and the coolest interactive web applications are all covered with practical, visually oriented recipes. * Completely updated for the new tools in Flex 4* Demonstrates how to use Flex 4 to create robust and scalable enterprise-grade Rich Internet Applications.* Teaches you to build high-performance web applications with interactivity that really engages your users.* What you'll learn Practiced beginners and intermediate users of Flex, especially

  17. HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Kyabayinze

    Full Text Available Intermittent screening and treatment (IST of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp, where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined.We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2 and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings.The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined.

  18. Advanced Capabilities for Combat Medics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor A; Cooke, William H; Salinas, Jose; Holcomb, John B

    2004-01-01

    The US Army Institute of Surgical Research (USAISR) has the lead for directing the Research Program Area for Advanced Triage Capabilities for Combat Medics in the Medical Research and Materiel Command (MRMC...

  19. Recent Advances in Plastic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    星, 栄一; Hoshi, Eiichi

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents some issues of interest regarding recent advances in areas such as tissue expansion, liposuction, fat injection, endoscopic surgery, keloid, cultured epidermal grafts, artificial skin, wound dressings, and silicone mammary prosthesis.

  20. Biotechnological advances in Lilium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Mehdi; Khosravi, Solmaz; Azadi, Pejman; Bagheri, Hedayat; van Tuyl, Jaap M

    2016-09-01

    Modern powerful techniques in plant biotechnology have been developed in lilies (Lilium spp., Liliaceae) to propagate, improve and make new phenotypes. Reliable in vitro culture methods are available to multiply lilies rapidly and shorten breeding programs. Lilium is also an ideal model plant to study in vitro pollination and embryo rescue methods. Although lilies are recalcitrant to genetic manipulation, superior genotypes are developed with improved flower colour and form, disease resistance and year round forcing ability. Different DNA molecular markers have been developed for rapid indirect selection, genetic diversity evaluation, mutation detection and construction of Lilium linkage map. Some disease resistance-QTLs are already mapped on the Lilium linkage map. This review presents latest information on in vitro propagation, genetic engineering and molecular advances made in lily.

  1. Advances in Multiferroic Nanomaterials Assembled with Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shifeng Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an entirely new perspective of multifunctional materials, multiferroics have attracted a great deal of attention. With the rapidly developing micro- and nano-electro-mechanical system (MEMS&NEMS, the new kinds of micro- and nanodevices and functionalities aroused extensive research activity in the area of multiferroics. As an ideal building block to assemble the nanostructure, cluster exhibits particular physical properties related to the cluster size at nanoscale, which is efficient in controlling the multiferroic properties for nanomaterials. This review focuses on our recent advances in multiferroic nanomaterials assembled with clusters. In particular, the single phase multiferroic films and compound heterostructured multiferroic films assembled with clusters were introduced detailedly. This technique presents a new and efficient method to produce the nanostructured multiferroic materials for their potential application in NEMS devices.

  2. Advances in Norovirus Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Stephanie M.; Wobus, Christiane E.; Goodfellow, Ian G.; Green, Kim Y.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses are a major cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide, and can chronically infect immunocompromised patients. Efforts to develop effective vaccines and antivirals have been hindered by the uncultivable nature and extreme genetic diversity of human noroviruses. Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus molecular biology and replication, pathogenesis, cell tropism, and innate and adaptive immunity. Furthermore, clinical trials of vaccines consisting of nonreplicating virus-like particles have shown promise. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and discuss controversies in the field, which is rapidly progressing towards generation of antiviral agents and increasingly effective vaccines. PMID:24922570

  3. Advances in catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Catalysis fills the gap between the journal papers and the textbooks across the diverse areas of catalysis research. For more than 60 years Advances in Catalysis has been dedicated to recording progress in the field of catalysis and providing the scientific community with comprehensive and authoritative reviews. This series in invaluable to chemical engineers, physical chemists, biochemists, researchers and industrial chemists working in the fields of catalysis and materials chemistry. * In-depth, critical, state-of-the-art reviews * Comprehensive, covers of all as

  4. Advanced Techniques in Biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Arrondo, José Luis R

    2006-01-01

    Technical advancements are basic elements in our life. In biophysical studies, new applications and improvements in well-established techniques are being implemented every day. This book deals with advancements produced not only from a technical point of view, but also from new approaches that are being taken in the study of biophysical samples, such as nanotechniques or single-cell measurements. This book constitutes a privileged observatory for reviewing novel applications of biophysical techniques that can help the reader enter an area where the technology is progressing quickly and where a comprehensive explanation is not always to be found.

  5. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  6. Rapid serial visual presentation design for cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A powerful new image presentation technique has evolved over the last twenty years, and its value demonstrated through its support of many and varied common tasks. Conceptually, Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is basically simple, exemplified in the physical world by the rapid riffling of the pages of a book in order to locate a known image. Advances in computation and graphics processing allow RSVP to be applied flexibly and effectively to a huge variety of common tasks such as window shopping, video fast-forward and rewind, TV channel selection and product browsing. At its heart is a

  7. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  8. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the smallest air passages of the lungs in children ( bronchiolitis ) Pneumonia or other lung infection Transient tachypnea of the newborn Anxiety and panic Other serious lung disease Home Care Rapid, shallow breathing should not be treated at home. It is ...

  9. Rapid Strep Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worse than normal. Your first thoughts turn to strep throat. A rapid strep test in your doctor’s office ... your suspicions.Viruses cause most sore throats. However, strep throat is an infection caused by the Group A ...

  10. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Nickerson, HK; Steenrod, NE

    2011-01-01

    ""This book is a radical departure from all previous concepts of advanced calculus,"" declared the Bulletin of the American Mathematics Society, ""and the nature of this departure merits serious study of the book by everyone interested in undergraduate education in mathematics."" Classroom-tested in a Princeton University honors course, it offers students a unified introduction to advanced calculus. Starting with an abstract treatment of vector spaces and linear transforms, the authors introduce a single basic derivative in an invariant form. All other derivatives - gradient, divergent, curl,

  11. Rapid Response Fund for Opportunities to Advance Tobacco Control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Funded activities could take the form of quick analyses or small surveys to provide policymakers with the necessary evidence on which to base their decisions. The fund may also be used to support the application of new learning to existing interventions or policies, or to complement the advocacy efforts of other donors.

  12. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  13. Advancing the science of Forest Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; R. Wayne Skaggs; Carl C. Trettin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, agricultural and biological engineers have provided major advances in science, engineering, and technology to increase food and fiber production to meet the demands of a rapidly growing global population. The land base for these technological advances has...

  14. Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmyer, David

    2006-01-01

    Advanced Magnetic Nanostructures is devoted to the fabrication, characterization, experimental investigation, theoretical understanding, and utilization of advanced magnetic nanostructures. Focus is on various types of 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' artificial nanostructures, as contrasted to naturally occurring magnetic nanostructures, such as iron-oxide inclusions in magnetic rocks, and to structures such as perfect thin films. Chapter 1 is an introduction into some basic concepts, such as the definitions of basic magnetic quantities. Chapters 2-4 are devoted to the theory of magnetic nanostructures, Chapter 5 deals with the characterization of the structures, and Chapters 6-10 are devoted to specific systems. Applications of advanced magnetic nanostructures are discussed in Chapters11-15 and, finally, the appendix lists and briefly discusses magnetic properties of typical starting materials. Industrial and academic researchers in magnetism and related areas such as nanotechnology, materials science, and theore...

  15. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  16. Advancing Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Penny L. Tenuto

    2014-01-01

    Preparing students to become active citizens and contributors to a democratic society is premised on teaching democratic principles and modeling standards of democratic practice at all levels of education. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to establish a conceptual framework grounded in literature and a model for cultivating democratic professional practice in education (DPPE) to advance leadership f...

  17. Technological Advancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The influx of technology has brought significant improvements to school facilities. Many of those advancements can be found in classrooms, but when students head down the hall to use the washrooms, they are likely to find a host of technological innovations that have improved conditions in that part of the building. This article describes modern…

  18. Advanced business analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Lev, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The book describes advanced business analytics and shows how to apply them to many different professional areas of engineering and management. Each chapter of the book is contributed by a different author and covers a different area of business analytics. The book connects the analytic principles with business practice and provides an interface between the main disciplines of engineering/technology and the organizational, administrative and planning abilities of management. It also refers to other disciplines such as economy, finance, marketing, behavioral economics and risk analysis. This book is of special interest to engineers, economists and researchers who are developing new advances in engineering management but also to practitioners working on this subject.

  19. G4 Advanced Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-29

    introverted - or extroverted -type, it is not an effective group either.-Therefore, factors purely in the areas of temperament and dis- position of cadres...look of the needs of socialist modernization construction of our country, on the above- mentioned three basic conditions and conducts comparison ...is better not to make a hasty judgment just by simple comparison . The factors that cause the teacher-to- * student ratio of ordinary advanced schools

  20. Local Area Defense (LAD) Demonstration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mackenzie, Colin F

    2004-01-01

    This pilot program is funded by the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) to demonstrate a real-time detection and rapid response system for local area defense using the University of Maryland Baltimore (UMB...

  1. Advancing Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny L. Tenuto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Preparing students to become active citizens and contributors to a democratic society is premised on teaching democratic principles and modeling standards of democratic practice at all levels of education. The purpose of this integrative literature review is to establish a conceptual framework grounded in literature and a model for cultivating democratic professional practice in education (DPPE to advance leadership for school improvement. This work is presented in three parts: (a a review of historical references, reports, and legislation that culminated in increased accountability and standards in P-12 public education; (b a discussion of social patterns in education generally associated with bureaucracy versus democracy; and (c a new contribution to the literature, a model for cultivating DPPE is conceptualized to encourage leading and teaching professionals to reflect on beliefs and evaluate practices in advancing leadership for school improvement. Recommendations are included for further research.

  2. Advanced Virgo

    CERN Multimedia

    Virgo, a first-generation interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detector, located in the European Gravitational Observatory, EGO, Cascina (Pisa-Italy) and constructed by the collaboration of French and Italian institutes (CNRS and INFN) has successfully completed its long-duration data taking runs. It is now undergoing a fundamental upgrade that exploits available cutting edges technology to open an exciting new window on the universe, with the first detection of a gravitational wave signal. Advanced Virgo (AdV) is the project to upgrade the Virgo detector to a second-generation instrument. AdV will be able to scan a volume of the Universe 1000 times larger than initial Virgo. AdV will be hosted in the same infrastructures as Virgo. The Advanced VIRGO project is funded and at present carried on by a larger collaboration of institutes belonging to CNRS- France , RMKI - Hungary, INFN- Italy, Nikhef - The Netherlands Polish Academy of Science - Poland.

  3. Methodology for quantitative rapid multi-tracer PET tumor characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Hoffman, John M

    2013-10-04

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can image a wide variety of functional and physiological parameters in vivo using different radiotracers. As more is learned about the molecular basis for disease and treatment, the potential value of molecular imaging for characterizing and monitoring disease status has increased. Characterizing multiple aspects of tumor physiology by imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient provides additional complementary information, and there is a significant body of literature supporting the potential value of multi-tracer PET imaging in oncology. However, imaging multiple PET tracers in a single patient presents a number of challenges. A number of techniques are under development for rapidly imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan, where signal-recovery processing algorithms are employed to recover various imaging endpoints for each tracer. Dynamic imaging is generally used with tracer injections staggered in time, and kinetic constraints are utilized to estimate each tracers' contribution to the multi-tracer imaging signal. This article summarizes past and ongoing work in multi-tracer PET tumor imaging, and then organizes and describes the main algorithmic approaches for achieving multi-tracer PET signal-recovery. While significant advances have been made, the complexity of the approach necessitates protocol design, optimization, and testing for each particular tracer combination and application. Rapid multi-tracer PET techniques have great potential for both research and clinical cancer imaging applications, and continued research in this area is warranted.

  4. Advanced LIGO

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Ackley, K.; C. Adams; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Adya, V.; Affeldt, C.; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O; Ain, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are second-generation instruments designed and built for the two LIGO observatories in Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA, USA. The two instruments are identical in design, and are specialized versions of a Michelson interferometer with 4 km long arms. As in Initial LIGO, Fabry–Perot cavities are used in the arms to increase the interaction time with a gravitational wave, and power recycling is used to increase the effective laser power. Signal recyc...

  5. Advanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [NETL

    2013-03-11

    The activity reported in this presentation is to provide the mechanical and physical property information needed to allow rational design, development and/or choice of alloys, manufacturing approaches, and environmental exposure and component life models to enable oxy-fuel combustion boilers to operate at Ultra-Supercritical (up to 650{degrees}C & between 22-30 MPa) and/or Advanced Ultra-Supercritical conditions (760{degrees}C & 35 MPa).

  6. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  7. Management of Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, Silke; Attard, Gerhardt; Beer, Tomasz M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In advanced prostate cancer (APC), successful drug development as well as advances in imaging and molecular characterisation have resulted in multiple areas where there is lack of evidence or low level of evidence. The Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2017 address...

  8. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Rapid Cycling and its Treatment What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar ... to Depression and Manic Depression . What is rapid cycling? Rapid cycling is defined as four or more ...

  9. Applications for thermal NDT on advanced composites in aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Steve R.

    1998-03-01

    Following several years of investigating active thermal imaging techniques, Lockheed Martin Aeronautical Systems Company (LMASC) has introduced a portable, time-dependent thermography (TDT) system into the production inspection environment. Originally pursued as a rapid, non-contacting, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) tool for inspecting large surface areas, the TDT system has proven most useful as a rapid verification tool on advanced composite assemblies. TDT is a relatively new NDE methodology as compared to conventional ultrasonic and radiography testing. SEveral technical issues are being addressed as confidence in the system's capabilities increase. These include inspector training and certification, system sensitivity assessments, and test results interpretation. Starting in 1991, LMASC began a beta-site evaluation of a prototype TDT system developed by the Institute of Manufacturing Research at Wayne State University. This prototype was the forerunner of the current production system, which is offered commercially as a fully integrated thermal NDE system. Applications investigated to data include quality assurance of advanced aerospace composite structures/assemblies for disbonds/voids between skin and core. TDT has a number of advantages over traditional NDT methods. The process of acquiring thermal images is fast, and can decrease inspection time required to locate suspect areas. The system also holds promise for depot level inspections due to its portability. This paper describes a systematic approach to implementing TDT into the production inspection arena.

  10. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available . Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  11. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  12. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  13. Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 557 ... ... Isoniazid Preventive Therapy on Incidence of Tuberculosis in Adult .... Neglect of elderly sexuality - a risk factor for HIV and other sexually ... Dance of Akpo in Aguata Local Government Area of Anambra State, Abstract PDF.

  14. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  15. Rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis in areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interventions: Individuals positive for at least one nodule were expressed in terms of Nodule Prevalence Rates (NPR) which were used to map the distribution of onchocerciasii. Main outcome measures: Coefficient of variation (CV) of Nodule Prevalence Rates between high risk secondary communities. Results: In Kabarole ...

  16. Advanced mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, CB; Kumar, V

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: This book `Advanced Mathematics` is primarily designed for B.Tech., IV Semester (EE and EC branch) students of Rajasthan Technical University. The subject matter is discussed in a lucid manner. The discussion is covered in five units: Unit I: deals with Numerical Analysis, Unit-II: gives different aspects of Numerical Analysis, Unit-III: Special Function, Unit-IV:Statistics and Probability, Calculus of Variation and Transforms are discussed in Unit V. All the theoretical concepts are explained through solved examples. Besides, a large number of unsolved problems on each top

  17. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick M

    2009-01-01

    Advanced Calculus is intended as a text for courses that furnish the backbone of the student's undergraduate education in mathematical analysis. The goal is to rigorously present the fundamental concepts within the context of illuminating examples and stimulating exercises. This book is self-contained and starts with the creation of basic tools using the completeness axiom. The continuity, differentiability, integrability, and power series representation properties of functions of a single variable are established. The next few chapters describe the topological and metric properties of Euclide

  18. Advanced trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Durell, C V; Robson, A

    1950-01-01

    This volume will provide a welcome resource for teachers seeking an undergraduate text on advanced trigonometry, when few are readily available. Ideal for self-study, this text offers a clear, logical presentation of topics and an extensive selection of problems with answers. Contents include the properties of the triangle and the quadrilateral; equations, sub-multiple angles, and inverse functions; hyperbolic, logarithmic, and exponential functions; and expansions in power-series. Further topics encompass the special hyperbolic functions; projection and finite series; complex numbers; de Moiv

  19. Advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2007-01-01

    This rigorous two-part treatment advances from functions of one variable to those of several variables. Intended for students who have already completed a one-year course in elementary calculus, it defers the introduction of functions of several variables for as long as possible, and adds clarity and simplicity by avoiding a mixture of heuristic and rigorous arguments.The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several

  20. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  1. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. LTE advanced 3GPP solution for IMT-advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Holma, Harri

    2012-01-01

    From the editors of the highly successful LTE for UMTS: Evolution to LTE-Advanced, this new book examines the main technical enhancements brought by LTE-Advanced, thoroughly covering 3GPP Release 10 specifications and the main items in Release 11. Using illustrations, graphs and real-life scenarios, the authors systematically lead readers through this cutting-edge topic to provide an outlook on existing technologies as well as possible future developments. The book is structured to follow the main technical areas that will be enhanced by the LTE-Advanced specifications. The mai

  3. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria Oline Barrios Poulsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA. SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG. The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19.

  4. Advanced electroanalytical chemistry at nanoelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yi-Lun; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhan, Dongping; Long, Yi-Tao

    2017-05-01

    Nanoelectrodes, with dimensions below 100 nm, have the advantages of high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. These electrodes have attracted increasing attention in various fields such as single cell analysis, single-molecule detection, single particle characterization and high-resolution imaging. The rapid growth of novel nanoelectrodes and nanoelectrochemical methods brings enormous new opportunities in the field. In this perspective, we discuss the challenges, advances, and opportunities for nanoelectrode fabrication, real-time characterizations and high-performance electrochemical instrumentation.

  5. Advanced electroanalytical chemistry at nanoelectrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Ying, Yi-Lun; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhan, Dongping; Long, Yi-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Nanoelectrodes, with dimensions below 100 nm, have the advantages of high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. These electrodes have attracted increasing attention in various fields such as single cell analysis, single-molecule detection, single particle characterization and high-resolution imaging. The rapid growth of novel nanoelectrodes and nanoelectrochemical methods brings enormous new opportunities in the field. In this perspective, we discuss the challenges, advances, and opportuni...

  6. Therapeutic advances in muscular dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Doris G; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2013-01-01

    The muscular dystrophies comprise a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders that produce progressive skeletal muscle weakness and wasting. There has been rapid growth and change in our understanding of these disorders in recent years, and advances in basic science are being translated into increasing numbers of clinical trials. This review will discuss therapeutic developments in 3 of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy: Duchenne muscular dystrophy, facioscapulohumeral muscular dystr...

  7. Rapid manufacturing facilitated customisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tuck, Christopher John; Hague, Richard; Ruffo, Massimiliano; Ransley, Michelle; Adams, Paul Russell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes the production of body-fitting customised seat profiles utilising the following digital methods: three dimensional laser scanning, reverse engineering and Rapid Manufacturing (RM). The seat profiles have been manufactured in order to influence the comfort characteristics of an existing ejector seat manufactured by Martin Baker Aircraft Ltd. The seat, known as Navy Aircrew Common Ejection Seat (NACES), was originally designed with a generic profile. ...

  8. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  9. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  10. Advanced microfabrication technologies for microspacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghezzo, M.; Bagepalli, B.; Kodiyalam, S.; Korham, C.; Browall, K.; Alexander, Norman

    1993-06-01

    Advanced microfabrication technologies offer the prospect of reducing the weight and size of spacecraft through the use of lighter and stronger materials in conjunction with new mechanical/structural design concepts and design optimization methods. At the same time, electronic components have been scaled down while increasing functional utility. A two-fold benefit is derived for space applications through the use of less expensive components and the lower launch costs associated with lighter components. GE-CRD is actively pursuing research in these key technologies for a wide range of applications including satellites. These key technologies will be reviewed and an update on GE progress will be given. The need to reduce weight and lower cost, while maintaining product quality and reliability are primary drivers in the design of satellites, in general, and microsatellites in particular. For the structural subsystem, these requirements pose a complex design problem unless new mechanical design concepts and computer-aided design optimization methods are employed. Several new concepts, such as battery packs doubling as panel reinforcements and fuel tanks as integral structural members, need to utilized. In addition, new viscoelastic material damping concepts for spacecraft components provide for lighter weight/lower cost designs, while satisfying the structural dynamics requirements. High density interconnect (HDI) technology permits the use of bare IC's on a ceramic substrate with 90 percent active area utilization. A copper/polyimide multilayer structure is the backbone of the technology, which has demonstrated a size/weight reduction of greater than 10x compared to printed circuit board with performance up to the GHz level. HDI modules have exceptional mechanical robustness as evidenced by survival of 180 kg rapid acceleration tests. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are redefining sensors and actuators by miniaturization through micromachining techniques

  11. Rapid Flood Map Generation from Spaceborne SAR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, S. H.; Liang, C.; Manipon, G.; Jung, J.; Gurrola, E. M.; Owen, S. E.; Hua, H.; Agram, P. S.; Webb, F.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Simons, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) team has responded to the January 2016 US Midwest Floods along the Mississippi River. Daily teleconferences with FEMA, NOAA, NGA, and USGS, provided information on precipitation and flood crest migration, based on which we coordinated with the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) through NASA headquarters for JAXA's ALOS-2 timely tasking over two paths. We produced flood extent maps using ALOS-2 SM3 mode Level 1.5 data that were provided through the International Charter and stored at the US Geological Survey's Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) archive. On January 6, the first four frames (70 km x 240 km) were acquired, which included the City of Memphis. We registered post-event SAR images to pre-event images, applied radiometric calibration, took a logarithm of the ratio of the two images. Two thresholds were applied to represent flooded areas that became open water (colored in blue) and flooded areas with tall vegetation (colored in red). The second path was acquired on January 11 further down along the Mississippi River. Seven frames (70 km x 420 km) were acquired and flood maps were created in the similar fashion. The maps were delivered to the FEMA as well as posted on ARIA's public website. The FEMA stated that SAR provides inspection priority for optical imagery and ground response. The ALOS-2 data and the products have been a very important source of information during this response as the flood crest has moved down stream. The SAR data continue to be an important resource during times when optical observations are often not useful. In close collaboration with FEMA and USGS, we also work on other flood events including June 2016 China Floods using European Space Agency's (ESA's) Sentienl-1 data, to produce flood extent maps and identify algorithmic needs and ARIA system's requirements to automate and rapidly produce and deliver flood maps for future events. With the addition of Sentinel-1B

  12. Skillful seasonal forecasts of Arctic sea ice retreat and advance dates in a dynamical forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmond, M.; Reader, M. C.; Flato, G. M.; Merryfield, W. J.; Tivy, A.

    2016-12-01

    The need for skillful seasonal forecasts of Arctic sea ice is rapidly increasing. Technology to perform such forecasts with coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice systems has only recently become available, with previous skill evaluations mainly limited to area-integrated quantities. Here we show, based on a large set of retrospective ensemble model forecasts, that a dynamical forecast system produces skillful seasonal forecasts of local sea ice retreat and advance dates - variables that are of great interest to a wide range of end users. Advance dates can generally be skillfully predicted at longer lead times ( 5 months on average) than retreat dates ( 3 months). The skill of retreat date forecasts mainly stems from persistence of initial sea ice anomalies, whereas advance date forecasts benefit from longer time scale and more predictable variability in ocean temperatures. These results suggest that further investments in the development of dynamical seasonal forecast systems may result in significant socioeconomic benefits.

  13. Impact of 40 years of technology advances on EDS system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Jon; Friel, John; Camus, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    The rapid advance and falling costs of computing power and data storage during the last 40 years have greatly enhanced the data reduction speed and analytical capacity of energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) systems. At the same time, the solid state X-ray detector [until recently, the Si(Li) diode] has seen performance increases due to the use of advanced materials and processing techniques. In addition, the performance of the electronic components (field effect transistor, preamp, and pulse processor) of an EDS system has been constantly improved. These technology advances have resulted in improved spectral quality, excellent light element detection, and increased count rate performance. The results have been truly remarkable and driven by the needs of the analyst. This article will summarize the progress made in these areas in the last 40 years and make a brief reference to prospects for future development in EDS system performance.

  14. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  15. Rapid Evaluation Capability (REC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The REC, located at Camp Grayling, MI, uses the only high-explosive impact area in the state to conduct year-round experiments and evaluations. In coordination with...

  16. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  17. Right-Rapid-Rough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  18. Advanced reservoir characterization and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area. First annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, D.S.

    1996-12-17

    The overall goal of this project is to assess the economic feasibility of CO{sub 2} flooding the naturally fractured Spraberry Trend Area in West Texas. This objective is being accomplished by conducting research in four areas: (1) extensive characterization of the reservoirs, (2) experimental studies of crude oil/brine/rock (COBR) interaction in the reservoirs, (3) analytical and numerical simulation of Spraberry reservoirs, and, (4) experimental investigations on CO{sub 2} gravity drainage in Spraberry whole cores. This report provides results of the first year of the five-year project for each of the four areas.

  19. Advanced Polymer Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenchausen, Ross E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-25

    Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Radiation-assisted nanotechnology applications will continue to grow; (2) The APPF will provide a unique focus for radiolytic processing of nanomaterials in support of DOE-DP, other DOE and advanced manufacturing initiatives; (3) {gamma}, X-ray, e-beam and ion beam processing will increasingly be applied for 'green' manufacturing of nanomaterials and nanocomposites; and (4) Biomedical science and engineering may ultimately be the biggest application area for radiation-assisted nanotechnology development.

  20. Advanced backend optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Touati, Sid

    2014-01-01

    This book is a summary of more than a decade of research in the area of backend optimization. It contains the latest fundamental research results in this field. While existing books are often more oriented toward Masters students, this book is aimed more towards professors and researchers as it contains more advanced subjects.It is unique in the sense that it contains information that has not previously been covered by other books in the field, with chapters on phase ordering in optimizing compilation; register saturation in instruction level parallelism; code size reduction for software pipe

  1. Advances in electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kasper, Erich; Grimmeiss, Hermann G

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic volume, Advances in Electronic Materials, covers various fields of materials research such as silicon, silicon-germanium hetero-structures, high-k materials, III-V semiconductor alloys and organic materials, as well as nano-structures for spintronics and photovoltaics. It begins with a brief summary of the formative years of microelectronics; now the keystone of information technology. The latter remains one of the most important global technologies, and is an extremely complex subject-area. Although electronic materials are primarily associated with computers, the internet

  2. Rapid mineralocorticoid receptor trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gekle, M; Bretschneider, M; Meinel, S; Ruhs, S; Grossmann, C

    2014-03-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that physiologically regulates water-electrolyte homeostasis and controls blood pressure. The MR can also elicit inflammatory and remodeling processes in the cardiovascular system and the kidneys, which require the presence of additional pathological factors like for example nitrosative stress. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) for pathophysiological MR effects remain(s) elusive. The inactive MR is located in the cytosol associated with chaperone molecules including HSP90. After ligand binding, the MR monomer rapidly translocates into the nucleus while still being associated to HSP90 and after dissociation from HSP90 binds to hormone-response-elements called glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) as a dimer. There are indications that rapid MR trafficking is modulated in the presence of high salt, oxidative or nitrosative stress, hypothetically by induction or posttranslational modifications. Additionally, glucocorticoids and the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase may also influence MR activation. Because MR trafficking and its modulation by micro-milieu factors influence MR cellular localization, it is not only relevant for genomic but also for nongenomic MR effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  4. Rapid prototyping: An innovative technique in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeba Quadri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of advanced digital technology has opened up new perspectives for design and production in the field of dentistry. Rapid prototyping (RP is a technique to quickly and automatically construct a three-dimensional (3D model of a part or product using 3D printers or stereolithography machines. RP has various dental applications, such as fabrication of implant surgical guides, zirconia prosthesis and molds for metal castings, maxillofacial prosthesis and frameworks for fixed and removable partial dentures, wax patterns for the dental prosthesis and complete denture. Rapid prototyping presents fascinating opportunities, but the process is difficult as it demands a high level of artistic skill, which means that the dental technicians should be able to work with the models obtained after impression to form a mirror image and achieve good esthetics. This review aims to focus on various RP methods and its application in dentistry.

  5. endemic area

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rapid infusion of 2 litres of cold saline. The serum potassium and bicarbonate were 5.1 and 23 mmol/L respectively but they had not been measured prcopcratively. Dantrolene was unavail- able for treatment and she was transferred to the ICI) for further monitoring and symptomatic management with sur face cooling.

  6. Sheet metal forming using rapid prototyped tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Bin

    The demand for rapid, low-cost die fabrication and modification technology is greater than ever in sheet metal forming industry. One category of rapid tooling technology involves the application of advanced polymers and composites to fabricate metal forming dies. Despite their advantages in lead time and cost reductions, polymer dies for sheet metal forming applications have several drawbacks. Due to their lack of strength as compared to conventional die materials, the use of polymer dies is often limited to prototype or short-run production. In addition, because the mechanisms by which they fail are not fully understood, the dies are designed on the basis of experience and intuition. The research (1) characterized the mechanical behavior of an advanced polymer composite tooling material, (2) developed a method to predict the failure mode and the life of a polymer die, and (3) established optimal die design guidelines. The focus was on rapid prototyped, aluminum trihydrate(ATH)-filled, polyurethane-based dies in sheet metal forming. The study involved the determination of dominant process parameters based on the finite element analyses of 90° V-die bending and cylindrical cup drawing processes. The effects of process parameters on stress distribution in the die provided guidelines to the modification of die design for achieving the desired die life. The presented parametric study lays the groundwork for providing reliable tool failure prediction and design optimization guidelines for advanced polymer tooling materials in metal forming. In addition, the failure mechanisms were investigated to predict the failure mode and the fatigue life of the die. To establish a fundamental understanding of the fatigue behavior of the polyurethane-based die material, extensive material tests were performed, the microstructure was studied, and the fatigue properties were identified experimentally. The test data were incorporated into the local stress-based fatigue analysis to

  7. Rapid thermal processing science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fair, Richard B

    1993-01-01

    This is the first definitive book on rapid thermal processing (RTP), an essential namufacturing technology for single-wafer processing in highly controlled environments. Written and edited by nine experts in the field, this book covers a range of topics for academics and engineers alike, moving from basic theory to advanced technology for wafer manufacturing. The book also provides new information on the suitability or RTP for thin film deposition, junction formation, silicides, epitaxy, and in situ processing. Complete discussions on equipment designs and comparisons between RTP and other

  8. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cain, W.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Waddell, W.L. [National Centers for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  9. The human genome and sport, including epigenetics and athleticogenomics: a brief look at a rapidly changing field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, N C Craig

    2008-09-01

    Since Hugh Montgomery discovered the first of what are now nearly 200 "fitness genes", together with rapid advances in human gene therapy, there is now a real prospect of the use of genes, genetic elements, and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance (to paraphrase the World Anti-Doping Agency's definition of gene doping). This overview covers the main areas of interface between genetics and sport, attempts to provide a context against which gene doping may be viewed, and suggests a futuristic legitimate use of genomic (and possibly epigenetic) information in sport.

  10. Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prabhakara Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in integrated circuits, wireless networks, and physiological sensing have enabled miniature, lightweight, low power, intelligent monitoring devices to be integrated into a Body Area Network (BAN. This new type of technology hold much promise for future patient health monitoring. BANs promise inexpensive, unobtrusive, and unsupervised ambulatory monitoring during normal daily activities for long periods of time. However, in order for BANs to become ubiquitous and affordable, a number of challenging issues must be resolved, such as integration, standardisation, system design, customisation, security and privacy, and social issues. This paper presents an overview of many of these issues and indeed the background and rationale of body area networks.

  11. The universal, collaborative and dynamic model of specialist and advanced nursing and midwifery practice: A way forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Laserina; Casey, Mary; Smith, Rita; Fealy, Gerard M; Brien, Denise O'; O'Leary, Denise; Stokes, Diarmuid; McNamara, Martin S; Glasgow, Mary Ellen; Cashin, Andrew

    2017-07-19

    To inform and guide the development of a future model of specialist and advanced nursing and midwifery practice. There is a sizable body of empirical literature supporting the unique contributions of specialist and advanced practice roles to health care. However, there is very little international evidence to inform the integration of a future model for advanced or specialist practice in the Irish healthcare system. A qualitative study was conducted to initiate this important area of inquiry. Purposive sampling was used to generate a sample of informants (n = 15) for the interviews. Nurses and midwives working in specialist and advanced practice and participants from other areas such as legislative, regulatory, policy, medicine and education were included in the sampling frame. Arguments for a new model of specialist and advanced practice were voiced. A number of participants proposed that flexibility within specialist and advanced practitioner career pathways was essential. Otherwise, there existed the possibility of being directed into specialised "silos," precluding movement to another area of integrated practice. Future specialist and advanced practice education programmes need to include topics such as the development of emotional and political intelligence. The contribution of specialist and advanced practice roles to the health service includes providing rapid access to care, seamless patient flow across services, early discharge and lead coordinator of the patient's care trajectory. There was a recommendation of moving towards a universal model to cultivate specialist and advanced nurse and midwife practitioners. The model design has Universal application in a range of contexts "U." It is Collaborative in its inclusivity of all key stakeholders "C." The model is Dynamic pertinent to accommodating movement of nurses and midwives across health continua rather than plateauing in very specialised "silos" "D." © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Recent and Emerging Advances in Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Bess, Shay; Shamji, Mohammed F; Brodke, Darrel; Lenke, Lawrence G; Fehlings, Michael G; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Ames, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several decades, significant advances have occurred in the assessment and management of spinal deformity. The primary focus of this narrative review is on recent advances in adult thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar deformities, with additional discussions of advances in cervical deformity and pediatric deformity. A review of recent literature was conducted. Advances in adult thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar deformities reviewed include the growing applications of stereoradiography, development of new radiographic measures and improved understanding of radiographic alignment objectives, increasingly sophisticated tools for radiographic analysis, strategies to reduce the occurrence of common complications, and advances in minimally invasive techniques. In addition, discussion is provided on the rapidly advancing applications of predictive analytics and outcomes assessments that are intended to improve the ability to predict risk and outcomes. Advances in the rapidly evolving field of cervical deformity focus on better understanding of how cervical alignment is impacted by thoracolumbar regional alignment and global alignment and how this can affect surgical planning. Discussion is also provided on initial progress toward development of a comprehensive cervical deformity classification system. Pediatric deformity assessment has been substantially improved with low radiation-based 3-D imaging, and promising clinical outcomes data are beginning to emerge on the use of growth-friendly implants. It is ultimately through the reviewed and other recent and ongoing advances that care for patients with spinal deformity will continue to evolve, enabling better informed treatment decisions, more meaningful patient counseling, reduced complications, and achievement of desired clinical outcomes.

  13. Advanced power cycles for concentrated solar power

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, W. H.; Buck, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a review of advanced power cycles under consideration for CSP. As variable renewables make rapid commercial progress, CSP with thermal energy storage is in an excellent position to provide low cost stability and reliability to the grid, however higher efficiency and lower costs are critical. Steam turbines provide a robust commercial option for today but more advanced power cycles offering greater agility and flexibility are needed. Supercritical steam turbines are attract...

  14. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  15. [Advance directives. Representatives' opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets I Font, J M; Hernando Robles, P; Font I Canals, R; Diestre Ortin, G; Quintana, S

    The use and usefulness of Advance Directives has led to a lot of controversy about their validity and effectiveness. Those areas are unexplored in our country from the perspective of representatives. To determine the opinion of the representatives appointed in a registered Statement of Advance Directives (SAD) on the use of this document. Telephone survey of representatives of 146 already dead people and who, since February 2012, had registered a SAD document. More the two-thirds (98) of respondents recalled that the SAD was consulted, with 86 (58.9%) saying that their opinion as representative was consulted, and 120 (82.1%) believe that the patient's will was respected. Of those interviewed, 102 (69.9%) believe that patients who had previously planned their care using a SAD had a good death, with 33 (22.4%) saying it could have been better, and 10 (6.9%) believe they suffered greatly. The SAD were mostly respected and consulted, and possibly this is related to the fact that most of the representatives declare that the death of those they represented was perceived as comfortable. It would be desirable to conduct further studies addressed at health personnel in order to know their perceptions regarding the use of Advance Directives in the process of dying. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  17. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  19. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  20. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding...

  1. Advanced compiler design and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Muchnick, Steven S

    1997-01-01

    From the Foreword by Susan L. Graham: This book takes on the challenges of contemporary languages and architectures, and prepares the reader for the new compiling problems that will inevitably arise in the future. The definitive book on advanced compiler design This comprehensive, up-to-date work examines advanced issues in the design and implementation of compilers for modern processors. Written for professionals and graduate students, the book guides readers in designing and implementing efficient structures for highly optimizing compilers for real-world languages. Covering advanced issues in fundamental areas of compiler design, this book discusses a wide array of possible code optimizations, determining the relative importance of optimizations, and selecting the most effective methods of implementation. * Lays the foundation for understanding the major issues of advanced compiler design * Treats optimization in-depth * Uses four case studies of commercial compiling suites to illustrate different approache...

  2. The RapidEye mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, George; Tulip, John; Schulten, Daniel; Krischke, Manfred; Oxfort, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The RapidEye mission is a commercial remote sensing mission by the German Company RapidEye AG. The RapidEye mission will deliver information products for various customers in the agricultural insurance market, large producers, international institutions and cartography. The mission consists of a constellation of five identical small satellites and a sophisticated ground infrastructure based on proven systems. The five satellites will be placed in a single sun-synchronous orbit of approximately 620 km, with the satellites equally spaced over the orbit. The RapidEye system has the unique ability to image any area on earth once per day and can also provide large area coverage within 5 days. The satellites will each carry a 5 band multi-spectral optical imager with a ground sampling distance of 6.5 m at nadir and a swath width of 80 km. These capabilities along with the processing throughput of the ground segment allows the system to deliver the information products needed by the customers reliably and in a time frame that meets their specific needs.

  3. Advanced Control and Autonomy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Lombaerts, Thomas; Swei, Sean

    2017-01-01

    This presentation is given at a NASA DLR (German Aerospace Center) meeting at NASA ARC on March 14, 2017. The presentation provides an overview of the Advanced Control and Evolvable Systems (ACES) group at NASA ARC and the research areas in UAS autonomy, stall recovery guidance, and flexible aircraft flight control.

  4. A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

  5. Removable partial dentures: use of rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Julia Magalhaes Costa; Anami, Lilian Costa; Araujo, Rodrigo Maximo; Pavanelli, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The CAD/CAM technology associated with rapid prototyping (RP) is already widely used in the fabrication of all-ceramic fixed prostheses and in the biomedical area; however, the use of this technology for the manufacture of metal frames for removable dentures is new. This work reports the results of a literature review conducted on the use of CAD/CAM and RP in the manufacture of removable partial dentures. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Rapid monitoring of mercury in air from an organic chemical factory in China using a portable mercury analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutake, Akira; Cheng, Jin Ping; Kiyono, Masako; Uraguchi, Shimpei; Liu, Xiaojie; Miura, Kyoko; Yasuda, Yoshiaki; Mashyanov, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m(3) in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0). Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  7. Rapid Monitoring of Mercury in Air from an Organic Chemical Factory in China Using a Portable Mercury Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical factory, using a production technology of acetaldehyde with mercury catalysis, was located southeast of Qingzhen City in Guizhou Province, China. Previous research showed heavy mercury pollution through an extensive downstream area. A current investigation of the mercury distribution in ambient air, soils, and plants suggests that mobile mercury species in soils created elevated mercury concentrations in ambient air and vegetation. Mercury concentrations of up to 600 ng/m3 in air over the contaminated area provided evidence of the mercury transformation to volatile Hg(0. Mercury analysis of soil and plant samples demonstrated that the mercury concentrations in soil with vaporized and plant-absorbable forms were higher in the southern area, which was closer to the factory. Our results suggest that air monitoring using a portable mercury analyzer can be a convenient and useful method for the rapid detection and mapping of mercury pollution in advanced field surveys.

  8. System Level Analysis of LTE-Advanced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye

    This PhD thesis focuses on system level analysis of Multi-Component Carrier (CC) management for Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced. Cases where multiple CCs are aggregated to form a larger bandwidth are studied. The analysis is performed for both local area and wide area networks. In local area...

  9. Rapid gas development in the Fayetteville shale basin, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in drilling and extraction of natural gas have resulted in rapid expansion of wells in shale basins. The rate of gas well installation in the Fayetteville shale is 774 wells a year since 2005 with thousands more planned. The Fayetteville shale covers 23,000 km2 although ...

  10. Development of rapid phenotypic system for the identification of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rapid and accurate identification of bacterial pathogens is a fundamental goal of clinical microbiology. The diagnosis and surveillance of diseases is dependent, to a great extent, on laboratory services, which cannot function without effective reliable reagents and diagnostics. Despite the advancement in microbiology ...

  11. Building a rapid response team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  12. Advances in social media analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cocea, Mihaela; Wiratunga, Nirmalie; Goker, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a collection of carefully selected contributions in the area of social media analysis. Each chapter opens up a number of research directions that have the potential to be taken on further in this rapidly growing area of research. The chapters are diverse enough to serve a number of directions of research with Sentiment Analysis as the dominant topic in the book. The authors have provided a broad range of research achievements from multimodal sentiment identification to emotion detection in a Chinese microblogging website. The book will be useful to research students, academics and practitioners in the area of social media analysis.  .

  13. Rapid Glass Refiner Development Program, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-20

    A rapid glass refiner (RGR) technology which could be applied to both conventional and advanced class melting systems would significantly enhance the productivity and the competitiveness of the glass industry in the United States. Therefore, Vortec Corporation, with the support of the US Department of Energy (US DOE) under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC07-90ID12911, conducted a research and development program for a unique and innovative approach to rapid glass refining. To provide focus for this research effort, container glass was the primary target from among the principal glass types based on its market size and potential for significant energy savings. Container glass products represent the largest segment of the total glass industry accounting for 60% of the tonnage produced and over 40% of the annual energy consumption of 232 trillion Btu/yr. Projections of energy consumption and the market penetration of advanced melting and fining into the container glass industry yield a potential energy savings of 7.9 trillion Btu/yr by the year 2020.

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. Rapidly rotating red giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehan, Charlotte; Mosser, Benoît; Michel, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Stellar oscillations give seismic information on the internal properties of stars. Red giants are targets of interest since they present mixed modes, wich behave as pressure modes in the convective envelope and as gravity modes in the radiative core. Mixed modes thus directly probe red giant cores, and allow in particular the study of their mean core rotation. The high-quality data obtained by CoRoT and Kepler satellites represent an unprecedented perspective to obtain thousands of measurements of red giant core rotation, in order to improve our understanding of stellar physics in deep stellar interiors. We developed an automated method to obtain such core rotation measurements and validated it for stars on the red giant branch. In this work, we particularly focus on the specific application of this method to red giants having a rapid core rotation. They show complex spectra where it is tricky to disentangle rotational splittings from mixed-mode period spacings. We demonstrate that the method based on the identification of mode crossings is precise and efficient. The determination of the mean core rotation directly derives from the precise measurement of the asymptotic period spacing ΔΠ1 and of the frequency at which the crossing of the rotational components is observed.

  16. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The use of combinatorial methods is proposed to rapidly screen catalyst formulations for the advanced development of aqueous phase oxidation catalysts with greater...

  17. Methodological advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebreton, J.-D.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of population dynamics has long depended on methodological progress. Among many striking examples, continuous time models for populations structured in age (Sharpe & Lotka, 1911 were made possible by progress in the mathematics of integral equations. Therefore the relationship between population ecology and mathematical and statistical modelling in the broad sense raises a challenge in interdisciplinary research. After the impetus given in particular by Seber (1982, the regular biennial EURING conferences became a major vehicle to achieve this goal. It is thus not surprising that EURING 2003 included a session entitled “Methodological advances”. Even if at risk of heterogeneity in the topics covered and of overlap with other sessions, such a session was a logical way of ensuring that recent and exciting new developments were made available for discussion, further development by biometricians and use by population biologists. The topics covered included several to which full sessions were devoted at EURING 2000 (Anderson, 2001 such as: individual covariates, Bayesian methods, and multi–state models. Some other topics (heterogeneity models, exploited populations and integrated modelling had been addressed by contributed talks or posters. Their presence among “methodological advances”, as well as in other sessions of EURING 2003, was intended as a response to their rapid development and potential relevance to biological questions. We briefly review all talks here, including those not published in the proceedings. In the plenary talk, Pradel et al. (in prep. developed GOF tests for multi–state models. Until recently, the only goodness–of–fit procedures for multistate models were ad hoc, and non optimal, involving use of standard tests for single state models (Lebreton & Pradel, 2002. Pradel et al. (2003 proposed a general approach based in particular on mixtures of multinomial distributions. Pradel et al. (in prep. showed

  18. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  19. Revitalization Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Revitalization areas are HUD-designated neighborhoods in need of economic and community development and where there is already a strong commitment by the local...

  20. 700 Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 700 Area of the Hanford Site is located in downtown Richland.Called the Federal Office Building, the Richland Operations Site Manager and the Richland Operations...

  1. Clinical efficacy of coronally advanced flap with or without connective tissue graft for the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the aesthetic area: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, Francesco; Cortellini, Pierpaolo; Pilloni, Andrea; Nieri, Michele; Cincinelli, Sandro; Amunni, Franco; Pagavino, Gabriella; Tonetti, Maurizio S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy of coronally advanced flap (CAF) with or without connective tissue graft (CTG) for the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the upper arch. Thirty-two patients with a total of 74 gingival recessions were randomly allocated to the two groups. Outcome measures, collected by a blind examiner, included complete root coverage (CRC), recession reduction (RecRed), keratinized tissue (KT) gain, increase in gingival thickness (GT), patient satisfaction and root coverage esthetic score (RES). An interaction between treatment and baseline GT was detected. At 1 year, CAF + CTG resulted in better outcomes in terms of CRC (p = 0.0016) and RecRed (p 0.8 mm). CAF resulted in higher aesthetic scores (RES) than CAF + CTG at sites with thick gingiva. CAF + CTG was associated with greater KT gain (p Connective tissue graft under CAF results in increased probability of CRC only at sites with thin baseline gingiva. CAF alone is associated with similar clinical outcomes and better aesthetics at sites with thick baseline gingiva. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Conditions Favoring Major Advances in Social Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Karl W.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Most of the 62 major advances in social sciences since 1900 have come from a few centers in the United States and England, had rapid effects, been produced by workers 35-45 years old, tended to be quantitative, interdisciplinary ideas stimulated by, and applied to, practical demands. (AL)

  3. genotype by environment interaction of advanced generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facilitating a rapid response to selection. This multi-environment trial (MET) used. Additive Main effects and Multiplicative. Interactions (AMMI) and Genotype main effects plus genotype-by-environment interaction (GGE) to (i) determine the adaptability and stability of advanced generation soybean breeding lines in different ...

  4. Rapid mixing kinetic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephen R; Schilstra, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Almost all of the elementary steps in a biochemical reaction scheme are either unimolecular or bimolecular processes that frequently occur on sub-second, often sub-millisecond, time scales. The traditional approach in kinetic studies is to mix two or more reagents and monitor the changes in concentrations with time. Conventional spectrophotometers cannot generally be used to study reactions that are complete within less than about 20 s, as it takes that amount of time to manually mix the reagents and activate the instrument. Rapid mixing techniques, which generally achieve mixing in less than 2 ms, overcome this limitation. This chapter is concerned with the use of these techniques in the study of reactions which reach equilibrium; the application of these methods to the study of enzyme kinetics is described in several excellent texts (Cornish-Bowden, Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics. Portland Press, 1995; Gutfreund, Kinetics for the life sciences. Receptors, transmitters and catalysis. Cambridge University Press, 1995).There are various ways to monitor changes in concentration of reactants, intermediates and products after mixing, but the most common way is to use changes in optical signals (absorbance or fluorescence) which often accompany reactions. Although absorbance can sometimes be used, fluorescence is often preferred because of its greater sensitivity, particularly in monitoring conformational changes. Such methods are continuous with good time resolution but they seldom permit the direct determination of the concentrations of individual species. Alternatively, samples may be taken from the reaction volume, mixed with a chemical quenching agent to stop the reaction, and their contents assessed by techniques such as HPLC. These methods can directly determine the concentrations of different species, but are discontinuous and have a limited time resolution.

  5. Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillessen, S; Omlin, A; Attard, G

    2015-01-01

    The first St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) Expert Panel identified and reviewed the available evidence for the ten most important areas of controversy in advanced prostate cancer (APC) management. The successful registration of several drugs for castration-resistant...

  6. Advanced cardiovascular life support for the obstetric population: bridging the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmelpfennig, Katie; Stanfill, Teresa J

    2012-01-01

    The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation advocates for rapid implementation of critical interventions to provide the best chance of survival for patients experiencing a cardiac arrest. Standard educational programs do not include population-specific interventions or modifications. This article provides information regarding how to use an established Advanced Cardiovascular Life Support program as the foundation on which to build a population-specific course. The purpose of creating this blended program is to meet the learning needs of the obstetric healthcare provider and standardize care across all settings, particularly in the perioperative and postanesthesia areas.

  7. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that causes inflammation, the formation of tubercules and other growths within tissue, ... death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light areas (opacities) of varying ...

  8. Program documentation with advanced data management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, W. B.

    1970-01-01

    The problems of program documentation are considered for those cases in which the programmer is using a computer along with an advanced DMS. Three problem areas discussed include: data description, process description, and execution-time documentation.

  9. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  10. Rapid Characterization of Bacterial Electrogenicity Using a Single-Sheet Paper-Based Electrofluidic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrogenicity, or bacterial electron transfer capacity, is an important application which offers environmentally sustainable advances in the fields of biofuels, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, desalination, and biosensing. Significant boosts in this technology can be achieved with the growth of synthetic biology that manipulates microbial electron transfer pathways, thereby potentially significantly improving their electrogenic potential. There is currently a need for a high-throughput, rapid, and highly sensitive test array to evaluate the electrogenic properties of newly discovered and/or genetically engineered bacterial species. In this work, we report a single-sheet, paper-based electrofluidic (incorporating both electronic and fluidic structure screening platform for rapid, sensitive, and potentially high-throughput characterization of bacterial electrogenicity. This novel screening array uses (i a commercially available wax printer for hydrophobic wax patterning on a single sheet of paper and (ii water-dispersed electrically conducting polymer mixture, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate, for full integration of electronic and fluidic components into the paper substrate. The engineered 3-D, microporous, hydrophilic, and conductive paper structure provides a large surface area for efficient electron transfer. This results in rapid and sensitive power assessment of electrogenic bacteria from a microliter sample volume. We validated the effectiveness of the sensor array using hypothesis-driven genetically modified Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strains. Within 20 min, we observed that the sensor platform successfully measured the electricity-generating capacities of five isogenic mutants of P. aeruginosa while distinguishing their differences from genetically unmodified bacteria.

  11. Advancing advanced practice - clarifying the conceptual confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasa, Helen; Cashin, Andrew; Buckley, Thomas; Donoghue, Judith

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of nurses holding advanced practice nursing positions. However, the lack of clarity regarding key terms such as 'advanced practice nursing', 'advanced nursing practice', 'scope of practice' and 'extended practice', and international variability in how these terms are used has created significant confusion. This lack of clarity is problematic for nurses, other health professionals, health service consumers, educators and policy makers, particularly given the global mobility of the nursing workforce. 1) To highlight the significant international variability in how advanced practice nursing, and associated terms such as extended and expanded practice, are defined and regulated across a variety of different English speaking countries, including the US, UK, New Zealand, Canada and Australia. 2) To propose innovative formulations for how the nursing profession may attempt to ensure greater precision and agreement around advanced practice terminology. Discursive paper. It was found that there is a considerable lack of clarity regarding the precise definitions of key terms surrounding the discussion of advanced practice. Additionally, there are large disparities in how the five chosen countries regulate advanced practice nursing, and roles such as that of the nurse practitioner. It is suggested that the confusion regarding advanced practice terminology can be reduced definitionally by minimising the use of the term 'expanded practice'; defining advanced practice nursing to refer to the type of practice in defined and regulated advanced practice nursing scopes; and defining advanced nursing practice as expert practice within a regulated nursing scope. © 2013.

  12. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Buoyant Convection in Geophysical Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Fedorovich, E; Viegas, D; Wyngaard, J

    1998-01-01

    Studies of convection in geophysical flows constitute an advanced and rapidly developing area of research that is relevant to problems of the natural environment. During the last decade, significant progress has been achieved in the field as a result of both experimental studies and numerical modelling. This led to the principal revision of the widely held view on buoyancy-driven turbulent flows comprising an organised mean component with superimposed chaotic turbulence. An intermediate type of motion, represented by coherent structures, has been found to play a key role in geophysical boundary layers and in larger scale atmospheric and hydrospheric circulations driven by buoyant forcing. New aspects of the interaction between convective motions and rotation have recently been discovered and investigated. Extensive experimental data have also been collected on the role of convection in cloud dynamics and microphysics. New theoretical concepts and approaches have been outlined regarding scaling and parameteriz...

  13. [Advance of gene-modified non-human primate models].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Cai, Yijun; Sun, Qiang

    2017-10-25

    Non-human primates would be particularly valuable in life sciences and biomedical research area. Gene-modified monkeys with gene overexpression or loss of function have been successfully generated with the rapid advance in gene manipulation technology such as lentivirus infection and programmable nucleases (ZFN, TALEN, CRISPR-Cas9). Here we review the recent development on gene-modified monkey generation by lentivirus and programmable nucleases. Then we discuss three concerns, the long time for sexual maturation, the off target and the mosaicism of founders, which limit the wide application of gene-modified non-human-primates. At last, hotspots and future trend for gene-modified non-human-primates generation are proposed.

  14. Advances in photovoltaics part 4

    CERN Document Server

    Willeke, Gerhard P

    2015-01-01

    Advances in Photovoltaics: Part Four provides valuable information on the challenges faced during the transformation of our energy supply system to more efficient, renewable energies. The volume discusses the topic from a global perspective, presenting the latest information on photovoltaics, a cornerstone technology. It covers all aspects of this important semiconductor technology, reflecting on the tremendous and dynamic advances that have been made on this topic since 1975, when the first book on solar cells-written by Harold J. Hovel of IBM-was published as volume 11 in the now famous series on Semiconductors and Semimetals. Readers will gain a behind the scenes look at the continuous and rapid scientific development that leads to the necessary price and cost reductions in global industrial mass-production. Written by leading, internationally known experts on his topic Provides an in-depth overview of the current status and perspectives of thin film PV technologies Discusses the challenges faced during th...

  15. Coordinated Control of Multi-Agent Systems in Rapidly Varying Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of this Phase II STTR project is to develop advanced control algorithms that enable multiple autonomous agents to perform complex tasks in rapidly...

  16. Air-launched GPR evaluation for rapid assessment of MoDOT bridge decks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The overarching goal of this study is to demonstrate that advanced nondestructive testing/evaluation (NDT/NDE) techniques can be rapidly, effectively, and economically implemented as part of routine MoDOT bridge deck surveys to determine the general ...

  17. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  18. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robotic designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  19. Rapid Robot Design Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies will create a comprehensive software infrastructure for rapid validation of robot designs. The software will support push-button validation...

  20. Stem Cell Therapy Advances in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Songlin

    2017-12-28

    Stem cell therapy is a promising method for the treatment of patients with a wide range of diseases and injuries. With increasing government funds for scientific research in China, stem cell research in China has developed rapidly. The number and quality of publications have increased substantially in the past 5 years. Extensive, high-quality studies have been performed in China in the areas of cell reprograming, stem cell homeostasis, gene modifications, and immunomodulation. Translation studies, including basic and preclinical investigations, have also increased. About 100 stem cell banks have been established in China and 10 stem cell drugs are currently in the approval process. More than 400 stem cell-based clinical trials have been registered in China. With continued state funding, advanced biotechnical support, and the development of regulatory standards for the clinical application of stem cells, further innovations are expected, leading to a boom in stem cell therapy. This review highlights recent achievements of stem cell research in China and discusses future prospects.

  1. Advances and new functions of VCSEL photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Fumio

    2014-11-01

    A vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) was born in Japan. The 37 years' research and developments opened up various applications including datacom, sensors, optical interconnects, spectroscopy, optical storages, printers, laser displays, laser radar, atomic clock and high power sources. A lot of unique features have been already proven, such as low power consumption, a wafer level testing and so on. The market of VCSELs has been growing up rapidly and they are now key devices in local area networks based on multi-mode optical fibers. Optical interconnections in data centers and supercomputers are attracting much interest. In this paper, the advances on VCSEL photonics will be reviewed. We present the high-speed modulation of VCSELs based on a coupled cavity structure. For further increase in transmission capacity per fiber, the wavelength engineering of VCSEL arrays is discussed, which includes the wavelength stabilization and wavelength tuning based on a micro-machined cantilever structure. We also address a lateral integration platform and new functions, including high-resolution beam scanner, vortex beam creation and large-port free space wavelength selective switch with a Bragg reflector waveguide.

  2. Morphological Transition in Rapidly Expanding Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolinski, J.; Chakraborty, P.; Gioia, G.; Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Many explosive eruptions are initiated by rapid decompression of bubbly magma, which behaves as an elastic material during the decompression and fragments into discrete pieces following the decompression. To emulate the rapid decompression of bubbly magma, we subject a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles to quasi-static expansion. A recent theory predicts that where a two-dimensional foam of soap bubbles is first subjected to expansion, the foam expands homogeneously. After a critical value of expansion is attained, the foam undergoes a morphological transition and separates into a large number of small bubbles immersed in a background of a few large bubbles [Vainchtein and Aref, Physics of Fluids 13, 2001]. In our experiments we verify the phenomenon of morphological transition under area expansion. We verity the predictions of Vainchtein and Aref, compare our results with the experimental results on rapidly expanding bubble-bearing viscoelastic fluids reported by [Namiki and Manga, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 236, 2005], and discuss the implications of our results for the rapid decompression of magmas.

  3. Advanced robot locomotion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C.; Sturgis, Beverly Rainwater; Byrne, Raymond Harry; Feddema, John Todd; Spletzer, Barry Louis; Rose, Scott E.; Novick, David Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Buerger, Stephen P.

    2007-01-01

    This report contains the results of a research effort on advanced robot locomotion. The majority of this work focuses on walking robots. Walking robot applications include delivery of special payloads to unique locations that require human locomotion to exo-skeleton human assistance applications. A walking robot could step over obstacles and move through narrow openings that a wheeled or tracked vehicle could not overcome. It could pick up and manipulate objects in ways that a standard robot gripper could not. Most importantly, a walking robot would be able to rapidly perform these tasks through an intuitive user interface that mimics natural human motion. The largest obstacle arises in emulating stability and balance control naturally present in humans but needed for bipedal locomotion in a robot. A tracked robot is bulky and limited, but a wide wheel base assures passive stability. Human bipedal motion is so common that it is taken for granted, but bipedal motion requires active balance and stability control for which the analysis is non-trivial. This report contains an extensive literature study on the state-of-the-art of legged robotics, and it additionally provides the analysis, simulation, and hardware verification of two variants of a proto-type leg design.

  4. Advanced manufacturing: Technology diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesar, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this paper we examine how manufacturing technology diffuses rom the developers of technology across national borders to those who do not have the capability or resources to develop advanced technology on their own. None of the wide variety of technology diffusion mechanisms discussed in this paper are new, yet the opportunities to apply these mechanisms are growing. A dramatic increase in technology diffusion occurred over the last decade. The two major trends which probably drive this increase are a worldwide inclination towards ``freer`` markets and diminishing isolation. Technology is most rapidly diffusing from the US In fact, the US is supplying technology for the rest of the world. The value of the technology supplied by the US more than doubled from 1985 to 1992 (see the Introduction for details). History shows us that technology diffusion is inevitable. It is the rates at which technologies diffuse to other countries which can vary considerably. Manufacturers in these countries are increasingly able to absorb technology. Their manufacturing efficiency is expected to progress as technology becomes increasingly available and utilized.

  5. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, Roger [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  6. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.S. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Bonk, D.L.; Rogers, L. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Transient modeling and analysis of Advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigative study by the United States Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters affecting plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper summarizes and describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of Advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants generate a high temperature flue gas by burning coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC. The high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When utilized, low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to generate and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  7. Advanced PFBC transient analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.S. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Bonk, D.L. [USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Transient modeling and analysis of advanced Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems is a research area that is currently under investigation by the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC). The object of the effort is to identify key operating parameters that affect plant performance and then quantify the basic response of major sub-systems to changes in operating conditions. PC-TRAX{trademark}, a commercially available dynamic software program, was chosen and applied in this modeling and analysis effort. This paper describes the development of a series of TRAX-based transient models of advanced PFBC power plants. These power plants burn coal or other suitable fuel in a PFBC, and the high temperature flue gas supports low-Btu fuel gas or natural gas combustion in a gas turbine topping combustor. When it is utilized, the low-Btu fuel gas is produced in a bubbling bed carbonizer. High temperature, high pressure combustion products exiting the topping combustor are expanded in a modified gas turbine to generate electrical power. Waste heat from the system is used to raise and superheat steam for a reheat steam turbine bottoming cycle that generates additional electrical power. Basic control/instrumentation models were developed and modeled in PC-TRAX and used to investigate off-design plant performance. System performance for various transient conditions and control philosophies was studied.

  8. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Slick oil advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Technological innovations in oil and gas exploration and production during the past 30 years have led to increased efficiency and environmental benefits, according to an October 5 report issued by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy.With these innovations, it now takes 22,000 fewer wells annually to develop the same amount of oil and gas reserves as it did in 1985, according to the report. In addition, fewer wells translate into less drilling waste. As much as 148 million barrels of drilling wastes annually are avoided due to increased well productivity at fewer sites, the report estimates. Industry advances also are leading to a reduction in the “footprint” of well pads and in the area cleared for drilling operations.

  10. How Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI Trendsfrom Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR and Système Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre VEGETATION (SPOT VGT Time Series Differ in Agricultural Areas: An Inner Mongolian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hostert

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information from global remote sensing has greatly advanced ourunderstanding of Earth as a system in general and of agricultural processes in particular.Vegetation monitoring with global remote sensing systems over long time periods iscritical to gain a better understanding of processes related to agricultural change over longtime periods. This specifically relates to sub-humid to semi-arid ecosystems, whereagricultural change in grazing lands can only be detected based on long time series. Byintegrating data from different sensors it is theoretically possible to construct NDVI timeseries back to the early 1980s. However, such integration is hampered by uncertainties inthe comparability between different sensor products. To be able to rely on vegetationtrends derived from integrated time series it is therefore crucial to investigate whether vegetation trends derived from NDVI and phenological parameters are consistent acrossproducts. In this paper we analyzed several indicators of vegetation change for a range ofagricultural systems in Inner Mongolia, China, and compared the results across differentsatellite archives. Specifically, we compared two of the prime NDVI archives—AVHRR Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS and SPOT Vegetation (VGTNDVI. Because a true accuracy assessment of long time series is not possible, we furthercompared SPOT VGT NDVI with NDVI from MODIS Terra as a benchmark. We foundhigh similarities in interannual trends, and also in trends of the seasonal amplitude andintegral between SPOT VGT and MODIS Terra (r > 0.9. However, we observedconsiderable disagreements in NDVI-derived trends between AVHRR GIMMS and SPOTVGT. We detected similar discrepancies for trends based on phenological parameters, suchas amplitude and integral of NDVI curves corresponding to seasonal vegetation cycles.Inconsistencies were partially related to land cover and vegetation density. Differentpre-processing schemes and the

  11. Rapid prototyping in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos Márk Horváth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even if it sound a bit incredible rapid prototyping (RPT as production method has been used for decades in other professions. Nevertheless medical science just started discover the possibilities of this technology and use the offered benefits of 3D printing. In this paper authors have investigated the pharmaceutical usage of rapid prototyping.

  12. Technological advances in radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lorraine; Morgia, Marita; Fyles, Anthony; Milosevic, Michael

    2011-09-01

    To discuss the important technological advances that have taken place in the planning and delivery of both external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer, and the implications for improved clinical outcomes. Technological advances in external beam radiation treatment and brachytherapy for patients with cervical cancer allow more precise targeting of tumour and relative sparing of surrounding normal organs and tissues. Early evidence is emerging to indicate that these advances will translate into improvements in tumour control and reduced side effects. However, there are patient, tumour and treatment-related factors that can detract from these benefits. Foremost among these is complex, unpredictable and sometimes dramatic internal tumour and normal organ motion during treatment. The focus of current research and clinical development is on tracking internal anatomic change in individual patients and adapting treatment plans as required to assure that optimal tumour coverage and normal tissue sparing is maintained at all times. The success of this approach will depend on clear definitions of target volumes, high resolution daily soft tissue imaging, and new software tools for rapid contouring, treatment planning and quality assurance. Radiation treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer is evolving rapidly, driven by advances in technology, towards more individualized patient care that has the potential to substantially improve clinical outcomes.

  13. Changing arctic ecosystems—What is causing the rapid increase of snow geese in northern Alaska?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; Ward, David H.; Whalen, Mary E.; Pearce, John M.

    2015-09-10

    Through the Changing Arctic Ecosystems (CAE) initiative, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) informs key resource management decisions for Arctic Alaska by providing scientific information on current and future ecosystem response to a warming climate. The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is a key study area within the USGS CAE initiative. This region has experienced a warming trend over the past decades, leading to decreased sea ice, permafrost thaw, and an advancement of spring phenology. The number of birds on the ACP also is changing, marked by increased populations of the four species of geese that nest in the region. The Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) is the most rapidly increasing of these species. USGS CAE research is quantifying these changes and their implications for management agencies.

  14. Handbook of advanced lighting technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Zissis, Georges; Ma, Ruiqing

    2017-01-01

    The Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology is a major reference work on the subject of light source science and technology, with particular focus on solid-state light sources – LEDs and OLEDs – and the development of 'smart' or 'intelligent' lighting systems; and the integration of advanced light sources, sensors, and adaptive control architectures to provide tailored illumination which is 'fit to purpose.' The concept of smart lighting goes hand-in-hand with the development of solid-state light sources, which offer levels of control not previously available with conventional lighting systems. This has impact not only at the scale of the individual user, but also at an environmental and wider economic level. These advances have enabled and motivated significant research activity on the human factors of lighting, particularly related to the impact of lighting on healthcare and education, and the Handbook provides detailed reviews of work in these areas. The potential applications for smart lighting span ...

  15. Radiation Mitigation Methods for Advanced Readout Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in the development of advanced instruments and instrument components for planetary science missions. Specifically, an area of importance in...

  16. Avogadro: an advanced semantic chemical editor, visualization, and analysis platform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanwell, Marcus D; Curtis, Donald E; Lonie, David C; Vandermeersch, Tim; Zurek, Eva; Hutchison, Geoffrey R

    2012-01-01

    The Avogadro project has developed an advanced molecule editor and visualizer designed for cross-platform use in computational chemistry, molecular modeling, bioinformatics, materials science, and related areas...

  17. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, R

    2002-05-09

    include: (1) Leadership of the Laboratory's Physical Data Research Program that provides fundamental physics information for the Stockpile Stewardship Program. (2) Development of the handheld Microbead Immunoassay Dipstick System that will allow relatively untrained first-responders to run sophisticated onsite diagnostics for pathogens, including those associated with biowarfare agents, by using a simple, one-step measurement. (3) Major advances in target design for inertial fusion energy research using both laser and ion-beam drivers. (4) Development of the Advanced Technology Kill Vehicle concept for use as a high-performance interceptor in a broad range of missile defense programs. Over the course of the past decade, the Laboratory has seen its major program evolve from weapons research, development, and testing, to Stockpile Stewardship. Today, the country's national security priorities are changing rapidly: nuclear security is becoming a broader set of missions, and the Laboratory is being asked to contribute to a range of new mission areas from countering bioterrorism to ensuring information security. As we embark on the twenty-first century, the new PAT Directorate is poised to help lead the Laboratory's response to the country's changing national security needs.

  18. A broad-application microchannel-plate detector system for advanced particle or photon detection tasks large area imaging, precise multi-hit timing information and high detection rate

    CERN Document Server

    Jagutzki, O; Mergel, V; Schmidt-Böcking, H; Spielberger, L; Spillmann, U; Ullmann-Pfleger, K

    2002-01-01

    New applications for single particle and photon detection in many fields require both large area imaging performance and precise time information on each detected particle. Moreover, a very high data acquisition rate is desirable for most applications and eventually the detection and imaging of more than one particle arriving within a microsecond is required. Commercial CCD systems lack the timing information whereas other electronic microchannel plate (MCP) read-out schemes usually suffer from a low acquisition rate and complicated and sometimes costly read-out electronics. We have designed and tested a complete imaging system consisting of an MCP position readout with helical wire delay-lines, single-unit amplifier box and PC-controlled time-to-digital converter (TDC) readout. The system is very flexible and can detect and analyse position and timing information at single particle rates beyond 1 MHz. Alternatively, multi-hit events can be collected and analysed at about 20 kHz rate. We discuss the advantage...

  19. Recent Advances in Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobb, Craig M; Mejak, Brian L; Ellis, W Cory; Lawson, D Scott; Twite, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    There have been numerous recent advances geared specifically toward the practice of pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These advances include the development of the first oxygenator intended solely for the neonatal CPB patient; pediatric oxygenators with low prime volumes and surface areas, which allow flows up to 2 L/min; pediatric oxygenators with integrated arterial filters; and miniature ultrafiltration (UF) devices, which allow for high rates of ultrafiltrate removal. When used in combination with heart lung machines with mast-mounted pumps, these advances can result in significant decreases in CPB circuit surface areas and prime volumes. This may attenuate CPB-associated hemodilution and decrease or eliminate the need for homologous red blood cells during or after CPB. In addition to these equipment-related advances, changes in myocardial protection strategies and the technique of modified UF as it relates to these advances are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Diffraction and rapidity gap measurements with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kus, V; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Two diffraction related measurements of proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider at $\\surd s$ = 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy are reviewed. First of them is a fraction of diffractive contribution to the inelastic cross section. Second measurement is dedicated to the identification of Single Diffractive interactions with large pseudo-rapidity gaps using early 2010 data sample of integrated luminosity 7.1 $\\mu b^{-1}$. Differential cross sections of largest forward areas of the ATLAS detector starting at its most forward edges $\\eta = \\pm 4.9$ without any particle activity above different transverse momentum thresholds are measured. Results are compared to several distinctive Monte Carlo models resulting in constraint of Pomeron intercept value in triple Pomeron based approach. Furthermore, proton-proton interactions in small pseudo-rapidity gap region test qualitatively a description of different hadronisation models as well as statistical fluctuations during hadronisation pr...

  1. Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber, details

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Parts of the hydraulic expansion system of the Rapid-Cycling Bubble-Chamber (RCBC). RCBC was the largest of 3 rapid-cycling bubble-chambers (the others were LEBC and HOLEBC), used as target- and vertex-detectors within the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS) in the SPS North Area (EHN1). RCBC contained 250 l of liquid hydrogen and was located inside a 3 T superconducting magnet. It was designed for 30 expansions/s (100 times faster than BEBC), the system shown here allowed 50 expansions/s. RCBC operated from 1981 to 1983 for experiments NA21, NA22 and NA23 at a rate of 15 expansions/s, clocking up a total of over 4 million. In the rear, at left, is bearded Lucien Veillet; Augustin Didona is at the right. See also 8001009. The installation of the piston assembly in the RCBC chamber body is shown in the Annual Report 1980, p.65.

  2. Promising strategies for advancement in knowledge of suicide risk factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Jitender; Isaak, Corinne; Katz, Laurence Y; Bolton, James; Enns, Murray W; Stein, Murray B

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is an important public health problem. Although there have been advances in our knowledge of suicide, gaps remain in knowledge about suicide risk factors and prevention. Here, we discuss research pathways that have the potential to rapidly advance knowledge in suicide risk assessment and reduction of suicide deaths over the next decade. We provide a concise overview of the methodologic approaches that have the capacity to rapidly increase knowledge and change practice, which have been successful in past work in psychiatry and other areas of medicine. We suggest three specific pathways to advance knowledge of suicide risk factors and prevention. First, analysis of large-scale epidemiologic surveys and administrative data sets can advance the understanding of suicide. Second, given the low base rate of suicide, there is a need for networks/consortia of investigators in the field of suicide prevention. Such consortia have the capacity to analyze existing epidemiologic data sets, create multi-site cohort studies of high-risk groups to increase knowledge of biological and other risk factors, and create a platform for multi-site clinical trials. Third, partnerships with policymakers and researchers would facilitate careful scientific evaluation of policies and programs aimed at reducing suicide. Suicide intervention policies are often multifaceted, expensive, and rarely evaluated. Using quasi-experimental methods or sophisticated analytic strategies such as propensity score-matching techniques, the impact of large-scale interventions on suicide can be evaluated. Furthermore, such partnerships between policymakers and researchers can lead to the design and support of prospective RCTs (e.g., cluster randomized trials, stepped wedge designs, waiting list designs) in high-risk groups (e.g., people with a history of suicide attempts, multi-axial comorbidity, and offspring of people who have died by suicide). These research pathways could lead to rapid knowledge uptake

  3. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, Herbert; Walther, Herbert

    1999-01-01

    This series, established in 1965, is concerned with recent developments in the general area of atomic, molecular, and optical physics. The field is in a state of rapid growth, as new experimental and theoretical techniques are used on many old and new problems. Topics covered also include related applied areas, such as atmospheric science, astrophysics, surface physics, and laser physics.

  4. Quiet areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Munck

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that drone filming can substantiate our understanding of multisensorial experiences of quiet areas and urban landscapes. Contrary to the distanced gaze often associated with the drone, this paper discusses drone filming as an intimate performativity apparatus that can affect...... perception as a result of its interrelationships between motion, gaze, and sound. This paper uses four films, one of which is a drone flyover, to launch a discussion concerning a smooth and alluring gaze, a sliding gaze that penetrates landscapes, and site appearance. Films hold the capacity to project both...... and transcendence can facilitate a deeper understanding of intimate sensations, substantiating their role in the future design and planning of urban landscapes. Hence, it addresses the ethics of an intimacy perspective (of drone filming) in the qualification of quiet areas....

  5. Tuberculous meningitis: advances in diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, M E

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing death or disability in more than half of those affected. The aim of this review is to examine recent advances in our understanding of TBM, focussing on the diagnosis and treatment of this devastating condition. Papers on TBM published between 1891 and 2014 and indexed in the NCBI Pubmed. The following search terms were used: TBM, diagnosis, treatment and outcome. The diagnosis of TBM remains difficult as its presentation is non-specific and may mimic other causes of chronic meningoencephalitis. Rapid recognition of TBM is crucial, however, as delays in initiating treatment are associated with poor outcome. The laboratory diagnosis of TBM is hampered by the low sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid microscopy and the slow growth of M. tuberculosis in conventional culture systems. The current therapy of TBM is based on the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, which may not be ideal. The combination of TBM and HIV infection poses additional management challenges because of the need to treat both infections and the complications associated with them. The pathogenesis of TBM remains incompletely understood limiting the development of interventions to improve outcome. The optimal therapy of TBM has not been established in clinical trials, and increasing antimicrobial resistance threatens successful treatment of this condition. The use of adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents remains controversial, and their mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. The role of surgical intervention is uncertain and may not be available in areas where TBM is common. Laboratory methods to improve the rapid diagnosis of TBM are urgently required. Clinical trials of examining the use of high-dose rifampicin and/or fluoroquinolones are likely to report in the near future. The use of biomarkers to improve the rapid diagnosis of TBM warrants further investigation. The role of

  6. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote

  7. Rapid climate change: lessons from the recent geological past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jonathan; Lowe, John; Wolff, Eric; Srokosz, Meric

    2011-12-01

    Rapid, or abrupt, climate change is regarded as a change in the climate system to a new state following the crossing of a threshold. It generally occurs at a rate exceeding that of the change in the underlying cause. Episodes of rapid climate change abound in the recent geological past (defined here as the interval between the last glacial maximum, dated to approximately 20,000 years ago, and the present). Rapid climate changes are known to have occurred over time periods equal to or even less than a human lifespan: moreover, their effects on the global system are sufficiently large to have had significant societal impacts. The potential for similar events to occur in the future provides an important impetus for investigating the nature and causes of rapid climate change. This paper provides a brief overview of rapid climate change and an introduction to this special issue, which presents results generated by the palaeoclimatic component of the UK Natural Environment Research Council's rapid climate change programme, called RAPID. The papers in the special issue employ palaeoclimatic proxy data-sets obtained from marine, ice core and terrestrial archives to reconstruct rapid climate change during the last glacial cycle, its subsequent termination and the ensuing Holocene interglacial; some papers also report new attempts to match the palaeoclimate data to hypothesised causes through numerical modelling. The results confirm the importance of freshwater forcing in triggering changes in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) and the close links between MOC and rapid climate change. While advancing our understanding of these linkages, the RAPID research has highlighted the need for further research in order to elucidate more specific details of the mechanisms involved.

  8. Recent advances and clinical insights into the use of proteomics in the study of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Baldan-Martin, Montserrat; Rincon, Raul; Martin-Rojas, Tatiana; Corbacho-Alonso, Nerea; Sastre-Oliva, Tamara; Barderas, Maria G

    2017-08-01

    The application of new proteomics methods may help to identify new diagnostic/predictive molecular markers in an attempt to improve the clinical management of atherosclerosis. Areas covered: Technological advances in proteomics have enhanced its sensitivity and multiplexing capacity, as well as the possibility of studying protein interactions and tissue structure. These advances will help us better understand the molecular mechanisms at play in atherosclerosis as a biological system. Moreover, this should help identify new predictive/diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets that may facilitate effective risk stratification and early diagnosis, with the ensuing rapid implementation of treatment. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the novel methods in proteomics, including state-of-the-art techniques, novel biological samples and applications for the study of atherosclerosis. Expert commentary: Collaboration between clinicians and researchers is crucial to further validate and introduce new molecular markers to manage atherosclerosis that are identified using the most up to date proteomic approaches.

  9. NASA's Hypersonic Investment Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Hutt, John; McClinton, Charles

    2002-01-01

    NASA has established long term goals for access to space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goal for third-generation launch systems represents significant reduction in cost and improved safety over the current first generation system. The Advanced Space Transportation Office (ASTP) at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Hypersonic Investment Area (HIA), third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframe, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations and system analysis. These technologies are being matured through research and both ground and flight-testing. This paper provides an overview of the HIA program plans and recent accomplishments.

  10. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  11. Advances in proof theory

    CERN Document Server

    Strahm, Thomas; Studer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to collect original contributions by the best specialists from the area of proof theory, constructivity, and computation and discuss recent trends and results in these areas. Some emphasis will be put on ordinal analysis, reductive proof theory, explicit mathematics and type-theoretic formalisms, and abstract computations. The volume is dedicated to the 60th birthday of Professor Gerhard Jäger, who has been instrumental in shaping and promoting logic in Switzerland for the last 25 years. It comprises contributions from the symposium “Advances in Proof Theory”, which was held in Bern in December 2013. Proof theory came into being in the twenties of the last century, when it was inaugurated by David Hilbert in order to secure the foundations of mathematics. It was substantially influenced by Gödel's famous incompleteness theorems of 1930 and Gentzen's new consistency proof for the axiom system of first order number theory in 1936. Today, proof theory is a well-established branch ...

  12. Market design for rapid demand response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt; Tamirat, Tseganesh Wubale

    We suggest a market design for rapid demand response in electricity markets. The solution consists of remotely controlled switches, meters, forecasting models as well as a flexible auction market to set prices and select endusers job by job. The auction market motivates truth-telling and makes...... it simple to involve the endusers in advance and to activate demand response immediately. The collective solution is analyzed and economic simulations are conducted for the case of Kenya. Kenya has been su ering from unreliable electricity supply for many years and companies and households have learned...... as the Transmission System Operator (TSO) requests demand response and the winning endusers are disconnected immediately if the TSO accepts the result of the auction. The endusers are compensated with a uniform auction price job by job and the Aggregator receives part of the surplus. The simulation captures...

  13. Latest Advances in Robot Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Husty, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    This book is  of interest to researchers inquiring about modern topics and methods in the kinematics, control and design of robotic manipulators. It considers the full range of robotic systems, including serial, parallel and cable driven manipulators, both planar and spatial. The systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained. In addition to recognized areas, this book also presents recent advances in emerging areas such as the design and control of humanoids and humanoid subsystems, and the analysis, modeling and simulation of human body motions, as well as the mobility analysis of protein molecules and the development of machines which incorporate man.

  14. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced Mirror & Modelling Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effinger, Michael; Stahl, H. Philip; Abplanalp, Laura; Maffett, Steven; Egerman, Robert; Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Mosier, Gary; Blaurock, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The 2020 Decadal technology survey is starting in 2018. Technology on the shelf at that time will help guide selection to future low risk and low cost missions. The Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) team has identified development priorities based on science goals and engineering requirements for Ultraviolet Optical near-Infrared (UVOIR) missions in order to contribute to the selection process. One key development identified was lightweight mirror fabrication and testing. A monolithic, stacked, deep core mirror was fused and replicated twice to achieve the desired radius of curvature. It was subsequently successfully polished and tested. A recently awarded second phase to the AMTD project will develop larger mirrors to demonstrate the lateral scaling of the deep core mirror technology. Another key development was rapid modeling for the mirror. One model focused on generating optical and structural model results in minutes instead of months. Many variables could be accounted for regarding the core, face plate and back structure details. A portion of a spacecraft model was also developed. The spacecraft model incorporated direct integration to transform optical path difference to Point Spread Function (PSF) and between PSF to modulation transfer function. The second phase to the project will take the results of the rapid mirror modeler and integrate them into the rapid spacecraft modeler.

  16. Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liby, Alan L [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this activity was to carry out program implementation and technical projects in support of the ARRA-funded Advanced Materials in Support of EERE Needs to Advance Clean Energy Technologies Program of the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) (formerly the Industrial Technologies Program (ITP)). The work was organized into eight projects in four materials areas: strategic materials, structural materials, energy storage and production materials, and advanced/field/transient processing. Strategic materials included work on titanium, magnesium and carbon fiber. Structural materials included work on alumina forming austentic (AFA) and CF8C-Plus steels. The advanced batteries and production materials projects included work on advanced batteries and photovoltaic devices. Advanced/field/transient processing included work on magnetic field processing. Details of the work in the eight projects are available in the project final reports which have been previously submitted.

  17. A Rapid Coliform Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid genetic detector for spaceflight water systems to enable real-time detection of E-coli with minimal...

  18. Rapid Multiplex Microbial Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC, in collaboration with Lucigen, proposes a rapid nucleic acid-based detector for spaceflight water systems to enable simultaneous quantification of multiple...

  19. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  20. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on area consortium research and development business, 1st year. Area consortium energy research and development (biofuel production by advanced function bioreactor); 1998 nendo chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Studies were made to produce ethanol directly from starch and cellulose and to collect biodiesel fuels from waste oil by an enzymatic method. For an increase in the yield of biodiesel fuel production, lipase enzymes were explored and optimum reaction conditions were sought for. Starch decomposition was quick for conversion into the target material in a system with the co-expression of amylase and glucoamylase present on the yeast cell surface layer. There was dramatically rapid progress in the increase of enzymatic activity in the cell, although dependent on cell membrane surface treatment conditions. In the generation of acetaminophen by recombinant cohesive yeasts, highly active and expressive yeasts were automatically fixed in the porous support (intelligent bioreactor) while those deactivated or dead were automatically removed. For the construction of a fuzzy control system for this reaction, basic models were investigated, built on the basis of the enzymatic model of reaction and substance balance. A high-precision structural analysis was conducted for the exploration of secondary structure stabilizing factors in protein and peptide and for the elucidation of correlations between structure and function. (NEDO)

  1. Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Imagery for Burned Area Mapping in Greece Using Object-Based Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Polychronaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the potential of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR imagery to map burned areas was evaluated in two study areas in Greece. For this purpose, we developed an object-based classification scheme to map the fire-disturbed areas using the PALSAR imagery acquired before and shortly after fire events. The advantage of employing an object-based approach was not only the use of the temporal variation of the backscatter coefficient, but also the incorporation in the classification of topological features, such as neighbor objects, and class related features, such as objects classified as burned. The classification scheme resulted in mapping the burned areas with satisfactory results: 0.71 and 0.82 probabilities of detection for the two study areas. Our investigation revealed that the pre-fire vegetation conditions and fire severity should be taken in consideration when mapping burned areas using PALSAR in Mediterranean regions. Overall, findings suggest that the developed scheme could be applied for rapid burned area assessment, especially to areas where cloud cover and fire smoke inhibit accurate mapping of burned areas when optical data are used.

  2. DISPAQ: Distributed Profitable-Area Query from Big Taxi Trip Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Fadhilah Kurnia; Song, Giltae; Kwon, Joonho; Rao, Praveen

    2017-09-25

    One of the crucial problems for taxi drivers is to efficiently locate passengers in order to increase profits. The rapid advancement and ubiquitous penetration of Internet of Things (IoT) technology into transportation industries enables us to provide taxi drivers with locations that have more potential passengers (more profitable areas) by analyzing and querying taxi trip data. In this paper, we propose a query processing system, called Distributed Profitable-Area Query ( DISPAQ ) which efficiently identifies profitable areas by exploiting the Apache Software Foundation's Spark framework and a MongoDB database. DISPAQ first maintains a profitable-area query index (PQ-index) by extracting area summaries and route summaries from raw taxi trip data. It then identifies candidate profitable areas by searching the PQ-index during query processing. Then, it exploits a Z-Skyline algorithm, which is an extension of skyline processing with a Z-order space filling curve, to quickly refine the candidate profitable areas. To improve the performance of distributed query processing, we also propose local Z-Skyline optimization, which reduces the number of dominant tests by distributing killer profitable areas to each cluster node. Through extensive evaluation with real datasets, we demonstrate that our DISPAQ system provides a scalable and efficient solution for processing profitable-area queries from huge amounts of big taxi trip data.

  3. Knoxville Area Transit: Propane Hybrid Electric Trolleys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-04-01

    A 2-page fact sheet summarizing the evaluation done by the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity on the Knoxville Area Transit's use of propane hybrid electric trolleys.

  4. Rapidly progressive periodontitis. A distinct clinical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, R C; Altman, L C; Ebersole, J L; Vandesteen, G E; Dahlberg, W H; Williams, B L; Osterberg, S K

    1983-04-01

    We report radiographic, clinical, historical, and laboratory observations on seven patients selected to illustrate the features and characteristics of rapidly progressive periodontitis, with the aim of establishing this disease as a distinct clinical entity. This form of periodontitis is seen most commonly in young adults in their twenties, but it can occur in postpubertal individuals up to approximately 35 years of age. During the active phase, the gingival tissues are extremely inflamed and there is hemorrhage, proliferation of the marginal gingiva, and exudation. Destruction is very rapid, with loss of much of the alveolar bone occurring within a few weeks or months. This phase may be accompanied by general malaise, weight loss, and depression, although these symptoms are not seen in all patients. The disease may progress, without remission, to tooth loss, or alternatively, it may subside and become quiescent with or without therapy. The quiescent phase is characterized by the presence of clinically normal gingiva that may be tightly adapted to the roots of teeth with very advanced bone loss and deep periodontal pockets. The quiescent phase may be permanent, it may persist for an indefinite period, or the disease activity may return. Most patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis have serum antibodies specific for various species of Bacteroides, Actinobacillus, or both, and manifest defects in either neutrophil or monocyte chemotaxis. Affected patients generally respond favorably to treatment by scaling and open or closed curettage, especially when accompanied by standard doses of antibiotics for conventional time periods. A small minority of patients do not respond to any treatment, including antibiotics, and the disease progresses inexorably to tooth loss even in the presence of aggressive periodontal therapy and maintenance. At the present time it is not possible to distinguish prior to treatment which individuals will respond to therapy and which will

  5. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  6. A next generation advanced traveler information precursor system (ATIS 2.0 precursor system) use cases report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS) have experienced significant growth since their initial inception in the 1990s. Technologies have continued to evolve at a rapid pace, enabling the integration of advanced solutions for traveler informatio...

  7. Advances in Sleep Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Advances in Sleep Studies Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table ... Disorders / Tips for Getting A Good Night's Sleep / Advances In Sleep Studies Summer 2015 Issue: Volume 10 ...

  8. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  9. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  10. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  11. Advanced location-based technologies and services

    CERN Document Server

    Karimi, Hassan A

    2013-01-01

    Due to the rapid increase in the number of mobile device users worldwide, location-based services (LBSs) have become pervasive, and the demand for them will continue to grow. Exploring recent changes in the technology and its uses, Advanced Location-Based Technologies and Services takes an in-depth look at new and existing technologies, techniques, applications, and opportunities. Under the editorial guidance of Hassan Karimi, with contributions from experts in the field, the book examines the breadth and depth of advanced LBS technologies and techniques. The book provides up-to-date informati

  12. Canadian advanced life support capacities and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Graham, T.; Stasiak, M.; Berinstain, A.; Scott, A.; Vuk, T. Rondeau; Dixon, M.

    2009-07-01

    Canada began research on space-relevant biological life support systems in the early 1990s. Since that time Canadian capabilities have grown tremendously, placing Canada among the emerging leaders in biological life support systems. The rapid growth of Canadian expertise has been the result of several factors including a large and technically sophisticated greenhouse sector which successfully operates under challenging climatic conditions, well planned technology transfer strategies between the academic and industrial sectors, and a strong emphasis on international research collaborations. Recent activities such as Canada's contribution of the Higher Plant Compartment of the European Space Agency's MELiSSA Pilot Plant and the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic continue to demonstrate Canadian capabilities with direct applicability to advanced life support systems. There is also a significant latent potential within Canadian institutions and organizations with respect to directly applicable advanced life support technologies. These directly applicable research interests include such areas as horticultural management strategies (for candidate crops), growth media, food processing, water management, atmosphere management, energy management, waste management, imaging, environment sensors, thermal control, lighting systems, robotics, command and data handling, communications systems, structures, in-situ resource utilization, space analogues and mission operations. With this background and in collaboration with the Canadian aerospace industry sector, a roadmap for future life support contributions is presented here. This roadmap targets an objective of at least 50% food closure by 2050 (providing greater closure in oxygen, water recycling and carbon dioxide uptake). The Canadian advanced life support community has chosen to focus on lunar surface infrastructure and not low Earth orbit or transit systems (i.e. microgravity

  13. Leakage Currents and Gas Generation in Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Currently, military grade, established reliability wet tantalum capacitors are among the most reliable parts used for space applications. This has been achieved over the years by extensive testing and improvements in design and materials. However, a rapid insertion of new types of advanced, high volumetric efficiency capacitors in space systems without proper testing and analysis of degradation mechanisms might increase risks of failures. The specifics of leakage currents in wet electrolytic capacitors is that the conduction process is associated with electrolysis of electrolyte and gas generation resulting in building up of internal gas pressure in the parts. The risk associated with excessive leakage currents and increased pressure is greater for high value advanced wet tantalum capacitors, but it has not been properly evaluated yet. In this work, in Part I, leakages currents in various types of tantalum capacitors have been analyzed in a wide range of voltages, temperatures, and time under bias. Gas generation and the level of internal pressure have been calculated in Part II for different case sizes and different hermeticity leak rates to assess maximal allowable leakage currents. Effects related to electrolyte penetration to the glass seal area have been studied and the possibility of failures analyzed in Part III. Recommendations for screening and qualification to reduce risks of failures have been suggested.

  14. Interfacial Materials for Organic Solar Cells: Recent Advances and Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhigang; Wei, Jiajun; Zheng, Qingdong

    2016-08-01

    Organic solar cells (OSCs) have shown great promise as low-cost photovoltaic devices for solar energy conversion over the past decade. Interfacial engineering provides a powerful strategy to enhance efficiency and stability of OSCs. With the rapid advances of interface layer materials and active layer materials, power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of both single-junction and tandem OSCs have exceeded a landmark value of 10%. This review summarizes the latest advances in interfacial layers for single-junction and tandem OSCs. Electron or hole transporting materials, including metal oxides, polymers/small-molecules, metals and metal salts/complexes, carbon-based materials, organic-inorganic hybrids/composites, and other emerging materials, are systemically presented as cathode and anode interface layers for high performance OSCs. Meanwhile, incorporating these electron-transporting and hole-transporting layer materials as building blocks, a variety of interconnecting layers for conventional or inverted tandem OSCs are comprehensively discussed, along with their functions to bridge the difference between adjacent subcells. By analyzing the structure-property relationships of various interfacial materials, the important design rules for such materials towards high efficiency and stable OSCs are highlighted. Finally, we present a brief summary as well as some perspectives to help researchers understand the current challenges and opportunities in this emerging area of research.

  15. Advances in asthma in 2016: Designing individualized approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William C; Apter, Andrea J; Dutmer, Cullen M; Searing, Daniel A; Szefler, Stanley J

    2017-09-01

    In this year's Advances in Asthma review, we discuss viral infections in asthmatic patients and potential therapeutic agents, the microbiome, novel genetic associations with asthma, air quality and climate effects on asthma, exposures during development and long-term sequelae of childhood asthma, patient-centered outcomes research, and precision medicine. In addition, we discuss application of biomarkers to precision medicine and new information on asthma medications. New evidence indicates that rhinovirus-triggered asthma exacerbations become more severe as the degree of sensitization to dust mite and mouse increase. The 2 biggest drivers of asthma severity are an allergy pathway starting with allergic sensitization and an environmental tobacco smoke pathway. In addition, allergic sensitization and blood eosinophils can be used to select medications for management of early asthma in young children. These current findings, among others covered in this review, represent significant steps toward addressing rapidly advancing areas of knowledge that have implications for asthma management. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. TB and HIV in children - advances in prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, B J; Rabie, H; Cotton, M F

    2011-03-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has had a major impact on the age and gender profile of adult tuberculosis (TB) patients, resulting in increased exposure of HIV-infected and uninfected children at a very young age. Young and/or HIV-infected children are extremely vulnerable to develop severe forms of TB following recent exposure and infection. There is an urgent need to implement safe and pragmatic strategies to prevent TB in children, especially in TB endemic areas where they suffer the greatest burden of disease. The management of TB in HIV-infected children poses multiple challenges, but recent advances in the implementation of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) strategies and HIV care of infants offer hope. These include HIV testing and access to PMTCT for all pregnant women, routine testing of all HIV exposed infants and rapid initiation of antiretroviral treatment irrespective of clinical or immunological disease staging. In addition, careful scrutiny for TB exposure should occur at every health care visit, with provision of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) following each documented exposure event. Knowing the HIV infection status of child TB suspects is essential to optimize case management. Although multiple difficulties remain, recent advances demonstrate that the management of children with TB and/or HIV can be vastly improved by well focused interventions using readily available resources. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lessons Learned from Applying Design Thinking in a NASA Rapid Design Study in Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria; Bakula, Casey; Castner, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    In late 2015, NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an experiment in rapid design and rapid teaming to explore new approaches to solving challenging design problems in aeronautics in an effort to cultivate and foster innovation. This report summarizes several lessons learned from the rapid design portion of the study. This effort entailed learning and applying design thinking, a human-centered design approach, to complete the conceptual design for an open-ended design challenge within six months. The design challenge focused on creating a capability to advance experimental testing of autonomous aeronautics systems, an area of great interest to NASA, the US government as a whole, and an entire ecosystem of users and developers around the globe. A team of nine civil servant researchers from three of NASA's aeronautics field centers with backgrounds in several disciplines was assembled and rapidly trained in design thinking under the guidance of the innovation and design firm IDEO. The design thinking process, while used extensively outside the aerospace industry, is less common and even counter to many practices within the aerospace industry. In this report, several contrasts between common aerospace research and development practices and design thinking are discussed, drawing upon the lessons learned from the NASA rapid design study. The lessons discussed included working towards a design solution without a set of detailed design requirements, which may not be practical or even feasible for management to ascertain for complex, challenging problems. This approach allowed for the possibility of redesigning the original problem statement to better meet the needs of the users. Another lesson learned was to approach problems holistically from the perspective of the needs of individuals that may be affected by advances in topic area instead of purely from a technological feasibility viewpoint. The interdisciplinary nature of the design team also

  18. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests: a revolution and a challenge for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Febrile patients in malaria-endemic areas need rapid and accurate diagnosis to ensure prompt access to antimalarial treatment to avoid severe disease. As most fevers in malaria-endemic areas of South Africa are not caused by malaria, and symptom-based diagnosis is highly nonspecific, rapid demonstration of the ...

  19. Metal fires and their implications for advanced reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Figueroa, Victor G.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Hewson, John C.; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-10-01

    This report details the primary results of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development project (LDRD 08-0857) Metal Fires and Their Implications for Advance Reactors. Advanced reactors may employ liquid metal coolants, typically sodium, because of their many desirable qualities. This project addressed some of the significant challenges associated with the use of liquid metal coolants, primary among these being the extremely rapid oxidation (combustion) that occurs at the high operating temperatures in reactors. The project has identified a number of areas for which gaps existed in knowledge pertinent to reactor safety analyses. Experimental and analysis capabilities were developed in these areas to varying degrees. In conjunction with team participation in a DOE gap analysis panel, focus was on the oxidation of spilled sodium on thermally massive surfaces. These are spills onto surfaces that substantially cool the sodium during the oxidation process, and they are relevant because standard risk mitigation procedures seek to move spill environments into this regime through rapid draining of spilled sodium. While the spilled sodium is not quenched, the burning mode is different in that there is a transition to a smoldering mode that has not been comprehensively described previously. Prior work has described spilled sodium as a pool fire, but there is a crucial, experimentally-observed transition to a smoldering mode of oxidation. A series of experimental measurements have comprehensively described the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. A new physics-based model has been developed that also predicts the thermal evolution of this type of sodium fire for the first time. The model introduces smoldering oxidation through porous oxide layers to go beyond traditional pool fire analyses that have been carried out previously in order to predict experimentally observed trends. Combined, these developments add significantly to the safety

  20. Ultrahigh Performance C60 Nanorod Large Area Flexible Photoconductor Devices via Ultralow Organic and Inorganic Photodoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Rinku; Stolojan, Vlad; Curry, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    One dimensional single-crystal nanorods of C60 possess unique optoelectronic properties including high electron mobility, high photosensitivity and an excellent electron accepting nature. In addition, their rapid large scale synthesis at room temperature makes these organic semiconducting nanorods highly attractive for advanced optoelectronic device applications. Here, we report low-cost large-area flexible photoconductor devices fabricated using C60 nanorods. We demonstrate that the photosensitivity of the C60 nanorods can be enhanced ~400-fold via an ultralow photodoping mechanism. The photodoped devices offer broadband UV-vis-NIR spectral tuneability, exhibit a detectivitiy >109 Jones, an external quantum efficiency of ~100%, a linear dynamic range of 80 dB, a rise time 60 µs and the ability to measure ac signals up to ~250 kHz. These figures of merit combined are among the highest reported for one dimensional organic and inorganic large-area planar photoconductors and are competitive with commercially available inorganic photoconductors and photoconductive cells. With the additional processing benefits providing compatibility with large-area flexible platforms, these devices represent significant advances and make C60 nanorods a promising candidate for advanced photodetector technologies. PMID:24853479

  1. Recent advances in computational epigenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruskin HJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heather J Ruskin,1 Ana Barat2 1Advanced Research Computing Centre for Complex Systems Modelling, School of Computing, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland; 2Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Ireland Abstract: Over the last two decades, the importance of epigenetics for interpretation of diverse genetic and genomic data has become increasingly clear. The need for study of indirect (non-gene factors determining gene characteristic behavior and organism function, together with analysis of outcomes which are nondeterministic, is now well recognized. Given the increasing availability of large-scale datasets, analysis has inevitably become richer, but also more complex, and the formation of structured hypotheses, together with questions designed to refine experiment, relies heavily on computational tools. In particular, the effort to explore the whole genomic–epigenomic landscape has motivated an interdisciplinary approach towards large-scale multivariable and combinatorial analysis as well as novel database developments. Exploration of heritable changes in phenotype relies not only on newer sophisticated sequencing methods but also on legacy data, revisited for their contribution to understanding of transcriptional regulation and disease. The challenges presented are nontrivial, not least in terms of interpretation across multiple scales from cell to organism, but the field is advancing rapidly. With an early initial focus on cancers, both in development of models and database provision, work is emerging on brain function and neural pathways, while newer targets again are the behavioral sciences, in which interest is now burgeoning. In the following article, key developments and advances are summarized and current methods and tools reviewed. Keywords: epigenetics, DNA methylation, histone modifications, computational modeling, data analysis, advances, sequencing, databases

  2. Nanomaterial-enabled Rapid Detection of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shun; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-10-28

    Water contaminants, e.g., inorganic chemicals and microorganisms, are critical metrics for water quality monitoring and have significant impacts on human health and plants/organisms living in water. The scope and focus of this review is nanomaterial-based optical, electronic, and electrochemical sensors for rapid detection of water contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, anions, and bacteria. These contaminants are commonly found in different water systems. The importance of water quality monitoring and control demands significant advancement in the detection of contaminants in water because current sensing technologies for water contaminants have limitations. The advantages of nanomaterial-based sensing technologies are highlighted and recent progress on nanomaterial-based sensors for rapid water contaminant detection is discussed. An outlook for future research into this rapidly growing field is also provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Integration of advances in social media and mHealth technology are pivotal to successful cancer prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D Peter; Zaheer, Amir; Redmond, H Paul; Corrigan, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The successful prevention and treatment of cancer is dependent upon efficient and reliable communication between healthcare workers and patients. Advances in social media and mHealth platforms have provided new ways in which to enhance the sharing of cancer related information. Other benefits of embracing this technology include utilising its analytic capabilities which can process the vast quantity of information generated from genome exploration in a highly efficient manner. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the rapidly evolving areas through which digital engagement is proving useful in the prevention and control of cancer.

  4. Large area sheet task: Advanced dendritic web growth development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hopkins, R. H.; Meier, D.; Schruben, J.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of silicon dendritic web for photovoltaic applications was investigated. The application of a thermal model for calculating buckling stresses as a function of temperature profile in the web is discussed. Lid and shield concepts were evaluated to provide the data base for enhancing growth velocity. An experimental web growth machine which embodies in one unit the mechanical and electronic features developed in previous work was developed. In addition, evaluation of a melt level control system was begun, along with preliminary tests of an elongated crucible design. The economic analysis was also updated to incorporate some minor cost changes. The initial applications of the thermal model to a specific configuration gave results consistent with experimental observation in terms of the initiation of buckling vs. width for a given crystal thickness.

  5. Advanced solar panel designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.; Linder, E.

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes solar cell panel designs that utilize new hgih efficiency solar cells along with lightweight rigid panel technology. The resulting designs push the W/kg and W/sq m parameters to new high levels. These new designs are well suited to meet the demand for higher performance small satellites. This paper reports on progress made on two SBIR Phase 1 contracts. One panel design involved the use of large area (5.5 cm x 6.5 cm) GaAs/Ge solar cells of 19% efficiency combined with a lightweight rigid graphite fiber epoxy isogrid substrate configuration. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power level of 60 W/kg with a potential of reaching 80 W/kg. The second panel design involved the use of newly developed high efficiency (22%) dual junction GaInP2/GaAs/Ge solar cells combined with an advanced lightweight rigid substrate using aluminum honeycomb core with high strength graphite fiber mesh facesheets. A coupon (38 cm x 38 cm) was fabricated and tested which demonstrated an array specific power of 105 W/kg and 230 W/sq m. This paper will address the construction details of the panels and an a analysis of the component weights. A strawman array design suitable for a typical small-sat mission is described for each of the two panel design technologies being studied. Benefits in respect to weight reduction, area reduction, and system cost reduction are analyzed and compared to conventional arrays.

  6. Recent advances in fruit crop genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang XU,Chaoyang LIU,Manosh Kumar BISWAS,Zhiyong PAN,Xiuxin DENG

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, dramatic progress has been made in the genomics of fruit crops. The publication of a dozen fruit crop genomes represents a milestone for both functional genomics and breeding programs in fruit crops. Rapid advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have revolutionized the manner and scale of genomics in fruit crops. Research on fruit crops is encompassing a wide range of biological questions which are unique and cannot be addressed in a model plant such as Arabidopsis....

  7. Advanced computational approaches to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Punam K; Basu, Subhadip

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in biomedical engineering in recent decades, given advancements in medical imaging and physiological modelling and sensing systems, coupled with immense growth in computational and network technology, analytic approaches, visualization and virtual-reality, man-machine interaction and automation. Biomedical engineering involves applying engineering principles to the medical and biological sciences and it comprises several topics including biomedicine, medical imaging, physiological modelling and sensing, instrumentation, real-time systems, automation and control, sig

  8. Soliton molecules for advanced optical telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitschke, Fedor; Hause, Alexander; Mahnke, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Recent developments in the technology of optical telecommunications are pushed forward by the rapidly growing demand for data-carrying capacity. Current approaches are discussed; most lines of investigation are limited to the linear (i.e. low power) regime. It is shown how this restriction poses a limit for further evolution. If, on the other hand, the nonlinear regime is entered, recent developments about soliton molecules offer a possibility to advance further.

  9. Transport phenomena an introduction to advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Glasgow, Larry A

    2010-01-01

    Enables readers to apply transport phenomena principles to solve advanced problems in all areas of engineering and science This book helps readers elevate their understanding of, and their ability to apply, transport phenomena by introducing a broad range of advanced topics as well as analytical and numerical solution techniques. Readers gain the ability to solve complex problems generally not addressed in undergraduate-level courses, including nonlinear, multidimensional transport, and transient molecular and convective transport scenarios. Avoiding rote memorization, the author em

  10. AMC 2015 – Advanced Metallization Conference

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Since its inception as the Tungsten Workshop in 1984, AMC has served as the leading conference for the interconnect and contact metallization communities, and has remained at the leading edge of the development of tungsten, aluminum, and copper/low-K interconnects. As the semiconductor industry evolves, exciting new challenges in metallization are emerging, particularly in the areas of contacts to advanced devices, local interconnect solutions for highly-scaled devices, advanced memory device...

  11. Advanced microwave processing concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to explore the feasibility of several advanced microwave processing concepts to develop new energy-efficient materials and processes. The project includes two tasks: (1) commercialization of the variable-frequency microwave furnace; and (2) microwave curing of polymeric materials. The variable frequency microwave furnace, whose initial conception and design was funded by the AIM Materials Program, allows the authors, for the first time, to conduct microwave processing studies over a wide frequency range. This novel design uses a high-power traveling wave tube (TWT) originally developed for electronic warfare. By using this microwave source, one can not only select individual microwave frequencies for particular experiments, but also achieve uniform power densities over a large area by the superposition of many different frequencies. Microwave curing of various thermoset resins will be studied because it holds the potential of in-situ curing of continuous-fiber composites for strong, lightweight components or in-situ curing of adhesives, including metal-to-metal. Microwave heating can shorten curing times, provided issues of scaleup, uniformity, and thermal management can be adequately addressed.

  12. Composites by rapid prototyping technology

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available powder is a fiber, problems of manufacturing occur. The method has also been used to make Metal Matrix Composite (MMC), e.g Fe and graphite [17], WC-Co [18,19], WC-Co and Cu [20,21], Fe, Ni and TiC [22] etc and Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) e.g. Si... of various materials used. Key words: : Rapid Prototyping (RP), Laser, Composites 1 Introduction Rapid Prototyping (RP) initially focussed on polymers. These were later re- placed/supplemented by ceramics, metals and composites. Composites are used in RP...

  13. Advances in nuclear science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Greebler, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Advances in Nuclear Science and Technology Volume 4 provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of advanced reactor concepts. This book discusses the advances in various areas of general applicability, including modern perturbation theory, optimal control theory, and industrial application of ionizing radiations.Organized into seven chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the technology of sodium-cooled fast breeder power reactors and gas-cooled power reactors. This text then examines the key role of reactor safety in the development of fast breeder reactors. Other chapt

  14. Advances in social simulation 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Verbrugge, Rineke; Flache, Andreas; Roo, Gert; Hoogduin, Lex; Hemelrijk, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights recent developments in the field, presented at the Social Simulation 2015 conference in Groningen, The Netherlands. It covers advances both in applications and methods of social simulation. Societal issues addressed range across complexities in economic systems, opinion dynamics and civil violence, changing mobility patterns, different land-use, transition in the energy system, food production and consumption, ecosystem management and historical processes. Methodological developments cover how to use empirical data in validating models in general, formalization of behavioral theory in agent behavior, construction of artificial populations for experimentation, replication of models, and agent-based models that can be run in a web browser. Social simulation is a rapidly evolving field. Social scientists are increasingly interested in social simulation as a tool to tackle the complex non-linear dynamics of society. Furthermore, the software and hardware tools available for social simulation ...

  15. Synergetics introduction and advanced topics

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    This book is an often-requested reprint of two classic texts by H. Haken: "Synergetics. An Introduction" and "Advanced Synergetics". Synergetics, an interdisciplinary research program initiated by H. Haken in 1969, deals with the systematic and methodological approach to the rapidly growing field of complexity. Going well beyond qualitative analogies between complex systems in fields as diverse as physics, chemistry, biology, sociology and economics, Synergetics uses tools from theoretical physics and mathematics to construct an unifying framework within which quantitative descriptions of complex, self-organizing systems can be made. This may well explain the timelessness of H. Haken's original texts on this topic, which are now recognized as landmarks in the field of complex systems. They provide both the beginning graduate student and the seasoned researcher with solid knowledge of the basic concepts and mathematical tools. Moreover, they admirably convey the spirit of the pioneering work by the founder of ...

  16. Recent Advances in Contextuality Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2016-07-01

    Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell [1] and Kochen-Specker [2] captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.

  17. Developmental evolution facilitates rapid adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Kazlauskas, Romas J; Travisano, Michael

    2017-11-21

    Developmental evolution has frequently been identified as a mode for rapid adaptation, but direct observations of the selective benefits and associated mechanisms of developmental evolution are necessarily challenging to obtain. Here we show rapid evolution of greatly increased rates of dispersal by developmental changes when populations experience stringent selection. Replicate populations of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma citrinoviride underwent 85 serial transfers, under conditions initially favoring growth but not dispersal. T. citrinoviride populations shifted away from multicellular growth toward increased dispersal by producing one thousand times more single-celled asexual conidial spores, three times sooner than the ancestral genotype. Conidia of selected lines also germinated fifty percent faster. Gene expression changed substantially between the ancestral and selected fungi, especially for spore production and growth, demonstrating rapid evolution of tight regulatory control for down-regulation of growth and up-regulation of conidia production between 18 and 24 hours of growth. These changes involved both developmentally fixed and plastic changes in gene expression, showing that complex developmental changes can serve as a mechanism for rapid adaptation.

  18. Multigrade Teaching Rapid Appraisal Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Dean

    Multigrade classes have been recognized as part of elementary education for many years, but their special needs have been largely ignored. This manual focuses on the survey research that should predate the design of instructional management strategies in multigrade classrooms. It describes rapid and reliable ways to collect information about the…

  19. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  20. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  1. Rapid Energy Modeling Workflow Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    BIM Building Information Modeling BPA Building Performance Analysis BTU British Thermal Unit CBECS Commercial Building ...geometry, orientation, weather, and materials, generates 3D Building Information Models ( BIM ) guided by satellite views of building footprints and...Rapid Energy Modeling (REM) workflows that employed building information modeling ( BIM ) approaches and conceptual energy analysis.

  2. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  3. Solid modeling and applications rapid prototyping, CAD and CAE theory

    CERN Document Server

    Um, Dugan

    2016-01-01

    The lessons in this fundamental text equip students with the theory of Computer Assisted Design (CAD), Computer Assisted Engineering (CAE), the essentials of Rapid Prototyping, as well as practical skills needed to apply this understanding in real world design and manufacturing settings. The book includes three main areas: CAD, CAE, and Rapid Prototyping, each enriched with numerous examples and exercises. In the CAD section, Professor Um outlines the basic concept of geometric modeling, Hermite and Bezier Spline curves theory, and 3-dimensional surface theories as well as rendering theory. The CAE section explores mesh generation theory, matrix notion for FEM, the stiffness method, and truss Equations. And in Rapid Prototyping, the author illustrates stereo lithographic theory and introduces popular modern RP technologies. Solid Modeling and Applications: Rapid Prototyping, CAD and CAE Theory is ideal for university students in various engineering disciplines as well as design engineers involved in product...

  4. Exploiting machine learning algorithms for tree species classification in a semiarid woodland using RapidEye image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelabu, Samuel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Adam, Elhadi; Cho, Moses Azong

    2013-01-01

    Classification of different tree species in semiarid areas can be challenging as a result of the change in leaf structure and orientation due to soil moisture constraints. Tree species mapping is, however, a key parameter for forest management in semiarid environments. In this study, we examined the suitability of 5-band RapidEye satellite data for the classification of five tree species in mopane woodland of Botswana using machine leaning algorithms with limited training samples.We performed classification using random forest (RF) and support vector machines (SVM) based on EnMap box. The overall accuracies for classifying the five tree species was 88.75 and 85% for both SVM and RF, respectively. We also demonstrated that the new red-edge band in the RapidEye sensor has the potential for classifying tree species in semiarid environments when integrated with other standard bands. Similarly, we observed that where there are limited training samples, SVM is preferred over RF. Finally, we demonstrated that the two accuracy measures of quantity and allocation disagreement are simpler and more helpful for the vast majority of remote sensing classification process than the kappa coefficient. Overall, high species classification can be achieved using strategically located RapidEye bands integrated with advanced processing algorithms.

  5. Nanofabrication strategies for advanced electrode materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Kunfeng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of advanced electrode materials for high-performance energy storage devices becomes more and more important for growing demand of portable electronics and electrical vehicles. To speed up this process, rapid screening of exceptional materials among various morphologies, structures and sizes of materials is urgently needed. Benefitting from the advance of nanotechnology, tremendous efforts have been devoted to the development of various nanofabrication strategies for advanced electrode materials. This review focuses on the analysis of novel nanofabrication strategies and progress in the field of fast screening advanced electrode materials. The basic design principles for chemical reaction, crystallization, electrochemical reaction to control the composition and nanostructure of final electrodes are reviewed. Novel fast nanofabrication strategies, such as burning, electrochemical exfoliation, and their basic principles are also summarized. More importantly, colloid system served as one up-front design can skip over the materials synthesis, accelerating the screening rate of highperformance electrode. This work encourages us to create innovative design ideas for rapid screening high-active electrode materials for applications in energy-related fields and beyond.

  6. AN INTEGRATED RAPID MAPPING SYSTEM FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hein; Bayer, S.; Berger, R.; Kraft, T; D. Lesmeister

    2017-01-01

    Natural disasters as well as major man made incidents are an increasingly serious threat for civil society. Effective, fast and coordinated disaster management crucially depends on the availability of a real-time situation picture of the affected area. However, in situ situation assessment from the ground is usually time-consuming and of limited effect, especially when dealing with large or inaccessible areas. A rapid mapping system based on aerial images can enable fast and effective assessm...

  7. Seattle wide-area information for travelers (SWIFT) : architecture study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-19

    The SWIFT (Seattle Wide-area Information For Travelers) Field Operational Test was intended to evaluate the performance of a large-scale urban Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS) deployment in the Seattle area. The unique features of the SWIF...

  8. International Conference on Advances in Applied Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Hammami, Mohamed; Masmoudi, Afif

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents some recent theoretical advances in mathematics and its applications in various areas of science and technology.   Written by internationally recognized scientists and researchers, the chapters in this book are based on talks given at the International Conference on Advances in Applied Mathematics (ICAAM), which took place December 16-19, 2013, in Hammamet, Tunisia.  Topics discussed at the conference included spectral theory, operator theory, optimization, numerical analysis, ordinary and partial differential equations, dynamical systems, control theory, probability, and statistics.  These proceedings aim to foster and develop further growth in all areas of applied mathematics.

  9. Recent advances in plant-herbivore interactions [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deron E. Burkepile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-herbivore interactions shape community dynamics across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. From amphipods to elephants and from algae to trees, plant-herbivore relationships are the crucial link generating animal biomass (and human societies from mere sunlight. These interactions are, thus, pivotal to understanding the ecology and evolution of virtually any ecosystem. Here, we briefly highlight recent advances in four areas of plant-herbivore interactions: (1 plant defense theory, (2 herbivore diversity and ecosystem function, (3 predation risk aversion and herbivory, and (4 how a changing climate impacts plant-herbivore interactions. Recent advances in plant defense theory, for example, highlight how plant life history and defense traits affect and are affected by multiple drivers, including enemy pressure, resource availability, and the local plant neighborhood, resulting in trait-mediated feedback loops linking trophic interactions with ecosystem nutrient dynamics. Similarly, although the positive effect of consumer diversity on ecosystem function has long been recognized, recent advances using DNA barcoding to elucidate diet, and Global Positioning System/remote sensing to determine habitat selection and impact, have shown that herbivore communities are probably even more functionally diverse than currently realized. Moreover, although most diversity-function studies continue to emphasize plant diversity, herbivore diversity may have even stronger impacts on ecosystem multifunctionality. Recent studies also highlight the role of risk in plant-herbivore interactions, and risk-driven trophic cascades have emerged as landscape-scale patterns in a variety of ecosystems. Perhaps not surprisingly, many plant-herbivore interactions are currently being altered by climate change, which affects plant growth rates and resource allocation, expression of chemical defenses, plant phenology, and herbivore metabolism and behavior. Finally

  10. Advances in pediatric anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, L S

    1997-03-01

    Advances in many aspects of pediatric anesthesia have resulted in a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality in children. Research and development have created vast improvements in pharmacology. Sophisticated monitoring and improvements in equipment evolved from advances made in scientific technology. Recognition of the psychological needs of children of all ages likely has reduced the incidence of lasting psychological effects after hospitalization. Finally, these important advances have made pediatric anesthesia a safer and more compassionate specialty.

  11. Current advances in liver surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Melissa Chan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatobiliary surgery has taken a big step forward in recent decades especially in the minimally invasive approach for hepatectomy. From being sceptical at the beginning of the 1990s when laparoscopic surgery had become prevalent, to now, where laparoscopic hepatectomy has been well-established, especially in minor hepatectomies; this new technique has evolved rapidly over the past 20-years demonstrating better short-term outcomes and equivalent oncological outcomes in selected patients and in expert hands. Laparoscopic hepatectomy is indeed, more difficult to master than the open procedure with restrictions in working space, difficulty in haemostasis and the potential risk of gas embolism. However, with better visibility of the operative field around the liver, especially beneath the costal margin, the magnified view and theoretical advantage of pneumoperitoneum acting as haemostatic pressure have made laparoscopic hepatectomy increasingly popular. Another important advancement is the new surgical technique of associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS. This procedure induces more rapid liver hypertrophy within a median period of 9-days, allowing resection to be performed in candidates with borderline functional liver remnant and at an earlier date. However, studies have shown that ALPPS is associated with a relatively higher rate of morbidity and mortality. Therefore, it remains a highly controversial treatment option and more studies have to be performed to establish its usefulness and define its role in liver surgery.

  12. Comparison of Rapid Malaria Test and Laboratory Microscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: Blood samples collected from 272 volunteers in two communities of Bayelsa State in the Niger. Delta area were investigated for falciparum malaria parasite using the rapid test based on the detection of soluble antigen and laboratory microscopy test. The data showed that out of the 272 samples collected, ...

  13. Rapid Assessment of Tree Debris Following Urban Forest Ice Storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Hauer; Angela J. Hauer; Dudley R. Hartel; Jill R. Johnson

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a rapid assessment method to estimate urban tree debris following an ice storm. Data were collected from 60 communities to quantify tree debris volumes, mostly from public rights-of-way, following ice storms based on community infrastructure, weather parameters, and urban forest structure. Ice thickness, area of a community, and street distance are...

  14. Rapid mortality of Populus tremuloides in southwestern Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Worrall; Leanne Egeland; Thomas Eager; Roy A. Mask; Erik W. Johnson; Philip A. Kemp; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2008-01-01

    Concentrated patches of recent trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) mortality covered 56,091 ha of Colorado forests in 2006. Mortality has progressed rapidly. Area affected increased 58% between 2005 and 2006 on the Mancos-Dolores Ranger District, San Juan National Forest, where it equaled nearly 10% of the aspen cover type. In four stands that were...

  15. Rapid economic analysis of northern hardwood stand improvement options

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak

    1980-01-01

    Data and methodology are provided for projecting basal area, diameter, volumes, and values by product for northern hardwood stands, and for determining the rate of return on stand improvement investments. The method is rapid, requires a minimum amount of information, and should prove useful for on-the-ground economic analyses.

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  17. Advances in norovirus biology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karst, Stephanie M; Wobus, Christiane E; Goodfellow, Ian G; Green, Kim Y; Virgin, Herbert W

    2014-01-01

    .... Although they remain a particularly challenging pathogen to study, recent advances in norovirus animal models and in vitro cultivation systems have led to an increased understanding of norovirus...

  18. Advanced Photon Source (APS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratoryprovides this nation's (in fact, this hemisphere's) brightest storage...

  19. Rapid diagnostic tests duo as alternative to conventional serological assays for conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüez, Karina E; Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Terán, Carolina; Chipana, Zenobia; García, Wilson; Torrico, Faustino; Gascon, Joaquim; Lozano-Beltran, Daniel-Franz; Pinazo, María-Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. It affects several million people, mainly in Latin America, and severe cardiac and/or digestive complications occur in ~30% of the chronically infected patients. Disease acute stage is mostly asymptomatic and infection goes undiagnosed. In the chronic phase direct parasite detection is hampered due to its concealed presence and diagnosis is achieved by serological methods, like ELISA or indirect hemagglutination assays. Agreement in at least two tests must be obtained due to parasite wide antigenic variability. These techniques require equipped labs and trained personnel and are not available in distant regions. As a result, many infected people often remain undiagnosed until it is too late, as the two available chemotherapies show diminished efficacy in the advanced chronic stage. Easy-to-use rapid diagnostic tests have been developed to be implemented in remote areas as an alternative to conventional tests. They do not need electricity, nor cold chain, they can return results within an hour and some even work with whole blood as sample, like Chagas Stat-Pak (ChemBio Inc.) and Chagas Detect Plus (InBIOS Inc.). Nonetheless, in order to qualify a rapidly diagnosed positive patient for treatment, conventional serological confirmation is obligatory, which might risk its start. In this study two rapid tests based on distinct antigen sets were used in parallel as a way to obtain a fast and conclusive Chagas disease diagnosis using whole blood samples. Chagas Stat-Pak and Chagas Detect Plus were validated by comparison with three conventional tests yielding 100% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity over 342 patients seeking Chagas disease diagnosis in a reference centre in Sucre (Bolivia). Combined used of RDTs in distant regions could substitute laborious conventional serology, allowing immediate treatment and favouring better adhesion to it.

  20. Advances in magnetic resonance 1

    CERN Document Server

    Waugh, John S

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance, Volume 1, discusses developments in various areas of magnetic resonance. The subject matter ranges from original theoretical contributions through syntheses of points of view toward series of phenomena to critical and painstaking tabulations of experimental data. The book contains six chapters and begins with a discussion of the theory of relaxation processes. This is followed by separate chapters on the development of magnetic resonance techniques for studying rate processes in chemistry and the application of these techniques to various problems; the geometri

  1. Advanced Topics in Information Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Melucci, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval is the science concerned with the effective and efficient retrieval of documents starting from their semantic content. It is employed to fulfill some information need from a large number of digital documents. Given the ever-growing amount of documents available and the heterogeneous data structures used for storage, information retrieval has recently faced and tackled novel applications. In this book, Melucci and Baeza-Yates present a wide-spectrum illustration of recent research results in advanced areas related to information retrieval. Readers will find chapters on e.g

  2. A course in advanced calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Borden, Robert S

    1997-01-01

    This remarkable undergraduate-level text offers a study in calculus that simultaneously unifies the concepts of integration in Euclidean space while at the same time giving students an overview of other areas intimately related to mathematical analysis. The author achieves this ambitious undertaking by shifting easily from one related subject to another. Thus, discussions of topology, linear algebra, and inequalities yield to examinations of innerproduct spaces, Fourier series, and the secret of Pythagoras. Beginning with a look at sets and structures, the text advances to such topics as lim

  3. Advanced SOA tools and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Brzezinski, Jerzy; Cellary, Wojciech; Grzech, Adam; Zielinski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    This book presents advanced software development tools for construction, deployment and governance of Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) applications. Novel technical concepts and paradigms, formulated during the research stage and during development of such tools are presented and illustrated by practical usage examples. Hence this book will be of interest not only to theoreticians but also to engineers who cope with real-life problems. Additionally, each chapter contains an overview of related work, enabling comparison of the proposed concepts with exiting solutions in various areas of the SOA development process. This makes the book interesting also for students and scientists who investigate similar issues.

  4. Recent advances in anticancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculescu Duvaz, I

    1998-08-01

    During the last few years, research in anticancer drug development has revealed a number of new approaches. These include new types of prodrugs, small peptides and synthetic molecules affecting signal transduction pathways and cell cycle, topoisomerase inhibitors, antisense compounds, anti-angiogenic and antimetastatic agents, gene therapy and vaccines. The aim of the meeting was to present and discuss the recent results in these areas, with respect to the R and D of new anticancer compounds. This review focuses on the most recent advances in anticancer drugs presented and discussed in the plenary sessions.

  5. Advances in embedded computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Kisacanin, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    This illuminating collection offers a fresh look at the very latest advances in the field of embedded computer vision. Emerging areas covered by this comprehensive text/reference include the embedded realization of 3D vision technologies for a variety of applications, such as stereo cameras on mobile devices. Recent trends towards the development of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with embedded image and video processing algorithms are also examined. The authoritative insights range from historical perspectives to future developments, reviewing embedded implementation, tools, technolog

  6. Session: CSP Advanced Systems -- Advanced Overview (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, M.

    2008-04-01

    The project description is: (1) it supports crosscutting activities, e.g. advanced optical materials, that aren't tied to a single CSP technology and (2) it supports the 'incubation' of new concepts in preliminary stages of investigation.

  7. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    advanced hydrogen turbine that meets the aggressive targets set forth for the advanced hydrogen turbine, including increased rotor inlet temperature (RIT), lower total cooling and leakage air (TCLA) flow, higher pressure ratio, and higher mass flow through the turbine compared to the baseline. Maintaining efficiency with high mass flow Syngas combustion is achieved using a large high AN2 blade 4, which has been identified as a significant advancement beyond the current state-of-the-art. Preliminary results showed feasibility of a rotor system capable of increased power output and operating conditions above the baseline. In addition, several concepts were developed for casing components to address higher operating conditions. Rare earth modified bond coat for the purpose of reducing oxidation and TBC spallation demonstrated an increase in TBC spallation life of almost 40%. The results from Phase 1 identified two TBC compositions which satisfy the thermal conductivity requirements and have demonstrated phase stability up to temperatures of 1850 C. The potential to join alloys using a bonding process has been demonstrated and initial HVOF spray deposition trials were promising. The qualitative ranking of alloys and coatings in environmental conditions was also performed using isothermal tests where significant variations in alloy degradation were observed as a function of gas composition. Initial basic system configuration schematics and working system descriptions have been produced to define key boundary data and support estimation of costs. Review of existing materials in use for hydrogen transportation show benefits or tradeoffs for materials that could be used in this type of applications. Hydrogen safety will become a larger risk than when using natural gas fuel as the work done to date in other areas has shown direct implications for this type of use. Studies were conducted which showed reduced CO{sub 2} and NOx emissions with increased plant efficiency. An approach to

  8. People On The Move: Some Thoughts On Human Dispersal In Relation To Rapid Climatic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, W.

    It is still generally assumed that the default situation for past humans must have been to be sedentary. That is to say, given a chance people would have settled in one area (with a good supply of resources) and established clearly-defined territories. Such concepts presuppose that much of human existence was conducted in climatic conditions sim- ilar to the relatively stable ones seen in the Holocene. What effects do rapid climatic fluctuations have upon environmental carrying capacity, and thus upon human mobil- ity and exploitation patterns? Such an approach could be called 'non-analogue', as it does not seek to impose [current] Holocene patterns upon the Pleistocene, in the same way that 'non-analogue' animal and plant communities are now routinely described for the same period. If one adopts non-analogue perspectives, perhaps one could also argue that in many cases mobility was the rule and not the exception. Turning the conventional wisdom around, we can ask why people should remain in an area. What are the characteristics of that area which could have encouraged people to become less mobile? I do not argue that all groups were mobile: some cannot have been, and not every member of other groups would have been equally mobile (differentiation on grounds of age and sex). In addition, mobility patterns must also have varied over time, although we should not necessarily expect a discernible linear trend either towards or away from greater mobility, because such behaviour operates within a climatic and environmental framework as well as a socio-economic one. If climate oscillated rapidly, it is feasible to suggest that such fluctuations affected environmental stability and thus carrying capacity. The resource species present and their availability would therefore affect the possibilities for human mobility. When discussing the possibilities for human dispersal into new regions, we essentially have a choice between two competing models: the Wave of Advance (sensu

  9. Recent advances in the neuroimaging and neuropsychology of cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, A Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the recent advances in understanding of cerebral palsy (CP) and outlines how these advances could inform pediatric neuropsychological rehabilitation. Three main areas are discussed: the improved delineation of differing presentations resulting from more advanced imaging techniques with emerging links to function; a brief review of research examining neuropsychological functioning of children with CP and their quality of life and participation; and lastly, some of the evidence for efficacious interventions and the extent to which these interventions are derived from neuropsychological theory and practice. Advances and gaps in knowledge in addition to suggestions of areas for future focus in research and practice are discussed throughout the article.

  10. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Pettenati; Livio Sirovich

    2012-01-01

    After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology), which is reproduced for Figure 1. T...

  11. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  12. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  13. Dysfunction of Rapid Neural Adaptation in Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-12-21

    Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. State Technologies Advancement Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Terry

    2012-01-30

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO), and Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) signed an intergovernmental agreement on November 14, 2002, that allowed states and territories and the Federal Government to better collaborate on energy research, development, demonstration and deployment (RDD&D) projects. The agreement established the State Technologies Advancement Collaborative (STAC) which allowed the states and DOE to move RDD&D forward using an innovative competitive project selection and funding process. A cooperative agreement between DOE and NASEO served as the contracting instrument for this innovative federal-state partnership obligating funds from DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Office of Fossil Energy to plan, fund, and implement RDD&D projects that were consistent with the common priorities of the states and DOE. DOE's Golden Field Office provided Federal oversight and guidance for the STAC cooperative agreement. The STAC program was built on the foundation of prior Federal-State efforts to collaborate on and engage in joint planning for RDD&D. Although STAC builds on existing, successful programs, it is important to note that it was not intended to replace other successful joint DOE/State initiatives such as the State Energy Program or EERE Special Projects. Overall the STAC process was used to fund, through three competitive solicitations, 35 successful multi-state research, development, deployment, and demonstration projects with an overall average non-federal cost share of 43%. Twenty-two states were awarded at least one prime contract, and organizations in all 50 states and some territories were involved as subcontractors in at least one STAC project. Projects were funded in seven program areas: (1) Building Technologies, (2) Industrial Technologies, (3) Transportation Technologies, (4) Distributed Energy

  15. Rapid scenarios and observed intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pettenati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available After a destructive earthquake, national Governments need to know the approximate amount of damage, the number of casualties, and the financial losses as soon as possible. Rapid scenarios are also used to inform the general public; see the widely used Shakemap package [Wald et al. 1999, 2006] of the US Geological Survey (USGS and the one modified by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV; National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, which is reproduced for Figure 1. The general matter of the use of intensities in damage scenarios was discussed in a special session at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the Seismological Society of America (http://www.seismosoc.org/meetings/2008/specialsessions.html, and was also discussed in the NIS-1 session of the European Congress in Moscow, in August 2012 (http://www.esc2012-moscow.org/esc_thematicareas.html. The purposes of the present report are to: (i compare different types of intensities; (ii check two rapid scenarios of intensity; and (iii understand whether the KF formula [Sirovich 1996, Sirovich et al. 2009] can be used as a new 'attenuation' relationship to improve rapid scenarios. […

  16. Rapid diagnosis of mycobacterial infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Drancourt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB remains an important public health issue worldwide, there is an emerging interest in non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM which is responsible for opportunistic infections of the respiratory tract as well as other anatomical sites in both developed and developing countries. In this context the one goal of the clinical mycobacteriology laboratories is to provide physicians with an accurate identification of the mycobacterium as rapidly as possible. During the last ten years, several lines of laboratory tools have been developed in order to speed the isolation and identification of mycobacteria from clinical specimens. Chiefly, the composition of culture medium was renewed along with the protocol of incubation in order to recover Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB micro-colonies as soon as 48 h after the inoculation of the specimen. MALDI-TOF rapid identification is clearly the tool to be implemented in the laboratory for the rapid identification of the micro-colonies. Also, molecular tools and genomics are necessary in order to depict new mycobacteria species, including those of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex and the Mycobacterium avium complex. All these tools and their connections will be presented during this conference.

  17. International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education

    CERN Document Server

    Advanced Information Technology in Education

    2012-01-01

    The volume includes a set of selected papers extended and revised from the 2011 International Conference on Computers and Advanced Technology in Education. With the development of computers and advanced technology, the human social activities are changing basically. Education, especially the education reforms in different countries, has been experiencing the great help from the computers and advanced technology. Generally speaking, education is a field which needs more information, while the computers, advanced technology and internet are a good information provider. Also, with the aid of the computer and advanced technology, persons can make the education an effective combination. Therefore, computers and advanced technology should be regarded as an important media in the modern education. Volume Advanced Information Technology in Education is to provide a forum for researchers, educators, engineers, and government officials involved in the general areas of computers and advanced technology in education to d...

  18. Advanced cryo propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, William K.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are presented in viewgraph form: (1) advanced space engine (ASE) chronology; (2) an ASE description; (3) a single expander; (4) a dual expander; (5) split expander; (6) launch vehicle start; (7) space start; (8) chemical transfer propulsion; and (9) an advanced expander test bed.

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  20. Advances in soil dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Advances in Soil Dynamics, Volume 3, represents the culmination of the work undertaken by the Advances in Soil Dynamics Monograph Committee, PM-45-01, about 15 years ago to summarize important developments in this field over the last 35 years. When this project was initiated, the main goal was to...